... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Duane Syndrome En Español Read in Chinese What is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), ...
Full Text Available Three-dimensional printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid (PLA scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating and Xu Duan (XD immobilization to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs. We prepared PLA scaffolds and coated with polydopamine (PDA. The chemical composition and surface properties of PLA/PDA/XD were characterized by XPS. PLA/PDA/XD controlled hBMSCs’ responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK expression of cells was increased and promoted cell attachment depended on the XD content. In osteogenesis assay, the osteogenesis markers of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA/PDA scaffolds. Moreover, hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hBMSCs.
Yeh, Chia-Hung; Chen, Yi-Wen; Shie, Ming-You; Fang, Hsin-Yuan
Three-dimensional printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating and Xu Duan (XD) immobilization to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). We prepared PLA scaffolds and coated with polydopamine (PDA). The chemical composition and surface properties of PLA/PDA/XD were characterized by XPS. PLA/PDA/XD controlled hBMSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression of cells was increased and promoted cell attachment depended on the XD content. In osteogenesis assay, the osteogenesis markers of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA/PDA scaffolds. Moreover, hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hBMSCs.
Jabbour, Rebecca S; Pearman, Tessa L
Gorilla systematics has received increased attention over recent decades from primatologists, conservationists, and paleontologists. Studies of geographic variation in DNA, skulls, and teeth have led to new taxonomic proposals, such as recognition of two gorilla species, Gorilla gorilla (western gorilla) and Gorilla beringei (eastern gorilla). Postcranial differences between mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei) and western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) have a long history of study, but differences between the limb bones of the eastern and western species have not yet been examined with an emphasis on geographic variation within each species. In addition, proposals for recognition of the Cross River gorilla as Gorilla gorilla diehli and gorillas from Tshiaberimu and Kahuzi as G. b. rex-pymaeorum have not been evaluated in the context of geographic variation in the forelimb and hindlimb skeletons. Forty-three linear measurements were collected from limb bones of 266 adult gorillas representing populations of G. b. beringei, Gorilla beringei graueri, G. g. gorilla, and G. g. diehli in order to investigate geographic diversity. Skeletal elements included the humerus, radius, third metacarpal, third proximal hand phalanx, femur, tibia, calcaneus, first metatarsal, third metatarsal, and third proximal foot phalanx. Comparisons of means and principal components analyses clearly differentiate eastern and western gorillas, indicating that eastern gorillas have absolutely and relatively smaller hands and feet, among other differences. Gorilla subspecies and populations cluster consistently by species, although G. g. diehli may be similar to the eastern gorillas in having small hands and feet. The subspecies of G. beringei are distinguished less strongly and by different variables than the two gorilla species. Populations of G. b. graueri are variable, and Kahuzi and Tshiaberimu specimens do not cluster together. Results support the possible influence of
U D Shrestha
Full Text Available Goldenhar syndrome (GHS is also known as Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral (OAV syndrome or Branchial arch syndrome. Duane retraction syndrome (DRS is a congenital disorder of ocular motility characterized by limited abduction, adduction or both. It is unilateral in 80% of cases. The important and interesting part of this eight months old child is presence of GHS with DRS. She has bilateral invol-vement, which is seen in only 5-8% of GHS, as compared to high incidence of unilateral involve-ment. This child also had refractive error of + 6.00/ - 1.5 * 180. At four year of age her vision with glass was 6/9. Children with GHS and DRS should have early eye examination done to treat the problem of refractive error. Keywords: Duane retraction syndrome; goldenhar syndrome, refractive error.
Pedra Palmero Aragón
Full Text Available It was carried out an observational descriptive prospective longitudinal study including the period from march 2008 till june 20, 2008 in the Ophthalmology Service of the Provincial Educational Pediatric Hospital: “José Martí Pérez” in Sancti Spiritus, with the objective to identify the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a patient with Duane Syndrome who went to consultation without receiving previous ophthalmological attention, the diagnosis age was determined, which was tardy, bracket the most affected eye and the kind of Duane, and also if there was any refractive defect and the presence of amblyopia , identifying the criteria for being operated, for collecting data a format was completed by the specialists, which included observation, interrogatory, ophthalmological medical record of the ill person and pictures, these elements allowed us to make a correct analysis. With the previous information we arrived as a conclusion that is all about a patient with 28 years of age who lives in Sancti Spiritus Municipality, with White skin, male, carried on the Duane Syndrome type I, unilateral left. A light Hypermetropia was presented in both eyes as a refractive defect, accompanied by a light bilateral amplyopia in the right eye and moderate in the left eye. It is necessary to stay that the patient was under surgical criterium by esotropia of more than 15 degrees in PPM and unacceptable torticollis although the time of evolution; there were no difficulties related to the surgical act. The postoperative picture can reflect the result of the surgery.
Full Text Available Let be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, any map and the th power map. Duan proved that has a fixed point if . We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a -structure as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that and each has a fixed point.
Full Text Available Let X be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, f:X→X any map and p k :X→X the k th power map. Duan proved that p k f :X→X has a fixed point if k≥2 . We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces X whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a θ -structure μ θ :X→X as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that μ θ f and f μ θ each has a fixed point.
Rosa M Naranjo Fernández
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de 17 pacientes con diagnóstico de Síndrome de Duane que asistieron a la consulta de Oftalmología Pediátrica y Estrabismo desde el año 1997 al 2000, donde se analizaron las siguientes variables: sexo, tipo de Duane, ojo afectado, criterio quirúrgico y defecto refractivo. El 88 % correspondió al sexo femenino, el tipo de Duane I y el ojo izquierdo se presentó en el 76 % de los casos; presentaron criterio quirúrgico el 64 % por esotropía y tortícolis y encontramos defecto refractivo en el 65 % de la muestra estudiada. Encontramos resultados semejantes en cuanto al sexo, tipo de Duane, ojo afectado y criterio quirúrgico con las observaciones realizadas por diferentes autores, el defecto refractivo más frecuente fue el astigmatismo hipermetrópicoA descriptive and retrospective study was conducted among 17 patients with diagnosis of Duane's Syndrome that were seen at the consultation room of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, from 1997 to 2000. The following variables were used: sex, type of Duane, affected eye, surgical criterion and refractive defect. 88 % were females, corresponded to type I Duane, the left eye was affected in 76 % of the cases, 64 % presented critical criterion by esotropia and torticollis, and the refractive defect was detected in 65 % of the studied sample. Similar results as regards sex, type of Duane, affected eye and surgical criterion were found in the observations made by other authors. The hypermetropic astigmatism was the commonest refractive defect
Full Text Available Let X be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, f:XÃ¢Â†Â’X any map and pk:XÃ¢Â†Â’X the kth power map. Duan proved that pkf:XÃ¢Â†Â’X has a fixed point if kÃ¢Â‰Â¥2. We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces X whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a ÃŽÂ¸-structure ÃŽÂ¼ÃŽÂ¸:XÃ¢Â†Â’X as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that ÃŽÂ¼ÃŽÂ¸f and fÃŽÂ¼ÃŽÂ¸ each has a fixed point.
Overgaard, K.; Nilas, L.; Johansen, J.S.; Christiansen, C.
Three previous studies have indicated a seasonal variation in bone mineral content, with values during the summer being 1.7% to 7.5% higher than during the winter. We have examined the seasonal influence on both bone mass, biochemical estimates of bone turnover and vitamin D metabolites in 86 healthy women, aged 29-53 years. All participants were followed up for 2 years with examinations every 6 weeks or 3 months. Bone mineral content in the proximal and distal part of the forearm (single photon absorptiometry) did not reveal any significant seasonal variation, whereas bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (dual photon absorptiometry) indicated that the highest values occurred in winter. None of the biochemical parameters showed any statistically significant cyclical changes. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 showed a highly significant seasonal variation, whereas the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration was virtually unchanged. We conclude that seasonal variation in bone mineral content and bone turnover should not be taken into account when interpreting data from longitudinal studies of healthy pre- and postmenopausal women on a sufficient vitamin D nutriture
Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Danielsen, CC
We tested in compression specimens of human proximal tibial trabecular bone from 31 normal donors aged from 16 to 83 years and determined the mechanical properties, density and mineral and collagen content. Young's modulus and ultimate stress were highest between 40 and 50 years, whereas ultimate...... strain and failure energy showed maxima at younger ages. These age-related variations (except for failure energy) were non-linear. Tissue density and mineral concentration were constant throughout life, whereas apparent density (the amount of bone) varied with ultimate stress. Collagen density (the...... amount of collagen) varied with failure energy. Collagen concentration was maximal at younger ages but varied little with age. Our results suggest that the decrease in mechanical properties of trabecular bone such as Young's modulus and ultimate stress is mainly a consequence of the loss of trabecular...
... it appears to be important for the normal development of the eyes, heart, and limbs. Mutations in the SALL4 gene prevent cells from ... Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (3 links) Encyclopedia: ... Human Genome Research Institute: Duane Syndrome Educational Resources (5 ...
Dr. Nalini Konkani
Full Text Available Introduction: The Ribs are essential structure of osseous thorax and provide information that aids in the interpretation of radiologic images. The purpose of this study to investigate variations in thoracic rib and its morphological & clinical importance. So, In present study attempted to find out additional intercostal spaces due to bifurcation of ribs, less intercostal space due to fusion of ribs, variation of the normal ribs like, gap in the rib, fusion of one rib to another at a shaft of rib. Congenital abnormalities of the ribs are usually asymptomatic, often discovered incidentally on chest X-ray. Effects of this neuroskeletal anomaly can include respiratory difficulties and neurological limitations.Material & Method: The study was carried out in Bone Store of Department of Anatomy, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Study was carried out on 500 human dried ribs. And the variations in the ribs are studied. We got variation in the human ribs and studied. Result : Variations were seen like out of 500 ribs, Bifid rib having two ends 9(1.8%, rib having bifid space 2(0.4%, fusion rib at the level of shaft 1(0.2%, fusion of first rib and second rib 1(0.2%,first rib having two ends 1(0.2%. Conclusion: Bifid rib is an anatomical variant where the sternal end of the rib is cleaved into two. So we can rule out mesodermal abnormalities, parenchymal lung disease, chest wall tumor or costal fracture.
Full Text Available Ramesh Kekunnaya, Mithila Negalur Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Services, Child Sight Institute, Jasti V Ramannama Children’s Eye Care Center, KAR Campus, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Duane retraction syndrome (DRS is a congenital eye movement anomaly characterized by variable horizontal duction deficits, with narrowing of the palpebral fissure and globe retraction on attempted adduction, occasionally accompanied by upshoot or downshoot. The etiopathogenesis of this condition can be explained by a spectrum of mechanical, innervational, neurologic and genetic abnormalities occurring independently or which influence each other giving rise to patterns of clinical presentations along with a complex set of ocular and systemic anomalies. Huber type I DRS is the most common form of DRS with an earlier presentation, while Huber type II is the least common presentation. Usually, patients with unilateral type I Duane syndrome have esotropia more frequently than exotropia, those with type II have exotropia and those with type III have esotropia and exotropia occurring equally common. Cases of bilateral DRS may have variable presentation depending upon the type of presentation in each eye. As regards its management, DRS classification based on primary position deviation as esotropic, exotropic or orthotropic is more relevant than Huber’s classification before planning surgery. Surgical approach to these patients is challenging and must be individualized based on the amount of ocular deviation, abnormal head position, associated globe retraction and overshoots. Keywords: Duane syndrome, strabismus surgery, esotropia, overshoots
Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue, while Duane retraction syndrome (DRS is a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder (CCDD which can be transmitted as autosomal dominant disorder in 5–10% of patients. In this paper, we present an 8-year-old girl who presented with left eye DRS and bilateral subluxation of the lens associated with MFS in absence of familial involvement. To our knowledge this is the first case report of DRS with MFS. The occurrence of these syndromes together is very rare and appears to be coincidental.
Khurana, Bhawna Piplani; Khurana, Aruj Kumar; Grover, Sumit
Duane retraction syndrome is characterized by globe retraction and palpebral fissure narrowing on adduction, with restriction of abduction, adduction, or both. Usher syndrome type 2 consists of congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. The authors present a case with a yet unreported association between Duane retraction syndrome type 1 and Usher syndrome type 2. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Vahlensieck, M.; Schmidt, H.M.
Physiology and age dependant changes of human bone marrow are described. The resulting normal distribution patterns of active and inactive bone marrow including the various contrasts on different MR-sequences are discussed. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available Ebru Demet Aygit,1 Murat Kocamaz,1 Asli Inal,1 Korhan Fazil,1 Osman Bulut Ocak,1 Serpil Akar,2 Birsen Gokyigit1 1Strabismus Department, Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Ophthalmology Department, Medicine Faculty, Baskent University, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: To report the results of using prismatic glasses for Duane retraction syndrome (DRS. Methods: Data were obtained from the records of patients who were evaluated during the year 2000 in the Strabismus Unit of the Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital. The average follow-up was 12.2±17.7 months. In all cases, 2 main variables were evaluated: horizontal deviation in the primary position and face turn. Prismatic glasses were provided to patients according to the degree of shift in the primary position. Results: The mean age of patients was 11.2 years. An analysis was performed on the data collected from 12 cases; 7 patients were females (58.3% and 5 were males (41.7%, with 11 (91.7% cases being of type I DRS. All 12 patients had abnormal head posture (face turn and an angle of mean deviation equaling 10 PD (prism dioptri. Conclusion: Treatment was individualized on a case-by-case basis. Prismatic glasses are useful for eliminating abnormal head posture and ocular misalignment in selected cases. Keywords: Duane, prismatic glasses, abnormal head posture
Duan, Rongquan; Barbieri, Davide; Luo, Xiaoman; Weng, Jie; Bao, Chongyun; De Bruijn, Joost D.; Yuan, Huipin
Because of their bioactive properties and chemical similarity to the inorganic component of bone, calcium phosphate (CaP) materials are widely used for bone regeneration. Six commercially available CaP bone substitutes (Bio-Oss, Actifuse, Bi-Ostetic, MBCP, Vitoss and chronOs) as well as two
Conclusion: The occurrence of two different congenital and acquired ocular diseases is rare. This is the first simultaneous presentation of Duane syndrome and Coats' disease ever to be reported in a young patient.
Dimopoulos, P.; Muren, C. (Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Sabbatsberg' s Sjukhus, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)
The size and shape of the human cochlea and the normal ranges of variation of its dimensions were evaluated in 95 plastic casts, prepared from temporal bone specimens. The normal range of variation is fairly small, and is not age-dependent. Obvious digression from this range, associated with pertinent clinical symptoms, indicates an abnormality. (orig./MG).
de Jong, W.C.; Korfage, J.A.M.; Langenbach, G.E.J.
Little is known about the similarities and dissimilarities between daily in vivo strain histories of different bones, other than the generally accepted view that most bones need daily loading to maintain their mass. Similarities in daily strain histories might uncover a common basic mechanical
de Jong, W. C.; Korfage, J. A. M.; Langenbach, G. E. J.
Little is known about the similarities and dissimilarities between daily in vivo strain histories of different bones, other than the generally accepted view that most bones need daily loading to maintain their mass. Similarities in daily strain histories might uncover a common basic mechanical
Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics and surgical effects in patients with Duane retraction syndrome(DRS.METHODS: Totally 13 patients with DRS during June 2011 to December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The data including clinical types and manifestations, surgical methods and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 11 male cases and 2 female cases who all had no ocular and systemic anomalies. The left eye was involved in 9 cases, the right eye was involved in 3 cases and 1 case involved in both eyes. Six cases were type Ⅰ,1 case was typeⅡand 6 cases were type Ⅲ. Eleven cases had abnormal head posture(AHP, 9 cases had the up- or down-shoot phenomenon. The surgical treatment was designed according to subtypes and clinical features which included medial rectus recession, lateral rectus recession, recession of both horizontal rectus muscles and lateral rectus recession combined with Y splitting. After surgery, horizontal deviation was less than ±10△ in all patients, and AHP disappeared in 4 cases and improved in 7 cases. The up- or down-shoot and global retraction disappeared in 5 cases and improved in 4 cases. Simultaneously, the restriction of ocular motility was improved in all patients. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of DRS are variant in different types. Detailed examination before surgery and reasonable surgical design are important in treatment of patients with DRS.
Aygit, Ebru Demet; Kocamaz, Murat; Inal, Asli; Fazil, Korhan; Ocak, Osman Bulut; Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen
Purpose To report the results of using prismatic glasses for Duane retraction syndrome (DRS). Methods Data were obtained from the records of patients who were evaluated during the year 2000 in the Strabismus Unit of the Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital. The average follow-up was 12.2±17.7 months. In all cases, 2 main variables were evaluated: horizontal deviation in the primary position and face turn. Prismatic glasses were provided to patients according to the degree of shift in the primary position. Results The mean age of patients was 11.2 years. An analysis was performed on the data collected from 12 cases; 7 patients were females (58.3%) and 5 were males (41.7%), with 11 (91.7%) cases being of type I DRS. All 12 patients had abnormal head posture (face turn) and an angle of mean deviation equaling 10 PD (prism dioptri). Conclusion Treatment was individualized on a case-by-case basis. Prismatic glasses are useful for eliminating abnormal head posture and ocular misalignment in selected cases. PMID:28442887
Mora-Macias, J.; Reina-Romo, E.; Pajares, A.; Miranda, P.; Dominguez, J.
Nanoindentation allows obtaining the elastic modulus and the hardness of materials point by point. This technique has been used to assess the mechanical propeties of the callus during fracture healing. However, as fas as the authors know, the evaluation of mechanical properties by this technique of the distraction and the docking-site calluses generated during bone transport have not been reported yet. Therefore, the aim of this work is using nanoindentation to assess the spatial and temporal variation of the elastic modulus of the woven bone generated during bone transport. Nanoindentation measurements were carried out using 6 samples from sheep sacrificed at different stages of the bone transport experiments. The results obtained show an important heterogeneity of the elastic modulus of the woven bone without spatial trends. In the case of temporal variation, a clear increase of the mean elastic modulus with time after surgery was observed (from 7±2GPa 35 days after surgery to 14±2GPa 525 days after surgery in the distraction callus and a similar increase in the docking site callus). Comparison with the evolution of the elastic modulus in the woven bone generated during fracture healing shows that mechanical properties increase slower in the case of the woven bone generated during bone transport. (Author)
Mazess, R.B.; Witt, R.
Measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) were made in 14 different laboratories in the US and four in Europe using commercially produced instrumentation (Norland Bone Mineral Analyzer) for 125 I absorptiometry. A three-chambered standard (dipotassium hydrogen phosphate) was measured in each laboratory following their own calibration. The values of BMC in the middle range (0.6 g/cm) all were adequate (within +-2%), but the BMC values were underestimated by 5% or more in five laboratories for the largest chamber and in three laboratories for the smallest chamber. Width values were accurate (+-3%) over 0.7 to 1.6 cm. The effect of underestimating large values in clinical studies is to reduce the difference between normals and abnormals. Calibration error also may be responsible for the variable normal values found in the US and Europe by osme users of this instrument
Karsdal Morten A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone size (BS variation is under strong genetic control and plays an important role in determining bone strength and fracture risk. Recently, a genome-wide association study identified polymorphisms associated with hip BS variation in the PLCL1 (phospholipase c-like 1 locus. Carriers of the major A allele of the most significant polymorphism, rs7595412, have around 17% larger hip BS than non-carriers. We therefore hypothesized that this polymorphism may also influence postmenopausal complications. Methods The effects of rs7595412 on hip BS, bone mineral density (BMD, vertebral fractures, serum Crosslaps and osteocalcin levels were analyzed in 1,191 postmenopausal Danish women. Results This polymorphism had no influence on hip and spine BS as well as on femur and spine BMD. Women carrying at least one copy of the A allele had lower levels of serum osteocalcin as compared with those homozygous for the G allele (p = 0.03 whereas no effect on serum Crosslaps was detected. Furthermore, women homozygous for the A allele were more affected by vertebral fractures than those carrying at least one copy of the G allele (p = 0.04. Conclusions In postmenopausal women, our results suggest that the PLCL1 rs7595412 polymorphism has no obvious effect on hip BS or BMD but may be nominally associated with increased proportion of vertebral fracture and increased levels of osteocalcin.
Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. Available online at ... of bones, facilitating regeneration of flesh and prevention of miscarriage. Additionally, this herb has been used to treat bone fractures, trauma as well as for relieving pain and swelling [2,3] ...
Perkasa, Rilis Eka; Umniati, B. Sri; Sunendar, Bambang
Bone scaffold is one of the most important component in bone tissue engineering. Basically, bone scaffold is a biocompatible structure designed to replace broken bone tissue temporarily. Unlike conventional bone replacements, an advanced bone scaffold should be bioactive (e.g: supporting bone growth) and biodegradable as new bone tissue grow, while retain its mechanical properties similarity with bone. It is also possible to add more bioactive substrates to bone scaffold to further support its performance. One of the substrate is strontium, an element that could improve the ability of the bone to repair itself. However, it must be noted that excessive consumption of strontium could lead to toxicity and diseases, such as osteomalacia and hypocalcemia. This research aimed to investigate the effect of strontium addition to the cytotoxic property of chitosan-alginate-carbonate apatite bone scaffold. The amount of strontium added to the bone scaffold was 5% molar of the carbonate apatite content. As a control, bone scaffold without stronsium (0% molar) were also made. The effect of chitosan concentration variation on the cytotoxicity were also observed, where the concentration varies on 1% and 3% w/v of chitosan solution. The results showed an optimum result on bone scaffold sample with 5% molar of strontium and 3% chitosan, where 87.67% cells in the performed MTS-Assay cytotoxicity testing survived. This showed that the use of up to 5% molar addition of strontium and 3% chitosan could enhance the survivability of the cell.
Full Text Available A 5-year-old girl presented with bilateral familial vertical Duane retraction syndrome with alternating esotropia, elevation deficit, Marcus gunn phenomenon, and facial hypoplasia. Abnormal adducting downshoots on attempting abduction suggestive of a synergistic convergence were noted. Hypothesis suggests aberrant innervations or peripheral anatomic connections between inferior and medial recti.
Duane Webster is a visionary leader who, throughout his career, has had a significant impact on the improvement of libraries and librarianship. His work to establish the Association of Research Library's (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS) and its several organizational improvement programs laid the foundation for organization development in…
Starz, I.; Einspieler, R.; Poschauko, H.; Ebner, F.; Arian-Schad, K.; Justich, E.
MR examinations of bone marrow variations in the spine after radiotherapy were performed on 24 patients in the thoracic and lumbar vertebral column. The actinically affected bone marrow showed a characteristic increase of signal intensity in T 1 -weighted sequences in the sagital plane, due to conversion of red marrow to fatty marrow. The dose in the well-defined radiation areas was between 28 and 70 Gray (Gy). The lowest dose, applied to the bone-marrow bordering on the defined radiation areas, where we still could find an increase of signal intensity, was below 2,8 to 5 Gy. MR imaging was performed between 6 and 9 month after radiotherapy. (orig.) [de
Koller, Daniel L.; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H.
The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including bone mineral density (BMD), has been shown to be strongly influenced by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 828 F2 progeny of Copenhagen and dark agouti rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, o...
Chung, Min Suk; Suh, Kyung Jin; Joo, Kang; Chung, In Hyuk
To evaluate normal variations and thus to avoid confusion in differentiation from lesions of the accessory structures (rhomboid fossa, foramen for supraclavicular nerve, conoid tubercle) of the clavicle in chest radiographs. We studied the variations of the clavicle in 300 chest radiographs (134 men, 166 women) and 355 dry bones (right 166, left 189;151 men, 74 women, 130 unknown sex). In chest radiographs, the incidence of the depressed rhomboid fossa was 229 cases (39.5%; male 52.0%, female 29.9%); the flat type was 329 cases (56.9%; male 45.7%, female 65.7%); and the elevated type was 20 cases (3.5%;male 2.4%, female 4.3%). In the dry bones, the incidence of the depressed rhomboid fossa was 129 cases (57.3%; male 59.6%, female 52.7%); the flat type was 65 cases (28.9%; male 24.5%, female 37.8%); and the elevated type was 31 cases (13.8%; male 15.9%, female 9.5%). The incidence of the foramen for supraclavicular nerve was 0.8% in chest radiographs, and 1.4% in the dry bones. The incidence of the elevated conoid tubercle was 65.1% (male 64.0%, female 65.9%) in chest radiographs, and 96.9% (male 95.4%, female 100.0%) in the dry bones. The incidence of the depressed rhomboid fossa in chest radiographs was higher in men and the right clavicle. The incidence of flat rhomboid fossa in chest radiographs decreased according to increase of age. The foramen for supraclavicular nerve was occasionally found ( 0.8% in chest radiographs; 1.4% in the dry bones)
Trajkovski, Branko; Jaunich, Matthias; Müller, Wolf-Dieter; Beuer, Florian; Zafiropoulos, Gregory-George; Houshmand, Alireza
The indication-oriented Dental Bone Graft Substitutes (DBGS) selection, the correct bone defects classification, and appropriate treatment planning are very crucial for obtaining successful clinical results. However, hydrophilic, viscoelastic, and physicochemical properties' influence on the DBGS regenerative potential has poorly been studied. For that reason, we investigated the dimensional changes and molecular mobility by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) of xenograft (cerabone ® ), synthetic (maxresorb ® ), and allograft (maxgraft ® , Puros ® ) blocks in a wet and dry state. While no significant differences could be seen in dry state, cerabone ® and maxresorb ® blocks showed a slight height decrease in wet state, whereas both maxgraft ® and Puros ® had an almost identical height increase. In addition, cerabone ® and maxresorb ® blocks remained highly rigid and their damping behaviour was not influenced by the water. On the other hand, both maxgraft ® and Puros ® had a strong increase in their molecular mobility with different damping behaviour profiles during the wet state. A high-speed microscopical imaging system was used to analyze the hydrophilicity in several naturally derived (cerabone ® , Bio-Oss ® , NuOss ® , SIC ® nature graft) and synthetic DBGS granules (maxresorb ® , BoneCeramic ® , NanoBone ® , Ceros ® ). The highest level of hydrophilicity was detected in cerabone ® and maxresorb ® , while Bio-Oss ® and BoneCeramic ® had the lowest level of hydrophilicity among both naturally derived and synthetic DBGS groups. Deviations among the DBGS were also addressed via physicochemical differences recorded by Micro Computed Tomography, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray powder Diffractometry, and Thermogravimetric Analysis. Such DBGS variations could influence the volume stability at the grafting site, handling as well as the speed of vascularization and bone regeneration. Therefore, this
Full Text Available Background: The management of Duane retraction syndrome (DRS is challenging and may become more difficult if an associated accommodative component due to high hyperopia is present. The purpose of this study is to review clinical features and outcomes in patients with partially accommodative esotropia and DRS. Setting and Design: Retrospective, non-comparative case series. Materials and Methods: Six cases of DRS with high hyperopia were reviewed. Results: Of the patients studied, the mean age of presentation was 1.3 years (range: 0.5-2.5 years. The mean amount of hyperopia was + 5D (range: 3.50-8.50 in both eyes. The mean follow up period was 7 years (range: 4 months-12 years. Five cases were unilateral while one was bilateral. Four cases underwent vertical rectus muscle transposition (VRT and one had medial rectus recession prior to presentation; all were given optical correction. Two (50% of the four patients who underwent vertical rectus transposition cases developed consecutive exotropia, one of whom did not have spectacles prescribed pre-operatively. All other cases (four had minimal residual esotropia and face turn at the last follow-up with spectacle correction. Conclusion: Patients with Duane syndrome can have an accommodative component to their esotropia, which is crucial to detect and correct prior to surgery to decrease the risk of long-term over-correction. Occasionally, torticollis in Duane syndrome can be satisfactorily corrected with spectacles alone.
Terhune, Claire E; Kimbel, William H; Lockwood, Charles A
Although the level of taxonomic diversity within the fossil hominin species Homo erectus (sensu lato) is continually debated, there have been relatively few studies aiming to quantify the morphology of this species. Instead, most researchers have relied on qualitative descriptions or the evaluation of nonmetric characters, which in many cases display continuous variation. Also, only a few studies have used quantitative data to formally test hypotheses regarding the taxonomic composition of the "erectus" hypodigm. Despite these previous analyses, however, and perhaps in part due to these varied approaches for assessing variation within specimens typically referred to H. erectus (sensu lato) and the general lack of rigorous statistical testing of how variation within this taxon is partitioned, there is currently little consensus regarding whether this group is a single species, or whether it should instead be split into separate temporal or geographically delimited taxa. In order to evaluate possible explanations for variation within H. erectus, we tested the general hypothesis that variation within the temporal bone morphology of H. erectus is consistent with that of a single species, using great apes and humans as comparative taxa. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) landmarks of the temporal bone were digitized on a total of 520 extant and fossil hominid crania. Landmarks were registered by Generalized Procrustes Analysis, and Procrustes distances were calculated for comparisons of individuals within and between the extant taxa. Distances between fossil specimens and between a priori groupings of fossils were then compared to the distances calculated within the extant taxa to assess the variation within the H. erectus sample relative to that of known species, subspecies, and populations. Results of these analyses indicate that shape variation within the entire H. erectus sample is generally higher than extant hominid intraspecific variation, and putative H. ergaster
Mice on a 12/12 light/dark cycle were bled during a twenty-four hour period each week for eight weeks to establish daily values of circulating blood cells. No significant daily variation was found in total red blood cells, hematocrit, or percentage of reticulocytes. A significant (P < 0.001) daily variation was found in total white blood cells, with the minimum occurring at 8 PM and the maximum occurring during the daylight hours from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Mice were then exposed to 0 R, 20 R, 50 R, or 100 R of x-radiation to determine what dose significantly reduces the total white cell count in circulating blood. It was found that 100 R significantly (P < .05) reduces the total white cell count over a four week period post-exposure. To determine if circulating blood cells and bone marrow cells show a diurnal radiosensitivity, mice were exposed to 100 R or 200 R of x-radiation at noon or midnight. Hematocrits, reticulocyte and white blood cell counts, daily white blood cell rhythm, and bone marrow cell density indicate that these mice were more radiosensitive at night
Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H.
The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including bone mineral density (BMD), has been shown to be strongly influenced by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 828 F2 progeny of Copenhagen and dark agouti rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted bone density (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine genome-wide significance thresholds for the full model and epistasis (interaction) LOD scores corresponding to an alpha level of 0.01. A novel locus on chromosome 15 and a previously reported chromosome 14 QTL demonstrated a strong epistatic effect on BMD at the femur by DXA (LOD = 5.4). Two novel QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 12 were found to interact to affect total BMD at the femur midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.0). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified QTL in the rat, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTL or with other novel loci to contribute to BMD variation. PMID:19153792
Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H
The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including bone mineral density (BMD), has been shown to be strongly influenced by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 828 F2 progeny of Copenhagen and dark agouti rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted bone density (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine genome-wide significance thresholds for the full model and epistasis (interaction) LOD scores corresponding to an alpha level of 0.01. A novel locus on chromosome 15 and a previously reported chromosome 14 QTL demonstrated a strong epistatic effect on BMD at the femur by DXA (LOD = 5.4). Two novel QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 12 were found to interact to affect total BMD at the femur midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.0). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified QTL in the rat, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTL or with other novel loci to contribute to BMD variation.
Full Text Available The indication-oriented Dental Bone Graft Substitutes (DBGS selection, the correct bone defects classification, and appropriate treatment planning are very crucial for obtaining successful clinical results. However, hydrophilic, viscoelastic, and physicochemical properties’ influence on the DBGS regenerative potential has poorly been studied. For that reason, we investigated the dimensional changes and molecular mobility by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA of xenograft (cerabone®, synthetic (maxresorb®, and allograft (maxgraft®, Puros® blocks in a wet and dry state. While no significant differences could be seen in dry state, cerabone® and maxresorb® blocks showed a slight height decrease in wet state, whereas both maxgraft® and Puros® had an almost identical height increase. In addition, cerabone® and maxresorb® blocks remained highly rigid and their damping behaviour was not influenced by the water. On the other hand, both maxgraft® and Puros® had a strong increase in their molecular mobility with different damping behaviour profiles during the wet state. A high-speed microscopical imaging system was used to analyze the hydrophilicity in several naturally derived (cerabone®, Bio-Oss®, NuOss®, SIC® nature graft and synthetic DBGS granules (maxresorb®, BoneCeramic®, NanoBone®, Ceros®. The highest level of hydrophilicity was detected in cerabone® and maxresorb®, while Bio-Oss® and BoneCeramic® had the lowest level of hydrophilicity among both naturally derived and synthetic DBGS groups. Deviations among the DBGS were also addressed via physicochemical differences recorded by Micro Computed Tomography, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray powder Diffractometry, and Thermogravimetric Analysis. Such DBGS variations could influence the volume stability at the grafting site, handling as well as the speed of vascularization and bone regeneration. Therefore, this study initiates a new
Randee L. Hunter
Full Text Available Osteocytes and their lacunocanalicular network have been identified as the regulator of bone quality and function by exerting extensive influence over metabolic processes, mechanical adaptation, and mineral homeostasis. Recent research has shown that osteocyte apoptosis leads to a decrease in bone quality and increase in bone fragility mediated through its effects on remodeling. The purpose of this study is to investigate variation in cortical bone osteocyte lacunar density with respect to major factors including sex, age, and intracortical porosity to establish both regional and systemic trends. Samples from the midshaft femur, midshaft rib and distal one-third diaphysis of the radius were recovered from 30 modern cadaveric individuals (15 males and 15 females ranging from 49 to 100 years old. Thick ground undecalcified histological (80 μm cross-sections were made and imaged under bright field microscopy. Osteocyte lacunar density (Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar and intracortical porosity (%Po.Ar were quantified. No significant sex differences in Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar or %Po.Ar were found in any element. Linear regressions demonstrated a significant decrease in osteocyte lacunar density (Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar and increase in intracortical porosity (%Po.Ar with age for the sex-pooled sample in the femur (R2 = 0.208, 0.297 respectively and radius (R2 = 0.108, 0.545 respectively. Age was unable to significantly predict osteocyte lacunar density or intracortical porosity in the rib (R2 = 0.058, 0.114 respectively. Comparisons of regression coefficients demonstrated a systemic trend in the decrease in osteocyte lacunar density (Ot.Lc.N/B.Ar and increase in intracortical porosity (%Po.Ar with age. In each element, intracortical porosity was significantly negatively correlated with lacunar density for which the radius demonstrated the strongest relationship (r = −0.746. Using pore number (Po.N as a proxy for available vascularity to support the osteocyte population, Po
Cadena, Edwin A; Schweitzer, Mary H
Here we describe variations in osteocytes derived from each of the three bone layers that comprise the turtle shell. We examine osteocytes in bone from four extant turtle species to form a morphological 'baseline', and then compare these with morphologies of osteocytes preserved in Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossils. Two different morphotypes of osteocytes are recognized: flattened-oblate osteocytes (FO osteocytes), which are particularly abundant in the internal cortex and lamellae of secondary osteons in cancellous bone, and stellate osteocytes (SO osteocytes), principally present in the interstitial lamellae between secondary osteons and external cortex. We show that the morphology of osteocytes in each of the three bone layers is conserved through ontogeny. We also demonstrate that these morphological variations are phylogenetically independent, as well as independent of the bone origin (intramembranous or endochondral). Preservation of microstructures consistent with osteocytes in the morphology in Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossil turtle bones appears to be common, and occurs in diverse diagenetic environments including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial deposits. These data have potential to illuminate aspects of turtle biology and evolution previously unapproachable, such as estimates of genome size of extinct species, differences in metabolic rates among different bones from a single individual, and potential function of osteocytes as capsules for preservation of ancient biomolecules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of trabecular thickness and trabecular separation on modulating the trabecular architecture of the mandibular bone in ovariectomized rats.Fourteen 12-week-old adult female Wistar rats were divided into an ovariectomy group (OVX and a sham-ovariectomy group (sham. Five months after the surgery, the mandibles from 14 rats (seven OVX and seven sham were analyzed by micro-CT. Images of inter-radicular alveolar bone of the mandibular first molars underwent three-dimensional reconstruction and were analyzed.Compared to the sham group, trabecular thickness in OVX alveolar bone decreased by 27% (P = 0.012, but trabecular separation in OVX alveolar bone increased by 59% (P = 0.005. A thickness and separation map showed that trabeculae of less than 100 μm increased by 46%, whereas trabeculae of more than 200 μm decreased by more than 40% in the OVX group compared to those in the sham group. Furthermore, the OVX separation of those trabecular of more than 200 μm was 65% higher compared to the sham group. Bone mineral density (P = 0.028 and bone volume fraction (p = 0.001 were also significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to the sham group.Ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mandibular bone may be related to the distributional variations in trabecular thickness and separation which profoundly impact the modulation of the trabecular architecture.
