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Sample records for varied overstrain injuries

  1. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1983-08-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components.

  2. Nogo-A expression dynamically varies after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-wei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism involved in neural regeneration after spinal cord injury is unclear. The myelin-derived protein Nogo-A, which is specific to the central nervous system, has been identified to negatively affect the cytoskeleton and growth program of axotomized neurons. Studies have shown that Nogo-A exerts immediate and chronic inhibitory effects on neurite outgrowth. In vivo, inhibitors of Nogo-A have been shown to lead to a marked enhancement of regenerative axon extension. We established a spinal cord injury model in rats using a free-falling weight drop device to subsequently investigate Nogo-A expression. Nogo-A mRNA and protein expression and immunoreactivity were detected in spinal cord tissue using real-time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. At 24 hours after spinal cord injury, Nogo-A protein and mRNA expression was low in the injured group compared with control and sham-operated groups. The levels then continued to drop further and were at their lowest at 3 days, rapidly rose to a peak after 7 days, and then gradually declined again after 14 days. These changes were observed at both the mRNA and protein level. The transient decrease observed early after injury followed by high levels for a few days indicates Nogo-A expression is time dependent. This may contribute to the lack of regeneration in the central nervous system after spinal cord injury. The dynamic variation of Nogo-A should be taken into account in the treatment of spinal cord injury.

  3. [Arm injuries due to sport climbing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruens, M L; Dobbelaar, P; Koes, B W; Coert, J H

    2008-08-16

    There are 26 large climbing centres and 44 smaller indoor or outdoor climbing walls in The Netherlands at this time. Hand and finger injuries are the most common types of sport climbing injuries. Most injuries are caused by overstraining. Injuries include avulsion fractures, arthrosis, pulley rupture, damage to joint capsule and collateral ligaments, 'gamekeeper's thumb', 'climber's finger', lumbrical shift syndrome, 'climber's elbow', shoulder injuries and nerve compression syndromes. Treatment is usually conservative. Depending on the extent of damage surgical intervention may be indicated.

  4. Head and neck control varies with perturbation acceleration but not jerk: implications for whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2009-04-15

    Recent studies have proposed that a high rate of acceleration onset, i.e. high jerk, during a low-speed vehicle collision increases the risk of whiplash injury by triggering inappropriate muscle responses and/or increasing peak head acceleration. Our goal was to test these proposed mechanisms at realistic jerk levels and then to determine how collision jerk affects the potential for whiplash injuries. Twenty-three seated volunteers (8 F, 15 M) were exposed to multiple experiments involving perturbations simulating the onset of a vehicle collision in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. In the first experiment, subjects experienced five forward and five rearward perturbations to look for the inappropriate muscle responses and 'floppy' head kinematics previously attributed to high jerk perturbations. In the second experiment, we independently varied the jerk ( approximately 125 to 3 000 m s(-3)) and acceleration ( approximately 0.65 to 2.6 g) of the perturbation to assess their effect on the electromyographic (EMG) responses of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), scalene (SCAL) and cervical paraspinal (PARA) muscles and the kinematic responses of the head and neck. In the first experiment, we found neither inappropriate muscle responses nor floppy head kinematics when subjects had their eyes open, but observed two subjects with floppy head kinematics with eyes closed. In the second experiment, we found that about 70% of the variations in the SCM and SCAL responses and about 95% of the variations in head/neck kinematics were explained by changes in perturbation acceleration in both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Less than 2% of the variation in the muscle and kinematic responses was explained by changes in perturbation jerk and, where significant, response amplitudes diminished with increasing jerk. Based on these findings, collision jerk appears to have little or no role in the genesis of whiplash injuries in low-speed vehicle crashes.

  5. The Epidemiology of Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury Varies According to the Applied Definition of Lung Injury Onset Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Vusse, Lisa K; Caldwell, Ellen; Tran, Edward; Hogl, Laurie; Dinwiddie, Steven; López, José A; Maier, Ronald V; Watkins, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Research that applies an unreliable definition for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) may draw false conclusions about its risk factors and biology. The effectiveness of preventive strategies may decrease as a consequence. However, the reliability of the consensus TRALI definition is unknown. To prospectively study the effect of applying two plausible definitions of acute respiratory distress syndrome onset time on TRALI epidemiology. We studied 316 adults admitted to the intensive care unit and transfused red blood cells within 24 hours of blunt trauma. We identified patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and defined acute respiratory distress syndrome onset time two ways: (1) the time at which the first radiographic or oxygenation criterion was met, and (2) the time both criteria were met. We categorized two corresponding groups of TRALI cases transfused in the 6 hours before acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. We used Cohen's kappa to measure agreement between the TRALI cases and implicated blood components identified by the two acute respiratory distress syndrome onset time definitions. In a nested case-control study, we examined potential risk factors for each group of TRALI cases, including demographics, injury severity, and characteristics of blood components transfused in the 6 hours before acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. Forty-two of 113 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were TRALI cases per the first acute respiratory distress syndrome onset time definition and 63 per the second definition. There was slight agreement between the two groups of TRALI cases (κ = 0.16; 95% confidence interval, -0.01 to 0.33) and between the implicated blood components (κ = 0.15, 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.20). Age, Injury Severity Score, high plasma-volume components, and transfused plasma volume were risk factors for TRALI when applying the second acute respiratory distress syndrome onset time definition

  6. The epidemiology of injury in mountaineering, rock and ice climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, Volker; Morrison, Audry; Schöffl, Isabelle; Küpper, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Climbing and mountaineering sports are gaining more and more public interest. This chapter reviews scientific studies on injuries and accidents in climbing and mountaineering sports to evaluate the danger of these sports and their specific injuries and preventive measures. An initial PubMed query was performed using the key words 'rock climbing', 'sport climbing', 'mountaineering', 'alpine injuries' and 'climbing injuries'. More than 500 extracted papers were analyzed which gave information on injury, mortality/fatality, prevention and risk factors. Cross-references were also scanned according to the above given criteria. Also the data sources of the UIAA and IFSC Medical Commissions were analyzed. Overall, alpine (traditional) climbing has a higher injury risk than sport climbing, especially indoor climbing. Alpine and ice climbing have more objective dangers which can affect climber safety. Overall injury rates are low, nevertheless fatalities do occur in all climbing disciplines. Altitude-related illnesses/injuries also occur in mountaineering. Most injuries in sport climbing are overstrain injuries of the upper extremity. In alpine climbing, injuries mostly occur through falls which affect the lower extremity. Objective reporting of the injury site and severity varied in most studies according to the injury definition and methodology used. This creates differences in the injury and fatality results and conclusions, which in turn makes inter-study comparisons difficult. In future studies, the UIAA MedCom score for mountain injuries should be used to guarantee inter-study comparability. Evidence in preventive measures is low and further studies must be performed in this field. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Action possibility judgments of people with varying motor abilities due to spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerome A Manson

    Full Text Available Predictions about one's own action capabilities as well as the action capabilities of others are thought to be based on a simulation process involving linked perceptual and motor networks. Given the central role of motor experience in the formation of these networks, one's present motor capabilities are thought to be the basis of their perceptual judgments about actions. However, it remains unknown whether the ability to form these action possibility judgments is affected by performance related changes in the motor system. To determine if judgments of action capabilities are affected by long-term changes in one's own motor capabilities, participants with different degrees of upper-limb function due to their level (cervical vs. below cervical of spinal cord injury (SCI were tested on a perceptual-motor judgment task. Participants observed apparent motion videos of reciprocal aiming movements with varying levels of difficulty. For each movement, participants determined the shortest movement time (MT at which they themselves and a young adult could perform the task while maintaining accuracy. Participants also performed the task. Analyses of MTs revealed that perceptual judgments for participant's own movement capabilities were consistent with their actual performance- people with cervical SCI had longer judged and actual MTs than people with below cervical SCI. However, there were no between-group differences in judged MTs for the young adult. Although it is unclear how the judgments were adjusted (altered simulation vs. threshold modification, the data reveal that people with different motor capabilities due to SCI are not completely biased by their present capabilities and can effectively adjust their judgments to estimate the actions of others.

  8. Ascertainment and epidemiology of acute kidney injury varies with definition interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappitelli, Michael; Parikh, Chirag R; Akcan-Arikan, Ayse; Washburn, Kimberley K; Moffett, Brady S; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2008-07-01

    Differences in defining acute kidney injury (AKI) may impact incidence ascertainment. We assessed the effects of different AKI definition interpretation methods on epidemiology ascertainment. Two groups were studied at Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas: 150 critically ill children (prospective) and 254 noncritically ill, hospitalized children receiving aminoglycosides (retrospective). SCr was collected for 14 d in the prospective study and 21 d in the retrospective study. Children with known baseline serum creatinine (bSCr) were classified by the pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Kidney Disease (pRIFLE) AKI definition using SCr change (pRIFLE(DeltaSCr)), estimated creatinine clearance (eCCl) change (pRIFLE(DeltaCCl)), and the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) definition. In subjects without known bSCr, bSCR was estimated as eCCl = 100 (eCCl(100)) and 120 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (eCCl(120)), admission SCr (AdmSCr) and lower/upper normative values (NormsMin, NormsMax). The differential impact of each AKI definition interpretation on incidence estimation and severity distribution was evaluated. pRIFLE(DeltaSCr) and AKIN led to identical AKI distributions. pRIFLE(DeltaCCl) resulted in 14.5% (critically ill) and 11% (noncritical) more patients diagnosed with AKI compared to other methods (P 0.05). Different bSCr estimates led to differences in AKI incidence, from 12% (AdmSCr) to 87.8% (NormsMin) (P 0.05) in the critically ill group and from 4.6% (eCCl(100)) to 43.1% (NormsMin) (P 0.05) in the noncritical group. AKI definition variation causes interstudy heterogeneity. AKI definition should be standardized so that results can be compared across studies.

  9. ["The girls are sick, weak and overstrained" Sickness among girls and boys based on Swedish physical examinations ca 1870-1930].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Anna-Karin

    2004-01-01

    In the late 19th century a major physical examination of more than 11000 pupils was carried out in Swedish schools. There was a common belief among physicians and teachers that the current education had a most damaging influence on the health of boys and in particular girls. It was a well-known fact, according to some physicians, that a substantial number of Swedish girls suffered from diseases such as chlorosis and other ailments. Girls from the middle and upper classes were supposed to be the most affected. Based on the presumptions and observations, several physical examinations were preformed between 1870-1930. Swedish pupils were in a bad condition indeed. In the late 19th century more than 60 percent of all female students were in some way sick or in a bad condition. In comparison, 45 percent of all boys were not well. Most girls and boys were overstrained, anemic, suffered from headaches and had a poor appetite.A number of changes in the sickness and health of girls and boys during the period studied have been discovered. First, concepts of sickness and health were modified over time. What was defined as a sickness in the late 19th century was not interpreted in the same way a few decades later; Secondly, the prevalence of sickness in girls and boys changed over time. In the beginning of the period studied girls were sicker than boys, but in the end, in the 1930s, there was no obvious gender difference in the prevalence of sickness. In addition this article shows how the common belief, that middle and upper class girls were more exposed to and affected by illnesses, was not supported by the results from the contemporary physical examinations. Instead, it was evident that working class girls, in general, were sicker than boys with the same socio-economic status and also sicker than middle and upper class girls.

  10. Characteristics and circumstances of injuries vary with ethnicity of different population groups living in the same country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Abebe; Siman-Tov, Maya; Radomislensky, Irina; Itg; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether characteristics and circumstances of injuries are related to ethnicity. The study was based on the Israeli National Trauma Registry data for patients hospitalized between 2008 and 2011. Data included demographics, injury, hospital resource utilization characteristics and outcome at discharge. Univariate analysis followed by logistic regression models were undertaken to examine the relationship between injury and ethnicity. The study included 116,946 subjects; 1% were Ethiopian Born Israelis (EBI), 11% Israelis born in the Former Soviet Union (FSUBI) and 88% the remaining Israelis (RI). EBI were injured more on street or at work place and had higher rates of penetrating and severe injuries. However, FSUBI were mostly injured at home, and had higher rates of fall injuries and hip fracture. Adjusted analysis showed that EBI and FSUBI were more likely to be hospitalized because of violence-related injuries compared with RI but less likely because of road traffic injuries. Undergoing surgery and referral for rehabilitation were greater among FSUBI, while admission to intensive care unit was greater among EBI. Targeted intervention programmes need to be developed for immigrants of different countries of origin in accordance with the identified characteristics.

  11. Knee complaints vary with age and gender in the adult population. Population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradowski, Przemyslaw T; Bergman, Stefan; Sundén-Lundius, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Self-reported knee complaints may vary with age and gender. Reference data from the adult population would help to better interpret the outcome of interventions due to knee complaints. The objectives of the present study were to describe the variation of self-reported knee pain, function...... and quality of life with age and gender in the adult population and to establish population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)....

  12. Gender Differences in Anterior Cruciate Ligament injury Vary With Activity: Epidemiology of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in a Young, Athletic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Beynnon B. Gender difference in knee injury epidemiology among competitive alpine ski racers. Iowa Orthop J. 1998;18:64-66. 16. van Mechelen W. Sports injury surveillance systems. “One size fits all”? Sports Med. 1997;24:164-168. ...proportion of ACL recon- structions among male and female cadets during a 10-year period (1987-1997) (Taylor, unpublished data). To further explore...such as free-time skiing . Physical Activity Requirements All students are required to participate in intramural, club, or intercollegiate sports in

  13. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, M; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Davis, D D; Pennypacker, S P; Zhang, J; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O3; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O3; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O3) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data,ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures.

  14. [Injury risk of competitive, handicapped cross-country skiers in training nd competition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Hüring, H; Huber, G; Gösele, A; Hecker-Kube, H; Gruhn, O; Stinus, H; Birnesser, H; Keul, J

    1998-03-01

    Injuries caused by cross country skiing have been poorly investigated in handicapped athletes. The dynamic sliding shape of motion makes this sport to a suitable discipline for people with a deficit of locomotion. Visual handicapped people with a guide are able to improve their motoric skills, co-ordination, orientation and body self-consciousness in the track. Since handicapped athletes are performing in international competitions the training intensity to fulfill the requirements, but also the risk of overstrain induced injuries got increased, like in other high-performance sports. Our study examined injuries and overuse syndromes of the German National Team Ski Nordic during the Paralympics in Tignes/ Albertville (1992). Lillehammer (1994) and the training period in preparation for the Paralympics in Nagano (March 1998). The incidence and kind of injuries in the competitive handicapped cross country skier was comparable with non-handicapped athletes, but the injury pattern was different.

  15. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  16. Badminton injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

    1990-01-01

    In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802

  17. Smoothly Varying Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Nicholas; Hindman, Lauren; Moody, Joseph Ward; Biancardi, Rochelle; Whipple, Parkes; Gaunt, Caleb

    2018-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that blazar light can vary sinusoidally with periods of hundreds of days to tens of years. Such behavior is expected of, among other things, jets coming from binary black holes. To look for general variability in lesser-known blazars and AGN, in 2015-2016 we monitored 182 objects with Johnson V-band magnitudes reported as being < 16. In all, this campaign generated 22,000 frames from 2,000 unique pointings. We find that approximately one dozen of these objects show evidence of smooth variability consistent with sinusoidal periods. We report on the entire survey sample, highlighting those that show sinusoidal variations.

  18. Sacroiliac injuries in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jennifer; Brounts, Sabrina H

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of sacroiliac joint injuries. These injuries can be acute or chronic and can involve soft tissue structures surrounding the joint or the bony structures of the joint. The several diagnostic modalities for sacroiliac injuries vary in usefulness and accessibility. Treatment of sacroiliac problems is usually supportive and nonspecific and includes the use of antiinflammatory medications and an appropriate exercise regimen. The prognosis depends on the cause, but severe injuries can limit a horse's future athletic activity.

  19. Intimal injury from arterial clamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, J B; Bowen, W W; Hinshaw, D B

    1976-08-01

    Preliminary experimental data have been presented indicating that intimal injury of some degree is a virtually constant finding at the site of application of any arterial occluding clamp. These injuries vary from intimal distortion to complete fracture into the media of the vessel. The degree of injury appears directly proportional to the amount of pressure exerted through a given clamp. Atherosclerotic arteries are particularly subject to severe degrees of intimal injury. Preliminary observations suggest that heparin is not helpful in preventing platelet aggregation and initial thrombus formation at intimal injury sites. The problem of anticoagulation at such injury sites is being studied further.

  20. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  1. Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  2. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can pass through your body and cause injuries. These electrical injuries can be external or internal. You may have one or both types. External injuries are skin burns. Internal injuries include damage to ...

  3. Testicular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sports 5 Ideas for Eco-Friendly Celebrations Testicular Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Testicular Injuries Print A A ... addressed as soon as possible. continue Serious Testicular Injuries Examples of serious testicular injury are testicular torsion ...

  4. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  5. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...

  6. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Ocular Injury En Español What causes eye injuries ? Injuries ... only the eyelid but the structures that drain tears from the eye. Lacerations of the eyelid or ...

  7. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  8. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay ...

  9. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation injuries are acute injuries to your respiratory system and lungs. They can happen if you breathe in toxic substances, such as smoke (from fires), chemicals, particle pollution, and gases. Inhalation injuries can also be caused by extreme heat; these are a type of thermal injuries. ...

  10. Identifying injury causing hazards in fitness facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Shannon Elise

    2017-01-01

    Despite the popularity of fitness facilities as a venue for physical activity, little research has been conducted into injuries sustained during fitness activities conducted within them or to evaluate relevant injury prevention strategies. The limited published epidemiological data on injuries sustained by fitness activity participants varies in its detail, quality and age. As a result of this limited research, effective injury prevention strategies applicable to fitness facilities have been ...

  11. Injuries in Competitive Dragon Boating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Swarup; Leong, Hin Fong; Chen, Simin; Foo, Yong Xiang Wayne; Pek, Hong Kiat

    2014-11-01

    Dragon boating is a fast-growing team water sport and involves forceful repetitive motions that predispose athletes to overuse injuries. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is a lack of studies on injury epidemiology in dragon boating. To investigate the injury epidemiology in competitive dragon boating athletes. Descriptive epidemiological study. A total of 95 dragon boaters (49 males, 46 females) representing their respective universities took part in this study. Data were collected retrospectively using a reliable and valid self-report questionnaire. The study period was from August 2012 to July 2013. A total of 104 musculoskeletal injuries were reported (3.82 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures), 99% of which occurred during training. The most commonly injured regions were the lower back (22.1%), shoulder (21.1%), and wrist (17.3%). The majority of injuries were due to overuse (56.3%), and incomplete muscle-tendon strain was the most prevalent type of injury (50.5%). The time loss from injuries varied. In addition, a significant majority of the dragon boating athletes incurred nonmusculoskeletal injuries, with abrasions (90.5%), blisters (78.9%), and sunburns (72.6%) being the most common. Competitive dragon boating has a moderately high injury incidence, and there seems to be a direct relationship between exposure time and injury rate. A majority of the injuries are overuse in nature, and the body parts most actively involved in paddling movement are at higher risk of injuries. The high incidence of nonmusculoskeletal injuries in dragon boaters suggested that these injuries are likely outcomes of participation in the sport.

  12. Snowboarding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachtleben, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    Snowboarding has gained immense popularity during the past 30 years and continues to appeal to many young participants. Injury patterns and characteristics of injuries seen commonly in snowboarders have rapidly evolved during this time. Risk factors have emerged, and various methods of reducing injuries to snowboarders have been investigated. It is important that medical providers are knowledgeable about this growing sport and are prepared to adequately evaluate and treat snowboarding injuries. This article will review the issues and discuss diagnostic and treatment principles regarding injuries seen commonly in snowboarders. Injury prevention should be emphasized, particularly with young riders and beginners.

  13. Einstein Equations from Varying Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    A recent proposal equates the circuit complexity of a quantum gravity state with the gravitational action of a certain patch of spacetime. Since Einstein's equations follow from varying the action, it should be possible to derive them by varying complexity. I present such a derivation for vacuum solutions of pure Einstein gravity in three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The argument relies on known facts about holography and on properties of tensor network renormalization, an algorithm for coarse-graining (and optimizing) tensor networks.

  14. Ankle ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A.F.H. Renström

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability

  15. INFLUENCE OF SUPERPLASTICIZER AND VARYING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of the study on the influence of superplasticizer and varying aggregate size on the drying shrinkage and compressive strength of laterised concrete. Four different samples of laterised concrete were made from prescribed mix ratio of 1:1:2 which include; two control specimens made with ...

  16. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  17. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  18. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly...

  19. Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  20. Trampoline injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nysted, M; Drogset, J O

    2006-01-01

    To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline-associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004...

  1. Golf Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... driver and go! Seek the advice of a sports medicine specialist in your area if any injury occurs ... Golf Injuries Tip Sheet. American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine. 2009. www.sportsmed.org www.uskidsgolf.com www. ...

  2. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000029.htm Spinal injury To use the sharing features on this page, ... move anyone who you think may have a spinal injury, unless it is absolutely necessary. For example, if ...

  3. Urethral Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include pelvic fractures and straddle injuries to the perineum. The perineum is the area between the anus and the ... tissues of the penis, scrotum, abdominal wall, or perineum. Complications that can result from urethral injuries include ...

  4. Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Knee Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Knee Injuries What's in ... can do to protect them. What's in a Knee? The knee is a joint , actually the largest ...

  5. Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What OT Can Do: Video For Professionals Ethics Tendon Injuries When a person experiences a tendon injury in the hand that affects the ability ... plan. What can a person with a hand tendon injury do? Implement a home exercise program recommended ...

  6. Hamstring injuries: update article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Ernlund

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hamstring (HS muscle injuries are the most common injury in sports. They are correlated to long rehabilitations and have a great tendency to recur. The HS consist of the long head of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. The patient's clinical presentation depends on the characteristics of the lesion, which may vary from strain to avulsions of the proximal insertion. The most recognized risk factor is a previous injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the injury diagnosis and classification. Many classification systems have been proposed; the current classifications aim to describe the injury and correlate it to the prognosis. The treatment is conservative, with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the acute phase followed by a muscle rehabilitation program. Proximal avulsions have shown better results with surgical repair. When the patient is pain free, shows recovery of strength and muscle flexibility, and can perform the sport's movements, he/she is able to return to play. Prevention programs based on eccentric strengthening of the muscles have been indicated both to prevent the initial injury as well as preventing recurrence.

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  8. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  9. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  10. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  11. Injury caused by airbag VS. injuries associated with airbag deploys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Popa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of airbags systems in motor vehicles designed to transport of persons led in time to a significant decrease of the rate of death among passengers involved in car accidents. However airbag systems are not harmless, it produces lesions that vary in intensity depending on many factors. But decidedly, we can meet injuries associated with the triggering of the airbag system. Therefore, it must be made a clear difference between the two types of injuries, this being particularly important in terms of medico-legal especially regarding the mechanism of injury.

  12. Washing Machine Injuries of the Upper Extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S S

    2008-01-01

    Washing machines are part of every household and there are various reports of upper extremity injuries due to inadequate safety precautions while operating the machine. Most of the injuries occur when an attempt is made to remove the clothes from the machine and the hand gets caught in the spinning machine. The presentation can vary from minor soft tissue injuries to a mangled upper extremity. The chance of neurovascular damage resulting in compartment syndrome is very high. The author reports three cases of washing machine injuries to draw attention to this not so uncommon injury. The relevant literature is also considered. PMID:21654964

  13. Local Varying-Alpha Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper we demonstrated how the simplest model for varying alpha may be interpreted as the effect of a dielectric material, generalized to be consistent with Lorentz invariance. Unlike normal dielectrics, such a medium cannot change the speed of light, and its dynamics obey a Klein-Gordon equation. This work immediately suggests an extension of the standard theory, even if we require compliance with Lorentz invariance. Instead of a wave equation, the dynamics may satisfy a local algebraic relation involving the permittivity and the properties of the electromagnetic field, in analogy with more conventional dielectric (but still preserving Lorentz invariance). We develop the formalism for such theories and investigate some phenomenological implications. The problem of the divergence of the classical self-energy can be solved, or at least softened, in this framework. Some interesting new cosmological solutions for the very early universe are found, including the possibility of a bounce, inflation and e...

  14. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  15. Diurnally-Varying Lunar Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Hurley, D.; Retherford, K. D.; Mandt, K.; Greathouse, T. K.; Farrell, W. M.; Vilas, F.

    2016-12-01

    Dayside, non-polar lunar hydration signatures have been observed by a handful of instruments and present insights into the lunar water cycle. In this study, we utilize the unique measurements from the current Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to study the phenomenon of diurnally-varying dayside lunar hydration. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) onboard LRO senses a strong far-ultraviolet water absorption edge indicating hydration in small abundances in the permanently shadowed regions as well as on the lunar dayside. We report on diurnal variability in hydration in different terrain types. We investigate the importance of different sources of hydration, including solar wind bombardment and meteoroid bombardment, by observing trends during magnetotail and meteor stream crossings.

  16. EMOTIONAL OVERSTRAIN AS A FACTOR IN THE FORMATION OF MALADAPTATION AT STUDENTS OF MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia BURDUN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Disclosed the current state of the problem of the increase in disadaptation states at students of medical college and described pathopsychological mechanisms of their formation. The basic aspects of adaptation in violation of the medical college students: the psycho-emotional state, behavior patterns and the level of aggression of the index.

  17. Basketball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Peter A

    2005-01-01

    To identify and quantify, to the best extent possible from the existing literature, injury characteristics and factors (risk; protective) associated with injury in young basketball players. Database searches principally involving Medline and SportDiscus. In addition, web-based searching and filtering of the reference lists of papers found in the preliminary searches were utilized. Few well-controlled studies of this population have been conducted. However, from the information available: basketball is the most frequent cause of sports-related emergency department visits for youth and adolescents; the risk of being injured in a game is greater than for practice; girls are more likely to be injured than boys, especially with knee and ankle injuries and the knee injuries are more likely to be severe; acute injuries are more common than chronic; strains/sprains are the most common types of injuries but overall time loss is minimal, indicating that the majority of pediatric basketball injuries are minor (less than 7 days away from activity). Intervention studies show that: mouthguards reduce orofacial/dental injuries; mouthguard use can be increased in young players; neuromuscular training can reduce the incidence of knee injuries in female participants; postural sway is related to risk of ankle injury. The current state of epidemiological research involving youth and adolescent basketball injuries is poor. With an increasing number of young participants, in situations ranging from informal play and physical education classes to organized community and school teams, the need for comprehensive and authoritative information on risk and protective factors is significant.

  18. Rowing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumball, Jane S; Lebrun, Constance M; Di Ciacca, Stephen R; Orlando, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Participation in the sport of rowing has been steadily increasing in recent decades, yet few studies address the specific injuries incurred. This article reviews the most common injuries described in the literature, including musculoskeletal problems in the lower back, ribs, shoulder, wrist and knee. A review of basic rowing physiology and equipment is included, along with a description of the mechanics of the rowing stroke. This information is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis and treatment protocol for these injuries, which are mainly chronic in nature. The most frequently injured region is the low back, mainly due to excessive hyperflexion and twisting, and can include specific injuries such as spondylolysis, sacroiliac joint dysfunction and disc herniation. Rib stress fractures account for the most time lost from on-water training and competition. Although theories abound for the mechanism of injury, the exact aetiology of rib stress fractures remains unknown. Other injuries discussed within, which are specific to ribs, include costochondritis, costovertebral joint subluxation and intercostal muscle strains. Shoulder pain is quite common in rowers and can be the result of overuse, poor technique, or tension in the upper body. Injuries concerning the forearm and wrist are also common, and can include exertional compartment syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, deQuervain's and intersection syndrome, and tenosynovitis of the wrist extensors. In the lower body, the major injuries reported include generalised patellofemoral pain due to abnormal patellar tracking, and iliotibial band friction syndrome. Lastly, dermatological issues, such as blisters and abrasions, and miscellaneous issues, such as environmental concerns and the female athlete triad, are also included in this article.Pathophysiology, mechanism of injury, assessment and management strategies are outlined in the text for each injury, with special attention given to ways to correct

  19. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besenski, N. [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2002-06-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  20. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an ACL injury? ACL refers to the anterior cruciate ligament. It is 1 of 4 ligaments in your ... best results. After surgery, you will need intense physical therapy to ... allow the ligament to heal naturally. Living with an ACL injury ...

  1. Trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysted, M; Drogset, J O

    2006-12-01

    To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline-associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004. Patients were identified from a National Injury Surveillance System. All patients were asked to complete a standard questionnaire at their first visit at the hospital. Most data were recorded prospectively, but data on the mechanism of injury, the number of participants on the trampoline at the time of injury, adult supervision and whether the activity occurred at school or in another organised setting were collected retrospectively. A total of 556 patients, 56% male and 44% female, were included. The mean age of patients was 11 (range 1-62) years. 77% of the injuries occurred on the body of the trampoline, including falls on to the mat, collisions with another jumper, falls on to the frame or the springs, and performing a somersault, whereas 22% of the people fell off the trampoline. In 74% of the cases, more than two people were on the trampoline, with as many as nine trampolinists noted at the time of injury. For children Trampolining can cause serious injuries, especially in the neck and elbow areas of young children. The use of a trampoline is a high-risk activity. However, a ban is not supported. The importance of having safety guidelines for the use of trampolines is emphasised.

  2. Volleyball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerkes, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the numbers of people playing indoor and beach volleyball since the early 1980s and, consequently, an increase in injuries. Most injuries are related to repetitive jumping and hitting the ball overhead. The ankle is the most commonly injured joint, but the knee, shoulder, low back, and fingers also are vulnerable. The shoulder in particular is subject to extreme torque when hitting and jump serving the ball. Some injuries have a predilection for those playing on sand versus those playing in an indoor court. The clinician caring for volleyball players should be aware of the types of injuries these players sustain and how to help them return to play promptly and appropriately. This article reviews the specific injuries that are most common as a result of participating in the sport of volleyball.

  3. Rowing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosea, Timothy M; Hannafin, Jo A

    2012-05-01

    Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management.

  4. Gait phase varies over velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2014-02-01

    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and ...

  7. Does Speech-to-Text Assistive Technology Improve the Written Expression of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Michaela Ann

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury outcomes vary by individual due to age at the onset of injury, the location of the injury, and the degree to which the deficits appear to be pronounced, among other factors. As an acquired injury to the brain, the neurophysiological consequences are not homogenous; they are as varied as the individuals who experience them.…

  8. High injury incidence in adolescent female soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete

    2014-01-01

    in the prospective registration of injuries. All players were enrolled on a team participating in Danish Football Association series. Soccer injuries and exposure were reported weekly by answers to standardized text message questions, followed by individual injury interviews. Soccer exposure and playing levels were......BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...

  9. Aquatic antagonists: cutaneous sea urchin spine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Clifford; Aronson, Erica R; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M

    2016-11-01

    Injuries from sea urchin spines are commonly seen in coastal regions with high levels of participation in water activities. Although these injuries may seem minor, the consequences vary based on the location of the injury. Sea urchin spine injuries may cause arthritis and synovitis from spines in the joints. Nonjoint injuries have been reported, and dermatologic aspects of sea urchin spine injuries rarely have been discussed. We present a case of a patient with sea urchin spines embedded in the thigh who subsequently developed painful skin nodules. Tissue from the site of the injury demonstrated foreign-body type granulomas. Following the removal of the spines and granulomatous tissue, the patient experienced resolution of the nodules and associated pain. Extraction of sea urchin spines can attenuate the pain and decrease the likelihood of granuloma formation, infection, and long-term sequelae.