Slattery, Martha L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Kadlubar, Susan; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.; Wolff, Roger K.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are part of the TGF-β-signaling pathway; genetic variation in these genes may be involved in colorectal cancer. In this study we evaluated the association between genetic variation in BMP1 (11 tagSNPs), BMP2 (5 tagSNPs), BMP4 (3 tagSNPs), BMPR1A (9 tagSNPs), BMPR1B (21 tagSNPs), BMPR2 (11 tagSNPs), and GDF10 (7 tagSNPs) with risk of colon and rectal cancer and tumor molecular phenotype. We used data from population-based case-control studies (colon cancer n=1574 cases, 1970 controls; rectal cancer n=791 cases, 999 controls). We observed that genetic variation in BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, BMP2, and BMP4 was associated with risk of developing colon cancer, with 20 to 30% increased risk for most high-risk genotypes. A summary of high-risk genotypes showed over a twofold increase in colon cancer risk at the upper risk category (OR 2.49 95% CI 1.95, 3.18). BMPR2, BMPR1B, BMP2, and GDF10 were associated with rectal cancer. BMPR2 rs2228545 was associated with an almost twofold increased risk of rectal cancer. The risk associated with the highest category of the summary score for rectal cancer was 2.97 (95% CI 1.87, 4.72). Genes in the BMP-signaling pathway were consistently associated with CIMP+ status in combination with both KRAS-mutated and MSI tumors. BMP genes interacted statistically significantly with other genes in the TGF-β-signaling pathway, including TGFβ1, TGFβR1, Smad 3, Smad 4, and Smad 7. Our data support a role for genetic variation in BMP-related genes in the etiology of colon and rectal cancer. One possible mechanism is via the TGF-β-signaling pathway. PMID:21387313
Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD and increased fracture risk. Fat mass is a determinant of bone strength and both phenotypes have a strong genetic component. In this study, we examined the association between obesity associated polymorphisms (SNPs with body composition, BMD, Ultrasound (QUS, fracture and biomarkers (Homocysteine (Hcy, folate, Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 for obesity and osteoporosis. Five common variants: rs17782313 and rs1770633 (melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R; rs7566605 (insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2; rs9939609 and rs1121980 (fat mass and obesity associated (FTO were genotyped in 2 cohorts of Swedish women: PEAK-25 (age 25, n = 1061 and OPRA (age 75, n = 1044. Body mass index (BMI, total body fat and lean mass were strongly positively correlated with QUS and BMD in both cohorts (r(2 = 0.2-0.6. MC4R rs17782313 was associated with QUS in the OPRA cohort and individuals with the minor C-allele had higher values compared to T-allele homozygotes (TT vs. CT vs.100 vs. 103 vs. 103; p = 0.002; (SOS: 1521 vs. 1526 vs. 1524; p = 0.008; (Stiffness index: 69 vs. 73 vs. 74; p = 0.0006 after adjustment for confounders. They also had low folate (18 vs. 17 vs. 16; p = 0.03 and vitamin D (93 vs. 91 vs. 90; p = 0.03 and high Hcy levels (13.7 vs 14.4 vs. 14.5; p = 0.06. Fracture incidence was lower among women with the C-allele, (52% vs. 58%; p = 0.067. Variation in MC4R was not associated with BMD or body composition in either OPRA or PEAK-25. SNPs close to FTO and INSIG2 were not associated with any bone phenotypes in either cohort and FTO SNPs were only associated with body composition in PEAK-25 (p≤0.001. Our results suggest that genetic variation close to MC4R is associated with quantitative ultrasound and risk of fracture.
, such as apparent, apparent ash and collagen densities of human tibial trabecular bone have significant relationships with age. Tissue density and mineral concentration remain constant throughout life. Trabecular bone is tougher in the younger age, i.e. fracture requires more energy. Collagen density was the single......Initiated and motivated by clinical and scientific problems such as age-related bone fracture, prosthetic loosening, bone remodeling, and degenerative bone diseases, much significant research on the properties of trabecular bone has been carried out over the last two decades. This work has mainly...... focused on the central vertebral trabecular bone, while little is known about age-related changes in the properties of human peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone. Knowledge of the properties of peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone is of major importance for the understanding of degenerative diseases...
Wallace, I J; Nesbitt, A; Mongle, C; Gould, E S; Grine, F E
Age-related deterioration of limb bone diaphyseal structure is documented among precontact Inuit foragers from northern Alaska. These findings challenge the concept that bone loss and fracture susceptibility among modern Inuit stem from their transition away from a physically demanding traditional lifestyle toward a more sedentary Western lifestyle. Skeletal fragility is rare among foragers and other traditional-living societies, likely due to their high physical activity levels. Among modern Inuit, however, severe bone loss and fractures are apparently common. This is possibly because of recent Western influences and increasing sedentism. To determine whether compromised bone structure and strength among the Inuit are indeed aberrant for a traditional-living group, data were collected on age-related variation in limb bone diaphyseal structure from a group predating Western influences. Skeletons of 184 adults were analyzed from the Point Hope archaeological site. Mid-diaphyseal structure was measured in the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, and tibia using CT. Structural differences were assessed between young, middle-aged, and old individuals. In all bones examined, both females and males exhibited significant age-related reductions in bone quantity. With few exceptions, total bone (periosteal) area did not significantly increase between young and old age in either sex, nor did geometric components of bending rigidity (second moments of area). While the physically demanding lifestyles of certain traditional-living groups may protect against bone loss and fracture susceptibility, this is not the case among the Inuit. It remains possible, however, that Western characteristics of the modern Inuit lifestyle exacerbate age-related skeletal deterioration.
Ding, M.; Odgaard, A.; Linde, F.
-related changes in the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of human tibial cancellous bone. One hundred and sixty cylindrical cancellous bone specimens were produced from 40 normal proximal tibiae from 40 donors, aged 16-85 years. These specimens were micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned......, and microstructural properties were determined. The specimens were then tested in compression to obtain Young's modulus. The degree of anisotropy, mean marrow space volume, and bone surface-to-volume ratio increased significantly with age. Bone volume fraction, mean trabecular volume, and bone surface density...
Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.
The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically
Mazieres, B.; Comar, D.
An original method of local activation on the hand, using isotopic neutron sources, was used to determine bone Ca and P simultaneously. The calcium concentration variation with age and sex was studied on 120 normal subjects men and women aged between 20 and 80, divided into 10 year age groups. These standards were chosen amongst subjects free from complaints liable to affect bone mineralisation and with more or less normal blood calcium and phosphorus contents. The results are as follows: between 20 and 50 the relative standard derivation observed within a 10 year age group averages 8% in men and 9% in women, after 50 this physiological scattering is much greater in both sexes, after 60 the bone calcium concentration decreases quickly in women at an average rate of 1.15% a year [fr
Skulan, Joseph; Anbar, Ariel; Bullen, Thomas; Puzas, J. Edward; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.
Changes in bone mineral balance cause rapid and systematic changes in the calcium isotope composition of human urine. Urine from subjects in a 17 week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism indicates the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Urine calcium isotope composition probably is affected by both bone metabolism and renal processes. Calcium isotope. analysis of urine and other tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.
Giroux, Sylvie; Elfassihi, Latifa; Cardinal, Guy; Laflamme, Nathalie; Rousseau, François
Bone mineral density has a strong genetic component but it is also influenced by environmental factors making it a complex trait to study. LRP5 gene was previously shown to be involved in rare diseases affecting bone mass. Mutations associated with gain-of-function were described as well as loss-of-function mutations. Following this discovery, many frequent LRP5 polymorphisms were tested against the variation of BMD in the normal population. Heel bone parameters (SOS, BUA) were measured by right calcaneal QUS in 5021 healthy French-Canadian women and for 2104 women, BMD evaluated by DXA at two sites was available (femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS)). Among women with QUS measures and those with DXA measures, 26.5% and 32.8% respectively were premenopausal, 9.2% and 10.7% were perimenopausal and 64.2% and 56.5% were postmenopausal. About a third of the peri- and postmenopausal women never received hormone therapy. Two single nucleotide coding polymorphisms (Val667Met and Ala1330Val) in LRP5 gene were genotyped by allele-specific PCR. All bone measures were tested individually for associations with each polymorphism by analysis of covariance with adjustment for non genetic risk factors. Furthermore, haplotype analysis was performed to take into account the strong linkage disequilibrium between the two polymorphisms. The two LRP5 polymorphisms were found to be associated with all five bone measures (L2L4 and femoral neck DXA as well as heel SOS, BUA and stiffness index) in the whole sample. Premenopausal women drove the association as expected from the proposed role of LRP5 in peak bone mass. Our results suggest that the Val667Met polymorphism is the causative variant but this remains to be functionally proven.
Tenta, Roxane; Moschonis, George; Koutsilieris, Michael; Manios, Yannis
To assess the effectiveness of a dietary intervention combined with fortified dairy products on bone metabolism and bone mass indices in postmenopausal women. Forty postmenopausal women (55-65 years old) were equally randomized into a dietary group (DG), receiving daily and for 30 months, 1,200 mg of calcium and 7.5 μg of vitamin D(3) for the first 12 months that increased to 22.5 μg for the remaining 18 months of intervention through fortified dairy products; and a control group (CG). Differences in the changes of bone metabolism and bone mass indices were examined with repeated measures ANOVA. A significant increase was observed for PTH levels only in the CG during the first six winter months of intervention (p = 0.049). After 30 months of intervention, during winter, serum 25(OH)D significantly decreased in the CG while remained in the same high levels as in the summer period in the DG. Serum RANKL levels decreased significantly in the DG compared with the increase in the CG during the 30-month intervention period (p = 0.005). Serum CTx decreased significantly in the DG after six (-0.08; -0.12 to -0.03) and 12 (-0.03; -0.08 to -0.02) months of intervention. Finally, the DG had more favorable changes in total body BMD than the CG (p effective in producing favorable changes in several bone metabolism and bone mass indices and in counterbalancing seasonal variations in hormonal and biochemical molecules.
Andrew N Luu
Full Text Available High resolution μCT, and combined μPET/CT have emerged as non-invasive techniques to enhance or even replace dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the current preferred approach for fragility fracture risk assessment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of µPET/CT imaging to differentiate changes in rat bone tissue density and microstructure induced by metabolic bone diseases more accurately than current available methods.Thirty three rats were divided into three groups of control, ovariectomy and vitamin-D deficiency. At the conclusion of the study, animals were subjected to glucose ((18FDG and sodium fluoride (Na(18F PET/CT scanning. Then, specimens were subjected to µCT imaging and tensile mechanical testing.Compared to control, those allocated to ovariectomy and vitamin D deficiency groups showed 4% and 22% (significant increase in (18FDG uptake values, respectively. DXA-based bone mineral density was higher in the vitamin D deficiency group when compared to the other groups (cortical bone, yet μCT-based apparent and mineral density results were not different between groups. DXA-based bone mineral density was lower in the ovariectomy group when compared to the other groups (cancellous bone; yet μCT-based mineral density results were not different between groups, and the μCT-based apparent density results were lower in the ovariectomy group compared to the other groups.PET and micro-CT provide an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in bone tissue mineral density, as well as microstructure for cortical and cancellous bone and metabolic activity. As osteomalacia is characterized by impaired bone mineralization, the use of densitometric analyses may lead to misinterpretation of the condition as osteoporosis. In contrast, µCT alone and in combination with the PET component certainly provides an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in both bone tissue mineral density, as well as
Watson, Sawyer; Couture, Ryan B.; McKibben, Natasha S.; Nichols, James T.; Richardson, Shannon E.; Noakes, David L. G.
SUMMARY What is the nature of evolutionary divergence of the jaw skeleton within the genus Oncorhynchus? How can two associated bones evolve new shapes and still maintain functional integration? Here, we introduce and test a ‘concordance’ hypothesis, in which an extraordinary matching of the evolutionary shape changes of the dentary and angular articular serves to preserve their fitting together. To test this hypothesis, we examined morphologies of the dentary and angular articular at parr (juvenile) stage, and at three levels of biological organization – between salmon and trout, between sister species within both salmon and trout, and among three types differing in life histories within one species, O. mykiss. The comparisons show bone shape divergences among the groups at each level; morphological divergence between salmon and trout is marked even at this relatively early life history stage. We observed substantial matching between the two mandibular bones in both pattern and amount of shape variation, and in shape covariation across species. These findings strongly support the concordance hypothesis, and reflect functional and/or developmental constraint on morphological evolution. We present evidence for developmental modularity within both bones. The locations of module boundaries were predicted from the patterns of evolutionary divergences, and for the dentary, at least, would appear to facilitate its functional association with the angular articular. The modularity results suggest that development has biased the course of evolution. PMID:26372063
Ho-Pham, Lan T; Nguyen, Sing C; Tran, Bich; Nguyen, Tuan V
Bone mineral density (BMD) is under strong genetic regulation, but it is not clear which genes are involved in the regulation, particularly in Asian populations. This study sought to determine the association between 29 genes discovered by Caucasian-based genome-wide association studies and BMD in a Vietnamese population. The study involved 564 Vietnamese men and women aged 18 years and over (average age: 47 years) who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City. BMD at the femoral neck, lumbar spine, total hip and whole body was measured by DXA (Hologic QDR4500, Bedford, MA, USA). Thirty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 29 genes were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY technology. The magnitude of association between SNPs and BMD was analyzed by the linear regression model. The Bayesian model average method was used to identify SNPs that are independently associated with BMD. The distribution of genotypes of all, but two, SNPs was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law. After adjusting for age, gender and weight, 3 SNPs were associated with BMD: rs2016266 (SP7 gene), rs7543680 (ZBTB40 gene), and rs1373004 (MBL2/DKK1 gene). Among the three genetic variants, the SNP rs2016266 had the strongest association, with each minor allele being associated with ~0.02 g/cm(2) increase in BMD at the femoral neck and whole body. Each of these genetic variant explained about 0.2 to 1.1% variance of BMD. All other SNPs were not significantly associated with BMD. These results suggest that genetic variants in the SP7, ZBTB40 and MBL2/DKK1 genes are associated with BMD in the Vietnamese population, and that the effect of these genes on BMD is likely to be modest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mendes, Milrian S.; Felinto, Daniel
We analyze the efficiency and scalability of the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller (DLCZ) protocol for quantum repeaters focusing on the behavior of the experimentally accessible measures of entanglement for the system, taking into account crucial imperfections of the stored entangled states. We calculate then the degradation of the final state of the quantum-repeater linear chain for increasing sizes of the chain, and characterize it by a lower bound on its concurrence and the ability to violate the Clausner-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. The states are calculated up to an arbitrary number of stored excitations, as this number is not fundamentally bound for experiments involving large atomic ensembles. The measurement by avalanche photodetectors is modeled by ''ON/OFF'' positive operator-valued measure operators. As a result, we are able to consistently test the approximation of the real fields by fields with a finite number of excitations, determining the minimum number of excitations required to achieve a desired precision in the prediction of the various measured quantities. This analysis finally determines the minimum purity of the initial state that is required to succeed in the protocol as the size of the chain increases. We also provide a more accurate estimate for the average time required to succeed in each step of the protocol. The minimum purity analysis and the new time estimates are then combined to trace the perspectives for implementation of the DLCZ protocol in present-day laboratory setups.
Zhang, Yongqiang; Li, Yongfeng; Gao, Qi; Shao, Bo; Xiao, Jianrui; Zhou, Hong; Niu, Qiang; Shen, Mingming; Liu, Baolin; Hu, Kaijin; Kong, Liang
This study aimed to compare the variation of cancellous bones at four skeletal sites: lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib in ovariectomized sheep. Sixteen adult sheep were randomly divided into two groups: eight sheep were ovariectomized served as experimental group; the other eight untreated sheep were served as control group. Bone mineral density was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry on lumbar vertebrae at baseline and twelve months after ovariectomy. After 12 months, lumbar vertebrae L3 and L4, femoral necks, mandibular angles and the fourth ribs were harvested for micro-CT scanning, histological analysis and biomechanical test. The results showed that bone mineral density of lumbar vertebra decreased significantly in twelfth month (pbone volume/total volume decreased by 45.6%, 36.1% 21.3% and 18.7% in lumbar vertebrae, femoral necks, mandibular angles and ribs in experimental group (pbones to oestrogen deficiency in ovariectomized sheep was site-specific on a pattern as follows: lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wouters, F.R.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Hellden, L.; Lavstedt, S.; Salonen, L.
The study was aimed at analyzing intra- and inter-examiner variations in computerized measurement and in non-measurability of alveolar bone level in a cross-sectional, epidemiologic material. At each interproximal tooth surface, alveolar bone height in percentage of root length (B/R) and tooth length (B/T) were determined twice by one examiner and once by a second examiner from X5-magnified periapical radiographs. The overall intra- and inter-examiner variations in measurement were 2.85% and 3.84% of root length and 1.97% and 2.82% of tooth length, respectively. The varations were different for different tooth groups and for different degrees of severity of marginal periodontitis. The overall proportions on non-measurable tooth surfaces varied with examiner from 32% to 39% and from 43% to 48% of the available interproximal tooth surfaces for B/R and B/T, respectively. With regard to the level of reliability, the computerized method reported is appropriate to cross-sectional, epidemiologic investigations from radiographs.
Gilson Mendes Araújo
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and bone strength of the tibiotarsus of broilers at 7 and 14 days of age. Bone percentages of collagenous protein (CPr, non-collagenous protein (NCPr and minerals (calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium were determined. The experiment utilized 650 male Cobb chicks at one day of age, fed corn and soybean meal-based diets. The experimental design was of random blocks with five treatments, five replicates and 26 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a basal diet supplementated with NH4Cl to obtain five levels (-50, 0, 50, 100 and 150 mEq/kg of electrolyte balance (EB. The levels of EB influenced the following characteristics: ash and potassium content; Ca:P ratio and the breaking strength (at 7 days; and phosphorus and potassium contents and breaking strength (at 14 days. At the starter phase of rearing, the supply of acidogenic diets affected the concentrations of potassium and phosphorus in the bone tissue, without altering the organic fraction.
Roček, Zbyněk; Boistel, R.; Lenoir, N.; Mazurier, A.; Pierce, S. E.; Rage, J. C.; Smirnov, S. V.; Schwermann, A. H.; Valentin, X.; Venczel, M.; Wuttke, M.; Zikmund, T.
Roč. 298, č. 11 (2015), s. 1848-1863 ISSN 1932-8486 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * Albionbatrachus * Palaeobatrachus * Xenopus * Palaeobatrachidae * frontoparietale * development * variation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.507, year: 2015
Vaslow, F.; Murarka, I.P.
Analyses were made on 1974-1975 data pertaining to water quality and the use of biocides at the Duane Arnold Energy Center, which began operating in February 1975. The analyses showed no immediate deleterious effects due to plant operations. Although the plant has not been in operation long enough to reveal any long-term deleterious effects, present indications do not lead to a concerned prediction that any are developing. The data utilized, the methods of analysis, and the results obtained are presented in detail along with recommendations for improving the current monitoring techniques
McCloskey, E.V.; Dey, A.; Bostock, J.; Parr, R.M.; Aras, N.; Balogh, A.; Borelli, A.; Krishnan, S.; Lobo, G.; Qin, L.L.
In 1994, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated a 5-year Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) to determine geographical and racial differences in peak bone mineral density (BMD) in men and women aged 15-49 years. Distinct global differences in BMD were demonstrated at the hip and spine in both men and women approximating to one population standard deviation between populations with the highest and lowest BMD. These differences persist following adjustments for age, sex and body size. Such information is valuable in understanding the reasons for global differences in fracture rate and predicting future trends in fracture incidence. (author)
Godshalk, C.P.; Kneller, S.K.; Daniel, G.B.
An unusual presentation of the nutrient foramen of the third metatarsal bone (Mt-3) is described in two horses. In the first horse, the nutrient foramen was located ectopically in the dorsolateral cortex of Mt-3. The metatarsal nutrient foramina of the second horse were in the usual plantar location, but one was atypical in configuration. Clinical signs did not appear to be associated with these findings in either horse. The possibility of misdiagnosing a fracture rather than an ectopic nutrient foramen is discussed
Yan, Zhi-tao; Li, Nan-fang; Guo, Yan-ying; Yao, Xiao-guang; Wang, Hong-mei; Hu, Jun-li
To investigate the association between the genetic variations of the functional region in bone morphogenetic protein gene (BMP7) with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Uygur individuals. A case-control study was conducted based on epidemiological investigation. A total of 717 Uygur subjects (276 males and 441 females) were selected and divided into two groups: diabetes mellitus group (n = 502, 191 males and 311 females) and control group (n = 215, 85 males and 130 females). All exons, flanking introns and the promoter regions of (BMP7) gene were sequenced in 48 Uygur diabetics. Representative variations were selected according to the minor allele frequency (MAF) and linkage disequilibrium and genotyped using the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction method in 717 Uygur individuals, a relatively isolated general population in a relatively homogeneous environment and a case-control study was conducted to test the association between the genetic variations of (BMP7) gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Five novel and 8 known variations in the (BMP7) gene were identified. All genotype distributions were tested for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P> 0.05). There was significant difference of genotype distribution of rs6025422 between type 2 diabetes mellitus and control groups in the male population (P 0.05), but there was no difference in total and female population (P> 0.05). And the means of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin and HOMA-index significantly decreased in individuals with AA, AG and GG genotypes of rs6025422 in male population (Ppopulation (P> 0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that GG genotype of rs6025422 variation might be a protective factor for diabetes in male (OR= 0.637, 95% confidence interval 0.439-0.923, P< 0.05). The present study suggests that the rs6025422 polymorphism in (BMP7) gene may be associated with diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance in Uygur men.
Wu, Yang; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-yong; Lei, Mei; Gao, Ding; Qiao, Peng-wei; Du, Guo-dong
For a comprehensive understanding of the pollution characteristics and ecological risk of heavy metals of farmland soil in Du'an Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, this study evaluated the cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), copper (Cu) and lead ( Pb) pollution situation using the single factor index, the Nemerow pollution index and the Hakanson ecological risk index. The results showed that heavy-metal pollution of farmland soil in Du'an County was serious. 74.6% of the soil samples had heavy metals concentrations higher than the Grade II of National Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB 15618-1995). The over standard rates of Cd, As, Ni, Zn, Cr, Sb, Cu, Pb were 70.6%, 42.9%, 34.9%, 19.8%, 19.6%, 2.94%, 1.59%, 0.79%, respectively. Cd and As were the main contaminants in Du'an County, the pollution was far more serious than those of the national and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. In terms of the ecological risk, heavy metals of farmland soil in Du'an County showed a "middle" ecological risk, with Cd accounting for 88% of the total ecological risk. The north-west of Jiudu Town and the zone between Bao'an Town and Dongmiao Town were two areas with high ecological risk in Du'an County. The contamination of farmland soils in Du'an County was caused by two main sources, whereas the pollution of As and Sb of farmland soils near Diaojiang River was mainly caused by the upstream mining industry.
Salathé Rahel M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m. Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host
Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m). Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow) also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host individuals. PMID:23006795
Biason, Talita Poli; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Moretto, Maria Regina; Teixeira, Altamir Santos; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho
Low-dose combined oral contraceptives (COCs) can interfere with bone mass acquisition during adolescence. This study aimed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in female adolescents taking a standard low-dose COC (ethinylestradiol 20 μg/desogestrel 150 μg) over a 1-year period and to compare their data with those of healthy adolescents from the same age group not taking COCs. This was a non-randomized parallel-control study with a 1-year follow-up. Sixty-seven adolescents aged from 12 to 19 years, divided into COC users (n = 41) taking 20 μg ethinylestradiol/150 μg desogestrel and COC non-user controls (n = 26), were evaluated by bone densitometry examinations at baseline and after 12 months. Comparisons between the groups at the study onset were performed using the Mann-Whitney test with the significance level fixed at 5% or p variations in the median percentages for bone mass variables. The COC users presented with low bone mass acquisition in the lumbar spine, and had BMD and BMC median variations of 2.07% and +1.57%, respectively, between the measurements at baseline and 12 months. The control group had median variations of +12.16% and +16.84% for BMD and BMC, respectively, over the same period. The total body BMD and BMC showed similar evolutions during the study in both groups. Statistical significance (p variation between COC users and non-users. Use of a low-dose COC (ethinylestradiol 20 μg/desogestrel 150 μg) was associated with lower bone mass acquisition in adolescents during the study period. Registry Number, RBR-5h9b3c.
Courtland, Hayden-William; Nasser, Philip; Goldstone, Andrew B; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Jepsen, Karl J
Fracture susceptibility is heritable and dependent upon bone morphology and quality. However, studies of bone quality are typically overshadowed by emphasis on bone geometry and bone mineral density. Given that differences in mineral and matrix composition exist in a variety of species, we hypothesized that genetic variation in bone quality and tissue-level mechanical properties would also exist within species. Sixteen-week-old female A/J, C57BL/6J (B6), and C3H/HeJ (C3H) inbred mouse femora were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared imaging and tissue-level mechanical testing for variation in mineral composition, mineral maturity, collagen cross-link ratio, and tissue-level mechanical properties. A/J femora had an increased mineral-to-matrix ratio compared to B6. The C3H mineral-to-matrix ratio was intermediate of A/J and B6. C3H femora had reduced acid phosphate and carbonate levels and an increased collagen cross-link ratio compared to A/J and B6. Modulus values paralleled mineral-to-matrix values, with A/J femora being the most stiff, B6 being the least stiff, and C3H having intermediate stiffness. In addition, work-to-failure varied among the strains, with the highly mineralized and brittle A/J femora performing the least amount of work-to-failure. Inbred mice are therefore able to differentially modulate the composition of their bone mineral and the maturity of their bone matrix in conjunction with tissue-level mechanical properties. These results suggest that specific combinations of bone quality and morphological traits are genetically regulated such that mechanically functional bones can be constructed in different ways.
Qadan, Maha A; Piuzzi, Nicolas S; Boehm, Cynthia; Bova, Wesley; Moos, Malcolm; Midura, Ronald J; Hascall, Vincent C; Malcuit, Christopher; Muschler, George F
Connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) embody the heterogeneous stem and progenitor cell populations present in native tissue. CTPs are essential to the formation and remodeling of connective tissue and represent key targets for tissue-engineering and cell-based therapies. To better understand and characterize CTPs, we aimed to compare the (i) concentration and prevalence, (ii) early in vitro biological behavior and (iii) expression of surface-markers and transcription factors among cells derived from marrow space (MS), trabecular surface (TS), and adipose tissues (AT). Cancellous-bone and subcutaneous-adipose tissues were collected from 8 patients. Cells were isolated and cultured. Colony formation was assayed using Colonyze software based on ASTM standards. Cell concentration ([Cell]), CTP concentration ([CTP]) and CTP prevalence (P CTP ) were determined. Attributes of culture-expanded cells were compared based on (i) effective proliferation rate and (ii) expression of surface-markers CD73, CD90, CD105, SSEA-4, SSEA-3, SSEA-1/CD15, Cripto-1, E-Cadherin/CD324, Ep-CAM/CD326, CD146, hyaluronan and transcription factors Oct3/4, Sox-2 and Nanog using flow cytometry. Mean [Cell], [CTP] and P CTP were significantly different between MS and TS samples (P = 0.03, P = 0.008 and P= 0.0003), respectively. AT-derived cells generated the highest mean total cell yield at day 6 of culture-4-fold greater than TS and more than 40-fold greater than MS per million cells plated. TS colonies grew with higher mean density than MS colonies (290 ± 11 versus 150 ± 11 cell per mm 2 ; P = 0.0002). Expression of classical-mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) markers was consistently recorded (>95%) from all tissue sources, whereas all the other markers were highly variable. The prevalence and biological potential of CTPs are different between patients and tissue sources and lack variation in classical MSC markers. Other markers are more likely to discriminate differences
Sheil, Christopher A; Jorgensen, Michael; Tulenko, Frank; Harrington, Sean
The evolutionary origin of Lissamphibia likely involved heterochrony, as demonstrated by the biphasic lifestyles of most extant orders, differences between Anura (with tadpole-to-froglet metamorphosis) and Urodela (which lack strongly defined metamorphosis), and the appearance of direct development among separate lineages of frogs. Patterns in the timing of appearance of skeletal elements (i.e., ossification sequence data) represent a possible source of information for understanding the origin of Lissamphibia, and with the advent of analytical methods to directly optimize these data onto known phylogenies, there has been a renewed interest in assessing the role of changes in these developmental events. However, little attention has been given to the potential impact of variation in ossification sequence data--this is particularly surprising given that different criteria for collecting these data have been employed. Herein, new and previously published ossification data are compiled and all pairs of data for same-species comparisons are selected. Analyses are run to assess the impact of using data that were collected by different methodologies: (1) wild- versus lab-raised animals; (2) different criteria for recognizing timing of ossification; and (3) randomly selecting ossification sequences for species from which multiple studies have been published, but for which the data were collected by different criteria. Parsimov-based genetic inference is utilized to map ossification sequence data onto an existing phylogeny to reconstruct ancestral sequences of ossification and infer instances of heterochrony. All analyses succeeded in optimizing sequence data on internal nodes and instances of heterochrony were identified. However, among all analyses little congruence was found in reconstructed ancestral sequences or among inferred instances of heterochrony. These results indicate a high degree of variation in timing of ossification, and suggest a cautionary note about use
Garnero, P; Bianchi, F; Carlier, M C; Genty, V; Jacob, N; Kamel, S; Kindermans, C; Plouvier, E; Pressac, M; Souberbielle, J C
Biochemical markers of bone turnover have been developed over the past 20 years that are more specific for bone tissue than conventional ones such as total alkaline phosphatase and urinary hydroxyproline. They have been widely used in clinical research and in clinical trials of new therapies as secondary end points of treatment efficacy. Most of the interest has been devoted to their use in postmenopausal osteoporosis, a condition characterized by subtle modifications of bone metabolism that cannot be detected readily by conventional markers of bone turnover. Although several recent studies have suggested that biochemical markers may be used for the management of the individual patient in routine clinical practice, this has not been clearly defined and is a matter of debate. Because of the crucial importance to clarify this issue, the Société Francaise de Biologie Clinique prompted an expert committee to summarize the available data and to make recommendations. The following paper includes a review on the biochemical and analytical aspects of the markers of bone formation and resorption and on the sources of variability such as sex, age, menstrual cycle, pregnancy and lactation, physical activity, seasonal variation and effects of diseases and treatments. We will also describe the effects of pre-analytical factors on the measurements of the different markers. Finally based on that review, we will make practical recommendations for the use of these markers in order to minimize the variability of the measurements and improve the clinical interpretation of the data.
Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC DUANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1975-08-23 to 1975-09-12 (NODC Accession 7500855)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC DUANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...
Full Text Available This report is a case of a 4 year old male child who was admitted for meningitis. On clinical examination he was diagnosed as a case of oculo-suriculo-vertebral dysplasia with congenital heart disease, i.e., tetralogy of Fallots besides his presenting picture of meningitis. During his ophthalmic checkup for the conspicuous presence of epibulbar dermoid, he was discovered to have upper lid coloboma, double elevator palsy, and Grade 1 Duane retraction syndrome in his right eye while the pathognomic feature, a dermolipoma, was present in the left eye. The oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia, as described by Goldenhar, is a disease complex of structures developed from the Ist and IInd branchial arch. The important feature of this case is the bilateral involvement of the disease complex over and above the presence of ocular motility disorders--Duane retraction syndrome and double elevator palsy.
Bragdon, Beth; Burns, Robert; Baker, Amelia H; Belkina, Anna C; Morgan, Elise F; Denis, Gerald V; Gerstenfeld, Louis C; Schlezinger, Jennifer J
Bone formation and aging are sexually dimorphic. Yet, definition of the intrinsic molecular differences between male and female multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in bone is lacking. This study assessed sex-linked differences in MSC differentiation in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old C57BL/6J mice. Analysis of tibiae showed that female mice had lower bone volume fraction and higher adipocyte content in the bone marrow compared to age-matched males. While both males and females lost bone mass in early aging, the rate of loss was higher in males. Similar expression of bone- and adipocyte-related genes was seen in males and females at 3 and 9 months, while at 6 months, females exhibited a twofold greater expression of these genes. Under osteogenic culture conditions, bone marrow MSCs from female 3- and 6-month-old mice expressed similar levels of bone-related genes, but significantly greater levels of adipocyte-related genes, than male MSCs. Female MSCs also responded to rosiglitazone-induced suppression of osteogenesis at a 5-fold lower (10 nM) concentration than male MSCs. Female MSCs grown in estrogen-stripped medium showed similar responses to rosiglitazone as MSCs grown in serum containing estrogen. MSCs from female mice that had undergone ovariectomy before sexual maturity also were sensitive to rosiglitazone-induced effects on osteogenesis. These results suggest that female MSCs are more sensitive to modulation of differentiation by PPARγ and that these differences are intrinsic to the sex of the animal from which the MSCs came. These results also may explain the sensitivity of women to the deleterious effects of rosiglitazone on bone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Riggs, C.M.; Whitehouse, G.H.; Boyde, A.
This study examined 3-dimensional (3D) distribution of sectors with contrasting density in the equine third metacarpal (McIII) and third metatarsal (MtIII) bones with a view to explaining the aetiology of distal condylar fractures. Macroradiography and computed tomographic (CT) imaging were used in the nondestructive study of bones obtained from horses, most of which were Thoroughbreds in race training. Distal condylar regions of McIII and MtIII were also studied in microradiographs of 100 mu m thick mediolateral sections cut perpendicular to the dorsal and palmar/plantar articular surfaces. Qualitative and quantitative results from all methods used (radiography, CTand microradiographic stereology) demonstrated densification (sclerosis) of subchondral bone located in the palmar/plantar regions of the medial and lateral condyles of both McIII and MtIII, Substantial density gradients between the denser condyles and the subchondral bone of the sagittal groove were shown to equate with anatomical differences in loading intensity during locomotion. It is hypothesised that such differences in bone density results in stress concentration at the palmar/plantar aspect of the condylar grooves, which may predispose to fracture
Marchini, Adriana M P S; Deco, Camila P; Lodi, Karina B; Marchini, Leonardo; Santo, Ana M E; Rocha, Rosilene F
Previous findings suggest that chronic alcoholism and oestrogenic deficiency may affect bones in general (including alveolar bone) and increase individuals' susceptibility to the development of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to assess possible alterations in the chemical composition of alveolar bone in rats subjected to chronic alcoholism, oestrogen deficiency or both. Fifty-four rats were initially divided into two groups: ovariectomized (Ovx), and Sham operated (Sham). A month after surgery, the groups were sub-divided and received the following dietary intervention for eight weeks: 20% alcohol, isocaloric diet and ad libitum diet. Samples of the mandible, in the alveolar bone crest region, were analyzed to verify possible changes in the stoichiometric composition of bone hydroxyapatite, by measuring the relationship between the concentration of calcium and phosphorus (Ca/P ratios), using micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The ad libitum groups presented the highest average values of Ca/P ratios, while the groups with dietary restrictions presented the smallest average values. The Ovx ad libitum group presented the highest values of Ca/P ratios (2.03 ± 0.04). However, these values were not considered statistically different (p>0.05) from the Sham ad libitum group (2.01 ± 0.01). The Ovx alcohol group presented lower values for Ca/P ratios (1.92 ± 0.06), being the only group statistically different (palcohol consumption at 20% significantly changed the stoichiometry composition of hydroxyapatite in the alveolar bone crest, leading to a reduction in Ca/P ratios. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ferrario, Juan E.; Baskaran, Pranetha; Clark, Christopher; Hendry, Aenea; Lerner, Oleg; Hintze, Mark; Allen, James; Chilton, John K.; Guthrie, Sarah
Eye movements depend on correct patterns of connectivity between cranial motor axons and the extraocular muscles. Despite the clinical importance of the ocular motor system, little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying its development. We have recently shown that mutations in the Chimaerin-1 gene encoding the signaling protein α2-chimaerin (α2-chn) perturb axon guidance in the ocular motor system and lead to the human eye movement disorder, Duane retraction syndrome (DRS). The axon guidance cues that lie upstream of α2-chn are unknown; here we identify candidates to be the Semaphorins (Sema) 3A and 3C, acting via the PlexinA receptors. Sema3A/C are expressed in and around the developing extraocular muscles and cause growth cone collapse of oculomotor neurons in vitro. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of α2-chn or PlexinAs in oculomotor neurons abrogates Sema3A/C-dependent growth cone collapse. In vivo knockdown of endogenous PlexinAs or α2-chn function results in stereotypical oculomotor axon guidance defects, which are reminiscent of DRS, whereas expression of α2-chn gain-of-function constructs can rescue PlexinA loss of function. These data suggest that α2-chn mediates Sema3–PlexinA repellent signaling. We further show that α2-chn is required for oculomotor neurons to respond to CXCL12 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which are growth promoting and chemoattractant during oculomotor axon guidance. α2-chn is therefore a potential integrator of different types of guidance information to orchestrate ocular motor pathfinding. DRS phenotypes can result from incorrect regulation of this signaling pathway. PMID:22912401
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lateral rectus periosteal fixation and partial vertical rectus transpositioning (VRT as treatment modalities to correct exotropic Duane retraction syndrome (Exo-DRS. Materials and Methods: Prospective interventional case study of cases of Exo-DRS with limitation of adduction. A total of 13 patients were subdivided into two groups. Six patients underwent only lateral rectus periosteal fixation (group A and seven patients also underwent partial VRT (group B. Assessment involved prism bar cover test, abduction and adduction range, extent of binocular single visual field and exophthalmometry. These tests were repeated at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-operatively and data analyzed. Results: The pre-operative mean values and ranges were 26.2 Δ (22-35 exotropia for group A and −21.3 Δ (14-30 exotropia for group B. The post-operative mean and range was +0.6 Δ esotropia (+20 to −8 for group A and 8 Δ (−2 to −20 exotropia for group B. Mean grade of limitation of abduction changed from −3.8 to −3.6 versus −3.6 to −2.8 and mean grade of limitation of adduction changed from −1.9 to −0.7 versus −1.5 to −0.5 in the groups A and B respectively. Mean binocular single visual field changed from 14.7° to 23.3° in group A and 11.8° to 26.4° in the group B respectively. Conclusion: Lateral rectus periosteal fixation is an effective surgery to correct the exodeviation, anomalous head posture and improving adduction in Exo-DRS and partial VRT in addition is effective in improving abduction and binocular single visual fields.
Lynnerup, N; Thomsen, J L; Frohlich, B
been carried out dealing with the intra- and inter-observer error. Furthermore, when such studies have been completed, the statistical tools for assessing variability have not been adequate. This study presents the results of applying simple quantitative statistics on several counts of microscopic...... elements as observed on photographic images of cortical bone, in order to assess intra- and inter-observer error. Overall, substantial error was present at the level of identifying and counting secondary osteons, osteon fragments and Haversian canals. Only secondary osteons can be reliably identified...
Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...
Larson, T. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.
In situ carbon and oxygen isotope values for bioapatite were obtained from longitudinal slices of cortical bone from modern domesticated sheep and free-range White-Tailed deer. The analyses were obtained using an IR-laser coupled to a GC-IRMS interface. Ablation pits averaged 200 × 50 μm, making it possible to sample individual or small bundles of osteons. Cortical bone is remodeled along osteons throughout a mammal's life. Therefore, data at this scale can record seasonal variations in diet and drinking water during the adult stages of a mammal, whereas teeth provide may provide information about the juvenile years of a mammal. Average δ18O and δ13C values for the sheep from southwestern Ontario, Canada, were 14.0 and -16.1‰, respectively. No trend was observed in the isotopic composition of the sheep's osteons, consistent with its constant diet and water supply. The δ18O (14.2 to 16.6‰) and δ13C (-19.2 to -15.6‰) values of osteons from White-Tailed deer from nearby Pinery Provincial Park, however, varied systematically and were negatively correlated. Oxygen isotope values of the osteons correlated well with changes in the δ18O values of the main water source for these deer: winter average, -10.7‰; summer average, -8.6‰. The variation in δ13C values of the osteons reflects changes in diet; summer diet consisted mainly of leafy C3 vegetation (-28.4‰), whereas winter diet comprised bark (-25.6‰), C4 grasses (δ13C, -12.7‰), and corn stalks and husks (-11.3‰).
Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G
We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...
This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease
Piters, Elke; Balemans, Wendy; Nielsen, Torben Leo
LRP5 was recently confirmed as an important susceptibility gene for osteoporosis. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of DKK1 polymorphisms on bone mineral density (BMD), hip geometry, and bone turnover. DKK1 is a secreted protein that binds to LRP5/6 receptors and inhibits canonical Wnt...
Larson, T. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.
In situ stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic apatite were obtained from longitudinally-cut sections of cortical bone from femurs of modern domesticated sheep and free-range White-Tailed deer, using an IR-laser and a GC-continuous flow interface. Ablation pits averaged 200x50 microns, making it possible to analyze individual osteons. Since cortical bone is remodelled along osteons throughout a mammal's lifetime, isotopic data at this resolution provides information about seasonal variations in diet and drinking water. The O-isotope results were calibrated using laser analyses of NBS-18 and NBS-19, which produced a value of 26.39±0.46 permil (n=27) for WS-1 calcite (accepted value, 26.25 permil). C-isotope results were calibrated using a CO2 reference gas, producing a value of 0.76±0.40permil (n=27) for WS-1, also in excellent agreement with its accepted value of 0.74 permil. Average O- and C-isotope values for a local domestic sheep (southwestern Ontario, Canada) were 12.20±0.58 and -15.70±0.35 permil (n=27), respectively. No isotopic trend occurred along or across individual osteons. This pattern is consistent with the sheep's relatively unchanging food and water sources. The free-range White-Tailed deer came from Pinery Provincial Park (PPP), southwestern Ontario. Its O- and C-isotope compositions varied systematically across individual osteons and were negatively correlated (R2=0.56). O-isotope values ranged from 13.4 to 15.5 permil; the highest values correlated with summer and the lowest values, with winter. The O-isotope compositions of the main water source (Old Ausable River Channel) varied similarly during the deer's lifetime: winter average, -10.7±0.5 permil; summer average, -8.6±0.4 permil. The C-isotope results for the deer osteons varied from -19.7 to -15.9 permil. This variation can be explained by changes in food sources. Summer diets of deer in PPP consist mainly of leafy fractions of C3 vegetation, especially sumac, cedar
Burns, Jorge S; Harkness, Linda; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Gautier, Laurent; Kassem, Moustapha
Adult human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) cultured for cell therapy require evaluation of potency and stability for safe use. Chromosomal aberrations upsetting genomic integrity in such cells have been contrastingly described as "Limited" or "Significant". Previously reported stepwise acquisition of a spontaneous neoplastic phenotype during three-year continuous culture of telomerized cells (hBMSC-TERT20) didn't alter a diploid karyotype measured by spectral karyotype analysis (SKY). Such screening may not adequately monitor abnormal and potentially tumorigenic hBMSC in clinical scenarios. We here used array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to more stringently compare non-tumorigenic parental hBMSC-TERT strains with their tumorigenic subcloned populations. Confirmation of a known chromosome 9p21 microdeletion at locus CDKN2A/B, showed it also impinged upon the adjacent MTAP gene. Compared to reference diploid human fibroblast genomic DNA, the non-tumorigenic hBMSC-TERT4 cells had a copy number variation (CNV) in at least 14 independent loci. The pre-tumorigenic hBMSC-TERT20 cell strain had further CNV including 1q44 gain enhancing SMYD3 expression and 11q13.1 loss downregulating MUS81 expression. Bioinformatic analysis of gene products reflecting 11p15.5 CNV gain in tumorigenic hBMSC-TERT20 cells highlighted networks implicated in tumorigenic progression involving cell cycle control and mis-match repair. We provide novel biomarkers for prospective risk assessment of expanded stem cell cultures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Experimental variation of the level and the ratio of angiogenic and osteogenic signaling affects the spatiotemporal expression of bone-specific markers and organization of bone formation in ectopic sites.
Moser, Norman; Goldstein, Jan; Kauffmann, Phillip; Epple, Matthias; Schliephake, Henning
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the ratio of angiogenic and osteogenic signaling affects ectopic bone formation when delivered in different amounts. Porous composite PDLLA/CaCO 3 scaffolds were loaded with rhBMP2 and rhVEGF in different dosage combinations and implanted into the gluteal muscles of 120 adult male Wistar rats. Bone formation and expression of alkaline phosphatase and Runx2 were quantified by histomorphometry. Spatial distribution across the scaffolds was assessed by using a grid that discriminated between the periphery and center of the scaffolds. The evaluation showed that the combined delivery of bone morphogenetic protein BMP2 and VEGF in different dosage combinations did not enhance the overall quantity of ectopic bone formation compared to the delivery of BMP2 alone. The addition of VEGF generally upregulated Runx2 after 4 weeks, which may have retarded terminal osteogenic differentiation. However, slow combined delivery of 1.5-2.0 μg BMP2 combined with 50 ng VEGF165 over a period of 5 weeks supported a more even distribution of bone formation across the implanted scaffolds whereas higher amounts of VEGF did not elicit this effect. The findings suggest that structural organization rather than the quantity of ectopic bone formation is affected by the dosage and the ratio of BMP2 and VEGF levels at the observed intervals. The development of carriers for dual growth factor delivery has to take into account the necessity to carefully balance the ratio of growth release.
Jørkov, Marie Louise Schjellerup; Heinemeier, Jan; Lynnerup, Niels
Intraskeletal variation in the composition of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) stable isotopes measured in collagen is tested from various human bones and dentine. Samples were taken from the femur, rib, and petrous part of the temporal bone from well-preserved skeletons of both adults...... (n = 34) and subadults (n = 24). Additional samples of dentine from the root of 1st molars were taken from 16 individuals. The skeletal material is from a medieval cemetery (AD 1200-1573) in Holbaek, Denmark. Our results indicate that the petrous bone has an isotopic signal that differs significantly...... from that of femur and rib within the single skeleton (P bone and the 1st molar. The intraskeletal variation may reflect differences...
Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...
Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...
Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration
Morera, Lourdes; Garcia, Omar; Proenza, Emma; Carnot, Jose
The main purpose of this work is to study the variational dynamics of nuclei acids in patients either subjected or not of abortive peaks and its prospective application as a prognostic indicator which might contribute to the therapeutic decision making in cases of BMT and irradiation related acute syndromes
Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the DUANE from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B), C (OWS-C), D (OWS-D), E (OWS-E), H (OWS-H), J (OWS-J), and K (OWS-K) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1955-04-07 to 1968-02-15 (NODC Accession 7500471)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the DUANE within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (5630N 05100W), C (5245N 03530W), D (4400N 04100W), E (3500N...
... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...
Full Text Available Consumption of fish and fish by products assures various health benefits, but on the other hand the fish processing wastes if not discarded properly pose a serious environment threat. Tilapias are commonly available cichlid fishes which are considered to possess various biological importance. The objective of the work is to analyze and compare the similarities and differences in the nutritional quality of the exotic fish Oreochromis mossambicus found in brackish water and fresh water environments. The estuary adapted tilapia and freshwater tilapia was collected and processed as head and bone flours. The samples were further analyzed and the results in 100 g of Estuarine Tilapia Head Flour (ETHF was composed of moisture (5.87 ± 0.003%, protein (32.06 ± 0.02% total lipids (0.202 ±0.003 %, carbohydrates (1.44 ± 0.005% and ash (1.15 ± 0.006%. The results in 100 g of Estuarine Tilapia Bone Flour (ETBF was found as moisture (4.20 ± 0.006%, protein (31.48 ± 0.07%, total lipids (0.217 ± 0.002, carbohydrates (0.13 ± 0.004% and ash (0.89 ±0.004%. The proximate content in Freshwater Tilapia Head Flour (FTHF ranged as moisture (5.79 ± 0.01%, protein (32.50 ± 0.02%, total lipids (0.202 ± 0.009%, carbohydrates (1.54 ± 0.02% and ash (1.16 ± 0.003. The proximate content in Freshwater Tilapia Bone Flour (FTBF ranged as moisture (5.77 ± 0.01%, protein (32.58 ± 0.03%, total lipids (0.200 ± 0.005%, carbohydrates (1.48 ± 0.02% and ash (1.23 ± 0.01%. The fatty acid occurring in the highest proportions was alpha linolenic acid both ETHF (2.492±0.003mg and ETBF (2.374±0.002mg. The fatty acid composition in FTHF occurring in the highest proportion was palmitic acid (0.983±0.002mg and in FTBF the highest proportion was found in stearic acid (0.785±0.005mg. In the amino acid analysis, the highest values were recorded in phenyl alanine for ETHF (1.986±0.002% and lysine in ETBF (1.364±0.003%. Phenyl alanine content was found higher in both FTHF (1
Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.
Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery
Bruneder, Simon; Wallner, Jürgen; Weiglein, Andreas; Kmečová, Ĺudmila; Egger, Jan; Pilsl, Ulrike; Zemann, Wolfgang
Osteotomies of the Le Fort I segment are routine operations with low complication rates. Ischemic complications are rare, but can have severe consequences that may lead to avascular bone necrosis of the Le Fort I segment. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the blood supply and special arterial variants of the Le Fort I segment responsible for arterial hypoperfusion or ischemic avascular necrosis after surgery. The arterial anatomy of the Le Fort I segment's blood supply using 30 halved human cadaver head specimens was analyzed after complete dissection until the submicroscopic level. In all specimens the arterial variants of the Le Fort I segment and also the arterial diameters measured at two points were evaluated. The typical known vascularization pattern was apparent in 90% of all specimens, in which the ascending palatine (D1: 1,2 mm ± 0,34 mm; D2: 0,8 mm ± 0,34 mm) and ascending pharyngeal artery (D1: 1,3 mm ± 0,58 mm; D2: avascular segment necrosis after surgery. An individualized operation plan may prevent ischemic complications in at-risk patients. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The use of human organs and tissues for transplantation in Australia has increased significantly over the past 30 years. In 1997, the Australian Coordinating Committee on Organ Registries and Donation (ACCORD) reported a total number of 190 organ donors, 636 corneal donors and 1509 bone donors Australia wide. Of the 1509 bone donations, 143 came from cadaveric sources and 1366 were made by living donors. Bone transplantation is not as widely recognised as solid organ or corneal transplantation. Due to improved technology and surgical skills, the demand for bone transplantation has increased markedly. This Clinical Update will provide an overview of the physiological aspects of bone transplantation and explore bone banking, a key step in the complex and critical process of bone transplantation.
Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.
The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram.......01). Furthermore, AKG administration induced significantly higher bone mineral density of the cortical bone by 7.1% (P
Ethier, A.L.M.; Braune, B.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bond, D.E.
To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones
... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken bone URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... following steps to reduce your risk of a broken bone: Wear protective ... pads. Create a safe home for young children. Place a gate at stairways ...
Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.
Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A
The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...
Daghma, Diaa Eldin S; Malhan, Deeksha; Simon, Paul; Stötzel, Sabine; Kern, Stefanie; Hassan, Fathi; Lips, Katrin Susanne; Heiss, Christian; El Khassawna, Thaqif
Bone loss varies according to disease and age and these variations affect bone cells and extracellular matrix. Osteoporosis rat models are widely investigated to assess mechanical and structural properties of bone; however, bone matrix proteins and their discrepant regulation of diseased and aged bone are often overlooked. The current study considered the spine matrix properties of ovariectomized rats (OVX) against control rats (Sham) at 16 months of age. Diseased bone showed less compact structure with inhomogeneous distribution of type 1 collagen (Col1) and changes in osteocyte morphology. Intriguingly, demineralization patches were noticed in the vicinity of blood vessels in the OVX spine. The organic matrix structure was investigated using computational segmentation of collagen fibril properties. In contrast to the aged bone, diseased bone showed longer fibrils and smaller orientation angles. The study shows the potential of quantifying transmission electron microscopy images to predict the mechanical properties of bone tissue.
Full Text Available Introduction. In forensic autopsy, pathologists pay attention to skull fracture lines. They are not much interested in the anatomical morphological variations of the skull bones, as long as the variations are not present. The interparietal bone is one of the anatomical variations that could be of interest for forensic pathologists. Case Outline. We present a case of a 54-year-old man who, after a fall overlived a head injury for six weeks. By chance, autopsy revealed an undivided interparietal bone. Its lateral sutures were fused with parietal bones and unrecognizable from the anterior skull bones, while the sutura mendosa was clearly visible. Conclusion. The forensic pathologist should be able to recognize anatomic morphological variations, including those of skull bones. The interparietal bone could be interpreted wrongly as belonging to the fractured occipital bone, i.e. as a broken fragment. This is of particular significance in the cases, for example, of murder or child abuse. Its inferior suture can be seen by X-ray and possibly wrongly interpreted as a fracture line. The presence of this variation may be occasionally useful in the identification of an unknown or lost person.
Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David; Govindaraj, Satish; Moche, Jason
With the advent of new biomaterials and surgical techniques, the reconstructive surgeon has a wider range of treatment modalities for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of craniofacial skeletal deformities than ever before. These innovative substances act as true bone graft substitutes, thereby allowing the surgeon to avoid the use of autogenous bone grafts and their associated donor site morbidity. Surgeons have long been interested in producing a composite graft that can heal faster by induction, incorporate with surrounding tissues, and be remodeled to resemble native bone. Currently, there are a host of bone graft substitutes available that vary in both their composition and properties. Craniomaxillofacial surgeons must therefore become comfortable with numerous biomaterials to best tailor the treatment for each patient individually. Ongoing investigations into the next phase of tissue engineering will continue to bring us closer to the ability to regenerate or replace bone.
... several inches long with a hollow core to capture the bone specimen. The CT scanner is typically ... IV), ultrasound machine and devices that monitor your heart beat and blood pressure. top of page How ...
Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie
Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....
Bone sarcomas are malignancies with peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The most frequent are osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET, in an older adults are seen chondrosarcomas, other ones are rare. In general, biology of sarcomas is closely related to pediatric malignancies with fast growth, local aggressiveness, tendency to early hematogenic dissemination and chemo sensitivity. Diagnostics and treatment of bone sarcomas should be done in well experienced centres due to low incidence and broad issue of this topic. An interdisciplinary approach and staff education is essential in due care of patients with bone sarcoma. If these criteria are achieved, the cure rate is contemporary at 65 - 70 %, while some subpopulation of patients has chance for cure up to 90 %. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET are discussed below as types of most frequent bone sarcoma. (author)
Within medullary cavities, blood formation tends to be concentrated near bone surfaces and this raises interesting questions about hematopoietic consequences of radionuclide fixation in osseous tissue. Thus, it may be important, on the one hand, to consider the medullary radiation dose distribution as well as total marrow dose from bone-bound radioelements and, on the other, to inquire about possible hematopoietic implications of radiation damage to endosteal surfaces per se. The reasons for this are discussed
Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.
Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...
Schoenau, E.; Saggese, G.; Peter, F.; Baroncelli, G.I.; Shaw, N.J.; Crabtree, N.J.; Zadik, Z.; Neu, C.M.; Noordam, C.; Radetti, G.; Hochberg, Z.
Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has
Seeman, E; Karlsson, M K; Duan, Y
Skeletal development is heterogeneous. Throughout growth, bone size is more maturationally advanced than the mineral being accrued within its periosteal envelope; before puberty, appendicular growth is more rapid than axial growth; during puberty, appendicular growth slows and axial growth accelerates. We studied women with differing age of onset of anorexia nervosa to determine whether this temporal heterogeneity in growth predisposed to the development of deficits in bone size and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), which varied by site and severity depending on the age at which anorexia nervosa occurred. Bone size and vBMD of the third lumbar vertebra and femoral neck were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 210 women aged 21 years (range, 12-40 years) with anorexia nervosa. Results were expressed as age-specific SDs (mean +/- SEM). Bone width depended on the age of onset of anorexia nervosa; when the onset of anorexia nervosa occurred (1) before 15 years of age, deficits in vertebral body and femoral neck width did not differ (-0.77+/-0.27 SD and -0.55+/-0.17 SD, respectively); (2) between 15 and 19 years of age, deficits in vertebral body width (-0.95+/-0.16 SD) were three times the deficits in femoral neck width (-0.28+/-0.14 SD; p anorexia nervosa. No deficit in bone width was observed at the femoral neck. Deficits in vBMD at the vertebra and femoral neck were independent of the age of onset of anorexia nervosa but increased as the duration of anorexia nervosa increased, being about 0.5 SD lower at the vertebra than femoral neck. We infer that the maturational development of a region at the time of exposure to disease, and disease duration, determine the site, magnitude, and type of trait deficit in anorexia nervosa. Bone fragility due to reduced bone size and reduced vBMD in adulthood is partly established during growth.
Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Kids / Broken Bones What's in this ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Parents / Broken Bones What's in this ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...
Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients
Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I
We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...... of aged bones....
Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,
In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.
Kamali Moghaddam, K.; Taheri, T.; Ayubian, M.
In this paper we report a study of the periodic variation of bone tissue humidity immediately after death using both neutron and X-ray radiography techniques. After death, bone tissue experiences sequential change over time. This change consists of organic and inorganic phase variations of the bone structure, as well as gradual reduction of the bone's water content. These variations are investigated by periodically imaging dead bone using X-ray and neutron radiography. Chemical separation techniques such as calcification and decalcification were used to separate the organic and inorganic phases of the bone. Comparison between X-ray and neutron radiographs of bone following phase separation can be potentially used to investigate the bone disease or to determine a cause of death. In our experiments, we use adult rat femur bones, and the interpretations of these results are presented based on our understanding of bone structure and images produced by neutron and X-ray photon interactions
Kamali Moghaddam, K. [Nuclear Research Center (NRC), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), P.O. Box 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: email@example.com; Taheri, T.; Ayubian, M. [Nuclear Research Center (NRC), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), P.O. Box 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
In this paper we report a study of the periodic variation of bone tissue humidity immediately after death using both neutron and X-ray radiography techniques. After death, bone tissue experiences sequential change over time. This change consists of organic and inorganic phase variations of the bone structure, as well as gradual reduction of the bone's water content. These variations are investigated by periodically imaging dead bone using X-ray and neutron radiography. Chemical separation techniques such as calcification and decalcification were used to separate the organic and inorganic phases of the bone. Comparison between X-ray and neutron radiographs of bone following phase separation can be potentially used to investigate the bone disease or to determine a cause of death. In our experiments, we use adult rat femur bones, and the interpretations of these results are presented based on our understanding of bone structure and images produced by neutron and X-ray photon interactions.
Sarkalkan, Nazli; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A
When applied to bones, statistical shape models (SSM) and statistical appearance models (SAM) respectively describe the mean shape and mean density distribution of bones within a certain population as well as the main modes of variations of shape and density distribution from their mean values. The availability of this quantitative information regarding the detailed anatomy of bones provides new opportunities for diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of skeletal diseases. The potential of SSM and SAM has been recently recognized within the bone research community. For example, these models have been applied for studying the effects of bone shape on the etiology of osteoarthritis, improving the accuracy of clinical osteoporotic fracture prediction techniques, design of orthopedic implants, and surgery planning. This paper reviews the main concepts, methods, and applications of SSM and SAM as applied to bone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Weaver, James C.; Jensen, Mads Hartmann
Recently, the roles of osteocytes in bone maintenance have gained increasing attention. Osteocytes reside in lacunae that are interconnected by canaliculi resulting in a vast cellular network within the mineralized bone matrix. As the structure of the lacuno-canalicular network is highly connected......-species but also inter-site variation in lacunar properties. Here, osteocyte lacunae in rat cortical bone have been studied using synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR μCT) and backscattered electron (BE) microscopy. Quantitative lacunar geometric characteristics are reported based on the synchrotron...... radiation data, differentiating between circumferential lamellar bone and a central, more disordered bone type. From these studies, no significant differences were found in lacunar volumes between lamellar and central bone, whereas significant differences in lacunar orientation, shape and density values...
Miyoshi, Hidenao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Sone, Teruki; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Tamada, Tsutomu; Mimura, Hiroaki; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Fukunaga, Masao
Since breast cancer is frequently associated with bone metastasis, bone scintigraphies have been performed to determine pre-operative staging and to survey postoperative bone metastasis. The sternum, in particular, is a site at which is difficult to differentiate between benign bone disease and bone metastasis, because of varied uptake and wide individual variations. In this study, chronological bone images were scintigraphied in six cases with solitary sternal metastasis and three cases with benign bone disease including two fracture cases and one arthritis case. On bone scintigrams in which solitary sternal metastasis appeared, increased uptake was found in five cases, and photon deficiency was observed in one case. During follow-up scintigraphies, abnormal accumulations, such as hot spots and cold lesions, increased in the bone metastasis while abnormal uptake disappeared or was unchanged in the benign bone disease cases. On CT, four cases showed osteolytic change, and one exhibited osteosclerotic change. These findings indicate that sternal metastasis usually shows osteolytic change, even if a hot lesion is recognized on bone scintigraphy. In solitary sternal metastasis, for which early diagnosis is difficult, both an integrated diagnosis using other imaging techniques and chronological bone scintigraphy are important. (author)
Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines
Mary C. Farach-Carson
Full Text Available Sex-associated differences in bone metastasis formation from breast, lung, and prostate cancer exist in clinical studies, but have not been systematically reviewed. Differences in the bone marrow niche can be attributed to sexual dimorphism, to genetic variations that affect sex hormone levels, or to the direct effects of sex hormones, natural or exogenously delivered. This review describes the present understanding of sex-associated and sex hormone level differences in the marrow niche and in formation of bone metastasis during the transition of these three cancers from treatable disease to an often untreatable, lethal metastatic one. Our purpose is to provide insight into some underlying molecular mechanisms for hormonal influence in bone metastasis formation, and to the potential influence of sexual dimorphism, genetic differences affecting sex assignment, and sex hormone level differences on the bone niche and its favorability for metastasis formation. We reviewed publications in PubMed and EMBASE, including full length manuscripts, case reports, and clinical studies of relevance to our topic. We focused on bone metastasis formation in breast, lung, and prostate cancer because all three commonly present with bone metastases. Several clear observations emerged. For breast cancer bone metastasis formation, estrogen receptor (ER signaling pathways indicate a role for ER beta (ERβ. Estrogen influences the bone microenvironment, creating and conditioning a favorable niche for colonization and breast cancer progression. For lung cancer, studies support the hypothesis that females have a more favorable bone microenvironment for metastasis formation. For prostate cancer, a decrease in the relative androgen to estrogen balance or a “feminization” of bone marrow favors bone metastasis formation, with a potentially important role for ERβ that may be similar to that in breast cancer. Long-term estrogen administration or androgen blockade in males
Longfield, Evan A; Brickman, Todd M; Jeyakumar, Anita
Temporal bone dissection is a fundamental element of otologic training. Cadaveric temporal bones (CTB) are the gold standard surgical training model; however, many institutions do not have ready access to them and their cost can be significant: $300 to $500. Furthermore, pediatric cadaveric temporal bones are not readily available. Our objective is to develop a pediatric temporal bone model. Temporal bone model. Tertiary Children's Hospital. Pediatric patient model. We describe the novel use of a 3D printer for the generation of a plaster training model from a pediatric high- resolution CT temporal bone scan of a normal pediatric temporal bone. Three models were produced and were evaluated. The models utilized multiple colors (white for bone, yellow for the facial nerve) and were of high quality. Two models were drilled as a proof of concept and found to be an acceptable facsimile of the patient's anatomy, rendering all necessary surgical landmarks accurately. The only negative comments pertaining to the 3D printed temporal bone as a training model were the lack of variation in hardness between cortical and cancellous bone, noting a tactile variation from cadaveric temporal bones. Our novel pediatric 3D temporal bone training model is a viable, low-cost training option for previously inaccessible pediatric temporal bone training. Our hope is that, as 3D printers become commonplace, these models could be rapidly reproduced, allowing for trainees to print models of patients before performing surgery on the living patient.
variation . (B) After ComBat (Combing Batches) correction biological variables such as animal age and defect size accounted for largest variation in gene...growth plates), age accounted for more variation than defect size in PC1 (data not shown). This suggests, that age is a dominant factor in bone healing...correlates with histologic changes during fracture repair. J Bone Miner Res 1992; 7:1045-55. 103. Grimston SK, Goldberg DB, Watkins M, Brodt MD, Silva MJ
Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.
When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.
Cockshott, W.P.; Park, W.M.
The factors that affect observer variation in bone radiology are analysed from data in the literature and on the basis of studies carried out at McMaster University on the hands and sacroiliac joints. A plea is made for presenting results in terms of Kappa statistics so that agreement due purely to chance is eliminated. In the conclusions the main variables that affect concordance are listed so that strategies can be developed to reduce observer variation. This is important in serial studies to ensure that the observer variations are smaller than the effect one wishes to measure.
Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.
Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.
Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.
Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist
... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...
Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...
Mazzoni, R; Tosca, L; Bertoli, L; Ferliga, A; Pivi, M; Marini, A
In oreder to achieve parameters to evaluate mineralization of premature infants, bone mineral content at the midshaft of the radius was measured in 173 normal newborns. Data were correlated with the following factors: gestional age, postnatal age, sex and weight at birth. In spite of the wide range of variation of individual values, there was a statistically significant correlation between gestational age, sex and BMC.
The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.
Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.
When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...
Tan, Yisong; Hu, Jiale; Ren, Limin; Zhu, Jianhua; Yang, Jiaqi; Liu, Di
This paper reports on a sensor for monitoring bone plate strain in real time. The detected bone plate strain could be used for judging the healing state of fractures in patients. The sensor consists of a magnetoelastic material, which can be wirelessly connected and passively embedded. In order to verify the effectiveness of the sensor, a tibia-bone plate-screw (TBS) model was established using the finite element analysis method. A variation of the bone plate strain was obtained via this model. A goat hindquarter tibia was selected as the bone fracture model in the experiment. The tibia was fixed on a high precision load platform and an external force was applied. Bone plate strain variation during the bone fracture healing process was acquired with sensing coils. Simulation results indicated that bone plate strain decreases as the bone gradually heals, which is consistent with the finite element analysis results. This validated the soundness of the sensor reported here. This sensor has wireless connections, no in vivo battery requirement, and long-term embedding. These results can be used not only for clinical practices of bone fracture healing, but also for bone fracture treatment and rehabilitation equipment design.
Evenepoel, Pieter; Behets, Geert J; Viaene, Liesbeth; D'Haese, Patrick C
Renal transplantation is believed to have a major impact on bone health. The present prospective observational bone biopsy study aimed to define the natural history of bone histomorphometry parameters in contemporaneous de novo renal transplant recipients. Paired bone biopsies were performed at the time of transplantation and at one-year posttransplantation in an unselected cohort of 36 patients referred for deceased kidney replacement. Parameters of mineral metabolism and circulating bone turnover markers were monitored as well. Static parameters of bone formation and especially bone resorption being already low-normal in the majority of patients at the time of renal transplantation, further declined during the first posttransplant year. However, interindividual variation was substantial, and significance was reached only for bone resorption parameters. Bone mineralization and trabecular bone volume were within the normal range at the time of transplantation (83.3% and 91.7% of graft recipients, respectively) and showed little change one-year posttransplantation. Changes in osteoclast number were paralleled by changes in circulating tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b levels. Finally, cumulative glucocorticoid dose, but not the posttransplantation parathyroid hormone level, associated with trabecular bone loss. Thus, the impact of renal transplantation on bone histomorphometry is limited with only bone resorption, being already low at the time of transplantation, showing a further decline. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Calcium and inorganic phosphate are of critical importance for many body functions, thus the regulations of their plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by the concerted actions of reabsorption/excretion in the kidney, absorption in the intestines, and exchange from bone, the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) control calcium homeostasis, whereas PTH, 1,25(OH) 2 D, and bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23) control phosphate homeostasis. Hypoparathyroidism can cause hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, whereas deficient vitamin D actions can cause osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. Hyperparathyroidism, alternatively, can cause hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Laboratory tests of calcium, phosphate, PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D are very useful in the diagnosis of abnormalities associated with calcium and/or phosphate metabolisms. Bone is constantly remodeled throughout life in response to mechanical stress and a need for calcium in extracellular fluids. Metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults or rickets in children, and renal osteodystrophy develop when bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Bone turnover markers (BTM) such as serum N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and C-terminal collagen cross-link (CTX) may be useful in predicting future fracture risk or monitoring the response to anti-resorptive therapy. There is a need to standardize sample collection protocols because certain BTMs exhibit large circadian variations and tend to be influenced by food intakes. In the United States, a project to standardize BTM sample collection protocols and to establish the reference intervals for serum P1NP and serum CTX is ongoing. We anticipate the outcome of this project to shine lights on the standardization of BTM assays, sample collection protocols, reference intervals in relation to age, sex, and ethnic
D. O. Joshi
Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of
Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.
In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs
Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...
Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.
Urbanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr; Zátopková, Lenka; Safr, Miroslav
Morphological variation is a result of interplay among multiple intervening factors. For hyoid bones, the shape and size differences have been scarcely covered in the literature and in majority limited to studies of sexual dimorphism or age dependency. To our knowledge, the human hyoid bone, in complete opposite to other cranial bones, has not been fully utilized to address development questions in terms of asymmetry or modularity. In the present paper, we used landmark-based methods of geome...
Bone scanning has varied applications, particularly in the file of oncology. It is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cancers that metastatize to the bones (breast, prostate CA), also in primary bone cancers, infections of the bones and joints. In early stages of primary breast CA (stage I and II), the incidence of unsuspected bone metastasis is only 1-5%. On the other hand, bone scans serve as a baseline study if bone mets occur at some later stage. In patients with stage II and III breast CA, the conversion from normal to abnormal bone scans is 15% and 17%, respectively, clearly in favor of a baseline bone scan. For prostate CA, bone scanning should be used in conjunction with PSA level determination. In advanced disease, a bone scan will define the extent of the metastases, show problematic lesions in weight-bearing bones, and even allow us to evaluate response to therapy in follow-up bone scans. In patients with lung CA, a positive bone scan will make surgery of the primary lesion inappropriate. For other cancers, a bone scan maybe used if there are other signs, whether clinical or chemical, indicating bone involvement. In patients with GIT, liver, skin, brain or bladder CA, routine bone scanning may be considered superfluous. For patients with suspected infection, a 3-phase bone scan is more desirable. In patients with septic arthritis, the bones of each side of the joint take up the radiopharmaceutical while in patients with cellulitis without bony involvement, only the first two phases (dynamic and bloodpool images) will be abnormal. Bone scanning is also used in avascular lesions such as Legg-calve-Perthes disease where one will see reduced uptake of Tc99m MDP. The advent of SPECT imaging has greatly increased the sensitivity in diagnosing AVN. (author)
Vladimir says that today not many children play with ankle bones. He recalls when he was young, children played with bones more often. According to Vladimir, various games using ankle bones develop flexibility, agility, and muscle in children’s hands. Ankles bones are taken from the back legs of a cow or a sheep. It is possible to determine the age and health of animals by examining this particular bone. Arcadia
van de Giessen, Martijn; Foumani, Mahyar; Streekstra, Geert J.; Strackee, Simon D.; Maas, Mario; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Grimbergen, Kees A.; Vos, Frans M.
Diagnosing of injuries of the wrist bones is problematic due to a highly complex and variable geometry. knowledge of variations of healthy bone shapes is essential to detect wrist pathologies, developing prosthetics and investigating biomechanical properties of the wrist joint. In previous
Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127
Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Morford, Lorri Ann
When orthodontic patients desire shorter treatment times with aesthetic results and long-term stability, it is important for the orthodontist to understand the potential limitations and problems that may arise during standard and/or technology-assisted accelerated treatment. Bone density plays an important role in facilitating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such that reductions in bone density can significantly increase movement velocity. Lifestyle, genetic background, environmental factors and disease status all can influence a patients’ overall health and bone density. In some individuals, these factors may create specific conditions that influence systemic-wide bone metabolism. Both genetic variation and the onset of a bone-related disease can influence systemic bone density and local bone density, such as is observed in the mandible and maxilla. These types of localized density changes can affect the rate of OTM and may also influence the risk of unwanted outcomes, i.e., the occurrence of dental external apical root resorption (EARR). PMID:27766484
Yang, Lifeng; Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas; Tan, Joel W. Y.
Ultrasound (US) backscatter from bones depends on the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the interrogated bone. On the other hand, photoacoustics (PA) is sensitive to optical properties of tissue and can detect composition variation. Therefore, PA can provide complementary information about bone health and integrity. In this work, a comparative study of US backscattering and PA back-propagating signals from animal trabecular bones was performed. Both methods were applied using a linear frequency modulation chirp and matched filtering. A 2.2 MHz ultrasonic transducer was employed to detect both signals. The use of the frequency domain facilitates spectral analysis. The variation of signals shows that in addition to sensitivity to mineral changes, PA exhibits sensitivity to changes in the organic part of the bone. It is, therefore, concluded that the combination of both modalities can provide complementary detailed information on bone health than either method separately. In addition, comparison of PA and US depthwise images shows the higher penetration of US. Surface scan images exhibit very weak correlation between US and PA which could be caused by the different signal generation origins in mechanical versus optical properties, respectively.
Dong, X. Neil; Luo, Qing; Sparkman, Daniel M.; Millwater, Harry R.; Wang, Xiaodu
Bone quality is significantly correlated with the inhomogeneous distribution of material and ultrastructural properties (e.g., modulus and mineralization) of the tissue. Current techniques for quantifying inhomogeneity consist of descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. However, these parameters do not describe the spatial variations of bone properties. The objective of this study was to develop a novel statistical method to characterize and quanti...
Full Text Available Studies of bone allometry typically use simple measurements taken in a small number of locations per bone; often the midshaft diameter or joint surface area is compared to body mass or bone length. However, bones must fulfil multiple roles simultaneously with minimum cost to the animal while meeting the structural requirements imposed by behaviour and locomotion, and not exceeding its capacity for adaptation and repair. We use entire bone volumes from the forelimbs and hindlimbs of Felidae (cats to investigate regional complexities in bone allometry.Computed tomographic (CT images (16435 slices in 116 stacks were made of 9 limb bones from each of 13 individuals of 9 feline species ranging in size from domestic cat (Felis catus to tiger (Panthera tigris. Eleven geometric parameters were calculated for every CT slice and scaling exponents calculated at 5% increments along the entire length of each bone. Three-dimensional moments of inertia were calculated for each bone volume, and spherical radii were measured in the glenoid cavity, humeral head and femoral head. Allometry of the midshaft, moments of inertia and joint radii were determined. Allometry was highly variable and related to local bone function, with joint surfaces and muscle attachment sites generally showing stronger positive allometry than the midshaft.Examining whole bones revealed that bone allometry is strongly affected by regional variations in bone function, presumably through mechanical effects on bone modelling. Bone's phenotypic plasticity may be an advantage during rapid evolutionary divergence by allowing exploitation of the full size range that a morphotype can occupy. Felids show bone allometry rather than postural change across their size range, unlike similar-sized animals.
Lashkari, Bahman; Yang, Lifeng; Liu, Lixian; Tan, Joel W. Y.; Mandelis, Andreas
This study examines the sensitivity and specificity of backscattered ultrasound (US) and backscattering photoacoustic (PA) signals for bone composition variation assessment. The conventional approach in the evaluation of bone health relies on measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). Although, a crucial and probably the most important parameter, BMD is not the only factor defining the bone health. New trends in osteoporosis research, also pursue the changes in collagen content and cross-links with bone diseases and aging. Therefore, any non-invasive method that can assess any of these parameters can improve the diagnostic tools and also can help with the biomedical studies on the diseases themselves. Our previous studies show that both US and PA are responsive to changes in the BMD, PA is, in addition, sensitive to changes in the collagen content of the bone. Measurements were performed on bone samples before and after mild demineralization and decollagenization at the exact same points. Results show that combining both modalities can enhance the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tool.
Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.
Physiologic and pathologic processes in bones followed by alternations of bone structure and reflected on roentgenograms are considered and described. Most frequent reasons for roentgenodiagnosis errors in diseases of bone and bone joint apparatus are presented
Morgan, J. L. L.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Skulan, J. L.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.
We demonstrate that variations in the Ca isotope ratios in urine rapidly and quantitatively reflect changes in bone mineral balance. This variation occurs because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes, while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue. In a study of 12 individuals confined to bed rest, a condition known to induce bone resorption, we show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker, while bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Ca isotopes indicate an average loss of 0.62 +/- 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. The Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.
With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin. Deglued bone (DGB) which is a by-product of bone glue industries and has the close crystallographic similarities of hydroxyapatite was used as main component in the preparation of bone ...
... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...
... The doses of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) don’t harm bone and shouldn’t be cause for concern. Only high doses, used for thyroid cancer treatment, can cause bone loss. High doses or long- ...
Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...
Scherer, M.A.; Winkler, R.; Ascherl, R.; Lenz, E.
A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between [de
BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...
... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...
Moiseiwitsch, B L
This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha
Hanihara, T; Ishida, H
Four supernumerary ossicle variations-the ossicle at the lambda, the parietal notch bone, the asterionic bone, and the occipitomastoid bone-were examined for laterality differences, intertrait correlations, sex differences, and between group variations in the samples from around the world. Significant laterality differences were not detected in almost all samples. In some pairs of traits, significant association of occurrence were found. Several geographic samples were sexually dimorphic with respect to the asterionic bone and to a lesser extent for the parietal notch bone. East/Northeast Asians including the Arctic populations in general had lower frequencies of the 4 accessory ossicles. Australians, Melanesians and the majority of the New World peoples, on the other hand, generally had high frequencies. In the western hemisphere of the Old World, Subsaharan Africans had relatively high frequencies. Except for the ossicle at the lambda, the distribution pattern in incidence showed clinal variation from south to north. Any identifiable adaptive value related to environmental or subsistence factors may be expressed in such clinal variation. This may allow us to hypothesise that not only mechanical factors but a founder effect, genetic drift, and population structure could have been the underlying causes for interregional variation and possible clines in the incidences of the accessory ossicles.