  10. Obstetric brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukund R Thatte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI, also known as birth brachial plexus injury (BBPI, is unfortunately a rather common injury in newborn children. Incidence varies between 0.15 and 3 per 1000 live births in various series and countries. Although spontaneous recovery is known, there is a large subset which does not recover and needs primary or secondary surgical intervention. An extensive review of peer-reviewed publications has been done in this study, including clinical papers, review articles and systematic review of the subject. In addition, the authors′ experience of several hundred cases over the last 15 years has been added and has influenced the ultimate text. Causes of OBPI, indications of primary nerve surgery and secondary reconstruction of shoulder, etc. are discussed in detail. Although all affected children do not require surgery in infancy, a substantial proportion of them, however, require it and are better off for it. Secondary surgery is needed for shoulder elbow and hand problems. Results of nerve surgery are very encouraging. Children with OBPI should be seen early by a hand surgeon dealing with brachial plexus injuries. Good results are possible with early and appropriate intervention even in severe cases.

  11. Basketball injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaca, Ana Maria

    2009-12-01

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports.

  12. Basketball injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaca, Ana Maria [Duke University Health Systems, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); McGovern-Davison Children' s Health Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  13. Birth Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Neonatology (Emeritus), The Brody School of Medicine ... from rapid blood loss, newborns will be in shock. They are immediately given fluids into a vein ...

  14. Obstetric anal sphincter injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Keriakos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric anal sphincter injuries can be associated with significant short and long term consequences causing devastating impacts on the quality of lives of young, otherwise healthy women. The major consequence is anal incontinence which may be short or long term and vary in severity. The other consequences include pain, infection, dyspareunia and sexual dysfunction. This may in turn result in considerable economic burden to health care providers and patients. It also has an implication on future deliveries. Although it can never be eliminated, it can be reduced by improving practice, training and provision of high quality multidisciplinary care in order to reduce long-term morbidity. Obstetric anal sphincter injuries are also a source of litigation which can be distressing to both patients and clinicians. The aim of this review article is to explore the available evidence on epidemiology, strategies for preventions, prognosis and also how to deal with governance issues.

  15. Muscle injury is the principal injury type and hamstring muscle injury is the first injury diagnosis during top-level international athletics championships between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2016-05-01

    During top-level international athletics championships, muscle injuries are frequent. To analyse the incidence and characteristics of muscle injuries and hamstring muscle injuries (hamstring injuries) occurring during top-level international athletics championships. During 16 international championships held between 2007 and 2015, national medical team and local organising committee physicians reported daily all injuries on a standardised injury report form. Only muscle injuries (muscle tears and muscle cramps) and hamstring injuries have been analysed. 40.9% of all recorded injuries (n=720) were muscle injuries, with 57.5% of them resulting in time loss. The overall incidence of muscle injuries was higher in male athletes than female athletes (51.9±6.0 vs 30.3±5.0 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.71; 95% CI 1.45 to 2.01). Muscle injuries mainly affected the thigh (52.9%) and lower leg (20.1%), and were mostly caused by overuse with sudden onset (38.2%) and non-contact trauma (24.6%). Muscle injury risk varied according to the event groups. Hamstring injuries represented 17.1% of all injuries, with a higher risk in male compared to female athletes (22.4±3.4 vs 11.5±2.6 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.94; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.66). During international athletics championships, muscle injury is the principal type of injury, and among those, the hamstring is the most commonly affected, with a two times higher risk in male than female athletes. Athletes in explosive power events, male athletes and older male athletes, in specific were more at risk of muscle injuries and hamstring injuries. Injury prevention strategies should be sex-specific. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Meat Grinder Injury to the Hand: Serial Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Nur Rachmat

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.Although meat grinder injury to the hand is not a common case, it causes a wide spectrum of injuries that result not only in tremendous physical and emotional pain but also substantial economic impact as well.Case presentation.Three cases of hand injury caused by meat grinders are presented. Two injuries involved non dominant hand and one involved dominant hand, result in varying degrees of deformity. All patients arrived in emergency room with injured hand still firmly...

  17. Blunt cardiac injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Jeremy S; Benitez, R Michael

    2012-11-01

    Blunt chest trauma represents a spectrum of injuries to the heart and aorta that vary markedly in character and severity. The setting, signs, and symptoms of chest trauma are often nonspecific, which represents a challenge to emergency providers. Individuals with suspected blunt chest trauma who have only mild or no symptoms, a normal electrocardiogram (ECG), and are hemodynamically stable typically have a benign course and rarely require further diagnostic testing or long periods of close observation. Individuals with pain, ECG abnormalities, or hemodynamic instability may require rapid evaluation of the heart by echocardiography and the great vessels by advanced imaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The burden of injury in Brazil, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Since 1980, injuries have been the second biggest cause of death among the Brazilian population. This study aimed to analyze national data on fatal injuries and nonfatal injury hospitalization in Brazil, for 2003. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a population-based descriptive study, Brazil, 2003. METHODS: Data from 126,520 fatal injuries and 733,712 nonfatal injuries seen at public hospitals were analyzed. The data were stratified by sex, age, intent and injury mechanism. Raw and age- and sex-specific rates were calculated per 100,000 individuals. RESULTS: The raw injury mortality rate was 71.5/100,000 (122.6/100,000 for male and 22.0/100,000 for female. For fatal injuries, the proportions of unintentional and intentional injuries were equal (44.3% and 46.9%, respectively. Homicides were the leading cause, 40.3% overall (28.8/100,000, followed by transport-related deaths, 26.2% overall (17.0/100,000. For nonfatal injuries, the rate was 414.8/100,000 and unintentional injuries were predominant (88.9%. Overall, the leading cause was unintentional falls, accounting for 42.6% of victims treated in public hospitals (176.8/100,000. Transport-related injuries were second: 15.0% overall; 62.0/100,000. Fractures comprised 46.7% of principal diagnoses at hospitals. The injury types in the fatal and nonfatal datasets varied according to sex and age. The highest rates were found among young males and elderly people. CONCLUSIONS: Injury prevention activities need to be developed. To prevent deaths, homicide has to be addressed. Among hospitalized cases, falls are the most important problem. Traffic-related injuries play an important role in morbidity and mortality.

  19. Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business bas...

  20. Hip and Groin Injuries in Dancers: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Natasha; Sugimoto, Dai; Micheli, Lyle J

    Injury data on hip and groin injuries vary, and these injuries are often misrepresented or overlooked for more commonly seen injuries, such as those to the foot and ankle. To provide a systematic review of the injury rates of hip and groin pathology in dancers and look to establish a better understanding of the occurrence of hip and groin injuries in the dancer population. A literature search was performed using PubMed and CINAHL databases for articles published between 2000 and 2016. Inclusion criteria consisted of (1) documentation of the number of hip and/or groin injuries, (2) study population consisting of dancers whose training included some level of ballet, and (3) studies of levels 1 through 3 evidence. Systematic review. Level 3. A single reviewer identified studies that met the inclusion criteria. The number of overall injuries, hip/groin injuries, study participants, injured participants, training hours per week, mean age of study group, injury definition, injury reporting method, and study time frame were extracted. Thirteen unique studies were included in the descriptive analysis. Of the 2001 dancers included in this study, 3527 musculoskeletal injuries were seen in 1553 dancers. Of these, 345 injuries were localized to the hip and groin region (overall rate, 17.2%). An incidence rate of 0.09 hip and groin injuries per 1000 dance-hours was seen in the selected cohort studies. Of 462 professional dancers, 128 hip/groin injuries were recorded, for an injury rate of 27.7%. Of the 1539 student dancers, 217 hip/groin injuries were recorded, for an injury rate of 14.1% ( P hip and groin injuries have many limitations. However, these injuries represent an important health issue for dancers of all skill levels, encompassing 17.2% of musculoskeletal injuries seen in dancers. An increasing rate of hip/groin injuries is seen in professional dancers compared with students.

  1. Blast injuries to the hand: Pathomechanics, patterns and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Souvik; Bandyopadhyay, Tibar; Sarkar, Tapan; Saha, Jayanta Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the common patterns of injury in detail in cases of blast injuries to the hand and to outline the possible pathomechanics of these patterns of injury while describing the treatment modalities for the same as practiced in our center. Materials and Methods: A review of admitted patients in our department from september 2009 through december 2010 of blast injuries to the hand was made. Each patient had a careful characterization of their injuries as mild, moderate or severe with the help of X-rays, clinical photographs and operative notes. The treatment of these patients during hospital stay was also documented. Results: Of the 55 patients studied, 5 patients suffered mild injuries with no bony injuries or dislocations, 26 patients had moderate injuries characterized by fractures and dislocations in addition to soft tissue injuries and 24 patients had severe injuries characterized by variable degrees of amputations. The most common injury type was to the radial aspect of the hand characterized by a first web split and a dislocation of the CMC joint of the thumb associated with fracture of the central metacarpals and amputations of the index and long fingers in some cases. Injury to the ulnar aspect was rare. Injuries were treated by repair as well as replacement done mostly in a serial fashion. Conclusion: Depending on the mode of injury, blast injuries to the hand can have varying patterns of injury, which can have important implications in the treatment and rehabilitation of a patient. PMID:23492853

  2. Burden of injury of serious road injuries in six EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, Wendy; Bos, Niels; Filtness, Ashleigh; Brown, Laurie; Bauer, Robert; Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martin, Jean Louis; Perez, Katherine; Thomas, Pete

    2017-12-06

    Information about the burden of (non-fatal) road traffic injury is very useful to further improve road safety policy. Previous studies calculated the burden of injury in individual countries. This paper estimates and compares the burden of non-fatal serious road traffic injuries in six EU countries/regions: Austria, Belgium, England, The Netherlands, the Rhône region in France and Spain. It is a cross-sectional study based on hospital discharge databases. of study are patients hospitalized with MAIS3+ due to road traffic injuries. The burden of injury (expressed in years lived with disability (YLD)) is calculated applying a method that is developed within the INTEGRIS study. The method assigns estimated disability information to the casualties using the EUROCOST injury classification. The average burden per MAIS3+ casualty varies between 2.4 YLD and 3.2 YLD per casualty. About 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties is due to lifelong consequences that are experienced by 19% to 33% of the MAIS3+ casualties. Head injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of MAIS3+ road traffic injuries. Results per transport mode differ between the countries. Differences between countries are mainly due to differences in age distribution and in the distribution over EUROCOST injury groups of the casualties. The analyses presented in this paper can support further improvement of road safety policy. Countermeasures could for example be focused at reducing skull and brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities, as these injuries are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    occupational injuries seen in 2013 at two emergency departments in Denmark. Effect estimates were calculated using the matched-pair interval approach. Results Increased risk for an occupational injury was found for time pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-2.0], feeling sick (OR......Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and ... and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  8. Inhalation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    pulmonary disease, nique of performing fiberoptic bron- aspiration injury, or pneumonia prior to choscopy is the same as that used for smoke exposure...persistent apy point out the increased incidence of hypovolemic shock and renal failure. fires involving polyurethanes, which Chest physiotherapy to...Infectious complica- pressures, additional PEEP should be tions may present as tracheobronchitis avoided if feasible. Experimental evi- or pneumonia

  9. Traumatic Mitral Valve and Pericardial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissar Shaikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac injury after blunt trauma is common but underreported. Common cardiac trauma after the blunt chest injury (BCI is cardiac contusion; it is very rare to have cardiac valve injury. The mitral valve injury during chest trauma occurs when extreme pressure is applied at early systole during the isovolumic contraction between the closure of the mitral valve and the opening of the aortic valve. Traumatic mitral valve injury can involve valve leaflet, chordae tendineae, or papillary muscles. For the diagnosis of mitral valve injury, a high index of suspicion is required, as in polytrauma patients, other obvious severe injuries will divert the attention of the treating physician. Clinical picture of patients with mitral valve injury may vary from none to cardiogenic shock. The echocardiogram is the main diagnostic modality of mitral valve injuries. Patient’s clinical condition will dictate the timing and type of surgery or medical therapy. We report a case of mitral valve and pericardial injury in a polytrauma patient, successfully treated in our intensive care unit.

  10. Association between sports type and overuse injuries of extremities in adults: a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chéron, Charlène; Le Scanff, Christine; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Background Sports injuries are often described as overuse or traumatic. Little is known about the frequency of overuse injuries and, in particular, if they vary between different types of sporting activities...

  11. Traumatic spinal cord injuries--incidence, mechanisms and course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ellen Merete; Rekand, Tiina; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Grønning, Marit

    2012-04-17

    The primary purpose of this article is to provide an overview of demography, neurological level of injury, extent of lesion, incidence, prevalence, injury mechanisms as well as lethality and causes of death associated with traumatic spinal cord injuries. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, with the search words "traumatic spinal cord injury"/"traumatic spinal cord injuries" together with "epidemiology", and "spinal cord injury"/"spinal cord injuries" together with "epidemiology". The reported annual incidence of traumatic spinal cord injuries varies from 2.3 per million in a study from Canada to 83 per million in Alaska. The prevalence is given as ranging from 236 per million in India to 1800 per million in the USA. The average age at the time of injury varies from 26.8 years in Turkey to 55.5 years in the USA. The ratio of men to women varies from 0.9 in Taiwan to 12.0 in Nigeria. The most frequent cause of injury is traffic accidents, followed by falls, violence and sports/leisure activity incidents. Patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries have a higher lethality than the normal population. The most frequent causes of death today are airway problems, heart disease and suicide. There are large geographical differences in reported incidence, prevalence and lethality. This is attributable to differences in definition, inclusion, classification and patient identification procedures in the various studies, together with geographical and cultural differences and differences in prehospital and hospital treatment.

  12. Extravasation injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, D T

    1993-03-01

    The leakage of cytotoxic drugs, intravenous nutrition, solutions of calcium, potassium, bicarbonate and even 10% dextrose outside the vein into which they are delivered is known not only to cause skin necrosis but also to precipitate significant scarring around tendons, nerves and joints. In this review of 96 patients with extravasation injuries seen between 1987 and 1992 at St Thomas' Hospital, Mount Vernon Hospital and The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, several patients required extensive reconstruction and in some, despite this, extravasation injury has rendered a limb virtually useless. Two techniques, liposuction and saline flushout, are described to remove extravasated material while conserving the overlying skin. Analysis of flushout material confirmed that the extravasated material was actually being removed. Forty four of the study group in whom noxious materials were known to have extravasated underwent such early treatment. The results in this group were quite striking--the majority (86%) healed without any soft tissue loss at all. The early referral and treatment of extravasation injuries is, therefore, recommended.

  13. Injuries in martial arts: a comparison of five styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetaruk, M N; Violán, M A; Zurakowski, D; Micheli, L J

    2005-01-01

    To compare five martial arts with respect to injury outcomes. A one year retrospective cohort was studied using an injury survey. Data on 263 martial arts participants (Shotokan karate, n = 114; aikido, n = 47; tae kwon do, n = 49; kung fu, n = 39; tai chi, n = 14) were analysed. Predictor variables included age, sex, training frequency (3 h/week), experience (or=3 years), and martial art style. Outcome measures were injuries requiring time off from training, major injuries (>or=7 days off), multiple injuries (>or=3), body region, and type of injury. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI). Fisher's exact test was used for comparisons between styles, with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The rate of injuries, expressed as percentage of participants sustaining an injury that required time off training a year, varied according to style: 59% tae kwon do, 51% aikido, 38% kung fu, 30% karate, and 14% tai chi. There was a threefold increased risk of injury and multiple injury in tae kwon do than karate (por=18 years of age were at greater risk of injury than younger ones (pMartial artists with at least three years experience were twice as likely to sustain injury than less experienced students (p3 h/week was also a significant predictor of injury (pmartial arts have significantly different types and distribution of injuries. Martial arts appear to be safe for young athletes, particularly those at beginner or intermediate levels.

  14. Injury threshold: whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C G

    2000-01-01

    To review current knowledge and recent concepts of the causes of injuries after minor impact automobile collisions and to acquaint those who treat these types of injuries with possible injury thresholds and mechanisms that may contribute to symptoms. A review of literature involving mechanisms of injury, tissue tensile threshold, and neurologic considerations was undertaken. A hand-search of relevant engineering, medical/chiropractic, and computer Index Medicus sources in disciplines that cover the variety of symptoms was gathered. Soft-tissue injuries are difficult to diagnose or quantify. There is not one specific injury mechanism or threshold of injury. With physical variations of tissue tensile strength, anatomic differences, and neurophysiologic considerations, such threshold designation is not possible. To make a competent assessment of injury, it is important to evaluate each patient individually. The same collision may cause injury to some individuals and leave others unaffected. With the variability of human postures, tensile strength of the ligaments between individuals, body positions in the vehicle, collagen fibers in the same specimen segment, the amount of muscle activation and inhibition of muscles, the size of the spinal canals, and the excitability of the nervous system, one specific threshold is not possible. How individuals react to a stimulus varies widely, and it is evident peripheral stimulation has effects on the central nervous system. It is also clear that the somatosensory system of the neck, in addition to signaling nociception, may influence the control of neck, eyes, limbs, respiratory muscles, and some preganglionic sympathetic nerves.

  15. What is the economic burden of sports injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Selcen; Kılıç, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Despite the health benefits of sports activities, sports injury and fear of injury are important barriers to participation in sport. The incidence, prevalence and type of sports injuries vary among men and women as well as age groups. It is usually difficult to examine these different aspects of sports injuries due to insufficient data. This study argues that sport injuries can be considered as an important economic burden in terms of the direct and indirect costs it bears. As a result, strong and effective strategies are needed to prevent sports injuries. Sports medicine has also been attracted increasing attention in recent years, particularly. In this article, the importance of sports injuries and their economic costs as well as the role of sport medicine as a prevention method for sports injuries were discussed.

  16. [Volleyball sport school injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Rossner, D; Gössling, T; Richter, M; Krettek, C

    2004-12-01

    Ball sport school injuries account for a significant morbidity among children and adolescents. Volleyball is popular in school sport and leads frequent injuries in youth besides basketball and soccer. During a school year 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) from all schools in Niedersachsen, Germany. The major disciplines were ball sport injuries, accounting for 59.5 % (1330 accidents), Gymnastic sport injuries follow at second position accounting for 18 % (403 accidents), followed by athletics with 8.1 %. Regarding the non-gender-specific distribution of the ball sport disciplines, basketball leads with 32.4 % (431 injuries), followed by soccer (23.8 %, 316 injuries), volleyball (17.4 %, 232 injuries), small ball games (11.2 %, 149 injuries), handball (8.3 %, 110 injuries), and hockey (4.9 %, 65 injuries). In boys, volleyball accounts third among the ball sport injuries (10 %, 63 injuries), after soccer (38 %, 245 injuries), and basketball (28.5 %, 185 injuries). In girls, volleyball was the second major ball sport injury discipline (24.8 %, 169 injuries) after basketball (36.1 %, 246 injuries), followed by small ball games (12.9 %, 88 injuries), and soccer at 4 (th) position (10.4 %, 71 injuries). The analysis of the distribution of injury during volleyball accidents dominate upper extremity injuries (71.3 %), with special emphasis on finger injuries in 53 %, followed by lower extremity injuries (21.5 %) and head injuries (4.3 %). Spine injuries were rare (0.9 %). The type of injury during volleyball school sport injuries were predominantly sprains (21 %), ligament distorsions and ruptures (20 %), fractures (17 %), and bruise (16 %). Analyzing the circumstances of the injuries, most injuries during volleyball school sport occurred without a opponent contact during ball contact (59 %), followed during movements (9 %), the landing phase (9 %), and after a strike of the ball (7 %). Volleyball injuries account for a

  17. Missed injury and the tertiary trauma survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Charles B; Greaves, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Missed injury in the context of major trauma remains a persistent problem, both from a clinical and medico-legal point-of-view. Estimates of the incidence vary widely, dependent on the precise parameters of the studied population, the definition of missed injury and the extent of follow-up, but may be as high as 38%. The tertiary survey, in which formal repeated examination of the patient is undertaken after initial resuscitation and treatment have taken place, has been suggested as a way of identifying injuries not found at presentation. This paper appraises the concept of the tertiary survey, and also reviews the literature on missed injury in order to identify the risk factors, the types of injury and the reasons for error.

  18. Meat grinder injuries to the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, M; Bunkis, J; Trengove-Jones, G

    1985-05-01

    Three cases of hand injury caused by meat grinders are presented. All 3 injuries involved the dominant hand and resulted in varying degrees of deformity. Two of the 3 patients arrived in the emergency room with the injured hand still firmly wedged in the meat grinder. Although these injuries continue to prove very mutilating, maximum restoration of the injured hand can be accomplished by careful extrication, followed by preservation and reconstruction of all viable tissues. Perioperative antibiotics and wound irrigation with antibiotic solution are recommended. Microsurgical technique can be of value in treating selected patients.

  19. Tavatult jahe Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    1.-10. juulini toimunud Karlovy Vary 46. filmifestivalist (muusikafilmide alajaotuses näidati Marianne Kõrveri dokumentaalfilmi "Erkki-Sven Tüür: 7 etüüdi piltides" (2010) programmis "A Musical Odyssey")

  20. Eesti film võistleb Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastub Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  1. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sejeong Kwon; Meeyoung Cha; Kyomin Jung

    2017-01-01

      This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows--from the first three days to nearly two months...

  2. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part IV: Normal and Inverted Letter 'h' and 'H' Architecture.

  3. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part III: B-Shaped Architecture with Vertical Well in the Upper Layer.

  4. Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2016 Print this issue Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint En español Send us ... joints have unique patterns of chemical tags—called epigenetic markers—that differ between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. ...

  5. High injury incidence in adolescent female soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete; Krustrup, Peter; Hölmich, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Andersen, Lars Louis; Christensen, Karl Bang; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer exposure, playing level, and injury risk. Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included in the prospective registration of injuries. All players were enrolled on a team participating in Danish Football Association series. Soccer injuries and exposure were reported weekly by answers to standardized text message questions, followed by individual injury interviews. Soccer exposure and playing levels were chosen a priori as the only independent variables of interest in the risk factor analyses. Injury rates and relative risks were estimated using Poisson regression. Generalized estimation equations were used to take into account that players were clustered within teams. There were 498 players who sustained a total of 424 soccer injuries. The incidence of injuries was 15.3 (95% CI, 13.1-17.8), the incidence of time-loss injuries was 9.7 (95% CI, 8.2-11.4), and the incidence of severe injuries was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-1.6) per 1000 hours of soccer exposure. Higher average exposure in injury-free weeks was associated with a lower injury risk (P value for trend soccer is high, and this includes many severe injuries. Players with low soccer participation (≤1 h/wk) have a significantly higher injury risk compared with players

  6. Epidemiology of 10,000 high school football injuries: patterns of injury by position played.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgeley, Marcus A; McIlvain, Natalie M; Yard, Ellen E; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2013-02-01

    With more than 1.1 million high school athletes playing annually during the 2005-06 to 2009-10 academic years, football is the most popular boys' sport in the United States. Using an internet-based data collection tool, RIO, certified athletic trainers (ATs) from 100 nationally representative US high schools reported athletic exposure and football injury data during the 2005-06 to 2009-10 academic years. Participating ATs reported 10,100 football injuries corresponding to an estimated 2,739,187 football-related injuries nationally. The injury rate was 4.08 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) overall. Offensive lineman collectively (center, offensive guard, offensive tackle) sustained 18.3% of all injuries. Running backs (16.3%) sustained more injuries than any other position followed by linebackers (14.9%) and wide receivers (11.9%). The leading mechanism of injury was player-player contact (64.0%) followed by player-surface contact (13.4%). More specifically, injury occurred most commonly when players were being tackled (24.4%) and tackling (21.8%). Patterns of football injuries vary by position. Identifying such differences is important to drive development of evidence-based, targeted injury prevention efforts.

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Toby Huston, ... Rose, PhD The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What ...

  14. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury ... Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New ...

  16. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Post-Traumatic Stress Physical Injury Families & Friendships Military Sexual Trauma Depression mild Traumatic Brain Injury Life Stress Health & ... Traumatic Stress Physical Injury Anxiety Health & Wellness Military Sexual Trauma Tobacco Community About Depression Life Stress Alcohol & Drugs ...

  17. Wounds and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, ... millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  19. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  20. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  1. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posterior cruciate ligament injury Overview Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury happens far less often than does injury to the knee's more vulnerable counterpart, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The posterior cruciate ...

  2. Skill level-specific differences in snowboarding-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Sumi, Hiroshi; Sumi, Yasuhiko; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2010-03-01

    Snowboarding-related injuries have been associated with specific snowboarding skill levels, but differences in specific skill level have not been identified. Injury patterns are different among skill levels. Descriptive epidemiology study. The subjects were 19 539 snowboarders from the Oku-Mino region in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, who were admitted to our hospital during the 12 snowboarding seasons from 1996 to 2008. They were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding age, gender, self-estimated skill level, injury location, injury type, mechanism of injury, and protective gear. Physicians documented diagnostic variables and injury severity score; these variables were compared among the self-estimated skill levels. Of the total 19 539 injured snowboarders, 1204 (6.2%) were novices, 6409 (32.8%) were beginners, 9260 (47.4%) were intermediates, 1918 (9.8%) were experts, and the skill level was not known in 748 (3.8%). Proportions of the trunk and multiple injuries increased with increases in skill level; however, the number of head/face injuries decreased with increase in skill level. Upper extremity injuries also decreased with increase in skill level, except in novices. Dislocations and multiple injuries increased with increase in skill level, while lacerations/contusions, fractures, and bruises decreased. The mean overall injury severity score was 3.28 + or - 0.02, and the value increased significantly with increase in skill level. The proportion of collision and isolated fall injuries significantly decreased with increase in skill level, but that of jump injuries significantly increased. The percentage of protective gear use increased with the increase in skill level. Prevalence of injury type, injury location, mechanism of injury, and percentage of protective gear use varied according to skill level, and the severity of the injury increased with increase in skill level. On the basis of our observations, we believe that snowboarding injury prevention strategies

  3. Socioeconomic status and the incidence of child injuries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Jing, Ruiwei; Zeng, Guang; Linnan, Huan Wan; Zhu, Xu; Linnan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Injuries are the major cause of morbidity among children and one of the leading causes of death for children ages 1-17 years in developing countries. Of particular importance is whether child injuries are equally distributed across all socioeconomic groups and the implications of this question for child injury prevention, but there is a lack of research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and risk of child injuries in developing countries, including China. This study used a provincially-representative, population-based sample of 98,385 Chinese children under age 18 to investigate the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and child injuries. Despite the lack of a SES gradient in the overall incidence of nonhospitalized injuries, evidence of SES disparity was found for the overall incidence of H/PD injuries (injuries resulting in hospitalization or permanent disability) and fatal injuries. The odds of getting injured in the poorest wealth quintile were about 1.3 and 3.5 times greater than the odds found in the richest wealth quintile for H/PD and fatal injuries respectively. Further analyses showed that the associations between SES and injuries varied by type and severity of injury, and across different life stages. The findings have important implications for identifying at-risk populations and the optimal times for interventions to reduce different types and severity levels of child injuries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Obscured by administrative data? Racial disparities in occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Erika L; Boden, Leslie I; Williams, Jessica Ar; Hashimoto, Dean; Hopcia, Karen; Sorensen, Glorian

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Underreporting of occupational injuries is well documented, but underreporting patterns may vary by worker characteristics, obscuring disparities. We tested for racial and ethnic differences in injury reporting patterns by comparing injuries reported via research survey and administrative injury database in the same group of healthcare workers in the US. Methods We used data from a cohort of 1568 hospital patient-care workers who were asked via survey whether they had been injured at work during the year prior (self-reported injury; N=244). Using the hospital's injury database, we determined whether the same workers had reported injuries to the hospital's occupational health service during that year (administratively reported injury; N=126). We compared data sources to test for racial and ethnic differences in injury reporting practices. Results In logistic regression models adjusted for demographic and occupational characteristics, black workers' odds of injury as measured by self-report data were 1.91 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-3.49] compared with white workers. The same black workers' odds of injury as measured by administrative data were 1.22 (95% CI 0.54-2.77) compared with white workers. Conclusions The undercount of occupational injuries in administrative versus self-report data may be greater among black compared to white workers, leading to underestimates of racial disparities in workplace injury.

  5. Penetrating Thoracic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Anthony M; Caban, Kim; Munera, Felipe

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses the role of radiology in evaluating patients with penetrating injuries to the chest. Penetrating injuries to the chest encompass ballistic and nonballistic injuries and can involve superficial soft tissues of the chest wall, lungs and pleura, diaphragm, and mediastinum. The mechanism of injury in ballistic and nonballistic trauma and the impact the injury trajectory has on imaging evaluation of penetrating injuries to the chest are discussed. The article presents the broad spectrum of imaging findings a radiologist encounters with penetrating injuries to the chest, with emphasis on injuries to the lungs and pleura, diaphragm, and mediastinum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  7. Frostbite injury of the foot from portable fire extinguisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Celalettin; Kulahci, Yalcin; Uygur, Fatih; Sahin, Cihan

    2009-09-15

    Frostbite burns are uncommon and their etiologies are varied. We present a case of sudden frostbite burn of the left foot caused by carbon dioxide. The circumstances of this injury and preventive measures are discussed.

  8. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  9. Computed tomography: ocular manifestations in acute head injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute head injuries are common in the population. Associated ocular injuries are occasionally encountered and these are of varying nature and outcome. Methods: We reviewed 98 brain computed tomographic results retrospectively. These are cases that were done between Jan. 2013- Jan. 2014. Statistical ...

  10. Prevalence of Oral and Maxillofacial Injuries among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oral and maxillofacial injuries have been shown worldwide to be a major cause of disability and orofacial deformity. The magnitude and causes of oral and maxillofacial injuries varies from one country to another or even within the same country depending on prevailing conditions such as socioeconomic, ...

  11. Barriers to Physical Activity in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberton, Terri; Bucks, Romola S.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined barriers to physical activity reported individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and the degree to which these barriers differed across varying degrees of independence. Participants were 65 individuals recruited from the Western Australian Spinal Cord Injury database. Data...

  12. Methods for injury surveillance in international cricket | Orchard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Varying methods of cricket injury surveillance projects have made direct comparison of published studies in this field impossible. Methods. A consensus regarding definitions and methods to calculate injury rates in cricket was sought between researchers in this field. This was arrived at through a variety of ...

  13. Brain injury risk from primary blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaels, Karin A; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Panzer, Matthew B; Salzar, Robert S; Woods, William A; Feldman, Sanford H; Walilko, Tim; Kent, Richard W; Capehart, Bruce P; Foster, Jonathan B; Derkunt, Burcu; Toman, Amanda

    2012-10-01

    Military service members are often exposed to at least one explosive event, and many blast-exposed veterans present with symptoms of traumatic brain injury. However, there is little information on the intensity and duration of blast necessary to cause brain injury. Varying intensity shock tube blasts were focused on the head of anesthetized ferrets, whose thorax and abdomen were protected. Injury evaluations included physiologic consequences, gross necropsy, and histologic diagnosis. The resulting apnea, meningeal bleeding, and fatality were analyzed using logistic regressions to determine injury risk functions. Increasing severity of blast exposure demonstrated increasing apnea immediately after the blast. Gross necropsy revealed hemorrhages, frequently near the brain stem, at the highest blast intensities. Apnea, bleeding, and fatality risk functions from blast exposure to the head were determined for peak overpressure and positive-phase duration. The 50% risk of apnea and moderate hemorrhage were similar, whereas the 50% risk of mild hemorrhage was independent of duration and required lower overpressures (144 kPa). Another fatality risk function was determined with existing data for scaled positive-phase durations from 1 millisecond to 20 milliseconds. The first primary blast brain injury risk assessments for mild and moderate/severe injuries in a gyrencephalic animal model were determined. The blast level needed to cause a mild/moderate brain injury may be similar to or less than that needed for pulmonary injury. The risk functions can be used in future research for blast brain injury by providing realistic injury risks to guide the design of protection or evaluate injury.

  14. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...... to this paradox a qualitative study of working time regulation in the metal industry in Denmark and Germany was performed in the spring of 2005. In addition to five case studies of company-based agreements in Denmark and Germany (Baden-Württemberg) the study consisted of analysing statistical data, legislative...

  15. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  16. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Although traditionally seen as a sport for elite schools and colleges, rowing is a founding Olympic event and is increasingly enjoyed by people of all ages and abilities. The sport's rapidly changing demographics shows significant growth in masters (age 27 years and above) and para-rowing populat......Although traditionally seen as a sport for elite schools and colleges, rowing is a founding Olympic event and is increasingly enjoyed by people of all ages and abilities. The sport's rapidly changing demographics shows significant growth in masters (age 27 years and above) and para......-rowing populations. It has further expanded beyond its traditional flatwater format to include the discipline of open-water or coastal rowing, and an increased focus on indoor rowing. Rowing-specific injury research has similarly increased over the last decade since our last review, revealing areas of improved...

  17. Õunpuu Karlovy Varys edukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid

  18. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Gradually varied flow computation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Jahandar Malekabadi

    The article ''Gradually varied flow computation in channel networks by adaptive algorithm'' (DOI 10.1007/s12046- · 017-0640-x) which has been published online has been retracted by Chief Editor of the journal Sadhana as per the. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines on redundant publication.

  19. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fenz; Lee, Christopher James; Chen, Juequan; Chen, J.; Louis, Eric; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  20. Ellipsometry with random varying polarization state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fenz; van Albada, B.; Lee, c; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  1. "Mina olin siin" esilinastub Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil esilinastub Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West". Esitlema sõidavad R. Vilbre, R. Sildos, R. Kaljujärv, T. Tuisk

  2. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    2000-01-01

    is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...

  3. Efficient Estimation in Heteroscedastic Varying Coefficient Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhua Wei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers statistical inference for the heteroscedastic varying coefficient model. We propose an efficient estimator for coefficient functions that is more efficient than the conventional local-linear estimator. We establish asymptotic normality for the proposed estimator and conduct some simulation to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  4. Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest

  5. Age and Diet Affect Genetically Separable Secondary Injuries that Cause Acute Mortality Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeccah J. Katzenberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI vary because of differences in primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries occur at the time of a traumatic event, whereas secondary injuries occur later as a result of cellular and molecular events activated in the brain and other tissues by primary injuries. We used a Drosophila melanogaster TBI model to investigate secondary injuries that cause acute mortality. By analyzing mortality percentage within 24 hr of primary injuries, we previously found that age at the time of primary injuries and diet afterward affect the severity of secondary injuries. Here, we show that secondary injuries peaked in activity 1–8 hr after primary injuries. Additionally, we demonstrate that age and diet activated distinct secondary injuries in a genotype-specific manner, and that concurrent activation of age- and diet-regulated secondary injuries synergistically increased mortality. To identify genes involved in secondary injuries that cause mortality, we compared genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of uninjured and injured flies under age and diet conditions that had different mortalities. During the peak period of secondary injuries, innate immune response genes were the predominant class of genes that changed expression. Furthermore, age and diet affected the magnitude of the change in expression of some innate immune response genes, suggesting roles for these genes in inhibiting secondary injuries that cause mortality. Our results indicate that the complexity of TBI outcomes is due in part to distinct, genetically controlled, age- and diet-regulated mechanisms that promote secondary injuries and that involve a subset of innate immune response genes.

  6. Age and Diet Affect Genetically Separable Secondary Injuries that Cause Acute Mortality Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenberger, Rebeccah J; Ganetzky, Barry; Wassarman, David A

    2016-12-07

    Outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) vary because of differences in primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries occur at the time of a traumatic event, whereas secondary injuries occur later as a result of cellular and molecular events activated in the brain and other tissues by primary injuries. We used a Drosophila melanogaster TBI model to investigate secondary injuries that cause acute mortality. By analyzing mortality percentage within 24 hr of primary injuries, we previously found that age at the time of primary injuries and diet afterward affect the severity of secondary injuries. Here, we show that secondary injuries peaked in activity 1-8 hr after primary injuries. Additionally, we demonstrate that age and diet activated distinct secondary injuries in a genotype-specific manner, and that concurrent activation of age- and diet-regulated secondary injuries synergistically increased mortality. To identify genes involved in secondary injuries that cause mortality, we compared genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of uninjured and injured flies under age and diet conditions that had different mortalities. During the peak period of secondary injuries, innate immune response genes were the predominant class of genes that changed expression. Furthermore, age and diet affected the magnitude of the change in expression of some innate immune response genes, suggesting roles for these genes in inhibiting secondary injuries that cause mortality. Our results indicate that the complexity of TBI outcomes is due in part to distinct, genetically controlled, age- and diet-regulated mechanisms that promote secondary injuries and that involve a subset of innate immune response genes. Copyright © 2016 Katzenberger et al.

  7. Components in time-varying graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

  8. High-Velocity Paint Gun Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohltmann, Wendi E; Wisell, Joshua A; Lafrades, Celina M C; Cramer, Daniel M; Ragsdale, Bruce D

    2017-08-01

    Cutaneous injuries due to industrial high-pressure paint guns are well-documented in the literature; however, the histologic characteristics are uncommonly described, and facial involvement has not been previously reported. Histopathologic features of paint gun injuries vary depending on the time since injection and type of material. Early lesions display an acute neutrophilic infiltrate, edema, and thrombosis, with varying degrees of skin, fat, and muscle necrosis. More developed lesions (120-192 hours after injury) have prominent histiocytes and fibrosis around necrotic foci, possibly with the pitfall of muscle regenerative giant cells that could be mistaken for sarcoma. Continuing inflammation, swelling, and resultant vascular compression could explain ongoing necrosis months after the accident. The histopathologic differential diagnosis in the absence of clinical history includes paint in an abrasion, foreign body reaction to tattoo, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and various neoplasms. If available, radiologic studies can substitute for clinical photographs to indicate the extent of injury. The radiologic differential, uninformed by history, may include calcific periarthritis, gouty tophus, and tumoral calcinosis. Seven cases of injury due to high-velocity paint guns are presented with 4 additional cases mimicking paint gun injury and with review of the literature.

  9. Retrospective cohort analysis of chest injury characteristics and concurrent injuries in patients admitted to hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. METHODS: We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. RESULTS: The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake

  10. Retrospective cohort analysis of chest injury characteristics and concurrent injuries in patients admitted to hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi; Hu, Yang; Yuan, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries.

  11. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical ... Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical ...

  13. Head Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family ...

  15. Ice Hockey Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Franklin H.; Simonet, William T.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes the mechanisms, management, and prevention of each type of injury to which hockey players are prone. It surveys the injuries sustained by ice hockey players and discusses treatment of specific injuries, including those injuries to the head, eye, shoulder, hand, thigh, scalp, and face. (JL)

  16. Modeling Cerebral Vascular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Chichester (UK): John Wiley and Sons, Ltd; 2000. Kleiven S. Predictors for traumatic brain injuries evaluated through accident reconstructions...vessels to inform the material response of the surrounding brain tissue. 15. SUBJECT TERMS traumatic brain injury , vasculature, injury biomechanics... Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious concern for the military and the general civilian population. Blast-related TBI has been prevalent in

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the Patient After Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  19. Nonfatal tractor-related injuries presenting to a state trauma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanton, Amanda R; Young, Tracy L; Leinenkugel, Kathy; Torner, James C; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2015-06-01

    To identify tractor-related injuries using data from a statewide trauma system, to characterize the mechanisms of nonfatal tractor-related injury, and to determine which injuries are associated with higher severity injury. A retrospective observational study was conducted using the Iowa State Trauma Registry to identify cases of nonfatal tractor-related injuries over an 11-year period from 2002 to 2012. Frequency of injury was reported by age, sex, severity, and nature. Injuries were classified by mechanism and a polytomous regression model was used to predict injury severity adjusting for sex and age. Five-hundred thirteen nonfatal tractor-related injuries were identified with 18% classified as severe. Injuries were most frequent among males and among those ≥45years of age. Rollovers were the most frequent mechanism of both total (25%) and severe injury (38%), although the frequency of injury mechanism varied by age. Falls were the next most frequent mechanism of injury (20%) but resulted in fewer high-severity injuries. Collision (adjOR=1.89, 95% CI=1.01-3.51), rollover (adjOR=2.03, 95% CI=1.21-3.40), and run over/rolled on (adjOR=2.06, 95% CI=1.17-3.62) injuries were significantly associated with higher injury severity. Advanced age was also a significant predictor of higher severity injury (adjOR=1.82, 95% CI=1.06-3.12). Mechanisms of nonfatal tractor-related injuries are heterogeneous, differ by age, and are associated with varying level of severity. This work shows the burden of nonfatal tractor injuries on a rural state trauma system. These findings also demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of nonfatal tractor injuries and underscore the need for a multi-level approaches to injury prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Injury among Canadian Adolescents: Variations by Urban-Rural Geographic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William

    2008-01-01

    Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…

  1. [Surgical treatment of fibular nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejcík, V

    2001-08-01

    In the submitted retrospective study the authors present the results of 40 operations in 40 patients who were treated in the course of 15 years (from 1985-1999) on account of 40 injuries of the fibular nerve, historically known as an injury difficult to treat. The paper gives a basic outline of the surgical treatment. From a total number of 40 in 20 patients external neurolysis was performed. In the remaining 20 patients reconstruction operations of the injured nerves were made whereby 8 operations involved suture of the peripheral nerve, and 12 operations were made using a nerve graft in case of complete and persisting neurological deficiency and absence of action potentials on EMG. The mechanism of injury comprised nerve injury caused by elongation with or without fracture, "sharp" or "blunt" injuries, shotgun injuries, compressions and iatrogenic injuries. If spontaneous repair did not occur within 2-6 months after injury the patients were operated and in 27 of 40 improvement was achieved preventing instability of the foot and in 25 of 40 protective sensitivity developed. Analysis of the effectiveness of surgery was focused on the following indicators: time of operation after injury, patient's age, character of injury, level of injury, type of surgical operation. After neurolysis in 18 of 20 patients (90%) a useful grade of improvement was achieved despite severe preoperative motor deficiency. In 8 patients an "end to end" suture was made and in 6 (75%) the restoration was grade 3 or more. 12 patients needed a reconstruction operation by means of nerve grafts, the length of the graft varied from 4 to 20 cm. The grafts were shorter than 5 cm and in 2 patients, with a cut in 1 and with a iatrogenic injury in 1 patient. In both these patients the function was restored to grade M4. In 1 of 4 patients (20%) with a graft of 6 to 12 cm and in none of 6 with grafts from 13 to 20 cm restoration grade 3 or more was achieved. In those instances the authors observed however

  2. Prevention of Football Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “cl...

  3. Automated measurement of pressure injury through image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Mathews, Carol

    2017-11-01

    To develop an image processing algorithm to automatically measure pressure injuries using electronic pressure injury images stored in nursing documentation. Photographing pressure injuries and storing the images in the electronic health record is standard practice in many hospitals. However, the manual measurement of pressure injury is time-consuming, challenging and subject to intra/inter-reader variability with complexities of the pressure injury and the clinical environment. A cross-sectional algorithm development study. A set of 32 pressure injury images were obtained from a western Pennsylvania hospital. First, we transformed the images from an RGB (i.e. red, green and blue) colour space to a YCb Cr colour space to eliminate inferences from varying light conditions and skin colours. Second, a probability map, generated by a skin colour Gaussian model, guided the pressure injury segmentation process using the Support Vector Machine classifier. Third, after segmentation, the reference ruler - included in each of the images - enabled perspective transformation and determination of pressure injury size. Finally, two nurses independently measured those 32 pressure injury images, and intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated. An image processing algorithm was developed to automatically measure the size of pressure injuries. Both inter- and intra-rater analysis achieved good level reliability. Validation of the size measurement of the pressure injury (1) demonstrates that our image processing algorithm is a reliable approach to monitoring pressure injury progress through clinical pressure injury images and (2) offers new insight to pressure injury evaluation and documentation. Once our algorithm is further developed, clinicians can be provided with an objective, reliable and efficient computational tool for segmentation and measurement of pressure injuries. With this, clinicians will be able to more effectively monitor the healing process of pressure injuries

  4. Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina

    2017-11-01

    One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our

  5. [Eye injuries in 'paintball'; a modern 'war injury'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg-van der Marel, E H; ten Napel, J A; de Keizer, R J

    1993-04-17

    Paintball shooting is played with increasing frequency in the Netherlands. A bullet, filled with paint, shot at 60 m/sec can cause serious damage to the eye. All five patients seen in two years showed a hyphaema. Four out of five patients showed damage of the posterior pole, including vitreous haemorrhage, choroidal rupture, retinal detachment, and sub- or intraretinal haemorrhage. Three out of five patients incurred permanent visual loss, varying from 3/60 to 25/100. Adequate instruction of the participants in the game and proper use of the eye protector will be of help in preventing eye injuries.

  6. [Injuries in handball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerli, U M; Lereim, I; Sahlin, Y

    1990-02-10

    The study involves 421 patients who had suffered injury while playing handball. It describes mechanism and trauma, the injuries and their consequences, and data on training and technical conditions. 2/3 of the injured were female and one half belonged to the younger age-classes. The incidence of injury was highest among senior players. Distortion was the most frequent type of injury, followed by contusions and fractures. Half of the injuries were to the upper limbs, but the most frequent single injury was injury to the ankle joint. Many fractures were seen in fingers, forearm, hand and ribs. Wounds occurred most frequently to the face. The most serious injuries were ruptures of the ligaments in the knee joint. Protective equipment, such as braces, was seldom used. A small minority of the players were given adequate first aid. Important measures to prevent injury include better basic training, better technical training conditions, good first aid, and some changes in the rules of competition.

  7. Injury in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, W; Pollard, H; Hough, K; Tully, C

    2006-05-01

    It was the purpose of this review to document the range, incidence, location and mechanism of injury occurring in the sport of rugby league. Rugby league is a collision sport played in Europe and the Pacific regions including Australia. The sport is well established and has competitions ranging from junior to elite professional. Due to the contact nature of the game, injury is relatively common. The most common injuries are musculotendinous in nature and afflict the lower limb more frequently than elsewhere. Despite the high incidence of minor (sprains/strains) to moderate musculoskeletal injury (fracture, ligament and joint injury) and minor head injuries such as lacerations, nasal fractures and concussions, rare more serious spinal cord and other injuries causing death have also been recorded. The literature on rugby league injury is small but growing and suffers from a lack of consistent definition of what an injury is, thereby causing variability in the nature and incidence/prevalence of injury. Information is lacking on the injury profiles of different age groups. Importantly, there has been little attempt to establish a coordinated injury surveillance program in rugby league in the junior or professional levels. The implementation of such programs would require a universal definition of injury and a focus on important events and competitions. The implementation could provide important information in the identification and prevention of risk factors for injury.

  8. Injury patterns of female homicide victims in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Shanaaz; Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl; Vetten, Lisa

    2009-07-01

    Injury patterns and interpretation of injuries in homicidal deaths are important components of medicolegal autopsies. The objective of this article is to describe the incidence of female homicides and their related injury patterns with reference to autopsy practices in South Africa. A national retrospective mortuary-based study of homicides in women of 14 years and older in 1999 was conducted. Data were gathered from medical legal laboratory records, autopsy reports, and police interviews from a stratified multistage sample of 25 mortuaries. The most common cause of homicide was a gunshot wound injury, with a firearm mortality rate of 7.5/100,000 women, 14 years and older, in 1999, followed by sharp force injury (6.8/100,000) and blunt force injury (6.1/100,000). Gunshot victims were more likely to be African, and those killed by sharp force injury were more likely colored. Significantly, blunt force injury deaths occurred predominantly in intimate partner homicides. A full autopsy was performed only in 70% of cases. An assessment of postmortem reports revealed poor descriptions of the anatomic location of injuries and the specifications of wound dimensions. South Africa has a high female homicide rate that exceeds reported rates with the cause of homicide varying by social group. Assessment of injury description suggests weaknesses in the documentation of injuries at autopsy. This weakens the forensic investigation and undermines the strength of evidence presented in court. Further measures are needed to strengthen forensic pathology services in South Africa.

  9. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, B.; Premaratne, M.; Lewis, P. M.; Thomson, R.; Fitzgerald, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications.

  10. Tracking Time-Varying Coefficient-Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    1999-01-01

    of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. However, it is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal shich is argument of the coeffieient-functions.The properties of the modified method are sutdied...... by simulation. A particular feature is that this effectiv forgetting factor will adapt to the bandwidth used so that the effective number of observtions behind the estimates will be almost independent of the actual bandwidth or of the type of bandwidth selection used (fixed or nearest neighbour). The choice...

  11. Conceptual Modeling of Time-Varying Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Heidi; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of database applications manage information that varies over time. Many of the underlying database schemas of these were designed using the Entity-Relationship (ER) model. In the research community as well as in industry, it is common knowledge that the temporal aspects of the mini-world...... are important, but difficult to capture using the ER model. Several enhancements to the ER model have been proposed in an attempt to support the modeling of temporal aspects of information. Common to the existing temporally extended ER models, few or no specific requirements to the models were given...

  12. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  13. Eye Injuries in High School and Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Boden, Rebecca G; Comstock, R Dawn; Kerr, Zachary Y

    Although eye injuries constitute a small percentage of high school and college sports injuries, they have the potential to be permanently debilitating. Eye injury rates will vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from eye injury reports in high school and college athletes were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) database over a 10-year span (2005-2006 through 2014-2015 school years) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) over an 11-year span (2004-2005 through 2014-2015 school years). Injury rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures (AEs), injury rate ratios (RRs), and 95% CIs were calculated. Distributions of eye injuries by diagnosis, mechanism, time loss, and surgery needs were also examined. A total of 237 and 273 eye injuries were reported in the HS RIO and the NCAA ISP databases, respectively. The sports with the highest eye injury rates (per 100,000 AEs) for combined high school and college athletes were women's basketball (2.36), women's field hockey (2.35), men's basketball (2.31), and men's wrestling (2.07). Overall eye injury rates at the high school and college levels were 0.68 and 1.84 per 100,000 AEs, respectively. Eye injury rates were higher in competition than practice in high school (RR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.69-4.48) and college (RR, 3.13; 95% CI, 2.45-3.99). Most injuries were contusions (high school, 35.9%; college, 33.3%) and due to contact (high school, 89.9%; college, 86.4%). Only a small percentage of injuries resulted in time loss over 21 days (high school, 4.2%; college, 3.0%). Eye injury rates and patterns vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Although severe injuries do occur, most eye injuries sustained by high school and college athletes are minor, with limited time loss and full recovery

  14. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  15. Rehabilitation of basketball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard A; Chimes, Gary P

    2006-08-01

    Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the United States and throughout the world, and therefore represents one of the most common sources of sports-related injuries. Basketball injuries should be managed by the same general rehabilitation principles as other sports injuries. Additionally, the clinician should be aware not only of general sports injuries but of those injuries most commonly seen in basketball players. By maintaining knowledge of the most common basketball injuries as well as their diagnosis and treatment, the clinician can help to optimize the athlete's return to play and enjoyment of the sport.

  16. Trauma: Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [Posterior cruciate ligament injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, K F; Ziring, E; Ruchholtz, S; Efe, T

    2017-01-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are still often overlooked and treatment of a ruptured PCL is inherently different in comparison to anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). Conservative treatment is the first-line therapy for acute isolated PCL injuries leading to good clinical and biomechanical results. Injuries to the PCL combined with rupture of other stabilizing ligaments, such as the collateral ligaments or the posterolateral corner of the knee joint are treated surgically. The same is true for high grade chronic PCL insufficiency. Meticulous classification of PCL injuries taking all stabilizing factors of the knee joint as well as the time from injury into account are essential for successful treatment of PCL injuries.

  18. Urological injuries following trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N. [Department of Urology, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fotheringham, T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  19. Stereoscopic depth perception varies with hues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zaiqing; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghang; Yun, Lijun

    2012-09-01

    The contribution of color information to stereopsis is controversial, and whether the stereoscopic depth perception varies with chromaticity is ambiguous. This study examined the changes in depth perception caused by hue variations. Based on the fact that a greater disparity range indicates more efficient stereoscopic perception, the effect of hue variations on depth perception was evaluated through the disparity range with random-dot stereogram stimuli. The disparity range was obtained by constant-stimulus method for eight chromaticity points sampled from the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. Eight sample points include four main color hues: red, yellow, green, and blue at two levels of chroma. The results show that the disparity range for the yellow hue is greater than the red hue, the latter being greater than the blue hue and the disparity range for green hue is smallest. We conclude that the perceived depth is not the same for different hues for a given size of disparity. We suggest that the stereoscopic depth perception can vary with chromaticity.

  20. Optimizing power output by varying repetition tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Riana R; Sforzo, Gary A; King, Deborah L

    2011-11-01

    The effects of varying interrepetition rest and eccentric velocity on power output (PO) and the number of repetitions performed during a bench press set were examined in 24 college-aged resistance trained men. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a set of bench press at 80% 1 repetition maximum until volitional fatigue. For each of the 6 repetition tempo trials, the bench press set was paced by metronome to a unique repetition tempo involving a combination of the following: interrepetition rest of 0 or 4 seconds; eccentric velocity of 1 or 4 seconds and bottom rest of 0 or 3 seconds. The velocity of concentric contraction was maximal during all 6 tempo trials. During each trial, video data were captured to determine PO variables and number of successful repetitions completed at each tempo. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed tempos with a fast eccentric phase (1 second), and no bottom rest produced significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) PO and repetitions than tempos involving slower eccentric velocity (4 seconds) or greater bottom rest (4 seconds). This combination of greater repetitions and PO resulted in a greater volume of work. Varying interrepetition rest (1 or 4 seconds) did not significantly affect PO or repetitions. The results of this study support the use of fast eccentric speed and no bottom rest during acute performance testing to maximize PO and number of repetitions during a set of bench press.

  1. Adaptive time-varying detrended fluctuation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthouze, Luc; Farmer, Simon F

    2012-07-30

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a technique commonly used to assess and quantify the presence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in neurophysiological time series. Convergence of the method is asymptotic only and therefore its application assumes a constant scaling exponent. However, most neurophysiological data are likely to involve either spontaneous or experimentally induced scaling exponent changes. We present a novel extension of the DFA method that permits the characterisation of time-varying scaling exponents. The effectiveness of the methodology in recovering known changes in scaling exponents is demonstrated through its application to synthetic data. The dependence of the method on its free parameters is systematically explored. Finally, application of the methodology to neurophysiological data demonstrates that it provides experimenters with a way to identify previously un-recognised changes in the scaling exponent in the data. We suggest that this methodology will make it possible to go beyond a simple demonstration of the presence of scaling to an appreciation of how it may vary in response to either intrinsic changes or experimental perturbations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Catastrophic cheerleading injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P; Tacchetti, Robin; Mueller, Frederick O

    2003-01-01

    There are few epidemiologic studies of cheerleading injuries. To develop a profile of catastrophic injuries in cheerleading and to describe relevant risk factors. Retrospective cohort study. We reviewed 29 of 39 incidents of cheerleading injuries reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research from 1982 to 2002. Twenty-seven of the injured cheerleaders were women. There were 1.95 direct catastrophic injuries per year or 0.6 injuries per 100,000 participants. The rate of injuries among college cheerleaders was five times that of high school participants. The most common stunts performed at the time of injury were a pyramid (9) or a basket toss (8). Catastrophic injuries included 17 severe head injuries, resulting in 13 skull fractures and 2 deaths; 8 cervical fractures or major ligament injuries; 3 spinal cord contusions; and 1 concomitant head injury and cervical fracture. Suggestions for reducing catastrophic injuries in cheerleaders include enhancing the number and training of spotters, mandating floor mats for complex stunts, restricting complex stunts when surfaces are wet, and encouraging safety certification of coaches. Pyramids and basket tosses should be limited to experienced cheerleaders who have mastered all other skills and should be performed with spotters and landing mats.

  3. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  4. Growth Plate Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plate injuries includes: Falling down. Competitive sports (like football). Recreational activities. Sometimes growth plate injuries happen when ... knee. For More Info U.S. Food and Drug Administration Toll free: 888-INFO-FDA (888-463-6332) ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Toby Huston, PhD ... not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found ...

  6. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  7. Rotator Cuff Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...

  8. Hip Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or falling can all sometimes lead to hip injuries. These include Strains Bursitis Dislocations Fractures Certain diseases also lead to hip injuries or problems. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and limited ...

  9. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sensation in the arm or hand Brachial plexus injuries can happen because of shoulder trauma, tumors, or ... the nerves stretch or tear. Some brachial plexus injuries may heal without treatment. Many children who are ...

  10. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  11. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the wrist, often making your fingers feel numb Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations ... deformity Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons Disorders and injuries of your fingers and thumb

  12. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  14. Snowboarding injuries in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drkulec, John A.; Letts, Mervyn

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study injury patterns of snowboarding trauma in children. Design A retrospective case series. Setting A major pediatric trauma centre. Patients A cohort of 113 children (97 boys, 16 girls), mean age 13.9 years, who sustained 118 injuries secondary to snowboarding. Interventions All fractures were treated by immobilization in a cast; 19 children required a closed reduction. Outcome measures Sex and age of patients, mechanism of injury, injury sustained, treatments and complications. Results Falls on the outstretched hand from a loss of balance accounted for 66 (57%) of the injuries, uncontrolled falls for 42 (36%) and collisions for 5 (4%). Seventy-nine percent of the injuries were to the upper extremity, whereas 7% were to the lower extremity. Conclusions The predominance of snowboarding injuries of the upper extremity seen in children differs significantly from those in adults in whom lower extremity injuries are more common. PMID:11764877

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  16. Injury & Safety Report - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Injury & Safety Report is a mandatory post trip legal document observers fill out to report any injuries they have incurred, illnesses they have had, or...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Gravity Forms. FacingDisability.com is an informational and support website for families facing spinal cord injuries. The ... Blog Videos By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord injuries Peer Counseling 312- ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hips, legs, and feet. If you have a spinal injury you may need surgery, physical therapy , and other ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  20. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: Lesiones de los Ojos en ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  1. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis Paget’s Disease of Bone Scoliosis Spinal Stenosis Tendinitis Sports Injuries Sports Injuries in Youth: A Guide ... and Strains, Questions and Answers about Bursitis and Tendinitis, Questions and Answers about Last Reviewed: 02/28/ ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... long does it usually take for feeling and movement to return after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  4. Ocular Paintball Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemet, Arie Y; Asalee, Leena; Lang, Yaron; Briscoe, Daniel; Assia, Ehud I

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most alarming ocular injury trends in recent years has been the proliferation of paintball guns and the proportional increase in the number of ocular eye injuries caused by paintballs...

  5. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might not be possible to return to the sport without risking further injury. Because overuse injuries are characterized by swelling, a doctor may prescribe rest, medicines to ease inflammation, and physical therapy. When recovery is complete, your child's technique or ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics ...

  7. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Sports injury prevention for baby boomers. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00178. Accessed Dec. 21, ... sports injuries? National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin ...

  8. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Overuse injury can happen when you try to take on too much physical activity too quickly. Understand how to pace yourself while ... you may be at risk of an overuse injury — which could ultimately prevent you from being active. ...

  9. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .[4,5] The presence of injuries that contribute to early secondary brain injury by the presence of hypoxemia. (<60 mmHg or 8 kPa) or hypotension (systolic blood pressure. <90 mmHg) on admission has been used to predict 6-month mortality ...

  10. Climate dynamics: Why does climate vary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, climate change has become a major focus of public and political discussion. Ongoing scientific inquiry, revolving predominantly around understanding the anthropogenic effects of rising greenhouse gas levels, coupled with how successfully findings are communicated to the public, has made climate science both contentious and exigent. In the AGU monograph Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary?, editors De-Zheng Sun and Frank Bryan reinforce the importance of investigating the complex dynamics that underlie the natural variability of the climate system. Understanding this complexity—particularly how the natural variability of climate may enhance or mask anthropogenic warming—could have important consequences for the future. In this interview, Eos talks to De-Zheng Sun.

  11. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  12. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across......We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... the trading day. Consequently, the test is based on comparing the empirical characteristic function of the studentized returns across the trading day. The limit distribution of the test depends on the error in recovering volatility from discrete return data and the empirical process error associated...

  13. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Amit; Senthilkumaran, P; Joseph, Joby

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  14. Supernumerary teeth vary depending on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Calvano Küchler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of supernumerary teeth (ST is a dental developmental anomaly of patterning and morphogenesis. Its variability of morphology, location and developmental timing can shed light on its etiology. In this work we report ST patterns. Orthopantomograms of 1,166 pediatric subjects were examined and the morphology, location and timing of the formation of ST were determined. The frequency of supernumerary teeth in the studied population was 2.3% (n = 27. Twenty-five subjects presented one ST. Maxilla midline was the most commonly affected region (nine cases. We noted high incidence of conical morphology in the midline region. Only teeth with tuberculate morphology presented delayed formation. ST in the midline region occurred more often in males whereas ST in the incisor region were more common in females. In conclusion, ST patterns vary depending on gender.

  15. Imaging of Physeal Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jawetz, Shari T.; Shah, Parina H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: As the intensity of youth participation in athletic activities continues to rise, the number of overuse injuries has also increased. A subset of overuse injuries involves the physis, which is extremely susceptible to injury. This paper aims to review the utility of the various imaging modalities in the diagnosis and management of physeal injuries in the skeletally immature population. Evidence Acquisition: A search for the keywords pediatric, physis, growth plate, x-ray, computed tom...

  16. Portal triad injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovich, G J; Hoyt, D B; Moore, F A; Ney, A L; Morris, J A; Scalea, T M; Pachter, H L; Davis, J W

    1995-09-01

    Injuries to the portal triad are a rare and complex challenge in trauma surgery. The purpose of this review is to better characterize the incidence, lethality, and successful management schemes used to treat these injuries. A retrospective review of the experience of eight academic level I trauma centers over a combined 62 years. A retrospective review of the experience of eight anatomical structures of the portal hepatis: 118 injuries to the anatomical structures of the portal hepatis: 55 extrahepatic portal vein injuries, 28 extrahepatic arterial injuries, and 35 injuries to the extrahepatic biliary tree. Sixty-nine percent of the injuries were by penetrating mechanism and 31% were by blunt mechanism. All patients had associated injuries with a mean Injury Severity Score of 34 in blunt trauma patients. Overall mortality was 51%, rising to 80% in patients with combination injuries. Sixty-six percent of deaths occurred in the operating room, primarily from exsanguination; 18% of deaths occurred within 48 hours of injury from refractory shock, coagulopathy, or cardiac arrest; 16% occurred late. Ten percent of patients undergoing portal vein ligation survived, compared to 58% managed by primary repair. Survival after hepatic artery ligation was 42%, compared to 14% after primary repair. Survival after biliary-enteric anastomosis as treatment of extrahepatic bile duct injury was 89%, compared to 50% after primary repair and 100% after ligation of lobar bile duct injuries. Missed bile duct injuries had a high (75%) severe complication rate. Injuries to the anatomical structures of the portal triad are rare and often lethal. Intraoperative exsanguination is the primary cause of death, and hemorrhage control should be the first priority. Bile duct injuries should be identified by intraoperative cholangiography and repaired primarily or by enteric anastomosis; lobar bile ducts can be managed by ligation.

  17. Pediatric spinal injury in the US: epidemiology and disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, Joseph H

    2015-10-01

    In the US, race and economic status have pervasive associations with mechanisms of injury, severity of injury, management, and outcomes of trauma. The goal of the current study was to examine these relationships on a large scale in the setting of pediatric spinal injury. Admissions for spinal fracture without or with spinal cord injury (SCI), spinal dislocation, and SCI without radiographic abnormality were identified in the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) registry for 2009. Patients ranged in age from birth up to 21 years. Data from the KID were used to estimate nationwide annual incidences. Data from the NTDB were used to describe patterns of injury in relation to age, race, and payor, with corroboration from the KID. Multiple logistic regression was used to model rates of mortality and spinal fusion. In 2009, the estimated incidence of hospital admission for spinal injury in the US was 170 per 1 million in the population under 21 years of age. The incidence of SCI was 24 per 1 million. Incidences varied regionally. Adolescents predominated. Patterns of injury varied by age, race, and payor. Black patients were more severely injured than patients of other races as measured by Injury Severity Scale scores. Among black patients with spinal injury in the NTDB, 23.9% suffered firearm injuries; only 1% of white patients suffered firearm injuries. The overall mortality rate in the NTDB was 3.9%. In a multivariate analysis that included a large panel of clinical and nonclinical factors, black race retained significance as a predictor of mortality (p = 0.006; adjusted OR 1.571 [1.141-2.163]). Rates of spinal fusion were associated with race and payor in the NTDB data and with payor in the KID: patients with better insurance underwent spinal fusion at higher rates. The epidemiology of pediatric spinal injury in the US cannot be understood apart from considerations of race and economic status.