Henyš, Petr; Čapek, Lukáš
Digital models based on finite element (FE) analysis are widely used in orthopaedics to predict the stress or strain in the bone due to bone-implant interaction. The usability of the model depends strongly on the bone material description. The material model that is most commonly used is based on a constant Young's modulus or on the apparent density of bone obtained from computer tomography (CT) data. The Young's modulus of bone is described in many experimental works with large variations in the results. The concept of measuring and validating the material model of the pelvic bone based on modal analysis is introduced in this pilot study. The modal frequencies, damping, and shapes of the composite bone were measured precisely by an impact hammer at 239 points. An FE model was built using the data pertaining to the geometry and apparent density obtained from the CT of the composite bone. The isotropic homogeneous Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the cortical and trabecular bone were estimated from the optimisation procedure including Gaussian statistical properties. The performance of the updated model was investigated through the sensitivity analysis of the natural frequencies with respect to the material parameters. The maximal error between the numerical and experimental natural frequencies of the bone reached 1.74 % in the first modal shape. Finally, the optimised parameters were matched with the data sheets of the composite bone. The maximal difference between the calibrated material properties and that obtained from the data sheet was 34 %. The optimisation scheme of the FE model based on the modal analysis data provides extremely useful calibration of the FE models with the uncertainty bounds and without the influence of the boundary conditions.
Kozlowski, Kazimierz; Masel, John; Sillence, David O.; Arbuckle, Susan; Juttnerova, Vera
Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)
Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)
Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)
Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K
Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • September 2007. When encountering a radiologically benign lucent bone lesion in a child, a simple bone cyst is a reasonable diagnostic consideration. Simple or unicameral bone cysts are expansile, serous-fluid-containing defects, that are not true neoplasms. Peak age ranges between 3 ...
Davis, T.M. Jr.; Rogers, L.F.; Hendrix, R.W.
Twenty-five cases of bone metastases involving the cortex alone are reviewed. Seven patients had primary lung carcinoma, while 18 had primary tumors not previously reported to produce cortical bone metastases (tumors of the breast, kidney, pancreas, adenocarcinoma of unknown origin, multiple myeloma). Radiographically, these cortical lesions were well circumscribed, osteolytic, and produced soft-tissue swelling and occasional periosteal reaction. A recurrent pattern of metadiaphyseal involvement of the long bones of the lower extremity (particularly the femur) was noted, and is discussed. Findings reported in the literature, review, pathophysiology, and the role of skeletal radiographs, bone scans, and CT scans in evaluating cortical bone metastases are addressed
Barger, Anne M
Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær
and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...
Jagodzinski, M; Kokemüller, H; Jehn, P; Vogt, P; Gellrich, N-C; Krettek, C
Prefabrication of bone transplants is a promising option for large defects of the long bones, especially if there is compromised vascularization of the defect. This is especially true for postinfection bone defects and other types of atrophic nonunion. The generation of a foreign body membrane (Masquelet's technique) has been investigated in order to ameliorate the response of the host tissue surrounding the defect. In an experimental animal study, a blood vessel within a bone construct could be used to generate customized, vascularized osteogenic constructs that can be used to treat large bone defects in the future.
Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J
Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Buxi, Tarvinder; Sud Seema; Vohra, Rakesh; Sud, Aditi; Singh, Satnam
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the temporal bone is rare. The nature of the underlying disorder that converted into the ABC might, however, be difficult to ascertain on imaging as well as on histopathology. The unusual CT and MRI findings in a case of ABC of the temporal bone are presented. This had transdural intracerebral spread with a large component of solid enhancing matrix but no peripheral calcific rim. The patient was an adult of 45 years with a history of headache for more than 1 year Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.
Sadovoy, M. A.; Kirilova, I. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Matsuk, S. A.; Novoselov, V. P.; Moskalev, A. V.; Bondarenko, A. V.; Afanasev, L. M.; Gubina, E. V.
A total of 522 patients with benign and intermediate bone tumors of various locations, aged 1 to 15 years, were operated in the period from 1996 to 2016. To diagnose skeleton tumors, we used clinical observation, X-ray, and, if indicated, tomography and tumor site biopsy. In the extensive bone resection, we performed bone reconstruction with the replacement of a defect with an allograft (bone strips, deproteinized and spongy grafts), sometimes in the combination with bone autografting. After segmental resection, the defects were filled with bone strips in the form of matchstick grafts; the allografts were received from the Laboratory for Tissue Preparation and Preservation of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. According to the X-ray data, a complete reorganization of bone grafts occurred within 1.5 to 3 years. The long-term result was assessed as good.
Shanbhogue, Vikram V.; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are generally accepted to be associated with increased bone fracture risk. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic bone disease are poorly understood, and whether the associated increased skeletal fragility is a comorbidity or a complication of diabetes...... remains under debate. Although there is some indication of a direct deleterious effect of microangiopathy on bone, the evidence is open to question, and whether diabetic osteopathy can be classified as a chronic, microvascular complication of diabetes remains uncertain. Here, we review the current...... knowledge of potential contributory factors to diabetic bone disease, particularly the association between diabetic microangiopathy and bone mineral density, bone structure, and bone turnover. Additionally, we discuss and propose a pathophysiological model of the effects of diabetic microvascular disease...
Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I
Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.
McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W
Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.
Ohman, Caroline; Zwierzak, Iwona; Baleani, Massimiliano; Viceconti, Marco
It has been hypothesised that among different human subjects, the bone tissue quality varies as a function of the bone segment morphology. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the quality, evaluated in terms of hardness of packages of lamellae, of cortical and trabecular bones, at different anatomical sites within the human skeleton. The contralateral six long bones of an old human subject were indented at different levels along the diaphysis and at both epiphyses of each bone. Hardness value, which is correlated to the degree of mineralisation, of both cortical and trabecular bone tissues was calculated for each indentation location. It was found that the cortical bone tissue was harder (+18%) than the trabecular one. In general, the bone hardness was found to be locally highly heterogeneous. In fact, considering one single slice obtained for a bone segment, the coefficient of variation of the hardness values was up to 12% for cortical bone and up to 17% for trabecular bone. However, the tissue hardness was on average quite homogeneous within and among the long bones of the studied donor, although differences up to 9% among levels and up to 7% among bone segments were found. These findings seem not to support the mentioned hypothesis, at least not for the long bones of an old subject.
Thomas F. Lang
Full Text Available Muscle forces are a strong determinant of bone structure, particularly during the process of growth and development. The gender divergence in the bone-muscle relationship becomes strongly evident during adolescence. In females, growth is characterized by increased estrogen levels and increased mass and strength of bone relative to that of muscle, whereas in men, increases in testosterone fuel large increases in muscle, resulting in muscle forces that coincide with a large growth in bone dimensions and strength. In adulthood, significant age-related losses are observed for both bone and muscle tissues. Large decrease in estrogen levels in women appears to diminish the skeleton's responsiveness to exercise more than in men. In contrast, the aging of the muscle-bone axis in men is a function of age related declines in both hormones. In addition to the well-known age related changes in the mechanical loading of bone by muscle, newer studies appear to provide evidence of age- and gender-related variations in molecular signaling between bone and muscle that are independent of purely mechanical interactions. In summary, gender differences in the acquisition and age-related loss in bone and muscle tissues may be important for developing gender-specific strategies for using exercise to reduce bone loss with aging.
... leakage in its dose consequence analysis. By currently including the main steam pathway leakage in with... integrity of the primary reactor containment and systems and components which penetrate the containment... leakage paths, including containment welds, valves, fittings, and components that penetrate the...
... change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant workers and members of the... impacts to historical and cultural resources. There would be no impact to socioeconomic resources...
The weight-bearing exercises help to build bones and to maintain them strength. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. During bone remodeling, resorption by osteoclasts precedes bone formation by osteoblasts. Based on the osteocyte location within the bone matrix and the cellular morphology, it is proposed that osteocytes potentially contribute to the regulation of bone remodeling in response to mechanical and endocrine stimuli.
Oliveira, A.L.B.; Costa, V.E.; Rezende, M.A.; Grossklauss, D.B.B.F.; Oliveira, T.B.
Full text. The purpose of this work came from the possibility of joining similar methodologies for determination of density, used in different areas, and provide more precise values of bone density by analyzing the mass attenuation coefficient. For over 20 years, The Applied Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Biophysics, IBB- UNESP, Botucatu campus, has been working in the determination of density in different areas, using the methods of immersion and gamma radiation attenuation. The results presented have excellent precision, due to the facility in obtaining and preparing samples, coupled to the large experience in the area. This study aims to determine the bone density of samples of mongrel dogs (dogs without defined breed) by the immersion method; to determine the mass attenuation coefficient of bones samples of mongrel dogs with a gamma radiation source; to discuss and to evaluate the methodological aspects involved in the optic densitometry used nowadays, presenting its advantages and disadvantages and, finally, to examine the effect of animal weight, age and sex on bone densitometry of medium-sized dogs. For this study, we use upper limbs samples, at the joint region humerus-radio-ulnar of after death mongrel dogs, assigned by the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine (UNESP-Botucatu) and by the Kennel of the city of Araras, Sao Paulo. This work is performed in three stages. In the first step is determined the density by the method of immersion in water, in the second step, is obtained the mass coefficient attenuation and, finally, in the third step are discussed the implemented methods and evaluate the density bone samples to establish correlations with the age, weight and sex parameters of each group of animals. Based on this methodology , we can find the average value for the mass attenuation coefficient of gamma radiation with energy 59,6, find variations in the values of bone densitometry in the same bone
Satapathy, Pravat Kumar; Sahoo, Bamadev; Panda, L. N.; Das, S.
This paper focuses on the analysis of fractured Femur bone with functionally graded bone plate. The Femur bone is modeled by using the data from the CT (Computerized Tomography) scan and the material properties are assigned using Mimics software. The fracture fixation plate used here is composed of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). The functionally graded bone plate is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous materials. Finite element method approach is adopted for analysis. The volume fraction of the material is calculated by considering its variation along the thickness direction (z) according to a power law and the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated. The model developed is validated by comparing numerical results available in the literature. Static analysis has been performed for the bone plate system by considering both axial compressive load and torsional load. The investigation shows that by introducing FG bone plate instead of titanium, the stress at the fracture site increases by 63 percentage and the deformation decreases by 15 percentage, especially when torsional load is taken into consideration. The present model yields better results in comparison with the commercially available bone plates.
Maldonado, Solvey; Findeisen, Rolf
The modeling, analysis, and design of treatment therapies for bone disorders based on the paradigm of force-induced bone growth and adaptation is a challenging task. Mathematical models provide, in comparison to clinical, medical and biological approaches an structured alternative framework to understand the concurrent effects of the multiple factors involved in bone remodeling. By now, there are few mathematical models describing the appearing complex interactions. However, the resulting models are complex and difficult to analyze, due to the strong nonlinearities appearing in the equations, the wide range of variability of the states, and the uncertainties in parameters. In this work, we focus on analyzing the effects of changes in model structure and parameters/inputs variations on the overall steady state behavior using systems theoretical methods. Based on an briefly reviewed existing model that describes force-induced bone adaptation, the main objective of this work is to analyze the stationary behavior and to identify plausible treatment targets for remodeling related bone disorders. Identifying plausible targets can help in the development of optimal treatments combining both physical activity and drug-medication. Such treatments help to improve/maintain/restore bone strength, which deteriorates under bone disorder conditions, such as estrogen deficiency.
Dong, X Neil; Luo, Qing; Sparkman, Daniel M; Millwater, Harry R; Wang, Xiaodu
Bone quality is significantly correlated with the inhomogeneous distribution of material and ultrastructural properties (e.g., modulus and mineralization) of the tissue. Current techniques for quantifying inhomogeneity consist of descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. However, these parameters do not describe the spatial variations of bone properties. The objective of this study was to develop a novel statistical method to characterize and quantitatively describe the spatial variation of bone properties at ultrastructural levels. To do so, a random field defined by an exponential covariance function was used to represent the spatial uncertainty of elastic modulus by delineating the correlation of the modulus at different locations in bone lamellae. The correlation length, a characteristic parameter of the covariance function, was employed to estimate the fluctuation of the elastic modulus in the random field. Using this approach, two distribution maps of the elastic modulus within bone lamellae were generated using simulation and compared with those obtained experimentally by a combination of atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation techniques. The simulation-generated maps of elastic modulus were in close agreement with the experimental ones, thus validating the random field approach in defining the inhomogeneity of elastic modulus in lamellae of bone. Indeed, generation of such random fields will facilitate multi-scale modeling of bone in more pragmatic details. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Les derniers romans de Gabriel Josipovici offrent beaucoup de variété, allant de la parodie, de la fiction comique légère, dans Only Joking et Making Mistakes, à des sujets plus graves, plus personnels, ontologiques. Dans un court roman, Everything Passes, et dans un roman majeur, Goldberg: Variations, le lecteur est amené à se poser des questions sur la nature mystérieuse de la réalité, qui est, trop souvent, acceptée sans conteste par de nombreux roma...
Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)
Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.
Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe
One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.
is an ordered array of bone fibers in a matrix material . It is the dominant form of bone and closely resembles a layered fiber - reinforced ...mineral , . These fibers are not independent structures, but exist only within the complex lamellar bone , similar to a fiber reinforced ...accuracy of this method. What this model does not provide is the transverse properties or a Poisson ’ s ratio for TC. Thus, we must assume that
Domenis L., Squadrone S., Marchis D., Abete MC.
Full Text Available Directive 2003/126/EC defines the method for the determination of constituents of animal origin for official control of feedingstuffs. One of the hardest problems for microscopist is the differentiation between mammalian and poultry bones on the basis of some characteristics as colour and borders of the fragments, shape and density of osteocyte lacunae. The shape of osteocyte lacuna in poultry and mammals is often described in different way, elliptic or roundish according with the Author(s. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of lacunae in chicken bones of different type. For this purpose, smashed fragments and histological sections of the same bone were compared in order to evaluate the microscopic aspect of lacunae in different breaking and trimming planes. According to the observations carried out, it was possible to infer that chicken osteocyte has a biconvex lens shape; however the different arrangement and some size variation of the osteocytes in the several bone segments influence the microscopic features of corresponding lacunae. Chicken bone is made of a parallel-fibered tissue, without osteons. This structure probably determines the plane fracture of the bone and consequently the different aspect of lacunae (from spindle-shaped to elliptic-roundish we can see in chicken derived PAP (processed animal protein. For example, in the fragments obtained from smashed diaphysis, the prevalence of spindle-shaped lacunae is depending on the preferential breaking of the bone along longitudinal plane. Likewise, for the epiphysis, being made mostly by bone trabeculae with strange directions, the breaking happens along different planes, creating lacunae of various shape. Performing the official check of animal feedingstuffs, the presence of bone fragments with roundish or elliptic osteocyte lacunae induces the analyst to thinking that the meat and bone meal comes respectively from mammals and poultry or vice versa depending to
Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson
This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have based...... the study on four video-recorded sessions, with four different PhD students and their supervisors, all from life sciences. Our analysis revealed that learning opportunities in the supervision sessions concerned either the content matter of research (for instance, understanding soil structure......), or the research methods— more specifically how to produce valid results. Our results illustrate how supervisors and PhD students create a space of learning together in their particular discipline by varying critical aspects of their research in their discussions. Situations where more openended research issues...
Lindholm, T.S.; Nilsson, O.S.; Lindholm, T.C.
Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45 Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells
Kaser-Hotz, B.; Ueltschi, G.
Radiographs of the navicular bone in 523 sound horses were reviewed. Detailed evaluation criteria were used. The incidence of radiographic changes and variations in normal horses were recorded. Results were tested for right-left limb difference and for age relationship. Variation in shape and bone structure was commonly seen in the navicular bone. Radiographic changes with an incidence of less than 2% included flexor cortex defects and calcification on the flexor surface. Fragments at the distal navicular bone border, calcification in the impar ligament and enthesiophytes at the proximal border were radiographic findings with an incidence of 2% to 10%. Abnormal canals at the distal border were found in 11% horses. Elongation of the lateral proximal extremity was commonly found. The mean width of the flexor cortex was 3.6 mm
Yeon, K. M.
To evaluate the developmental status of children and adolescents, bone-age chart based on the radiograph of hand and wrist has been used in many countries. The bone-age reflects not only the functional status of various hormones but also the influence of chronic disease, and it has been used more widely than other indices such as height-weight-age table. As the standard bone-age chart has not been established in Korea, the foreign bone-age chart has been used radiographs in the clinics. To make Korean standard bone-age chart, we took the radiographs of the left hand in about 5400 children covering the whole country, and 3407 radiographs of 1830 boys and 1577 girls ranging from two months to 16 years of age were selected and analyzed for bone maturity scores by TW2-20 method. The range of age were divided into 27 groups, and the radiographs of 50th percentile score were chosen as the standard bone-ages for the median age of each group. The youngest and oldest chronological age which had the same TW2-20 score of the standard bone-age were decided as the range of variation from the median age. We hope that Korean standard bone-age chart be used as the radiological criteria in the evaluation of the developmental status in Korean children and adolescents
Islam, K; Dobbe, A; Komeili, A; Duke, K; El-Rich, M; Dhillon, S; Adeeb, S; Jomha, N M
The main object of this study was to use a geometric morphometric approach to quantify the left-right symmetry of talus bones. Analysis was carried out using CT scan images of 11 pairs of intact tali. Two important geometric parameters, volume and surface area, were quantified for left and right talus bones. The geometric shape variations between the right and left talus bones were also measured using deviation analysis. Furthermore, location of asymmetry in the geometric shapes were identified. Numerical results showed that talus bones are bilaterally symmetrical in nature, and the difference between the surface area of the left and right talus bones was less than 7.5%. Similarly, the difference in the volume of both bones was less than 7.5%. Results of the three-dimensional (3D) deviation analyses demonstrated the mean deviation between left and right talus bones were in the range of -0.74 mm to 0.62 mm. It was observed that in eight of 11 subjects, the deviation in symmetry occurred in regions that are clinically less important during talus surgery. We conclude that left and right talus bones of intact human ankle joints show a strong degree of symmetry. The results of this study may have significance with respect to talus surgery, and in investigating traumatic talus injury where the geometric shape of the contralateral talus can be used as control. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:139-45.
Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...
... FAQs Breadcrumb Home Exercise for Your Bone Health Exercise for Your Bone Health Vital at every age ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...
Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Start here to find information on bone cancer treatment, research, and statistics.
Exercise plays an important role in the retention of bone density in the aging person. Studies show that exercises requiring muscles to pull on bones cause the bones to retain and possibly gain density.
... Topics / Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Also known as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant , Hematopoietic ... person, called a donor, it is an allogeneic transplant. Blood or bone marrow transplants most commonly are used to treat ...
Feng, Ting; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Tian, Chao; Perosky, Joseph; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Deng, Cheri X.; Wang, Xueding
The feasibility of an innovative biomedical diagnostic technique, thermal photoacoustic (TPA) measurement, for nonionizing and non-invasive assessment of bone health is investigated. Unlike conventional photoacoustic PA methods which are mostly focused on the measurement of absolute signal intensity, TPA targets the change in PA signal intensity as a function of the sample temperature, i.e. the temperature dependent Grueneisen parameter which is closely relevant to the chemical and molecular properties in the sample. Based on the differentiation measurement, the results from TPA technique is less susceptible to the variations associated with sample and system, and could be quantified with improved accurately. Due to the fact that the PA signal intensity from organic components such as blood changes faster than that from non-organic mineral under the same modulation of temperature, TPA measurement is able to objectively evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and its loss as a result of osteoporosis. In an experiment on well established rat models of bone loss and preservation, PA measurements of rat tibia bones were conducted over a temperature range from 370 C to 440 C. The slope of PA signal intensity verses temperature was quantified for each specimen. The comparison among three groups of specimens with different BMD shows that bones with lower BMD have higher slopes, demonstrating the potential of the proposed TPA technique in future clinical management of osteoporosis.
... Also, women generally have less bone tissue than men. So, it’s especially important for girls to build up their bone “bank account” during their teenage years by exercising regularly and getting enough calcium and vitamin D. What to do for strong bones—today and tomorrow Osteoporosis is usually a ...
Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.
There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions
One of the diagnostic techniques used in nuclear medicine is the bone scintiscanning with labelled compounds for obtain skeletal images. The main sections in this work are: (1) bone composition and anatomy;(2)skeletal radiopharmaceutical development;(3)physical properties of radionuclides;(4)biological behaviour and chemical structures;(5)radiopharmaceuticals production for skeletal scintillation;(6)kits;(7)dosimetry and toxicity.tabs
Weinman, J.; Servaes, S.; Anupindi, S.A.
Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course
Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)
To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)
Gregg, P J; Walder, D N
Caisson disease of bone, which may affect compressed air workers and divers, is characterized by regions of bone and marrow necrosis that may lead to secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip and shoulder joints. A review of the pathologic, radiologic, and clinical aspects demonstrated uncertainties in the exact etiology. Early diagnosis is often not possible because of the delayed appearance of radiologic abnormalities. Research into these two aspects of this condition was carried out by the Medical Research Council Decompression Sickness Research Team in Newcastle upon Tyne over a ten-year period (1972 to 1982). Because no suitable animal model exists for the study of this condition, bone and marrow necrosis was produced by embolism of bone blood vessels with glass microspheres. With this model, it was shown that the presence of bone and marrow necrosis could be detected by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP and by measuring changes in serum ferritin concentration at a much earlier stage than was possible by radiography. However, only the former method has proved useful in clinical practice. Investigations into the etiology of caisson disease of bone have shown evidence for an increase in marrow fat cell size resulting from hyperoxia. This phenomenon may play a role in the production and localization of gas bubble emboli, which are thought to be the cause of the bone and marrow necrosis.
I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)
textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children
Specchi Bighi, E.; Baldelli, S.; Argalia, G.
The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the role of bone photonic densitometry in uremic osteodystrophy. Bone mineral contenent (BMC) and bone density (BD) have been measured in 80 hemodialyzed patients by double photonic emission densitometry. Photonic densitometry shows an higher sensibility to quantitative changes in bone mineral contenent than metacarpal index (IM). Photonic densitometry is unable to differentiate osteoporosis from osteomalacia; this differential diagnosis can be obtained by radiological analysis: low BD and low IM means osteoporosis, low BD and resorptive changes in cortical bone means osteomalacia and/or hyperparathyroidism. Photonic densitometry is particulary suitable for uremic osteodystrophy follow-up because of its easy ripetibility and innocuousness and for its close correlation with iPTH variations
Full Text Available Bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes constant remodeling throughout the life span. Bone turnover is balanced with coupling of bone formation and resorption at various rates leading to continuous remodeling of bone. A study of bone turnover markers (BTMs provides an insight of the dynamics of bone turnover in many metabolic bone disorders. An increase in bone turnover seen with aging and pathological states such as osteoporosis leads to deterioration of bone microarchitecture and thus contributes to an increase in the risk of fracture independent of low bone mineral density (BMD. These microarchitectural alterations affecting the bone quality can be assessed by BTMs and thus may serve as a complementary tool to BMD in the assessment of fracture risk. A systematic search of literature regarding BTMs was carried out using the PubMed database for the purpose of this review. Various reliable, rapid, and cost-effective automated assays of BTMs with good sensitivity are available for the management of osteoporosis. However, BTMs are subjected to various preanalytical and analytical variations necessitating strict sample collection and assays methods along with utilizing ethnicity-based reference standards for different populations. Estimation of fracture risk and monitoring the adherence and response to therapy, which is a challenge in a chronic, asymptomatic disease such as osteoporosis, are the most important applications of measuring BTMs. This review describes the physiology of bone remodeling, various conventional and novel BTMs, and BTM assays and their role in the assessment of fracture risk and monitoring response to treatment with antiresorptive or anabolic agents.
Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L
Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.
Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær
This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces...... and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...
Puska, Mervi; Aho, Allan J; Vallittu, Pekka K
In orthopedics, traumatology, and craniofacial surgery, biomaterials should meet the clinical demands of bone that include shape, size and anatomical location of the defect, as well as the physiological load-bearing stresses. Biomaterials are metals, ceramics, plastics or materials of biological origin. In the treatment of large defects, metallic endoprostheses or bone grafts are employed, whereas ceramics in the case of small defects. Plastics are employed on the artificial joint surfaces, in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, and as biodegradable screws and plates. Porosity, bioactivity, and identical biomechanics to bone are fundamental for achieving a durable, well-bonded, interface between biomaterial and bone. In the case of severe bone treatments, biomaterials should also imply an option to add biologically active substances.
Pyzalla, A.R.; Sander, P.M.; Hansen, A.; Ferreyro, R.; Yi, S.-B.; Stempniewicz, M.; Brokmeier, H.-G.
The apatite texture of fossil Brachiosaurus brancai and Barosaurus africanus sauropod bones from the excavation site at Tendaguru, Tanzania, was characterized by neutron diffraction pole figures. The results obtained reveal predominantly -fibre textures of the apatite; the fibre direction coincides with the longitudinal direction of the long bones of the skeletons. Neutron pole figures further indicate that other texture types may also be present. Texture strength is similar to dinosaur tendons and contemporary turkey tendon studied by others. Variations of texture strength across the bone wall cross-sections are not significantly large
Pyzalla, A.R. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria) and MPI fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Sander, P.M. [University of Bonn, Institute of Palaeontology, Nusseallee, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Hansen, A. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Ferreyro, R. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Yi, S.-B. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); MPI fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Stempniewicz, M. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Brokmeier, H.-G. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)
The apatite texture of fossil Brachiosaurus brancai and Barosaurus africanus sauropod bones from the excavation site at Tendaguru, Tanzania, was characterized by neutron diffraction pole figures. The results obtained reveal predominantly <0 0 0 1>-fibre textures of the apatite; the fibre direction coincides with the longitudinal direction of the long bones of the skeletons. Neutron pole figures further indicate that other texture types may also be present. Texture strength is similar to dinosaur tendons and contemporary turkey tendon studied by others. Variations of texture strength across the bone wall cross-sections are not significantly large.
Naik, Sulabha M.
Full Text Available Introduction Traditionally, surgical training in otology, is imparted by dissecting harvested human cadaveric temporal bones. However, maintenance of a cadaveric temporal bone laboratory is expensive and carries risk of exposure to infection. In recent times, other modalities of training are gaining ground and are likely to eventually replace cadaveric temporal bone dissection altogether. Objectives Other alternative methods of training are emerging. New technology like simulation and virtual reality as high-fidelity, safer alternatives, are making rapid strides as teaching tools. Other options are the use of animal temporal bones as teaching tools. The advantages of these are compared. Data Synthesis None of these modalities can replicate the innumerable anatomical variations which are a characteristic feature of the human temporal bone. A novice surgeon not only needs exposure to surgical anatomy and it's variations but also needs to develop hand-eye coordination skills to gain expertise. Conclusion Deliberate practice on human cadaveric temporal bones only, will confer both mastery in anatomy and surgical technique. The human cadaveric temporal bone is ideal simulator for training in otology.
Cambra-Moo, Oscar; Nacarino-Meneses, Carmen; Díaz-Güemes, Idoia; Enciso, Silvia; García Gil, Orosia; Llorente Rodríguez, Laura; Rodríguez Barbero, Miguel Ángel; de Aza, Antonio H; González Martín, Armando
Bone researches have studied extant and extinct taxa extensively trying to disclose a complete view of the complex structural and chemical transformations that model and remodel the macro and microstructure of bone during growth. However, to approach bone growth variations is not an easy task, and many aspects related with histological transformations during ontogeny remain unresolved. In the present study, we conduct a holistic approach using different techniques (polarized microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction) to examine the histomorphological and histochemical variations in the cortical bone of sheep specimens from intrauterine to adult stages, using environmentally controlled specimens from the same species. Our results suggest that during sheep bone development, the most important morphological (shape and size) and chemical transformations in the cortical bone occur during the first weeks of life; synchronized but dissimilar variations are established in the forelimb and hind limb cortical bone; and the patterns of bone tissue maturation in both extremities are differentiated in the adult stage. All of these results indicate that standardized histological models are useful not only for evaluating many aspects of normal bone growth but also to understand other important influences on the bones, such as pathologies that remain unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlsson, Gunnar E
PURPOSE To present a literature review on implant overdentures after a brief survey of bone loss after extraction of all teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS Papers on alveolar bone loss and implant overdentures have been studied for a narrative review. RESULTS Bone loss of the alveolar process after tooth extraction occurs with great individual variation, impossible to predict at the time of extraction. The simplest way to prevent bone loss is to avoid extraction of all teeth. To keep a few teeth an...
Maggiano, Corey M; Maggiano, Isabel S; Tiesler, Vera G; Chi-Keb, Julio R; Stout, Sam D
This study compares two novel methods quantifying bone shaft tissue distributions, and relates observations on human humeral growth patterns for applications in anthropological and anatomical research. Microstructural variation in compact bone occurs due to developmental and mechanically adaptive circumstances that are 'recorded' by forming bone and are important for interpretations of growth, health, physical activity, adaptation, and identity in the past and present. Those interpretations hinge on a detailed understanding of the modeling process by which bones achieve their diametric shape, diaphyseal curvature, and general position relative to other elements. Bone modeling is a complex aspect of growth, potentially causing the shaft to drift transversely through formation and resorption on opposing cortices. Unfortunately, the specifics of modeling drift are largely unknown for most skeletal elements. Moreover, bone modeling has seen little quantitative methodological development compared with secondary bone processes, such as intracortical remodeling. The techniques proposed here, starburst point-count and 45° cross-polarization hand-drawn histomorphometry, permit the statistical and populational analysis of human primary tissue distributions and provide similar results despite being suitable for different applications. This analysis of a pooled archaeological and modern skeletal sample confirms the importance of extreme asymmetry in bone modeling as a major determinant of microstructural variation in diaphyses. Specifically, humeral drift is posteromedial in the human humerus, accompanied by a significant rotational trend. In general, results encourage the usage of endocortical primary bone distributions as an indicator and summary of bone modeling drift, enabling quantitative analysis by direction and proportion in other elements and populations. © 2015 Anatomical Society.
Full Text Available We examined the bone properties of BXD recombinant inbred (RI mice by analyzing femur and tibia and compared their phenotypes of different compartments. 46 BXD RI mouse strains were analyzed including progenitor C57BL/6J (n=16 and DBA/2J (n=15 and two first filial generations (D2B6F1 and B6D2F1. Strain differences were observed in bone quality and structural properties (P<0.05 in each bone profile (whole bone, cortical bone, or trabecular bone. It is well known that skeletal phenotypes are largely affected by genetic determinants and genders, such as bone mineral density (BMD. While genetics and gender appear expectedly as the major determinants of bone mass and structure, significant correlations were also observed between femur and tibia. More importantly, positive and negative femur-tibia associations indicated that genetic makeup had an influence on skeletal integrity. We conclude that (a femur-tibia association in bone morphological properties significantly varies from strain to strain, which may be caused by genetic differences among strains, and (b strainwise variations were seen in bone mass, bone morphology, and bone microarchitecture along with bone structural property.
Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.
Ibáñez, Lidia; Rouleau, Matthieu; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine
The gut microbiome is now viewed as a tissue that interacts bidirectionally with the gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine and nervous systems, affecting the cellular responses in numerous organs. Evidence is accumulating of gut microbiome involvement in a growing number of pathophysiological processes, many of which are linked to inflammatory responses. More specifically, data acquired over the last decade point to effects of the gut microbiome on bone mass regulation and on the development of bone diseases (such as osteoporosis) and of inflammatory joint diseases characterized by bone loss. Mice lacking a gut microbiome have bone mass alteration that can be reversed by gut recolonization. Changes in the gut microbiome composition have been reported in mice with estrogen-deficiency osteoporosis and have also been found in a few studies in humans. Probiotic therapy decreases bone loss in estrogen-deficient animals. The effect of the gut microbiome on bone tissue involves complex mechanisms including modulation of CD4 + T cell activation, control of osteoclastogenic cytokine production and modifications in hormone levels. This complexity may contribute to explain the discrepancies observed betwwen some studies whose results vary depending on the age, gender, genetic background and treatment duration. Further elucidation of the mechanisms involved is needed. However, the available data hold promise that gut microbiome manipulation may prove of interest in the management of bone diseases. Copyright © 2018 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.
In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions
Mullender, M.; El Haj, A.J.; Yang, Y.; van Duin, M.A.; Burger, E.H.; Klein-Nulend, J.
Mechanical force plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodelling in intact bone and bone repair. In vitro, bone cells demonstrate a high responsiveness to mechanical stimuli. Much debate exists regarding the critical components in the load profile and whether different components, such
KALNIEV, MANOL; KRASTEV, DIMO; KRASTEV, NIKOLAY; VIDINOV, KALIN; VELTCHEV, LUDMIL; APOSTOLOV, ALEXANDER; MILEVA, MILKA
The digastric muscle is composed by two muscle bellies: an anterior and a posterior, joined by an intermediate tendon. This muscle is situated in the anterior region of the neck. The region between the hyoid bone and the mandible is divided by an anterior belly into two triangles: the submandibular situated laterally and the submental triangle which is located medially. We found that the anatomical variations described in the literature relate mainly to the anterior belly and consist of differences in shape and attachment of the muscle. During routine dissection in February 2013 in the section hall of the Department of Anatomy and Histology in Medical University – Sofia we came across a very interesting variation of the digastric muscle. The digastric muscles that presented anatomical variations were photographed using a Sony Cyber-shot DSC-T1 camera, with a Carl Zeiss Vario-Tessar lens. We found out bilateral variation of the digastric muscle in one cadaver. The anterior bellies were very thin and insert to the hyoid bone. Two anterior bellies connect each other and thus they formed a loop. The anatomical variations observed of our study related only to the anterior belly, as previously described by other authors. It is very important to consider the occurrence of the above mentioned variations in the digastric muscle when surgical procedures are performed on the anterior region of the neck. PMID:26527971
Ivanovaite, Livija; Jensen, Mathias Paul Bjørnevad; Philippsen, Bente
, Obšrūtai and Kamšai were subjected to the AMS dating, tandem mass spectrometry for animal species identification as well as technological and use-wear analysis. The results revealed that all four bone points could be dated to the Boreal period and imply early-to-middle Mesolithic dates. Harpoons from...... of the present research, the paper shortly describes other scientific methods which could be applied to orphaned bone and antler tools including biomolecular and stable isotope analysis. Digital recording methods can be useful for bone artefact recording. This is relevant today, as the demand for good quality...
Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)
Jensen, P.S.; Orphanoudakis, S.C.; Hutchinson-Williams, K.; Lewis, A.B.; Lovett, L.; Polan, M.L.; DeCherney, A.H.; Comite, F.
In this study, quantitative CT is used to measure bone in the distal radius in normal women, women with endometriosis who had not been treated, and women with endometriosis who had been treated with danazol--an anabolic (androgen) steroid. Measurements of cortex and trabeculae indicate that untreated women have decreased bone mass (1125 HU and 160 HU, respectively), compared with bone mass in normal women (1269 HU and 257 HU; P < .05) and treated women (1238 HU and 255 HU). This finding is important because the most effective way to reduce the complications of osteoporosis is identification of risk factors, prevention, and early treatment
Linden, L.W.J. van der.
In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)
Langlois, M R; Delanghe, J R; Kaufman, J M; De Buyzere, M L; Van Hoecke, M J; Leroux-Roels, G G
Bone alkaline phosphatase is a marker of osteoblast activity. In order to study the posttranscriptional modification (glycosylation) of bone alkaline phosphatase in bone disease, we investigated the relationship between mass and catalytic activity of bone alkaline phosphatase in patients with osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase activity was measured after lectin precipitation using the Iso-ALP test kit. Mass concentration of bone alkaline phosphatase was determined with an immunoradiometric assay (Tandem-R Ostase). In general, serum bone alkaline phosphatase mass and activity concentration correlated well. The activity : mass ratio of bone alkaline phosphatase was low in hyperthyroidism. Activation energy of the reaction catalysed by bone alkaline phosphatase was high in osteoporosis and in hyperthyroidism. Experiments with neuraminidase digestion further demonstrated that the thermodynamic heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase can be explained by a different glycosylation of the enzyme.
Pastoureau, P.; Merle, B.; Delmas, P.D.
We developed a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for ovine bone gla-protein (osteocalcin) using a polyclonal rabbit antibody raised against ovine bone gla-protein. Bone from lambs was extracted in 0.5 mol/l EDTA and desalted on Sephadex G-25. Bone gla-protein was purified by gel filtration chromatography over Sephadex G-100 and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25. The protein, subjected to monodimensional electrophoresis migrated as a single spot in SDS PAGE with the same apparent molecular weight of 12 kD as bovine bone gla-protein. The amino acid composition of pufified bone gla-protein was in agreement with a previous publication. The competitive RIA uses 125 I-labelled bone gla-protein as a tracer and a complex of a second antibody and polyethylene glycol to separate free and antibody-bound 125 I-labelled bone gla-protein. The intra- and inter-assay variations are less than 6 and 10%, respectively. There is no reactivity of our antisera with dog sera. The cross-reactivity is only partial with calf and human sera and complete with ovine sera. We measured bone gla-protein levels in serum of 96 normal male sheep of different ages. Serum bone gla-protein rapidly and significantly (P<0.001) decreased from 532 ± 169 μg/l at birth, to 240 ± 43 μg/l at 45 days, 152 ± 44 μg/l at 90 days, and 5.9 ± 0.7 μg/l at 7 years age. In addition, bone gla-protein levels at birth were higher in normal birth weight than in hypotrophic lambs with low birth weight (535 ± 169 vs 271 ± 156 μg/l, P<0.0001). Furthermore, lambs raised outside in free conditions tended to have higher serum bone gla-protein levels than lambs raised under shelter (1984 ± 53 vs 137 ± 34 μg/l), suggesting a role of breeding factors such as diet or relative immobilization on bone gla-protein levels. These results emphasize the interest of a RIA for the bone-specific protein bone gla-protein as a potential tool for experimental studies on skeletal growth and bone remodelling in a
Venturini, Luzia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A.; Vanin, Vito R.
Full text: The bones in the knee region are among the possible choices to estimate radionuclide deposit in the skeleton. Finding the optimum measurement conditions requires the determination of the uncertainties and their relationship with the detector arrangement in the available space, variations in bone anatomy, and non-uniformity in radionuclide deposit. In this work, geometric models for the bones in the knee region and Monte Carlo simulation of the measurement efficiency were used to estimate uncertainties in the in vivo monitoring in the 46 -- 186 keV gamma-ray energy range. The bone models are based on geometrical figures such as ellipsoids and cylinders and have already been published elsewhere. Their parameters are diameters, axis orientations, lengths, and relative positions determined from a survey on real pieces. A 1.70 m tall person was used as a reference; bone model parameters for 1.50 m and 1.90 m tall persons were deduced from the previously published data, to evaluate the uncertainties related to bone size. The simulated experimental arrangement consisted of four HPGe detectors measuring radiation from the knees in the bed geometry; uncertainties from radionuclide deposit distribution, compact bone density and bone size were also included. The detectors were placed at 22 cm height from the bed and it was assumed that the part of the bones seen by the detectors consists in the first 25 cm from the patella, both in feet and hip directions. The cover tissue was not taken as an uncertainty source, but its effect on the final detection efficiency was taken into account. The calculations consider the main interaction types between radiation and the detector crystal, and the radiation attenuation in the bones and the layers of materials between bones and detectors. It was found that the uncertainties depend strongly on the hypotheses made. For example, for 46 keV gamma-rays, a 1.70 m tall person with normal bone density and radionuclide deposit in the
Schneider, Blair Benson
This research investigates the detection capabilities of Ground-penetrating radar for imaging prehistoric animal bone-beds. The first step of this investigation was to determine the dielectric properties of modern animal bone as a proxy for applying non-invasive ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for detecting prehistoric animal remains. Over 90 thin section samples were cut from four different modern faunal skeleton remains: bison, cow, deer, and elk. One sample of prehistoric mammoth core was also analyzed. Sample dielectric properties (relative permittivity, loss factor, and loss-tangent values) were measured with an impedance analyzer over frequencies ranging from 10 MHz to 1 GHz. The results reveal statistically significant dielectric-property differences among different animal fauna, as well as variation as a function of frequency. The measured sample permittivity values were then compared to modeled sample permittivity values using common dielectric-mixing models. The dielectric mixing models were used to report out new reported values of dry bone mineral of 3-5 in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 1 GHz. The second half of this research collected controlled GPR experiments over a sandbox containing buried bison bone elements to evaluate GPR detection capabilities of buried animal bone. The results of the controlled GPR sandbox tests were then compared to numerical models in order to predict the ability of GPR to detect buried animal bone given a variety of different depositional factors, the size and orientation of the bone target and the degree of bone weathering. The radar profiles show that GPR is an effective method for imaging the horizontal and vertical extent of buried animal bone. However, increased bone weathering and increased bone dip were both found to affect GPR reflection signal strength. Finally, the controlled sandbox experiments were also utilized to investigate the impact of survey design for imaging buried animal bone. In particular, the
Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Damas, Pierre; Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne
Bone changes are increasingly described after burn. How bone markers could help to detect early bone changes or to screen burn patients at higher risk of demineralization is still not made clear. We performed an observational study assessing the changes in serum bone markers after moderate burn. Adults admitted in the first 24h following burn extended on >10% body surface area were included. Serum levels of collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP), type 1 procollagen N-terminal (P1NP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) were measured at admission and every week during the first month. Data are expressed as median [min-max]. Bone markers were measured in 20 patients: 18 men, 2 women (including one post-menopausal). Age was 46 [19-86] years old, burn surface area reached 15 [7-85] %. Twelve patients completed the study. All biomarkers mainly remained into normal ranges during evolution. A huge variability was observed regarding biomarkers evolution. Patient's evolution was not linear and could fluctuate from a decrease to an increase of blood concentrations. There was not necessarily a consistency between the two formation or the two resorption markers. Variations observed between two consecutive measurements were lesser than the accepted critical difference in almost one third of the cases. Considering available data, role and interest of bone markers in management of burn related bone disease remain unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Henmi, Akiko; Nakamura, Megumi; Echigo, Seishi; Sasano, Yasuyuki
We investigated bone repair in sensory-denervated rats, compared with controls, to elucidate the involvement of sensory neurons. Nine-week-old male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of capsaicin to denervate sensory neurons. Rats treated with the same amount of vehicle served as controls. A standardized bone defect was created on the parietal bone. We measured the amount of repaired bone with quantitative radiographic analysis and the mRNA expressions of osteocalcin and cathepsin K with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative radiographic analysis showed that the standard deviations and coefficients of variation for the amount of repaired bone were much higher in the capsaicin-treated group than in the control group at any time point, which means that larger individual differences in the amount of repaired bone were found in capsaicin-treated rats than controls. Furthermore, radiographs showed radiolucency in pre-existing bone surrounding the standardized defect only in the capsaicin-treated group, and histological observation demonstrated some multinuclear cells corresponding to the radiolucent area. Real-time PCR indicated that there was no significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of osteocalcin and cathepsin K between the control group and the capsaicin-treated group. These results suggest that capsaicin-induced sensory denervation affects the bone defect repair. (author)
Full Text Available Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly.
Go, R.T.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Wehbe, M.A.
A normal radionuclide bone image can facilitate distinction between a bone island and significant pathologic processes, especially an osteoblastic metastasis. This distinction becomes more crucial when growth is detected in an isolated sclerotic bone lesion or if a relatively large sclerotic lesion is detected de novo in patients with a known neoplasm. This report presents three patients with isolated bone islands: two with interval growth, the other with a relatively large stable lesion; all showing a normal radionuclide bone image. (orig.) [de
Warshaw, Johanna; Bromage, Timothy G; Terranova, Carl J; Enlow, Donald H
Studies of variation in orientation of collagen fibers within bone have lead to the proposition that these are preferentially aligned to accommodate different kinds of load, with tension best resisted by fibers aligned longitudinally relative to the load, and compression best resisted by transversely aligned fibers. However, previous studies have often neglected to consider the effect of developmental processes, including constraints on collagen fiber orientation (CFO), particularly in primary bone. Here we use circularly polarized light microscopy to examine patterns of CFO in cross-sections from the midshaft femur, humerus, tibia, radius, and ulna in a range of living primate taxa with varied body sizes, phylogenetic relationships and positional behaviors. We find that a preponderance of longitudinally oriented collagen is characteristic of both periosteal primary and intracortically remodeled bone. Where variation does occur among groups, it is not simply understood via interpretations of mechanical loads, although prioritized adaptations to tension and/or shear are considered. While there is some suggestion that CFO may correlate with body size, this relationship is neither consistent nor easily explicable through consideration of size-related changes in mechanical adaptation. The results of our study indicate that there is no clear relationship between CFO and phylogenetic status. One of the principle factors accounting for the range of variation that does exist is primary tissue type, where slower depositing bone is more likely to comprise a larger proportion of oblique to transverse collagen fibers. Anat Rec, 300:1189-1207, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ganghoffer, Jean-François; Rahouadj, Rachid; Boisse, Julien; Forest, Samuel
The process of bone remodeling includes a cycle of repair, renewal, and optimization. This adaptation process, in response to variations in external loads and chemical driving factors, involves three main types of bone cells: osteoclasts, which remove the old pre-existing bone; osteoblasts, which form the new bone in a second phase; osteocytes, which are sensing cells embedded into the bone matrix, trigger the aforementioned sequence of events. The remodeling process involves mineralization of the bone in the diffuse interface separating the marrow, which contains all specialized cells, from the newly formed bone. The main objective advocated in this contribution is the setting up of a modeling and simulation framework relying on the phase field method to capture the evolution of the diffuse interface between the new bone and the marrow at the scale of individual trabeculae. The phase field describes the degree of mineralization of this diffuse interface; it varies continuously between the lower value (no mineral) and unity (fully mineralized phase, e.g. new bone), allowing the consideration of a diffuse moving interface. The modeling framework is the theory of continuous media, for which field equations for the mechanical, chemical, and interfacial phenomena are written, based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Additional models for the cellular activity are formulated to describe the coupling of the cell activity responsible for bone production/resorption to the kinetics of the internal variables. Kinetic equations for the internal variables are obtained from a pseudo-potential of dissipation. The combination of the balance equations for the microforce associated to the phase field and the kinetic equations lead to the Ginzburg-Landau equation satisfied by the phase field with a source term accounting for the dissipative microforce. Simulations illustrating the proposed framework are performed in a one-dimensional situation showing the evolution of
showed Gst value as 0.013 while gene flow estimates using sequence data information revealed, Delta St ... information that will help in better understanding the relatedness in the functions of the .... differentiated enough across these species.
9 A ppendices ............................................................................................. 10 3...injuries as well as acute trauma (Kim, 2003; Pittet et al., 2002). 6 Figure 1. Transverse (upper) and sagittal (lower) images obtained using
Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...
Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...
... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...
Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...
Rocha, A.F.G. da; Marquiotti, M.
The scintigraphic method is described and a critical analysis of its value in the research of bone metastases is presented. The method validity, the positivity of bone scan for metastases at the first examination and the preferencial distribution metastases in skeleton are related.Bone pain and the results of bone scintigram are correlated. (M.A.C.) [pt
Recker, Robert R. M.D.
This project was designed to find human chromosomal locations that contain genes regulating peak bone density. It is part of a whole genome search for those loci,each responsible for at least 15% of the variation in the peak adult bone density. We accomplished this with a sib pair design, combined with simultaneous examination of extended kindreds. This project gave partial support of the recruitment which has now been completed. The project will extend into 2003. During the remainder of the project, a whole genome scan will be performed from the entire cohort of 2226 persons who have DNA archived, followed by linkage analysis. This project will meet the scientific objective leading eventually to expanded options for treating the condition that leads to bone thinning osteoporosis, and potential fractures in aging populations
Mar 1, 2018 ... Defect reconstruction and fixation of the graft: The defect of ... where all loose fragments of fractured frontal bone was removed via the ... Mandible. • Ilium. • Allograft ... pediatric patients owing to skull growth. Thus, autologous ...
Charkes, N.D.; Malmud, L.S.; Caswell, T.; Goldman, L.; Hall, J.; Lauby, V.; Lightfoot, W.; Maier, W.; Rosemond, G.
Strontium nitrate Sr-87m bone scans were made preoperatively in a group of women with suspected breast cancer, 35 of whom subsequently underwent radical mastectomy. In 3 of the 35 (9 percent), the scans were abnormal despite the absence of clinical or roentgenographic evidence of metastatic disease. All three patients had extensive axillary lymph node involvement by tumor, and went on to have additional bone metastases, from which one died. Roentgenograms failed to detect the metastases in all three. Occult bone metastases account in part for the failure of radical mastectomy to cure some patients with breast cancer. It is recommended that all candidates for radical mastectomy have a preoperative bone scan. (U.S.)
Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.
High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response.......9 Versus 11.2 g) diets, reflecting lower and upper intakes in post men opausal women consuming a Western-style diet, were provided. Stable isotope labeling techniques were used to measure calcium absorption and excretion, compartmental modeling was undertaken to estimate bone calcium balance......, and biomarkers of bone formation and resorption were measured in blood and urine. Moderately high salt intake (11.2 g/d) elicited a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion (p = 0.0008) and significantly affected bone calcium balance with the high calcium diet 0.024). Efficiency of calcium absorption...
Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis and the most frequent cause of osteoporosis in young people. Bone loss and fracture risk increase rapidly after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy and are proportional to dose and treatment duration. The increase in fracture risk is not fully assessed by bone mineral density measurement, as it is also related to impaired bone quality and increased risk of falls. Prevention should be considered in all patients beginning corticosteroid therapy, especially as the underlying inflammation in itself impairs bone quality. Bisphosphonates and teriparatide have shown efficacy in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Several national and international guidelines are available to improve management of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, which remains inadequate. Duration of anti-osteoporotic treatment should be discussed at the individual level, depending on the subject's characteristics and on the progression of the underlying inflammation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
... Arrange medical leave from work Take care of bank or financial statements Arrange care of pets Arrange ... Bleeding during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Central venous catheter - flushing ...
van Dussen, L; Lips, P; van Essen, H W; Hollak, C E M; Bravenboer, N
Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of glucosylceramide in macrophages, so-called Gaucher cells, as a result of a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Bone complications are an important cause of morbidity of GD and are thought to result from imbalance in bone remodeling. Bone manifestations among GD patients demonstrate a large variation including increased osteoclastic bone resorption, low bone formation and osteonecrosis. The purpose of the current case series is to describe the histological features observed in undecalcified bone samples, obtained from three GD patients, and evaluate the relationship with clinical features in these patients. Bone fragments were obtained from three adult type 1 GD patients with variable degrees of bone disease during orthopedic surgery. Specimens were embedded without prior decalcification in methylmethacrylate and prepared for histology according to standardized laboratory procedures. Histology revealed a heterogeneous pattern of bone involvement. High cellularity of bone marrow, abundant presence of Gaucher cells (GCs) and high turnover were observed in a patient with a history of multiple bone complications, while minimal bone turnover and few GCs were detected in the mildest affected patient in this series. An intermediate picture with relatively low bone turnover and a substantial amount of Gaucher cells was demonstrated in the third, moderately affected patient. No gross abnormalities in three biochemical markers of bone turnover (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide) were noted. Plastic embedding and subsequent Goldner and TRAP staining offered a unique possibility to study bone histological findings in GD. Our data show that bone manifestations in GD may vary both clinically as well as histologically and bone disease in GD will likely require a personalized approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier
Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the age-related variations in the mechanical properties of the normal human tibial cartilage-bone complex and the relationships between cartilage and bone. DESIGN: A novel technique was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the cartilage and bone by mea...... that are of importance for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases, such as arthrosis....
McLeod, R.A.; Berquist, T.H.
The emphasis of this chapter is on the contribution of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the care of patients with bone neoplasms. These modalities are emphasized because of their relative newness and not because they are considered more significant than the other more established examinations. Routine radiographs remain the most informative and essential imaging procedures for the diagnosis of bone tumors
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.
Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.
Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated.
Weinman, J; Servaes, S; Anupindi, S A
Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)
Maki, D.D.; Nesbit, M.E.; Griffiths, H.J.
Two cases of lymphangiomatosis of bone, a very rare systemic condition characterised by both skeletal and parenchymal lesions, are presented. The skeletal changes have an appearance similar to haemangiomas in the spine, and soap-bubbly lesions in the flat bones. One case carried the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma for 18 years. The findings on MRI, which have not been previously well-established, are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd
Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.
Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated. (orig.) [de
Full text: Bone scintigraphy is an integral part of the evaluation of bone disease in children. Common indications are suspected infection or inflammation, bone tumours and metastases, trauma and avascular necrosis. In all these disorders the sensitivity of scintigraphy is high. Gallium scintigraphy is often useful in children with clinical signs of infection not responding to treatment but the radiation dose is high. High quality images are essential. They depend on the full participation and co-operation of the child, parents and radiographers, the administration of appropriate analgesics, gentle but firm handling of the child, the injection of the appropriate amount of radiopharmaceutical, good positioning and immobilization, optimised equipment, and the acquisition of a suitable number of counts in an appropriate matrix size. Unless there are specific reasons for not doing so, we routinely perform two phase bone scintigraphy. This usually involves whole body blood pool and delayed images followed by static images of selected areas and, less often, pinhole images or SPECT. The interpretation of bone scan images in children requires knowledge of the age dependent differences in bone metabolism in the developing skeleton and the effect on the appearance of the maturing skeleton. (author)
Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Hospital
While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.
Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan
While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs
Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot
Baab, Karen L; Copes, Lynn E; Ward, Devin L; Wells, Nora; Grine, Frederick E
The systemic robusticity hypothesis links the thickness of cortical bone in both the cranium and limb bones. This hypothesis posits that thick cortical bone is in part a systemic response to circulating hormones, such as growth hormone and thyroid hormone, possibly related to physical activity or cold climates. Although this hypothesis has gained popular traction, only rarely has robusticity of the cranium and postcranial skeleton been considered jointly. We acquired computed tomographic scans from associated crania, femora and humeri from single individuals representing 11 populations in Africa and North America (n = 228). Cortical thickness in the parietal, frontal and occipital bones and cortical bone area in limb bone diaphyses were analyzed using correlation, multiple regression and general linear models to test the hypothesis. Absolute thickness values from the crania were not correlated with cortical bone area of the femur or humerus, which is at odds with the systemic robusticity hypothesis. However, measures of cortical bone scaled by total vault thickness and limb cross-sectional area were positively correlated between the cranium and postcranium. When accounting for a range of potential confounding variables, including sex, age and body mass, variation in relative postcranial cortical bone area explained ∼20% of variation in the proportion of cortical cranial bone thickness. While these findings provide limited support for the systemic robusticity hypothesis, cranial cortical thickness did not track climate or physical activity across populations. Thus, some of the variation in cranial cortical bone thickness in modern humans is attributable to systemic effects, but the driving force behind this effect remains obscure. Moreover, neither absolute nor proportional measures of cranial cortical bone thickness are positively correlated with total cranial bone thickness, complicating the extrapolation of these findings to extinct species where only cranial
Wang, E.A.; Rosen, V.; D'Alessandro, J.S.; Bauduy, M.; Cordes, P.; Harada, T.; Israel, D.I.; Hewick, R.M.; Kerns, K.M.; LaPan, P.; Luxenberg, D.P.; McQuaid, D.; Moutsatsos, I.K.; Nove, J.; Wozney, J.M.
The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans
Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth.The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests.The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect.Our findings suggested a new bioactive
Straehl, Fiona; Scheyer, Torsten; Forasiepi, Analia Marta; Macphee, Ross; Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo
Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xen...
Swanstrom, Morgan M; Morse, Kyle W; Lipman, Joseph D; Hearns, Krystle A; Carlson, Michelle G
Background Ideal internal fixation of the scaphoid relies on adequate bone stock for screw purchase; so, knowledge of regional bone density of the scaphoid is crucial. Questions/Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional variations in scaphoid bone density. Materials and Methods Three-dimensional CT models of fractured scaphoids were created and sectioned into proximal/distal segments and then into quadrants (volar/dorsal/radial/ulnar). Concentric shells in the proximal and distal pole were constructed in 2-mm increments moving from exterior to interior. Bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Results Bone density of the distal scaphoid (453.2 ± 70.8 HU) was less than the proximal scaphoid (619.8 ± 124.2 HU). There was no difference in bone density between the four quadrants in either pole. In both the poles, the first subchondral shell was the densest. In both the proximal and distal poles, bone density decreased significantly in all three deeper shells. Conclusion The proximal scaphoid had a greater density than the distal scaphoid. Within the poles, there was no difference in bone density between the quadrants. The subchondral 2-mm shell had the greatest density. Bone density dropped off significantly between the first and second shell in both the proximal and distal scaphoids. Clinical Relevance In scaphoid fracture ORIF, optimal screw placement engages the subchondral 2-mm shell, especially in the distal pole, which has an overall lower bone density, and the second shell has only two-third the density of the first shell.
Lata, Manju; Ghose, A.; Khanna, C.M.
Effect of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (HT), AET and Se on mice bone marrow has been studied by counting bone marrow micronucleated cells and endogenous spleen colony count (CFU-S). Combination of HT and AET used as a radioprotector has not caused any significant variation in any of the parameter studied when administered once, it increases bone marrow micronucleated cells and decreases CFU-S slightly after daily administration for 7 days. The individual constituent of the combination administered singly does not increase micronucleated cell number. Seven consecutive doses of HT+AET and same in combination with Se enhances micronucleated cells to a higher level. Daily injection of Se alone up to 7 days also causes an increase in micronucleated cells up to same level. CFU-S pool does not show any significant change in number of bone marrow cells through out the study except in the groups where animals were treated with Se. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs
Trentin, J.J.; Kiessling, R.; Wigzell, H.; Gallagher, M.T.; Datta, S.K.; Kulkarni, S.S.
Tests were made to determine whether genetic resistance (GR) to bone marrow transplantation represents a natural lymphoma-leukemia defense mechanism, as follows: (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrid mice show GR to C57 parental bone marrow cells, but not to AKR parental bone marrow cells (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids show no GR to bone marrow transplantation from either parental strain. However, transplantation of AKR lymphoma cells into lethally irradiated ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 and ''nonresistant'' (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids produced lymphomatous spleen colonies in ''nonresistant'' hybrids but not in ''resistant'' hybrids. Thus ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrids can recognize and reject AKR lymphoma cells, but not normal AKR bone marrow cells. A normal biologic role of leukemia-lymphoma surveillance was postulated for genetic resistance to marrow transplantation, directed at antigens which, like TL, are expressed on normal hemopoietic cells of some strains, but only on leukemic cells of other strains
A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)
Yamamoto, Noriaki; Shimakura, Taketoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki
Bone histomorphometry is defined as a quantitative evaluation of bone remodeling. In bone remodeling, bone resorption and bone formation are coupled with scalloped cement lines. Another mechanism of bone formation is minimodeling which bone formation and resorption are independent. The finding of minimodeling appeared in special condition with metabolic bone disease or anabolic agents. We need further study for minimodeling feature and mechanism.
stem cells (BMMSCs), and to assess its immune tolerance based on variations in proportion of ... Keywords: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, Immune tolerance, ... in tissue injury, transplantation, and ..... 0.05, **p < 0.01; (b) expression of the duck gene in different organs .... CD30hi Marek's disease lymphoma cell.
Wesselius, Anke; Bours, Martijn J L; Agrawal, Ankita
Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Variations in a number of genes have been shown to associate with bone turnover and risk of osteoporosis. P2 purinergic receptors are proteins that have ATP or other nucleotides as their natural ligands. Various P2Y and P2X...
Selected bones from a dog that inhaled 238 PuO 2 were subjected to ultrasonic cell disruption to separate the marrow elements from bone, in order to determine the plutonium content of the two components of the skeleton
Different types of bone strength are required for various ... To statically analyse various methods to find BMD and related material ... bone study for research purpose. ..... and Dagoberto Vela Arvizo 2007 A qualitative stress analysis of a cross ...
Lewandowski, Beth; Myers, Jerry; Licata, Angelo
Introduction: Space flight potentially reduces the loading that bone can resist before fracture. This reduction in bone integrity may result from a combination of factors, the most common reported as reduction in astronaut BMD. Although evaluating the condition of bones continues to be a critical aspect of understanding space flight fracture risk, defining the loading regime, whether on earth, in microgravity, or in reduced gravity on a planetary surface, remains a significant component of estimating the fracture risks to astronauts. This presentation summarizes the concepts, development, and application of NASA's Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) to understanding pre-, post, and in mission astronaut bone fracture risk. The overview includes an assessment of contributing factors utilized in the BFxRM and illustrates how new information, such as biomechanics of space suit design or better understanding of post flight activities may influence astronaut fracture risk. Opportunities for the bone mineral research community to contribute to future model development are also discussed. Methods: To investigate the conditions in which spaceflight induced changes to bone plays a critical role in post-flight fracture probability, we implement a modified version of the NASA Bone Fracture Risk Model (BFxRM). Modifications included incorporation of variations in physiological characteristics, post-flight recovery rate, and variations in lateral fall conditions within the probabilistic simulation parameter space. The modeled fracture probability estimates for different loading scenarios at preflight and at 0 and 365 days post-flight time periods are compared. Results: For simple lateral side falls, mean post-flight fracture probability is elevated over mean preflight fracture probability due to spaceflight induced BMD loss and is not fully recovered at 365 days post-flight. In the case of more energetic falls, such as from elevated heights or with the addition of lateral movement
Kim, Kyung Soo; Lee, Sang Wook; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Young Sook
Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a skeletal development anomaly of unknown etiology characterized by single or multiple areas of fibrous tissue replacement of medullary cavity of one or more bones. The disease may be localized to single bone (monostotic form) or may affect multiple bones (polyostotic form). Eighteen cases of fibrous dysplasia diagnosed by roentgenlogic or histologic assessment at Chosun University Hospital, Chosun University Hospital and Kwangju Christian Hospital during recent ten tears were analyzed clinically and radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. 16 case of them had monostotic involvement, and 2 cases showed polyostotic disease, but none of our series presented Albright's syndrome. 2. The male to female ratio in this series was 10 : 8, but then 2 polyostotic forms of them were females. In age distribution, peak incidence at the time of diagnosis was in the age group of second decade (10 cases). 3. Maxilla (6 cases) and femur (4 case) were frequently involved sites in patients with monostotic lesion, whereas polyostotic lesions diffusely affected skull, pelvis, ribs and limb bones. 4. The clinical symptoms according to the extent and site of disease were very variable, which were localized painless or painful swelling, nasal obstruction, deformity of face or extremity and incidentally during routine roentgen study. 5. The chemical abnormality of blood serum was moderate degree of elevated serum alkaline phosphatase in only one patients with monostotic lesion. 6. The main radiologic findings of fibrous dysplasia were relatively well circumscribed single or multiloculated cystilike appearance, bone expansion, cortical thinning and/or erosion, bony deformity and pathologic fracture, but especially in maxilla, dense homogenous area with expanding lesion was observed in our series
Whisner, Corrie M; Weaver, Connie M
Recent advancements in food science have resulted in the extraction and synthesis of novel dietary fibers or prebiotics. Subsequently, great interest has emerged in developing strategies to improve metabolic conditions like osteoporosis by modulating the intestinal microbiome with fiber. Prebiotics have been shown to increase calcium absorption in the lower gut of both animals and humans as well as improve measures of bone mineral density and strength in rodent models. Fewer data are available in humans, but data from growing children and postmenopausal women suggest that prebiotics have both short- and long-term effects that beneficially affect bone turnover and mineral accretion in the skeleton. Currently, the exact mechanism by which these products elicit their effects on bone is poorly understood, but emerging data suggest that the gut microbiota may be involved in one or more direct and indirect pathways. The most well-accepted mechanism is through microbial fermentation of prebiotics which results in the production of short-chain fatty acids and a concomitant decrease in pH which increases the bioavailability of calcium in the colon. While other mechanisms may be eliciting a prebiotic effect on bone, the current data suggest that novel dietary fibers may be an affordable and effective method of maximizing mineral accretion in growing children and preventing bone loss in later years when osteoporosis is a greater risk. This chapter will discuss the dynamic role of prebiotics in bone health by discussing the current state of the art, addressing gaps in knowledge and their role in public health.
V. V. Badokin
Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.
Marinone, M G; Rizzoni, D; Ferremi, P; Rossi, G; Izzi, T; Brusotti, C
The aim of this work was to determine the type and the significance of taste disorders in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. In a retrospective study the taste threshold of a cohort of 15 allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients, 4-51 months after transplantation (mean: 30.6 +/- 15.8), was compared to the taste threshold of 8 autologous bone marrow recipients, 4-48 months after transplantation (mean: 24.12 +/- 12.18), and to the taste threshold of a group of 20 consecutive normal subjects. Allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients showed a significant hypogeusia for salt (Pearson's chi square p = 0.0002; Yates' correction p = 0.0007) and sour (Pearson's chi square p = 0.001; Yates' correction p = 0.008). No significant variations were observed for sweet and bitter. Autologous bone marrow recipients did not show any significant variation of taste acuity for sweet, salt or sour; a constant reduction of the taste threshold for bitter was observed, but the values were not significantly different from normal (Pearson's chi square p = 0.47; Yates' correction p = 0.83). So, late and selective taste disorders are observed in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. Since the severity of the disorders is not strictly related to the severity of chronic oral G.V.H.D., taste analysis could discover the slightest, clinically undetectable cases of chronic oral G.V.H.D. The mechanism of immune aggression on the sensorial taste cells is poorly understood. Further trials are needed to define variations of taste acuity not only after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, but also in systemic immune diseases.
Kim, Deog Yoon
Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays
Increased bone turnover may produce a disturbance in bone structure which may result in fracture. In cortical bone, both reduction in turnover and increase in hip bone mineral density (BMD) may be necessary to decrease hip fracture risk and may require relatively greater proportionate changes than for trabecular bone. It should also be noted that increased porosity produces disproportionate reduction in bone strength, and studies have shown that increased cortical porosity and decreased cortical thickness are associated with hip fracture. Continued studies for determining the causes of bone strength and deterioration show distinct promise. Osteocyte viability has been observed to be an indicator of bone strength, with viability as the result of maintaining physiological levels of loading and osteocyte apoptosis as the result of a decrease in loading. Osteocyte apoptosis and decrease are major factors in the bone loss and fracture associated with aging. Both the osteocyte and periosteal cell layer are assuming greater importance in the process of maintaining skeletal integrity as our knowledge of these cells expand, as well being a target for pharmacological agents to reduce fracture especially in cortical bone. The bisphosphonate alendronate has been seen to have a positive effect on cortical bone by allowing customary periosteal growth, while reducing the rate of endocortical bone remodeling and slowing bone loss from the endocortical surface. Risedronate treatment effects were attributed to decrease in bone resorption and thus a decrease in fracture risk. Ibandronate has been seen to increase BMD as the spine and femur as well as a reduced incidence of new vertebral fractures and non vertebral on subset post hoc analysis. And treatment with the anabolic agent PTH(1-34) documented modeling and remodelling of quiescent and active bone surfaces. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) plays a key role in bone destruction, and the human monoclonal
Sesztakova, E.; Bilek, J.; Benova, K.; Novakova, J.; Culenova, K.
Quantitative and qualitative changes in haemopoietic cells in chicken bone Marrow were investigated after acute single irradiation with doses 4.5 Gy and 5 Gy. Samples of bone marrow were obtained from proximal femoral epiphysis of decapitated chickens. Marrow smears were prepared and stained according to Pappenheim. Qualitative examination of myelogram showed proliferation of adipose tissue, hypocellularity, caryolyosis, caryorexis, disintegration of cells and proliferation of cells which could not be differentiated. Quantitative examination revealed high radiosensitivity of blast cells and lymphocytes shortly after irradiation. (authors)
A. N. Svetashov
Full Text Available To detect the most appropriate to heel bone injury severity variants of reconstructive osteosynthesis it was analyzed treatment results of 56 patients. In 15 (26.8% patients classic methods of surgical service were applied, in 41 (73.2% cases to restore the defect porous implants were used. Osteosynthesis without heel bone plastic restoration accomplishment was ineffective in 60% patients from control group. Reconstructive osteosynthesis method ensures long-term good functional effect of rehabilitation in 96.4% patients from the basic group.
Struhl, S.; Edelson, C.; Pritzker, H.; Seimon, L.P.; Dorfman, H.D.; Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY
The fallen fragment sign is a prominent radiologic feature in a minority of cases of unicameral bone cyst (20% in this series). This sign is always associated with pathologic fracture. Intramedullary fracture fragments may be single or multiple and may or may not be entirely dislodged from overlying periosteum. The finding appears limited to unicameral bone cysts in patients with open physes. When present, the fallen fragment is a pathognomonic finding as it defines the interior of the cyst as nonsolid. (orig./GDG)
The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination [fr
Wioland, M.; Milhaud, G.
Artificial radioactivity enables visualisation of the principal organs in the forms of scintiscans, introduces a new order of sensitivity in quantitative hormonal analysis, thanks to radio-immunology and remains unrivalled in compartmental analyses of the various metabolism. The diagnosis of local skeletal conditions is reviewed and the indications for this quantitative examination are described for the diagnosis of numerous bone metabolic diseases. Finally, mono- and bi- photonic absorptiometry, the latest developments in isotopic techniques, are introduced. They are likely to provide numerical data on the state of mineralisation of bone tissue. The use of these nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and surveillance of osteoporosis is detailed [fr
Mishwani, A.H.; Ahmed, M.; Anwar, S.D.
A case of primary hydatid disease of the right femur is reported that presented with pathological fracture and was diagnosed at the time of exploration for biopsy. The patient was treated by removal of all cysts, irrigation with colloidal solution, bone grafting and immobilization of the fracture followed by four cycles of oral Albendazole. Eosinophilia and serological tests reverted to normal but the patient died due to acute myocardial infarction six months later. This uncommon condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pathological fractures, bone pain or osteolytic lesions, especially in patients of rural and farmer background.(author)
Boskey, Adele L; Goldberg, Michel; Kulkarni, Ashok; Gomez, Santiago
Bone is a complex tissue whose composition and properties vary with age, sex, diet, tissue type, health and disease. In this review, we demonstrate how infrared spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopic imaging can be applied to the study of these variations. A specific example of mice with Fabry disease (a lipid storage disease) is presented in which it is demonstrated that the bones of these young animals, while showing typical spatial variation in mineral content, mineral crystal size, and collagen maturity, do not differ from the bones of age- and sex-matched wild type animals.
Schuemichen, C.; Mundriziewski, L.; Tischler, E.; Hoffmann, G.
The healing of a diaphyseal tibia fracture was followed in the rat. Callus formation, blood flow and Sr-85 uptake were assessed by a ratio comparison of the fractured to the contralateral side. No correlation was found between blood flow and Sr-85 deposition in the callus and the adjacent bone of the same extremity. It is concluded that the deposition of a radiopharmaceutical in bone is primarily related to the presence of calcifiable organic bone matrix and only secondarily to the bone formation rate and to variations in the local blood flow. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MBE [de
Vasidov, A.; Saidullaev, B.J.; Akhmadshaev, A.
Full text : As a rule bones of animals and persons, are plentiful enough in archeology monuments and are frequently also the most numerous materials. Therefore the research of components and microelements in bones can give the valuable information about age and lifestyle of prehistoric relicts on Earth. To ancient bone remains bear and archantrope concernfrom ancient settlement of Selungur located in the territory of Southern Fergana and was found out by Institute of Archaeology in Uzbekistan in 1980. Whereas in the scientific literature there is very poor information about element composition variation in bones during ground bedding
Quantitative variations of CD4 + CD25 + cells in Peking duckwhite leghorn chimeras based on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ...
Currey, John D; Dean, Mason N; Shahar, Ron
We question two major tenets of bone biology: that the primary role of remodelling is to remove damage in the bone (so-called damage-driven remodelling) and that osteocytes are the only strain-sensing orchestrators of this process. These concepts are distilled largely from research on model mammal species, but in fact, there are a number of features of various bones, from mammalian and non-mammalian species, that do not accord with these 'rules'. Here, we assemble a variety of examples, ranging from species that lack osteocytes but that still seem capable of remodelling their bones, to species with osteocytic bones that do not remodel, and to instances of inter-species, inter-bone and/or intra-bone variation in bone remodelling that show that this purported repair process is not always where the 'rules' tell us it should be. This collection of points argues that our understanding of the advantages, roles and primary drivers of remodelling are inadequate and biased to quite a small phylogenetic cross section of the species that possess bone. We suggest a variety of new directions for bone research that would provide us with a better understanding of bone remodelling, tying together the interests of comparative biologists, palaeontologists and medical researchers. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...
... for a stem cell transplant. Risks Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...
Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...
Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...
Full Text Available ... produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or ... pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the ...
Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...
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Full Text Available ... reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist ... of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison ...
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Cirpan, Sibel; Aksu, Funda; Mas, Nuket
The Wormian Bones are accessory bones located within the cranial sutures and fontanelles. The present article examines the incidence of Wormian Bones and compares the number and topographic distribution between the sutures including Wormian Bones in skulls of West Anatolian Population. One hundred fifty crania were examined. The parameters evaluated in the present study were as follows: the rate of skulls including Wormian Bones; the topographic distribution and frequencies of the sutures including Wormian Bones; the number of these sutures for each skull; the name and number of sutures that were bilaterally and symmetrically located on the right and left side of skull (paired sutures) and which coincidentally had Wormian Bones for each skull; the differences of frequencies between the paired sutures including Wormian Bones. The rate of skulls including Wormian Bones was determined as 59.3%. The maximum and minimum numbers of sutures, including Wormian Bones, were 6 in 1 skull and 1 in each of 30 skulls, respectively. The maximum and minimum rates of sutures that had Wormian Bones were found in left lambdoid 40.7% and right occipitomastoid 1.3% sutures, respectively. There was only a significant difference between the rate of right and left squamous sutures (P = 0.04). Forty-five skulls were including 55 pairs of bilaterally and symmetrically located sutures that coincidentally had Wormian Bones in each pair. Each of 35 skulls had 1 pair of sutures including Wormian Bones and each of 10 skulls had 2 pairs. In the present study, the rate of Wormian Bones was determined as 59.3% in West Anatolian Population. This incidence rate is considerably lower than the other reports, and it may be as a result of racial variations. These divergent bones were more frequently found in left lambdoid sutures (40.7%) and less frequently in right occipitomastoid sutures (1.3%). This study may guide the investigators dealing with the neurosurgery, orthopedy, radiology, anatomy, and
Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.
We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues
Maher, Jason R.
Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral
Bex, Marie; Bouillon, Roger
Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I have major effects on growth plate chondrocytes and all bone cells. Untreated childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) markedly impairs linear growth as well as three-dimensional bone size. Adult peak bone mass is therefore about 50% that of adults with normal height. This is mainly an effect on bone volume, whereas true bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(3)) is virtually normal, as demonstrated in a large cohort of untreated Russian adults with childhood-onset GHD. The prevalence of fractures in these untreated childhood-onset GHD adults was, however, markedly and significantly increased in comparison with normal Russian adults. This clearly indicates that bone mass and bone size matter more than true bone density. Adequate treatment with GH can largely correct bone size and in several studies also bone mass, but it usually requires more than 5 years of continuous treatment. Adult-onset GHD decreases bone turnover and results in a mild deficit, generally between -0.5 and -1.0 z-score, in bone mineral content and BMD of the lumbar spine, radius and femoral neck. Cross-sectional surveys and the KIMS data suggest an increased incidence of fractures. GH replacement therapy increases bone turnover. The three controlled studies with follow-up periods of 18 and 24 months demonstrated a modest increase in BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck in male adults with adult-onset GHD, whereas no significant changes in BMD were observed in women. GHD, whether childhood- or adult-onset, impairs bone mass and strength. Appropriate substitution therapy can largely correct these deficiencies if given over a prolonged period. GH therapy for other bone disorders not associated with primary GHD needs further study but may well be beneficial because of its positive effects on the bone remodelling cycle. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Sakae; Matsumoto, Takuya
In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , the osteoclast pathway is activated by abnormal immune conditions accompanied by chronic inflammation, resulting in periarticular osteoporosis and local bone destruction around joints. In addition, multiple factors, including reduced physical activity and pharmacotherapies such as steroids, lead to systemic osteoporosis. These conditions cause decreasing bone mineral density and deterioration of bone quality, and expose patients to increased risk of fracture. Understanding the bone structures of RA and evaluating fracture risk are central to the treatment of RA.
Ruppel, M.; Burr, D.; Miller, L.