  18. Work injuries and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene

    2009-01-01

    PROBLEM: This study estimated the hazard ratio for disability pension retirement (DPR) for persons who have experienced a work injury causing absence lasting at least one day after the accidental injury occurred and to estimate the fraction of DPR attributable to work injuries. METHODS: A total...

  19. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26

  20. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  1. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Lesiones de los Ojos Reviewed ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  3. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is ... spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_ ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cord injuries? play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_ ...

  6. Upper Extremity Injuries in NASCAR Drivers and Pit Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, Gary; Gaston, R. Glenn; Heisel, William

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the position-specific musculoskeletal forces placed on the body of athletes facilitates treatment, prevention, and return-to-play decisions. While position-specific injuries are well documented in most major sports, little is known about the epidemiology of position-specific injuries in National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing (NASCAR) drivers and pit crew. Purpose: To investigate position-specific upper extremity injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to assess position-specific injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Included in the study were patients seen by a single institution between July 2003 and October 2014 with upper extremity injuries from race-related NASCAR events or practices. Charts were reviewed to identify the diagnosis, mechanism of injury, and position of each patient. Results: A total of 226 NASCAR team members were treated between July 2003 and October 2014. Of these, 118 injuries (52%) occurred during NASCAR racing events or practices. The majority of these injuries occurred in NASCAR changers (42%), followed by injuries in drivers (16%), carriers (14%), jack men (11%), fuel men (9%), and utility men (8%). The majority of the pit crew positions are at risk for epicondylitis, while drivers are most likely to experience neuropathies, such as hand-arm vibration syndrome. The changer sustains the most hand-related injuries (42%) on the pit crew team, while carriers commonly sustain injuries to their digits (29%). Conclusion: Orthopaedic injuries in NASCAR vary between positions. Injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members are a consequence of the distinctive forces associated with each position throughout the course of the racing season. Understanding these forces and position-associated injuries is important for preventive measures and facilitates diagnosis and return-to-play decisions

  7. Hormonal therapy in traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Parker E; Patil, Arun A; Chamczuk, Andrea J; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injuries are major health problems and the underlying pathophysiological events and treatment strategies are currently under investigation. In this article, we critically reviewed the literature investigating the effects of estrogen, progesterone, and human chorionic gonadotropin on spinal cord damage or preservation following traumatic spinal cord injury. The National Library of Medicine database was searched through December 2016 using PubMed for articles addressing the clinical relevance of the hormones to improve neural structural integrity following traumatic spinal cord injury. It was found that each of these hormones, through varied mechanisms, could serve to reduce the harmful effects associated with spinal cord injury, and could aid in restoring some function to the injured spinal cord in the animal models. The most striking effects were seen in the reduction of inflammation commonly linked to injury of the central nervous system. The effects of human chorionic gonadotropin administration following spinal cord injury have received far less attention than those of either estrogen or progesterone, and additional inquiry could be of general benefit. In this article, we discussed the outstanding questions and suggested future directions for further investigation.

  8. Sports-related injuries in athletes with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, K; Lexell, J

    2014-10-01

    The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Management of degloving injuries of the lower extremity: a case report of a forklift injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrocki, Laura; Ross, Adrienne; Hicks, Adam

    2013-04-01

    Soft-tissue injuries of the foot and ankle can vary from crushing to penetrating mechanisms. Degloving injuries of the lower extremity are the result of an entrapment between a fixed surface and a moving object. These injuries pose significant morbidity and potential complications (eg, infection) to the patient if prompt wound coverage is not initiated. The authors present a case of an extensive degloving injury to the foot, ankle, and lower leg from a forklift accident. With the collaborative effort of the podiatry and plastic surgery teams, the patient underwent serial debridements, application of a small-intestine submucosa wound matrix, negative-pressure wound therapy, and skin grafting. This case presentation demonstrates the benefit of procedure staging and early wound coverage for improved patient outcomes. Therapeutic Level IV, Case Study.

  10. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  11. Paintball: dermatologic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambay, Aparna R; Stratman, Erik J

    2007-07-01

    The popularity of paintball as an extreme sport has gained momentum in recent years. Injuries related to paintball are growing as the number of participants increases. An increasing percentage of paintball-related injuries have occurred in noncommercial settings, such as backyards. We report distinctive follicular stippling and annular scars resulting from paintball injuries in 2 males. Dermatologists may encounter paintball-related injuries during routinely scheduled visits for acne or nevi surveillance. Patients should be verbally reminded to use protective gear to prevent injuries.

  12. Varying Collimation for Dark-Field Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although x-ray imaging is widely used in biomedical applications, biological soft tissues have small density changes, leading to low contrast resolution for attenuation-based x-ray imaging. Over the past years, x-ray small-angle scattering was studied as a new contrast mechanism to enhance subtle structural variation within the soft tissue. In this paper, we present a detection method to extract this type of x-ray scattering data, which are also referred to as dark-field signals. The key idea is to acquire an x-ray projection multiple times with varying collimation before an x-ray detector array. The projection data acquired with a collimator of a sufficiently high collimation aspect ratio contain mainly the primary beam with little scattering, while the data acquired with an appropriately reduced collimation aspect ratio include both the primary beam and small-angle scattering signals. Then, analysis of these corresponding datasets will produce desirable dark-field signals; for example, via digitally subtraction. In the numerical experiments, the feasibility of our dark-field detection technology is demonstrated in Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the acquired dark field signals can clearly reveal the structural information of tissues in terms of Rayleigh scattering characteristics.

  13. Varied acceptance of clinical trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, C R

    1989-12-01

    The subject of varied acceptance of clinical trial results is discussed in the context of review of trials with which I have been involved and my subjective evaluation of their impact on the practice of clinical medicine. My experience goes back to 1949 and a World Health Organization trial of hyperimmune gamma globulin against rabies. This was followed by a large trial of secondary prevention of poliomyelitis. I participated in the planning and initiation of the first chronic disease trial, the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP). The latter lasted for 15 years and its ramifications continue to this day. My next trial was the Coronary Drug Project (CDP), a complex trial with more than 8,000 patients. The trials of aspirin and aspirin combined with persantine (the CDPA, AMIS, PARIS I, and PARIS II) followed. My last three trials were a trial of photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy (DRS), a six-country trial of the antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine (IMPACT), and a study involving two diagnostic procedures for pulmonary embolism (PIOPED). When one considers, in retrospect, the plethora of trials one is struck by the uniform absence of a priori considerations of the impact on medical practice, or likely lack thereof, of possible outcomes.

  14. Microsatellites in varied arenas of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Remya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or short-tandem repeats (STRs, represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.

  15. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Varying Inundation Regimes Differentially Affect Natural and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is altering sea-level rise rates and precipitation patterns worldwide. Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to these changes. System responses to stressors are important for resource managers and environmental stewards to understand in order to best manage them. Thin layer sand or sediment application to drowning and eroding marshes is one approach to build elevation and resilience. The above- and below-ground structure, soil carbon dioxide emissions, and pore water constituents in vegetated natural marsh sediments and sand-amended sediments were examined at varying inundation regimes between mean sea level and mean high water (0.82 m NAVD88 to 1.49 m NAVD88) in a field experiment at Laws Point, part of the Plum Island Sound Estuary (MA). Significantly lower salinities, pH, sulfides, phosphates, and ammonium were measured in the sand-amended sediments than in the natural sediments. In natural sediments there was a pattern of increasing salinity with increasing elevation while in the sand-amended sediments the trend was reversed, showing decreasing salinity with increasing elevation. Sulfide concentrations generally increased from low to high inundation with highest concentrations at the highest inundation (i.e., at the lowest elevations). High pore water phosphate concentrations were measured at low elevations in the natural sediments, but the sand-amended treatments had mostly low concentrations of phosphate and no consistent pattern with elevation. A

  17. Martial arts injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieter, Willy

    2005-01-01

    To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. In general, the absolute number of injuries in girls is lower than in boys. However, when expressed relative to exposure, the injury rates of girls are higher. Injuries by body region reflect the specific techniques and rules of the martial art. The upper extremities tend to get injured more often in judo, the head and face in karate and the lower extremities in taekwondo. Activities engaged in at the time of injury included performing a kick or being thrown in judo, while punching in karate, and performing a roundhouse kick in taekwondo. Injury type tends to be martial art specific with sprains reported in judo and taekwondo and epistaxis in karate. Injury risk factors in martial arts include age, body weight and exposure. Preventive measures should focus on education of coaches, referees, athletes, and tournament directors. Although descriptive research should continue, analytical studies are urgently needed.

  18. Ice hockey injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Brian W; Meeuwisse, Willem H

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the distribution and determinants of injuries reported in the pediatric ice hockey literature, and suggests potential injury prevention strategies and directions for further research. Thirteen electronic databases, the ISI Web of Science, and 'grey literature' databases were searched using a combination of Medical Subject Headings and text words to identify potentially relevant articles. The bibliographies of selected studies were searched to identify additional articles. Studies were selected for review based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A comparison between studies on this topic area was difficult due to the variability in research designs, definition of injury, study populations, and measurements used to assess injury. The majority of injuries were sustained during games compared with practices. The two most commonly reported injuries were sprains/strains and contusions. Players competing at the Minor hockey, High School, and Junior levels of competition sustained most of their injuries to the upper extremity, head, and lower extremity, respectively. The primary mechanism of injury was body checking, followed by stick and puck contact. The frequency of catastrophic eye injuries has been significantly reduced with the world-wide mandation of full facial protection for all Minor hockey players. Specific hockey-related injury risk factors are poorly delineated and rarely studied among pediatric ice hockey players leaving large gaps in the knowledge of appropriate prevention strategies. Risk management strategies should be focused at avoiding unnecessary foreseeable risk, and controlling the risks inherent to the sport. Suggestions for injury prevention and future research are discussed.

  19. Paintball ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, L P; Acton, J K

    1999-03-01

    Six cases of ocular injury following paintball injuries sustained during war games are described. A CO2-powered rifle shoots a 14 mm plastic-coated paintball at participants. The muzzle velocity of the gun is 250 ft/sec (76 m/sec). Locally manufactured paintballs are harder than the more expensive imported varieties and may account for the severity of our reported injuries. Six patients presented to a retinal specialist with various ocular injuries, predominantly of the posterior pole. All patients were young males. There were no cases of ocular penetration. A variety of retinal pathologies was noted, with three cases requiring surgery; however this did not significantly improve the visual outcome. These cases highlight the severe ocular injuries that may occur from paintball injuries. Recommendations to avoid ocular injury are made.

  20. Epidemiology of knee injuries among boys and girls in US high school athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jay G; Fields, Sarah K; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn

    2008-06-01

    The knee joint is the second most commonly injured body site and the leading cause of high school sports-related surgeries. Knee injuries are among the most economically costly sports injuries and may require subsequent surgery or extensive and expensive rehabilitation. To report the incidence, risk, and severity of high school knee injuries across sports, genders, and type of exposure. Descriptive epidemiology study. During the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 school years, 100 US high schools were randomly selected for a nationally representative sample. Certified athletic trainers tracked injuries using an online injury surveillance system, High School RIO, in 9 high school sports. There were 1383 knee injuries reported during 3,551131 athlete exposures for a rate of 3.89 knee injuries per 10,000 athlete exposures. Although boys had a higher overall rate of knee injury (rate ratio, 1.38; confidence interval, 1.22-1.55), girls were twice as likely to sustain knee injuries requiring surgery (major knee injuries) than were boys (injury proportion ratio, 1.98; confidence interval, 1.45-2.70) and twice as likely to incur noncontact major knee injuries (injury proportion ratio, 1.98; confidence interval, 1.23-3.19) as were boys. Although illegal play was identified as a contributing factor in only 5.7% of all knee injuries, 20% of knee injuries resulting from illegal play required surgery. Knee injury rates and patterns varied by sport, gender, and type of exposure. Identified gender differences included differences in injury rates, injury severity, and basic injury mechanism. Further surveillance is crucial for the development of targeted, evidence-based injury prevention strategies to reduce the morbidity and economic impact of knee surgeries.

  1. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Pediatric Athletes Presenting to Sports Medicine Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Stein, Cynthia J.; Zurakowski, David; Meehan, William P.; Myer, Gregory D.; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limited data exist regarding the effect of the growth process on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in male versus female children. Hypothesis: The proportion of ACL injuries/sports injuries presenting to clinic will vary by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Study Design: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: The study group consisted of a randomly selected 5% probability sample of all children 5 to 17 years of age presenting to a sports medicine clinic from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009; 2133 charts were reviewed. Data collected included demographics, height and weight, injury mechanism, diagnosis, treatment, previous injury, and organized sports. Results: A total of 206 ACL tears were analyzed (104 girls, 102 boys). Girls were slightly older than boys (15.1 ± 1.7 vs 14.3 ± 2.1 years; P < 0.01). Male-female comparison of ACL injury/total injury by age revealed that girls had a steeper increase by age than boys. Among 5- to 12-year-olds, boys had a higher ACL injury/total injury ratio than girls (all P < 0.01). Children 13 to 17 years of age showed no significant difference for sex in ACL injury/total injury ratio. As age advanced, the proportion of ACL injuries/total injuries increased for both girls (P < 0.01) and boys (P = 0.04). BMI was independently associated with an ACL injury (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The proportion of ACL injuries/total injuries was similar for boys and girls aged 13 to 17 years. Girls showed a significantly steeper increase in ACL injury proportion versus boys through puberty. Clinical Relevance: This study will increase clinician awareness of ACL injury occurrence in young male and female athletes 5 to 12 years of age. Injury prevention efforts should target young girls before the onset of puberty and before injury occurs. PMID:25984258

  2. Functional Piezocrystal Characterisation under Varying Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Liao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezocrystals, especially the relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals, have been subject to intense investigation and development within the past three decades, motivated by the performance advantages offered by their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients and higher electromechanical coupling coefficients than piezoceramics. Structural anisotropy of piezocrystals also provides opportunities for devices to operate in novel vibration modes, such as the d36 face shear mode, with domain engineering and special crystal cuts. These piezocrystal characteristics contribute to their potential usage in a wide range of low- and high-power ultrasound applications. In such applications, conventional piezoelectric materials are presently subject to varying mechanical stress/pressure, temperature and electric field conditions. However, as observed previously, piezocrystal properties are significantly affected by a single such condition or a combination of conditions. Laboratory characterisation of the piezocrystal properties under these conditions is therefore essential to fully understand these materials and to allow electroacoustic transducer design in realistic scenarios. This will help to establish the extent to which these high performance piezocrystals can replace conventional piezoceramics in demanding applications. However, such characterisation requires specific experimental arrangements, examples of which are reported here, along with relevant results. The measurements include high frequency-resolution impedance spectroscopy with the piezocrystal material under mechanical stress 0–60 MPa, temperature 20–200 °C, high electric AC drive and DC bias. A laser Doppler vibrometer and infrared thermal camera are also integrated into the measurement system for vibration mode shape scanning and thermal conditioning with high AC drive. Three generations of piezocrystal have been tested: (I binary, PMN-PT; (II ternary, PIN-PMN-PT; and (III doped ternary, Mn

  3. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Kärt; Hytönen, Marjo K; Orro, Toomas; Lohi, Hannes; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82%) and the Persian had the highest (60.00%). According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  4. Functional Piezocrystal Characterisation under Varying Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaochun; Qiu, Zhen; Jiang, Tingyi; Sadiq, Muhammad R; Huang, Zhihong; Demore, Christine E M; Cochran, Sandy

    2015-12-02

    Piezocrystals, especially the relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals, have been subject to intense investigation and development within the past three decades, motivated by the performance advantages offered by their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients and higher electromechanical coupling coefficients than piezoceramics. Structural anisotropy of piezocrystals also provides opportunities for devices to operate in novel vibration modes, such as the d36 face shear mode, with domain engineering and special crystal cuts. These piezocrystal characteristics contribute to their potential usage in a wide range of low- and high-power ultrasound applications. In such applications, conventional piezoelectric materials are presently subject to varying mechanical stress/pressure, temperature and electric field conditions. However, as observed previously, piezocrystal properties are significantly affected by a single such condition or a combination of conditions. Laboratory characterisation of the piezocrystal properties under these conditions is therefore essential to fully understand these materials and to allow electroacoustic transducer design in realistic scenarios. This will help to establish the extent to which these high performance piezocrystals can replace conventional piezoceramics in demanding applications. However, such characterisation requires specific experimental arrangements, examples of which are reported here, along with relevant results. The measurements include high frequency-resolution impedance spectroscopy with the piezocrystal material under mechanical stress 0-60 MPa, temperature 20-200 °C, high electric AC drive and DC bias. A laser Doppler vibrometer and infrared thermal camera are also integrated into the measurement system for vibration mode shape scanning and thermal conditioning with high AC drive. Three generations of piezocrystal have been tested: (I) binary, PMN-PT; (II) ternary, PIN-PMN-PT; and (III) doped ternary, Mn:PIN-PMN-PT. Utilising

  5. Subsequent Injury Patterns in Girls' High School Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Mitchell J; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Wiksten, Denise L

    2007-01-01

    for stress fractures and musculoskeletal condition injuries. Conclusions: Patterns of subsequent injury risk appear to vary among these 5 sports. Almost one quarter of the athletes incurred 2 or more injuries over a 3-year period, so the effects of subsequent injuries deserve more consideration. PMID:18176621

  6. Ulnar nerve injury associated with trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin, Melvin M; Novak, Christine B; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2004-08-01

    This study reports three cases of ulnar neuropathy after trampoline injuries in children. A chart review was performed on children who sustained an ulnar nerve injury from a trampoline accident. In all cases, surgical intervention was required. Injuries included upper-extremity fractures in two cases and an upper-extremity laceration in one case. All cases required surgical exploration with internal neurolysis and ulnar nerve transposition. Nerve grafts were used in two cases and an additional nerve transfer was used in one case. All patients had return of intrinsic hand function and sensation after surgery. Children should be followed for evolution of ulnar nerve neuropathy after upper-extremity injury with consideration for electrical studies and surgical exploration if there is no improvement after 3 months.

  7. Injuries in Irish dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  8. Injuries of the cervical spine in football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, F F; Wells, R E

    1975-01-01

    The neck is a vulnerable area in contact sports in general and in football in particular. The type of injuries encountered often vary with the age and development of the players. Five well-established mechanisms of injury have been identified. Most injuries appear to occur during the act of tackling when the well protected head sustains violent trauma which is transferred directly to the neck. The most dangerous single mechanism is that of flexion, but lateral deviation, extension and impaction also have been identified as mechanisms of injury. The pattern of injuries would suggest that several measures should be undertaken. First, coaches, officials and doctors associated with football teams need to be aware of the dangers of head-on tackling and the value of "heads-up" football to avoid flexion injuries. Deliberately butting players with the head or "spearing" is illegal but head-on tackling and blocking of the so-called "stick-blocking" type is specifically taught at the high school and college levels. In the immature neck this is a dangerous maneuver and should be discouraged. The development of strong neck musculature could reasonably be expected to prevent many neck injuries and isometric and resistance exercises to develop neck strength should be a part of all preseason conditioning. All players who have neck symptoms should be thoroughly evaluated both clinically and radiologically to rule out damage or predisposing structural weakness. This is particularly important in the atlanto-axial area in immature players. Finally, it is recommended that protective collars be worn by all players with a history of neck injury. The authors have gained the impression in surveying a large number of injuries that most serious neck injuries, particularly those involving fracture-dislocation are incurred in the act of open field tackling by defensive players making head-on tackles. Neck flexion is the usual mechanism. A light-weight sponge rubber collar is presently

  9. Comparison of injury epidemiology between the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zheng, Xi; Yuan, Yong; Pu, Qiang; Liu, Lunxu; Zhao, Yongfan

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to compare injury characteristics and the timing of admissions and surgeries in the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and the Lushan earthquake in 2013. We retrospectively compared the admission and operating times and injury profiles of patients admitted to our medical center during both earthquakes. We also explored the relationship between seismic intensity and injury type. The time from earthquake onset to the peak in patient admissions and surgeries differed between the 2 earthquakes. In the Wenchuan earthquake, injuries due to being struck by objects or being buried were more frequent than other types of injuries, and more patients suffered injuries of the extremities than thoracic injuries or brain trauma. In the Lushan earthquake, falls were the most common injury, and more patients suffered thoracic trauma or brain injuries. The types of injury seemed to vary with seismic intensity, whereas the anatomical location of the injury did not. Greater seismic intensity of an earthquake is associated with longer delay between the event and the peak in patient admissions and surgeries, higher frequencies of injuries due to being struck or buried, and lower frequencies of injuries due to falls and injuries to the chest and brain. These insights may prove useful for planning rescue interventions in trauma centers near the epicenter.

  10. A new approach to the analysis of multiple injuries using data from a national trauma registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson-Daniel, L; Boyko, V; Ziv, A; Avitzour, M; Peleg, K

    2003-06-01

    To present a new systematic approach for summarizing multiple injury diagnosis data into patient injury profiles. International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, clinical modification injury diagnosis codes were classified using a modification of the Barell body region by nature of injury diagnosis matrix, then grouped by body region, injury nature, or a combination of both. Profiles were built which describe patients' injury combinations based on matrix units, enabling the analysis of patients, and not only the study of injuries. The Israeli national trauma registry was used to retrieve patient demographic data, injury details, and information on treatment and outcome. Patients or subjects: All hospitalized patients injured in road traffic accidents and included in the trauma registry from January 1997 to December 2000 were included. Patient profiles consisting of body regions, injury natures, their combination, and their clinical outcomes. The study population comprised 17459 patients. Head and neck injuries were the most frequent in all subpopulations except for motorcyclists who sustained most injuries in the extremities. Fractures were the most common injury nature (60%). Pedestrians and drivers had the highest proportion of multiple injuries in both profiles. Forty eight percent of the patients had a single cell profile. The most frequent conditions as a sole condition were extremity fractures (14%), internal injuries to the head (11%), and injuries of other nature to the torso (6%). Mortality, length of stay, and intensive care unit treatment varied dramatically between profiles and increased for multiple injury profiles. Inpatient death was an outcome for 3.3% overall; however, in patients with an internal injury to the head and torso, inpatient death rate was nine times higher, at 31%. Profiles maintain information on body region and nature of injury. The use of injury profiles in describing the injured improves the understanding of casemix and

  11. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...... assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  12. [Athletic injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backx, F J; Erich, W B

    1990-08-01

    Sports participation can have both beneficial and negative effects. Specific effects are injuries. The change of incidence is dependent on a number of personal and environmental factors. Epidemiological research in the Netherlands in school aged children has shown that sports injuries occur primarily in club sport, even more during competition. The injuries are localised in the lower limbs: especially the knee and the ankle. The injuries are distortions and contusions and fewer fractures and muscle tears. The number of overuse injuries seems to be rising because children are doing increasingly more intensive sport at younger ages. A preventive sports medical examination has been discussed as well as the preventive effect of warming-up and cooling down, stretching exercises, rehabilitation, taping, rules of play and sports facilities. Finally, attention has been given to the general care of sports injuries in the way of active and functional guidance in the healing process.

  13. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Soccer is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport worldwide, with approximately 265 million registered soccer players existing around the world. The popularity of the sport, coupled with the high incidence of 18.8-21.5 head injuries per 1,000 player hours reported, make it essential that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes, have a solid understanding of head injuries. The successful rehabilitation of athletes with head injuries relies upon early and accurate identification strategies and implementation of appropriate return to play measures across all areas in the continuum of care. Soccer is a frequently played sport, and head injuries are common. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes themselves have a solid understanding of head injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options. The purpose of this article was to provide rehabilitation nurses with current information regarding frequently occurring head injuries in the widespread sport of soccer. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  14. Soccer injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  15. Washing Machine Injuries of the Upper Extremity: Case reports with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S S

    2008-03-01

    Washing machines are part of every household and there are various reports of upper extremity injuries due to inadequate safety precautions while operating the machine. Most of the injuries occur when an attempt is made to remove the clothes from the machine and the hand gets caught in the spinning machine. The presentation can vary from minor soft tissue injuries to a mangled upper extremity. The chance of neurovascular damage resulting in compartment syndrome is very high. The author reports three cases of washing machine injuries to draw attention to this not so uncommon injury. The relevant literature is also considered.

  16. Injuries in Competitive Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, J T

    1981-05-01

    In brief: There are relatively few injuries in competitive cycling, and abrasions are the most common. In this study most injuries occurred to the left side of the cyclist, and most common causes were flat tires and colliding with other cyclists. The number of injuries decreased as the cyclist gained more experience. Preventive measures include keeping the bicycle in top mechanical condition, wearing strong, durable clothing and a helmet, and knowing how to fall.

  17. Muscle injuries: optimising recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Tero A H; Järvinen, Teppo L N; Kääriäinen, Minna; Aärimaa, Ville; Vaittinen, Samuli; Kalimo, Hannu; Järvinen, Markku

    2007-04-01

    Muscle injuries are one of the most common traumas occurring in sports. Despite their clinical importance, there are only a few clinical studies on the treatment of muscle injuries. Lack of clinical studies is most probably attributable to the fact that there is not only a high heterogeneity in the severity of injuries, but also the injuries take place in different muscles, making it very demanding to carry out clinical trials. Accordingly, the current treatment principles of muscle injuries have either been derived from experimental studies or been tested empirically only. Clinically, first aid for muscle injuries follows the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) principle. The objective of RICE is to stop the injury-induced bleeding into the muscle tissue and thereby minimise the extent of the injury. Clinical examination should be carried out immediately after the injury and 5-7 days after the initial trauma, at which point the severity of the injury can be assessed more reliably. At that time, a more detailed characterisation of the injury can be made using imaging diagnostic modalities (ultrasound or MRI) if desired. The treatment of injured skeletal muscle should be carried out by immediate immobilisation of the injured muscle (clinically, relative immobility/avoidance of muscle contractions). However, the duration of immobilisation should be limited to a period sufficient to produce a scar of sufficient strength to bear the forces induced by remobilisation without re-rupture and the return to activity (mobilisation) should then be started gradually within the limits of pain. Early return to activity is needed to optimise the regeneration of healing muscle and recovery of the flexibility and strength of the injured skeletal muscle to pre-injury levels. The rehabilitation programme should be built around progressive agility and trunk stabilisation exercises, as these exercises seem to yield better outcome for injured skeletal muscle than programmes based

  18. A Clinical Perspective and Definition of Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzer, Ryan M

    2016-04-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be complete or incomplete. The level of injury in SCI is defined as the most caudal segment with motor function rated at greater than or equal to 3/5, with pain and temperature preserved. The standard neurological classification of SCI provided by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) assigns grades from ASIA A (complete SCI) through ASIA E (normal sensory/motor), with B, C, and D representing varying degrees of injury between these extremes. The most common causes of SCI include trauma (motor vehicle accidents, sports, violence, falls), degenerative spinal disease, vascular injury (anterior spinal artery syndrome, epidural hematoma), tumor, infection (epidural abscess), and demyelinating processes (). (SDC Figure 1, http://links.lww.com/BRS/B91)(Figure is included in full-text article.).

  19. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  20. Driver Injury Risk Variability in Finite Element Reconstructions of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) Frontal Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaewsky, James P; Weaver, Ashley A; Koya, Bharath; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    A 3-phase real-world motor vehicle crash (MVC) reconstruction method was developed to analyze injury variability as a function of precrash occupant position for 2 full-frontal Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) cases. Phase I: A finite element (FE) simplified vehicle model (SVM) was developed and tuned to mimic the frontal crash characteristics of the CIREN case vehicle (Camry or Cobalt) using frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test data. Phase II: The Toyota HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) v4.01 was positioned in 120 precrash configurations per case within the SVM. Five occupant positioning variables were varied using a Latin hypercube design of experiments: seat track position, seat back angle, D-ring height, steering column angle, and steering column telescoping position. An additional baseline simulation was performed that aimed to match the precrash occupant position documented in CIREN for each case. Phase III: FE simulations were then performed using kinematic boundary conditions from each vehicle's event data recorder (EDR). HIC15, combined thoracic index (CTI), femur forces, and strain-based injury metrics in the lung and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated to predict injury. Tuning the SVM to specific vehicle models resulted in close matches between simulated and test injury metric data, allowing the tuned SVM to be used in each case reconstruction with EDR-derived boundary conditions. Simulations with the most rearward seats and reclined seat backs had the greatest HIC15, head injury risk, CTI, and chest injury risk. Calculated injury risks for the head, chest, and femur closely correlated to the CIREN occupant injury patterns. CTI in the Camry case yielded a 54% probability of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ chest injury in the baseline case simulation and ranged from 34 to 88% (mean = 61%) risk in the least and most dangerous occupant positions. The greater than 50% probability was consistent with the case occupant's AIS 2

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation Psychological Realities ... play_arrow What factors are important in choosing a rehabilitation facility after ...

  2. Imaging of Physeal Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawetz, Shari T.; Shah, Parina H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: As the intensity of youth participation in athletic activities continues to rise, the number of overuse injuries has also increased. A subset of overuse injuries involves the physis, which is extremely susceptible to injury. This paper aims to review the utility of the various imaging modalities in the diagnosis and management of physeal injuries in the skeletally immature population. Evidence Acquisition: A search for the keywords pediatric, physis, growth plate, x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and overuse injury was performed using the PubMed database. No limits were set for the years of publication. Articles were reviewed for relevance with an emphasis on the imaging of growth plate injuries. Study Design: Retrospective literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Three major imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) complement each other in the evaluation of pediatric patients with overuse injuries. However, magnetic resonance imaging is the only modality that offers direct visualization of the physis, and it also offers the best soft tissue contrast for evaluating the other periarticular structures for concomitant injury. Conclusion: Imaging has an important role in the diagnosis of physeal injuries, and the information it provides has a tremendous impact on the subsequent management of these patients. PMID:25984260

  3. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  4. Spinal injuries in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

    2009-02-01

    Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury.

  5. Injury profile and injury risk factors in junior tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelm, Nina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to prospectively study injuries sustained by a cohort of junior players at all levels in a typical tennis club with respect to gender, anatomic location of injuries, type of injuries, and their degree of severity as well as cause of injuries, injury occasion and time of the year when injured. A further aim was to evaluate potential intrinsic as well as extrinsic injury risk factors in the same junior tennis players. All 12-18 year...

  6. Furniture injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin H; Adams, Susan; Holland, Andrew J A

    2009-09-01

    To determine the incidence, type and severity of furniture-related injuries in children in the Sydney region. Retrospective analysis of presentations to the emergency departments of two paediatric tertiary hospitals in Sydney over a 4-year period from January 2000 to December 2003 with furniture-related injuries. Deaths of children because of furniture-related injuries reported to the Coroner, from 2000-2002, were also reviewed. The main outcome measures were circumstances of injury, type and number of injuries, morbidity, and mortality. 52 children presented with furniture-related injuries. The median age was 2.5 years (range 9 months-15 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 3:2. Falling televisions accounted for 22 (42%) of the injuries. Median Injury Severity Score was 1 (range 1-25). One child died. The most common regions injured were the limbs and the head. Thirty-one children (60%) required medical imaging, 28 (54%) required admission to hospital and 6 were allowed home in under 12 h. Of the 22 patients admitted for longer than 12 h, 14% required intensive care. Median length of stay was 1 day (range 0-15 days). Eighteen patients (35%) suffered scarring or long-term limitations as a result of their injuries. From 2000 to 2002 there were four additional deaths in NSW because of furniture-related injuries, two because of a falling television. Furniture-related injuries represent a cause of serious trauma and death in Australian children. There remains a need for the stability and security of televisions and large furniture items to be improved.

  7. War liver injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Nebojša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To provide a retrospective analysis of our results and experience in primary surgical treatment of subjects with war liver injuries. Methods. From July 1991 to December 1999, 204 subjects with war liver injuries were treated. A total of 82.8% of the injured were with the liver injuries combined with the injuries of other organs. In 93.7%, the injuries were caused by fragments of explosive devices or bullets of various calibers. In 140 (68.6% of the injured there were minor lesions (grade I to II, treated with simple repair or drainage. There were complex injuries of the liver (grade III-V in 64 (31.4% of the injured. Those injuries required complex repair (hepatorrhaphy, hepatotomy, resection debridement, resection, packing alone. The technique of perihepatic packing and planned reoperation had a crucial and life-saving role when severe bleeding was present. Routine peritoneal drainage was applied in all of the injured. Primary management of 74.0% of the injured was performed in war hospitals. Results. After primary treatment, 72 (35.3% of the injured were with postoperative complications. Reoperation was done in 66 injured. Total mortality rate in 204 injured was 18.1%. All the deceased had significant combined injuries. Mortality rates due to the liver injury of the grade III, IV and V were 16.6%, 70.0% and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion. Complex liver injuries caused very high mortality rate and the management of the injured was delicate under war circumstances (if the injured reached the hospital alive. Our experience under war circumstances and with war surgeons of limited knowledge of the liver surgery and war surgery, confirmed that it was necessary to apply compressive abdominal packing alone or in combination with other techniques for hemostasis in the treatment of liver injuries grade III-V, resuscitation and rapid transportation to specialized hospitals.

  8. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  9. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... to Safer Champagne Celebrations Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Reconociendo las Lesiones de los ...

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... knee. It prevents the knee from bending out. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is in the middle of the knee. ...

  11. What Is Spinal Cord Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... degrees of incomplete injury. 1 The closer the spinal injury is to the skull, the more extensive is ... 3 National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Spinal cord injury: Hope through research. Retrieved June 19 , 2013 , from ...

  12. High School Football Injury Rates and Services by Athletic Trainer Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Lynall, Robert C; Mauntel, Timothy C; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Reported injury rates and services in sports injury surveillance may be influenced by the employment setting of the certified athletic trainers (ATs) reporting these data. To determine whether injury rates and the average number of AT services per injury in high school football varied by AT employment status. Cross-sectional study. We used data from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network and surveyed ATs about their employment setting. Forty-four responding ATs (37.9% of all National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network participants) worked at high schools with football programs and were included in this study. Fourteen ATs were full-time employees of the high school, and 30 ATs were employed as outreach ATs (i.e., full-time and part-time ATs from nearby clinics, hospitals, and graduate school programs). We calculated injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures and average number of AT services per injury. Reported injury rates and services per injury were greater among full-time school employees compared with outreach ATs. However, injury rates did not differ when restricted to time-loss injuries only. Our findings suggest that ATs who are full-time school employees may be able to identify and care for more patients with injuries.

  13. Pediatric inhalation injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Soman

    2017-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury can cause severe physiologic perturbations. In pediatric patients, these perturbations cause profound changes in cardiac and pulmonary physiology. In this review, we examine the pathology, early management options, ventilator strategy, and long-term outcomes in pediatric patients who have suffered a smoke inhalation injury.

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions ... PhD Michelle Meade, PhD Jonathon Rose, PhD The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS ...

  15. Knee injuries in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6. Arnanson A, Gudmundsson A, Dahl HA. Soccer injuries in Iceland. Scand J Med Sci. Sport 1996; 6: 40-45. 7. Hawkins R, Fuller CW. An examination of the frequency and severity of injuries and incidents at three levels of professional football. Br J. Sports Med 1998; 32: 326-333. 8. Luthje P, NurmiI, Kataja M. Epidemiology.

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the Patient After Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ...

  17. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runne...

  18. Running Injury Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Johansen, Karen; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runne...

  19. [Anterior cruciate ligament injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Amir; Pritsch, Tamir; Yosepov, Lior; Arbel, Ron

    2006-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common, especially in young individuals who participate in sports activities associated with pivoting, decelerating and jumping. About 70% of ACL injuries do not result from direct contact. Establishing risk factors is important for prevention strategies. Risk factors for ACL injuries include environmental factors (e.g. high level of friction between shoes and the playing surface) and anatomical factors (e.g. narrow femoral intercondylar notch and increased joint laxity). History taking and physical examination provide the basis for diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly sensitive and specific and provides information about associated injuries such as meniscal tears. ACL-injury leads to knee instability which is associated with both acute dysfunction and long-term degenerative changes, such as osteoarthritis and meniscal damage. Surgical treatment of ACL-tears is effective in regard to short term rehabilitation but does not necessarily alter the natural course of this injury and its long-term complications. Therefore, surgical treatment should be reserved primarily for young individuals and for those who are high risk for ACL injury. ACL reconstruction is the standard surgery; however, a wide variety of reconstruction procedures is available and a gold standard procedure has not been defined. Nevertheless, arthroscopic reconstruction with either bone-patellar tendon-bone or a hamstring tendon graft is the most widely used method. Surgical timing is important. Early surgical intervention (i.e. within 4 weeks of injury) might increase complications.

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago play_arrow What is ... What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising new ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog Videos By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord injuries Peer Counseling 312-284- ... of Use FacingDisability.com is an informational and support website for families facing spinal cord injuries. The website does not ...

  2. Axillary nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, G S

    1999-11-01

    Axillary nerve injury remains the most common peripheral nerve injury to affect the shoulder. It most often is seen after glenohumeral joint dislocation, proximal humerus fracture, or a direct blow to the deltoid muscle. Compression neuropathy has been reported to occur in the quadrilateral space syndrome, although the true pathophysiology of this disorder remains unclear. The axillary nerve is vulnerable during any operative procedure involving the inferior aspect of the shoulder and iatrogenic injury remains a serious complication of shoulder surgery. During the acute phase of injury, the shoulder should be rested, and when clinically indicated, a patient should undergo an extensive rehabilitation program emphasizing range of motion and strengthening of the shoulder girdle muscles. If no axillary nerve recovery is observed by 3 to 6 months after injury, surgical exploration may be indicated, especially if the mechanism of injury is consistent with nerve rupture. Patients who sustain injury to the axillary nerve have a variable prognosis for nerve recovery although return of function of the involved shoulder typically is good to excellent, depending on associated ligamentous or bony injury.

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the Patient After Spinal Cord Injury ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN ...

  4. Healing of Genital Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  5. Fatal Injuries in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid S. Khodasevich; Aleksei L. Khodasevich; Sergei G. Kuzin

    2013-01-01

    The literary review, related to fatal injuries in sports, contains epidemiology, their mechanisms, causes of death in sports. Injuries in different sports have their own features, concerned with sports equipment, performed exercises, sports facilities equipment and protective equipment, used by the athletes.

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal ...

  7. Ocular-Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    done on the 2nd day. There was mild corneal oedema with haemosiderin stain; the iris was visible, and a small clot hyphaema was left in the pupillary axis. IOP measured 15mmHg in the last follow-up. He was discharged within 1 week after operation. VA at discharge was NLP. The injury was classified as a contusion injury ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the Patient After Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ...

  9. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Exposure to competitive football is increasing among male youth football players in Nigeria. However, medical support to abate the impact of injuries appears inadequate and there is limited literature to show whether youth football players are knowledgeable about, and practise effective measures for injury ...

  10. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  11. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very high risk. This includes boxing, wrestling, and martial arts.There are several types of common eye injuries in sports.Blunt trauma injuries. These occur when something or someone hits you in or around your eye. A black eye is bruising of your eye, eyelid, or ...

  12. Using injury severity to improve occupational injury trend estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jeanne M; Bowman, Stephen M; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah

    2014-08-01

    Hospitalization-based estimates of trends in injury incidence are also affected by trends in health care practices and payer coverage that may differentially impact minor injuries. This study assessed whether implementing a severity threshold would improve occupational injury surveillance. Hospital discharge data from four states and a national survey were used to identify traumatic injuries (1998-2009). Negative binomial regression was used to model injury trends with/without severity restriction, and to test trend divergence by severity. Trend estimates were generally biased downward in the absence of severity restriction, more so for occupational than non-occupational injuries. Restriction to severe injuries provided a markedly different overall picture of trends. Severity restriction may improve occupational injury trend estimates by reducing temporal biases such as increasingly restrictive hospital admission practices, constricting workers' compensation coverage, and decreasing identification/reporting of minor work-related injuries. Injury severity measures should be developed for occupational injury surveillance systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. BORDERLINE INDUSTRIAL INJURIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barritt, J. L.

    1958-01-01

    Sometimes in cases of injury in which a claim for compensation is made on the basis that the injury is attributable to the claimant's work, the etiology is not clear cut. Such injuries tend to merge with and to overlap non-industrial ailments. This presentation deals with some of the more troublesome conditions of this order—among them chondromalacia of the patella, causalgia, Sudek's atrophy, shoulder-hand syndrome, whiplash injury, tenosynovitis, epicondylitis, acoustic trauma and acute coronary occlusion. Often in these conditions, it is almost impossible to determine accurately how much or how little of the associated disability is attributable to industrial cause. In most of them, however, early diagnosis and sympathetic management of injury when it does occur, are of great help in determining compensability and in returning the employe to suitable work. PMID:13608299

  14. Trampoline injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, C; Quinlan, J F; Kelly, I P

    2006-06-01

    We reviewed the records of children referred to our hospital between April and September 2005 who had been injured whilst trampolining. Of 88 such children there were 33 boys and 55 girls with a mean age of 8 years 6 months (2 years 4 months to 15 years 9 months). Most of the injuries (53; 60%) occurred when bouncing and 34 (39%) were secondary to falls from the trampoline. The cause of injury was unknown in one child. The injured child was supervised in only 35 cases (40%). In 31 (35%) cases, the injury was related to the presence of others on the trampoline. A total of 36 (40%) children required surgery. Fractures of the upper limbs occurred in 62 cases (70%). Injuries related to the recreational use of trampolines are a significant cause of childhood injury. Our results suggest strongly that there is a need for clear guidelines on safe and responsible use of domestic trampolines.

  15. Injuries among amateur runners☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Mariana Korbage; Baeza, Ricardo Maletta; Zalada, Sandro Ricardo Benites; Alves, Pedro Benzam Rodrigues; de Mattos, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency and severity of injuries that affect amateur runners. Methods This study was conducted by means of a questionnaire applied to 204 amateur runners. Individuals who were under the age of 18 years and those who were unpracticed runners were excluded. The data gathered comprised the number, type, site and degree of severity of the injuries and the individuals’ age and sex. Results It was observed that male athletes predominated. The mean age was 32.6 ± 9.3 years with a range from 18 to 68 years, and the injuries were classified as mild, keeping the athlete away from practicing running for fewer than eight days. Sprains, blisters and abrasions were the most frequent injuries, located most often on the lower limbs and predominantly on the feet. Conclusion In practicing running, sprains, blisters and abrasions occur frequently, but are mild injuries. They mostly affect the lower limbs. PMID:26535199

  16. Injuries among amateur runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Mariana Korbage; Baeza, Ricardo Maletta; Zalada, Sandro Ricardo Benites; Alves, Pedro Benzam Rodrigues; de Mattos, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency and severity of injuries that affect amateur runners. This study was conducted by means of a questionnaire applied to 204 amateur runners. Individuals who were under the age of 18 years and those who were unpracticed runners were excluded. The data gathered comprised the number, type, site and degree of severity of the injuries and the individuals' age and sex. It was observed that male athletes predominated. The mean age was 32.6 ± 9.3 years with a range from 18 to 68 years, and the injuries were classified as mild, keeping the athlete away from practicing running for fewer than eight days. Sprains, blisters and abrasions were the most frequent injuries, located most often on the lower limbs and predominantly on the feet. In practicing running, sprains, blisters and abrasions occur frequently, but are mild injuries. They mostly affect the lower limbs.

  17. Tooth injury in anaesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, José Miguel Brandão Ribeiro; Mourão, Joana Irene de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Dental injury is the most common complication of general anaesthesia and has significant physical, economic and forensic consequences. The aim of this study is to review on the characteristics of dental injury associated with anaesthesiology and existing methods of prevention. In this review, the time of anaesthesia in which the dental injury occurs, the affected teeth, the most frequent type of injury, established risk factors, prevention strategies, protection devices and medico-legal implications inherent to its occurrence are approached. Before initiating any medical procedure that requires the use of classic laryngoscopy, a thorough and detailed pre-aesthetic evaluation of the dental status of the patient is imperative, in order to identify teeth at risk, analyze the presence of factors associated with difficult intubation and outline a prevention strategy that is tailored to the risk of dental injury of each patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Tooth injury in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Brandão Ribeiro de Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dental injury is the most common complication of general anaesthesia and has significant physical, economic and forensic consequences. The aim of this study is to review on the characteristics of dental injury associated with anaesthesiology and existing methods of prevention. CONTENTS: In this review, the time of anaesthesia in which the dental injury occurs, the affected teeth, the most frequent type of injury, established risk factors, prevention strategies, protection devices and medico-legal implications inherent to its occurrence are approached. CONCLUSIONS: Before initiating any medical procedure that requires the use of classic laryngoscopy, a thorough and detailed pre-aesthetic evaluation of the dental status of the patient is imperative, in order to identify teeth at risk, analyze the presence of factors associated with difficult intubation and outline a prevention strategy that is tailored to the risk of dental injury of each patient.

  19. [Tooth injury in anaesthesiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão Ribeiro de Sousa, José Miguel; de Barros Mourão, Joana Irene

    2015-01-01

    Dental injury is the most common complication of general anaesthesia and has significant physical, economic and forensic consequences. The aim of this study is to review on the characteristics of dental injury associated with anaesthesiology and existing methods of prevention. In this review, the time of anaesthesia in which the dental injury occurs, the affected teeth, the most frequent type of injury, established risk factors, prevention strategies, protection devices and medico-legal implications inherent to its occurrence are approached. Before initiating any medical procedure that requires the use of classic laryngoscopy, a thorough and detailed pre-aesthetic evaluation of the dental status of the patient is imperative, in order to identify teeth at risk, analyze the presence of factors associated with difficult intubation and outline a prevention strategy that is tailored to the risk of dental injury of each patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Taser penetrating ocular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Weng; Chehade, Mark

    2005-04-01

    To describe the presentation and treatment of a Taser penetrating ocular injury. Case report. A 50-year-old man with a Taser injury 1.5 cm below the right lower eyelid margin was admitted to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital. The case report describes the ophthalmic assessment, investigation, treatment, and outcome of the Taser barb penetrating ocular injury. The Taser has a fish hook barb that caused a full-thickness wound adequately large for vitreous to escape when the Taser was removed. Consequently, the scleral wound was repaired and cryopexy was performed. The affected eye made a satisfactory recovery, and the visual acuity was 6/9 with a pinhole 1 week after operation. Any Taser injury around the orbits should raise the suspicion of a penetrating ocular injury. In likely cases, removal of the Taser should be performed in an operating theater under general anesthesia.

  1. Modern sports eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-11-01

    To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained paintball players. Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory.

  2. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Pediatric Athletes Presenting to Sports Medicine Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Stein, Cynthia J.; Zurakowski, David; Meehan, William P.; Myer, Gregory D; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limited data exist regarding the effect of the growth process on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in male versus female children. Hypothesis: The proportion of ACL injuries/sports injuries presenting to clinic will vary by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Study Design: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: The study group consisted of a randomly selected 5% probability sample of all children 5 to 17 years of age presenting to a s...

  3. Global childhood unintentional injury study: multisite surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Siran; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Amar-Singh; Zia, Nukhba; Hyder, Adnan A

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to analyze the epidemiology of childhood unintentional injuries presenting to hospitals in 5 select sites in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, Malaysia, and Pakistan). We collected standardized data from children ages 0 to 12 years at participating emergency departments (EDs) in 2007. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the characteristics of these injuries and to explore the determinants of injury outcomes. Among 2686 injured children, falls (50.4%) and road traffic injuries (16.4%) were the most common, affecting boys more often (64.7%). Home injuries were more common among younger children (average 5.41 vs 7.06 years) and girls (38.2% vs 31.7%). Following an ED visit, 24% of injured children were admitted to the hospital, and 6 died. Injury outcomes were associated with risk factors, such as age and sex, to varying extents. Standardized ED surveillance revealed unintentional injuries are a threat to child health. The majority of events took place inside the home, challenging traditional concepts of children's safety and underscoring the need for intensified context-appropriate injury prevention.

  4. Current Approaches to the Treatment of Head Injury in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Fen Hu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Head trauma is one of the most challenging fields of traumatology and demands immediate attention and intervention by first-line clinicians. Symptoms can vary from victim to victim and according to the victim's age, leading to difficulties in making timely and accurate decisions at the point of care. In children, falls, accidents while playing, sports injuries, and abuse are the major causes of head trauma. Traffic accidents are the main cause of disability and death in adolescents and adults. Injury sites include facial bones, muscles, ligaments, vessels, joints, nerves, and focal or whole-brain injuries. Of particular importance are cranial and intracranial injuries. A closed injury occurs when the head suddenly and violently hits an object but the object does not break through the skull. A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the skull and affects the brain tissue. Early diagnosis and proper management are crucial to treat patients with potentially life-threatening head and neck trauma. In this review, we discuss the different cases of traumatic brain injury and summarize the current therapies and neuroprotective strategies as well as the related outcomes for children with traumatic brain injury.

  5. Pattern of Assault-induced Oral and Maxillofacial Injuries in Ado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The etiology of maxillofacial injuries varies from one country to another and even within the same country depending on the prevailing socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental factors.[1-4] Road traffic crashes (RTC), assaults, sports, falls occupational hazards are documented causes of oral and maxillofacial injuries.

  6. Burn injury during long-term oxygen therapy in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanash, Hanan A; Ringbaek, Thomas; Huss, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) increases life expectancy in patients with COPD and severe hypoxemia. Smoking is the main cause of burn injury during LTOT. Policy regarding smoking while on LTOT varies between countries. In this study, we compare the incidence of burn injury...

  7. Pattern of injuries at the emergency unit of a Federal Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traumatic injuries are on the increase in many of our hospitals with varying aetiology, severity and mode of presentation. This study therefore, aimed to appraise the various types of injuries seen and attended to at the emergency unit of the study centre. Method This was a prospective cross-sectional study ...

  8. Scarf-related injuries at a major trauma center in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritish Singh

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Scarf-related injuries constitute a sizable proportion of trauma, with varying degrees of severity. Devastating consequences in significant proportion of cases dictate the call for a prevention plan comprising both educational and legislative measures. Urgent preventive measures targeting scarf-related injuries will help reduce mortality and morbidity.

  9. Sport injuries in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin

    2011-09-06

    In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports.It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  10. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  11. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID

  12. Health burden of serious road injuries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, W; Bos, N; Stipdonk, H

    2016-11-16

    The consequences of injuries in terms of disabilities and health burden are relevant for policy making. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge on this topic and discusses the health burden of serious road injuries in The Netherlands. The overview of current knowledge on disabilities following a road crash is based on a literature review. The health burden of serious road injuries is quantified in terms of years lived with disability (YLD), by combining incidence data from the Dutch hospital discharge register with information about temporary and lifelong disability. Literature shows that road traffic injuries can have a major impact on victims' physical and psychological well-being and functioning. Reported proportions of people with disability vary between 11 and 80% depending on the type of casualties, time elapsed since the crash, and the health impacts considered. Together, all casualties involving serious injuries in The Netherlands in 2009 account for about 38,000 YLD, compared to 25,000 years of life lost (YLL) of fatalities. Ninety percent of the burden of injury is due to lifelong consequences that are experienced by 20% of all those seriously injured in road accidents. Lower leg injuries and head injuries represent a high share in the total burden of injury as have cyclists that are injured in a crash without a motorized vehicle. Pedestrians and powered 2-wheeler users show the highest burden of injury per casualty. Given their major impacts and contribution to health burden, road policy making should also be aimed at reducing the number of serious road injuries and limiting the resulting health impacts.

  13. Blunt abdominal aortic injury: a Western Trauma Association multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalhub, Sherene; Starnes, Benjamin W; Brenner, Megan L; Biffl, Walter L; Azizzadeh, Ali; Inaba, Kenji; Skiada, Dimitra; Zarzaur, Ben; Nawaf, Cayce; Eriksson, Evert A; Fakhry, Samir M; Paul, Jasmeet S; Kaups, Krista L; Ciesla, David J; Todd, S Rob; Seamon, Mark J; Capano-Wehrle, Lisa M; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Kozar, Rosemary A

    2014-12-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic injury (BAAI) is a rare injury. The objective of the current study was to examine the presentation and management of BAAI at a multi-institutional level. The Western Trauma Association Multi-Center Trials conducted a study of BAAI from 1996 to 2011. Data collected included demographics, injury mechanism, associated injuries, interventions, and complications. Of 392,315 blunt trauma patients, 113 (0.03%) presented with BAAI at 12 major trauma centers (67% male; median age, 38 years; range, 6-88; median Injury Severity Score [ISS], 34; range, 16-75). The leading cause of injury was motor vehicle collisions (60%). Hypotension was documented in 47% of the cases. The most commonly associated injuries were spine fractures (44%) and pneumothorax/hemothorax (42%). Solid organ, small bowel, and large bowel injuries occurred in 38%, 35%, and 28% respectively. BAAI presented as free aortic rupture (32%), pseudoaneurysm (16%), and injuries without aortic external contour abnormality on computed tomography such as large intimal flaps (34%) or intimal tears (18%). Open and endovascular repairs were undertaken as first-choice therapy in 43% and 15% of cases, respectively. Choice of management varied by type of BAAI: 89% of intimal tears were managed nonoperatively, and 96% of aortic ruptures were treated with open repair. Overall mortality was 39%, the majority (68%) occurring in the first 24 hours because of hemorrhage or cardiac arrest. The highest mortality was associated with Zone II aortic ruptures (92%). Follow-up was documented in 38% of live discharges. This is the largest BAAI series reported to date. BAAI presents as a spectrum of injury ranging from minimal aortic injury to aortic rupture. Nonoperative management is successful in uncomplicated cases without external aortic contour abnormality on computed tomography. Highest mortality occurred in free aortic ruptures, suggesting that alternative measures of early noncompressible torso hemorrhage

  14. Time Frequency Features of Rotor Systems with Slowly Varying Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the analytic method and numerical method respectively, the asymptotic solutions and finite element model of rotor system with single slowly varying mass is obtained to investigate the time frequency features of such rotor system; furthermore, with given model of slowly varying mass, the rotor system with dual slowly varying mass is studied. For the first order approximate solution is used, there exists difference between the results with analytic method and numerical method. On the base of common characteristics of rotor system with dual slowly varying mass, the general rules and formula describing the frequency distribution of rotor system with multiple slowly varying mass are proposed.

  15. Skiing and snowboarding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Brent

    2005-01-01

    To critically examine the literature on skiing and snowboarding injuries in children and adolescents. Searched English language articles from: Medline, SPORTDiscus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Current Contents, and HealthSTAR. The table of contents for Ski Trauma and Skiing Safety Series published by the American Society for Testing and Materials were also examined. MeSH headings included: Sports, Athletic Injuries, and Accidents. Keywords used within these headings were Skiing and/or Snowboarding with focus on children, adolescents, youth, students, or age group-related comparisons. The patterns and rates of injury differed markedly by activity and study design. Most studies were case-series investigations providing little useful information on risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors included: lower ability, younger age, past injury, and female sex. Extrinsic risk factors were improper binding adjustment, no helmet, certain slope characteristics, and no wrist guards. The literature on the effect of activity, equipment ownership and lessons on injury risk was equivocal. Suggestions for injury prevention include the use of helmets and wrist guards, participation on appropriate runs for ability level, proper fit and adjustment of bindings and other equipment, and taking lessons with the goal of increasing ability and learning hill etiquette. Many areas requiring further research are identified and discussed. New methodological approaches hold promise in advancing the field of ski and snowboard injury research.

  16. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  17. Ocular Paintball Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Arie Y; Asalee, Leena; Lang, Yaron; Briscoe, Daniel; Assia, Ehud I

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most alarming ocular injury trends in recent years has been the proliferation of paintball guns and the proportional increase in the number of ocular eye injuries caused by paintballs. To describe five cases of paintball eye injuries that resulted in loss of functional vision in four of them. We conducted a retrospective review of the clinical course in five patients with paintball eye injuries treated in the ophthalmology departments of two medical centers. Five young males were evaluated for paintball injuries caused by blunt trauma. There was one case of full-thickness laceration (globe rupture). Four patients required one to five surgical interventions: three of these involved the removal of traumatic cataract including two eyes with significant zonular dehiscence treated by lens capsule conservation using anchoring devices, one retinal surgery and two glaucoma filtration surgeries. However, final visual outcome was not favorable due to irreversible retinal damage. Paintball trauma often results in significant ocular injury and loss of functional vision despite successful surgical intervention. Most injuries occur in under-supervised settings and are easily preventable. Improved safety measures, strict regulation enforcement and appropriate public education could prevent such serious damage.

  18. Weight change after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Danielle; Affuso, Olivia; Chen, Yuying

    2017-03-01

    To study the patterns of weight change after spinal cord injury (SCI) and identify associated risk factors. Cohort study. Sixteen Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems (SCIMS), USA. One thousand and ninety-four individuals with an SCI who were entered into the SCIMS and had a 1-year follow-up between October 2006 and November 2012. Not applicable. Change in body mass index (BMI) during the first year of injury. Height and weight were assessed during inpatient rehabilitation and 1 year after injury. Mean BMI decreased from 26.3 to 25.8 kg/m² during the first year after SCI (mean change: -0.5 kg/m² (standard deviation: 3.58)). Weight loss was mainly observed among individuals classified as overweight or obese during rehabilitation (n  =  576) with a BMI decrease of 1.4 kg/m², which varied significantly by sex, education, neurological level, and the presence of vertebral injury. Weight gain was noted among individuals classified as underweight or normal weight during rehabilitation (n = 518) with a BMI increase of 0.5 kg/m², with the greatest increase among individuals of Hispanic origin (1.2 kg/m²), other marital status (1.2 kg/m²), age group 31-45 years (1.1 kg/m²), with less than high school education (1.1 kg/m²), without spinal surgery (0.9 kg/m²), and with motor functionally incomplete injury (0.8 kg/m²). Our findings suggest that strategies for weight management should be addressed after a SCI to ameliorate the potential for unhealthful weight change, particularly among at-risk groups.

  19. BIRD ATTACK OCULAR INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Behrouz, Mahmoud Jabbarvand

    2017-03-29

    To report 30 patients with bird attack-related eye injuries. This study was performed among patients coming to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2015 with a history of bird attack causing eye injury. The inclusion criteria were a history of bird attack by pecking causing eye injury and having treatment and follow-up record for at least 6 months after treatment. The primary eye examinations included a full ophthalmic examination including evaluation of uncorrected visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior segment slit lamp biomicroscopy, and photography. For all patients with penetrating injury, primary repair was undertaken. Thirty patients (10 females and 20 males) with a mean age of 23.3 ± 18.5 years entered the study. The most common zone of injury was zone 1 (P < 0.001), and lensectomy was not needed in majority of patients (P < 0.001). The most common bird causing the injury was mynah (P < 0.001). Those patients with baseline BCVA of less than 20/200 or those with endophthalmitis had statistically worse final BCVA after treatment. Patients attacked by mynah bird had significantly better pretreatment uncorrected visual acuity and BCVA. The most common bird causing the eye injury among the sample of patients from Iran was mynah, which differs with previous studies indicating the rooster attack as the most common cause of eye injury. The authors also found that the most common zone of injury was zone 1, and the presence of endophthalmitis and lower baseline BCVA were significant risk factors for worse visual outcomes.

  20. Injury prediction in a side impact crash using human body model simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Miller, Logan E; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-03-01

    Improved understanding of the occupant loading conditions in real world crashes is critical for injury prevention and new vehicle design. The purpose of this study was to develop a robust methodology to reconstruct injuries sustained in real world crashes using vehicle and human body finite element models. A real world near-side impact crash was selected from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database. An average sedan was struck at approximately the B-pillar with a 290 degree principal direction of force by a lightweight pickup truck, resulting in a maximum crush of 45 cm and a crash reconstruction derived Delta-V of 28 kph. The belted 73-year-old midsized female driver sustained severe thoracic injuries, serious brain injuries, moderate abdominal injuries, and no pelvic injury. Vehicle finite element models were selected to reconstruct the crash. The bullet vehicle parameters were heuristically optimized to match the crush profile of the simulated struck vehicle and the case vehicle. The Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) midsized male finite element model of the human body was used to represent the case occupant and reconstruct her injuries using the head injury criterion (HIC), half deflection, thoracic trauma index (TTI), and pelvic force to predict injury risk. A variation study was conducted to evaluate the robustness of the injury predictions by varying the bullet vehicle parameters. The THUMS thoracic injury metrics resulted in a calculated risk exceeding 90% for AIS3+ injuries and 70% risk of AIS4+ injuries, consistent with her thoracic injury outcome. The THUMS model predicted seven rib fractures compared to the case occupant's 11 rib fractures, which are both AIS3 injuries. The pelvic injury risk for AIS2+ and AIS3+ injuries were 37% and 2.6%, respectively, consistent with the absence of pelvic injury. The THUMS injury prediction metrics were most sensitive to bullet vehicle location. The maximum 95% confidence interval width

  1. Predicting Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Injury Risk Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    To assess the safety of various products, equipment, and vehicles during traumatic events injury risk curves have been developed correlate measurable parameters with risk of injury. The first risk curves to predict head injuries focused on severe head injuries such as skull fractures. These curves were generated by impacting cadaver heads. To understand the biomechanics of mild traumatic brain injuries, cadaver heads have also been used to monitor pressure and strain in the brain during impac...

  2. SUR1-Associated Mechanisms Are Not Involved in Ischemic Optic Neuropathy 1 Day Post-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, James D; Guo, Yan; Bernstein, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury after central nervous system (CNS) injury presents a major health care challenge with few promising treatments. Recently, it has become possible to reduce edema after CNS injury by antagonizing a sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) regulated ion channel expressed after injury. SUR1 upregulation after injury is a necessary precondition for the formation of this channel, and has been implicated in white matter injury after clinical spinal cord trauma. Glibenclamide, an SUR1 antagonist, appears to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral stroke in an open-label small clinical trial and great effectiveness in reducing damage after varied experimental CNS injury models. Despite its importance in CNS injuries, SUR1 upregulation appears to play no part in rodent anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION) injury as tested by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining of rAION-injured rat optic nerve (ON). Furthermore, the SUR1 antagonist glibenclamide administered immediately after rAION injury provided no protection to proximal ON microvasculature 1 day post-injury but may reduce optic nerve head edema in a manner unrelated to ON SUR1 expression. Our results suggest that there may be fundamental differences between rAION optic nerve ischemia and other CNS white matter injuries where SUR1 appears to play a role.

  3. Robust human body model injury prediction in simulated side impact crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a parametric methodology to robustly predict occupant injuries sustained in real-world crashes using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM). One hundred and twenty near-side impact motor vehicle crashes were simulated over a range of parameters using a Toyota RAV4 (bullet vehicle), Ford Taurus (struck vehicle) FE models and a validated human body model (HBM) Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Three bullet vehicle crash parameters (speed, location and angle) and two occupant parameters (seat position and age) were varied using a Latin hypercube design of Experiments. Four injury metrics (head injury criterion, half deflection, thoracic trauma index and pelvic force) were used to calculate injury risk. Rib fracture prediction and lung strain metrics were also analysed. As hypothesized, bullet speed had the greatest effect on each injury measure. Injury risk was reduced when bullet location was further from the B-pillar or when the bullet angle was more oblique. Age had strong correlation to rib fractures frequency and lung strain severity. The injuries from a real-world crash were predicted using two different methods by (1) subsampling the injury predictors from the 12 best crush profile matching simulations and (2) using regression models. Both injury prediction methods successfully predicted the case occupant's low risk for pelvic injury, high risk for thoracic injury, rib fractures and high lung strains with tight confidence intervals. This parametric methodology was successfully used to explore crash parameter interactions and to robustly predict real-world injuries.