Microdamage naturally occurs in bone tissue as a result of cyclic loading placed on the body from normal daily activities. While it is usually repaired through the bone turnover process, accumulation of microdamage may result in reduced bone quality and increased fracture risk. It is unclear whether certain areas of bone are more susceptible to microdamage than others due to compositional differences. This study examines whether areas of microdamaged bone are chemically different than undamaged areas of bone. Bone samples (L3 vertebrae) were harvested from 15 dogs. Samples were stained with basic fuchsin, embedded in poly-methylmethacrylate, and cut into 5-(micro)m-thick sections. Fuchsin staining was used to identify regions of microdamage, and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging was used to determine the local bone composition. Results showed that microdamaged areas of bone were chemically different than the surrounding undamaged areas. Specifically, the mineral stoichiometry was altered in microdamaged bone, where the carbonate/protein ratio and carbonate/phosphate ratio were significantly lower in areas of microdamage, and the acid phosphate content was higher. No differences were observed in tissue mineralization (phosphate/protein ratio) or crystallinity between the microdamaged and undamaged bone, indicating that the microdamaged regions of bone were not over-mineralized. The collagen cross-linking structure was also significantly different in microdamaged areas of bone, consistent with ruptured cross-links and reduced fracture resistance. All differences in composition had well-defined boundaries in the microcrack region, strongly suggesting that they occurred after microcrack formation. Even so, because microdamage results in an altered bone composition, an accumulation of microdamage might result in a long-term reduction in bone quality
Raggatt, Liza J.; Partridge, Nicola C.
Physiological bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process responsible for bone resorption and formation and is necessary to repair damaged bone and to maintain mineral homeostasis. In addition to the traditional bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) that are necessary for bone remodeling, several immune cells have also been implicated in bone disease. This minireview discusses physiological bone remodeling, outlining the traditional bone biology dogma in light of emerging ...
Everts, V.; Hoeben, K. A.
Mineralized tissues like bone, dentin and mineralized cartilage are difficult to prepare for ultrastructural analysis. In general, the higher the level of mineralization is, the more difficult it is to obtain ultrathin sections of these tissue. Tissues with a low level of mineral, e.g. from young
Cayla, J.; Basset, J.Y.
The three fold interest of bone scintiscanning is discussed in relation to 182 cases of bone metastases of various origins. Firstly, this technic facilitates early diagnosis of invasion of the bone by the detection of metastatic lesions which, in 7.7% of cases are still infraradiologic, or even of reflex algodystrophy of the legs, which can be detected only from a scintiscan, long before X-ray plates can show the lumbar metastasis which is responsible. Secondly, the method is able to pick up more metastasic sites in 54.4% of cases than can be detected by X-ray; this is confirmed by investigation of the S/R ratio (ratio of the number of strongly binding sites to the number of sites showing radiologic damage) which is greater than unity for a considerable period. Thirdly, repeated scintiscanography provides a prognosis, because the survival time appears to be fairly closely correlated with the regression, stability or extension of strongly binding sites, although a ''flare phenomenon'' may give the erroneous impression that the metastatic process has deteriorated. Repeated scintiscanography also provides a good way of evaluating the efficacy of medical treatment, particularly in the case of bone metastases of mammary or prostatic origin. Sometimes, the decision for or against prophylactic or palliative orthopedic surgery may be based to a considerable extent on data provided by scintiscan [fr
Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma
As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…
Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.
Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.
Boucherie, Alexandra; Jørkov, M L S; Smith, Martin
avenue for achieving both greater detail and accuracy through digital microscopy. Patterns of injury were investigated among 45 individuals from a Medieval Danish mass grave (Sandbjerget, AD 1300–1350). Injuries were recorded on every anatomical element, except hand and foot bones. Each was photographed...
Correa, Jose Miguel
The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…
Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta
Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of…
Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.
The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.
Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.
Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.
Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.
The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor. (orig.)
Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.; Frankfurt Univ.
Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.) [de
Harvey, Edward J; Henderson, Janet E; Vengallatore, Srikar T
Nanotechnology and its attendant techniques have yet to make a significant impact on the science of bone healing. However, the potential benefits are immediately obvious with the result that hundreds of researchers and firms are performing the basic research needed to mature this nascent, yet soon to be fruitful niche. Together with genomics and proteomics, and combined with tissue engineering, this is the new face of orthopaedic technology. The concepts that orthopaedic surgeons recognize are fabrication processes that have resulted in porous implant substrates as bone defect augmentation and medication-carrier devices. However, there are dozens of applications in orthopaedic traumatology and bone healing for nanometer-sized entities, structures, surfaces, and devices with characteristic lengths ranging from 10s of nanometers to a few micrometers. Examples include scaffolds, delivery mechanisms, controlled modification of surface topography and composition, and biomicroelectromechanical systems. We review the basic science, clinical implications, and early applications of the nanotechnology revolution and emphasize the rich possibilities that exist at the crossover region between micro- and nanotechnology for developing new treatments for bone healing.
Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)
Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.
Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.
Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)
Reuss-Borst, M A
Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases.
... that the loss of alveolar bone mineral density leaves bone more susceptible to periodontal bacteria, increasing the ... bone density will have a favorable impact on dental health. Bisphosphonates, a group of medications available for the treatment of osteoporosis, have been linked to the development ...
Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...
Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth
The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...
OI Issues: Understanding Bone Structure Introduction: Structural Organization of Bone The structure of bone is very similar to reinforced concrete that is used to make a building or a bridge. When the building or bridge is first assembled, an initial frame ...
Oliva, J.P.; Cardenas, R.; Bell, L.; Gonzalez Griego, J.
11 male patients with gout were studied by means of bone scintigraphy with 99m TcMDP. This diagnostic method rendered possible the diagnosis of clinically or roentgenologically occult bone involvement. Bone scintigraphy may be useful procedure to monitor therapy of gout. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...
Pastoureau, P; Merle, B; Delmas, P D
We developed a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for ovine bone gla-protein (osteocalcin) using a polyclonal rabbit antibody raised against ovine bone gla-protein. Bone from lambs was extracted in 0.5 mol/l EDTA and desalted on Sephadex G-25. Bone gla-protein was purified by gel filtration chromatography over Sephadex G-100 and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25. The protein, subjected to monodimensional electrophoresis migrated as a single spot in SDS PAGE with the same apparent molecular weight of 12 kD as bovine bone gla-protein. The amino acid composition of pufified bone gla-protein was in agreement with a previous publication. The competitive RIA uses /sup 125/I-labelled bone gla-protein as a tracer and a complex of a second antibody and polyethylene glycol to separate free and antibody-bound /sup 125/I-labelled bone gla-protein. The intra- and inter-assay variations are less than 6 and 10%, respectively. There is no reactivity of our antisera with dog sera. The cross-reactivity is only partial with calf and human sera and complete with ovine sera. We measured bone gla-protein levels in serum of 96 normal male sheep of different ages. Serum bone gla-protein rapidly and significantly (P<0.001) decreased from 532 +- 169 ..mu..g/l at birth, to 240 +- 43 ..mu..g/l at 45 days, 152 +- 44 ..mu..g/l at 90 days, and 5.9 +- 0.7 ..mu..g/l at 7 years age. In addition, bone gla-protein levels at birth were higher in normal birth weight than in hypotrophic lambs with low birth weight (535 +- 169 vs 271 +- 156 ..mu..g/l, P<0.0001). Furthermore, lambs raised outside in free conditions tended to have higher serum bone gla-protein levels than lambs raised under shelter (1984 +- 53 vs 137 +- 34 ..mu..g/l), suggesting a role of breeding factors such as diet or relative immobilization on bone gla-protein levels. (Abstract Truncated)
Udhayakumar, Ganesan; Sujatha, Chinnaswamy Manoharan; Ramakrishnan, Swaminathan
Analysis of bone strength in radiographic images is an important component of estimation of bone quality in diseases such as osteoporosis. Conventional radiographic femur bone images are used to analyze its architecture using bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition method. Surface interpolation of local maxima and minima points of an image is a crucial part of bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition method and the choice of appropriate interpolation depends on specific structure of the problem. In this work, two interpolation methods of bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition are analyzed to characterize the trabecular femur bone architecture of radiographic images. The trabecular bone regions of normal and osteoporotic femur bone images (N = 40) recorded under standard condition are used for this study. The compressive and tensile strength regions of the images are delineated using pre-processing procedures. The delineated images are decomposed into their corresponding intrinsic mode functions using interpolation methods such as Radial basis function multiquadratic and hierarchical b-spline techniques. Results show that bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition analyses using both interpolations are able to represent architectural variations of femur bone radiographic images. As the strength of the bone depends on architectural variation in addition to bone mass, this study seems to be clinically useful.
Christen, Patrik; Ito, Keita; van Rietbergen, Bert
Trabecular bone microstructural parameters, including trabecular thickness, spacing, and number, have been reported to scale with animal size with negative allometry, whereas bone volume fraction is animal size-invariant in terrestrial mammals. As for the majority of scaling patterns described in animals, its underlying mechanism is unknown. However, it has also been found that osteocyte density is inversely related to animal size, possibly adapted to metabolic rate, which shows a negative relationship as well. In addition, the signalling reach of osteocytes is limited by the extent of the lacuno-canalicular network, depending on trabecular dimensions and thus also on animal size. Here we propose animal size-dependent variations in osteocyte density and their signalling influence distance as a potential mechanism for negative allometric trabecular bone scaling in terrestrial mammals. Using an established and tested computational model of bone modelling and remodelling, we run simulations with different osteocyte densities and influence distances mimicking six terrestrial mammals covering a large range of body masses. Simulated trabecular structures revealed negative allometric scaling for trabecular thickness, spacing, and number, constant bone volume fraction, and bone turnover rates inversely related to animal size. These results are in agreement with previous observations supporting our proposal of osteocyte density and influence distance variation as a potential mechanism for negative allometric trabecular bone scaling in terrestrial mammals. The inverse relationship between bone turnover rates and animal size further indicates that trabecular bone scaling may be linked to metabolic rather than mechanical adaptations. © 2015 Anatomical Society.
This discussion paper put forwards variation as a theme to structure mathematical experience and mathematics pedagogy. Patterns of variation from Marton's Theory of Variation are understood and developed as types of variation interaction that enhance mathematical understanding. An idea of a discernment unit comprising mutually supporting variation…
Morita, Koichi; Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki
Eight patients with malignant tumor (3 with gastric cancer, 4 with prostatic cancer, 1 with transitional cell carcinoma), which showed diffusely increased uptake of 99m Tc labelled phosphorous compound in axial skeleton (''Super Bone Scan'') on bone scintigraphy were clinically studied. No relationship with its histological type of the tumor was recognized. All cases revealed extremely high serum ALP concentration, which might reflect increased osteoblastic activity. Furthermore, on bone roentgenograms all cases showed predominantly osteosclerotic change in the metastatic bones, while some did locally osteolytic change. In three cases with gastric cancer, although they had diffuse skeletal metastases, two had no evidence of liver metastases. Thus, it seemed that clinical study of patients with ''Super Bone Scan'' was interesting to evaluate the mechanism of accumulation of 99m Tc labelled phosphorous compound to bone and bone metabolism, and the pathophysiology in the pathway of bone metastases. (author)
Cox, L.G.E.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Rietbergen, van B.; Emans, P.J.; Ito, K.
Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by loss of cartilage and alterations in subchondral bone architecture. Changes in cartilage and bone tissue occur simultaneously and are spatially correlated, indicating that they are probably related. We investigated two hypotheses regarding this
Elsgolc, L E; Stark, M
Calculus of Variations aims to provide an understanding of the basic notions and standard methods of the calculus of variations, including the direct methods of solution of the variational problems. The wide variety of applications of variational methods to different fields of mechanics and technology has made it essential for engineers to learn the fundamentals of the calculus of variations. The book begins with a discussion of the method of variation in problems with fixed boundaries. Subsequent chapters cover variational problems with movable boundaries and some other problems; sufficiency
Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Tzaphlidou, Margaret
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and the consequent high risk of bone fractures. Current practice relates osteoporosis largely with absolute mass loss. The assessment of variations in chemical composition in terms of the main elements comprising the bone mineral and its effect on the bone’s quality is usually neglected. In this study, we evaluate the ratio of the main elements of bone mineral, calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P), as a suit...
Seto, Mikito; Tonami, Norihisa; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Sui, Osamu; Hisada, Kinichi [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine
We have studied bone scintigrams in 60 patients with gastric cancer. Of these 60 patients, bone metastases were found in 15 patients (25 %). There were no evidence of bone metastases in polypoid lesions, cancers of the antrum, carcinomas in situ, advanced cancers without invasion to serosa, cancer with N/sub 0/ or N/sub 1/ regional lymph node metastases, highly differentiated adenocarcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas. On the contrary, high rates of bone metastases were seen in cancers of the corpus, advanced cancers with invasion to neighbouring structures and tubular adenocarcinomas. Of these 15 patients with bone metastasis, 3 patients showed very similar clinical features and the findings of ''diffuse bone metastases on bone scintigrams.'' Cancer of the antrum showed high rates of liver metastases, while cancers of the corpus showed high rates of bone metastases. Sixty percent of the patients with bone metastases did not have liver metastases and there seemed to be no significant relationship between liver metastases and bone metastases. From these results we suppose that non-portal tract through the vertebral venous plexus instead of portal tract may be the other route of bone metastases from gastric cancer.
James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: email@example.com; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)
Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.
Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R
Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.
Fiona R Straehl
Full Text Available Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua, with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.
Wezeman, F.H.; Guzzino, K.M.; Waxler, B.
In vitro coculture techniques were used to study HSDM1C1 murine fibrosarcoma multicellular tumor spheroid (HSDM1C1-MTS) interactions with mouse calvarial bone cells having osteoblastic characteristics and mouse bone explants. HSDM1C1-MTS attached to confluent bone cell monolayers and their attachment rate was quantified. HSDM1C1-MTS interaction with bone cells was further demonstrated by the release of 3 H-deoxyuridine from prelabeled bone cells during coculture with multicellular tumor spheroids. HSDM1C1-MTS-induced cytotoxicity was mimicked by the addition of 10(-5) M prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to 3 H-deoxyuridine-labeled bone cells. The effects of low (10(-9) M) and high (10(-5) M) concentrations of PGE2 on bone cell proliferation were also studied. Higher concentrations of PGE2 inhibited bone cell proliferation. HSDM1C1-MTS resorbed living explants in the presence of indomethacin, suggesting that other tumor cell products may also participate in bone resorption. HSDM1C1-MTS caused direct bone resorption as measured by the significantly elevated release of 45 Ca from prelabeled, devitalized calvaria. However, the growth of a confluent bone cell layer on devitalized, 45 Ca-prelabeled calvaria resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of 45 Ca released subsequent to the seeding of HSDM1C1-MTS onto the explants. Bone cells at the bone surface may act as a barrier against invasion and tumor cell-mediated bone resorption. Violation of this cellular barrier is achieved, in part, by tumor cell products
Frich, L. H.; Jensen, N. C.
Surgical treatment of fractures involving the proximal humeral head is hampered by complications. Screw cutout is the major pitfall seen in connection with rigid plating. We have exploited a bony explanation for this phenomenon. Materials and Methods: We examined the convex surface of the humeral...... sectioning technique. Results: The bone strength and bone density correlated well and revealed large regional variations across the humeral head. Bone strength and stiffness of the trabecular bone came to a maximum in the most medial anterior and central parts of the humeral head, where strong textural...... screw directions will predictably place screws in areas of the humeral head comprising low density and low strength cancellous bone. New concepts of plates and plating techniques for the surgical treatment of complex fractures of the proximal humerus should take bone distribution, strength...
Vieco, P.T.; Azouz, E.M.; Hoeffel, J.C.
Medulloblastoma is a relatively common intracranial neoplasm in childhood. Its extraneural spread was, until recently, thought to be a rare occurrence. Metastases are most commonly to bone. Five patients with medulloblastoma metastatic to bone are presented, and findings are compared to those of previous reports. Two of the five cases showed patchy extensive osteosclerosis of the pelvis and/or proximal femora. One case had concurrent lymph node involvement. In patients with past or present medulloblastoma and bone pain, metastases to bone should be excluded. Medulloblastoma metastatic to bone is a rare cause of extensive osteosclerosis. (orig.)
Heuzé, Yann; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Schwarz, Tobias; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J; Richtsmeier, Joan T
The zygomatic bone is derived evolutionarily from the orbital series. In most modern mammals the zygomatic bone forms a large part of the face and usually serves as a bridge that connects the facial skeleton to the neurocranium. Our aim is to provide information on the contribution of the zygomatic bone to variation in midfacial protrusion using three samples; humans, domesticated dogs, and monkeys. In each case, variation in midface protrusion is a heritable trait produced by one of three classes of transmission: localized dysmorphology associated with single gene dysfunction, selective breeding, or long-term evolution from a common ancestor. We hypothesize that the shape of the zygomatic bone reflects its role in stabilizing the connection between facial skeleton and neurocranium and consequently, changes in facial protrusion are more strongly reflected by the maxilla and premaxilla. Our geometric morphometric analyses support our hypothesis suggesting that the shape of the zygomatic bone has less to do with facial protrusion. By morphometrically dissecting the zygomatic bone we have determined a degree of modularity among parts of the midfacial skeleton suggesting that these components have the ability to vary independently and thus can evolve differentially. From these purely morphometric data, we propose that the neural crest cells that are fated to contribute to the zygomatic bone experience developmental cues that distinguish them from the maxilla and premaxilla. The spatiotemporal and molecular identity of the cues that impart zygoma progenitors with their identity remains an open question that will require alternative data sets. Anat Rec, 299:1616-1630, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Anatomical Record Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors The Anatomical Record Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Seto, Mikito; Tonami, Norihisa; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Sui, Osamu; Hisada, Kinichi
We have studied bone scintigrams in 60 patients with gastric cancer. Of these 60 patients, bone metastases were found in 15 patients (25 %). There were no evidence of bone metastases in polypoid lesions, cancers of the antrum, carcinomas in situ, advanced cancers without invasion to serosa, cancer with N 0 or N 1 regional lymph node metastases, highly deferenciated adenocarcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas. On the contrary, high rates of bone metastases were seen in cancers of the corpus, advanced cancers with invasion to neighbouring structures and tubular adenocarcinomas. Of these 15 patients with bone metastasis, 3 patients showed very similar clinical features and the findings of ''diffuse bone metastases on bone scintigrams.'' Cancer of the antrum showed high rates of liver metastases, while cancers of the corpus showed high rates of bone stastases. Sixty percent of the patients with bone metastases did not have liver metastases and there seemed to be no significant relationship between liver metastases and bone metastases. From these results we suppose that non-portal tract through the vertebral venous plexus instead of portal tract may be the other route of bone metastases from gastric cancer. (author)
This chapter described methods for Scanning Electron Microscopical imaging of bone and bone cells. Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging is by far the most useful in the bone field, followed by secondary electrons (SE) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analytical modes. This chapter considers preparing and imaging samples of unembedded bone having 3D detail in a 3D surface, topography-free, polished or micromilled, resin-embedded block surfaces, and resin casts of space in bone matrix. The chapter considers methods for fixation, drying, looking at undersides of bone cells, and coating. Maceration with alkaline bacterial pronase, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium or potassium hydroxide to remove cells and unmineralised matrix is described in detail. Attention is given especially to methods for 3D BSE SEM imaging of bone samples and recommendations for the types of resin embedding of bone for BSE imaging are given. Correlated confocal and SEM imaging of PMMA-embedded bone requires the use of glycerol to coverslip. Cathodoluminescence (CL) mode SEM imaging is an alternative for visualising fluorescent mineralising front labels such as calcein and tetracyclines. Making spatial casts from PMMA or other resin embedded samples is an important use of this material. Correlation with other imaging means, including microradiography and microtomography is important. Shipping wet bone samples between labs is best done in glycerol. Environmental SEM (ESEM, controlled vacuum mode) is valuable in eliminating -"charging" problems which are common with complex, cancellous bone samples.
Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne
Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in AN is associated with a significant risk of fractures and therefore treatments to prevent bone loss are critical. In this review, we discuss the hormonal determinants of low bone mass in AN and treatments that have been investigated in this population. PMID:24419863
Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S
The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA......-SiO (34.47%), followed by BCP 60/40 (23.64%)) was significantly higher than the more rapidly substituted autogenous bone (17.1%). Autogenous bone yielded significantly more new bone (21.81%) over all test groups (4.91%-7.74%) and significantly more osteoid (5.53%) than BCP 60/40 (3%) and DBBM (2...
Linden, A.; Theissen, P.; Schauerte, G.; Schicha, H.; Diehl, V.
MRI has the potential to demonstrate bone marrow pathology due to its good soft tissue contrast. Inflammation and necrosis can be detected very early before there is evidence of radiological changes. In bone tumors intramedullary infiltration can be visualized in addition to soft tissue changes. Metastases of bone and bone marrow, especially in spinal and pelvic regions, are well depicted, often before bone scintigraphy yields pathological findings. In haematological disorders MRI permits follow-up studies due to its good reproducibility. Infiltration by malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma and its extension in bone marrow can be visualized by MRI, too. However, the most common pathological MRI findings in bone marrow are not very specific, and final diagnosis requires further clinical or histological information. (orig.) [de
Gender Variation in the Aetiology and Pattern of Traumatized Anterior Teeth, in an Adult Population in Benin City, Nigeria. ... Motor bike accidents were the commonest aetiology reported by both gender; this was followed by falls in males and cracking of animal bones in females. More females had mandibular teeth injured ...
Xiang, Ruidong; Lee, Alice M C; Eindorf, Tanja; Javadmanesh, Ali; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Gugger, Madeleine; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Pitchford, Wayne S; Leviton, Alison J; Thomsen, Dana A; Beckman, Ian; Anderson, Gail I; Burns, Brian M; Rutley, David L; Xian, Cory J; Hiendleder, Stefan
Parent-of-origin-dependent (epi)genetic factors are important determinants of prenatal development that program adult phenotype. However, data on magnitude and specificity of maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone are lacking. We used an outbred bovine model to dissect and quantify effects of parental genomes, fetal sex, and nongenetic maternal effects on the fetal skeleton and analyzed phenotypic and molecular relationships between fetal muscle and bone. Analysis of 51 bone morphometric and weight parameters from 72 fetuses recovered at day 153 gestation (54% term) identified six principal components (PC1-6) that explained 80% of the variation in skeletal parameters. Parental genomes accounted for most of the variation in bone wet weight (PC1, 72.1%), limb ossification (PC2, 99.8%), flat bone size (PC4, 99.7%), and axial skeletal growth (PC5, 96.9%). Limb length showed lesser effects of parental genomes (PC3, 40.8%) and a significant nongenetic maternal effect (gestational weight gain, 29%). Fetal sex affected bone wet weight (PC1, p maternal genome effects on bone wet weight (74.1%, p paternal genome controlled limb ossification (95.1%, p maternal genome effects on growth plate height (98.6%, p maternal genome effects on fetal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (96.9%, p paternal genome effects on alkaline phosphatase (90.0%, p maternally controlled bone wet weight and paternally controlled limb ossification, respectively. Bone wet weight and flat bone size correlated positively with muscle weight (r = 0.84 and 0.77, p maternally expressed H19 regulates growth factors by miRNA interference, this suggests muscle-bone interaction via epigenetic factors. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Henrik B Hansen
Full Text Available Large-scale genomic analyses of ancient human populations have become feasible partly due to refined sampling methods. The inner part of petrous bones and the cementum layer in teeth roots are currently recognized as the best substrates for such research. We present a comparative analysis of DNA preservation in these two substrates obtained from the same human skulls, across a range of different ages and preservation environments. Both substrates display significantly higher endogenous DNA content (average of 16.4% and 40.0% for teeth and petrous bones, respectively than parietal skull bone (average of 2.2%. Despite sample-to-sample variation, petrous bone overall performs better than tooth cementum (p = 0.001. This difference, however, is driven largely by a cluster of viking skeletons from one particular locality, showing relatively poor molecular tooth preservation (<10% endogenous DNA. In the remaining skeletons there is no systematic difference between the two substrates. A crude preservation (good/bad applied to each sample prior to DNA-extraction predicted the above/below 10% endogenous DNA threshold in 80% of the cases. Interestingly, we observe signficantly higher levels of cytosine to thymine deamination damage and lower proportions of mitochondrial/nuclear DNA in petrous bone compared to tooth cementum. Lastly, we show that petrous bones from ancient cremated individuals contain no measurable levels of authentic human DNA. Based on these findings we discuss the pros and cons of sampling the different elements.
Morita, Rikushi (Shiga Univ. of Medical Sciences, Otsu (Japan))
Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.).
Ljiljana Jaukovic Rajko Spaic; Marijan Novakovic; Srbislav Stosic
Bone defects resulting war injury can be replaced by microvascular bone grafts from fibula. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the value of three phase (3P) bone scintigraphy in the early detection of the bone graft complications. Method: 3P bone scans were performed in four patients (two after mandible reconstruction with micro vascular fibular bone grafts, one after fibular transplantation for ulnar and one with humeral reconstruction). First dynamic phase scan was performed immediately after iv injection of 740 MBq Tc- 99m DPD, acquiring 15 two seconds duration frames. Second, early static scan was performed during next 300 seconds, and third, delayed scan three hours later. All scans were obtained under the bone graft region. The scans were evaluated using ROI under graft region and the corresponding contra lateral area. Blood flow in graft region was determined using first phase scan, and tracer uptake in the same region was determined using second and third phase scans. Results: in all patients blood flow in graft region was particularly normal. Tracer uptake in one of two patients with mandible reconstruction was diffusely increased in graft, strongly suggesting infection; In the other patient delayed scan showed no tracer uptake in graft center .Both patients with ulnar and humeral reconstruction showed only slightly decreased tracer uptake in bone grafts. 3 phase bone scintigraphy may play a role in the evaluation of bone graft viability by predicting the infection and necrosis. (authors)
Mikosch, P.; Zitter, F.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P.; Wuertz, F.; Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A.
Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease
Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)
Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Al Maaieh, Motasem; Cho, Samuel K; Iatridis, James C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A
Advances in the field of stem cell technology have stimulated the development and increased use of allogenic bone grafts containing live mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as cellular bone matrices (CBMs). It is estimated that CBMs comprise greater than 17% of all bone grafts and bone graft substitutes used. To critically evaluate CBMs, specifically their technical specifications, existing published data supporting their use, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, cost, potential pitfalls, and other aspects pertaining to their use. Areview of literature. A series of Ovid, Medline, and Pubmed-National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) searches were performed. Only articles in English journals or published with English language translations were included. Level of evidence of the selected articles was assessed. Specific technical information on each CBM was obtained by direct communication from the companies marketing the individual products. Five different CBMs are currently available for use in spinal fusion surgery. There is a wide variation between the products with regard to the average donor age at harvest, total cellular concentration, percentage of MSCs, shelf life, and cell viability after defrosting. Three retrospective studies evaluating CBMs and fusion have shown fusion rates ranging from 90.2% to 92.3%, and multiple industry-sponsored trials are underway. No independent studies evaluating spinal fusion rates with the use of CBMs exist. All the commercially available CBMs claim to meet the FDA criteria under Section 361, 21 CFR Part 1271, and are not undergoing FDA premarket review. The CBMs claim to provide viable MSCs and are offered at a premium cost. Numerous challenges exist in regard to MSCs' survival, function, osteoblastic potential, and cytokine production once implanted into the intended host. Cellular bone matrices may be a promising bone augmentation technology in spinal fusion surgery
Elsgolc, Lev D
This concise text offers both professionals and students an introduction to the fundamentals and standard methods of the calculus of variations. In addition to surveys of problems with fixed and movable boundaries, it explores highly practical direct methods for the solution of variational problems.Topics include the method of variation in problems with fixed boundaries; variational problems with movable boundaries and other problems; sufficiency conditions for an extremum; variational problems of constrained extrema; and direct methods of solving variational problems. Each chapter features nu
Tang, Songyuan; Chaudhry, Anuj; Kim, Namhee; Reddy, J N; Righetti, Raffaella
Bone-soft tissue friction is an important factor affecting several musculoskeletal disorders, frictional syndromes and the ability of a bone fracture to heal. However, this parameter is difficult to determine using non-invasive imaging modalities, especially in clinical settings. Ultrasound axial shear strain elastography is a non-invasive imaging modality that has been used in the recent past to estimate the bonding between different tissue layers. As most elastography methods, axial shear strain elastography is primarily used in soft tissues. More recently, this technique has been proposed to assess the bone-soft tissue interface. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a variation in bone-soft tissue friction coefficient in the resulting axial shear strain elastograms. Finite element poroelastic models of bone specimens exhibiting different bone-soft tissue friction coefficients were created and mechanically analyzed. These models were then imported to an ultrasound elastography simulation module to assess the presence of axial shear strain patterns. In vitro experiments were performed to corroborate selected simulation results. The results of this study show that the normalized axial shear strain estimated at the bone-soft tissue interface is statistically correlated to the bone-soft tissue coefficient of friction. This information may prove useful to better interpret ultrasound elastography results obtained in bone-related applications and, possibly, monitor bone healing.
Pavlica, P.; Sciascia, R.
Sixteen patients with lacunar alterations of the squamous occipital bone were studied in various radiographic projections; in many cases studies were also performed. In 7 cases lacunae in the cerebral fossa were observed, with an average diameter of 3 cm. These defects were due to a thinning of the inner table of the theca. In 9 cases smaller lacunae were demonstrated bilaterally, which were more radiolucent, isolated or confluent, located in the area corresponding to the internal occipital protuberance at the ridges of cruciform eminence. The latter were representative of diploic venous lakes, as the best demonstrated in lateral projection. This kind of lacunae are considered as anatomic variants, because no bone destruction is demonstrable, as confirmed by technetium scintigraphy
Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nico
In order to gain insight into the micro-mechanical behavior of the cement-bone interface, the effect of parametric variations of frictional, morphological and material properties on the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface were analyzed using a finite element approach. Finite element models of a cement-bone interface specimen were created from micro-computed tomography data of a physical specimen that was sectioned from an in vitro cemented total hip arthroplasty. In five models t...
Bone sarcoma data for 226 228 Ra and 224 Ra are analyzed within the dosage ranges where the observed risk is zero. The uncertainty in the risk may be effectively illustrated by using pairs of functions based on a statistically-based measure of confidence. For radiation protection, the appropriate measure of risk is cumulative incidence in the presence of competing risks, as this takes into account the reduction of radiation effects brought about by natural mortality
Koskela, A; Koponen, J; Lehenkari, P; Viluksela, M; Korkalainen, M; Tuukkanen, J
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including two most commonly studied compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are widely distributed environmental pollutants, used extensively earlier. Due to their toxicological effects the use of PFAS is now regulated. Based on earlier studies on PFOA's distribution in bone and bone marrow in mice, we investigated PFAS levels and their possible link to bone microarchitecture of human femoral bone samples (n = 18). Soft tissue and bone biopsies were also taken from a 49-year old female cadaver for PFAS analyses. We also studied how PFOA exposure affects differentiation of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PFAS were detectable from all dry bone and bone marrow samples, PFOS and PFOA being the most prominent. In cadaver biopsies, lungs and liver contained the highest concentrations of PFAS, whereas PFAS were absent in bone marrow. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was present in the bones, PFOA and PFOS were absent. In vitro results showed no disturbance in osteogenic differentiation after PFOA exposure, but in osteoclasts, lower concentrations led to increased resorption, which eventually dropped to zero after increase in PFOA concentration. In conclusion, PFAS are present in bone and have the potential to affect human bone cells partly at environmentally relevant concentrations.
Stone, Benjamin; Dockrell, David; Bowman, Christine; McCloskey, Eugene
Advances in management have resulted in a dramatic decline in mortality for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This decrease in mortality, initially the result of improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections but later mediated by the use of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to the need to consider long-term complications of the disease itself, or its treatment. Bone disease is increasingly recognised as a concern. The prevalence of reduced BMD and possibly also fracture incidence are increased in HIV-positive individuals compared with HIV-negative controls. There are many potential explanations for this - an increased prevalence of established osteoporosis risk factors in the HIV-positive population, a likely direct effect of HIV infection itself and a possible contributory role of ARV therapy. At present, the assessment of bone disease and fracture risk remains patchy, with little or no guidance on identifying those at increased risk of reduced BMD or fragility fracture. Preventative and therapeutic strategies with bone specific treatments need to be developed. Limited data suggest bisphosphonates may be beneficial in conjunction with vitamin D and calcium supplementation in the treatment of reduced BMD in HIV-infected patients but larger studies of longer duration are needed. The safety and cost-effectiveness of these and other treatments needs to be evaluated. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Fan, Ruoxun; Liu, Jie; Jia, Zhengbin; Deng, Ying; Liu, Jun
Macro-level failure in bone structure could be diagnosed by pain or physical examination. However, diagnosing tissue-level failure in a timely manner is challenging due to the difficulty in observing the interior mechanical environment of bone tissue. Because most fractures begin with tissue-level failure in bone tissue caused by continually applied loading, people attempt to monitor the tissue-level failure of bone and provide corresponding measures to prevent fracture. Many tissue-level mechanical parameters of bone could be predicted or measured; however, the value of the parameter may vary among different specimens belonging to a kind of bone structure even at the same age and anatomical site. These variations cause difficulty in representing tissue-level bone failure. Therefore, determining an appropriate tissue-level failure evaluation standard is necessary to represent tissue-level bone failure. In this study, the yield and failure processes of rat femoral cortical bones were primarily simulated through a hybrid computational-experimental method. Subsequently, the tissue-level strains and the ratio between tissue-level failure and yield strains in cortical bones were predicted. The results indicated that certain differences existed in tissue-level strains; however, slight variations in the ratio were observed among different cortical bones. Therefore, the ratio between tissue-level failure and yield strains for a kind of bone structure could be determined. This ratio may then be regarded as an appropriate tissue-level failure evaluation standard to represent the mechanical status of bone tissue.
Delgado-Ruiz, R A; Sacks, D; Palermo, A; Calvo-Guirado, J L; Perez-Albacete, C; Romanos, G E
The aim of this experimental in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of the piezoelectric device in temperature and time variations in standardized osteotomies performed with similar tip inserts in bovine bone blocks. Two different piezosurgical devices were used the OE-F15(®) (Osada Inc., Los Angeles, California, USA) and the Surgybone(®) (Silfradent Inc., Sofia, Forli Cesena, Italy). Serrated inserts with similar geometry were coupled with each device (ST94 insert/test A and P0700 insert/test B). Osteotomies 10 mm long and 3 mm deep were performed in bone blocks resembling type II (dense) and type IV (soft) bone densities with and without irrigation. Thermal changes and time variations were recorded. The effects of bone density, irrigation, and device on temperature changes and time necessary to accomplish the osteotomies were analyzed. Thermal analysis showed significant higher temperatures during piezosurgery osteotomies in hard bone without irrigation (P 0.05). Time analysis showed that the mean time values necessary to perform osteotomies were shorter in soft bone than in dense bone (P piezosurgery osteotomies in dense bone without irrigation; the time to perform the osteotomy with piezosurgery is shorter in soft bone compared to hard bone; and the piezosurgical device have a minimal influence in the temperature and time variations when a similar tip design is used during piezosurgery osteotomies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Borzunov, Dmitry Y
This paper presents experimental findings to substantiate the use of multilevel bone fragment lengthening for managing extensive long bone defects caused by diverse aetiologies and shows its clinical introduction which could provide a solution for the problem of reducing the total treatment time. Both experimental and clinical multilevel lengthening to bridge bone defect gaps was performed with the use of the Ilizarov method only. The experimental findings and clinical outcomes showed that multilevel defect fragment lengthening could provide sufficient bone formation and reduction of the total osteosynthesis time in one stage as compared to traditional Ilizarov bone transport. The method of multilevel regeneration enabled management of critical-size defects that measured on average 13.5 ± 0.7 cm in 78 patients. The experimental and clinical results proved the efficiency of the Ilizarov non-free multilevel bone plasty that can be recommended for practical use.
Tsourdi, Elena; Rachner, Tilman D; Rauner, Martina; Hamann, Christine; Hofbauer, Lorenz C
Signalling of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) through RANK is a critical pathway to regulate the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts and, hence, a master regulator of bone resorption. Increased RANKL activity has been demonstrated in diseases characterised by excessive bone loss such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteolytic bone metastases. The development and approval of denosumab, a fully MAB against RANKL, has heralded a new era in the treatment of bone diseases by providing a potent, targeted and reversible inhibitor of bone resorption. This article summarises the molecular and cellular biology of the RANKL/RANK system and critically reviews preclinical and clinical studies that have established denosumab as a promising novel therapy for metabolic and malignant bone diseases. We will discuss the potential indications for denosumab along with a critical review of safety and analyse its potential within the concert of established therapies.
Leonard, R.C.F.; Owen, J.P.; Proctor, S.J.; Hamilton, P.J.
A comparative study of radionuclide bone scanning and skeletal radiology in patients with multiple myeloma revealed four principal findings: (i) There were no cases of negative bone scans with positive skeletal radiographs. (ii) Lytic bone lesions were seriously underestimated by bone scans. (iii) Bone scans tended to pick up lesions in ribs missed on the skeletal surveys. (iv) Patients with bone pain were more likely to have positive bone scans and skeletal radiographs than asymptomatic patients. (author)
Udoh, Anthony P.