  4. Child injury: using national emergency department monitoring systems to identify temporal and demographic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Karen; McHale, Philip; Wyke, Sacha; Lowey, Helen; Bellis, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Injury is a leading cause of death in children. Emergency department (ED) data offer a potentially rich source of data on child injury. This study uses an emerging national ED data collection system to examine sociodemographics and temporal trends in child injury attendances in England. Cross sectional examination of ED attendances for key injury types made by children aged 0-14 years between April 2010 and March 2011 (road traffic injury (RTI) n=21 670; assault n=9529; deliberate self harm (DSH) n=3066; sports injury n=88 250; burns n=22 222; poisoning n=12 446). Multivariate analyses examined the impact of demographics (age, gender, residential deprivation) and temporal events (day, month, school and public holidays) on risk of attendance for different injury types. For most injury types, attendance increased with deprivation. The attendance ratio between children from the poorest and richest deprivation quintiles was greatest for assaults (4.21:1). Conversely, sports injury attendance decreased with deprivation. Males made more attendances than females for all but DSH. Age and temporal profiles varied by injury type. Assault attendances reduced at weekends while burns attendances increased. RTI and sports injury attendances were increased during school term times. ED data can provide a major epidemiological resource for examining both temporal and demographic risks of child injury. Emerging systems, such as the one analysed here, can already inform the targeting of prevention, and with improved data coding and use, their utility would be greatly strengthened.

  5. Investigating crash injury severity at unsignalized intersections in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Pei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies suggest that more crashes occur due to mixed traffic flow at unsignalized intersections. However, very little is known about the injury severity of these crashes. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate how contributory factors affect crash injury severity at unsignalized intersections. The dataset used for this analysis derived from police crash reports from Dec. 2006 to Apr. 2009 in Heilongjiang Province, China. An ordered probit model was developed to predict the probability that the injury severity of a crash will be one of four levels : no injury, slight injury, severe injury, and fatal injury. The injury severity of a crash was evaluated in terms of the most severe injury sustained by any person involved in the crash. Results from the present study showed that different factors had varying effects on crash injury severity. Factors found to resuit in the increased probability of serious injuries include adverse weather, sideswiping with pedestrians on poor surface, the interaction of rear-ends and the third-class highway, winter night without illumination, and the interaction between traffic signs or markings and the third-class highway. Although there are some limitations in the current study, this study provides more insights into crash injury severity at unsignalized intersections.

  6. Assessment of Oro-Maxillofacial Trauma According to Gender, Age, Cause and Type of the Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siber, Stjepan; Matijević, Marko; Sikora, Miroslav; Leović, Dinko; Mumlek, Ivan; Macan, Darko

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence and causes of maxillofacial trauma varies in different regions of the world. The aim of this study was to identify the occurrence, types and causes of maxillofacial injuries according to the age and gender differences in patients treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Center Osijek, between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 64 patients, 41 males (64.1%) and 23 females (35.9%), aged from 18 to 86 years (mean age 42) participated in the study. Data collected and analyzed included gender, age, cause of injury and the type of maxillofacial injuries. The most common cause of injuries in both gender groups was falling down (39% males; 65% females). The second leading cause of injuries in males was interpersonal violence (29%) and in females traffic accident (26%) (p0.05). The most common causes of injuries in the youngest patients was violence (43%), and in others fall (50-70%; p0.05). The majority of the falls and violence caused bone tissue injuries, and soft tissue and dentalveolar injuries were detected in traffic and sports accidents (p>0.05). Falling down was the most common cause of oro-maxillofacial injuries in both men and women and in all three age groups. The leading type of injury was bone injury. The data obtained from this study provide important information for future prevention from injuries.

  7. Soda pop vending machine injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, M Q

    1988-11-11

    Fifteen male patients, 15 to 24 years of age, sustained injuries after rocking soda machines. The machines fell onto the victims, resulting in a variety of injuries. Three were killed. The remaining 12 required hospitalization for their injuries. Unless changes are made to safeguard these machines, people will continue to suffer severe and possibly fatal injuries from what are largely preventable accidents.

  8. Making sense of lisfranc injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, J Chris

    2008-12-01

    Management of Lisfranc injuries has evoked significant debate and controversy over the years, and there is no indication that the controversy is nearing an end. Probably the main reason for the controversy is because a "Lisfranc injury" is part of a very wide and poorly defined spectrum of injuries. Not all Lisfranc injuries are created equal, and there will never be a single treatment option for all these injuries. Lisfranc injuries are relatively uncommon, but if undetected, untreated or under-treated can cause morbidity and disability. The objective of this article is to provide guidelines for treatment of the spectrum of Lisfranc injuries.

  9. Practical Advice for Teachers and Coaches: Handling Acute Athletic Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kevin; Ormond, Tom; Griffin, Lisa; Maina, Michael; Jones, Christopher; Goldman, Alexander Steven; McMichael, Callaway

    2016-01-01

    Safety concerns are among the first considerations in the design and implementation of any curriculum. However, in the dynamic worlds of physical education and coaching, athletic injuries will inevitably arise, regardless of the proactive strategies in place. These situations will vary in nature, and the student's or athlete's risk of further…

  10. Acute kidney injury following Paraquat poisoning in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Malleshappa

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is highly toxic to human and is widely used in agriculture as a contact herbicide. Paraquat poisoning is associated with high mortality varying from 35% to 50%. Six cases of paraquat poisoning were treated in our center. Acute kidney injury developed in all the cases and mortality was 66%. Respiratory and multiorgan failure are the main causes for mortality.

  11. Burn injuries in Enugu, Nigeria | Jiburum | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Burn injury has been observed as a world wide problem.. The knowledge of the epidemiology is important for planning of management and preventive programmes and every community is encouraged to study the epidemiology of burns since this important problem varies from community to community.

  12. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  16. Chest Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of tissue, lines the inside of the chest cavity. Chest injuries and disorders include Heart diseases Lung diseases and collapsed lung Pleural disorders Esophagus disorders Broken ribs Thoracic aortic aneurysms Disorders of the mediastinum, the space ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ...

  19. Overuse Injury Assessment Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stuhmiller, James

    2004-01-01

    .... Once the intrinsic loads on the skeleton are known for various activities, it is possible to make educated inferences on how different training programs affect skeletal fatigue life, or in other words, the injury rate...

  20. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your child's routine activities, such as a sport , follow up by investing in an ounce of prevention — protective goggles or unbreakable glasses ... Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Eye Injuries Your Child's Vision What ...

  1. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain. If the head injury is very severe, mechanical ventilation may be used. Doctors control blood pressure and minimize the amount of brain swelling by adjusting the amount of intravenous fluids given and sometimes by giving intravenous drugs that ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to experience neuropathic pain after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow What is a “physiatrist”? play_arrow What factors are important in choosing a rehabilitation facility after ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... com is an informational and support website for families facing spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  4. Pediatric head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  5. Automatic transmission vehicle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, M

    1973-04-07

    Four drivers sustained severe injuries when run down by their own automatic cars while adjusting the carburettor or throttle linkages. The transmission had been left in the "Drive" position and the engine was idling. This accident is easily avoidable.

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal ...

  7. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for falling accidents, such as horseback riding and gymnastics. Head injuries include fractures, concussions , contusions (bruises), and hematomas. A hematoma is bleeding or pooling of blood in or around the brain caused by an impact to the head from ...

  8. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  10. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran

    2012-01-01

    .... Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... cord injuries? play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  13. Peroneal Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the type of peroneal tendon injury. Options include: Immobilization. A cast or splint may be used to ... arthritis, gout, tendonitis, fracture, nerve compression (tarsal tunnel syndrome), infection and... Founded in 1942, the American College ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate ... Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What are the chances of regaining feeling and mobility after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How long does it usually take for feeling and movement to return after a spinal cord ...

  16. Birth Injury in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... the bones are very fragile. Injuries to the skin and soft tissues The newborn’s skin may have ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Experiences By Topic Resources Blog Peer ... cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  19. Toe Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause toe problems and pain. Gout often causes pain in the big toe. Common toe problems include Corns and bunions Ingrown toenails Sprains and dislocations Fractures Treatments for toe injuries and ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow ... recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury ...

  2. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering ... Rogers, SW Marguerite David, MSW Kathy Hulse, MSW Physical Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Laura Wehrli, PT ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW ...

  5. Traumatic bronchial injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Cheaito, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: A high level of suspicion and the liberal use of bronchoscopy are important in the diagnosis of tracheobronchial injury. A tailored surgical approach is often necessary for definitive repair.

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, ... not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect ... com is an informational and support website for families facing spinal cord injuries. The website does not ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Forms. FacingDisability.com is an informational and support website for families facing spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse ...

  9. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Binu P.; Raveendran Sreekanth

    2012-01-01

    Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triang...

  10. Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 48-year-old male with unknown past medical history presents as a trauma after being hit by a car traveling approximately 25 miles per hour. On initial presentation, the patient is confused, combative, and not answering questions appropriately. The patient is hypotensive with a blood pressure of 68/40 and a heart rate of 50 beats per minute, with oxygen saturation at 96% on room air. FAST scan is positive for fluid in Morrison’s pouch, splenorenal space, and pericardial space. Significant findings: The initial chest x-ray showed an abnormal superior mediastinal contour (blue line, suggestive of a possible aortic injury. The CT angiogram showed extensive circumferential irregularity and outpouching of the distal aortic arch (red arrows compatible with aortic transection. In addition, there was a circumferential intramural hematoma, which extended through the descending aorta to the proximal infrarenal abdominal aorta (green arrow. There was also an extensive surrounding mediastinal hematoma extending around the descending aorta and supraaortic branches (purple arrows. Discussion: Traumatic aortic injury is a life-threatening event. The incidence of blunt thoracic aortic injury is low, between 1 to 2 percent of those patients with blunt thoracic trauma.1 However, approximately 80% of patients with traumatic aortic injury die at the scene.2 Therefore it is imperative to diagnose traumatic aortic injury in a timely fashion. The diagnosis can be difficult due to the non-specific signs and symptoms and other distracting injuries. Clinical suspicion should be based on the mechanism of the injury and the hemodynamic status of the patient. In any patient with blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest that is hemodynamically unstable, traumatic aortic injury should be on the differential. Chest x-ray can be used as a screening tool. A normal chest x-ray has a negative predictive value of approximately 97%. CTA chest is the

  11. Acute hand injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Yoseph A; Awan, Hisham M

    2017-05-01

    Hand and wrist injuries in athletes are common, representing between 3 and 25% of all sports injuries. As many as a quarter of all sports injuries involve the hand or wrist. We review the recent literature regarding acute hand injuries in athletes based on the structures involved - bone, muscle/tendon, ligament, and neurovascular - including diagnosis and pathophysiology of these injuries, focusing on athlete-specific facets of treatment, and when available, opinions on return to play.

  12. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrino, Francisco Jos?; de la Cuadra, Cr?tida; Guill?n, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Hypothesis Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed betwe...

  13. The Football Association medical research programme: an audit of injuries in academy youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R J; Hawkins, R D; Hulse, M A; Hodson, A

    2004-08-01

    To undertake a prospective epidemiological study of the injuries sustained in English youth academy football over two competitive seasons. Player injuries were annotated by medical staff at 38 English football club youth academies. A specific injury audit questionnaire was used together with a weekly return form that documented each club's current injury status. A total of 3805 injuries were reported over two complete seasons (June to May) with an average injury rate of 0.40 per player per season. The mean (SD) number of days absent for each injury was 21.9 (33.63), with an average of 2.31 (3.66) games missed per injury. The total amount of time absent through injury equated to about 6% of the player's development time. Players in the higher age groups (17-19 years) were more likely to receive an injury than those in the younger age groups (9-16 years). Injury incidence varied throughout the season, with training injuries peaking in January (pthird of each half. Strains (31%) and sprains (20%) were the main injury types, predominantly affecting the lower limb, with a similar proportion of injuries affecting the thigh (19%), ankle (19%), and knee (18%). Growth related conditions, including Sever's disease and Osgood-Schlatter's disease, accounted for 5% of total injuries, peaking in the under 13 age group for Osgood-Schlatter's disease and the under 11 age group for Sever's disease. The rate of re-injury of exactly the same anatomical structure was 3%. Footballers are at high risk of injury and there is a need to investigate ways of reducing this risk. Injury incidence at academy level is approximately half that of the professional game. Academy players probably have much less exposure to injury than their full time counterparts. Areas that warrant further attention include the link between musculoskeletal development and the onset of youth related conditions such as Sever's disease and Osgood-Schlatter's disease, the significant number of non-contact injuries that

  14. Epidemiology of Meniscal Injuries in U.S. High School Athletes from 2007/08 – 2012/13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Joshua; Graham, William; Best, Thomas M.; Collins, Christy; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Flanigan, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Knowledge of epidemiologic trends of meniscal injuries in young active populations is limited. Better awareness of injury patterns is a first step to lowering injury rates. Our hypothesis was that meniscal injuries in high school athletes would vary by gender, sport, and type of exposure. Methods During 2007–2013, a large nationally disperse sample of US high schools reported athlete exposure and injury data for 22 sports by having certified athletic trainers complete an internet-based data collection tool. Results 1,082 meniscal injuries were reported during 21,088,365 athlete-exposures for an overall injury rate of 5.1 per 100,000 athlete exposures. The overall rate of injury was higher in competition (11.9) than practice (2.7) (RR = 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9–5.0), and 12/19 sports showed significantly higher injury rates in competition compared to practice. Of all injuries, 68.0% occurred in boys, yet among the gender-comparable sports of soccer, basketball, track and field, lacrosse, and baseball/softball injury rates were higher for girls than boys (5.5 and 2.5, respectively, RR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8–2.7). Contact injury represented the most common mechanism (55.9%). Surgery was performed for the majority of injuries (63.8%), and 54.0% of athletes had associated intra-articular knee pathology. Conclusions Meniscal injury patterns among high school athletes vary by gender, sport, and type of exposure. Overall rates are higher for boys, but this is driven by football; however in gender-comparable sports girls may be at higher risk for meniscal injury. Our study is clinically relevant because recognition of distinct differences in these injury patterns will help drive evidence-based, targeted injury prevention strategies and efforts. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26506845

  15. Peroxisomes and Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, Radovan

    2016-08-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. The organs with the highest density of peroxisomes are the liver and kidneys. Peroxisomes possess more than fifty enzymes and fulfill a multitude of biological tasks. They actively participate in apoptosis, innate immunity, and inflammation. In recent years, a considerable amount of evidence has been collected to support the involvement of peroxisomes in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. The nature of the two most important peroxisomal tasks, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide turnover, functionally relates peroxisomes to mitochondria. Further support for their communication and cooperation is furnished by the evidence that both organelles share the components of their division machinery. Until recently, the majority of studies on the molecular mechanisms of kidney injury focused primarily on mitochondria and neglected peroxisomes. The aim of this concise review is to introduce the reader to the field of peroxisome biology and to provide an overview of the evidence about the contribution of peroxisomes to the development and progression of kidney injury. The topics of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxin-induced kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as well as the potential therapeutic implications of peroxisome activation, are addressed in this review. Despite recent progress, further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms induced by dysfunctional peroxisomes and the role of the dysregulated mitochondria-peroxisome axis in the pathogenesis of renal injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 217-231.

  16. Alpine skiing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Y

    1989-01-01

    Alpine skiing accidents admitted to the Trondheim Regional and University Hospital during one year were recorded. Of the 339 injured, 67 per cent were male and 33 per cent were female. Eighty-seven per cent were outpatients, and 13 per cent were hospitalized. Falling accidents (67 per cent), followed by collision accidents (17 per cent), were the most common cause of injury. The injuries in the lower extremities were caused by falling and the head injuries were mostly caused by collisions. Knee ligament strains were the most common injuries, and 17 per cent of these were hospitalized and required operative treatment. Of the minor knee strains, all 44 per cent were not fully recovered after two and a half years. Seventeen patients sustained tibial fractures, eleven of them spiral fractures and six transverse fractures. The patients with spiral fractures were younger than the patients with transverse fractures. Head injuries were the most severe injuries, with eleven concussions and two epidural haematomas. PMID:2630001

  17. Ocular injury in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  18. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Granada Winter Universiade 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Vallejo, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz-Márquez, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz-Campos, Adrián; de la Cruz-Campos, Juan Carlos; Pestaña-Melero, Francisco Luis; Carmona-Ruiz, Ginés; Gallo-Galán, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the incidence of diseases and injuries suffered by athletes participating in the 27th Winter Sports Universiade held in Granada, Spain. Methods The daily occurrence of injuries and diseases was registered at the point of first aid (Borreguiles, 2665 metres above sea level (masl)) and in the clinic of Pradollano (2017 masl), both in Sierra Nevada, as well as in medical services provided by the organising committee of Granada 2015 Universiade and located in sport pavilions in which indoor competitions are held. Results A total of 1109 athletes (650 men, 58.61%; 459 women, 41.39%). Nine diseases and 68 injuries were recorded. In total, the rate of injury was 6.13% (7.07% for men and 4.79% for women). The percentage of injury was highest in alpine skiing (10.34%) followed by freestyle skiing (8.62%). In relation to the time of exposure, freestyle skiing showed the shortest time of exposure (0.31 hours) before suffering an injury. Short track speed skating showed the longest exposure (9.80 hours), before suffering an injury. The most common anatomical areas of injury were the head, shoulder and knee (13.23%). Only nine diseases were suffered (four women and five men) of which six were infections, one was a friction burn, one was a lipothymy and one a cluster headache due to height. Conclusion In general, 6.13% of the athletes sustained at least one injury and 0.81% a disease, which is a much lower percentage than that recorded in similar events. The incidence of injuries and diseases varied among sport specialities. PMID:28879023

  20. Lower extremity injuries in snowboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Daichi; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Sumi, Hiroshi; Sumi, Yasuhiko; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2011-03-01

    In snowboarding, the upper extremity is known as the most common injury site and little information is available for lower extremity injuries. Here, we aim to discuss lower extremity injuries during snowboarding. We retrospectively analyzed the epidemiologic factors, injury types, and injury mechanisms for injured snowboarders (7,793 cases) between 2004-2005 and 2008-2009 seasons; information was gathered via questionnaires. Individuals were classified into a lower extremity injury group (961 cases) and a control group with other injuries (6,832 cases). The incidence of lower extremity injuries in snowboarding was 0.16 per 1,000 participant days, accounting for 12.3% of all snowboarding injuries. The mean age of the lower extremity injury group and injured control group was 26.1 years ± 5.9 years and 25.1 years ± 5.6 years, respectively. Approximately 90% of snowboarders in both the groups were equipped with soft-shelled boots. Skilled snowboarders tended to sustain lower extremity injuries (psnowboarding is lacerations/contusions caused by collision with other snow sport participants. Lower extremity injuries in snowboarding differ considerably from well-known upper extremity injuries in terms of injury types and mechanisms. The incidence of lower extremity injuries is high and deserves further attention. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  1. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy after a burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, L; Goris, R J

    1996-06-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a disease that can appear after minor trauma or operation to an extremity. The injury may vary from a simple contusion to a fracture. The prevalence of burns as a cause of RSD, within a population of 829 patients with RSD, was studied retrospectively. Prospectively, we documented the medical history, signs and symptoms of all patients with RSD, seen by our department during the period from January 1984 to 31 December 1994. Four patients had developed RSD after a burn injury, resulting in a prevalence of 0.5 per cent. Though the clinical signs of early RSD are similar to those of a (thermal) burn, alertness to recognize inflammatory signs, in combination with the increase in complaints after exercise, is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment of the complicating RSD.

  2. Estimating varying coefficients for partial differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J

    2017-09-01

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to model complex dynamical systems in multiple dimensions, and their parameters often have important scientific interpretations. In some applications, PDE parameters are not constant but can change depending on the values of covariates, a feature that we call varying coefficients. We propose a parameter cascading method to estimate varying coefficients in PDE models from noisy data. Our estimates of the varying coefficients are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. The performance of our method is evaluated by a simulation study and by an empirical study estimating three varying coefficients in a PDE model arising from LIDAR data. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  3. Methods for time-varying exposure related problems in pharmacoepidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, Laura; Linder, Marie; Zhang, Mingliang

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Lack of control for time-varying exposures can lead to substantial bias in estimates of treatment effects. The aim of this study is to provide an overview and guidance on some of the available methodologies used to address problems related to time-varying exposure and confounding...... pharmacoepidemiological problems, construction of treatment episodes, time-varying confounders, cumulative exposure and latency, and treatment switching. RESULTS: A correct treatment episodes construction is fundamental to avoid bias in treatment effect estimates. Several methods exist to address time-varying covariates...

  4. Audio Effects Based on Biorthogonal Time-Varying Frequency Warping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cavaliere

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate the mathematical background and musical use of a class of audio effects based on frequency warping. These effects alter the frequency content of a signal via spectral mapping. They can be implemented in dispersive tapped delay lines based on a chain of all-pass filters. In a homogeneous line with first-order all-pass sections, the signal formed by the output samples at a given time is related to the input via the Laguerre transform. However, most musical signals require a time-varying frequency modification in order to be properly processed. Vibrato in musical instruments or voice intonation in the case of vocal sounds may be modeled as small and slow pitch variations. Simulation of these effects requires techniques for time-varying pitch and/or brightness modification that are very useful for sound processing. The basis for time-varying frequency warping is a time-varying version of the Laguerre transformation. The corresponding implementation structure is obtained as a dispersive tapped delay line, where each of the frequency dependent delay element has its own phase response. Thus, time-varying warping results in a space-varying, inhomogeneous, propagation structure. We show that time-varying frequency warping is associated to an expansion over biorthogonal sets generalizing the discrete Laguerre basis. Slow time-varying characteristics lead to slowly varying parameter sequences. The corresponding sound transformation does not suffer from discontinuities typical of delay lines based on unit delays.

  5. Injuries to children riding BMX bikes.

    OpenAIRE

    Illingworth, C M

    1984-01-01

    One hundred children presented over 40 days with BMX bike injuries, 40 of which had been sustained while trying to perform stunts. Injuries in this series were compared with previously reported injuries from accidents on ordinary bicycles. BMX bike injuries differed little from ordinary bike injuries except in the greater proportion of injuries due to stunts and the smaller incidence of head injuries.

  6. Incidence, timing and outcome of AKI in critically ill patients varies with the definition used and the addition of urine output criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeze, J.; Keus, F.; Dieperink, W.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; Zijlstra, J. G.; van Meurs, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of critical illness with both attributed morbidity and mortality at short-term and long-term. The incidence of AKI reported in critically ill patients varies substantially with the population evaluated and the definitions used. We aimed

  7. Pediatric trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurson, Conor; Browne, Katherine; Callender, Orla; O'Donnell, Turlough; O'Neill, Anthony; Moore, David P; Fogarty, Esmond E; Dowling, Francis E

    2007-01-01

    The recreational use of trampolines has increased dramatically during the last 10 years. There has been a striking increase in the number of children presenting to fracture clinics with injuries associated with trampoline use. This increase in trampoline injuries has been reported in North America, but there has been a paucity of research in this area in Europe. We prospectively recorded details of patients presenting to our institution, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin (Dublin, Ireland), during the busy summer months of June, July, and August 2005. Details recorded included type and mechanism of injury, the mode of referral, treatment, inpatient days, outpatient visits, specific details relating to trampoline safety, and an analysis of the cost of medical care. There were 101 patients treated for trampoline-related injuries in 3 months from June to August 2005. This represented 1.5% of the total attendances to the emergency department. The average age was 8.5 years (range, 1.4-17.4 years). There were 55 fractures, 38 soft tissue injuries, 5 head injuries, and 5 neck injuries, with an average Pediatric Trauma Score of 11.4. Fifty seven percent (58/101) of patients were on the trampoline with at least 1 other person. Twenty patients (19.8%) were admitted to hospital requiring 71 inpatient days. Twelve patients were treated in theatre. There were 163 fracture clinic visits, 212 x-rays, and 2 magnetic resonance imaging scans. Trampolines are a high-risk activity with the potential for significant orthopaedic injury. In Ireland, we have recently seen a dramatic increase in pediatric trampoline-related injuries mirroring the trend in the United States during the last 10 to 15 years. We found that more than 1 individual on a trampoline is a major risk factor for injury, where the lightest person is 14 times more likely to be injured than the heavier. The lighter person also has a greater chance of being injured with smaller numbers on the trampoline. We reiterate

  8. Causes and outcomes of pediatric injuries occurring at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Scala, C; Gallagher, S S; Schneps, S E

    1997-11-01

    This study examines the causes and outcomes of injuries occurring at school and highlights the need for injury prevention strategies. Descriptive statistics were applied to data from a national pediatric trauma database on 1,558 K-12 graders injured at school severely enough to require hospitalization. Factors analyzed included age, gender, cause, place, time, injured body regions, use of hospital resources, in-hospital fatality rate, and functional limitations. Most injuries were unintentional (89.7%) and occurred mostly to children 10-14 years old. Almost half occurred in recreational areas. Falls and sports were the most frequent causes, but the pattern varied by grade and gender. Most children sustained injuries to the extremities (41.3%) or to the head (39.2%). Two percent sustained spinal cord injuries, mainly from sports. Eight children died, and 43.6% developed one or more functional limitations. Frequent, severe, and costly injuries should be the focus of school safety policies, and a mix of injury prevention strategies should be applied.

  9. Terror explosive injuries: a comparison of children, adolescents, and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Dena H; Peleg, Kobi

    2010-01-01

    We sought to characterize injuries and outcomes from terror explosions with specific attention to children (0-10 years) and adolescents (11-15 years) compared to adults (16-45 years). Terror explosions target vulnerable populations and result in multidimensional injuries that may vary according to age group. The relative dearth of information regarding terror-related injuries among children inhibits proper preparedness and optimum management during such an event. A retrospective study was performed using data from the national Israel Trauma Registry (October 2000 to December 2005). Included were civilians and nonactive military personnel hospitalized as a result of a terror explosion. During the 5.3-year study period, 49 children (0-10 years), 65 adolescents (11-15 years), and 723 adults (16-45 years) were hospitalized from terror explosions. Children were more likely than adults to sustain severe injuries (27% vs. 12%) and traumatic brain injury (35% vs. 20%) and less likely to sustain injuries to their extremities (35% vs. 57%) or open wounds (39% vs. 59%) (P terror explosions present with different injuries and hospital utilization and outcomes. These results further confirm that preparedness of a pediatric healthcare system is essential for effective management in the event of a future mass casualty incident.

  10. Wound ballistics of firearm-related injuries--part 2: mechanisms of skeletal injury and characteristics of maxillofacial ballistic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanopoulos, P K; Soupiou, O T; Pazarakiotis, V C; Filippakis, K

    2015-01-01

    Maxillofacial firearm-related injuries vary in extent and severity because of the characteristics and behaviour of the projectile(s), and the complexity of the anatomical structures involved, whereas the degree of tissue disruption is also affected by the distance of the shot. In low-energy injuries there is limited damage to the underlying skeleton, which usually dominates the clinical picture, dictating a more straightforward therapeutic approach. High-energy injuries are associated with extensive hard and soft tissue disruption, and are characterized by a surrounding zone of damaged tissue that is prone to progressive necrosis as a result of compromised blood supply and wound sepsis. Current treatment protocols for these injuries emphasize the importance of serial debridement for effective wound control while favouring early definitive reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns. PMID:25157305

  12. Brain injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and brain injuries for football players of

  13. Time-varying interaction leads to amplitude death in coupled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new form of time-varying interaction in coupled oscillators is introduced. In this interaction, each individual oscillator has always time-independent self-feedback while its interaction with other oscillators are modulated with time-varying function. This interaction gives rise to a phenomenon called amplitude death even in ...

  14. Time-frequency representation based on time-varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A parametric time-frequency representation is presented based on time- varying autoregressive model (TVAR), followed by applications to non-stationary vibration signal processing. The identification of time-varying model coefficients and the determination of model order, are addressed by means of neural ...

  15. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Doubly Fed Induction Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, H. Nguyen; Scherer, Carsten W.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Müller, Volkmar

    This paper is concerned with the design of a self-scheduled current controller for doubly fed induction machines. The design is based on the framework of linear parameter-varying systems where the mechanical angular speed is considered to be a measurable time-varying parameter. The objective is to

  16. Surface sealing and hydraulic conductances under varying-intensity rains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giménez, D.; Dirksen, C.; Miedema, R.; Eppink, L.A.A.J.; Schoonderbeek, D.

    1992-01-01

    In the past, investigations on surface seals developing under simulated rains usually were performed with uniform rainfall intensities. Recent studies, however, showed that varying-intensity rains affect erosion and volumes of runoff. We conducted a study on surface sealing under varying-intensity

  17. Expected optimal feedback with Time-Varying Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucci, M.P.; Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070970777

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we derive the closed loop form of the Expected Optimal Feedback rule, sometimes called passive learning stochastic control, with time varying parameters. As such this paper extends the work of Kendrick (1981,2002, Chapter 6) where parameters are assumed to vary randomly around a known

  18. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.

  19. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  20. Epidemiology of high school and collegiate football injuries in the United States, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Prasad R; Fields, Sarah K; Collins, Christy L; Dick, Randall W; Comstock, R Dawn

    2007-08-01

    Football, one of the most popular sports among male high school students in the United States, is a leading cause of sports-related injuries, with an injury rate almost twice that of basketball, the second most popular sport. Injury patterns will vary between competition and practice exposures and between levels of play (ie, high school vs. National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA]). Descriptive epidemiology study. Football-related injury data were collected over the 2005-2006 school year from 100 nationally representative high schools via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online) and from 55 Division I, II, and III colleges via the NCAA Injury Surveillance System. Nationally, an estimated 517,726 high school football-related injuries (1881 unweighted injuries) occurred during the 2005-2006 season. The rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was greater during high school competitions (12.04) than during practices (2.56). The rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was also greater during collegiate competitions (40.23) than during practices (5.77). While the overall rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was greater in the NCAA (8.61) than in high school (4.36), high school football players sustained a greater proportion of fractures and concussions. Running plays were the leading cause of injury, with running backs and linebackers being the positions most commonly injured. Patterns of football injuries vary, especially by type of exposure and level of play. Future studies should continue to compare differences in injury patterns in high school and collegiate football, with particular emphasis placed on high-risk plays (running plays) and positions (running backs and linebackers).

  1. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  2. State-Level Lifetime Medical and Work-Loss Costs of Fatal Injuries - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Feijun; Florence, Curtis

    2017-01-13

    Injury-associated deaths have substantial economic consequences in the United States. The total estimated lifetime medical and work-loss costs associated with fatal injuries in 2013 were $214 billion (1). In 2014, unintentional injury, suicide, and homicide (the fourth, tenth, and seventeenth leading causes of death, respectively) accounted for 194,635 deaths in the United States (2). In 2014, a total of 199,756 fatal injuries occurred in the United States, and the associated lifetime medical and work-loss costs were $227 billion (3). This report examines the state-level economic burdens of fatal injuries by extending a previous national-level study (1). Numbers and rates of fatal injuries, lifetime costs, and lifetime costs per capita were calculated for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and for four injury intent categories (all intents, unintentional, suicide, and homicide). During 2014, injury mortality rates and economic burdens varied widely among the states and DC. Among fatal injuries of all intents, the mortality rate and lifetime costs per capita ranged from 101.9 per 100,000 and $1,233, respectively (New Mexico) to 40.2 per 100,000 and $491 (New York). States can engage more effectively and efficiently in injury prevention if they are aware of the economic burden of injuries, identify areas for immediate improvement, and devote necessary resources to those areas.

  3. The epidemiology of vascular injury in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph M; Stannard, Adam; Burkhardt, Gabriel E; Eastridge, Brian J; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Rasmussen, Todd E

    2011-06-01

    Blood vessel trauma leading to hemorrhage or ischemia presents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after battlefield injury. The objective of this study is to characterize the epidemiology of vascular injury in the wars of Iraq and Afghanistan, including categorization of anatomic patterns, mechanism, and management of casualties. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was interrogated (2002-2009) for vascular injury in US troops to identify specific injury (group 1) and operative intervention (group 2) groups. Battle-related injuries (nonreturn to duty) were used as the denominator to establish injury rates. Mechanism of injury was compared between theaters of war and the management strategies of ligation versus revascularization (repair and interposition grafting) reported. Group 1 included 1570 Troops injured in Iraq (OIF) (n = 1390) and Afghanistan (OEF) (n = 180). Mechanism included explosive (73%), gunshot (27%), and other (wars and varies according to theater of war, mechanism of injury and operational tempo. Methods of reconstruction are now applied to nearly half of the vascular injuries and should be a focus of training for combat surgery. Selective ligation of vascular injury remains an important management strategy, especially for minor or distal vessel injuries.

  4. Injuries in extreme sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Lior; Pengas, Ioannis P; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2017-04-18

    Extreme sports (ES) are usually pursued in remote locations with little or no access to medical care with the athlete competing against oneself or the forces of nature. They involve high speed, height, real or perceived danger, a high level of physical exertion, spectacular stunts, and heightened risk element or death.Popularity for such sports has increased exponentially over the past two decades with dedicated TV channels, Internet sites, high-rating competitions, and high-profile sponsors drawing more participants.Recent data suggest that the risk and severity of injury in some ES is unexpectedly high. Medical personnel treating the ES athlete need to be aware there are numerous differences which must be appreciated between the common traditional sports and this newly developing area. These relate to the temperament of the athletes themselves, the particular epidemiology of injury, the initial management following injury, treatment decisions, and rehabilitation.The management of the injured extreme sports athlete is a challenge to surgeons and sports physicians. Appropriate safety gear is essential for protection from severe or fatal injuries as the margins for error in these sports are small.The purpose of this review is to provide an epidemiologic overview of common injuries affecting the extreme athletes through a focus on a few of the most popular and exciting extreme sports.

  5. Traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blennow, Kaj; Brody, David L; Kochanek, Patrick M; Levin, Harvey; McKee, Ann; Ribbers, Gerard M; Yaffe, Kristine; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2016-11-17

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available. Most patients with mild TBI will recover quickly, but others report persistent symptoms, called post-concussive syndrome, the underlying pathophysiology of which is largely unknown. Repeated concussive and subconcussive head injuries have been linked to the neurodegenerative condition chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), which has been reported post-mortem in contact sports athletes and soldiers exposed to blasts. Insights from severe injuries and CTE plausibly shed light on the underlying cellular and molecular processes involved in mild TBI. MRI techniques and blood tests for axonal proteins to identify and grade axonal injury, in addition to PET for tau pathology, show promise as tools to explore CTE pathophysiology in longitudinal clinical studies, and might be developed into diagnostic tools for CTE. Given that CTE is attributed to repeated head trauma, prevention might be possible through rule changes by sports organizations and legislators.

  6. Whiplash Injuries: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash injuries remain a significant public health problem throughout the developed industrialized world, with significant socioeconomic consequences. Studies looking at the natural history of whiplash injuries have suffered from problems of selection bias, retrospective reviewing and unclear outcomes. Etiology continues to be controversial, largely because of the misconception that all soft tissue injuries heal within six weeks. Recent studies have implicated the cervical facet joint as a cause of whiplash injury pain. A recent treatment study that successfully eliminated whiplash-associated facet joint pain demonstrated abnormal psychological profiles secondary to pain which normalized with successful pain elimination. The impact of compensation on recovery remains controversial, while the concept that mild traumatic brain injury occurs in the absence of loss of consciousness has been largely refuted. The Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders recently published a report in which the scientific literature was exhaustively reviewed and has made recommendations regarding the prevention and treatment of whiplash and its associated disorders. The Quebec Task Force highlighted the paucity of good scientific evidence; however, they still provided consensus treatment guidelines, which have not been validated. There continues to be a need for further research.

  7. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant ozone injury symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.; Sawada, T.; Oguchi, K.; Komeiji, T.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the phytotoxicity of ozone to plants was conducted in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses to determine if the symptoms of such exposure would be similar to symptoms exhibited by plants exposed to photochemical smog (which contains ozone) in the Tokyo area. Test plants used were herbaceous plants and woody plants, which were fumigated to 20 pphm ozone. Plants used as controls for the oxone exposure experiments were placed in a carbon filtered greenhouse. Herbaceous plants were generally sensitive to injury, especially Brassica rapa, Brassica pekinensis and others were extremely responsive species. In comparison with herbaceous plants, woody plants were rather resistant except for poplar. Depending on plant species and severity of injury, ozone-injury symptoms of herbaceous plants were bleaching, chlorosis, necrosis, and red-dish-brown flecks. Leaves of woody plants developed discrete, punctate spots, reddish-brown pigment on the upper surfaces and lastly defoliation. Ozone injury was typically confined to the upper leaf surfaces and notably greater mature leaves. Microscopic examination showed that pallisade cells were much more prone to ozone injury than other tissues.

  9. Are Children Born with Birth Defects at Increased Risk of Injuries in Early Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Rachel E; Salemi, Jason L; Tanner, Jean Paul; Anjohrin, Suzanne; Cavicchia, Philip; Lake-Burger, Heather; Kirby, Russell S

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the extent to which children with birth defects experience differential likelihood of various injuries and injury-related hospitalizations in early childhood. The Florida Birth Defects Registry was used to identify infants born 2006-2010 with select birth defects. Injury matrices were used to detect injuries in inpatient, ambulatory, and emergency department admissions for each infant up to their third birthday. χ2tests were used to compare sociodemographic and perinatal characteristics of children, by presence of an injury-related hospital admission. Adjusted multivariable logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to investigate birth defect and injury associations and related hospital use. We observed a 21% (99% CI: 1.16-1.27) increased odds of injury in children with birth defects. All birth defect subgroups had a statistically significantly increased odds of injury (excluding chromosomal defects), with adjusted ORs ranging from 1.19 to 1.40. The combination of birth defects and injuries resulted in 40% (99% CI: 1.36-1.44) more frequent injury-related hospital visits and a 3-fold (99% CI: 2.76-2.96) increase in time spent receiving inpatient medical care. Over 30% of children with critical congenital heart defects had an injury-related hospital admission. Children born with specific birth defects are at increased likelihood of various injuries during early life. Although the magnitude of this increased likelihood varied by the mechanism by which the injury occurred, the location of the injury, and the type of birth defect, our study findings support a direct association between birth defects and injuries in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and variance of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D; Flanigan, David C; Norwig, John; Jost, Patrick; Bradley, James

    2005-08-01

    Shoulder injuries are the fourth most common musculoskeletal injury encountered in American football players. There is little information in the literature on the role of playing position in the type of shoulder injuries seen. There is a high prevalence of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate American football players, with type of injury varying by playing position. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 3. A total of 336 elite collegiate American football players were invited to the National Football League Combine for physical testing and medical evaluation. Current and historical data were evaluated for the purpose of this study, and all players underwent radiographic examinations, including plain radiographs and/or magnetic resonance imaging when necessary. All shoulder pathological conditions and shoulder surgical procedures were recorded. Players were categorized by position for the analysis of position-specific trends. Of the players, 50% had a history of shoulder injuries, with a total of 226 shoulder injuries (1.3 injuries per player injured); 56 players (34%) had a total of 73 surgeries. The most common injuries were acromioclavicular separation (41%), anterior instability (20%), rotator cuff injury (12%), clavicle fracture (4%), and posterior instability (4%). The most common surgeries performed were anterior instability reconstruction (48%), Mumford/Weaver-Dunn surgery (15%), posterior instability surgery (10%), and rotator cuff surgery (10%). Shoulder injuries were more common in quarterbacks and defensive backs. Surgery was more common in linebackers or linemen. A history of anterior instability was more common in defensive players, with surgery required 76% of the time. Linemen had more rotator cuff injuries and posterior instability than players in other positions. Shoulder injuries are common injuries in elite collegiate football players, with one-third undergoing surgical procedures. There are definitive trends in the types of injuries

  11. Injury Prevention Exercise Programs for Professional Soccer: Understanding the Perceptions of the End-Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼBrien, James; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the perceptions of professional soccer players and staff members toward injury prevention exercise programs (IPEPs). Self-report survey. Four professional soccer teams in 4 different countries. 126 players, coaches, physiotherapists, and fitness coaches were invited to participate, with 72 respondents. Web-based survey detailing perceptions of lower limb (LL) injury susceptibility and seriousness, the value of IPEPs in general, and more specifically the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) 11+. The vast majority of the respondents believed that professional soccer players are at high risk of LL injuries (93%) and that players should perform evidence-based injury prevention exercises (98%). They also agreed that LL injuries can shorten a player's career (85%), cause physical problems later in life (82%), and negatively impact on team performance (77%). However, perceptions varied across teams regarding which types of injury prevention exercises are effective, who holds responsibility for injury prevention, and when IPEPs should be performed. Specific knowledge of the FIFA 11+ was very low and 47% of respondents believed the program would need modification for use in their team. Players and staff members in professional soccer teams strongly support the use of evidence-based IPEPs. However, perceptions vary considerably between teams regarding which exercises can prevent injuries, who holds the responsibility for injury prevention, and when preventive exercises should be performed. Enhancing the ultimate impact of IPEPs in professional soccer requires a detailed understanding of each team's specific implementation context.

  12. Ballistic performance of a Kevlar-29 woven fibre composite under varied temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soykasap, O.; Colakoglu, M.

    2010-05-01

    Armours are usually manufactured from polymer matrix composites and used for both military and non-military purposes in different seasons, climates, and regions. The mechanical properties of the composites depend on temperature, which also affects their ballistic characteristics. The armour is used to absorb the kinetic energy of a projectile without any major injury to a person. Therefore, besides a high strength and lightness, a high damping capacity is required to absorb the impact energy transferred by the projectile. The ballistic properties of a Kevlar 29/polyvinyl butyral composite are investigated under varied temperatures in this study. The elastic modulus of the composite is determined from the natural frequency of composite specimens at different temperatures by using a damping monitoring method. Then, the backside deformation of composite plates is analysed experimentally and numerically employing the finite-element program Abaqus. The experimental and numeric results obtained are in good agreement.

  13. Renal injury in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, F Clarke; Hunt, Jeremy J; Sevier, Thomas L

    2003-04-01

    Hematuria is the most common presenting sign of renal injury. Its presence in athletes may indicate a benign entity such as exercise-induced hematuria or a more serious injury in the presence of trauma. Exercise-induced hematuria can originate in the kidney, bladder, urethra, or prostate. The type of activity, as well as activity duration and intensity, contributes to its development. A wide differential diagnosis must be considered if hematuria persists longer than 24 to 72 hours. Trauma to the kidney can occur from a direct blow or deceleration; contact and collision sports are most commonly involved. Fortunately, most sports-related renal trauma is mild, and can be managed expectantly. A sporting injury rarely results in nephrectomy. Determining return to play for the athlete with a single kidney remains a controversial issue that requires patient education and an individualized approach.

  14. [Jellyfish sting injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, D

    2014-10-01

    Jellyfish are distributed worldwide; they cause local skin injuries upon contact which are often followed by systemic signs of envenoming. Which jellyfish species are of medical importance, which skin reactions and systemic symptoms occur, which first-aid measures and treatment options exist? Review of the medical literature and discussion of first-aid and therapeutic options. Jellyfish capable of causing skin injuries occur in almost all oceans. Several jellyfish species may cause severe, potentially lethal, systemic symptoms; they include the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) and box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Carukia barnesi, Chiropsalmus quadrigatus). Among the injuries and envenoming symptoms caused by marine organisms, jellyfish dermatitis should not be underestimated. Skin reactions may not only a dermatological problem, but also be accompanied by complex systemic toxic symptoms which are a challenge for internists.

  15. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Emmanuel Olorundare; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.; Sule, Augustine Z.; Ugwu, Benjamin T.; Misauno, Michael A.; Ismaila, Bashiru O.; Peter, Solomon D.; Adejumo, Adeyinka A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7%) males and 20 (18.3%) females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years). The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%), colon 48 (44%), and liver 41 (37.6%). Forty-four (40.4%) patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%), musculoskeletal 12 (11%), and the head in 9 (8.3%). The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%), explosives 12 (11%), stab injuries 11 (10.1%), and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%). The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8) with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1%) and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%). Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems. PMID:26957819

  16. Non-fatal sports and recreational violent injuries among children and teenagers, United States, 2001-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Judith M; Annest, Joseph L; Bossarte, Robert M; Gilchrist, Julie

    2006-12-01

    An estimated 2.7 million non-fatal unintentional sports and recreational injuries are treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments (EDs) annually. However, little is known about the number of sports and recreational injuries resulting from violent behavior. Data for 2001-2003 on sports and recreational injuries were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP)-a national sample of 66 U.S. EDs. National estimates and rates of persons treated for violence-related sports and recreational injuries in EDs are compared to those treated for unintentional sports and recreational injuries. Types of injuries and injury circumstances are described. During the study period, an estimated 6,705 (8.3 per 100,000; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 6.3-10.3) children and teenagers with violence-related sports and recreational injuries were treated in U.S. EDs annually, compared to 2,698,634 children and teenagers with unintentional sports and recreational injuries. Thus, violent behavior accounted for 0.25% of sports and recreational injuries. The highest incidence rate (13.6 per 100,000) for violence-related sports and recreational injuries was for children aged 10-14 years. Most patients with violence-related sports and recreational injuries were treated and released from the ED. A majority of those with violence-related sports and recreational injuries were injured to the head/neck region (52.2%), of which 24.1% were treated for traumatic brain injuries. Most violent injuries resulted from being pushed or hit (65.6%); the most common sports and recreational activity varied by age: playground (65.2%) for children sports and recreational injuries resulting from violent behavior and unintentional causes.

  17. Epidemiology of Cervical Spine Injuries in High School Athletes Over a Ten-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meron, Adele; McMullen, Christopher; Laker, Scott R; Currie, Dustin; Comstock, R Dawn

    2017-09-12

    More than 7 million athletes participate in high school (HS) sports annually, with both the benefits of physical activity and risks of injury. Although catastrophic cervical spine injuries have been studied, limited data are available that characterize less-severe cervical spine injuries in HS athletes. To describe and compare cervical spine injury rates and patterns among U.S. HS athletes across 24 sports over a 10-year period. Descriptive epidemiology study. National sample of high schools participating in the High School Reporting Information Online injury surveillance system. Athletes from participating schools injured in a school sanctioned practice, competition, or performance during the 2005-2006 through 2014-2015 academic years. Cervical spine injury data captured by the High School Reporting Information Online system during the 10-year study period were examined. Cervical spine injury was defined as any injury to the cervical spinal cord, bones, nerves, or supporting structures of the cervical spine including muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Cervical spine injury rates, diagnoses, mechanisms, and severities. During the study period, 1080 cervical spine injuries were reported during 35,581,036 athlete exposures for an injury rate of 3.04 per 100,000 athlete exposures. Injury rates were highest in football (10.10), wrestling (7.42), and girls' gymnastics (4.95). Muscle injuries were most common (63.1%), followed by nerve injuries (20.5%). A larger proportion of football injuries were nerve injuries compared with all other sports (injury proportion ratio 3.31; confidence interval 2.33-4.72), whereas in boys' ice hockey fractures represented a greater proportion of injuries compared with all other sports (injury proportion ratio 7.64; confidence interval 2.10-27.83). Overall, the most common mechanisms of injury were contact with another player (70.7%) and contact with playing surface (16.1%). Cervical spine injury rates and patterns vary by sport and gender

  18. Neck injury criteria formulation and injury risk curves for the ejection environment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeffrey C; Miller, Michael E; Pellettiere, Joseph A; Erich, Roger A

    2013-12-01

    Helmet mounted displays provide increased pilot capability, but can also increase the risk of injury during ejection. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration's (NHTSA's) neck injury criteria (Nij) metric is evaluated for understanding the impact of helmet mass on the risk of injury and modified risk curves are developed which are compatible with the needs of the aviation community. Existent human subject data collected under various accelerative and head loading conditions were applied to understand the sensitivity of the Nij construct to changes in acceleration and helmet mass, as well as its stability with respect to gender, body mass, neck circumference, and sitting height. A portion of this data was combined with data from an earlier postmortem human subject study to create pilot study modified risk curves. These curves were compared and contrasted with the NHTSA risk curves. A statistically significant difference in the peak mean Nij was observed when seat acceleration increased by 2 G, but not when helmet mass was varied from 1.6 kg to 2 kg at a constant seat acceleration of 8 G. Although NHTSA risk curves predict a 13% risk of AIS 2+ injury for the 8-G, 2-kg helmet condition mean Nij of 0.138, no AIS 2+ injuries were observed. Modified risk curves were produced which predict a 0.91% risk of AIS 2+ injury under these conditions. The Nij was shown to be sensitive to changes in acceleration and generally robust to anthropometric differences between individuals. Modified risk curves are proposed which improve risk prediction at lower Nij values.

  19. Understanding acute ankle ligamentous sprain injury in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Daniel TP

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper summarizes the current understanding on acute ankle sprain injury, which is the most common acute sport trauma, accounting for about 14% of all sport-related injuries. Among, 80% are ligamentous sprains caused by explosive inversion or supination. The injury motion often happens at the subtalar joint and tears the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL which possesses the lowest ultimate load among the lateral ligaments at the ankle. For extrinsic risk factors to ankle sprain injury, prescribing orthosis decreases the risk while increased exercise intensity in soccer raises the risk. For intrinsic factors, a foot size with increased width, an increased ankle eversion to inversion strength, plantarflexion strength and ratio between dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength, and limb dominance could increase the ankle sprain injury risk. Players with a previous sprain history, players wearing shoes with air cells, players who do not stretch before exercising, players with inferior single leg balance, and overweight players are 4.9, 4.3, 2.6, 2.4 and 3.9 times more likely to sustain an ankle sprain injury. The aetiology of most ankle sprain injuries is incorrect foot positioning at landing – a medially-deviated vertical ground reaction force causes an explosive supination or inversion moment at the subtalar joint in a short time (about 50 ms. Another aetiology is the delayed reaction time of the peroneal muscles at the lateral aspect of the ankle (60–90 ms. The failure supination or inversion torque is about 41–45 Nm to cause ligamentous rupture in simulated spraining tests on cadaver. A previous case report revealed that the ankle joint reached 48 degrees inversion and 10 degrees internal rotation during an accidental grade I ankle ligamentous sprain injury during a dynamic cutting trial in laboratory. Diagnosis techniques and grading systems vary, but the management of ankle ligamentous sprain injury is mainly conservative

  20. Epidemiology of Adolescent Rugby Injuries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Christopher; Tully, Mark; O'Connor, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite recent increases in the volume of research in professional rugby union, there is little consensus on the epidemiology of injury in adolescent players. We undertook a systematic review to determine the incidence, severity, and nature of injury in adolescent rugby union players. Data Sources: In April 2009, we performed a computerized literature search on PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (via Ovid). Population-specific and patient-specific search terms were combined in the form of MEDLINE subject headings and key words (wound$ and injur$, rugby, adolescent$). These were supplemented with related-citation searches on PubMed and bibliographic tracking of primary and review articles. Study Selection: Prospective epidemiologic studies in adolescent rugby union players. Data Synthesis: A total of 15 studies were included, and the data were analyzed descriptively. Two independent reviewers extracted key study characteristics regarding the incidence, severity, and nature of injuries and the methodologic design. Conclusions: Wide variations existed in the injury definitions and data collection procedures. The incidence of injury necessitating medical attention varied with the definition, from 27.5 to 129.8 injuries per 1000 match hours. The incidence of time-loss injury (>7 days) ranged from 0.96 to 1.6 per 1000 playing hours and from 11.4/1000 match hours (>1 day) to 12–22/1000 match hours (missed games). The highest incidence of concussion was 3.3/1000 playing hours. No catastrophic injuries were reported. The head and neck, upper limb, and lower limb were all common sites of injury, and trends were noted toward greater time loss due to upper limb fractures or dislocations and knee ligament injuries. Increasing age, the early part of the playing season, and the tackle situation were most closely associated with injury. Future injury-surveillance studies in rugby union must follow consensus guidelines to facilitate interstudy

  1. Differences in injury distribution in professional and recreational snowboarding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrnthaller C

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Christian Ehrnthaller,1 Heinz Kusche,2 Florian Gebhard1 1Department of Traumatology, Hand-, Plastic-, and Reconstructive Surgery, Center of Surgery, University of Ulm, Germany; 2Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Garmisch-Partenkirchen Medical Center, Germany Introduction: Little is known about the distribution of injuries in competitive snowboarding and there are no reports describing long-term complications of professional snowboarding. To examine the injury distribution and long-term impairments in active and retired professional snowboarders, a retrospective data analysis was performed using a questionnaire. As a control group, injuries of recreational snowboarders of a southern German university clinic were examined. Methods: Retired and active snowboarders were identified from the result lists of the International Ski Federation (FIS and from the current team lists of the German-speaking European national snowboard teams. After identification, a questionnaire regarding injury distribution/treatment was sent to the athletes and the filled-in questionnaires were subsequently evaluated. Injuries in recreational snowboarding were evaluated by analyzing the medical records and surgical reports for a seven-year period. Results: Compared to the available literature, significantly more severe injuries that necessitated surgical treatment in recreational snowboarders were documented. Most injuries accounted for wrist fractures but also many nonunions and spinal fractures were recorded. Between active professionals, distinct differences in injury distribution were found. The number of days off differed greatly with less days in speed disciplines (35.5 days and the maximum number of days off in snowboardcross (51 days. Injury distribution varied clearly with more injuries of the upper extremity and ankle in speed disciplines compared to snowboardcross and freestyle professionals, who exhibited more injuries to the lower extremity and head

  2. Severe pancreatoduodenal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    A 30-year-old male involved in a traffic accident was brought to our hospital. He was in shock with a rigid abdomen, and a computed tomography scan showed severe pancreatoduodenal injury. He was successfully treated with damage control surgery consisting of peripancreatic packing at the initial surgery followed by a two-stage pancreaticoduodenectomy. The postoperative course was complicated by a hepatic abscess, but there were no pancreaticoduodenectomy-related complications. The patient was transferred to a local hospital on postoperative day 55. Three step strategy consisting of peripancreatic packing followed by a two-stage pancreaticoduodenectomy is an effective treatment strategy for severe pancreatoduodenal injury.

  3. Injuries among amateur runners ?

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo, Mariana Korbage; Baeza, Ricardo Maletta; Zalada, Sandro Ricardo Benites; Alves, Pedro Benzam Rodrigues; Mattos, Carlos Augusto de

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency and severity of injuries that affect amateur runners. Methods This study was conducted by means of a questionnaire applied to 204 amateur runners. Individuals who were under the age of 18 years and those who were unpracticed runners were excluded. The data gathered comprised the number, type, site and degree of severity of the injuries and the individuals? age and sex. Results It was observed that male athletes predominated. The mean age was 32.6???9.3 ye...

  4. Free Electron Lasers with Slowly Varying Beam and Undulator Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zhirong

    2005-01-01

    The performance of a free electron lasers (FEL) is affected when the electron beam energy varies alone the undulator as would be caused by vacuum pipe wakefields and/or when the undulator strength parameter is tapered in the small signal regime until FEL saturation. In this paper, we present a self-consistent theory of FELs with slowly-varying beam and undulator parameters. A general method is developed to apply the WKB approximation to the beam-radiation system by employing the adjoint eigenvector that is orthogonal to the eigenfunctions of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations. This method may be useful for other slowly varying processes in beam dynamics.

  5. Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiyue Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.

  6. Maxillofacial injuries and traumatic brain injury--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajandram, Rama Krsna; Syed Omar, Syed Nabil; Rashdi, Muhd Fazly Nizam; Abdul Jabar, Mohd Nazimi

    2014-04-01

    Maxillofacial injuries comprising hard tissue as well as soft tissue injuries can be associated with traumatic brain injuries due to the impact of forces transmitted through the head and neck. To date, the role of maxillofacial injury on brain injury has not been properly documented with some saying it has a protective function on the brain while others opposing this idea. This cross-sectional retrospective study evaluated all patients with maxillofacial injuries. The aim of the study was to analyze the occurrence and relationship of maxillofacial injuries with traumatic brain injuries. We retrospectively studied the hospital charts of all trauma patients seen at the accident and emergency department of UKM Medical Centre from November 2010 until November 2011. A detail analysis was then carried out on all patients who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 11294 patients were classified as trauma patients in which 176 patients had facial fractures and 292 did not have facial fractures. Middle face fractures was the most common pattern of facial fracture seen. Traumatic brain injury was present in 36.7% of maxillofacial cases. A significant association was found between facial fractures and traumatic brain injury (P maxillofacial injuries with or without facial fractures are at risk of acute or delayed traumatic brain injury. All patients should always have proper radiological investigations together with a proper observation and follow-up schedule. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rugby: injury epidemiology. Only case study in readaptation and retraining after maissoneuve split-dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Blasco Herraiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rugby is a sport widely studied in the physical and technical-tactical injury area with a high injury rate, it shows a relationship between anthropometric data and role playing. In this sport, injury incidence varies depending on the play role, being higher in the forward position. Besides these injuries are characterized by being predominantly muscular and more common in the lower limb. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to synthesize all the information about the sport and its injury epidemiology, to make an intervention after fracture-dislocation Maissoneuve - only case -in which he attempted to recover from an unusual injury. The results showed an improvement of the measured variables, both objective (travel articular, strength and borders, and subjective (Borg scale as the intervention advanced, which verified the importance of monitoring and of quantification of the recovery for the reset and optimization.

  8. Restoration and protection of brachial plexus injury: hot topics in the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaizhi; Lv, Zheng; Liu, Jun; Zhu, He; Li, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury is frequently induced by injuries, accidents or birth trauma. Upper limb function may be partially or totally lost after injury, or left permanently disabled. With the development of various medical technologies, different types of interventions are used, but their effectiveness is wide ranging. Many repair methods have phasic characteristics, i.e., repairs are done in different phases. This study explored research progress and hot topic methods for protection after brachial plexus injury, by analyzing 1,797 articles concerning the repair of brachial plexus injuries, published between 2004 and 2013 and indexed by the Science Citation Index database. Results revealed that there are many methods used to repair brachial plexus injury, and their effects are varied. Intervention methods include nerve transfer surgery, electrical stimulation, cell transplantation, neurotrophic factor therapy and drug treatment. Therapeutic methods in this field change according to the hot topic of research. PMID:25374596

  9. Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injury - bladder and urethra; Bruised bladder; Urethral injury; Bladder injury; Pelvic fracture; Urethral disruption ... Types of bladder injuries include: Blunt trauma (such as a blow to the body) Penetrating wounds (such as bullet or stab wounds) The ...

  10. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hits since January 2003 RADIATION INJURY TO THE BRAIN Radiation treatments affect all cells that are targeted. ... fractions, duration of therapy, and volume of [healthy brain] nervous tissue irradiated influence the likelihood of injury. ...

  11. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries What's in this article? What Are ...

  12. Concussion and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Concussion Concussion and Traumatic Brain Injury Past Issues / Summer 2015 ... have a concussion or more serious brain injury. Concussion Signs Observed Can't recall events prior to ...

  13. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  14. Estimation of Time Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, we present a novel method for modeling time-varying autoregressive impulsive signals driven by symmetric alpha stable distributions. The proposed...

  15. Uus Eesti film pandi eile Karlovy Varys projektorisse / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastus Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest". Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  16. Modeling non-Gaussian time-varying vector autoregressive process

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a novel and general methodology for modeling time-varying vector autoregressive processes which are widely used in many areas such as modeling of chemical...

  17. Toluene metabolism during exposure to varying concentrations combined with exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Døssing, M; Hansen, S H

    1987-01-01

    The urinary excretion of hippuric acid (HA) and ortho-cresol (O-cr) in man was measured in two studies of 7-h exposure to toluene in a climate chamber, either constant concentration of 100 ppm or varying concentrations containing peaks of 300 ppm but with a time-weighted average of 100 ppm....... In Study A, four males were exposed to clean air and to constant and varying concentrations of toluene in combination with rest and with 100 W exercise in 140 min. Exercise increased end exposure excretion rate of HA and O-cr by 47 and 114%, respectively. After exposure, all excess HA was excreted within 4...... h, while O-cr was eliminated with a half life of about 3 h. Alveolar air concentration of toluene varied between 21 and 31 ppm during constant exposure and between 13 and 57 ppm during varying exposure, but no difference in mean alveolar toluene concentration or in metabolite excretion was seen...

  18. A Semiparametric Recurrent Events Model with Time-varying Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhangsheng; Liu, Lei; Bravata, Dawn M.; Williams, Linda S.; Tepper, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We consider a recurrent events model with time-varying coefficients motivated by two clinical applications. A random effects (Gaussian frailty) model is used to describe the intensity of recurrent events. The model can accommodate both time-varying and time-constant coefficients. The penalized spline method is used to estimate the time-varying coefficients. Laplace approximation is used to evaluate the penalized likelihood without a closed form. The smoothing parameters are estimated in a similar way to variance components. We conduct simulations to evaluate the performance of the estimates for both time-varying and time-independent coefficients. We apply this method to analyze two data sets: a stroke study and a child wheeze study. PMID:22903343

  19. Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and Seasons in ... and egg weight on external and internal characteristics of chicken eggs. ... Storage time did not affect (p>0.05) shell weight, shape index, egg length and egg width.

  20. Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2004-01-01

    The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....

  1. Gut microbiomes of Indian children of varying nutritional status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Gupta, Sourav Sen; Bhattacharya, Tanudeep; Yadav, Deepak; Barik, Anamitra; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Bhabatosh; Mande, Sharmila S; Nair, G Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    .... Consequently, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in malnutrition. Metagenomics approach was adopted to investigate the gut microbiome sampled from 20 rural Indian children with varying nutritional status...

  2. Ballet injuries: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, R

    1983-11-01

    There is a distinct difference between ballet injuries and sports injuries in general, and the sports medicine physician needs to study the technique of dance and the specific injuries that it may produce in order to treat dancers effectively. In Australia, which is typical of other countries where ballet is performed, ballet injuries include strained lumbar muscles, sprained ankle, Achilles tendinitis, clicking hip, jumper's knee, chondromalacia, stress fractures, patellar subluxation, and other knee and tendon problems.

  3. Ophthalmic injuries from a TASER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jay S; Chopra, Anil; Carr, David

    2009-01-01

    The TASER (TASER International) is an energy-conducting weapon, that is becoming more frequently used by law enforcement officials to subdue combative individuals. Though generally regarded as a safe alternative, the use of such weapons has been reported to cause serious injuries. We describe a case in which ocular injuries were sustained by impalement with a TASER dart. Emergency physicians should be aware of the potential for serious ophthalmic injuries from TASERs and how such injuries should be managed.

  4. Predictive modelling of football injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Kampakis, S.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate the potential of predictive modelling for football injuries. This work was conducted in close collaboration with Tottenham Hotspurs FC (THFC), the PGA European tour and the participation of Wolverhampton Wanderers (WW). Three investigations were conducted: 1. Predicting the recovery time of football injuries using the UEFA injury recordings: The UEFA recordings is a common standard for recording injuries in professional football. For...

  5. Predictive modelling of football injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Kampakis, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate the potential of predictive modelling for football injuries. This work was conducted in close collaboration with Tottenham Hotspurs FC (THFC), the PGA European tour and the participation of Wolverhampton Wanderers (WW). Three investigations were conducted: 1. Predicting the recovery time of football injuries using the UEFA injury recordings: The UEFA recordings is a common standard for recording injuries in professional football. For this investigatio...

  6. Percutaneous injuries during surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokars, J I; Bell, D M; Culver, D H; Marcus, R; Mendelson, M H; Sloan, E P; Farber, B F; Fligner, D; Chamberland, M E; McKibben, P S

    1992-06-03

    To study the numbers and circumstances of percutaneous injuries (eg, needle sticks, cuts) that occur during surgical procedures. Surgical personnel risk infection with blood-borne pathogens from percutaneous injuries; some injuries might also place patients at risk by exposing them to a health care worker's blood. Observers present at 1382 surgical procedures recorded information about the procedure, the personnel present, and percutaneous injuries that occurred. Four US teaching hospitals during 1990. Operating room personnel in five surgical specialties. Numbers and circumstances of percutaneous injuries among surgical personnel and instances in which surgical instruments that had injured a worker recontacted the patient's surgical wound. Ninety-nine injuries occurred during 95 (6.9%) of the 1382 procedures. Seventy-six injuries (77%) were caused by suture needles and affected the nondominant hand (62 injuries [63%]), especially the distal forefinger. The risk of injury adjusted for confounding variables by logistic regression was higher during vaginal hysterectomy (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 7.5) and lower during certain orthopedic procedures (OR, 0.2; CI, 0.1 to 0.7) than during 11 other types of procedures (reference group; OR, 1.0). Use of fingers rather than an instrument to hold the tissue being sutured was associated with 35 injuries (35%). Eighty-eight injuries (89%) were sustained by resident or attending surgeons; in 28 (32%) of the 88 injuries in surgeons, the sharp object that caused the injury recontacted the patient. Percutaneous injuries occur regularly during surgery, placing surgical personnel and, to a lesser extent, patients at risk for infection with blood-borne pathogens. Many such injuries may be preventable with changes in devices, techniques, or protective equipment; all such measures require careful evaluation to determine their efficacy in reducing injury and their effect on patient care.

  7. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  8. Electricity futures prices: time varying sensitivity to fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Huisman, Ronald; Kilic, Mehtap; Pennings, Enrico; Westgaard, Sjur

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides insight into the time-varying relation between electricity futures prices and fundamentals in the form of contract prices for fossil fuels. As supply curves are not constant and different producers have different marginal costs of production, we argue that the relation between the prices of electricity futures and those of underlying fundamentals such as natural gas, coal and emission rights varies over time. We test this view by applying a model that linearly relates elec...

  9. Bounds and asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials for varying weights

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Eli

    2018-01-01

    This book establishes bounds and asymptotics under almost minimal conditions on the varying weights, and applies them to universality limits and entropy integrals.  Orthogonal polynomials associated with varying weights play a key role in analyzing random matrices and other topics.  This book will be of use to a wide community of mathematicians, physicists, and statisticians dealing with techniques of potential theory, orthogonal polynomials, approximation theory, as well as random matrices. .

  10. Prediction of work resumption and sustainability up to 1 year after mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Myrthe E; Scheenen, Myrthe E; van der Horn, Harm J; Timmerman, Marieke E; Hageman, Gerard; Roks, Gerwin; Spikman, Jacoba M; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2017-10-31

    To study return to work (RTW) after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) at several intervals after injury and to predict RTW on the basis of occupational factors in addition to demographic, personality, and injury-related factors at 6 and 12 months after injury. This was a prospective cohort study (UPFRONT study, n = 1,151) of patients with mTBI admitted to the emergency department. Patients received questionnaires at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. RTW was divided into 3 levels: complete (cRTW), partial (pRTW), and no RTW. Rates of cRTW increased from 34% at 2 weeks to 77% at 12 months after injury, pRTW varied from 8% to 16% throughout the year. Logistic regression (complete vs incomplete RTW) demonstrated that apart from previously identified predictors such as demographics (e.g., age and education) and injury characteristics (e.g., cause and severity of injury) and indicators of psychological distress, occupational factors were of influence on work resumption after 6 months (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82), At 12 months, however, the model was based solely on the presence of extracranial injuries and indicators of maladaptation after injury (AUC = 0.81). RTW after mTBI is a gradual process, with varying levels of RTW throughout the first year after injury. Different predictors were relevant for short- vs long-term work resumption, with occupational factors influencing short-term RTW. However, for both short- and long-term RTW, posttraumatic complaints and signs of psychological distress early after injury were relevant predictors, allowing early identification of patients at risk for problematic work resumption. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  12. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  13. Injuries and Individuals with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Chaudhry, Ramiz A.

    2009-01-01

    Children and adults with disabilities are at an increased risk of injury. Falls are the leading mechanism of injury regardless of the disability status and are even more common in those with moderate or severe disabilities. The setting for the injury differs with the disability status. Compared to individuals with moderate or no disabilities,…

  14. Multiple Ligament Knee Injury: Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Manske, Robert C.; Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Giangarra, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Non-operative and operative complications are common following multiple ligament knee injuries. This article will describe common complications seen by the surgeon and physical therapist following this complex injury. Complications include fractures, infections, vascular and neurologic complications following injury and surgery, compartment syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, deep venous thrombosis, loss of motion and persistent laxity issues. A brief description of these complications ...

  15. Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Frank C., III; and Others

    The majority of shoulder injuries occurring in throwing sports involve the soft tissue structures. Injuries often occur when the unit is overstretched to a point near its greatest length, involving the elastic tissues. The other injury mechanism involves the contractural unit of the muscle, which occurs near the midpoint of contractions, involving…

  16. Occupational Injuries, Illnesses and Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rates decline in 2015; high injury rate for nursing assistants 11/10/2016 Severe occupational injuries and illnesses decreased in 2015 to 94 cases ... sector heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers and nursing assistants declined. HTML | ... | RSS Employer-reported injury and illness rate declined to 2.9 cases ...

  17. Predictors of paediatric injury mortality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAJCH MARCH 2011 VOL. 5 NO. 1. 15. ARTICLE. S. A. J ournal of Child He alth. Background. Childhood injury is a major public health issue in many parts of the world, contributing ... Five hundred and seventy-six children presented with injury during the study period with 22 deaths, giving an injury mortality rate of 3.8%.

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most ... Experiences By Topic Resources Blog Peer Counseling About Media Donate Contact Us Terms of Use Site Map ...

  19. Prevent Children's Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Lyle J.

    1983-01-01

    Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)

  20. Injuries in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, S. Bloemhoff, A. Harris, S. Kampen, L.T.B. van & Schoots, W.

    1998-01-01

    As a repeat of a survey carried out in 1986-1987, a telephone survey was conducted. More than 25,000 households, comprising over 67,000 persons, were questioned about any recent traffic, home and leisure, sports and occupational injuries. Expressed as a national number, a total of approximately

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the ... Rogers, SW Marguerite David, MSW Kathy Hulse, MSW Physical Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Laura Wehrli, PT Isa ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect ...

  3. Garden hazards: trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Barnden, Joanna; Kane, Meridith

    2016-09-22

    Trampolining is more popular than ever, but it can also cause injuries, some of them very serious. Siba Prosad Paul, Torbay Hospital, Torquay, Joanna Barnden, University of Bristol, and Meridith Kane, Yeovil District Hospital, discuss what can be done to prevent them.

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most ... 2011 – 2017 Hill Foundation for Families Living With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing ...

  5. Sports Injury Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wojtys, Edward M

    2017-01-01

    ... to making reasonable decisions about athletic participation. This past football bowl season brought the topic of sports injury risk to the forefront when Louisiana State University’s Leonard Fournette and Stanford’s Christian McCaffrey bypassed their school’s bowl games in difference to their professional football careers. The news surprised ma...

  6. Sports Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Timothy N.

    1991-01-01

    A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stimulation to produce actions. They're often called functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems, and they use electrical stimulators to control arm and leg muscles to allow people with a spinal cord injury to stand, walk, reach and grip. Robotic gait ...

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or therapy. A surgeon can repair a skull fracture, remove blood clots, or relieve pressure. Occupational therapy helps you regain skills you forgot from your injury. This includes walking, eating, or dressing. Physical therapy consists of stretching, strengthening, and training exercises. ...

  10. Elbow Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fluid. Muscles and tendons help the elbow joint move. When any of these structures is hurt or diseased, you have elbow problems. Many things can make your elbow hurt. A common cause is tendinitis, an inflammation or injury to the tendons that attach muscle to bone. ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow ...

  12. Burn injuries and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Betsy B; Baird, Suzanne McMurtry; Troiano, Nan H

    2008-01-01

    Although burn injuries during pregnancy are considered relatively rare, the exact incidence is not known. Multiple factors influence morbidity and mortality resulting from burn injuries during pregnancy. These factors include the depth and size of the burn, the woman's underlying health and age, and the estimated gestational age of the fetus. Associated inhalation injury and development of other significant secondary complications also influence maternal and fetal outcomes. Successful burn care requires a team approach in which almost every healthcare discipline is represented. Initial care is almost always provided by a specially trained emergency medical team in an out-of-hospital setting. During this phase, the ability of the team to communicate with emergency hospital personnel facilitates appropriate clinical management at the scene. In addition, continued communication regarding the woman's status and responses to treatment allows critical care specialists within the hospital to ensure that necessary personnel and resources are available when the patient arrives. From the time the pregnant woman is admitted to a hospital for additional acute and critical care through the extensive process of rehabilitation from burn injuries, providing care often evokes strong emotions and requires specialized skills to achieve the most positive outcomes.

  13. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Use Site Map Privacy Statement 312-284-2525 info@facingdisability.com SIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER Your ... spinal cord injuries Peer Counseling 312-284-2525 info@facingdisability.com SIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER Your ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ... Donate Contact Us Terms of Use Site Map Privacy Statement 312-284-2525 info@facingdisability.com SIGN ...

  16. Pediatric acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlem, P.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Bos, A. P.

    2007-01-01

    Among ventilated children, the incidence of acute lung injury (ALI) was 9%; of that latter group 80% developed the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The population-based prevalence of pediatric ARDS was 5.5 cases/100.000 inhabitants. Underlying diseases in children were septic shock (34%),

  17. Overuse Injury Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Training and Doctrine Command) personnel. Research User: Interested in performance and injury outcomes from the individual level to the group...576. Nonaka, K., Fukuda , S., Aoki, K., Yoshida, T., & Ohya, K. (2006). "Regional distinctions in cortical bone mineral density measured by pQCT can

  18. Civilian popliteal artery injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the injury to definitive repair in this group of amputees was 28.05 hours compared with 39.55 hours in the non-amputee group. The mean length of time from making the diagnosis to definitive repair was 15.97 hours. Seventy-two patients presented with ischaemic limbs. There were 33 amputations in this group (45.8%). The.

  19. Kidney injury in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in patients with cirrhosis. AKI and hyponatraemia are major determinants of the poor prognosis in advanced cirrhosis. The hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) denotes a functional and potential reversible impairment of renal function. Type 1 HRS, a special type of AKI,...

  20. Post cardiac injury syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Nielsen, F E

    1991-01-01

    The post-pericardiotomy syndrome is a symptom complex which is similar in many respects to the post-myocardial infarction syndrome and these are summarized under the diagnosis of the Post Cardiac Injury Syndrome (PCIS). This condition, which is observed most frequently after open heart surgery...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog Videos By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord injuries Peer Counseling 312-284-2525 info@facingdisability.com SIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER Your email address * This iframe contains the logic required to ...

  3. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body, three of them are in your arm: the humerus, radius, and ulna. Your arms are also made up of muscles, joints, tendons, ... Injuries to any of these parts of the arm can occur during sports, a fall, or an ...

  4. Dislocation/separation injuries among US high school athletes in 9 selected sports: 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Collins, Christy L; Pommering, Thomas L; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of dislocations/separations in a nationally representative sample of high school student-athletes participating in 9 sports. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Sports injury data for the 2005-2009 academic years were collected using an Internet-based injury surveillance system, Reporting Information Online (RIO). A nationally representative sample of 100 US high schools. Injuries sustained as a function of sport and gender. Dislocation/separation rates, body site, outcome, surgery, and mechanism. Dislocations/separations represented 3.6% (n = 755) of all injuries. The most commonly injured body sites were the shoulder (54.9%), wrist/hand (16.5%), and knee (16.0%); 18.4% of dislocations/separations were recurrences of previous injuries at the same body site; 32.3% of injuries were severe (ie, student-athletes unable to return to play within 3 weeks of the injury date), and 11.8% required surgical repair. The most common mechanisms of injury were contact with another player (52.4%) and contact with the playing surface (26.4%). Injury rates varied by sport. In gender-comparable sports, few variations in patterns of injury existed. Rates were highest in football (2.10 per 10 000 athletic exposures) and wrestling (1.99) and lowest in baseball (0.24) and girls' soccer (0.27). Although dislocation/separation injuries represent a relatively small proportion of all injuries sustained by high school student-athletes, the severity of these injuries indicates a need for enhanced injury prevention efforts. Developing effective targeted preventive measures depends on increasing our knowledge of dislocation/separation rates, patterns, and risk factors among high school athletes.

  5. Cricket fast bowling workload patterns as risk factors for tendon, muscle, bone and joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John W; Blanch, Peter; Paoloni, Justin; Kountouris, Alex; Sims, Kevin; Orchard, Jessica J; Brukner, Peter

    2015-08-01

    To assess workload-related risk factors for injuries to particular tissue types in cricket fast bowlers. 235 fast bowlers who bowled in 14600 player innings over a period of 15 years were followed in a prospective cohort risk factor study to compare overs bowled in each match (including preceding workload patterns) and injury risk in the 3-4 weeks subsequent to the match. Injuries were categorised according to the affected tissue type as either: bone stress, tendon injuries, muscle strain or joint injuries. Workload risk factors were examined using binomial logistic regression multivariate analysis, with a forward stepwise procedure requiring a significance of injuries, but high medium term (3-month workload) was protective. For bone stress injuries, high medium term workload and low career workload were risk factors. For joint injuries, high previous season and career workload were risk factors. There was little relationship between muscle injury and workload although high previous season workload was slightly protective. The level of injury risk for some tissue types varies in response to preceding fast bowling workload, with tendon injuries most affected by workload patterns. Workload planning may need to be individualised, depending on individual susceptibility to various injury types. This study supports the theory that tendons are at lowest risk with consistent workloads and susceptible to injury with sudden upgrades in workload. Gradual upgrades are recommended, particularly at the start of a bowler's career to reduce the risk of bone stress injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Mechanisms of abdominal organ injury in seat belt-restrained children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kent, Richard W; Menon, Rajiv A; Ghati, Yoganand; Durbin, Dennis R; Rouhana, Stephen W

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has identified key predictors of elevated abdominal injury risk in seat belt-restrained child vehicle occupants; however these data cannot be used to isolate specific mechanisms or sources of injury to suggest strategies for prevention. Using a large child-focused crash surveillance system, cases of seat belt-restrained children who sustained an internal abdominal injury in a frontal crash were studied using standard crash investigation protocols. A second group of cases of restrained children in similar crashes without abdominal injury was investigated. Medical, crash, and child characteristics of each case were analyzed in the context of known biomechanics of abdominal injury to determine the mechanisms of injury and associated kinematics. Review of 21 cases of abdominal injury identified belt loading directly over the injured organ as the most common mechanism of injury. Three unique kinematic patterns were identified that varied by the initial position of the lap belt and kinematics of the upper torso. Sixty percent of the drivers and 90% of the other child occupants in these crashes sustained either no or minor injury. In the 16 no abdominal injury cases, all but one sustained external bruising to their abdomen and contact injury to the head and face. This evaluation of crashes in which belted children did and did not sustain abdominal injuries revealed key characteristics about their mechanism. In this data set, belt compression directly on the abdomen, manifested by improper initial placement of the seat belt, poor child posture, or misuse of the shoulder belt, resulted in abdominal injury in low-severity crashes in which other occupants sustained little injury. The cases pointed to control of torso excursion by consistent use of the shoulder belt and suggested that technologies such as lap belt pretensioners or belt-positioning booster seats might be a possible strategy, among others, for prevention.

  7. Upper Extremity Injuries in NASCAR Drivers and Pit Crew: An Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, Gary; Gaston, R Glenn; Heisel, William

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the position-specific musculoskeletal forces placed on the body of athletes facilitates treatment, prevention, and return-to-play decisions. While position-specific injuries are well documented in most major sports, little is known about the epidemiology of position-specific injuries in National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing (NASCAR) drivers and pit crew. To investigate position-specific upper extremity injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Descriptive epidemiological study. A retrospective chart review was performed to assess position-specific injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Included in the study were patients seen by a single institution between July 2003 and October 2014 with upper extremity injuries from race-related NASCAR events or practices. Charts were reviewed to identify the diagnosis, mechanism of injury, and position of each patient. A total of 226 NASCAR team members were treated between July 2003 and October 2014. Of these, 118 injuries (52%) occurred during NASCAR racing events or practices. The majority of these injuries occurred in NASCAR changers (42%), followed by injuries in drivers (16%), carriers (14%), jack men (11%), fuel men (9%), and utility men (8%). The majority of the pit crew positions are at risk for epicondylitis, while drivers are most likely to experience neuropathies, such as hand-arm vibration syndrome. The changer sustains the most hand-related injuries (42%) on the pit crew team, while carriers commonly sustain injuries to their digits (29%). Orthopaedic injuries in NASCAR vary between positions. Injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members are a consequence of the distinctive forces associated with each position throughout the course of the racing season. Understanding these forces and position-associated injuries is important for preventive measures and facilitates diagnosis and return-to-play decisions so that each team can function at its maximal efficiency.

  8. Spinal cord injury medicine and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampas, Argyrios; Tansey, Keith E

    2014-11-01

    The rehabilitation of spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complicated process, but one in which new research is developing novel and increasingly promising methods of restorative neurology. Spinal cord injury medicine addresses not only the neurologic injury, but all the secondary complications in other organ systems whose regulation is disrupted after SCI. To some degree, the rehabilitation of SCI is focused on return to the community and functional goals are paramount, regardless of whether they can be achieved through some mechanism of compensation or due to a growing effort at engendering neurologic plasticity and recovery. The authors present a typical case of cervical incomplete SCI and discuss the medical complications and considerations for care during acute rehabilitation. They also review current methods of planning and executing rehabilitation, along with emerging methods that are leading to, in varying degrees, greater neurologic recovery. Finally, new approaches in SCI rehabilitation, namely neuromodulation, are discussed as efforts are made to further augment neural plasticity and recovery in SCI. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Occupant injury protection in automobile collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G A; Peters, B J

    1999-12-01

    Modern technology has produced automotive vehicles that have become both a luxury and a necessity in modern civilization. They have become highly useful, even more varied in form and function, and capable of high speeds on crowded roadways. One unfortunate consequence is the high frequency of accidents and the greater severity of injuries when collisions do occur. In response, modern technology has produced a variety of safety and health features, devices and designs intended for better occupant protection on in high speed vehicles. Injury reduction has become a prime design objective, but there are residual risks, which, as technology evolves, require effective communication to those risk. There can be little risk avoidance behavior without awareness of the hazards and effective communication to the vehicle occupant, as to what could and should be done for self-protection. For example, one out of three drivers apparently fails to understand the function of head restraints, few understand the 'safe zone' posture required for air bags and many believe safety features should be adjusted only for comfort. Some of the current residual injury producing problems in occupant systems are specifically described here in order to illustrate what is needed in terms of both design remedies and health promotion activities.

  10. Posterior Interosseous Nerve Syndrome from Thermal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay A. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to anatomical proximity to bone, the radial nerve is the most frequently injured major nerve of the upper extremity, frequently secondary to fractures (Li et al. (2013. We describe an incidence when a branch of the radial nerve is injured as a result of a thermal injury. Observation. Radial nerve injury can occur anywhere along the anatomical course with varied etiologies, but commonly related to trauma. The most frequent site is in the proximal forearm involving the posterior interosseous branch. However, problems can occur at the junction of the middle and proximal thirds of the humerus and wrist radially. When the radial nerve is injured by a burn, a new rehabilitation dynamic arises. Not only does one agonize about the return of nerve function but also fret about the skin grafts that replaced the devitalized tissue housing that compartment. Discussion. Although posterior interosseous nerve syndrome has been described in the context of many different etiologies, it has not previously been discussed in relation to burn injuries. In this case, not only did the patient’s rehabilitation involve aggressive therapy for return of sensation and function of the arm, but also prevention of contracture normally seen in replacement of full thickness burns.

  11. Seasonal variation in musculoskeletal extremity injuries in school children aged 6-12 followed prospectively over 2.5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Eva; Holst, René; Franz, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The type and level of physical activity in children vary over seasons and might thus influence the injury patterns. However, very little information is available on the distribution of injuries over the calendar year. This study aims to describe and analyse the seasonal variation in extremity inj...

  12. Neck back and spine injuries in amateur rugby league: a review of nine years of Accident Compensation Corporation injury entitlement claims and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Gianotti, Simon; Clark, Trevor

    2011-03-01

    Rugby league is a popular participation sport, but there have been concerns raised regarding the possible high number of severe neck, back and spine injuries. Therefore an epidemiological overview of rugby league neck, back and spine injuries and associated costs of these injuries was undertaken in one country over nine years. The New Zealand national Accident Compensation Corporation data for moderate to serious injury entitlement claims (MSC) over nine years were analysed for the number, type and cost of neck, back and spine rugby league injuries resulting in medical treatment. There were 206 (3%) neck, back and spine MSC claims totalling NZD$1,585,927 (4%) of the total injury entitlement costs for rugby league over the nine-year period. The rate of MSC neck, back and spine rugby league injuries was 26 per 1000 total rugby league claims. Although the rate of neck, back and spine injuries varied over the nine years from 22 to 40 per 1000 injury claims, there was a significant increase over the duration of the study in the number of neck, back and spine MSC claims (χ2=849, df=8, p<0.001), and the cost per MSC injury claim (χ2=19,054, df=8, p<0.001). The frequency, severity and first 12 months cost of neck, back and spine injuries in rugby league is an issue that needs to be addressed. Unfortunately the ACC data base does not provide information on how or why the injuries occurred. A prospective injury epidemiology study needs to be conducted that will allow collection of information surrounding the mechanisms of injury and possible causative risk factors such as tackling technique. In the meantime it is suggested that coaches should ensure tackling technique is correctly taught to all rugby league players to reduce the risk of neck, back and spine injury. Team medical personnel should be trained in dealing with neck and spine injuries as well as head related injuries, and emergency procedures in dealing with players with a suspected neck or back injury should be

  13. Closing the Aboriginal child injury gap: targets for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Holger; Falster, Kathleen; Ivers, Rebecca; Falster, Michael O; Clapham, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa

    2017-02-01

    To describe the leading mechanisms of hospitalised unintentional injury in Australian Aboriginal children and identify the injury mechanisms with the largest inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. We used linked hospital and mortality data to construct a whole of population birth cohort including 1,124,717 children (1,088,645 non-Aboriginal and 35,749 Aboriginal) born in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012. Injury hospitalisation rates were calculated per person years at risk for injury mechanisms coded according to the ICD10-AM classification. The leading injury mechanisms in both groups of children were falls from playground equipment. For 66 of the 69 injury mechanisms studied, Aboriginal children had a higher rate of hospitalisation compared with non-Aboriginal children. The largest relative inequalities were observed for injuries due to exposure to fire and flame, and the largest absolute inequalities for injuries due to falls from playground equipment. Aboriginal children in NSW experience a significant higher burden of unintentional injury compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Implications for Public Health: We suggest the implementation of targeted injury prevention measures aimed at injury mechanism and age groups identified in this study. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. Importance of Various Training-Load Measures in Injury Incidence of Professional Rugby League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the ability of various internal and external training-load (TL) monitoring measures to predict injury incidence among positional groups in professional rugby league athletes. TL and injury data were collected across 3 seasons (2013-2015) from 25 players competing in National Rugby League competition. Daily TL data were included in the analysis, including session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE-TL), total distance (TD), high-speed-running distance (>5 m/s), and high-metabolic-power distance (HPD; >20 W/kg). Rolling sums were calculated, nontraining days were removed, and athletes' corresponding injury status was marked as "available" or "unavailable." Linear (generalized estimating equations) and nonlinear (random forest; RF) statistical methods were adopted. Injury risk factors varied according to positional group. For adjustables, the TL variables associated most highly with injury were 7-d TD and 7-d HPD, whereas for hit-up forwards they were sRPE-TL ratio and 14-d TD. For outside backs, 21- and 28-d sRPE-TL were identified, and for wide-running forwards, sRPE-TL ratio. The individual RF models showed that the importance of the TL variables in injury incidence varied between athletes. Differences in risk factors were recognized between positional groups and individual athletes, likely due to varied physiological capacities and physical demands. Furthermore, these results suggest that robust machine-learning techniques can appropriately monitor injury risk in professional team-sport athletes.

  15. Terrain Park Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffat, Craig

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined demographics, injury pattern, and hospital outcome in patients injured in winter resort terrain parks.Methods: The study included patients >12 years of age who presented to a regional trauma center with an acute injury sustained at a winter resort. Emergency department (ED research assistants collected patient injury and helmet use information using a prospectively designed questionnaire. ED and hospital data were obtained from trauma registry and hospital records.Results: Seventy-two patients were injured in a terrain park, and 263 patients were injured on non-terrain park slopes. Patients injured in terrain parks were more likely to be male [68/72 (94% vs. 176/263 (67%, p<0.0001], younger in age [23 ± 7 vs. 36 ± 17, p<0.0001], live locally [47/72 (65% vs. 124/263 (47%, p=0.006], use a snowboard [50/72 (69% vs. 91/263 (35%, p<0.0001], hold a season pass [46/66 (70% vs. 98/253 (39%, p<0.0001], and sustain an upper extremity injury [29/72 (40% vs. 52/263 (20%, p<0.001] when compared to patients injured on non-terrain park slopes. There were no differences between the groups in terms of EMS transport to hospital, helmet use, admission rate, hospital length of stay, and patients requiring specialty consultation in the ED.Conclusions: Patients injured in terrain parks represent a unique demographic within winter resort patrons. Injury severity appears to be similar to those patients injured on non-terrain park slopes.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:257-262.

  16. Epidemiology of Unintentional Child Injuries in the Makwanpur District of Nepal: A Household Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspa Raj Pant

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary sources of information indicate that the proportion of child deaths due to injuries is increasing in Nepal. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of unintentional injuries in children, explore risk factors and estimate the burden faced by families and the community in the Makwanpur district. We conducted a household survey in Makwanpur, covering 3441 households. Injuries that occurred during the 12 months before the survey and required treatment or caused the child to be unable to take part in usual activities for three or more days were included. We identified 193 cases of non-fatal unintentional child injuries from 181 households and estimated an annual rate of non-fatal injuries of 24.6/1000 children; rates for boys were double (32.7/1000 that for girls (16.8/1000. The rates were higher among the children of age groups 1–4 years and 5–9 years. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal child injuries followed by burns in preschool children and road traffic injuries were the most likely cause in adolescence. Mean period of disability following injury was 25 days. The rates and the mechanisms of injury vary by age and gender. Falls and burns are currently the most common mechanisms of injury amongst young children around rural homes.

  17. The nature and prevalence of injury during CrossFit training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, Paul Taro; Hodzovic, Emil; Hickey, Ben

    2013-11-22

    CrossFit is a constantly varied, high intensity, functional movement strength and conditioning program which has seen a huge growth in popularity around the world since its inception twelve years ago. There has been much criticism as to the potential injuries associated with CrossFit training including rhabdomyolysis and musculoskeletal injuries. However to date no evidence exists in the literature to the injures and rates sustained. The purpose of this study was to determine the injury rates and profiles of CrossFit athletes sustained during routine CrossFit training. An online questionnaire was distributed amongst international CrossFit online forums. Data collected included general demographics, training programs, injury profiles and supplement use. A total of 132 responses were collected with 97 (73.5%) having sustained an injury during CrossFit training. A total of 186 injuries were reported with 9 (7.0%) requiring surgical intervention. An injury rate of 3.1 per 1000 hours trained was calculated. No incidences of rhabdomyolysis were reported. Injury rates with CrossFit training are similar to that reported in the literature for sports such as Olympic weight-lifting, power-lifting and gymnastics and lower than competitive contact sports such as rugby union and rugby league. Shoulder and spine injuries predominate with no incidences of rhabdomyolysis obtained. To our knowledge this is the first paper in the literature detailing the injury rates and profiles with CrossFit participation.

  18. A Comprehensive Investigation of Comorbidities, Mechanisms, Injury Patterns, and Outcomes in Geriatric Blunt Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carlos V R; Rix, Kevin; Klein, Amanda L; Ford, Brent; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Aydelotte, Jayson; Coopwood, Ben; Ali, Sadia

    2016-11-01

    The geriatric population is growing and trauma providers are often tasked with caring for injuries in the elderly. There is limited information regarding injury patterns in geriatric trauma patients stratified by mechanism of injury. This study intends to investigate the comorbidities, mechanisms, injury patterns, and outcomes in geriatric blunt trauma patients. A retrospective study of the 2012 National Trauma Databank was performed. Adult blunt trauma patients were identified; geriatric (>/=65) patients were compared with younger (patients regarding admission demographics and vital signs, mechanism and severity of injury, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was injuries sustained and secondary outcomes included mortality, length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital, and ventilator days. There were 589,830 blunt trauma patients who met the inclusion criteria, including 183,209 (31%) geriatric and 406,621 (69%) nongeriatric patients. Falls were more common in geriatric patients (79 vs 29%, P Geriatric patients less often had an Injury Severity Score >/=16 (18 vs 20%, P /=3 (24 vs 18%, P /=3 (24% vs 8%, P geriatric trauma patients. Geriatric patients overall present with a lower Injury Severity Score, but more often sustain severe injuries to the head and lower extremities. Injury patterns vary significantly between older and younger patients when stratified by mechanism. Mortality is significantly higher for geriatric trauma patients and older age is independently associated with mortality across all mechanisms.

  19. Patients With Ice Hockey Injuries Presenting to US Emergency Departments, 1990–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deits, Jeff; Yard, Ellen E.; Collins, Christy L.; Fields, Sarah K.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Although the number of US ice hockey participants doubled from 1990 to 2006, no nationally representative studies have examined US ice hockey injuries among participants of all ages during this period. Objective: To describe patients with ice hockey injuries presenting to a representative sample of US emergency departments (EDs) from 1990 through 2006. Design: Prospective injury surveillance study. Setting: The US Consumer Product Safety Commission collects data from 100 nationally representative EDs via the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Patients or Other Participants: Individuals injured while playing ice hockey and presenting to a NEISS-affiliated ED from 1990 through 2006. Main Outcome Measure(s): Incidence and patterns of ice hockey–related injuries. Results: From 1990 through 2006, 8228 patients with ice hockey–related injuries presented to NEISS-affiliated EDs, representing an estimated 302 368 ice hockey–related injuries sustained nationally during this time. Injuries occurred predominantly among males (93.5%). More than half of the injured were aged 9 to 14 years (28.9%) or 15 to 18 years (30.1%), and injury incidence in these age groups increased over the study period (P  =  .009 and P Ice hockey injury patterns vary by age and sex. Our findings indicate that many trips to the ED might be prevented by using protective equipment appropriately. PMID:20831391

  20. Patients with ice hockey injuries presenting to US emergency departments, 1990-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deits, Jeff; Yard, Ellen E; Collins, Christy L; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of US ice hockey participants doubled from 1990 to 2006, no nationally representative studies have examined US ice hockey injuries among participants of all ages during this period. To describe patients with ice hockey injuries presenting to a representative sample of US emergency departments (EDs) from 1990 through 2006. Prospective injury surveillance study. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission collects data from 100 nationally representative EDs via the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Individuals injured while playing ice hockey and presenting to a NEISS-affiliated ED from 1990 through 2006. Incidence and patterns of ice hockey-related injuries. From 1990 through 2006, 8228 patients with ice hockey-related injuries presented to NEISS-affiliated EDs, representing an estimated 302 368 ice hockey-related injuries sustained nationally during this time. Injuries occurred predominantly among males (93.5%). More than half of the injured were aged 9 to 14 years (28.9%) or 15 to 18 years (30.1%), and injury incidence in these age groups increased over the study period (P  =  .009 and P Ice hockey injury patterns vary by age and sex. Our findings indicate that many trips to the ED might be prevented by using protective equipment appropriately.