The phosphorus content of the major bones of male and female selected mammals was determined using the yellow vanadomolybdate colorimetric method. For each animal, the bone with the highest phosphorus content was used as pilot sample. Varying concentrations of strontium were added to solutions of the ashed pilot samples to minimize phosphorus interference in the determination of calcium and magnesium using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry operated on the air-acetylene mode. At least 6,000 ppm (0.6%) of strontium was required to give optimum results for calcium. The amount of magnesium obtained from the analysis was not affected by the addition of strontium. With the incorporation of strontium in the sample solution, all elements of interest can be determined in the same sample solution. Based on this, a procedure is proposed for the determination of calcium and other elements in bones. Average recoveries of spiked calcium and magnesium were 97.85% and 98.16%, respectively at the 95% confidence level. The coefficients of variation obtained for replicate determinations using one of the samples were 0.00% for calcium, lead and sodium, 2.93% for magnesium, 3.27% for iron and 3.92% for zinc at the concentration levels found in that sample. Results from the proposed procedure compared well with those from classical chemical methods at the 95% confidence level. It is evident that calcium phosphorus, magnesium and sodium which are the most abundant elements in the bones are distributed in varying amounts both in the different types of bones and different animal species, although the general trend is Ca > P > Na > Mg for each bone considered. The calcium - phosphorus ratio is generally 3:1. The work set out to propose an atomic absorption spectrometric method for the multi-element analysis of mammalian bones with a single sample preparation and to study the distribution pattern of these elements in the bones. (Author)
Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo
The principle of 'guided bone regeneration' was first described in 1988 on the basis of animal-experimental data. Six weeks after transmandibular defects had been created and protected by non-resorbable teflonmembranes, complete bone regeneration was found. The technique was based on the selective repopulation of the wound: every infiltration of cells outside the neighbouring bone tissue was prevented by the application of the membrane. Additional animal experiments showed that guided bone regeneration was a viable treatment option for local bone defects surrounding dental implants. Clinical practice, however, showed that premature membrane exposure was a common complication, which was responsible for a tremendous reduction in regenerated bone volume. In addition, a second surgical intervention was always necessary to remove the membrane. As a result, resorbable alternatives were developed. Since these are less rigid, bone fillers are usually used simultaneously. These comprise autogenous bone chips and bone substitutes from allogenic or xenogenic origine. Also alloplastic materials could be used for this purpose. Based on their characteristics this article provides an overview of the biomaterials that could be considered for guided bone regeneration. Specific attention goes to their application in clinical practice.
Bandeira, Francisco; Cusano, Natalie E.; Silva, Barbara C.; Cassibba, Sara; Almeida, Clarissa Beatriz; Machado, Vanessa Caroline Costa; Bilezikian, John P.
Bone disease in severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is described classically as osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC). Bone pain, skeletal deformities and pathological fractures are features of OFC. Bone mineral density is usually extremely low in OFC, but it is reversible after surgical cure. The signs and symptoms of severe bone disease include bone pain, pathologic fractures, proximal muscle weakness with hyperreflexia. Bone involvement is typically characterized as salt-and-pepper appearance in the skull, bone erosions and bone resorption of the phalanges, brown tumors and cysts. In the radiography, diffuse demineralization is observed, along with pathological fractures, particularly in the long bones of the extremities. In severe, symptomatic PHPT, marked elevation of the serum calcium and PTH concentrations are seen and renal involvement is manifested by nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. A new technology, recently approved for clinical use in the United States and Europe, is likely to become more widely available because it is an adaptation of the lumbar spine DXA image. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level textural analysis that provides an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture. Newer technologies, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), have provided further understanding of the microstructural skeletal features in PHPT. PMID:25166047
Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kusano, Motoyasu; Shimoda, Yoko; Ishihara, Shingo; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ohno, Tetsuro; Mochiki, Erito; Sano, Takaaki; Hirato, Junko; Mori, Masatomo
A 74-year-old man had an endoscopic type 0'-IIc tumor in the upper gastric body on the greater curvature and biopsy showed the tumor to be a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (Group 5). He was referred to us for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Endoscopy revealed fold convergency, fold swelling, and fusion of the fold, indicating tumor invasion into the submucosa, which was outside the indications for ESD. In addition, there was an increase of serum bone-type alkaline phosphatase (ALP-III and ALP-IV) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (a bone metabolism marker), while (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in the left pelvis and Th10, suggesting bone metastases. We first diagnosed gastric cancer with bone metastases; however, the symptoms suggested pathological bone fracture and no bone pain. Therefore, a computed tomography-guided aspiration bone biopsy was performed to exclude the possibility of Paget's disease of bone. Biopsy specimens revealed no tumor and a mosaic pattern. No increased uptake of (18)F-FAMT (L-[3-(18)F] α-methyltyrosine) supported a diagnosis of no bone metastases from gastric cancer. We finally diagnosed gastric cancer accompanied by Paget's disease of bone and performed a laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy. The pathological diagnosis was U less 0-IIb, and U post 0-IIc ypT1a (M) N0H0P0M0 yp stage IA. In gastric cancer patients with suspected bone metastasis, we also need to consider Paget's disease of bone.
Hung, Ben P; Salter, Erin K; Temple, Josh; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Brown, Emile N; Brazio, Philip; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Grayson, Warren L
The translation of tissue engineering approaches to the clinic has been hampered by the inability to find suitable multipotent cell sources requiring minimal in vitro expansion. Enhanced bone marrow (eBM), which is obtained by reaming long bone medullary canals and isolating the solid marrow putty, has large quantities of stem cells and demonstrates significant potential to regenerate bone tissues. eBM, however, cannot impart immediate load-bearing mechanical integrity or maintain the gross anatomical structure to guide bone healing. Yet, its putty-like consistency creates a challenge for obtaining the uniform seeding necessary to effectively combine it with porous scaffolds. In this study, we examined the potential for combining eBM with mechanically strong, osteoinductive trabecular bone scaffolds for bone regeneration by creating channels into scaffolds for seeding the eBM. eBM was extracted from the femurs of adult Yorkshire pigs using a Synthes reamer-irrigator-aspirator device, analyzed histologically, and digested to extract cells and characterize their differentiation potential. To evaluate bone tissue formation, eBM was seeded into the channels in collagen-coated or noncoated scaffolds, cultured in osteogenic conditions for 4 weeks, harvested and assessed for tissue distribution and bone formation. Our data demonstrates that eBM is a heterogenous tissue containing multipotent cell populations. Furthermore, coating scaffolds with a collagen hydrogel significantly enhanced cellular migration, promoted uniform tissue development and increased bone mineral deposition. These findings suggest the potential for generating customized autologous bone grafts for treating critical-sized bone defects by combining a readily available eBM cell source with decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel
Malinowska , Agnieszka B.; Torres , Delfim
International audience; Introduces readers to the treatment of the calculus of variations with q-differences and Hahn difference operators Provides the reader with the first extended treatment of quantum variational calculus Shows how the techniques described can be applied to economic models as well as other mathematical systems This Brief puts together two subjects, quantum and variational calculi by considering variational problems involving Hahn quantum operators. The main advantage of it...
Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan
Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...
Ma, Yanxuan; Zheng, Yudong; Huang, Xiaoshan; Xi, Tingfei; Lin, Xiaodan; Han, Dongfei; Song, Wenhui
Due to the non-bioactivity and poor conjunction performance of present cartilage prostheses, the main work here is to develop the bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel articular cartilage/bone (BG-PVA/bone) composite implants. The essential criterion for a biomaterial to bond with living bone is well-matched mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility and bioactivity. In vitro studies on the formation of a surface layer of carbonate hydroxyl apatite (HCA) and the corresponding variation of the properties of biomaterials are imperative for their clinical application. In this paper, the mineralization behavior and variation of the interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composites were studied in vitro by using simulated body fluid (SBF). The mineralization and HCA layer formed on the interface between the BG-PVA hydrogel and bone in SBF could provide the composites with bioactivity and firmer combination. The compression property, shear strength and interface morphology of BG-PVA/bone composite implants varying with the immersion time in SBF were characterized. Also, the influence laws of the immersion time, content of BG in the composites and aperture of bones to the mineralization behavior and interface properties were investigated. The good mineralization behavior and enhanced conjunction performance of BG-PVA/bone composites demonstrated that this kind of composite implant might be more appropriate cartilage replacements.
Ma Yanxuan; Zheng Yudong; Huang Xiaoshan; Xi Tingfei; Han Dongfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin Xiaodan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Song Wenhui, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Wolfson Center for Materials Processing, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)
Due to the non-bioactivity and poor conjunction performance of present cartilage prostheses, the main work here is to develop the bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel articular cartilage/bone (BG-PVA/bone) composite implants. The essential criterion for a biomaterial to bond with living bone is well-matched mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility and bioactivity. In vitro studies on the formation of a surface layer of carbonate hydroxyl apatite (HCA) and the corresponding variation of the properties of biomaterials are imperative for their clinical application. In this paper, the mineralization behavior and variation of the interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composites were studied in vitro by using simulated body fluid (SBF). The mineralization and HCA layer formed on the interface between the BG-PVA hydrogel and bone in SBF could provide the composites with bioactivity and firmer combination. The compression property, shear strength and interface morphology of BG-PVA/bone composite implants varying with the immersion time in SBF were characterized. Also, the influence laws of the immersion time, content of BG in the composites and aperture of bones to the mineralization behavior and interface properties were investigated. The good mineralization behavior and enhanced conjunction performance of BG-PVA/bone composites demonstrated that this kind of composite implant might be more appropriate cartilage replacements.
Seiderer, M.; Staebler, A.; Wagner, H.
Signal intensity for opposed-phase gradient-echo (GE) sequences of tissues composed of fat- and water-equivalent cells such as red bone marrow is extremely sensitive to variation of the ratio of both cell populations (fat-to-water ratio Q F/W ). Because most bone marrow pathology results in variation of Q F/W , GE sequences are characterized by high-contrast imaging of pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TR, TE, FA, Q F/W and histology on signal intensity. Signal intensity of opposed-phase GE sequences as a function of TR, TE, FA, and Q F/W was measured for a fat-water phantom and cadaver specimens of normal bone marrow (red and yellow) and pathological bone marrow (tumors). All specimens were correlated to histology. Opposed-phase GE imaging of red bone marrow pathology results in low-signal-intensity imaging of intact red bone marrow and high-signal-intensity positive contrast imaging of pathology associated with a change in Q F/W . In first-order approximation the signal intensity of pathology is linearly correlated to the change in Q F/W . Opposed-phase GE imaging is a sensitive imaging technique for red bone marrow pathology. Relative contrast of red bone marrow pathology is similar to fat-suppressed imaging techniques. Acquisition time is identical to T1-weighted SE sequences. (orig.)
Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem
Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.
Toshiyuki Tominaga; Moritoshi Itoman; Izumi, T.; Wakita, R.; Uchino, M.
Disease transmission or infection is an important issue in bone allograft, and irradiation is used for sterilization of graft bones. One of the advantages of bone allograft over biomaterials is that graft bones have osteoinductive factors such as growth factors. Irradiation is reported to decrease the osteoinductive activity in vivo. We investigated the osteoinductive activity of irradiated bone by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rat bone marrow cell culture. Bones (tibias and femurs of 12-week-old Wistar rats) were cleaned of adhering soft tissue, and the marrow was removed by washing. The bones were defatted, lyophilized, and cut into uniform 70 mg fragments. Then the Bone fragments were irradiated at either 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 kGy at JAERI. Bone marrow cells were isolated from tibias and femurs of 4-week-old Wistar rats. Cells were plated in tissue culture flask. When primary cultures reached confluence, cells were passaged (4 x 103 cell / cm2) to 6 wells plates. The culture medium consisted of minimum essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum, ascorbic acid, and antibiotics. At confluence, a cell culture insert was set in the well, and an irradiated bone fragment was placed in it. Then, medium was supplemented with 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate and 1 x 10-8 M dexamethasone. Culture wells were stained by naphthol AS-MX phosphate, N,N-dimethyl formamide, Red violet LB salt on day 0, 7, 14. The density of ALP staining was analyzed by a personal computer. Without bones, ALP staining increased by 50% on day 7 and by 100% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. The other side, with bones irradiated at 30 kGy or lower, ALP staining increased by 150% on day 7, and by 180% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. In the groups of irradiated bones of 40 kGy or higher, the increase in ALP staining was less prominent compared with the groups of irradiated bones of 30 kGy or lower. In the groups of 0-30 kGy irradiation, ALP staining increased in the early period
Kasai, Takao; Iizuka, Tadashi; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsuro [Department of Oral Functional Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8586 (Japan); Matsumura, Sachiko; Shiba, Kiyotaka [Division of Protein Engineering, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31, Ariake, koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)
A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.
Zhu Ruisen; Luo Qiong; Lu Haikui; Chen Libo; Luo Quanyong
Characteristic images of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy in patients with metabolic bone diseases (MBD) were analyzed and compared, in an attempt to improve the capability of differential diagnosis in this aspect. A total of 142 cases, clinically confirmed as (MBD), were categorized into six groups: hyperparathyroidism (117), renal osteodystrophy (4), Paget's disease (16), hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (2), Albers-Schonberg disease (2), and Brittle bone disease (1). They were diagnosed clinically or pathologically, and scanned with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintegraphy, from which the 142 MBD cases were classified into 4 types. The cases of Type I had increased amount of 99m Tc-MDP uptake in whole body bones, including hyperparathyroidism, Albers-Schonberg disease, brittle bone disease and renal osteodystrophy. The cases of Type II had high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in local region of bones, including paget's disease, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. A Type I case with pathological fracture or secondary osteopathy was classified as Type III. Type IV cases were in early stage of hyperparathyroidism, with normal bone scan image. Analysis of the characteristics of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphic findings (locations, morphology and intensities) in patients with MBD may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of MBD, in association with the patient's history and X-ray data altogether. (authors)
Okamura, Shinsuke; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Takayoshi; Sano, Takashi; Ueki, Minoru; Sugimoto, Osamu; Sakata, Tsunehiko; Yamasaki, Kouichi; Akagi, Hiroaki
In carrying out bone scintigraphy in 224 cases over the 5 years from June, 1978 to May, 1983 as a part of the post-treatment management of cervical carcinoma. Bone metastases were seen in 12.5% (28 cases) of the subjects, about 6% of the total post-treatment cases of cervical carcinoma in the corresponding period (466 cases). Bone metastases were seen in 9.3% (16/172) of post-operative cases, compared with 23.1% (12/52) of non-operative cases. Bone metastases were not seen in clinical stages Ia through IIa (49 cases) but were seen in IIb or higher stages. Bone metastasis rates by histological type, according to WHO classification, were 12.8% (26/203) in squamous cell carcinoma, 5.9% (1/17) in adenocarcinoma, and 25% (1/4) in adenosquamous carcinoma. Among the squamous cell carcinoma cases, small cell non-keratinizing type had the highest bone metastasis rate. Of 172 post-operative cases, 20.8% (11/53) of those with lymph node metastasis exhibited bone metastasis, higher than the 4.2% (5/119) in cases without lymph node metastasis. As to CPL classification, bone metastasis was seen more often in L type (18.8%) than C(0.0%) or P types (6.6%). Our risk classification of 168 cases demonstrated that bone metastasis was not seen in risk I group (74 cases), but was seen in 6.7% (1/17) of risk II group and in 19.0% (15/79) of risk III group. Twenty-eight cases with bone metastasis included 11 cases with local recurrence, 8 with pulmonary metastases, 4 with hepatic metastases and 4 with Virchow's lymphnode metastases. The 28 bone metastasis cases included 10 cases with multiple bone metastases and 5 with only a single bone metastasis. Most bone metastases were seen in the lumbar vertebrae and the pelvic bone. Post-operative cases had more distant metastases than non-operative cases. On diagnosis of bone metastases and 17 of the 28 patients had pain, 6 of the remaining 11 patients developing pain thereafter. (J.P.N.).
John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle
The broad genotypic variability in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), that results in equally broad phenotypic variability among clones is important to the ecology and management of this species. This chapter considers principles of aspen genetics and variation, variation in aspen over its range, and local variation among clones. For a more...
Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.
Variation in music can be caused by different phenomena: conscious, creative manipulation of musical ideas; but also unconscious variation during music recall. It is the latter phenomenon that we wish to study: variation which occurs in oral transmission, in which a melody is taught without the help
Chang Joon Yim
Further understanding of bone healing mechanisms, bone physiology and bone biology, transplantation immunology, and development of Tissue Banking procedures has enabled oral and maxillofacial surgeons to reconstruct even the most difficult bony defects successfully with the preserved allogeneic bone implant. Although it had been known that bone allografts were clinically effective, its application has not been widespread until the reports of Inclan (I 942), Hyatt and Butler (I 950), and Wilson (I 95 1). Tissue Banking provides the surgeon with a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and relatively safe selection of allogeneic bone for clinical use. Now autogenous bone and allogeneic bone implants present a wide variety of surgical options to surgeons, whether used separately or in combination. The surgeons are able to make judicious and fruitful choices, only with a thorough knowledge of the above-mentioned biological principles and skillful techniques. Many kinds of bone grafting techniques have been tried for reconstructing defective osseous tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, though they have varying degrees of success. The osseous defects which require grafting include those of various size, shape, position, or amount. Unlike autogenous grafts, whose function is to provide osteogenic cells, allografts are purely passive, offering only a matrix for the inductive phase of bone healing. The condition of the recipient bed is of primary importance, because the host must produce all of the essential elements for the bone allograft to become incorporated. Depending on the processing methods of the allogeneic bone, the bone graft materials have different qualities, different healing potentials and different indications. Proper selection of grafts and surgical techniques requires an understanding of graft immunology and the mechanisms of graft healing. The surgeons should know about the biological principles to raise the clinical success rate
Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M
There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...
Haverson, G.; Warren, A.G.
Tarsal bone disintegration is characterised by fragmentation and progressive collapse of one or more tarsal bones. It occurs in 10% of leprosy patients, and is responsible for many severe foot deformities associated with this disease. The main cause is micro-traumata, but sensory impairment, sepsis and osteoporosis are predisposing factors. In this series of 400 consecutive patients the talus and navicular were involved most frequently (72% of 119 tarsal lesions). Treatment, including prolonged immobilisation of the foot, results in dense sclerosis of the affected bone, and leaves a functional limb. Initial radiological features include bone fragmentation, calcified fragments in adjacent soft tissues, linear fractures, progressive compression and deformity of the affected bone, loss of density of the affected bone and flattening of the longitudinal plantar arch. Illustrative case histories are presented, and the differential diagnosis discussed. (author)
Full Text Available In this paper is established a spongy bone bidimensional models methodology for its analysis by finite element software. The models are focused to represent the bone trabecular structure by Voronoi cells, using the coordinates of the porous center, contained within the bone structure, obtained by optical microscope images. Looking for a better geometrical similarity, it was assigned a thicker transversal area in the trabecula union zone, because has been reported that this factor gives a better approximation to experimental results. To feed the finite element models, compression test has been done to trabecular specimens, taking the maximum strain and maximum stress, to obtain the elastic modulus. By means of strained specimen images analysis, it has been established the structure collapse moment. It was when the 36% of total trabeculae failed. Finally it was obtained a tissue Young modulus of 323 [MPa] and with this value, the resistance variation in function of density and trabecular architecture.
White, S.C.; Rose, T.C.
The absorbed dose of radiation in the bone marrow of the region of the head and neck was measured during intraoral, panoramic, and cephalometric radiography. Panoramic radiography results in a dose a fifth or less than that from an intraoral survey. The use of rectangular collimation reduces the bone marrow absorbed dose from an intraoral survey by about 60%. Comparison of the doses from dental radiography with natural environmental radiation shows that an intraoral set of films results in the same total dose to the bone marrow as 65 days of background exposure. The use of rectangular collimation reduces this value to 25 days. Panoramic radiography results in significantly less irradiation, as it reduces the value to 14 days or fewer. Dental radiography thus involves exposures in the range of variation of natural environmental background values
Groshar, D.; Even-Sapir, E.; Lam, M.; Israel, O.; Front, D.
Stress fractures result from an unusual repetitive physical activity causing absorption of bone in excess of repair and bone formation. This leads to the weakening of the bone and subsequently to a fracture. It is a benign condition that if recognized in time does not need any treatment besides rest. However, if diagnosis is not made and physical activity continues it may result in severe injury to the bone and a frank fracture may result. Pain is the typical clinical feature and bone scintigraphy, being more sensitive than radiography, is done to establish early diagnosis. The presence of asymptomatic sites of abnormal bone uptake typical of stress fracture in which pain appeared only about 2 weeks after scintigraphy, drew the authors' attention to the question of how close is the relationship between stress fractures and bone pain. Sixty-four military recruits diagnosed as suffering from stress fracture were investigated in order to correlate sites with abnormal uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone scintigraphy with sites of local pain. In 37 (58%) subjects multiple sites of abnormal uptake were recognised. Of 123 sites of abnormal uptake, 31 (25%) were asymptomatic. In three patients bone pain appeared at the site of the abnormal uptake two weeks after scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be more sensitive than bone pain in the diagnosis of stress fractures. The osteoblastic activity which manifests itself by abnormal uptake appears in some cases earlier than the pain caused by the fracture. Present findings may suggest that under certain circumstances, in a population prone to stress fracture, bone scan should be considered as a screening method
Farnham, J.E.; Schlenker, R.A.
This report describes the coding system used in the Center for Human Radiobiology (CHR) to identify individual bones and portions of bones of a complete skeletal system. It includes illustrations of various bones and bone segments with their respective code numbers. Codes are also presented for bone groups and for nonbone materials
Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.
Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis. (orig.)
Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Markham, T.C.
The biomechanical properties of allograft bone can be altered by the methods chosen for its preservation and storage. These effects are minimal with deep-freezing or low-level radiation. Freeze-drying, however, markedly diminishes the torsional and bending strength of bone allografts but does not deleteriously affect the compressive or tensile strength. Irradiation of bone with more than 3.0 megarad or irradiation combined with freeze-drying appears to cause a significant reduction in breaking strength. These factors should be considered when choosing freeze-dried or irradiated allogeneic bone that will be subjected to significant loads following implantation
Therapy success in bone sarcoma is significantly better compared to history cohorts with 60 - 70 % overall survival to date. Unfortunately, there is yet no shift and movement in better survival of patients with relapsed and refractory bone sarcomas during last twenty years. This article reviews targeted therapeutics for bone sarcomas which are under investigation and which could give chance to patients suffering from relapsed and chemo resistant bone sarcomas. Majority of the targeted drugs are given as part of phase 1 or 2 studies. (author)
Ahmet Nejat Erverdi
Full Text Available Anchorage is the most important concept in biomechanics of orthodontics. In contemporary orthodontics, bone anchorage is a magic tool, which decreased the indication for extraoral appliances greatly and at the same time achieving stationary anchorage became possible. However, the indication for bone anchorage has to be clarified carefully. Skeletal open-bite treatment, effective molar distalization, Class III treatment by using chin anchorage, and space closure in severe minimal anchorage cases are some examples for bone anchorage supported orthodontic treatment. Here, we discussed three necessary usages of bone anchorage for different treatment modalities.
Jose Miguel Correa
Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.
Storb, R.; Santos, G.W.
Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation
Finding of a dinosaur fossil skeleton sparks excitement among paleontologists and locals in a poor Henan village Avillager’s accidental discovery four years ago has made known to the world a rich mine of dinosaur fossils in Ruyang County,central China’s Henan Province.At the same time,the fate of the small village has been changed. Li Chui,a farmer in Shaping Village, thought he had found bones of a"dragon"when he dug up stones for his new house on an April morning in 2005.
Full Text Available Serpil Akar,1 Birsen Gokyigit,1 Isilay Kavadarli,2 Ahmet Demirok11Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Department, Prof Dr N Resat Belger Beyoglu Education and Research Eye Hospital, Istanbul, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Gaziantep, Kilis State Hospital, Kilis, TurkeyAbstract: We report here a patient with type 1 Duane’s retraction syndrome and multiple congenital abnormalities as a result of the VACTERL association. The presented combination of Duane’s retraction syndrome and the VACTERL association has not been reported in the literature. The present case was instructive for reviewing the continuous spectrum of ocular anomalies that accompany the VACTERL association.Keywords: Duane’s retraction syndrome, VACTERL association, combination
Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Sone, Teruki
We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to evaluate bone involvement in 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal 99m Tc-suffer colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose bone scan showed cold defects, bone-marrow scintigraphy delineated clearly the areas of tumor-cell invasion. On the other hand, in all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but on bone-marrow scintigram abnormalities were not recognized. In conclusion, the combination scintigraphy of bone and bone-marrow was a useful method in evluating bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)
Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.
Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...
The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...
Lao, Weiguo; Jin, Xingliang; Tan, Yi; Xiao, Linda; Padula, Matthew P.; Bishop, David P.; Reedy, Brian; Ong, Madeleine; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Qu, Xianqin
Background: Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become brittle, increasing the risk of fractures. Complementary medicines have traditionally used animal bones for managing bone disorders, such as osteoporosis. This study aimed to discover new natural products for these types of conditions by determining mineral and protein content of bone extracts derived from the Australian wallaby. Methods: Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis were used for mineral tests, proteome analysis was using LC/MS/MS and the effects of wallaby bone extracts (WBE)s on calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity were evaluated in osteogenic cells derived from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Results: Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were 26.21% and 14.72% in WBE respectively. Additionally, minerals found were wide in variety and high in concentration, while heavy metal concentrations of aluminium, iron, zinc and other elements were at safe levels for human consumption. Proteome analysis showed that extracts contained high amounts of bone remodelling proteins, such as osteomodulin, osteopontin and osteoglycin. Furthermore, in vitro evaluation of WBEs showed increased deposition of calcium in osteoblasts with enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiated adipose-derived stem cells. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that wallaby bone extracts possess proteins and minerals beneficial for bone metabolism. WBEs may therefore be used for developing natural products for conditions such as osteoporosis and further investigation to understand biomolecular mechanism by which WBEs prevent osteoporosis is warranted. PMID:28930133
Abstract. With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using ... ing of a HA powder in a chitosan solution and coating of. HA particle .... system and the cell parameters were calculated using the.
Critical Human Organ Radiation Dosimetry (CHORD) probability density functions for A-P, P-A, bilateral, rotational, and isotropic incidence, plus simple depth-dose data, permit the rapid estimation of the radiation insult to the active red bone marrow system of the ICRP Reference Man. The CHORD concept follows the variations in the microscopic processes of absorption, attenuation, and scattering on a macroscopic level so that it is not necessary to attempt detailed calculations for each and every case of interest. Similar techniques have been applied to reactor criticality calculations and the general logic of the CHORD process can be applied to any cause-response type situation which can be described in terms of variation with distance in the medium of interest. Doses to active bone marrow from exposures to photons and neutrons are presented and excellent agreement is shown with the few available experimental results
Gao, X; Li, S; Adel-Wahab, A; Silberschmidt, V
A fracture process in a cortical bone tissue depends on various factors, such as bone loss, heterogeneous microstructure, variation of its material properties and accumulation of microcracks. Therefore, it is crucial to comprehend and describe the effect of microstructure and material properties of the components of cortical bone on crack propagation in a dynamic loading regime. At the microscale level, osteonal bone demonstrates a random distribution of osteons imbedded in an interstitial matrix and surrounded by a thin layer known as cement line. Such a distribution of osteons can lead to localization of deformation processes. The global mechanical behavior of bone and the crack-propagation process are affected by such localization under external loads. Hence, the random distribution of microstructural features plays a key role in the fracture process of cortical bone. The purpose of this study is two-fold: firstly, to develop two-dimensional microstructured numerical models of cortical bone tissue in order to examine the interaction between the propagating crack and bone microstructure using an extended finite-element method under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions; secondly, to investigate the effect of randomly distributed microstructural constituents on the crack propagation processes and crack paths. The obtained results of numerical simulations showed the influence of random microstructure on the global response of bone tissue at macroscale and on the crack-propagation process for quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions
Tavera R, Cesar G; De la Torre-I, Manuel H; Flores-M, Jorge M; Hernandez M, Ma Del Socorro; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Briones-R, Manuel de J; Sanchez-P, Jorge
A bone's fracture could be produced by an excessive, repetitive, or sudden load. A regular medical practice to heal it is to fix it in two possible ways: external immobilization, using a ferule, or an internal fixation, using a prosthetic device commonly attached to the bone by means of surgical screws. The bone's volume loss due to this drilling modifies its structure either in the presence or absence of a fracture. To observe the bone's surface behavior caused by the drilling effects, a digital holographic interferometer is used to analyze the displacement surface's variations in nonfractured post-mortem porcine femoral bones. Several nondrilled post-mortem bones are compressed and compared to a set of post-mortem bones with a different number of cortical drillings. During each compression test, a series of digital interferometric holograms were recorded using a high-speed CMOS camera. The results are presented as pseudo 3D mesh displacement maps for comparisons in the physiological range of load (30 and 50 lbs) and beyond (100, 200, and 400 lbs). The high resolution of the optical phase gives a better understanding about the bone's microstructural modifications. Finally, a relationship between compression load and bone volume loss due to the drilling was observed. The results prove that digital holographic interferometry is a viable technique to study the conditions that avoid the surgical screw from loosening in medical procedures of this kind.
Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu
There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that
Raissaki, Maria; Demetriou, Stelios; Spanakis, Konstantinos; Skiadas, Christos; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katzilakis, Nikolaos; Stiakaki, Eftichia [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Velivassakis, Emmanouil G. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Orthopedic Clinic, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)
Polyostotic bone and bone marrow lesions in children may be due to various disorders. Radiographically, lytic lesions may become apparent after loss of more than 50% of the bone mineral content. Scintigraphy requires osteoblastic activity and is not specific. MRI may significantly contribute to the correct diagnosis and management. Accurate interpretation of MRI examinations requires understanding of the normal conversion pattern of bone marrow in childhood and of the appearances of red marrow rests and hyperplasia. Differential diagnosis is wide: Malignancies include metastases, multifocal primary sarcomas and hematological diseases. Benign entities include benign tumors and tumor-like lesions, histiocytosis, infectious and inflammatory diseases, multiple stress fractures/reactions and bone infarcts/ischemia. (orig.)
Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...... an age-matched reference population. Low TBS was associated with high age (P = .014) and smoking (P = .03). Smoking and physical inactivity were associated with low BMD in spine (P = .034, P = .032). GC treatment was not associated with TBS. CONCLUSION: We could not find altered TBS values among MS...
Korompilias, Anastasios V.; Lykissas, Marios G.; Beris, Alexandros E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.
Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) refers to transient clinical conditions with unknown pathogenic mechanism, such as transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO), and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). BMES is primarily characterized by bone marrow edema (BME) pattern. The disease mainly affects the hip, the knee, and the ankle of middle-aged males. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology of BMES remains obscure. The hallmark that separates BMES from other conditions presented with BME pattern is its self-limited nature. Laboratory tests usually do not contribute to the diagnosis. Histological examination of the lesion is unnecessary. Plain radiographs may reveal regional osseous demineralization. Magnetic resonance imaging is mainly used for the early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of the disease. Early differentiation from other aggressive conditions with long-term sequelae is essential in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. Clinical entities, such as TOH, RMO, and RSD are spontaneously resolving, and surgical treatment is not needed. On the other hand, early differential diagnosis and surgical treatment in case of osteonecrosis is of crucial importance. (orig.)
Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.
Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using 153 Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references
The three-spine stickleback is an adaptable fish with variation in morphology and behaviour, inhabiting saltwater, brackish water and fresh water. It is armoured with 30-35 bone plates along its lateral line. In addition, it is equipped with three spines on its back and two pelvic spine. These features constitute an excellent anti-predator defence system. Yet, there is a strong selection for reduction in armour of three-spine stickleback in freshwater stickleback. In this project, the bone st...
Ghilardi Netto, T.
A new application of the Fabry-Perot interferometer has been developed, capable of measuring variations in length with a precision of the order of one angstrom. The method has been applied to the determination of some of the inverse piezoelectric coefficients of bovine bone and tendon. The effect of water in these materials was carefully measured and shown to decrease the piezoelectricity. Correlations between the piezoelectricity and length, weight, and volume and surface resistivity were made during the absorption of water [pt
The iliac crest of hip bone was chosen as the most suitable sampling site for several reasons: Local variation in the elemental concentration along the iliac crest is minimal; Iliac crest biopsies are commonly taken clinically on patients; The cortical part of the sample is small (∼2 mm) and can be separated easily from the trabecular bone; The use of the trabecular part of the iliac crest for trace element analysis has the advantage of reflecting rapidly changes in the composition of bone due to external parameters, including medication. Biopsy studies, although in some ways more difficult than autopsy studies, because of the need to obtain the informed consents of the subjects, are potentially more useful than autopsy studies. Thereby many problems of postmortem migration of elements can be avoided and reliable dietary and other data can be collected simultaneously. Select the subjects among the patients undergoing orthopedic surgery due to any reason other than osteoporosis. Follow an established protocol to obtain bone biopsies. Patients undergoing synergy should fill in the 'Osteoporosis Project Questionnaire Form' including information on lifestyle variables, dietary intakes, the reason for surgery etc. If possible, measure the bone mineral density (BMD) prior to removal of the biopsy sample. However it may not possible to have BMD results on all the subjects because of difficulty of DEXA measurement after an accident
Milgram, S.; Thiebault, C.; Carriere, M.; Gouget, B.; Malaval, L.
Bone is one of the main retention organs affected by uranium (U) and lead (Pb). Intoxications have been documented to inhibit bone formation and impair bone modeling and remodeling. However, only few studies dealt with cellular and molecular mechanisms of their toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute cytotoxicity of U and Pb and their phenotypic effects on ROS17/2.8 osteoblastic cells. The most likely forms of the toxics in contact with cells after blood contamination were selected for cell exposure. Results show that whatever their speciation, bone cells are always more sensitive to Pb than to U. Moreover, Pb is toxic when it is left free in the exposure medium or when it is complexed with bicarbonate, cysteine or citrate, but not with albumin or phosphate. U is more cytotoxic when it is complexed with transferrin than with bicarbonate. A direct correlation between toxicity and cellular accumulation could be observed. Beside, exposure of U or Pb to bone cells induces a speciation-dependant variation of RNA expression of two markers of bone formation and mineralization: osteocalcin (OCN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP). OCN and BSP-expression could be activated in sub-toxic condition, respectively, by Pb-albumin (1.6-fold) and U-bicarbonate (2.3-fold). In the meantime, U-transferrin and Pb-citrate lead to an inhibition of the two markers. This study shows a complex mechanism of toxicity of two heavy metals with a significant phenotypic impact on osteoblastic cells highly dependant on metal speciation which controls cell accumulation. (authors)
... no-action alternative. The factors considered in the record of decision can be found in the... specifications. The notice also serves as the record of decision for the renewal of facility [[Page 82092... final environmental impact statement (NUREG-1437, Supplement 42) may be purchased from the National...
... by the following methods: a) one or more screws inserted across the break to hold it. b) a steel plate held by screws drilled into the bone. c) a long fluted metal pin with holes in it, is driven down the shaft of the bone ...
Sugino, Kiminori; Kure, Yoshio; Suzuki, Akira; Sekino, Haruo; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Goto, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Akihiko
The bone mineral content in the patients who had undergone operation for thyroid carcinoma was measured by quantitative CT. Thirty-eight cases were enrolled as the subjects. All cases were papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. The totally thyroidectomized group consisted of 3 males and 14 females, and the non-totally thyroidectomized group (post-lobectomy) 3 males and 18 females. Thirty-eight healthy males and females were assigned to the control group. For evaluation of bone mineral content, quantitative CT was used and bone mineral content in the patient's lumbar vertebrae was measured. Concurrently, bone metabolic parameter in serum was determined. No significant difference was observed in the mean bone mineral content among the above three groups. To make correction by sex and age, BMC-index was defined as the value that the bone mineral content in each case was divided by the standard mean by the same age and sex. No significant difference was observed in BMC-index among the above three groups. No significant correlation was observed in serum calcitonin level with the bone mineral content and BMC-index. It suggests that no influence is exerted on bone metabolism if serum calcitonin is maintained in the physiological level. (author)
Attenburrow, D.P.; Bowring, C.S.; Vennart, W.
The detection of radionuclide activity in the living equine skeleton, using bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals and a hand-held radiation detector, is reported. Pathological changes in bone can be detected and subsequent development monitored. The availability and use of this diagnostic technique in equine practice is discussed
Full Text Available ... be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle ...
... fracture of the right tibia as a complication of EHE. Diagnosis was suspected on radiographs and confirmed on histology. Whole-body bone scintigraphy and CT scan of the chest were performed, which confirmed multiple bone lesions and metastases to the lungs. South African Journal of Radiology Vol. 11 (1) 2007: pp.
Full Text Available ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears ...
Ellegaard, M; JÃ¸rgensen, N R; Schwarz, P
, no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...
Moss, Mary; Roche, Jim; Biggs, Michael; Forer, Martin; Fagan, Paul; Davis, Martin
Four cases of occipital bone pneumatization and subsequent complications are described, which include a pathological fracture of C 1 and the occipital bone, spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema and pneumatocele formation. Reviews of the published literature and possible aetiological factors have been discussed Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Mari', C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio', I.
The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudofractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease
Mari' , C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio' , I. [Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelone (Spain). Serv. of Nuclear Medicine
The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudo fractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease.
Troy, Karen L; Morse, Leslie R
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a rapid loss of bone mass, resulting in severe osteoporosis and a 5- to 23-fold increase in fracture risk. Despite the seriousness of fractures in SCI, there are multiple barriers to osteoporosis diagnosis and wide variations in treatment practices for SCI-induced osteoporosis. We review the biological and structural changes that are known to occur in bone after SCI in the context of promoting future research to prevent or reduce risk of fracture in this population. We also review the most commonly used methods for assessing bone after SCI and discuss the strengths, limitations, and clinical applications of each method. Although dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments of bone mineral density may be used clinically to detect changes in bone after SCI, 3-dimensional methods such as quantitative CT analysis are recommended for research applications and are explained in detail.
Kaelebo, P.; Strid, K.G.
Aluminium was evaluated as a reference substance in the assessment of rabbit cortical bone by microradiography followed by videodensitometry. Ten dense, cortical-bone specimens from the same tibia diaphysis were microradiographed using prefiltered 27 kV roentgen radiation together with aluminium step wedges and bone simulating phantoms for calibration. Optimally exposed and processed plates were analysed by previously described computer-assisted videodensitometry. For comparison, the specimens were analysed by physico-chemical methods. A strict proportionality was found between the 'aluminium equivalent mass' and the ash weight of the specimens. The total random error was low with a coefficient of variation within 1.5 per cent. It was concluded that aluminium is an appropriate reference material in the determination of cortical bone, which it resembles in effective atomic number and thus X-ray attenuation characteristics. The 'aluminium equivalent mass' is suitably established as the standard of expressing the results of bone assessment by microradiography. (orig.)
Chin-Yi Chuo; Yin-Chih Fu; Song-Hsiung Chien; Gau-Tyan Lin; Gwo-Jaw Wang
The management of a unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration, and local injection of steroid, autogenous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to the more invasive surgical procedures of conventional curettage and grafting (with autogenous or allogenous bone) or subtotal resection with bone grafting. The best treatment for a unicameral bone cyst is yet to be identified. Better understanding of the pathology will change the concept of management. The aim of t...
Pinilla, M J; Tranquille, C A; Blunden, A S; Chang, Y M; Parkin, T D H; Murray, R C
A detailed histopathological study of the distal third metacarpal bone of Thoroughbred racehorses was undertaken to characterize lesions observed previously on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The bones were selected and grouped on the basis of MRI features. Representative sections in different planes were processed for histopathology. All lesions observed in the articular cartilage (AC) and subchondral bone (SCB) were recorded and graded with a scoring system, based partially on the Osteoarthritis Research Society International grading system. The scoring system included the severity of the lesion. Descriptive statistics and linear mixed effects models were performed. A positive correlation was observed between the severity of histopathological changes in the superficial and deeper osteochondral tissues, and between the number of race starts and AC score. Age was not correlated with AC or SCB score. A moderate variation in AC and SCB scores was observed between the groups; however, there were differences within individual bones. Bones with focal palmar necrosis (FPN) showed significant differences in the histological scoring of the AC compared with bones without FPN. Bones with incomplete fractures or larger areas of bone remodelling showed significant differences in SCB pathology when compared with bones with FPN. Haematoidin was detected in areas with excessive SCB and cancellous bone sclerosis and/or irregular bone density. This finding is suggestive of poor blood perfusion in these areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levadnyi, Ievgen; Awrejcewicz, Jan; Gubaua, José Eduardo; Pereira, Jucélio Tomás
The change in mechanical properties of femoral cortical bone tissue surrounding the stem of the hip endoprosthesis is one of the causes of implant instability. We present an analysis used to determine the best conditions for long-term functioning of the bone-implant system, which will lead to improvement of treatment results. In the present paper, a finite element method coupled with a bone remodelling model is used to evaluate how different three-dimensional prosthesis models influence distribution of the density of bone tissue. The remodelling process begins after the density field is obtained from a computed tomography scan. Then, an isotropic Stanford model is employed to solve the bone remodelling process and verify bone tissue adaptation in relation to different prosthesis models. The study results show that the long-stem models tend not to transmit loads to proximal regions of bone, which causes the stress-shielding effect. Short stems or application in the calcar region provide a favourable environment for transfer of loads to the proximal region, which allows for maintenance of bone density and, in some cases, for a positive variation, which causes absence of the aseptic loosening of an implant. In the case of hip resurfacing, bone mineral density changes slightly and is closest to an intact femur. Installation of an implant modifies density distribution and stress field in the bone. Thus, bone tissue is stimulated in a different way than before total hip replacement, which evidences Wolff's law, according to which bone tissue adapts itself to the loads imposed on it. The results suggest that potential stress shielding in the proximal femur and cortical hypertrophy in the distal femur may, in part, be reduced through the use of shorter stems, instead of long ones, provided stem fixation is adequate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hayashi, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Kichizo; Fukunaga, Masao; Ishibashi, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Kichiya; Nishii, Yasuho.
A digital image processing (DIP) method for assessing bone mass was developed on the basis of image analysis of roentgenograms. Linearity between DIP values and the actual calcium carbonate content was scarcely affected even if roentgenograms were made with bone phantoms placed in different depths of water or by altering the voltage of X-ray generation. In clinical studies, coefficients of variation (CV) for various measurements were lower than 2.4%. When the correlation between the DIP values and the bone mineral densities in the distal one-third of the radius, and the 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae were investigated in 340 females, there were good positive correlations of r=0.799, and r=0.611, respectively (p<0.001). The DIP value was significantly lower in patients showing a low Singh index and in those with vertebral fractures than in other subjects. These results suggest that the DIP method provides an index with which to assess the efficacy of treatment and which can be used as a criterion in screening for osteoporosis. (author)
Leslie, William D
Differences in bone mineral density (BMD) as assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are observed between geographic and ethnic groups, with important implications in clinical practice. PubMed was employed to identify relevant studies. A review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and integrated. The available data highlight the complex ethnic variations in BMD, which only partially account for observed variations in fracture rates. Factors contributing to ethnic differences include genetics, skeletal size, body size and composition, lifestyle, and social determinants. Despite BMD differences, the gradient of risk for fracture from BMD and other clinical risk factors appears to be similar across ethnic groups. Furthermore, BMD variation is greater within an ethnic population than between ethnic populations. New imaging technologies have identified ethnic differences in bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength that may contribute to a better understanding of ethnic differences in fracture risk. Factors associated with ethnicity affect BMD and fracture risk through direct and indirect mechanisms.
Linde, Jakob Starup
measures in patients with diabetes. This PhD thesis reports the results of two systematic reviews and a meta-analysis, a state-of-the-art intervention study, a clinical cross-sectional study and a registry-based study all examining the relationship between diabetes, glucose, and bone. Patients with type 2......Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fracture with and current fracture predictors underestimate fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, further understanding of the underlying causes of diabetic bone disease may lead to better fracture predictors and preventive...... diabetes had lower bone turnover markers compared to patients with type 1 diabetes and bone mineral density and tissue stiffness were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The bone turnover markers were inversely associated with blood glucose in patients with diabetes and both an oral glucose...
Full Text Available Abstract Anti-epileptic medications encompass a wide range of drugs including anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, enzyme inducers or inhibitors, with a variety effects, including induction of cytochrome P450 and other enzyme, which may lead to catabolism of vitamin D and hypocalcemia and other effects that may significantly effect the risk for low bone mass and fractures. With the current estimates of 50 million people worldwide with epilepsy together with the rapid increase in utilization of these medications for other indications, bone disease associated with the use of anti-epileptic medications is emerging as a serious health threat for millions of people. Nevertheless, it usually goes unrecognized and untreated. In this review we discuss the pathophysiologic mechanisms of bone disease associated with anti-epileptic use, including effect of anti-epileptic agents on bone turnover and fracture risk, highlighting various strategies for prevention of bone loss and associated fractures a rapidly increasing vulnerable population.
Bacon, G E [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)
A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.
Zhang Xuezhe; Shang Yanning; Yu Weimin; Li Yongfa; Wang Yongchun; Wang Wu
Objective: To report the bone X-ray changes in phenylketonuria. Methods: Thirty-seven cases of phenylketonuria were reported. Among the 37 cases, 25 were males and 12 were females. The age of this series ranged from 6 months to 9 years. X-ray examination of the hands, wrists, and knees and laboratory examination were performed in all cases. Results: The bone changes of the 37 cases were divided into 6 groups: no abnormal findings, osteoporosis, metaphyseal changes, special changes, the bone age method, and miscellaneous changes. Special changes included striations into the diaphysis (12 cases) and beak of the metaphyseal margin (21 cases). Conclusion: The mechanism causing the bone changes in phenylketonuria is not quite clear. The authors conclude that specific bone changes may be important X-ray signs suggestive of phenylketonuria
Fedorov, V.V.; Chantseva, E.A.
Of 259 hemophiliacs bone pseudotumors were diagnosed in 11 (4.3 %); they were localised in the femur (6 cases), calcaneus (4) and in the iliac bone (3). Two cases of combined fermoral and calcaneal lesions and 4 cases of bone fracture were observed. As a rule, pseudotumors developed in hemophiliacs with severe disease. An x-ray picture of a pseudotumor depended on its site and was characterized by a large soft tissue tumor shadow, often with calcinosis, and serious destructive changes in bones in the form or round foci of 7 cm in diameter with clear-cut contours. An adge defect of the cortical layer was defined in the diaphysis of the femoral bone (15 cm long). Destructive changes were often accompanied by osteosclerosis and periostitis
Forrer, Flavio; Krenning, Eric P.; Kooij, Peter P.; Bernard, Bert F.; Bakker, Willem H.; Teunissen, Jaap J.M.; Jong, Marion de; Kwekkeboom, Dik J.; Konijnenberg, Mark; Lom, Kirsten van; Herder, Wouter W. de
Adequate dosimetry is mandatory for effective and safe peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Besides the kidneys, the bone marrow is a potentially dose-limiting organ. The radiation dose to the bone marrow is usually calculated according to the MIRD scheme, where the accumulated activity in the bone marrow is calculated from the accumulated radioactivity of the radiopharmaceutical in the blood. This may underestimate the absorbed dose since stem cells express somatostatin receptors. We verified the blood-based method by comparing the activity in the blood with the radioactivity in bone marrow aspirates. Also, we evaluated the absorbed cross-dose from the source organs (liver, spleen, kidneys and blood), tumours and the so-called ''remainder of the body'' to the bone marrow. Bone marrow aspirates were drawn in 15 patients after treatment with [ 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate. Radioactivity in the bone marrow was compared with radioactivity in the blood drawn simultaneously. The nucleated cell fraction was isolated from the bone marrow aspirate and radioactivity was measured. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow was calculated. The results were correlated to the change in platelet counts 6 weeks after treatment. A strong linear correlation and high agreement between the measured radioactivities in the bone marrow aspirates and in the blood was found (r=0.914, p 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate, the radioactivity concentration in the bone marrow is identical to that in the blood; (2) There is no significant binding of the radiopharmaceutical to bone marrow precursor stem cells; (3) The contribution of the cross dose from source organs and tumours to the bone marrow dose is significant; and (4) There is considerable variation in bone marrow absorbed dose between patients. These findings imply that for individual dose optimization, individual calculation of the bone marrow absorbed dose is necessary. (orig.)
Park, Il-Hyung; Micic, Ivan Dragoljub; Jeon, In-Ho
The treatment of unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration and local injection of steroid, autologous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to curettage and open bone-grafting. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of demineralized bone powder with autogenous bone marrow in management of calcaneal cysts. Twenty-three calcaneal unicameral cysts in 20 patients were treated. Lyophilized irradiated chip allogeneic bone (CAB) and autogenous bone marrow were used for treatment of 13 cysts in 11 patients, and 10 cysts in 9 patients were treated with percutaneous injection of irradiated allogeneic demineralized bone powder (DBP) and autogenous bone marrow. There were 11 males and 9 female patients with mean age of 17 years. The patients were followed for an average of 49.4 months. Complete healing was achieved in 9 cysts treated with chip allogeneic bone and in 5 cysts treated with powdered bone. Four cysts treated with CAB and 3 cysts treated with DBP healed with a defect. Two cysts treated with powdered bone and autogenous bone marrow were classified as persistent. No infections or pathological fractures were observed during the followup period. Percutaneous injection of a mixture of allogeneic bone powder with autogenous bone marrow is a minimal invasive method and could be an effective alternative in the treatment of unicameral calcaneal bone cysts. The postoperative morbidity was low, the hospital stay was brief, and patient's comfort for unrestricted activity was enhanced.
Higgs, Nicholas D; Little, Crispin T S; Glover, Adrian G
Whales are unique among vertebrates because of the enormous oil reserves held in their soft tissue and bone. These 'biofuel' stores have been used by humans from prehistoric times to more recent industrial-scale whaling. Deep-sea biologists have now discovered that the oily bones of dead whales on the seabed are also used by specialist and generalist scavenging communities, including many unique organisms recently described as new to science. In the context of both cetacean and deep-sea invertebrate biology, we review scientific knowledge on the oil content of bone from several of the great whale species: Balaenoptera musculus, Balaenoptera physalus, Balaenoptera borealis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Eschrichtius robustus, Physeter macrocephalus and the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba. We show that data collected by scientists over 50 years ago during the heyday of industrial whaling explain several interesting phenomena with regard to the decay of whale remains. Variations in the lipid content of bones from different parts of a whale correspond closely with recently observed differences in the taphonomy of deep-sea whale carcasses and observed biases in the frequency of whale bones at archaeological sites.
Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben
Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...
Studies of the bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis are essential, because the associated bone loss is inevitably due to the relative increase of bone resorption compared with bone formation. Measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC) in normal adults is assessed - partly on the uncorrected values and partly in proportion to the body muscle mass. The whole body retention (WBR) method is presented. The WBR and alternative urinary excretion (UE) methods used by the author are characterised and compared with the retention methods described in the literature. The representativity of WBR and UE for the estimation of bone turnover in normal subjects and patients with various bone metabolic diseases is discussed. The conclusion is that the modified retention methods used by the author have a satisfactory precision and accuracy in relation to the clinical studies carried out. The author's modification of the WBR method for determination of bone turnover and the alternative urinary excretion method (UE) consists in continuous scanning in the whole body count, using a gamma camera, and with the collimator a short distance from the volunteer. This procedure has the advantage of restricting the radioactive dose to 2 mCi (72 MBa). This is smaller by a factor of 5-10 than the dose used to measure WBR with equally simple counting equipment: With the author's procedure, using frontal counting, WBR is systematically underestimated by about 4 per cent point compared to the purely dorsal count, but since the frontal position is the most comfortable, requires a smaller radioactive dose, and the error is systematic, it is the preferred counting procedure. Correction of WBR and UE for bone mineral content is in principle a new parameter of bone turnover, whose improved accuracy increases the validity of the retention determinations. 136 refs. (EG)
Van Mechelen, Margot; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; de Vlam, Kurt; Lories, Rik
Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory skeletal disorder with an important burden of disease, affecting the spine and sacroiliac joints and typically presenting in young adults. Ankylosing spondylitis, diagnosed by the presence of structural changes to the skeleton, is the prototype of this disease group. Bone disease in axial spondyloarthritis is a complex phenomenon with the coexistence of bone loss and new bone formation, both contributing to the morbidity of the disease, in addition to pain caused by inflammation. The skeletal structural changes respectively lead to increased fracture risk and to permanent disability caused by ankylosis of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. The mechanism of this new bone formation leading to ankylosis is insufficiently known. The process appears to originate from entheses, specialized structures that provide a transition zone in which tendon and ligaments insert into the underlying bone. Growth factor signaling pathways such as bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnts, and Hedgehogs have been identified as molecular drivers of new bone formation, but the relationship between inflammation and activation of these pathways remains debated. Long-standing control of inflammation appears necessary to avoid ankylosis. Recent evidence and concepts suggest an important role for biomechanical factors in both the onset and progression of the disease. With regard to new bone formation, these processes can be understood as ectopic repair responses secondary to inflammation-induced bone loss and instability. In this review, we discuss the clinical implications of the skeletal changes as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, the relation between inflammation and new bone formation, and the potential role of biomechanical stress.
Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.
L. Dalle Carbonare
Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.
Hoeiseth, A.; Alho, A.; Husby, T.; Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo
A method for assessing values related to bone density and mass is described. Mean attenuation and pixel area are measured in pixels selected on the basis of CT units. The method is to a large extent computerized and not dependent on manual positioning or outlining of a region of interest. Because it is not dependent on a comparatively large volume of homogeneous bone it can be used to make assessments even in very heterogeneous bones including cortical bone. The method is adaptable for measurement in all parts of the skeleton and values related to both bone density (DRV) and bone mass (MRV) are derived. The measurements in the femoral condyles were shown to have a precision of approximately 0.25 to 0.30 Z-score units (standard deviation of the measurements expressed in Z-score units). The agreement between chemically analyzed calcium density (weight of calcium per volume) and DRV was little less than 0.50 Z-scores and 0.30 Z-scores for the chemically determined calcium mass and the MRV. The agreement with mechanical bone strength was 0.78 Z-scores for DRV and 0.64 for the MRV. Altering scan parameters or measuring approaches gave systematic differences in the measurements. There were, however, good linear correlations between the measurements which show that these different measuring approaches essentially gave identical measurements. (orig.)
Park, Won Kyl; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duk
This study was performed to compare the bone mineral densities measured at mandibular premolar area by copper-equivalent image and hydroxyapatite phantom with those measured at radius by dual energy absorptiometry and to evaluate the clinical usefulness of Digital system with slide scanner, copper-equivalent image, and hydroxyapatite phantom. For experiment, intraoral radiograms of 15 normal subjects ranged from 20 years old to 67 old were taken with copper-step wedge at mandibular premolar area and bone mineral densities calculated by conversion equation to bone mineral density of hydroxyapatite were compared with those measured at radius distal 1/3 area by Hologic QDR-1000. Obtained results as follows: 1) The conversion equation was Y=5.97X-0.25 and its determination coefficient was 0.9967. The coefficient of variation in the measurement of copper-equivalent value ranged from 4% to 8% and showed high reproducibility. 2) The coefficient of variation in the measurement of bone mineral density by the equation ranged from 7% to 8% and showed high reproducibility. 3) The bone mineral densities ranged from 0.35 to 0.79 g/cm 2 at mandibular premolar area. 4) The correlation coefficient between bone mineral densities at mandibular premolar area and those at radius distal 1/3 area was 0.8965. As summary, digital image analyzing system using copper-equivalent image and hydroxyapatite phantom appeared to be clinically useful to measure the bone mineral density at dental area.
Khandaker, Morshed; Ekwaro-Osire, Stephen
The fracture toughness, K IC, of a cortical bone has been experimentally determined by several researchers. The variation of K IC values occurs from the variation of specimen orientation, shape, and size during the experiment. The fracture toughness of a cortical bone is governed by the severest flaw and, hence, may be analyzed using Weibull statistics. To the best of the authors' knowledge, however, no studies of this aspect have been published. The motivation of the study is the evaluation of Weibull parameters at the circumferential-longitudinal (CL) and longitudinal-circumferential (LC) directions. We hypothesized that Weibull parameters vary depending on the bone microstructure. In the present work, a two-parameter Weibull statistical model was applied to calculate the plane-strain fracture toughness of bovine femoral cortical bone obtained using specimens extracted from CL and LC directions of the bone. It was found that the Weibull modulus of fracture toughness was larger for CL specimens compared to LC specimens, but the opposite trend was seen for the characteristic fracture toughness. The reason for these trends is the microstructural and extrinsic toughening mechanism differences between CL and LC directions bone. The Weibull parameters found in this study can be applied to develop a damage-mechanics model for bone.
Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.
Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.
Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.
Li, De-Qiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Pei-Lai; Zhang, Yuan-Kai; Lu, Jian-Xi; Li, Jian-Min
Vascularization of tissue-engineered bones is critical to achieving satisfactory repair of bone defects. The authors investigated the use of prevascularized tissue-engineered bone for repairing bone defects. The new bone was greater in the prevascularized group than in the non-vascularized group, indicating that prevascularized tissue-engineered bone improves the repair of bone defects. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(10):685-690.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Mishra, Anil Kumar; Vikas, Rohit; Agrawal, H S
Allogenic bone banking provide both structural and granular bone grafts for various orthopaedic, spinal, oncological and dental surgeries. However allogenic bones, presently, are not readily available. This article discusses the clinical applications of the allogenic grafts, the screening criteria and procedure for maintenance of such a bone banking facility. This article demonstrates the effective role of allogenic bone in a case of post-traumatic bone loss situation and discusses the growing need and present situation of bone banking in our country.
Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J
Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne
Purpose of review Anorexia nervosa is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), concerning for an increased risk of fractures, and decreased bone accrual in adolescents, concerning for suboptimal peak bone mass. This review discusses causes of impaired bone health in anorexia nervosa and potential therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Low BMD in anorexia nervosa is consequent to decreased lean mass, hypogonadism, low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia and alterations in hormones impacted by energy availability. Weight gain causes some improvement in bone accrual, but not to the extent observed in controls, and vitamin D supplementation does not increase BMD. Oral estrogen is not effective in increasing BMD, likely from IGF-1 suppressive effects. In contrast, transdermal estrogen replacement is effective in increasing bone accrual in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, although not to the extent seen in controls. Recombinant human IGF-1 increases bone formation in adolescents, and with oral estrogen increases BMD in adults with anorexia nervosa. Bisphosphonates increase BMD in adults, but not in adolescents, and should be used cautiously given their long half-life. Summary Further investigation is necessary to explore therapies for low BMD in anorexia nervosa. Weight gain is to be encouraged. Transdermal estrogen in adolescents, and bisphosphonates in adults, have a potential therapeutic role. PMID:21897220
Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret
The Ca/P ratio of normal cortical and trabecular rat bone was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Semiquantitative analysis was carried out using ratio techniques to draw conclusions on how age, sex and bone site affect the relative composition of calcium and phosphorus. Results show that Ca/P ratio is not sex dependent; quite the opposite, bone sites exhibit variations in elemental stoichiometry where femoral sections demonstrate higher Ca/P ratio than rear and front tibias. Age-related changes are more distinct for cortical bone in comparison with the trabecular bone. The latter's Ca/P ratio remains unaffected from all the parameters under study. This study confirms that AES is able to successfully quantify bone mineral main elements when certain critical points, related to the experimental conditions, are addressed effectively.
Lee, Soo Jin; Lee, Wom Woo; Kim, Sang Eun
Na1 8F bone positron emission tomography (bone PET) is a new imaging modality which is useful for the evaluation of bone diseases. Here, we compared the diagnostic accuracies between bone PET and bone scan for the detection of bone metastasis (BM). Sixteen cancer patients (M:F = 10:6, mean age = 60 ± 12 years) who underwent both bone PET and bone scan were analyzed. Bone PET was conducted 30 minutes after the injection of 370 MBq Na1 8F , and a bone scan was performed 3 hours after the injection of 1295 MBq 9 9mT c-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. In the patient-based analysis (8 patients with BM and 8 without BM), the sensitivities of bone PET (100% 8/8) and bone scan (87.5% = 7/8) were not significantly different (p > 0.05), whereas the specificity of bone PET (87.5% = 7/8) was significantly greater than that of the bone scan (25% = 2/8) (p 8F bone PET is more accurate than bone scan for BM evaluation.
Amit K Chowhan
Full Text Available The myxoid variant of chondrosarcoma is usually seen in soft tissues where it is known as chordoid sarcoma or parachordoma. Rarely, it involves bone and when it does, cranial bones are the preferred location. This tumor is frequently amalgamated with the chondroid variant of chordoma, especially when the lesion occurs in the sphenoid bone/spheno-occipital region, because of their similar clinical presentations, anatomical locations, radiological findings, and mistaken histopathological features. It is essential to distinguish myxoid chondrosarcoma from the chondroid variant of chordoma, because of the different treatment protocol and prognostic importance. We present such a location-based diagnostic dilemma, solved successfully with ancillary immunohistochemistry.
Balzeau, Antoine; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique
The external morphological features of the temporal bone are used frequently to determine taxonomic affinities of fossils of the genus Homo. Temporal bone pneumatization has been widely studied in great apes and in early hominids. However, this feature is rarely examined in the later hominids, particularly in Asian Homo erectus. We provide a comparative morphological and quantitative analysis of Asian Homo erectus from the sites of Ngandong, Sambungmacan, and Zhoukoudian, and of Neandertals and anatomically modern Homo sapiens in order to discuss causes and modalities of temporal bone pneumatization during hominid evolution. The evolution of temporal bone pneumatization in the genus Homo is more complex than previously described. Indeed, the Zhoukoudian fossils have a unique pattern of temporal bone pneumatization, whereas Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossils, as well as the Neandertals, more closely resemble the modern human pattern. Moreover, these Chinese fossils are characterized by a wide midvault and a relatively narrow occipital bone. Our results support the point of view that cell development does not play an active role in determining cranial base morphology. Instead, pneumatization is related to available space and to temporal bone morphology, and its development is related to correlated morphology and the relative disposition of the bones and cerebral lobes. Because variation in pneumatization is extensive within the same species, the phyletic implications of pneumatization are limited in the taxa considered here.
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM and osteoporosis (OP are common disorders with a significant health burden, and an increase in fracture risk has been described both in type 1 (T1DM and in type 2 (T2DM diabetes. The pathogenic mechanisms of impaired skeletal strength in diabetes remain to be clarified in details and they are only in part reflected by a variation in bone mineral density (BMD. In T2DM, the occurrence of low bone turnover together with a decreased osteoblast activity and compromised bone quality has been shown. Of note, some antidiabetic drugs (e.g. tiazolidinediones, insulin may deeply affect bone metabolism. In addition, the recently introduced class of incretin-based drugs (i.e. GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors is expected to exert potentially beneficial effects on bone health, possibly due to a bone anabolic activity of GLP-1, that can be either direct or indirect through the involvement of thyroid C cells.Here we will review the established as well as the putative effects of incretin hormones and of incretin-based drugs on bone metabolism, both in preclinical models and in man, taking into account that such therapeutic strategy may be effective not only to achieve a good glycemic control, but also to improve bone health in diabetic patients.
Lewandowski, Beth; Myers, Jerry; Sibonga, Jean Diane
environmental factors, factors associated with the fall event, mass and anthropometric values of the astronaut, BMD characteristics, characteristics of the relationship between BMD and bone strength and bone fracture characteristics. The uncertainty in these factors is captured through the use of parameter distributions and the fracture predictions are probability distributions with a mean value and an associated uncertainty. To determine parameter sensitivity, a correlation coefficient is found between the sample set of each model parameter and the calculated fracture probabilities. Each parameters contribution to the variance is found by squaring the correlation coefficients, dividing by the sum of the squared correlation coefficients, and multiplying by 100. Results: Sensitivity analyses of BFxRM simulations of preflight, 0 days post-flight and 365 days post-flight falls onto the hip revealed a subset of the twelve factors within the model which cause the most variation in the fracture predictions. These factors include the spring constant used in the hip biomechanical model, the midpoint FRI parameter within the equation used to convert FRI to fracture probability and preflight BMD values. Future work: Plans are underway to update the BFxRM by incorporating bone strength information from finite element models (FEM) into the bone strength portion of the BFxRM. Also, FEM bone strength information along with fracture outcome data will be incorporated into the FRI to fracture probability.
Sowoidnich, Kay; Churchwell, John H.; Buckley, Kevin; Kerns, Jemma G.; Goodship, Allen E.; Parker, Anthony W.; Matousek, Pavel
Bone diseases and disorders are a growing challenge in aging populations; so effective diagnostic and therapeutic solutions are now essential to manage the demands of healthcare sectors effectively. Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) allows for chemically specific sub-surface probing and has a great potential to become an in vivo tool for early non-invasive detection of bone conditions. Bone is a complex hierarchical material and the volume probed by SORS is dependent on its optical properties. Understanding and taking into account the variations in diffuse scattering properties of light in various bone types is essential for the effective development and optimization of SORS as a diagnostic in vivo tool for characterizing bone disease. This study presents SORS investigations at 830 nm excitation on two specific types of bone with differing mineralization levels. Thin slices of bone from horse metacarpal cortex (0.6 mm thick) and whale bulla (1.0 mm thick) were cut and stacked on top of each other (4-7 layers with a total thickness of 4.1 mm). To investigate the depth origin of the detected Raman signal inside the bone a 0.38 mm thin Teflon slice was used as test sample and inserted in between the layers of stacked bone slices. For both types of bone it could be demonstrated that chemically specific Raman signatures different from those of normal bone can be retrieved through 3.8-4.0 mm of overlying bone material with a spatial offset of 7-8 mm. The determined penetration depths can be correlated with the mechanical and optical properties of the specimens. The findings of this study increase our understanding of SORS analysis of bone and thus have impact for medical diagnostic applications e.g. enabling the non-invasive detection of spectral changes caused by degeneration, infection or cancer deep inside the bone matrix.
Kumano, Machiko; Tamura, Kenji; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Kajita, Akiyoshi
Dynamic bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was performed on 96 patients with various bone diseases. The dynamic scintigrams obtained were then used to aid in the differential diagnosis of malignant (49 cases) and benign (8 cases) diseases. Short-term local deposition of the tracer in all cases of malignant bone diseases was observed in vascular (10-40 sec. after injection), and blood pool (1-3 min. after injection) phases. In the cases of malignant bone tumors where osteosclerotic lesions were present, tracer accumulation appeared in the blood pool phase. If osteolytic lesions were present, accumulation appeared in the vascular phase, and when the lesion was larger than 2 cm, accumulation was frequently found in the arterial phase. Scintigraphic differentiation of early primary and metastatic bone tumors from other lesions was facilitated by performing the dynamic scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP. Dynamic bone scintigraphy also allowed early diagnosis of avascular necrosis (14 cases) prior to the appearance of minimally abnormal X-ray findings, especially in cases of corticosteroid-induced necrosis.
Full Text Available Various forms of bony deformations and dysplasias are often present in the facial skeleton. Bone defects can be either localized or general. Quite often they are not only present in the skull but also can be found in other parts of the skeleton. In many cases the presence and levels of specific bone markers should be measured in order to fully describe their activity and presence in the skeleton. Fibrous dysplasia (FD is the most common one in the facial skeleton; however, other bone deformations regarding bone growth and activity can also be present. Every clinician should be aware of all common, rare and uncommon bony diseases and conditions such as cherubism, Paget’s disease, osteogenesis imperfecta and others related to genetic conditions. We present standard (calcium, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and specialized bone markers (pyridinium, deoxypyridinium, hydroxyproline, RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway, growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone-1 that can be used to evaluate, measure or describe the processes occurring in craniofacial bones.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics. Description The Ensembl project provides comprehensive and integrated variation resources for a wide variety of chordate genomes. This paper provides a detailed description of the sources of data and the methods for creating the Ensembl variation databases. It also explores the utility of the information by explaining the range of query options available, from using interactive web displays, to online data mining tools and connecting directly to the data servers programmatically. It gives a good overview of the variation resources and future plans for expanding the variation data within Ensembl. Conclusions Variation data is an important key to understanding the functional and phenotypic differences between individuals. The development of new sequencing and genotyping technologies is greatly increasing the amount of variation data known for almost all genomes. The Ensembl variation resources are integrated into the Ensembl genome browser and provide a comprehensive way to access this data in the context of a widely used genome bioinformatics system. All Ensembl data is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org and from the public MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org.
Full Text Available Periodontal treatment by conventional way will result in healing repair, which easily cause recurrence. Modification of treatment should be done to get an effective result, that is the regeneration of alveolar bone and to reduce inflammation. The objective of this study is to determine the alveolar bone regeneration after using DFDBA (Demineralized Freeze Dried Bone Allograft. Quasi experimental designs with pre and post test method was used in this study. From 13 patients, 26 defects got conventional or regenerative treatment. The indicator of alveolar bone regenaration in bone height in radiographic appearance and level of osteocalsin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF were checked before and after the treatment, then the changes that occurred were analyzed. The result of the research showed that alveolar bone regeneration only occurred to the group of regenerative treatment using DFDBA. The conclusion is the effective periodontal tissue regeneration occurred at regenerative treatment by using DFDBA, and the osteocalsin in GCF can be used as indicator of bone growth.
WANG Xian-gang; ZHANG Chao-zong; GUO Zhi-ping; TIAN Jie-mo
@@ In the recent years, bioceramic materials have been widely used in the clinics. They are mainly fabricated as the substitution of human hard tissue, such as artificial bone and false tooth. As a medical implant, those that have similar structure to human bone have better biocompatibility and osteoinductional property. So it is necessary to design bone model close to human bone.
Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.
Wassberg, Cecilia; Lubberink, Mark; Sörensen, Jens; Johansson, Silvia
18F-fluoride PET/CT exhibits high sensitivity to delineate and measure the extent of bone metastatic disease in patients with prostate cancer. 18F-fluoride PET/CT could potentially replace traditional bone scintigraphy in clinical routine and trials. However, more studies are needed to assess repeatability and biological uptake variation. The aim of this study was to perform test-retest analysis of quantitative PET-derived parameters and blood/serum bone turnover markers at the same time point. Ten patients with prostate cancer and verified bone metastases were prospectively included. All underwent two serial 18F-fluoride PET/CT at 1 h post-injection. Up to five dominant index lesions and whole-body 18F-fluoride skeletal tumour burden were recorded per patient. Lesion-based PET parameters were SUVmax, SUVmean and functional tumour volume applying a VOI with 50% threshold (FTV 50% ). The total skeletal tumour burden, total lesion 18F-fluoride (TLF), was calculated using a threshold of SUV of ≥15. Blood/serum biochemical bone turnover markers obtained at the time of each PET were PSA, ALP, S-osteocalcin, S-beta-CTx, 1CTP and BAP. A total of 47 index lesions and a range of 2-122 bone metastases per patient were evaluated. Median time between 18F-fluoride PET/CT was 7 days (range 6-8 days). Repeatability coefficients were for SUVmax 26%, SUVmean 24%, FTV 50% for index lesions 23% and total skeletal tumour burden (TLF) 35%. Biochemical bone marker repeatability coefficients were for PSA 19%, ALP 23%, S-osteocalcin 18%, S-beta-CTx 22%, 1CTP 18% and BAP 23%. Quantitative 18F-fluoride uptake and simultaneous biochemical bone markers measurements are reproducible for prostate cancer metastases and show similar magnitude in test-retest variation.
A dual energy subtraction system was constructed on an experimental basis for the quantitative image of bone mineral content. The system consists of a radiographing system and an image processor. Two radiograms were taken with dual x-ray energy in a single exposure using an x-ray beam dichromized by a tin filter. In this system, a film cassette was used where a low speed film-screen system, a copper filter and a high speed film-screen system were layered on top of each other. The images were read by a microdensitometer and processed by a personal computer. The image processing included the corrections of the film characteristics and heterogeneity in the x-ray field, and the dual energy subtraction in which the effect of the high energy component of the dichromized beam on the tube side image was corrected. In order to determine the accuracy of the system, experiments using wedge phantoms made of mixtures of epoxy resin and bone mineral-equivalent materials in various fractions were performed for various tube potentials and film processing conditions. The results indicated that the relative precision of the system was within ±4% and that the propagation of the film noise was within ±11 mg/cm 2 for the 0.2 mm pixels. The results also indicated that the system response was independent of the tube potential and the film processing condition. The bone mineral weight in each phalanx of the freshly dissected hand of a rhesus monkey was measured by this system and compared with the ash weight. The results showed an error of ±10%, slightly larger than that of phantom experiments, which is probably due to the effect of fat and the variation of focus-object distance. The air kerma in free air at the object was approximately 0.5 mGy for one exposure. The results indicate that this system is applicable to clinical use and provides useful information for evaluating a time-course of localized bone disease. (author)
Full Text Available Grasping is one of a few adaptive mechanisms that, in conjunction with clinging, hooking, arm swinging, adhering, and flying, allowed for incursion into the arboreal eco-space. Little research has been done that addresses grasping as an enhanced manual ability in non-mammalian tetrapods, with the exception of studies comparing the anatomy of muscle and tendon structure. Previous studies showed that grasping abilities allow exploitation for narrow branch habitats and that this adaptation has clear osteological consequences. The objective of this work is to ascertain the existence of morphometric descriptors in the hand skeleton of lizards related to grasping functionality. A morphological matrix was constructed using 51 morphometric variables in 278 specimens, from 24 genera and 13 families of Squamata. To reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to organize the original variables into a simpler system, three PCAs (Principal Component Analyses were performed using the subsets of (1 carpal variables, (2 metacarpal variables, and (3 phalanges variables. The variables that demonstrated the most significant contributions to the construction of the PCA synthetic variables were then used in subsequent analyses. To explore which morphological variables better explain the variations in the functional setting, we ran Generalized Linear Models for the three different sets. This method allows us to model the morphology that enables a particular functional trait. Grasping was considered the only response variable, taking the value of 0 or 1, while the original variables retained by the PCAs were considered predictor variables. Our analyses yielded six variables associated with grasping abilities: two belong to the carpal bones, two belong to the metacarpals and two belong to the phalanges. Grasping in lizards can be performed with hands exhibiting at least two different independently originated combinations of bones. The first is a combination of a highly
Meijer, Wilhelmus; van der Veer, E; Willemse, P H
The role of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in the diagnosis and monitoring of bone metastases in solid tumors is reviewed. Emphasis is on the recently developed markers, which may provide a more accurate quantitation of bone metabolism. In metastatic bone disease, bone formation and
Conte, Caterina; Epstein, Solomon; Napoli, Nicola
Despite a clear association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and fracture risk, the pathogenesis of bone fragility in T2D has not been clearly elucidated. Insulin resistance is the primary defect in T2D. Insulin signalling regulates both bone formation and bone resorption, but whether insulin resistance can affect bone has not been established. On the other hand, evidence exists that bone might play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. This article reviews the available experimental and clinical evidence on the interplay between bone and insulin resistance. Interestingly, a bilateral relationship between bone and insulin resistance seems to exist that unites them in a biological partnership.
Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha
Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone...... diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage...
Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia
Björkström, S; Goldie, I F
The hardness of bone is its property of withstanding the impact of a penetrating agent. It has been found that articular degenerative changes in, for example, the tibia (knee) are combined with a decrease in the hardness of the subchondral bone. In this investigation the hardness of subchondral bone in chondromalacia and osteoarthrosis of the patella has been analysed and compared with normal subchondral bone. Using an indentation method originally described by Brinell the hardness of the subchondral bone was evaluated in 7 normal patellae, in 20 with chondromalacia and in 33 with osteoarthrosis. A microscopic and microradiographic study of the subchondral bone was carried out simultaneously. Hardness was lowest in the normal material. The mean hardness value beneath the degenerated cartilage differed only slightly from that of the normal material, but the variation of values was increased. The hardness in bone in the chondromalacia area was lower than the hardness in bone covered by surrounding normal cartilage. The mean hardness value in bone beneath normal parts of cartilage in specimens with chondromalacia was higher than the mean hardness value of the normal material. In the microscopic and microradiographic examination it became evident that there was a relationship between trabecular structure and subchondral bone hardness; high values: coarse and solid structure; low values: slender and less regular structure.
Zhang, Chi; Winnard, Paul T; Dasari, Sidarth; Kominsky, Scott L; Doucet, Michele; Jayaraman, Swaathi; Raman, Venu; Barman, Ishan
Breast neoplasms frequently colonize bone and induce development of osteolytic bone lesions by disrupting the homeostasis of the bone microenvironment. This degenerative process can lead to bone pain and pathological bone fracture, a major cause of cancer morbidity and diminished quality of life, which is exacerbated by our limited ability to monitor early metastatic disease in bone and assess fracture risk. Spurred by its label-free, real-time nature and its exquisite molecular specificity, we employed spontaneous Raman spectroscopy to assess and quantify early metastasis driven biochemical alterations to bone composition. As early as two weeks after intracardiac inoculations of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in NOD-SCID mice, Raman spectroscopic measurements in the femur and spine revealed consistent changes in carbonate substitution, overall mineralization as well as crystallinity increase in tumor-bearing bones when compared with their normal counterparts. Our observations reveal the possibility of early stage detection of biochemical changes in the tumor-bearing bones - significantly before morphological variations are captured through radiographic diagnosis. This study paves the way for a better molecular understanding of altered bone remodeling in such metastatic niches, and for further clinical studies with the goal of establishing a non-invasive tool for early metastasis detection and prediction of pathological fracture risk in breast cancer.
Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A
Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.
... Bone Mass in Women Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women (繁體中文) Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis ...