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Sample records for variation affect buying

  1. Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L Emilio; Griffith, Garry; Wright, Victor; Fleming, Euan; Umberger, Wendy; Hoang, Nam

    2013-06-01

    Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers' uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors Affecting Buying Behavior of an Apartment an Empirical Investigation in Amman, Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mwfeq Haddad; Mahfuz Judeh and Shafig Haddad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the main factors that influencing the customers' buying behavior toward apartment, and tried to identify the most influencing factors that affect buying. A convenience sample consists of 120 persons who already bought an apartment in different areas in Amman. One sample ttest, independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used in testing the hypotheses. This study found that respondents would significantly adopt the main constructs when buying...

  3. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That May Affect Female Consumers’ Buying Decision of Nail Polishes

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Chen; Adhikari, Koushik; Koppel, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine what factors female consumers valued more when they buy nail polish. Ninety-eight female consumers participated in a nail polish consumer study at the Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University. A questionnaire containing a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question, behavior questions and demographic questions was presented to each consumer. In the CATA question, the factors that may affect consumers’ decision to buy a nail polish were asked, incl...

  4. To buy or not buy? A review of affective priming in purchase decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mograbi GJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel JC Mograbi,1 Daniel C Mograbi21Department of Philosophy, UFMT – Federal University of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UKAbstract: The current paradigm of neuroeconomics goes beyond merely axiomatic models and contemplates the influence of psychological factors on economic decisions. Under this framework, the main aim of the current review is to address the influence of affective priming in purchase decision. For this purpose, we first summarize the affective priming literature, followed by a section concentrating on purchase-decision studies that show that this phenomenon is value-driven, going beyond the emotionless calculation of traditional utility models in microeconomics. Finally, both themes are connected by reviewing the available experiments investigating affective priming effects on economic and purchase decision. We discuss these findings within a framework that considers that humans, as biological entities, attribute salience to hedonic information, highlighting the value-driven nature of decision-making, especially purchase decisions.Keywords: affective priming, decision-making, purchase decision, prospective theory

  5. To buy or not buy? A review of affective priming in purchase decision

    OpenAIRE

    Mograbi, Gabriel; Mograbi,Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    Gabriel JC Mograbi,1 Daniel C Mograbi21Department of Philosophy, UFMT – Federal University of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UKAbstract: The current paradigm of neuroeconomics goes beyond merely axiomatic models and contemplates the influence of psychological factors on economic decisions. Under this framework, the main aim of the current review is to address the influence of affective prim...

  6. What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors affecting impulse buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Siahkali Moradi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play important roles in purchasing impulse. The personal item includes different factors where demographic characteristic factors receive the highest ranking (35% followed by other factors are feelings, excitement and fun, self identify, education and novelty. There are also three sub-factors associated with demographic characteristics including gender, age and race and the weights are 0.46748, 0.42668 and 0.10584, respectively, which means gender is the most important factor followed by age and race. Finally, the other factor is associated with situational factors' group, which includes presence of others, culture, design of store, time available, local market condition, sales staff and self service with the relative importance of 0.04296, 0.08733, 0.12130, 0.22217, 0.05643, 0.15346 and 0.31635, respectively.

  7. A STUDY ON FACTORS AFFECTING BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF CONSUMERS FOR ECO - FRIENDLY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Anil Kumar; Dr. Mridanish Jha

    2017-01-01

    Products are not the only thing which can be eco-friendly and actions are also friendly to the environment. Several people think that eco-friendly products are only the first step, and that people who are actually dedicated to the environment also need to change their lifestyles, diminishing the quantum of resources they use by living more competently. The exploratory factor analysis shows that price, quality, value, trust and easy to use are the factors that affecting buying behaviour of con...

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That May Affect Female Consumers’ Buying Decision of Nail Polishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine what factors female consumers valued more when they buy nail polish. Ninety-eight female consumers participated in a nail polish consumer study at the Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University. A questionnaire containing a check-all-that-apply (CATA question, behavior questions and demographic questions was presented to each consumer. In the CATA question, the factors that may affect consumers’ decision to buy a nail polish were asked, including both sensory and non-sensory factors. The frequency in percent for the factors was calculated. Sensory appeal, price and convenience of usage were the top factors that affected consumers’ buying decisions. Consumers valued sensory appeal and convenience of usage; this suggested that a nail polish company’s product development and advertising departments may want to focus on these two areas, primarily. The information presented in this study could help a nail polish company understand more about consumer segmentation and advertising strategy.

  9. Does positive framing matter? An investigation of how framing affects consumers’ willingness to buy green electricity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Ren, Jingzheng

    2018-01-01

    We investigate how framing affect consumers’ willingness to buy green electricity using a contingent valuation method. A sample of 1022 respondents was divided into two nearly equal sized sub-samples chosen from an Internet panel. One subsample received a positively framed version of the question...

  10. How group-buying servicescape affect consumers’ purchase intention, the regulating effects of price discount and time pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lingying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs a conceptual model of how group-buying servicescape affect consumers’ purchase intention and discusses the regulating effects of price discount and time pressure. This research uses a survey approach to collect data, as a result, we collected 506 valid questionnaires. The results show that aesthetic appeal, information exchange, interpersonal interaction and perceived security have a positive effect on positive emotion; layout and functionality, information exchange and interpersonal interaction have a positive effect on virtual touch. Positive emotion and virtual touch can promote the consumer’s purchase intention, and time pressure and price discount play a regulatory function. The results of this study have an important reference value for group-buying operators to use servicescape to attract and retain consumers.

  11. Factors Affecting Online Impulse Buying: Evidence from Chinese Social Commerce Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Akram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available First, the purpose of this study is to examine the impact of situational variables, scarcity and serendipity, on online impulse buying (OIB in Chinese social commerce (SC environment. Second, the study further assesses the moderating role of five dimensions of hedonic shopping value. Data were gathered from 671 online shoppers who come from two metropolitan cities of China, Beijing, and Shanghai. Structure equation modeling utilized was generated by AMOS 23 version to test the study hypotheses. The results confirm that situational factors positively influence the online impulse buying among Chinese online shoppers in SC environment. Four dimensions of hedonic shopping value (social shopping, relaxation shopping, adventure shopping and idea shopping positively moderate the relationship between serendipity and OIB; value shopping is insignificant with moderation effect. The finding is helpful to the online retailers and SC web developers by recommending them to take the scarcity and serendipity in their consideration. These factors have the potential to motivate the consumers to initiate the hedonic shopping aptitude to urge to buy impulsively. Unlike the previous work which remained unsuccessful in incorporating all factors into one study, this study has incorporated irrational and unplanned consumption along with rational and planned one in the same research.

  12. Compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Weinstein, Aviv

    2010-09-01

    Compulsive buying is a chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative events and feelings, and may include symptoms equivalent to craving and withdrawal. This article describes the addictive characteristics of compulsive buying, the psychiatric comorbidity, and the possibilities of treatment. Using PubMed and MedLine search engines, we performed a review of published literature over the period 1990-2010 using the keyword "compulsive buying". A key feature distinguishing compulsive buyers from normal consumers, collectors, and hoarders is that the former focuses on the buying process itself, rather than the items bought. In this instance, the purchased items are usually never used, but tend to be hidden or thrown away. A recent screening study found that up to 5% of adult Americans appear to be afflicted with this compulsion. Compulsive buying results in adverse consequences, including financial and legal problems, psychological distress (depression, guilt), and interpersonal conflict. The most commonly associated comorbidities are depression and eating disorders. Nothing is known about the neurobiology and genetics of compulsive buying and relatively little about its treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy has some efficacy, but no medication has been effective in controlled trials. Compulsive buying can be described as a behavioral dependence. A great deal of future research is needed to improve our understanding of compulsive buying.

  13. Good Buy! Buying Home Furnishings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    A short fictional work for limited English speakers relates a young couple's experience in learning about buying home furnishings. The newly married couple need a comfortable place to sit in their living room but cannot afford to buy a sofa in one payment, and they do not qualify for credit cards. They consider the prices and credit arrangement at…

  14. Looking is buying. How visual attention and choice are affected by consumer preferences and properties of the supermarket shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlöf, Kerstin; Anikin, Andrey; Lingonblad, Martin; Wallin, Annika

    2017-09-01

    There is a battle in the supermarket isle, a battle between what the consumer wants and what the retailer and others want her to see, and subsequently to buy. Product packages and displays contain a number of features and attributes tailored to catch consumers' attention. These are what we call external factors comprising the visual saliency, the number of facings, and the placement of each product. But a consumer also brings with her a number of goals and interests related to the products and their attributes. These are important internal factors, including brand preferences, price sensitivity, and dietary inclinations. We fit mobile eye trackers to consumers visiting real-life supermarkets in order to investigate to what extent external and internal factors affect consumers' visual attention and purchases. Both external and internal factors influenced what products consumers looked at, with a strong positive interaction between visual saliency and consumer preferences. Consumers appear to take advantage of visual saliency in their decision making, using their knowledge about products' appearance to guide their visual attention towards those that fit their preferences. When it comes to actual purchases, however, visual attention was by far the most important predictor, even after controlling for all other internal and external factors. In other words, the very act of looking longer or repeatedly at a package, for any reason, makes it more likely that this product will be bought. Visual attention is thus crucial for understanding consumer behaviour, even in the cluttered supermarket environment, but it cannot be captured by measurements of visual saliency alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-03-01

    Although compulsive buying (CB) seems to be not only prevalent but even increasing in prevalence, it often remains neglected or minimized in clinical settings. There is a need for a greater understanding and recognition of this problem. The aim of this article is to summarize the current knowledge regarding CB and to offer thoughts regarding classification. Review of published literature over the period 1994-2013 through Pubmed/Medline, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar using the key words 'compulsive buying', 'impulsive buying' and 'addictive buying'. CB is defined by a preoccupation with buying and shopping, by frequent buying episodes, or overpowering urges to buy that are experienced as irresistible and senseless. The maladaptive spending behavior is associated with serious psychological, social, occupational, and financial problems. Treatment-seeking patients with CB suffer from substantial psychiatric comorbidity (eg, anxiety and depressive mood disorders, compulsive hoarding, binge eating disorder). Representative surveys revealed prevalence estimates of CB between 6% and 7% and indicate that younger people are more prone to develop CB. Moreover, European data suggest an increase of CB in the adult population over the last 20 years. While there is no evidence for the efficacy of psychopharmacological treatment, group cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown to be effective. The relevance of recognition of CB as mental disorder is undeniable in the face of its estimated prevalence and associated burden. As our understanding of contributing neurobiological and etiological factors is limited, further research should focus on these topics, taking into account the heterogeneity of individuals with CB. There is also a need for specific treatment options and for the development of prevention strategies. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  17. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.

  18. Huntingtin gene repeat size variations affect risk of lifetime depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardiner, Sarah L.; van Belzen, Martine J.; Boogaard, Merel W.

    2017-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansion in the HTT gene. Although HD is frequently complicated by depression, it is still unknown to what extent common HTT CAG repeat size variations in the normal range could affect...

  19. Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) affects variation in Drosophila longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Maria; Roshina, Nataliya V; Geiger-Thornsberry, Gretchen L; Lyman, Richard F; Pasyukova, Elena G; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2003-08-01

    Mutational analyses in model organisms have shown that genes affecting metabolism and stress resistance regulate life span, but the genes responsible for variation in longevity in natural populations are largely unidentified. Previously, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting variation in longevity between two Drosophila melanogaster strains. Here, we show that the longevity QTL in the 36E;38B cytogenetic interval on chromosome 2 contains multiple closely linked QTLs, including the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) locus. Complementation tests to mutations show that Ddc is a positional candidate gene for life span in these strains. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping in a sample of 173 alleles from a single population shows that three common molecular polymorphisms in Ddc account for 15.5% of the genetic contribution to variance in life span from chromosome 2. The polymorphisms are in strong LD, and the effects of the haplotypes on longevity suggest that the polymorphisms are maintained by balancing selection. DDC catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Thus, these data implicate variation in the synthesis of bioamines as a factor contributing to natural variation in individual life span.

  20. Organizational Buying Behavior of Selected Leather Footwear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to assess the buying behavior of the Ethiopian leather footwear exporting companies in terms of supplier selection criteria, buying center, and factors affecting the purchasing process. In order to achieve the objective, a multiple case study approach is used in three case companies.

  1. Compulsive buying in outline

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Zadka; Marcin Olajossy

    2016-01-01

    In spite of a hundred year long history of scientific research compulsive buying has been a hardly known phenomenon until today. Ambiguous scientific information makes it impossible to classify compulsive buying as a separate mental disorder. Recently many researchers have noticed phenomenological compatibility of compulsive buying with behavioural addictions. Nowadays, there is reasonable grounds that compulsive buying disorder can be defined as an addiction. There are many similarities occu...

  2. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  3. Neurocognitive functioning in compulsive buying disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derbyshire, Katherine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits.......Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits....

  4. What influences buying leisure services coupons on online group buying?

    OpenAIRE

    Langvinienė, Neringa; Zemblytė, Jurgita; Sližienė, Gelminė

    2016-01-01

    Growing use of IT, laptops, tablets, PC in individuals' life shaped an opportunity to create online group buying (OGB) as a new online business model. Several of surveys show that OGB is rather popular for selling recreational activities and leisure services, such as restaurant coupons, cinema, spa, concert, flight tickets, museum visits, etc. Therefore, the paper aims to identify and estimate the influences that affect the customers to purchase the leisure services coupons on online group bu...

  5. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  6. Huntingtin gene repeat size variations affect risk of lifetime depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Sarah L; van Belzen, Martine J; Boogaard, Merel W; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M C; Rozing, Maarten P; van Hemert, Albert M; Smit, Johannes H; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Grootheest, Gerard; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Roos, Raymund A C; Comijs, Hannie C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; van der Mast, Roos C; Aziz, N Ahmad

    2017-12-11

    Huntington disease (HD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansion in the HTT gene. Although HD is frequently complicated by depression, it is still unknown to what extent common HTT CAG repeat size variations in the normal range could affect depression risk in the general population. Using binary logistic regression, we assessed the association between HTT CAG repeat size and depression risk in two well-characterized Dutch cohorts─the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety and the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons─including 2165 depressed and 1058 non-depressed persons. In both cohorts, separately as well as combined, there was a significant non-linear association between the risk of lifetime depression and HTT CAG repeat size in which both relatively short and relatively large alleles were associated with an increased risk of depression (β = -0.292 and β = 0.006 for the linear and the quadratic term, respectively; both P < 0.01 after adjustment for the effects of sex, age, and education level). The odds of lifetime depression were lowest in persons with a HTT CAG repeat size of 21 (odds ratio: 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.52 to 0.98) compared to the average odds in the total cohort. In conclusion, lifetime depression risk was higher with both relatively short and relatively large HTT CAG repeat sizes in the normal range. Our study provides important proof-of-principle that repeat polymorphisms can act as hitherto unappreciated but complex genetic modifiers of depression.

  7. Hoarding in a compulsive buying sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mueller, Ulrike; Albert, Patricia; Mertens, Christian; Silbermann, Andrea; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2007-11-01

    Previous research has indicated that many compulsive buyers also suffer from compulsive hoarding. The present work specifically examined hoarding in a compulsive buying sample. Sixty-six treatment-seeking compulsive buyers were assessed prior to entering a group therapy for compulsive buying using the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)-Shopping Version, the Compulsive Acquisition Scale (CAS), the German-CBS, the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R), the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I (SCID). Inclusion criteria were current problems with compulsive buying according to the proposed diagnostic criteria for compulsive buying by McElroy, Keck, Pope, Smith, and Strakowski [(1994). Compulsive buying: A report of 20 cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 55, 242-248]. Our results support the assumption that many but not all compulsive buyers suffer from compulsive hoarding. A significant association between the SI-R and the compulsive buying measures CBS, Y-BOCS-SV, German-CBS, and the CAS-Buy subscale was found, which is mostly caused by the SI-R subscale acquisition. The SI-R subscales clutter and difficulty discarding were more closely associated with the CAS-Free subscale and with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Hoarding compulsive buyers reported more severe buying symptoms and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and presented with a higher psychiatric co-morbidity, especially any current affective, anxiety and eating disorder. Specific therapeutic interventions for compulsive buyers who also report compulsive hoarding appear indicated.

  8. The Effect of Visual Merchandising on Impulsive Buying with Impulsive Buying Tendency As Moderating Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Novia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to classify the female consumer demographic segments linked by impulsive buying, to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying, and to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying with impulsive buying tendency as moderating variable on customers of Gaudi in Taman Anggrek Mall. This research is quantitative research with a total sample of 100 people. Data were obtained by distributing questionnaires to the respondents by cross sectional. Research used Cluster Analysis and Moderated Regression Analysis. Data processing was performed using SPSS software for Windows version 20. Research found that customers of Gaudi were divided into three groups: the way of the world, sufficient money, and promotions. Then, research found that visual merchandising affected impulsive buying. In addition, there visual merchandising had also an effect on impulsive buying with impulsive buying tendency as moderating variable. As a conclusion, moderating variable strengthens the effect of visual merchandising on impulse buying.

  9. [Kleptomania and compulsive buying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    Kleptomania and compulsive buying are important clinical problems. However there is no established treatment for these problems in Japan yet. In this article, we review the available clinical treatments for kleptomania and compulsive buying in Japan. Kleptomania and compulsive buying can be explained by the conditioning theory. These behaviors are reinforced by positive consequences. In particular, the problem behaviors of kleptomania arise because of arousal and tension and are reinforced by the relaxed feeling that follows. Therefore, kleptomania is treated by systematic desensitization. However, it is important that interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy, which increase subjective adaptation. be used in combination to treat and control such behaviors.

  10. COMPULSIVE BUYING TENDENCIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Marcello; Lester, David; Yang, Bijou

    2015-12-01

    Compulsive buying behavior is typically viewed as pathological, but recent research has shown that compulsive buying tendencies are associated with attitudes toward money, personal financial behavior, and having materialistic values, suggesting that compulsive buyers are manifesting an extreme form of habits shown by people in general. In a study of 240 community residents, scores on the Compulsive Buying Scale were associated positively with scores on the Material Values Scale and the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, and negatively with scores on the Executive Personal Finance Scale and Ardelt's wisdom scale. These results suggest that, as is the case for many abnormal behaviors, tendencies toward compulsive buying may not be pathological, but are associated with attitudes toward money in general, financial management behavior, and materialistic values.

  11. Factors affecting yearly variations of indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, D.J.; Baynes, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Since indoor radon exposures take place over many years while radon measurement periods are shorter, we are studying the yearly variation of indoor radon concentrations in approximately 100 houses located throughout Minnesota. Most houses were initially measured for one or more years in the late 1980's and for 5 consecutive years starting in 1990. Two houses have been monitored for 12 y. Each year, two alpha track detectors were placed on the two lowest livable levels. The year-to-year variations averaged about 35% (corrected for instrumental uncertainties) in both basements and first floors. The minimum observed variation was 5% and the maximum was 130%. Some homes have shown substantial variation associated with Structural modifications. While most homes show no obvious systematic trends, a few houses have shown temporal trends that may be associated with aging or climate. We are studying possible correlation between year-to-year radon variation, climatic variables (yearly-average and seasonal such as heating/cooling degree days, precipitation, soil moisture), and structural changes

  12. Generation Y Online Buying Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Katija Vojvodić; Matea Matić

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of electronic retailing can, among other things, result in uncontrolled buying by online consumers, i.e. in extreme buying behavior. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and determine the buying patterns of Generation Y online consumers in order to explore the existence of different types of behavior based on the characteristics of online buying. The paper also aims at exploring the relationship between extracted factors and Generation Y consumers’ buying intentions. Em...

  13. Landscape location affects genetic variation of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. K. Schwartz; L. S. Mills; Y. Ortega; L. F. Ruggiero; F. W. Allendorf

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a population's location on the landscape on genetic variation has been of interest to population genetics for more than half a century. However, most studies do not consider broadscale biogeography when interpreting genetic data. In this study, we propose an operational definition of a peripheral population, and then explore whether peripheral...

  14. Does Circadian Variation of Mothers Affect Macronutrients of Breast Milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Aslihan Köse; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamaç; Yarcı, Erbu; Sari, Fatma Nur; Oguz, Serife Suna; Uras, Nurdan; Canpolat, Fuat Emre

    2017-06-01

    Objective  To determine the within-day variation of fat, protein, and carbohydrate content of breast milk. Methods  The study was conducted at Zekai Tahir Burak Maternity Teaching Hospital between April 2013 and January 2014. We obtained milk samples from lactating mothers of hospitalized infants through hand expression after breast-feeding or pumping three times a day. A mid-infrared human milk analyzer was used for measuring the macronutrient contents of breast milk samples. Results  Lactating mothers of 52 infants (30 preterm, 22 term) were recruited to the study. No significant difference was found in protein, fat, and carbohydrate content of milk samples throughout the day. We compared within-day variation of macronutrients of transitional and mature milk, milk samples from the mothers of preterm and term infants, and samples collected by either hand expression or pumping. We did not find a significant difference between the groups. Conclusion  Absence of circadian variations in lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content of breast milk in our study may be related to ethnic differences, maternal nutritional status, different milk content measurement technique, and population characteristics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Why are you happy with impulse buying? Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Handayani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is an ideal condition needed by everyone. In the real life, happiness comes not only from the harmony in the home but also from the exciting environment or atmosphere outside the home, such as impulse buying. When someone makes impulse buying, she could feel the happiness be-cause she gets something she wants. This means that when someone makes a purchase, she will experience happiness. This study aimed to examine the variables that affect impulse buying which may also affect the happiness. It is assumed that the experience and the pleasant shopping atmosphere affect the impulse buying and, as a result, the impulse buying affects happiness. The samples in this study were 150 women making purchases of fashion products at malls in Surabaya. The hypothesis testing was conducted by using Structural Equation Modelling. The test results indicated the hypothesis 1 stating that the experiential marketing influenced the impulse buying and hypothesis 2 stating that the shopping enjoyment affected the impulse buying were accepted. Further, hypothesis 3 were also accepted, stating that the impulse buying influenced happiness.

  16. Study of Influencing Factors on ConsumerOnline Impulse Buying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The convenience and anonymity of online shopping have stimulated people's impulse buying tendency. Impulse buying is notonly a competitive method for businesses, but also a crucial factor influencing sales of e-commerce. Based on a systematic reviewof literatures, this paper explores factors affecting the online impulse buying. Moreover, by using the S-O-R model, this paperdescribes the formation mechanism of the online impulse buying behavior. At Last, it points out issues worthy of future studies.For example, this paper suggests to take into consideration of sociocultural impact and to put more emphasis on empirical studies.

  17. Vote Buying or Campaign Promises? Electoral Strategies When Party Credibility is Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Hanusch, Marek; Keefer, Philip; Vlaicu, Razvan

    2016-01-01

    What explains significant variation across countries in the use of vote buying instead of campaign promises to secure voter support? This paper explicitly models the tradeoff parties face between engaging in vote buying and making campaign promises, and explores the distributional consequences of this decision, in a setting where party credibility can vary. When parties are less credible they spend more on vote buying and target vote buying more heavily toward groups that do not believe campa...

  18. Effects of mood state on impulsivity in pathological buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Jennifer; Darancó, Stefaniá; Moshagen, Morten

    2016-10-30

    Pathological buying is characterized by irrepressible buying behaviour and its negative consequences. A possible mechanism contributing to its development and maintenance is that buying episodes act as a maladaptive strategy to cope with negative emotions. Accordingly, pathological buying has been repeatedly associated with impulsivity, in particular with the tendency to experience strong reactions under negative affect. Relying on an experimental mood induction procedure, the present study tested in a sample of 100 individuals (a) whether individuals with pathological buying symptoms respond more impulsively in the Go/No-Go Task (as a measure of the behavioural inhibition aspect of impulsivity) and (b) whether this association is more pronounced in a negative mood. While controlling for comorbidities, the results show that pathological buying is associated with faster responses and a larger number of commission errors. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that the association between pathological buying and performance the Go/No-Go Task was stronger in the negative mood condition. The present study thus shows that pathological buying is associated with deficits in the behavioural inhibition component of impulsivity. These deficits are most pronounced when mood is negative; in turn, this provides an explanation for the occurrence of excessive buying episodes following negative affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compulsive buying in outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadka, Łukasz; Olajossy, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    In spite of a hundred year long history of scientific research compulsive buying has been a hardly known phenomenon until today. Ambiguous scientific information makes it impossible to classify compulsive buying as a separate mental disorder. Recently many researchers have noticed phenomenological compatibility of compulsive buying with behavioural addictions. Nowadays, there is reasonable grounds that compulsive buying disorder can be defined as an addiction. There are many similarities occurring between a consumer type behaviours in compulsive buyers and a pathologic consumption of psychoactive substances which included the obsessive need to consumer or a compulsion to consume, personal dependence and loss of control over self-behaviour, as well as tendencies to the consumption increase. Compulsive buying disorder differs in its course from the compulsive behaviours. A strong compulsion to make a given activity, often impossible to restrain is associated with overwhelming but acceptable desire to purchase a specific item. Due to the latest information about the described phenomenon, it has been decided to present current knowledge of adequate classifications, epidemiology and therapy of compulsive buyers. In the article authors' own standpoint as regards pathogenesis and potential risk factors was described.

  20. Copy number variations in affective disorders and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Djurovic, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    in a combined analysis of three case-control samples from Denmark, Norway and Iceland. A total of 1897 cases (n=1223 unipolar and n=463 bipolar) and 11 231 controls were analyzed for CNVs at the 10 genomic loci, but we found no combined association between these CNVs and affective disorders....

  1. Genetic and environmental factors affecting birth size variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2018-01-01

    Background: The genetic architecture of birth size may differ geographically and over time. We examined differences in the genetic and environmental contributions to birthweight, length and ponderal index (PI) across geographical-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia......) and across birth cohorts, and how gestational age modifies these effects. Methods: Data from 26 twin cohorts in 16 countries including 57 613 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs were pooled. Genetic and environmental variations of birth size were estimated using genetic structural equation modelling....... Results: The variance of birthweight and length was predominantly explained by shared environmental factors, whereas the variance of PI was explained both by shared and unique environmental factors. Genetic variance contributing to birth size was small. Adjusting for gestational age decreased...

  2. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson M. Paris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus macrophylla, Citrus maxima, Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica. Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla. This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences.

  3. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Thomson M; Allan, Sandra A; Hall, David G; Hentz, Matthew G; Hetesy, Gabriella; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii , Citrus aurantifolia , Citrus macrophylla , Citrus maxima , Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata . Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica . Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla . This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences.

  4. Androgen receptor variation affects prostate cancer progression and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Edel; Sissung, Tristan M; Price, Douglas K; Chau, Cindy H; Figg, William D

    2016-12-01

    Significant therapeutic progress has been made in treating prostate cancer in recent years. Drugs such as enzalutamide, abiraterone, and cabazitaxel have expanded the treatment armamentarium, although it is not completely clear which of these drugs are the most-effective option for individual patients. Moreover, such advances have been tempered by the development of therapeutic resistance. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature pertaining to the biochemical effects of AR variants and their consequences on prostate cancer therapies at both the molecular level and in clinical treatment. We address how these AR splice variants and mutations affect tumor progression and therapeutic resistance and discuss potential novel therapeutic strategies under development. It is hoped that these therapies can be administered with increasing precision as tumor genotyping methods become more sophisticated, thereby lending clinicians a better understanding of the underlying biology of prostate tumors in individual patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Buying time promotes happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whillans, Ashley; Dunn, Elizabeth; Smeets, Paul M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Norton, M.I.

    2017-01-01

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada,

  6. [Treatment of compulsive buying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A; de Zwaan, M

    2008-08-01

    Although compulsive buying is receiving increasing attention in research, it is largely ignored in clinical practice. Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is defined as excessive and mostly senseless spending or excessive shopping impulses that cause marked distress, interfere with social or occupational functioning, and often results in financial problems. It is currently conceptualized as an "impulse control disorder not otherwise specified" (ICD-10 F63.9). CBD is associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity particularly mood and anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, binge eating disorder, substance use disorders, personality disorders, and other impulse control disorders. Previous research indicates that many compulsive buyers also suffer from compulsive hoarding. There is no evidence-based treatment approach for CBD and treatment research on this topic is limited. Open label trials suggest that antidepressants could improve compulsive buying. However, small randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate significant improvement over Placebo and the high placebo-response rate prevents any definitive statement on the efficacy of antidepressants. Two controlled cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) trials reported that group CBT is significantly more effective compared to waiting list control groups in the treatment of compulsive buying. Clinical and therapeutic implications are discussed.

  7. Psychopharmacology of compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Kim; Koran, Lorrin

    2003-09-01

    No standard treatment exists for the DSM-IV Impulse Control Disorders, Not Elsewhere Classified, including Compulsive Buying Disorder. This paper reviews the suggested pharmacotherapies for this disorder and their theoretical basis. McElroy et al. first reported benefit from antidepressant therapy in three cases of Compulsive Buying Disorder with comorbid depression and anxiety. In a retrospective chart review, McElroy's group reported on 20 patients that benefited from antidepressants, often in combination with mood stabilizers. Lejoyeux reported on two patients in whom treatment of a comorbid mood disorder led to remission of compulsive buying behavior. Black reported fluvoxamine to be effective in patients without comorbid major depression, suggesting that improvement was independent of the treatment of mood symptoms. Kim reported improvement with naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, in a case series. Two double-blind placebo-controlled trials found fluvoxamine no better than placebo; however, in both studies patients kept shopping logs, which may have confounded the results. An open-label trial of citalopram and a double-blind crossover trial which excluded shopping logs both reported positive results. Twelve-month follow-up data for the open-label group found that remission rates at quarterly time points were independent of continuing drug therapy. The data reviewed above suggest that pharmacologic interventions may be effective for compulsive buying disorder. Whether pharmacological treatment is superior to placebo and whether it is more, less or equally effective compared to psychotherapeutic interventions remains to be established. (c) 2003 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  8. HPC: Rent or Buy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    "Rent or buy?" is a question people ask about everything from housing to textbooks. It is also a question universities must consider when it comes to high-performance computing (HPC). With the advent of Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Microsoft Windows HPC Server, Rackspace's OpenStack, and other cloud-based services, researchers now have…

  9. 78 FR 31552 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Make-or-Buy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... socio-economic policies may be affected by make-or-buy decisions under certain Government prime...; Submission for OMB Review; Make- or-Buy Program AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... collection requirement concerning the Make-or-Buy Program. A notice was published in the Federal Register at...

  10. Developmental stage of strongyle eggs affects the outcome variations of real-time PCR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Haakansson, I. T.; Roust, Tina

    2013-01-01

    extent developmental stages can affect the variation of diagnostic test results. This study investigated the influence of developmental stages of strongyle eggs on the variation real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. Mixed species strongyle eggs were obtained from the faeces of a naturally...

  11. Generation Y Online Buying Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katija Vojvodić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of electronic retailing can, among other things, result in uncontrolled buying by online consumers, i.e. in extreme buying behavior. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and determine the buying patterns of Generation Y online consumers in order to explore the existence of different types of behavior based on the characteristics of online buying. The paper also aims at exploring the relationship between extracted factors and Generation Y consumers’ buying intentions. Empirical research was conducted on a sample of 515 consumers in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County. Based on the factor analysis, research results indicate that Generation Y online consumers are influenced by three factors: compulsivity, impulsivity, and functionality. The analysis of variance reveals that significant differences exist between the extracted factors and Generation Y’s online buying characteristics. In addition, correlation analysis shows a statistically significant correlation between the extracted factors and Generation Y’s buying intentions.

  12. Buying time promotes happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Ashley V; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Smeets, Paul; Bekkers, Rene; Norton, Michael I

    2017-08-08

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, and The Netherlands ( n = 6,271), we show that individuals who spend money on time-saving services report greater life satisfaction. A field experiment provides causal evidence that working adults report greater happiness after spending money on a time-saving purchase than on a material purchase. Together, these results suggest that using money to buy time can protect people from the detrimental effects of time pressure on life satisfaction.

  13. Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...

  14. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  15. Different facets of compulsive buying among Chinese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Unger, Alexander; Bi, Chongzeng

    2014-12-01

    Compulsive buying is a severe phenomenon, especially among younger consumers. It is well documented in Western industrial societies like the USA and Germany, and nowadays an increasing interest in compulsive buying in non-Western countries is on the rise. In the current study, we measured the prevalence of compulsive buying tendencies among Chinese female and male students by using a Chinese translation of the German Compulsive Buying Scale (Raab, Neuner, Reisch & Scherhorn, 2005). We examined the influence of gender, location and age using ANCOVA, and binary logistic regression. Factor analysis identified three factorial dimensions of compulsive buying tendencies which are impairment of impulse control and reactive or compensatory aspects, reduced rationality according to money spending, and post-purchase guilt. Our results indicated that about 6.7% of the sample shows a compulsive buying pattern, and that females are more affected. For location, a geographic difference between Chongqing and Fuzhou was found for the overall compulsive tendencies, but not for the percentages of compulsive buyers. In sum, the existing study provides evidence that Chinese consumers have a factorial structure which differs somewhat in compulsive buying from Western samples. Observations about gender and location were considered. These findings give a deeper understanding of China’s compulsive buying behavior.

  16. The Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Lifestyle of Consumers in Determinig Buying Tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Slišković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was based on a three-dimensional conceptualization of the buying tendency stemming from cognitive and affective impulsivity and susceptibility to the situational factors of buying. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of different dimensions of buying tendency to basic socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyles of consumers. The study was conducted using a survey on a sample of 194 respondents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The obtained results indicate greater levels of cognitive and affective buying impulsivity in women compared to men, with no gender differences identified in the susceptibility to buying situational factors. Furthermore, significant effects were obtained by the level of total monthly family income of respondents in all dimensions of buying tendency, while the level of respondents' monthly income had a significant effect only on cognitive impulsivity. Employment status and education level had no significant effect on the buying tendency. Among the four studied consumers’ lifestyles (innovative, family, social and leadership oriented, innovatively oriented lifestyle has the strongest correlation to all three dimensions of buying tendency. In other words, innovatively oriented subjects are more prone to impulsive buying and susceptible to buying situational factors. In addition to the innovative orientation lifestyle, impulsive buying was also associated with the leadership orientation, but to a lesser extent. Susceptibility to buying situational factors was associated with all lifestyle orientations, apart from the family orientation.

  17. Variations in 5-HTTLPR: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, life events, neuroticism and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Mellerup, Erling; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variations in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and stressful life events are associated with affective disorders. AIM: To investigate whether the distribution of the alleles of the 5-HTTLPR is associated with a genetic predisposition to affective disorder and whether these va...

  18. Compulsive buying disorder: definition, assessment, epidemiology and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D W

    2001-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder is characterised by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges or behaviours regarding shopping and spending, which lead to adverse consequences. Compulsive buying disorder has been estimated to affect from 2 to 8% of the general adult population in the US; 80 to 95% of those affected are female. Onset occurs in the late teens or early twenties, and the disorder is generally chronic. Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, particularly mood, anxiety, substance use, eating and personality disorders. Treatment has not been well delineated, but individual and group psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy and 12-step programmes may be helpful. Debt consolidation and credit counselling will be appropriate for many individuals who have compulsive buying disorder. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) re- uptake inhibitors may help some patients regulate their buying impulses. Self-help books are also available.

  19. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH STATIC-PRICE ONLINE GROUP BUYING

    OpenAIRE

    Bralić, Antonia; Jadrić, Mario; Ćukušić, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Numerous researchers explore key influencers of online consumer behavior, and the willingness to transact in the online environment in particular. The proliferation of online group buying websites is changing marketing strategies and buyers’ habits without doubt. The purpose of this research is to investigate and identify critical factors that affect the intention to purchase from group buying websites among student population. A survey-based approach was employed to investigate the research ...

  20. Extensiveness of Farmers' Buying Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Broens, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    In this article we study farmers' buying processes, in particular the selection of a supplier for a given farm input. Extensiveness of farmers' buying processes is defined as the degree information acquisition and alternative evaluation effort carried out to prepare that selection. Hypotheses,

  1. Childhood trauma and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Rock, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Childhood trauma has been empirically associated with various types of self-regulatory difficulties in adulthood. However, according to the extant literature, no study has examined relationships between various types of childhood trauma and compulsive buying behavior in adulthood. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 370 obstetrics/gynecology patients, we examined five types of childhood trauma before the age of 12 years (i.e. witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to compulsive buying as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). All forms of trauma demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the CBS. Using a linear regression analysis, both witnessing violence and emotional abuse significantly contributed to CBS scores. Further analyses indicated that race did not moderate the relationship between childhood trauma and compulsive buying. Findings indicate that various forms of childhood trauma are correlated with compulsive buying behavior, particularly witnessing violence and emotional abuse.

  2. Compulsive buying: an overlooked entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Bishnupriya; Basu, Saikat; Basu, Jharna

    2011-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an under-recognised entity among Indian psychiatrists. A Medline search, hand searching of journals and direct communications with lead investigators in compulsive buying have generated numerous studies. Overseas data indicate a community prevalence between 1% and 8% . The phenomenon can be an independent entity or appears as a comorbidity with another axis I or axis II disorder. A degree of suspicion on part of clinician regarding its possible presence is the key to its detection. A few rating instruments are available to quantify the morbidity and screening for compulsive buying. Management involves pharmacotherapy with SSRIs, psychotherapy, self-help groups and self-help books. Epidemiological and clinical studies on compulsive buying should be undertaken by Indian psychiatrists to provide better services for people suffering from compulsive buying.

  3. [Pathological buying. A review of the current knowledge regarding this condition of behavioral excess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A; de Zwaan, M

    2010-04-01

    Compulsive buying is characterized by frequent excessive purchasing of items that are primarily not needed or used. The compulsive buying behavior results in mental, social, financial and often legal problems. Although compulsive buying affects a significant percentage of the general population and has received increasing attention in research, it has largely been ignored in clinical practice. Compulsive buying disorder is currently conceptualized as an"impulse control disorder not otherwise specified". However, the appropriate classification continues to be debated. Compulsive buying is associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity, especially with depressive, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, substance use, personality, and other impulse control disorders. Small controlled trials failed to confirm the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder, whereas early evidence suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy is helpful in alleviating compulsive buying symptoms. Further research is needed to establish a better understanding of etiology, classification, and treatment strategies.

  4. Diurnal modulation and sources of variation affecting ventricular repolarization in Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Juul; Moeller, Sine B.; Madsen, Mette Flethøj

    2014-01-01

    Te) are used as repolarization markers. To support the use of these markers in horses, we sought to describe the possible influence of the environment, time of day, day-to-day effects, T wave conformation, age, body weight (BW), and horse-to-horse variation on repolarization measurements. ANIMALS: 12 Warmblood...... affecting these intervals. RESULTS: Differences between individual horses were the largest source of repolarization variability although the environment had a significant effect on repolarization as well. Diurnal variation affected both the RR interval and the repolarization markers. The QT, QTc and Tp......, diurnal variation, the environment, and T wave conformation. These factors must be considered if markers of equine repolarization are used diagnostically....

  5. DUYGUSALLIK VE BİLİŞSELLİĞİN PLANSIZ SATIN ALMA DAVRANIŞINA ETKİSİ-THE INFLUENCE OF AFFECT AND COGNITION ON IMPULSE BUYING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner DİNCER

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, yazını zenginleştirmek ve yönetimsel kullanım için yeni bakış açıları sağlamak üzere, tüketicilerin kendilerini algılayışlarını göz önüne alarak plansız satın alma davranışı eğilimlerini incelemektir. Çalışmanın araştırma tasarımı, diğer çalışmalarda kullanılan ölçekleri Türk tüketicisine uyarlayan, toplamda 284 üniversite öğrencisi üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiş bir anket çalışmasından meydana gelmektedir. Duygusal ve bilişsel eğilim ölçekleri yüksek iç tutarlılık, güvenilirlik göstermiş ve analizlerde kullanılmışlardır. Bulgular, plansız satın alma davranışının tamamen duygusal olduğunu ve demografik özelliklerle bir ilişkisi olmadığını göstermiştir. Bu sonuçlar, firmalar için duygusal alışveriş ortamı yaratmanın ve pazarlama kampanyalarında duygusal unsurların kullanımının önemini vurgularken, araştırmacılar için de bu duygusal unsurların saptanmasının önemini vurgular.-The purpose of the study is to investigate the impulse buying tendency of the consumers while taking into consideration their self-perception in order to enrich the literature and provide new points of view for managerial use. The design of the study consists of a questionnaire administered to a total of 284 university students, adapting existing scales to Turkish context. The scales of affective and cognitive tendency showed high internal reliability and are used in the analysis. The findings revealed that impulse buying is purely affective and does not have any significant correlation with the used demographic variables. These results emphasize the importance of emotional shopping environment and the use of affective components in marketing campaigns for firms as well as the determination of these affective components for the researchers.

  6. Compulsive buying disorder: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboujaoude, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) refers to the chronic purchasing of unneeded or unwanted items, causing significant negative consequences. There are no established criteria for CBD, and operational definitions have relied on similarities with OCD, substance use disorders, and impulse control disorders. Compulsive buying disorder is common, affecting 5.8% of the general population, according to one study. Typically, CBD has early onset, frequent comorbidities, and a chronic course. The etiology of CBD is unknown, with biological, psychological and sociocultural factors proposed as likely contributors. Treatment data are limited and suggest addressing comorbid conditions and considering cognitive behavioral therapy, financial and family counseling, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and naltrexone, among other possible interventions, to target CBD. Beyond treatment, educational, legislative and family-based public policy initiatives can likely help individuals with CBD and other excessive spenders.

  7. Seasonal Variations of Atmospheric CO2 over Fire Affected Regions Based on GOSAT Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Matsunaga, T.

    2016-12-01

    Abstract: The carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions released from biomass burning significantly affect the temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Based on a long-term (July 2009-June 2015) retrieved datasets by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), the seasonal cycle and interannual variations of column-averaged volume mixing ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) in four fire affected continental regions were investigated. The results showed Northern Africa had the largest seasonal variations after removing its regional long-term trend of XCO2 with peak-to-peak amplitude of 6.2 ppm within the year, higher than central South America (2.4 ppm), Southern Africa (3.8 ppm) and Australia (1.7 ppm). The detrended regional XCO2 was found to be positively correlated with the fire CO2 emissions during fire activity period and negatively correlated with vegetation photosynthesis activity with different seasonal variabilities. Northern Africa recorded the largest change of seasonal variations of detrended XCO2 with a total of 12.8 ppm during fire seasons, higher than central South America, Southern Africa and Australia with 5.4 ppm, 6.7 ppm and 2.2 ppm, respectively. During fire episode, the positive detrended XCO2 was noticed during June-November in central South America, December-June in Northern Africa, May-November in Southern Africa. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the variations of detrended XCO2 and fire CO2 emissions from GFED4 (Global Fire Emissions Database v4) achieved best correlations in Southern Africa (R=0.77, p<0.05). Meanwhile, Southern Africa also experienced a significant negative relationship between the variations of detrended XCO2 and vegetation activity (R=-0.84, p<0.05). This study revealed that fire CO2 emissions and vegetation activity contributed greatly to the seasonal variations of GOSAT XCO2 dataset.

  8. Typological Analysis of Buying Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Teodorescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The typology of buyers and buying actions contracts are specific categories of consumer behaviour, determining group buyers and buying actions in classes, to fragment the markets. Market fragmentation through buyer typoligy and/or segmentation is presently characterized by a multitude of theoretical approaches and are especially generated by the common practice in the respective business. These two concepts are used for the same purpose, the essential difference being their starting point: the segmentation fragments the markets as a whole, while the typology of the buyer and of buying actions generate classifications starting from individual cases.

  9. Variation of NEE and its affecting factors in a vineyard of arid region of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W. H.; Kang, S. Z.; Li, F. S.; Li, S. E.

    2014-02-01

    To understand the variation of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in orchard ecosystem and it's affecting factors, carbon flux was measured using eddy covariance system in a wine vineyard in arid northwest China during 2008-2010. Results show that vineyard NEE was positive value at the early growth stage, higher negative value at the mid-growth stage, and lower negative value at the later growth stage. Diurnal variation of NEE was "W" shaped curve in sunny day, but "U" shaped curve in cloudy day. Irrigation and pruning did not affect diurnal variation shape of NEE, however, irrigation reduced the difference between maximal and minimal value of NEE and pruning reduced the carbon sink capacity. The main factors affecting hourly NEE were canopy conductance (gc) and net radiation (Rn). The hourly NEE increased with the increase of gc or Rn when gc was less than 0.02 m·s-1 or Rn was between 0 and 200 W·m-2. The main factors affecting both daily and seasonal NEE were gc, air temperature (Ta), atmospheric CO2 density, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and soil moisture content.

  10. Does restriction of pitch variation affect the perception of vocal emotions in Mandarin Chinese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Lee, Yong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a finding about vocal expressions of emotion in Mandarin Chinese. Production and perception experiments used the same tone and mixed tone sequences to test whether pitch variation is restricted due to the presence of lexical tones. Results showed that the restriction of pitch variation occurred in all high level tone sequences (tone 1 group) with the expression of happiness but did not happen for other dynamic tone groups. However, perception analysis revealed that all the emotions in every tone group received high identification rates; this indicates that listeners used other cues for encoding happiness in the tone 1 group. This study demonstrates that the restriction of pitch variation does not affect the perception of vocal emotions.

  11. Selecting and Buying Educational Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, David H.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for selecting/buying educational software are discussed under the following headings: educational soundness; appropriateness; challenge and progress; motivation and reward; correctness; compatibility with systems; instructions and handlings. Includes several sources of software reviews. (JN)

  12. NORMATIVE MODERATORS OF IMPULSE BUYING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danes Jaya Negara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has presented the moderating role of normative evaluations in the relationship between the impulsive buying trait and consumers’ buying behaviors. In this article the authors show that consumer tendency to buy something spontaneous, unreflectively and immediately can be perceived as a factor which describes buying impulsiveness. This article also shows conceptual and empirical evidence that there is some support for the moderating role of normative evaluations in the relationship between buying impulsiveness and impulse buying behaviors. Significance occurs when consumers believe that act on impulse is suitable. The result suggests that consumers’ normative evaluation can moderate the link between the trait and behavioral aspects of impulse buying.

  13. The state of online impulse-buying research : a literature analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, T. K. H.; Cheung, C. M. K.; Lee, Z. W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Online impulse buying has drawn increasing scholarly attention across disciplines. However, little effort has been made to evaluate the status of research and consolidate the findings in the literature. To address this research gap, we conducted a systematic review of studies of online impulse buying, and used the Stimulus–Organism–Response (SOR) framework to identify and classify the factors that affect online impulse buying. We then built a conceptual framework to explain the interrelations...

  14. Compulsive buying and branding phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-hee; Workman, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper was to explore the impact of brand variables such as brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand attachment, and perceived brand quality on compulsive buying behavior. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire, containing demographic items and items related to compulsive buying, brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand attachment and perceived quality, was used to collect data. Results: Participants were 269 US university students at a large mid-western universit...

  15. Lean Leadership - Organizational Buy - Ins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Revathi Iyer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Great organizations have become leaders due to their leadership and sustainable initiatives. One such initiative is adoption of lean leadership to align core strategies with all functional areas of business. Leadership is likely to take place in a lean environment because improvements that happen are continual and can only be supported by leadership which understands this important aspect. The topic of lean leadership organizational buy ins speaks on how lean leadership could affect organizations that adopt lean and other quality tools. Purpose of the study This study has been undertaken to understand When leadership more of is likely to take place in lean . Leadership plays a very important role while adopting lean processes and how lean leadership can address the process problem. Application of leadership lenses to lean processes needs great foresight thought and creativity. It has been also observed that lean management and lean processes can happen only if leadership is able to effectively communicate the thought of continual improvement to bring in a lean organization and a future state of processes where everything of a firm process and procedure is continually improving and the best strategies to manage this change becomes a philosophy. Lean leadership is associated with such a change. This enables leadership vision to be clear as it paves the way for current state and is clear to everyone. It is this leadership vision which enables employees to think and act in a way that perpetrates continual improvement. Hence leadership buys ins for lean are very necessary. The purpose of the study is also to understand how leaders can not only use cost reduction but also reducing time-to-market improving service quality and reducing risk exposure by adopting lean methods . it has been also seen that there is overall productivity and efficiency in organizations holistically when leadership endorses lean methodology. Radnor Z. and Bucci G. 2007

  16. Impulsive Buying Pada Dewasa Awal Di YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Henrietta, Paulus

    2012-01-01

    This research aimed to know the impulsive buying tendency of early adult in Yogyakarta. Impulsive buying was a buying activity without cosideration, and accompanied by strong emotional response. High impulsive buying tendency occured between age 18 to 39 years old. This research was a quantitative descriptive research with 395 subjects. Generally, the impulsive buying tendency in this research was low. Based on comparation between man and woman, it was found that woman was more impulsive than...

  17. IMPULSIVE BUYING PADA DEWASA AWAL DI YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus Henrietta

    2012-01-01

    T his research aimed to know the impulsive buying tendency of early adult in Yogyakarta. Impulsive buying was a buying activity without cosideration, and accompanied by strong emotional response. High impulsive buying tendency occured between age 18 to 39 years old. This research was a quantitative descriptive research with 395 subjects. Generally, the impulsive buying tendency in this research was low. Based on comparation between man and woman, it was found that woman was more impulsive...

  18. COMT genetic variation confers risk for psychotic and affective disorders: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencz Todd

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in the COMT gene has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including psychotic, affective and anxiety disorders. The majority of these studies have focused on the functional Val108/158Met polymorphism and yielded conflicting results, with limited studies examining the relationship between other polymorphisms, or haplotypes, and psychiatric illness. We hypothesized that COMT variation may confer a general risk for psychiatric disorders and have genotyped four COMT variants (Val158Met, rs737865, rs165599, and a SNP in the P2 promoter [-278A/G; rs2097603] in 394 Caucasian cases and 467 controls. Cases included patients with schizophrenia (n = 196, schizoaffective disorder (n = 62, bipolar disorder (n = 82, major depression (n = 30, and patients diagnosed with either psychotic disorder NOS or depressive disorder NOS (n = 24. Results SNP rs2097603, the Val/Met variant and SNP rs165599 were significantly associated (p = 0.004; p = 0.05; p = 0.035 with a broad "all affected" diagnosis. Haplotype analysis revealed a potentially protective G-A-A-A haplotype haplotype (-278A/G; rs737865; Val108/158Met; rs165599, which was significantly underrepresented in this group (p = 0.0033 and contained the opposite alleles of the risk haplotype previously described by Shifman et al. Analysis of diagnostic subgroups within the "all affecteds group" showed an association of COMT in patients with psychotic disorders as well as in cases with affective illness although the associated variants differed. The protective haplotype remained significantly underrepresented in most of these subgroups. Conclusion Our results support the view that COMT variation provides a weak general predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease including psychotic and affective disorders.

  19. Effects of mood induction on consumers with vs. without compulsive buying propensity: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Sinje; Hunger, Antje; Türpe, Tina; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2014-12-15

    Compulsive buying (CB) is excessive and leads to impairment and distress. Several studies aimed to explore the phenomenology and antecedents of CB, especially affective states. However, these studies mostly used retrospective self-report and mostly focused on compulsive buyers only. Therefore, this study aims to directly compare consumers with CB propensity and controls on experimental proxies of buying behavior and to investigate 1) effects of neutral vs. negative mood inductions and 2) whether mood effects on buying behavior are specific to CB. Forty female consumers with CB propensity and 40 female controls were randomly assigned to a neutral or negative mood induction. Buying related behavior (likelihood to expose oneself to a shopping situation, urge and probability to buy, willingness to pay) was assessed. Consumers with CB propensity differed from controls in all buying behavior aspects except for willingness to pay. Neither main effects of mood nor group×mood interaction effects on buying behavior were found. However, consumers with CB propensity were emotionally more strongly affected by a negative mood induction. Although negative affect has previously been reported to precede buying episodes in CB, our findings do not indicate specific negative mood effects on buying, neither in CB nor in controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The comparison of SRs' variation affected by solar events observed in America and in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Williams, E.

    2017-12-01

    Schumann Resonances(SRs) are the electromagnetic resonance wave propagating in the earth-ionosphere cavity. Its characteristic of propagation are modified by the variation of ionosphere. So SRs can be the tools of monitoring the ionosphere which is often perturbed by solar events, x-ray emission and some other space-weather events (Roldugin et.al., 2004, De et al., 2010; Satori et.al., 2015). In present work, the amplitude and intrinsic frequencies of SRs observed at RID station in America and YSH station in China are compared. The variation of SRs during the solar flare on Feb. 15, 2011 are analyzed. Two-Dimensional Telegraph Equation(TDTE) method is used to simulate the perturbation of ionosphere by solar proton events. From the simulation and observation, the asymmetric construction of ionoshphere which is perturbed by the solar event will affect the amplitudes and frequencies of SRs. Due to the interfere influence of forward and backward propagation of electromagnetic field, the SR amplitude on different station will present different variation. The distance among the lightning source, observer and perturbed area will produce the different variation of amplitude and frequency for different station' SR.

  1. Research on sportswear buying behavior of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öndoğan Ziynet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport is a necessary element for maintaining life in a healthier and more balanced way. There has been a rising trend of wearing sportswear in daily life besides sports. Developments in technology have raised expectations from sportswear. Individuals expect not only durability, design and being fashionable, but also demand performance and clothing comfort. This study aims to investigate university students’ awareness while buying sportswear. Professional sportsmen from Physical Education and Sports School students and Textile Engineering students having technical knowledge about clothes are included in this study. 100 students from each group were interviewed face to face. Results showed that Textile Engineering students pay more attention to technical characteristics due to their knowledge, however, aesthetic properties are revealed to be another important factor affecting buying decision. Buying decision of Physical Education and Sports School students is expected to be positively affected if they are given a seminar about raw material properties.

  2. Buying Local or Imported Goods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayob, Abu H.; Hussain, Wan Mohd Hirwani Wan

    2016-01-01

    ’ purchasing decisions. Data was collected on 296 university students in Malaysia and analyzed through probit regression analysis. The findings reveal that foreign products from advanced countries are preferred by male students because of the superior quality and brand image. On the other hand, family members......This study attempts to profile non-income consumers by examining their decisions to buy local or imported products. Hypotheses were drawn from discussions on the comparative advantages of advanced and developing countries, as well as the effects of a product’s country-of-origin on customers...... encourage students to buy local products because they are perceived as being less expensive. Also, students who receive scholarships are more likely to buy local products than self-sponsored students. This research offers insights into ex-ante purchasing behavior in developing countries particularly among...

  3. Best Buy: Planning for Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Adam; Ellis, Kerry; Sachs, Adam

    2008-01-01

    When a 1981 tornado in Minnesota revolutionized the retail approach of Sound of Music, which later changed its name to the now very familiar Best Buy, those who founded the company never imagined that a series of hurricanes twenty years later would also help give it a cutting-edge lead in customer service and disaster planning. That original "Tornado Sale'' introduced low prices in a "no-frills" environment that gave the company higher sales than the industry average and paved the way to a new business model. But before Best Buy could find the silver lining of these new storm clouds., it needed to survive them by planning for the destructive weather that plagued Florida during the summer of 2004. Having seen the power of listening to its employees and customers, Best Buy now seeks to capture their thoughts and feedback about other elements of the business.

  4. Retailer buying: A paradigmatic critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The paradigmatic anchoring of research determines for the researcher the nature of reality, what can be known about it and how it can be known. Previous research on retail buying has been anchored in post-positivism. A number of shortcomings resulting from this anchoring are identified which, taken...... together, are interpreted to have let to neglecting the notion of meaning in existing research. It is argued that taking a constructivist perspective can help overcome the limitations of previous research and contribute to the development of an understanding of retailer buying as meaningful action.retailer...

  5. Introduction to Fashion Buying. Teacher Edition. Fashion Buying Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cindy

    This teacher's guide presents material for a unit on introduction to fashion buying. Content focuses on information sources, retail store types, the responsibilities of a buyer, and the qualifications of a buyer. The guide contains 4 objectives, 4 group learning activities keyed to the objectives, 17 transparency masters with dialogue for each,…

  6. To What Extent Does DNA Methylation Affect Phenotypic Variation in Cattle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie McKAY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an environmentally influenced epigenetic modification that regulates gene transcription and has the potential to influence variation in economically important phenotypes in agricultural species. We have utilized a novel approach to evaluate the relationship between genetic and epigenetic variation and downstream phenotypes. To begin with, we have integrated RNA-Seq and methyl binding domain sequencing (MBD-Seq data in order to determine the extent to which DNA methylation affects phenotypic variation in economically important traits of cattle. MBD-Seq is a technique that involves the sample enrichment of methylated genomic regions followed by their next-generation sequencing. This study utilized Illumina next generation sequencing technology to perform both RNA-Seq and MBD-Seq. NextGENe software (SoftGenetics, State College, PA was employed for quality trimming and aligning the sequence reads to the UMD3.1 bovine reference genome, generating counts of matched reads and methylated peak identification. Subsequently, we identified and quantified genome-wide methylated regions and characterized the extent of differential methylation and differential expression between two groups of animals with extreme phenotypes. The program edgeR from the R software package (version 3.0.1 was employed for identifying differentially methylated regions and regions of differential expression. Finally, Partial Correlation with Information Theory (PCIT was performed to identify transcripts and methylation events that exhibit differential hubbing. A differential hub is defined as a gene network hub that is more highly connected in one treatment group than the other. This analysis produced every possible pair-wise interaction that subsequently enabled us to look at network interactions of how methylation affects expression. (co-expression, co-methylation, methylation x expression. Genomic regions of interest derived from this analysis were then aligned

  7. Prevalence of compulsive buying among customers of a Parisian general store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Mathieu, Karine; Embouazza, Houcine; Huet, Françoise; Lequen, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Compulsive buying is defined by the presence of repetitive impulsive and excessive buying, leading to personal and family distress. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of compulsive buying among "normal consumers" and to describe the specificities in the buying style of compulsive buyers. We tried to answer several questions. (1) Does compulsive buying occur more often during sales or periods of sales campaigns? (2) Is compulsive buying more impulsive and unplanned than normal buying? (3) Are compulsive buyers more "affectively" involved in their purchases (preference for specific brands they have a narcissistic relationship with, tendency to consider purchases as exceptional special occasions)? (4)Do women who buy compulsively use shopping Web sites and the Internet in general more than controls? We interviewed 200 women successively entering Les Galeries Lafayette, a famous Parisian department store. We diagnosed compulsive buying with standardized criteria and a specific rating scale. All subjects answered an additional questionnaire assessing their buying behavior. We also rated their duration of connection to the Web, the number of e-mails sent and received, and the time spent speaking on a cellular phone. Prevalence of compulsive buying was 32.5%. The proportion of married women was lower among compulsive buyers (66%) than in controls (85%). Compulsive buyers do not seek sales more than controls. Their decision to buy is more often made during their stay in the shop (48% vs 24%, chi(2) = 117, P vs 23.1%, P = .006). They have a higher tendency to use items less than expected (23.4% vs 14.4% in the control group, P vs 2.5%, P = .04) and consider more often their purchases as personally gratifying (44% vs 23%, P online shopping sites are longer and more frequent. They spend significantly more time than controls speaking on their cellular phones.

  8. [The application of ecological momentary assessment to the study of compulsive buying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, Andrea; Henkel, Andreas; Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina

    2008-12-01

    Although compulsive buying is a disorder that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years, relatively little is known about the relationship between compulsive buying, mood, and daily stressful events. In our pilot study ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to examine the described relationships for the first time. 26 patients, who met criteria for compulsive buying, self-monitored their pathological behaviour, their momentary mood and the occurrence of stressful events four times a day on a handheld computer for a period of two weeks. On days with excessive buying behaviour patients reported significantly more daily stressful events compared to days without pathological buying. Before the buying episode patients recorded significantly more positive emotions. The most common consequence of compulsive buying was a significant decrease of positive affects. Thus the results of the current study suggest that mood states and daily stressful events are associated with compulsive buying behaviour. Although mood got worse immediately after excessive buying, this negative consequence did not reduce the frequency of pathological behaviour. This could implicate a high presence-orientation and impulsivity of the patients.

  9. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. RESULTS...... made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer....

  10. How to Buy Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how to select the best training program for your needs. Includes information on deciding whether to develop your own program or buy one; identifying the kind of program you need; examining what is available; networking; choosing a supplier; and evaluating programs. (JOW)

  11. Evaluating the Buy or Rent Housing Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joseph M.

    This booklet offers guidelines by which a person can make an informed decision about whether buying or renting a house is the best individual alternative. Advantages and disadvantages of both buying and renting are listed. Cost considerations are discussed and compared along with such considerations as selection of the time to buy and estimation…

  12. Natural selection affects multiple aspects of genetic variation at putatively neutral sites across the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Albrechtsen, Anders; Li, Yingrui; Kim, Su Yeon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Vinckenbosch, Nicolas; Tian, Geng; Huerta-Sanchez, Emilia; Feder, Alison F; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Torben; Jiang, Tao; Witte, Daniel R; Sandbæk, Annelli; Hellmann, Ines; Lauritzen, Torsten; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Wang, Jun; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-10-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across the human genome. Previous work has documented a reduction in genetic diversity in regions of the genome with low recombination rates. However, it is unclear whether other summaries of genetic variation, like allele frequencies, are also correlated with recombination rate and whether these correlations can be explained solely by negative selection against deleterious mutations or whether positive selection acting on favorable alleles is also required. Here we attempt to address these questions by analyzing three different genome-wide resequencing datasets from European individuals. We document several significant correlations between different genomic features. In particular, we find that average minor allele frequency and diversity are reduced in regions of low recombination and that human diversity, human-chimp divergence, and average minor allele frequency are reduced near genes. Population genetic simulations show that either positive natural selection acting on favorable mutations or negative natural selection acting against deleterious mutations can explain these correlations. However, models with strong positive selection on nonsynonymous mutations and little negative selection predict a stronger negative correlation between neutral diversity and nonsynonymous divergence than observed in the actual data, supporting the importance of negative, rather than positive, selection throughout the genome. Further, we show that the widespread presence of weakly deleterious alleles, rather than a small number of strongly positively selected mutations, is responsible for the correlation between neutral genetic diversity and recombination rate. This work suggests that natural selection has affected multiple aspects of linked neutral variation throughout the human genome and that positive selection is not required to explain these observations.

  13. Evolutionary factors affecting Lactate dehydrogenase A and B variation in the Daphnia pulex species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristescu Melania E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for historical, demographic and selective factors affecting enzyme evolution can be obtained by examining nucleotide sequence variation in candidate genes such as Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh. Two closely related Daphnia species can be distinguished by their electrophoretic Ldh genotype and habitat. Daphnia pulex populations are fixed for the S allele and inhabit temporary ponds, while D. pulicaria populations are fixed for the F allele and inhabit large stratified lakes. One locus is detected in most allozyme surveys, but genome sequencing has revealed two genes, LdhA and LdhB. Results We sequenced both Ldh genes from 70 isolates of these two species from North America to determine if the association between Ldh genotype and habitat shows evidence for selection, and to elucidate the evolutionary history of the two genes. We found that alleles in the pond-dwelling D. pulex and in the lake-dwelling D. pulicaria form distinct groups at both loci, and the substitution of Glutamine (S for Glutamic acid (F at amino acid 229 likely causes the electrophoretic mobility shift in the LDHA protein. Nucleotide diversity in both Ldh genes is much lower in D. pulicaria than in D. pulex. Moreover, the lack of spatial structuring of the variation in both genes over a wide geographic area is consistent with a recent demographic expansion of lake populations. Neutrality tests indicate that both genes are under purifying selection, but the intensity is much stronger on LdhA. Conclusions Although lake-dwelling D. pulicaria hybridizes with the other lineages in the pulex species complex, it remains distinct ecologically and genetically. This ecological divergence, coupled with the intensity of purifying selection on LdhA and the strong association between its genotype and habitat, suggests that experimental studies would be useful to determine if variation in molecular function provides evidence that LDHA variants are adaptive.

  14. Intraspecies variation in BMR does not affect estimates of early hominin total daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 45 studies reporting basal metabolic rate (BMR) data for Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes to determine the effects of sex, age, and latitude (a proxy for climate, in humans only). BMR was normalized for body size using fat-free mass in humans and body mass in chimpanzees. We found no effect of sex in either species and no age effect in chimpanzees. In humans, juveniles differed significantly from adults (ANCOVA: P BMR and body size, and used them to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in four early hominin species. Our predictions concur with previous TEE estimates (i.e. Leonard and Robertson: Am J Phys Anthropol 102 (1997) 265-281), and support the conclusion that TEE increased greatly with H. erectus. Our results show that intraspecific variation in BMR does not affect TEE estimates for interspecific comparisons. Comparisons of more closely related groups such as humans and Neandertals, however, may benefit from consideration of this variation. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. DETERMINING CONSUMERS’ PROPENSITY TO BUY ROMANIAN PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu CRĂCIUN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigated the sources of “Buy Romanian” attitude. Weformulated three constructs namely Buy Romanian, nationalism andinternationalism and we measured them by developing three scales. Thescales were included in a questionnaire that was administered to 110respondents. Performing statistical analysis, the results showed us that BuyRomanian is influenced by the general opinion toward the Romanianproducts and by nationalism orientation. There is no correlation among BuyRomanian and internationalism. These findings are useful because in orderto stimulate buying behavior of Romanian products by Romanian consumers,it is necessary to spot the deepest motivations.

  16. Organizational buying behavior: An integrated model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational buying behavior is decision making process by which formal organizations establish the need for purchased products and services, and identify, evaluate, and choose among alternative brands and suppliers. Understanding the buying decision processes is essential to developing the marketing programs of companies that sell to organizations, or to 'industrial customers'. In business (industrial marketing, exchange relationships between the organizational selling center and the organizational buying center are crucial. Integrative model of organizational buying behavior offers a systematic framework in analyzing the complementary factors and what effect they have on the behavior of those involved in making buying decisions.

  17. Progranulin gene variation affects serum progranulin levels differently in Danish bipolar individuals compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Nielsen, Marit N; Thotakura, Gangadaar; Lee, Chris W; Nykjær, Anders; Mors, Ole; Glerup, Simon

    2017-06-01

    The identification of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder is of great importance and has the potential to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Recent studies have reported lower plasma progranulin levels in bipolar individuals compared with controls and association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the progranulin gene (GRN). In the present study, we investigated the effect of GRN and sortilin (SORT1) gene variation on serum progranulin levels in bipolar individuals and controls. In a Danish cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder and controls, we analysed the serum progranulin level (nbipolar=80, ncontrols=76) and five SNPs located within GRN and two SNPs near the SORT1 gene encoding sortilin, a progranulin scavenger receptor known to affect circulating progranulin levels (nbipolar=166, ncontrols=186). We observed no significant difference in the serum progranulin level between cases and controls and none of the analysed SNPs located within GRN or close to SORT1 were associated with bipolar disorder. Crude and adjusted (adjusted for case-control status, sex and age) linear regression analyses showed no effect of any SNPs on the serum progranulin level. However, we observed that the mean serum progranulin level in cases and controls is affected differently depending on the genotypes of two SNPs within GRN (rs2879096 and rs4792938). The sample size is relatively small and detailed information on medication and polarity of the disorder is not available. No correction for multiple testing was performed. Our study suggests that the potential of progranulin as a biomarker for bipolar disorder is genotype dependent.

  18. Patient-ventilator asynchrony affects pulse pressure variation prediction of fluid responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Antonio; Colombo, Davide; Cammarota, Gianmaria; De Lucia, Marta; Cecconi, Maurizio; Antonelli, Massimo; Corte, Francesco Della; Navalesi, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    During partial ventilatory support, pulse pressure variation (PPV) fails to adequately predict fluid responsiveness. This prospective study aims to investigate whether patient-ventilator asynchrony affects PPV prediction of fluid responsiveness during pressure support ventilation (PSV). This is an observational physiological study evaluating the response to a 500-mL fluid challenge in 54 patients receiving PSV, 27 without (Synch) and 27 with asynchronies (Asynch), as assessed by visual inspection of ventilator waveforms by 2 skilled blinded physicians. The area under the curve was 0.71 (confidence interval, 0.57-0.83) for the overall population, 0.86 (confidence interval, 0.68-0.96) in the Synch group, and 0.53 (confidence interval, 0.33-0.73) in the Asynch group (P = .018). Sensitivity and specificity of PPV were 78% and 89% in the Synch group and 36% and 46% in the Asynch group. Logistic regression showed that the PPV prediction was influenced by patient-ventilator asynchrony (odds ratio, 8.8 [2.0-38.0]; P < .003). Of the 27 patients without asynchronies, 12 had a tidal volume greater than or equal to 8 mL/kg; in this subgroup, the rate of correct classification was 100%. Patient-ventilator asynchrony affects PPV performance during partial ventilatory support influencing its efficacy in predicting fluid responsiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variation in orbitofrontal cortex volume: relation to sex, emotion regulation and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welborn, B Locke; Papademetris, Xenophon; Reis, Deidre L; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Bloise, Suzanne M; Gray, Jeremy R

    2009-12-01

    Sex differences in brain structure have been examined extensively but are not completely understood, especially in relation to possible functional correlates. Our two aims in this study were to investigate sex differences in brain structure, and to investigate a possible relation between orbitofrontal cortex subregions and affective individual differences. We used tensor-based morphometry to estimate local brain volume from MPRAGE images in 117 healthy right-handed adults (58 female), age 18-40 years. We entered estimates of local brain volume as the dependent variable in a GLM, controlling for age, intelligence and whole-brain volume. Men had larger left planum temporale. Women had larger ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), right lateral orbitofrontal (rlOFC), cerebellum, and bilateral basal ganglia and nearby white matter. vmPFC but not rlOFC volume covaried with self-reported emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal, suppression), expressivity of positive emotions (but not of negative), strength of emotional impulses, and cognitive but not somatic anxiety. vmPFC volume statistically mediated sex differences in emotion suppression. The results confirm prior reports of sex differences in orbitofrontal cortex structure, and are the first to show that normal variation in vmPFC volume is systematically related to emotion regulation and affective individual differences.

  20. IMPULSIVE BUYING PADA DEWASA AWAL DI YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Henrietta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available T his research aimed to know the impulsive buying tendency of early adult in Yogyakarta. Impulsive buying was a buying activity without cosideration, and accompanied by strong emotional response. High impulsive buying tendency occured between age 18 to 39 years old. This research was a quantitative descriptive research with 395 subjects. Generally, the impulsive buying tendency in this research was low. Based on comparation between man and woman, it was found that woman was more impulsive than man. The result also showed that married person was more impulsive than unmarried person. Based on the types of job, there was several different among those types. But there was no different of impulsive buying tendency based on the education background level. Keywords: impulsive buying, early adult

  1. Compulsive buying: a cognitive-behavioural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Stephen; Bolton, Jessica V

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) has only relatively recently become a topic of interest for researchers and clinicians alike. This hiatus means that (unlike other impulse control disorders) there is currently little theoretical guidance for clinicians attempting to intervene with CB clients and no established model for researchers to evaluate, distil and refine. The current paper summarizes and organizes the main extant identified factors in the CB literature into four distinct phases: (1) antecedents; (2) internal/external triggers; (3) the act of buying; and finally, (4) post-purchase. The relationships and interactions between the identified phases are then hypothesized, within the proposed cognitive-behavioural model. The model distinguishes the key cognitive, affective and behavioural factors within each phase and identifies how CB can become self-reinforcing over time. The over-arching treatment implication is that CB can be re-conceptualized as chronic and repetitive failure in self-regulation efforts, and that psychological interventions can accommodate this in attempting to facilitate change. A successful case example is provided of a 'co-dependent compulsive buyer' using the model, with psychometric evaluation of key aspects of CB and mental health at assessment, termination and 6-month follow-up. The research and clinical implications of the proposed model are discussed, alongside identified short-comings and the need for psychological services to respond appropriately to CB clients seeking help.

  2. Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying behavior in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Lorrin M; Faber, Ronald J; Aboujaoude, Elias; Large, Michael D; Serpe, Richard T

    2006-10-01

    Compulsive buying (uncontrolled urges to buy, with resulting significant adverse consequences) has been estimated to affect from 1.8% to 16% of the adult U.S. population. To the authors' knowledge, no study has used a large general population sample to estimate its prevalence. The authors conducted a random sample, national household telephone survey in the spring and summer of 2004 and interviewed 2,513 adults. The interviews addressed buying attitudes and behaviors, their consequences, and the respondents' financial and demographic data. The authors used a clinically validated screening instrument, the Compulsive Buying Scale, to classify respondents as either compulsive buyers or not. The rate of response was 56.3%, which compares favorably with rates in federal national health surveys. The cooperation rate was 97.6%. Respondents included a higher percentage of women and people ages 55 and older than the U.S. adult population. The estimated point prevalence of compulsive buying among respondents was 5.8% (by gender: 6.0% for women, 5.5% for men). The gender-adjusted prevalence rate was 5.8%. Compared with other respondents, compulsive buyers were younger, and a greater proportion reported incomes under 50,000 US dollars. They exhibited more maladaptive responses on most consumer behavior measures and were more than four times less likely to pay off credit card balances in full. A study using clinically valid interviews is needed to evaluate these results. The emotional and functional toll of compulsive buying and the frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders suggests that studies of treatments and social interventions are warranted.

  3. Genetic variation in a member of the laminin gene family affects variation in body composition in Drosophila and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Gary R

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to map candidate loci influencing naturally occurring variation in triacylglycerol (TAG storage using quantitative complementation procedures in Drosophila melanogaster. Based on our results from Drosophila, we performed a human population-based association study to investigate the effect of natural variation in LAMA5 gene on body composition in humans. Results We identified four candidate genes that contributed to differences in TAG storage between two strains of D. melanogaster, including Laminin A (LanA, which is a member of the α subfamily of laminin chains. We confirmed the effects of this gene using a viable LanA mutant and showed that female flies homozygous for the mutation had significantly lower TAG storage, body weight, and total protein content than control flies. Drosophila LanA is closely related to human LAMA5 gene, which maps to the well-replicated obesity-linkage region on chromosome 20q13.2-q13.3. We tested for association between three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the human LAMA5 gene and variation in body composition and lipid profile traits in a cohort of unrelated women of European American (EA and African American (AA descent. In both ethnic groups, we found that SNP rs659822 was associated with weight (EA: P = 0.008; AA: P = 0.05 and lean mass (EA: P= 0.003; AA: P = 0.03. We also found this SNP to be associated with height (P = 0.01, total fat mass (P = 0.01, and HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.003 but only in EA women. Finally, significant associations of SNP rs944895 with serum TAG levels (P = 0.02 and HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.03 were observed in AA women. Conclusion Our results suggest an evolutionarily conserved role of a member of the laminin gene family in contributing to variation in weight and body composition.

  4. Consumer Online Grocery Buying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories - the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior - in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish (n=1222) and Swedish (n=1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Lisrel results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude...

  5. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominiek Vangansbeke

    Full Text Available The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes.

  6. Diurnal Temperature Variations Affect Development of a Herbivorous Arthropod Pest and its Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen’s inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen’s inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  7. Genome size variation affects song attractiveness in grasshoppers: evidence for sexual selection against large genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielzeth, Holger; Streitner, Corinna; Lampe, Ulrike; Franzke, Alexandra; Reinhold, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Genome size is largely uncorrelated to organismal complexity and adaptive scenarios. Genetic drift as well as intragenomic conflict have been put forward to explain this observation. We here study the impact of genome size on sexual attractiveness in the bow-winged grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Grasshoppers show particularly large variation in genome size due to the high prevalence of supernumerary chromosomes that are considered (mildly) selfish, as evidenced by non-Mendelian inheritance and fitness costs if present in high numbers. We ranked male grasshoppers by song characteristics that are known to affect female preferences in this species and scored genome sizes of attractive and unattractive individuals from the extremes of this distribution. We find that attractive singers have significantly smaller genomes, demonstrating that genome size is reflected in male courtship songs and that females prefer songs of males with small genomes. Such a genome size dependent mate preference effectively selects against selfish genetic elements that tend to increase genome size. The data therefore provide a novel example of how sexual selection can reinforce natural selection and can act as an agent in an intragenomic arms race. Furthermore, our findings indicate an underappreciated route of how choosy females could gain indirect benefits. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Ponasenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE.

  9. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkovskaya, Natalia V.; Kondyukova, Natalia V.; Odarenko, Yuri N.; Kazachek, Yana V.; Tsepokina, Anna V.; Barbarash, Leonid S.

    2017-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE. PMID:28659664

  10. Cognitive behavioral therapy for compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Burgard, Melissa; Faber, Ron; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina

    2006-12-01

    To our knowledge, no psychotherapy treatment studies for compulsive buying have been published. The authors conducted a pilot trial comparing the efficacy of a group cognitive behavioral intervention designed for the treatment of compulsive buying to a waiting list control. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned to receive active treatment and 11 to the waiting list control group. The results at the end of treatment showed significant advantages for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over the waiting list in reductions in the number of compulsive buying episodes and time spent buying, as well as scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale--Shopping Version and the Compulsive Buying Scale. Improvement was well-maintained at 6-month follow-up. The pilot data suggests that a cognitive behavioral intervention can be quite effective in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder. This model requires further testing.

  11. Naturally occurring genetic variation affecting the expression of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie-Ahlberg, C C; Bewley, G C

    1983-10-01

    Genetic variation among second and third chromosomes from natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster affects the activity level of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.8; GPDH) at both the larval and the adult stages. The genetic effects, represented by differences among chromosome substitution lines with coisogenic backgrounds, are very repeatable over time and are generally substantially larger than environmental and measurement error effects. Neither the GPDH allozyme, the geographic origin, nor the karyotype of the chromosome contributes significantly to GPDH activity variation. The strong relationship between GPDH activity level and GPDH-specific CRM level, as well as our failure to find any thermostability variation among the lines, indicates that most, if not all, of the activity variation is due to variation in the steady-state quantity of enzyme rather than in its catalytic properties. The lack of a strong relationship between adult and larval activity levels suggests the importance of stage- or isozyme-specific effects.

  12. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....

  13. The Effect of Visual Merchandising on Impulsive Buying with Impulsive Buying Tendency As Moderating Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Novia

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to classify the female consumer demographic segments linked by impulsive buying, to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying, and to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying with impulsive buying tendency as moderating variable on customers of Gaudi in Taman Anggrek Mall. This research is quantitative research with a total sample of 100 people. Data were obtained by distributing questionnaires to the respondents by cross secti...

  14. Social context-induced song variation affects female behavior and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Woolley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Social cues modulate the performance of communicative behaviors in a range of species, including humans, and such changes can make the communication signal more salient. In songbirds, males use song to attract females, and song organization can differ depending on the audience to which a male sings. For example, male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata change their songs in subtle ways when singing to a female (directed song compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected song, and some of these changes depend on altered neural activity from a specialized forebrain-basal ganglia circuit, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP. In particular, variable activity in the AFP during undirected song is thought to actively enable syllable variability, whereas the lower and less-variable AFP firing during directed singing is associated with more stereotyped song. Consequently, directed song has been suggested to reflect a "performance" state, and undirected song a form of vocal motor "exploration." However, this hypothesis predicts that directed-undirected song differences, despite their subtlety, should matter to female zebra finches, which is a question that has not been investigated. We tested female preferences for this natural variation in song in a behavioral approach assay, and we found that both mated and socially naive females could discriminate between directed and undirected song-and strongly preferred directed song. These preferences, which appeared to reflect attention especially to aspects of song variability controlled by the AFP, were enhanced by experience, as they were strongest for mated females responding to their mate's directed songs. We then measured neural activity using expression of the immediate early gene product ZENK, and found that social context and song familiarity differentially modulated the number of ZENK-expressing cells in telencephalic auditory areas. Specifically, the number of ZENK-expressing cells in the

  15. Preparedness for pandemics: does variation among states affect the nation as a whole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Margaret A; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y; Grefenstette, John; Keane, Christopher R; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Quinn, Sandra C; Stebbins, Samuel; Sweeney, Patricia M; Burke, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    Since states' public health systems differ as to pandemic preparedness, this study explored whether such heterogeneity among states could affect the nation's overall influenza rate. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention produced a uniform set of scores on a 100-point scale from its 2008 national evaluation of state preparedness to distribute materiel from the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS). This study used these SNS scores to represent each state's relative preparedness to distribute influenza vaccine in a timely manner and assumed that "optimal" vaccine distribution would reach at least 35% of the state's population within 4 weeks. The scores were used to determine the timing of vaccine distribution for each state: each 10-point decrement of score below 90 added an additional delay increment to the distribution time. A large-scale agent-based computational model simulated an influenza pandemic in the US population. In this synthetic population each individual or agent had an assigned household, age, workplace or school destination, daily commute, and domestic intercity air travel patterns. Simulations compared influenza case rates both nationally and at the state level under 3 scenarios: no vaccine distribution (baseline), optimal vaccine distribution in all states, and vaccine distribution time modified according to state-specific SNS score. Between optimal and SNS-modified scenarios, attack rates rose not only in low-scoring states but also in high-scoring states, demonstrating an interstate spread of infections. Influenza rates were sensitive to variation of the SNS-modified scenario (delay increments of 1 day versus 5 days), but the interstate effect remained. The effectiveness of a response activity such as vaccine distribution could benefit from national standards and preparedness funding allocated in part to minimize interstate disparities.

  16. Variation in Honey Bee Gut Microbial Diversity Affected by Ontogenetic Stage, Age and Geographic Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  17. Phylogenetic estimates of diversification rate are affected by molecular rate variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchêne, D A; Hua, X; Bromham, L

    2017-10-01

    Molecular phylogenies are increasingly being used to investigate the patterns and mechanisms of macroevolution. In particular, node heights in a phylogeny can be used to detect changes in rates of diversification over time. Such analyses rest on the assumption that node heights in a phylogeny represent the timing of diversification events, which in turn rests on the assumption that evolutionary time can be accurately predicted from DNA sequence divergence. But there are many influences on the rate of molecular evolution, which might also influence node heights in molecular phylogenies, and thus affect estimates of diversification rate. In particular, a growing number of studies have revealed an association between the net diversification rate estimated from phylogenies and the rate of molecular evolution. Such an association might, by influencing the relative position of node heights, systematically bias estimates of diversification time. We simulated the evolution of DNA sequences under several scenarios where rates of diversification and molecular evolution vary through time, including models where diversification and molecular evolutionary rates are linked. We show that commonly used methods, including metric-based, likelihood and Bayesian approaches, can have a low power to identify changes in diversification rate when molecular substitution rates vary. Furthermore, the association between the rates of speciation and molecular evolution rate can cause the signature of a slowdown or speedup in speciation rates to be lost or misidentified. These results suggest that the multiple sources of variation in molecular evolutionary rates need to be considered when inferring macroevolutionary processes from phylogenies. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Pathological buying and partnership status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Mitchell, James E; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-05-30

    This pilot study investigated the partnership status and the level of pathological buying (PB) in 157 female patients with PB and 1153 women from a German population-based sample. Slightly more than half of both samples were currently living with a partner. The results suggest a protective effect of being in a couple relationship in the representative sample. In contrast, having a partner was not related to the severity of PB among patients. Future studies should address the question of whether the characteristics and quality of partnership have an impact on the severity and course of PB, and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Habitat Fragmentation Differentially Affects Genetic Variation, Phenotypic Plasticity and Survival in Populations of a Gypsum Endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matesanz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation, i.e., fragment size and isolation, can differentially alter patterns of neutral and quantitative genetic variation, fitness and phenotypic plasticity of plant populations, but their effects have rarely been tested simultaneously. We assessed the combined effects of size and connectivity on these aspects of genetic and phenotypic variation in populations of Centaurea hyssopifolia, a narrow endemic gypsophile that previously showed performance differences associated with fragmentation. We grew 111 maternal families sampled from 10 populations that differed in their fragment size and connectivity in a common garden, and characterized quantitative genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity to drought for key functional traits, and plant survival, as a measure of population fitness. We also assessed neutral genetic variation within and among populations using eight microsatellite markers. Although C. hyssopifolia is a narrow endemic gypsophile, we found substantial neutral genetic variation and quantitative variation for key functional traits. The partition of genetic variance indicated that a higher proportion of variation was found within populations, which is also consistent with low population differentiation in molecular markers, functional traits and their plasticity. This, combined with the generally small effect of habitat fragmentation suggests that gene flow among populations is not restricted, despite large differences in fragment size and isolation. Importantly, population’s similarities in genetic variation and plasticity did not reflect the lower survival observed in isolated populations. Overall, our results indicate that, although the species consists of genetically variable populations able to express functional plasticity, such aspects of adaptive potential may not always reflect populations’ survival. Given the differential effects of habitat connectivity on functional traits, genetic variation and fitness

  20. Type 2 diabetes mellitus interacts with obesity and common variations in PLTP to affect plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; Vergeer, M.; de Vries, R.; Kappelle, P. J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dullaart RPF, Vergeer M, de Vries R, Kappelle PJWH, Dallinga-Thie GM (University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen; and Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam; The Netherlands). Type 2 diabetes mellitus interacts with obesity and common variations in PLTP to affect

  1. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, Ron; Desai, Jigar; Lazar, Gloria; King, Benjamin; Rollins, Jarod; Spurr, Melissa; Joseph, Jamie; Kadambi, Sindhuja; Li, Yang; Cherry, Allison; Matteson, Paul G.; Paigen, Beverly; Millonig, James H.

    Korstanje R, Desai J, Lazar G, King B, Rollins J, Spurr M, Joseph J, Kadambi S, Li Y, Cherry A, Matteson PG, Paigen B, Millonig JH. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects. Physiol Genomics 35:

  2. Repeat Buying Behavior for Ornamental Plants: A Consumer Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Marco A.; Collart, Alba J.; Hall, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper used an electronic survey conducted in Texas to study the main factors affecting the frequency of purchase, measured in transactions per month, for ornamental plants. While we found several differences in demographic characteristics of respondents, the two major factors impacting the frequency of buying for ornamental plants were the purpose of the purchase (self use vs. gifts) and seasonality. Respondents with a college degree in the older age groups, and higher income levels had ...

  3. Virtual store atmosphere in internet retailing: Measuring virtual retail store layout effects on consumer buying behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vrechopoulos, Adam P

    2001-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The research presented in this dissertation is concerned with the effects of the "virtual store atmosphere" on consumer buying behaviour within the context of Internet retailing. More specifically, the focus of this research is to investigate whether the virtual store layout, as a major virtual store atmosphere determinant, affects consumer buying behaviour during shopping activity w...

  4. Important motivators for buying green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Kianpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and most importantly motivational factors were identified by T test. Findings: Results show that 1 Environmental Concern, Perceived Consumer Effectiveness, Consumer Knowledge 2 Laws and regulation and 3 Promotional Tools’ were the most important of motivators. Practical implications: The results could help companies, authorities, governments, producers, sellers to know what motivate customers to buy green products and persuade the customers for buying them. Social implications: Furthermore this research will indirectly contribute to increase the customers and public intention for buying green products which in turn will help to solve some of environmental issues and make less environmental side effect caused by products. It is notable that motivated consumers for buying green product will finally expect to have healthy life and clean environment which leads to a healthy and clean society. Originality/value: This article contributes to the literature on the customers’ intention for buying green products by filling the gap in the concrete issues of the customers’ motivation.

  5. Impacts of renewables obligation with recycling of the buy-out fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huizhong

    2012-01-01

    Tradable green certificate (TGC) or renewables obligation (RO) programs typically include a buy-out option, but only in the UK the buy-out fund is redistributed back to the suppliers who have submitted the certificates. We show that when the buy-out fund is redistributed, the supply of renewable energy responds positively to the market conditions and renewables target. Without it, the buy-out rate is equivalent to a maximum price. However, redistribution of the buy-out fund may induce strategic behavior from producers who have market power. We analyze the impacts of market power and integration on the supply of conventional and renewable energy under the RO program with the buy-out fund recycled, and devise some empirical tests to predict these impacts. Policy implications of this study are discussed with special reference to the new FiT CfD system. - Highlights: ► The renewables obligation (RO) program in UK redistributes the buy-out fund to those who have submitted ROCs. ► Price of ROCs and hence the renewable energy output increases with the shortfall of renewable energy relative to the RO target. ► Empirical tests suggest that RO in the UK is likely to increase renewables output. ► Integration between conventional and renewables production is unlikely to affect the performance of RO program. ► RO with redistribution is more responsive to market and social preferences than FiT programs.

  6. Compulsive buying and borderline personality symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Sellbom, Martin; Bidwell, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between compulsive buying and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptomatology--two disorders possibly linked through impulsivity. Using a survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of nonemergent female outpatients from an obstetrics/gynecology clinic, the authors assessed compulsive buying with the compulsive buying scale (CBS) and BPD symptomatology through the BPD scale of the personality diagnostic questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4) and the self-harm Inventory (SHI). In this sample, 8% of Caucasian women and 9% of African-American women scored positively for compulsive buying. The correlations between scores on the CBS and the PDQ-4 and SHI were 0.43 and 0.41, respectively-both statistically significant at the p buying and BPD, particularly among African-American women.

  7. Does litter size variation affect models of terrestrial carnivore extinction risk and management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor S Devenish-Nelson

    Full Text Available Individual variation in both survival and reproduction has the potential to influence extinction risk. Especially for rare or threatened species, reliable population models should adequately incorporate demographic uncertainty. Here, we focus on an important form of demographic stochasticity: variation in litter sizes. We use terrestrial carnivores as an example taxon, as they are frequently threatened or of economic importance. Since data on intraspecific litter size variation are often sparse, it is unclear what probability distribution should be used to describe the pattern of litter size variation for multiparous carnivores.We used litter size data on 32 terrestrial carnivore species to test the fit of 12 probability distributions. The influence of these distributions on quasi-extinction probabilities and the probability of successful disease control was then examined for three canid species - the island fox Urocyon littoralis, the red fox Vulpes vulpes, and the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. Best fitting probability distributions differed among the carnivores examined. However, the discretised normal distribution provided the best fit for the majority of species, because variation among litter-sizes was often small. Importantly, however, the outcomes of demographic models were generally robust to the distribution used.These results provide reassurance for those using demographic modelling for the management of less studied carnivores in which litter size variation is estimated using data from species with similar reproductive attributes.

  8. Factors affecting variations in time of the remote effects of depression in the surroundings of Thorez opencast mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, G.

    1976-01-01

    Dewatering operations have been carried out in Thorez opencast coal mine since 1960 in order to increase the stability of water-bearing strata and to create safe working conditions. Since that time some 0.1 billion cu.m of water have been drained from underground reservoirs, resulting in the formation of a zone of depression 10 to 15 km in radius. Hydrogeological and technical factors affecting the variations in time of the remote effects of depression are analysed. It is found that the decisive influence is the variation in the volume of accumulated water, and to a lesser extent, the effect of the positioning of the drainage system.

  9. Brand awareness and buying intention in the online environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the Internet marketing continually rises. However, there is a lack of the studies which investigate the effectiveness of the online campaigns aimed at the users in the transitional countries. This research aims to explore the correlation between the time that user spend on a website and their awareness of the brand advertised therein, as well as users' intention to buy the advertised product or brand. It is established that both demographic characteristics and time spent on the website would influence perception and buying intention towards brand. These findings can affect the design and layout of the virtual stores, in order to increase sales in these online shops and enhance consumers' experience. In addition, the results open new avenues for the research in the Internet marketing both in Serbia and in region.

  10. Study of compulsive buying in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, M; Tassain, V; Solomon, J; Adès, J

    1997-04-01

    Compulsive buying is defined by the presence of repetitive impulsive and excessive buying leading to personal and familial distress. Patients with this disorder also suffer from mood disorder in 50% to 100% of the cases studied, and antidepressants help to decrease the frequency and the severity of uncontrolled buying. To define the correlation between compulsive buying and depression, we assessed this behavior among 119 inpatients answering to DSM-III-R criteria for major depressive episode. Additionally, we evaluated for comorbidity in the patients suffering from compulsive buying and in those free from this disorder. Impulsivity and sensation seeking were also compared in the two groups. Diagnosis of compulsive buying was made using standardized criteria and a specific rating scale. Diagnosis of depression and assessment of comorbidity were investigated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a modified version of the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview. All patients answered the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale and the Barrat Impulsivity Rating Scale. The prevalence of the disorder was 31.9%; 38 of the 119 depressed patients were diagnosed as compulsive buyers. Patients from the compulsive buying group were younger in age, more often women than men, and more frequently unmarried. They presented more often than others with recurrent depression (relative risk = 1.4), disorders associated with deficits in impulse control such as kleptomania (relative risk = 8.5) or bulimia (relative risk = 2.8), benzodiazepine abuse or dependence disorder (relative risk = 4.7), and two or more dependence disorders (relative risk = 1.99). Subscores for experience seeking using the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale were significantly higher (p = .04) and scores of impulsivity were much higher (p buying behavior. Compulsive buying is frequent among depressed patients. In most cases, the behavior is associated with other impulse control disorders or dependence

  11. Rethinking how retail buyers make buying decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....

  12. Oceanic conditions and their variations affecting behavior of radionuclides in marine environment off Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    In order to elucidate the behavior of radioactive nuclides liberated from the Rokkasho reprocessing plant into the ocean, the characteristics of oceanic region around this plant were clarified by the measurements of oceanic circulation, flow rate and its seasonal variation. Further the computer simulation model for the reconstruction and prediction of oceanic conditions off Rokkasho was prepared. The whole image on this oceanic region was therefore reconstructed using this model. (M.H.)

  13. 24 CFR 1710.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risks of buying land. 1710.107... § 1710.107 Risks of buying land. (a) The next page shall be headed “Risks of Buying Land” and shall... Property Report portion, the following statement shall be added beneath the “Risks of Buying Land” under a...

  14. Organizational Buying Behavior of Selected Leather Footwear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    financial position, procedural compliance and communication system are considerably .... exchange thus, it is important to understand organizational buying behavior. (Anderson et al. ..... that they have a clear picture of the study. Moreover the ...

  15. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula - buying, preparing, storing, and feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  16. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik; Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-03-04

    To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. Cross sectional study. Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. Wine buyers made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer.

  17. Business spending markets and buying behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Čedomir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most buyers on the business spending markets use one or more of the following buying methods: description, inspection, sampling and negotiating. Products are usually standardized according to their characteristics (size, shape, weight or color. The buyer is able to buy only depending in the description or quantity or other characteristic. In some cases buyer may specify business brand or its equivalent when describing desired product.

  18. Neurocognitive functioning in compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Katherine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2014-02-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits. Twenty-three non-treatment-seeking compulsive buyers (mean age, 22.3±3.5; 60.9% female) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age, 21.1±3.4, 60.9% female) underwent neurocognitive assessment. We predicted that the following cognitive domains would be impaired in CB: spatial working memory (Spatial Working Memory test), response inhibition (Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift task), and decision making (Cambridge Gambling Task). Compared with controls, individuals with CB exhibited significant impairments in response inhibition (P=.043), risk adjustment during decision making (P=.010), and spatial working memory (P=.041 total errors; P=.044 strategy scores). Deficits were of large effect size (Cohen's d, 0.6 to 1.05). These pilot data suggest that individuals with CB experience problems in several distinct cognitive domains, supporting a likely neurobiological overlap between CB and other putative behavioral and substance addictions. These findings may have implications for shared treatment approaches as well as how we currently classify and understand CB.

  19. Spatiotemporal variation characteristics and related affecting factors of dissolved carbohydrates in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen; Wang, Qi; Yang, Gui-Peng; Gao, Xian-Chi; Wu, Guan-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Carbohydrates are the largest identified fraction of dissolved organic carbon and play an important role in biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Seawater samples were collected from the East China Sea (ECS) during June and October 2012 to study the spatiotemporal distributions of total dissolved carbohydrates (TCHOs) constituents, including dissolved monosaccharides (MCHOs) and polysaccharides (PCHOs). The concentrations of TCHOs, MCHOs and PCHOs showed significant differences between summer and autumn 2012, and exhibited an evident diurnal variation, with high values occurring in the daytime. Phytoplankton biomass was identified as the primary factor responsible for seasonal and diurnal variations of dissolved carbohydrates in the ECS. The TCHOs, MCHOs and PCHOs distributions in the study area displayed similar distribution patterns, with high concentrations appearing in the coastal water. The influences of chlorophyll-a, salinity and nutrients on the distributions of these carbohydrates were examined. A carbohydrate enrichment in the near-bottom water was found at some stations, implying that there might be an important source of carbohydrate in the deep water or bottom sediment.

  20. [Compulsive buying or oniomania: an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boermans, J A J; Egger, J I M

    2010-01-01

    Compulsive buyers feel a continual urge to buy things, irrespective of their financial means. Interest in compulsive buying has increased in the last 30 to 40 years. Since excessive buying is a regularly occurring feature of various illnesses encountered in clinical practice, one wonders whether it should be regarded as a sign of the times, as a symptom of a psychiatric illness or as a distinct psychiatric syndrome. To gain insight into the concept of compulsive buying. We searched the literature via Medline, PubMed and PsycInfo for the period from 1966 to August 2008. results Compulsive buying is a relatively unknown and poorly defined phenomenon, despite its high incidence and high comorbidity. It is characterised by chronic, repetetive behaviour; it occurs mainly among women and should be classified as an impulsive-control disorder nos. Current aetiological models lack explanatory power and, so far, the most successful treatment results seem to have been achieved with behavioural therapy. Compulsive buying should be considered from a neuroscientific perspective. Future research needs to have a neuropsychiatric focus and a contextual psychological and behavioural analytical approach in which inhibition, self-control and rule-governed behaviour play a central role.

  1. Variation in timing of ossification affects inferred heterochrony of cranial bones in Lissamphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Christopher A; Jorgensen, Michael; Tulenko, Frank; Harrington, Sean

    2014-09-01

    The evolutionary origin of Lissamphibia likely involved heterochrony, as demonstrated by the biphasic lifestyles of most extant orders, differences between Anura (with tadpole-to-froglet metamorphosis) and Urodela (which lack strongly defined metamorphosis), and the appearance of direct development among separate lineages of frogs. Patterns in the timing of appearance of skeletal elements (i.e., ossification sequence data) represent a possible source of information for understanding the origin of Lissamphibia, and with the advent of analytical methods to directly optimize these data onto known phylogenies, there has been a renewed interest in assessing the role of changes in these developmental events. However, little attention has been given to the potential impact of variation in ossification sequence data--this is particularly surprising given that different criteria for collecting these data have been employed. Herein, new and previously published ossification data are compiled and all pairs of data for same-species comparisons are selected. Analyses are run to assess the impact of using data that were collected by different methodologies: (1) wild- versus lab-raised animals; (2) different criteria for recognizing timing of ossification; and (3) randomly selecting ossification sequences for species from which multiple studies have been published, but for which the data were collected by different criteria. Parsimov-based genetic inference is utilized to map ossification sequence data onto an existing phylogeny to reconstruct ancestral sequences of ossification and infer instances of heterochrony. All analyses succeeded in optimizing sequence data on internal nodes and instances of heterochrony were identified. However, among all analyses little congruence was found in reconstructed ancestral sequences or among inferred instances of heterochrony. These results indicate a high degree of variation in timing of ossification, and suggest a cautionary note about use

  2. Evaluating the Genetic, Hormonal, and Exogenous Factors Affecting Somatic Copy Number Variation in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    assess genomic instability in different mammary epithelial populations in vivo and in vitro, 2) determine how mutations in heritable breast cancer genes...respectively, located on chromosome 6. When loci harboring the shRNAs are deleted by a spontaneous mutation event, affected cells become GFP and/or RFP...assay adapted from the yeast genetics literature, we will determine whether baseline deletion rates in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs

  3. Natural selection affects multiple aspects of genetic variation at putatively peutral sites across the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Albrechtsen, Anders; Li, Yingrui

    2011-01-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across the human genome. Previous work has documented a reduction in genetic diversity in regions of the genome with low recombination rates. However, it is unclear whether other summaries...... these questions by analyzing three different genome-wide resequencing datasets from European individuals. We document several significant correlations between different genomic features. In particular, we find that average minor allele frequency and diversity are reduced in regions of low recombination...... and that human diversity, human-chimp divergence, and average minor allele frequency are reduced near genes. Population genetic simulations show that either positive natural selection acting on favorable mutations or negative natural selection acting against deleterious mutations can explain these correlations...

  4. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  5. Realistic diversity loss and variation in soil depth independently affect community-level plant nitrogen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmants, Paul C; Zavaleta, Erika S; Wolf, Amelia A

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated that diverse plant communities use nitrogen (N) more completely and efficiently, with implications for how species conservation efforts might influence N cycling and retention in terrestrial ecosystems. However, most such experiments have randomly manipulated species richness and minimized environmental heterogeneity, two design aspects that may reduce applicability to real ecosystems. Here we present results from an experiment directly comparing how realistic and randomized plant species losses affect plant N use across a gradient of soil depth in a native-dominated serpentine grassland in California. We found that the strength of the species richness effect on plant N use did not increase with soil depth in either the realistic or randomized species loss scenarios, indicating that the increased vertical heterogeneity conferred by deeper soils did not lead to greater complementarity among species in this ecosystem. Realistic species losses significantly reduced plant N uptake and altered N-use efficiency, while randomized species losses had no effect on plant N use. Increasing soil depth positively affected plant N uptake in both loss order scenarios but had a weaker effect on plant N use than did realistic species losses. Our results illustrate that realistic species losses can have functional consequences that differ distinctly from randomized losses, and that species diversity effects can be independent of and outweigh those of environmental heterogeneity on ecosystem functioning. Our findings also support the value of conservation efforts aimed at maintaining biodiversity to help buffer ecosystems against increasing anthropogenic N loading.

  6. Addictive buying: causes, processes, and symbolic meanings. Thematic analysis of a buying addict's diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ureta, Irene

    2007-11-01

    The aims of this study were twofold. On the one hand, to reach an understanding of, and to illustrate the experience of addictive buying and, on the other, to throw some light on the controversial subject of addicts' personal responsibility for their behavior. With these aims, a thematic analysis of an extensive diary written by a compulsive buyer is presented. Four themes emerge from the analysis: the defining characteristics of addiction to buying that determine the boundary separating it from other forms of impulsive or careless buying; several causal factors; the role that money and material objects play in family relationships and friendships through the symbolic meanings they adopt; and the relationship of personal values with impulsiveness and self-control. In view of the results, the moral model of addiction to buying is discussed, and an explanatory model of the ambivalence that is characteristic of addiction to buying is proposed, based on a personal hierarchy of values.

  7. Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eBarman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS. Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e. the myopia risk allele showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point towards pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans.

  8. Student Buy-In Toward Formative Assessments: The Influence of Student Factors and Importance for Course Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen R. Brazeal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Formative assessment (FA techniques, such as pre-class assignments, in-class activities, and post-class homework, have been shown to improve student learning. While many students find these techniques beneficial, some students may not understand how they support learning or may resist their implementation. Improving our understanding of FA buy-in has important implications, since buy-in can potentially affect whether students fully engage with and learn from FAs. We investigated FAs in 12 undergraduate biology courses to understand which student characteristics influenced buy-in toward FAs and whether FA buy-in predicted course success. We administered a mid-semester survey that probed student perceptions toward several different FA types, including activities occurring before, during, and after class. The survey included closed-ended questions aligned with a theoretical framework outlining key FA objectives. We used factor analysis to calculate an overall buy-in score for each student and general linear models to determine whether certain characteristics were associated with buy-in and whether buy-in predicted exam scores and course grades. We found that unfixed student qualities, such as perceptions, behaviors, and beliefs, consistently predicted FA buy-in, while fixed characteristics, including demographics, previous experiences, and incoming performance metrics, had more limited effects. Importantly, we found that higher buy-in toward most FA types predicted higher exam scores and course grades, even when controlling for demographic characteristics and previous academic performance. We further discuss steps that instructors can take to maximize student buy-in toward FAs.

  9. Natural variation of piRNA expression affects immunity to transposable elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Ryazansky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Drosophila germline, transposable elements (TEs are silenced by PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA that originate from distinct genomic regions termed piRNA clusters and are processed by PIWI-subfamily Argonaute proteins. Here, we explore the variation in the ability to restrain an alien TE in different Drosophila strains. The I-element is a retrotransposon involved in the phenomenon of I-R hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genomes of R strains do not contain active I-elements, but harbour remnants of ancestral I-related elements. The permissivity to I-element activity of R females, called reactivity, varies considerably in natural R populations, indicating the existence of a strong natural polymorphism in defense systems targeting transposons. To reveal the nature of such polymorphisms, we compared ovarian small RNAs between R strains with low and high reactivity and show that reactivity negatively correlates with the ancestral I-element-specific piRNA content. Analysis of piRNA clusters containing remnants of I-elements shows increased expression of the piRNA precursors and enrichment by the Heterochromatin Protein 1 homolog, Rhino, in weak R strains, which is in accordance with stronger piRNA expression by these regions. To explore the nature of the differences in piRNA production, we focused on two R strains, weak and strong, and showed that the efficiency of maternal inheritance of piRNAs as well as the I-element copy number are very similar in both strains. At the same time, germline and somatic uni-strand piRNA clusters generate more piRNAs in strains with low reactivity, suggesting the relationship between the efficiency of primary piRNA production and variable response to TE invasions. The strength of adaptive genome defense is likely driven by naturally occurring polymorphisms in the rapidly evolving piRNA pathway proteins. We hypothesize that hyper-efficient piRNA production is contributing to elimination of a telomeric

  10. Variation in wind and piscivorous predator fields affecting the survival of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, K.D.; Manning, J.P.; Link, Jason S.; Gilbert, J.R.; Gilbert, A.T.; O'Connell, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Observations relevant to the North American stock complex of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., suggest that marine mortality is influenced by variation in predation pressure affecting post-smolts during the first months at sea. This hypothesis was tested for Gulf of Maine (GOM) stocks by examining wind pseudostress and the distribution of piscivorous predator fields potentially affecting post-smolts. Marine survival has declined over recent decades with a change in the direction of spring winds, which is likely extending the migration of post-smolts by favouring routes using the western GOM. In addition to changes in spring wind patterns, higher spring sea surface temperatures have been associated with shifting distributions of a range of fish species. The abundance of several pelagic piscivores, which based on their feeding habits may predate on salmon post-smolts, has increased in the areas that serve as migration corridors for post-smolts. In particular, populations of silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchell), red hake, Urophycis chuss (Walbaum), and spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L., increased in size in the portion of the GOM used by post-smolts. Climate variation and shifting predator distributions in the GOM are consistent with the predator hypothesis of recruitment control suggested for the stock complex.

  11. Variation of Hydroxyapatite Content in Soft Gelatin Affects Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahsai Kantawong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a common material used in tissue engineering and hydroxyapatite (HA has a composition and structure similar to natural bone mineral. HA is also used to increase the adhesion ability of scaffolds. The physical and mechanical properties of gelatin, together with the chemical properties of HA, can affect cell differentiation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the gene expression of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs upon culturing on gelatin composite with HA. Low amounts of HA were introduced into the gelatin in order to modulate properties of gelatin. Three types of hydrogel were fabricated by glutaraldehyde crosslinking before lyophilization to produce the porous 3D structure: (1 pure gelatin, (2 0.5 mg/ml HA in gelatin, and (3 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin. The fabricated hydrogels were used as scaffolds to cultivate HMSCs for two periods - 24 hours and 3 weeks. The results showed that all types of fabricated hydrogels could be used to cultivate HMSCs. Changes of gene expressions indicated that the HMSCs cultured on the 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin showed neuronal lineage-specific differentiation.

  12. VARIATIONS IN MATERNAL DIETARY FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AFFECTS THE NEURODEVELOPMENT OF RAT PUPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are part of the structural matrix of cellular and subcellular membranes. Alterations in tissue fatty acid composition can affect nerve tissue function by altering membrane thickness or by changing properties of the lipid phase. In this study, the appearance of specific neurodevelopment responses was observed on rap pups whose dams were fed on varied dietary fatty acid composition. Three dietary treatments of corn oil, fish oil and reference meals were administered on these groups of pregnant dams. From postnatal day 5 to 30, littered pups were assessed daily for the appearance of neurodevelopmental reflexes based on the Smart- Dobbing method. The neurodevelopmental attributes of Righting reflex, Cliff avoidance, Negative geotaxis, Auditory startle, Vibrissa placing, Free-fall righting and Visual placing was observed in experimental pups between day 5 and 30. Tests were conducted between 1200 and 1400h. A 30 seconds time limit was employed in testing of the cliff-avoidance and negative-geotaxis appearance. The time appearance of auditory-startle and vibrissa-placing responses were significantly delayed (P and lt;0.05 in pups of dietary fish oil and ndash; fed dams than those of corn oil fed dams. The delay in auditory-startle response may be due to negative myelination of the auditory brainstem pathway.

  13. Variations in cereal volume affect the amount selected and eaten for breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Barbara J; Meengs, Jennifer S; Roe, Liane S

    2014-09-01

    Food volume could influence both the portions that people take and the amount that they eat, but these effects have had little investigation. The influence of food volume was tested by systematically reducing the flake size of a breakfast cereal so that the cereal was more compact and the same weight filled a smaller volume. In a crossover design, 41 adults ate cereal for breakfast once a week for 4 weeks during 2011 and 2012. The cereal was either standard wheat flakes or the same cereal crushed to reduce the volume to 80%, 60%, or 40% of the standard. A constant weight of cereal was provided in an opaque container and participants poured the amount they wanted into a bowl, added fat-free milk and noncalorie sweetener as desired, and consumed as much as they wanted. Results from a mixed linear model showed that as flake size was reduced, subjects poured a smaller volume of cereal, but still took a greater amount by weight and energy content (both P values breakfast energy intake increased from a mean±standard error of the mean of 286±18 kcal to 358±19 kcal, an increase of a mean±standard error of the mean 34%±7% (Pportion served, which in turn affects energy intake. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dopamine D1 receptor gene variation modulates opioid dependence risk by affecting transition to addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    Full Text Available Dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1 modulates opioid reinforcement, reward, and opioid-induced neuroadaptation. We propose that DRD1 polymorphism affects susceptibility to opioid dependence (OD, the efficiency of transition to OD, and opioid-induced pleasure response. We analyzed potential association between seven DRD1 polymorphisms with the following traits: duration of transition from the first use to dependence (DTFUD, subjective pleasure responses to opioid on first use and post-dependence use, and OD risk in 425 Chinese with OD and 514 healthy controls. DTFUD and level of pleasure responses were examined using a semi-structured interview. The DTFUD of opioid addicts ranged from 5 days to 11 years. Most addicts (64.0% reported non-comfortable response upon first opioid use, while after dependence, most addicts (53.0% felt strong opioid-induced pleasure. Survival analysis revealed a correlation of prolonged DTFUD with the minor allele-carrying genotypes of DRD1 rs4532 (hazard ratios (HR = 0.694; p = 0.001 and rs686 (HR = 0.681, p = 0.0003. Binary logistic regression indicated that rs10063995 GT genotype (vs. GG+TT, OR = 0.261 could predict decreased pleasure response to first-time use and the minor alleles of rs686 (OR = 0.535 and rs4532 (OR = 0.537 could predict decreased post-dependence pleasure. Moreover, rs686 minor allele was associated with a decreased risk for rapid transition from initial use to dependence (DTFUD≤30 days; OR = 0.603 or post-dependence euphoria (OR = 0.603 relative to major allele. In conclusion, DRD1 rs686 minor allele decreases the OD risk by prolonging the transition to dependence and attenuating opioid-induced pleasure in Chinese.

  15. The role of ensemble-based statistics in variational assimilation of cloud-affected observations from infrared imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Joshua; Vandenberghe, Francois; Jung, Byoung-Jo; Snyder, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Effective assimilation of cloud-affected radiance observations from space-borne imagers, with the aim of improving cloud analysis and forecasting, has proven to be difficult. Large observation biases, nonlinear observation operators, and non-Gaussian innovation statistics present many challenges. Ensemble-variational data assimilation (EnVar) systems offer the benefits of flow-dependent background error statistics from an ensemble, and the ability of variational minimization to handle nonlinearity. The specific benefits of ensemble statistics, relative to static background errors more commonly used in variational systems, have not been quantified for the problem of assimilating cloudy radiances. A simple experiment framework is constructed with a regional NWP model and operational variational data assimilation system, to provide the basis understanding the importance of ensemble statistics in cloudy radiance assimilation. Restricting the observations to those corresponding to clouds in the background forecast leads to innovations that are more Gaussian. The number of large innovations is reduced compared to the more general case of all observations, but not eliminated. The Huber norm is investigated to handle the fat tails of the distributions, and allow more observations to be assimilated without the need for strict background checks that eliminate them. Comparing assimilation using only ensemble background error statistics with assimilation using only static background error statistics elucidates the importance of the ensemble statistics. Although the cost functions in both experiments converge to similar values after sufficient outer-loop iterations, the resulting cloud water, ice, and snow content are greater in the ensemble-based analysis. The subsequent forecasts from the ensemble-based analysis also retain more condensed water species, indicating that the local environment is more supportive of clouds. In this presentation we provide details that explain the

  16. Variation in the Williams syndrome GTF2I gene and anxiety proneness interactively affect prefrontal cortical response to aversive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbi, M; Chen, Q; Turner, N; Kohn, P; White, M; Kippenhan, J S; Dickinson, D; Kolachana, B; Mattay, V; Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F

    2015-08-18

    Characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying the heritability of complex behavioral traits such as human anxiety remains a challenging endeavor for behavioral neuroscience. Copy-number variation (CNV) in the general transcription factor gene, GTF2I, located in the 7q11.23 chromosomal region that is hemideleted in Williams syndrome and duplicated in the 7q11.23 duplication syndrome (Dup7), is associated with gene-dose-dependent anxiety in mouse models and in both Williams syndrome and Dup7. Because of this recent preclinical and clinical identification of a genetic influence on anxiety, we examined whether sequence variation in GTF2I, specifically the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2527367, interacts with trait and state anxiety to collectively impact neural response to anxiety-laden social stimuli. Two hundred and sixty healthy adults completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire Harm Avoidance (HA) subscale, a trait measure of anxiety proneness, and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while matching aversive (fearful or angry) facial identity. We found an interaction between GTF2I allelic variations and HA that affects brain response: in individuals homozygous for the major allele, there was no correlation between HA and whole-brain response to aversive cues, whereas in heterozygotes and individuals homozygous for the minor allele, there was a positive correlation between HA sub-scores and a selective dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) responsivity during the processing of aversive stimuli. These results demonstrate that sequence variation in the GTF2I gene influences the relationship between trait anxiety and brain response to aversive social cues in healthy individuals, supporting a role for this neurogenetic mechanism in anxiety.

  17. Buying behaviour of Western European food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to analyze important aspects of buying behavior of food retailers, i.e., trade buyers' evaluation of product and vendor attributes, based on a number of background variables, when choosing a new supplier of an already well-known product category. The study encompassed...... the retailers' buying behavior for pork, fish and cheese products. By conducting a conjoint analysis in sixteen Western European countries (15 'old' EU Countries (except Luxemburg), and Norway, and Austria), it is demonstrated that the traditional four Ps are losing ground to some previously neglected...... attributes, and that it is possible to generalise retailers' buying behavior for different food products across countries, retail organizations, and buyers....

  18. Neutral genetic variation in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) affects brain-to-body trade-off and brain laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Daniel D.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of heterozygosity can have detrimental effects on life history and growth characteristics of organisms but more subtle effects such as those on trade-offs of expensive tissues and morphological laterality, especially of the brain, have not been explicitly tested. The objective of the current study was to investigate how estimated differences in heterozygosity may potentially affect brain-to-body trade-offs and to explore how these heterozygosity differences may affect differential brain growth, focusing on directional asymmetry in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using the laterality and absolute laterality indices. Level of inbreeding was estimated as mean microsatellite heterozygosity resulting in four ‘inbreeding level groups’ (Very High, High, Medium, Low). A higher inbreeding level corresponded with a decreased brain-to-body ratio, thus a decrease in investment in brain tissue, and also showed a decrease in the laterality index for the cerebellum, where the left hemisphere was larger than the right across all groups. These results begin to show the role that differences in heterozygosity may play in differential tissue investment and in morphological laterality, and may be useful in two ways. Firstly, the results may be valuable for restocking programmes that wish to emphasize brain or body growth when crossing adults to generate individuals for release, as we show that genetic variation does affect these trade-offs. Secondly, this study is one of the first examinations to test the hypothesized relationship between genetic variation and laterality, finding that in Chinook salmon there is potential for an effect of inbreeding on lateralized morphology, but not in the expected direction. PMID:29308240

  19. Peningkatan Impulse Buying Mahasiswa di Semarang terhadap Produk Fashion Lokal melalui Ethnocentrisme, Brand Image dan Country of Origin (COO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widiyati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of Impulse Buying Students in Semarang on Local Fashion Products Through Ethnocentrism, Brand Image, and Country of Origin (COOImpulse buying is a very interesting phenomenon for retailers and marketers because it is the biggest market share and occupy a very important position and can increase sales. The aim of the research is to analyze whether the Country of Origin ( COC, brand image and ethnocentrism significantly affect students impulse buying of local fashion in Semarang city. Data analysis used in this research is linier regression analysis. The result shows that COO the only variables that do not significantly affect students impulse buying. Need a strategy of brand image reinforcement and promotion emphasized on the love of domestic products. Promotion of products at the local level of Semarang city needs to be improved by taking into account the values of excellence and local wisdom.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v8i1.6979 

  20. Group Buying Schemes : A Sustainable Business Model?

    OpenAIRE

    Köpp, Sebastian; Mukhachou, Aliaksei; Schwaninger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Die Autoren gehen der Frage nach, ob "Group Buying Schemes" wie beispielsweise von den Unternehmen Groupon und Dein Deal angeboten, ein nachhaltiges Geschäftsmodell sind. Anhand der Fallstudie Groupon wird mit einem System Dynamics Modell festgestellt, dass das Geschäftsmodell geändert werden muss, wenn die Unternehmung auf Dauer lebensfähig sein soll. The authors examine if group buying schemes are a sustainable business model. By means of the Groupon case study and using a System Dynami...

  1. Student Buy-In Toward Formative Assessments: The Influence of Student Factors and Importance for Course Success ?

    OpenAIRE

    Brazeal, Kathleen R.; Couch, Brian A.

    2017-01-01

    Formative assessment (FA) techniques, such as pre-class assignments, in-class activities, and post-class homework, have been shown to improve student learning. While many students find these techniques beneficial, some students may not understand how they support learning or may resist their implementation. Improving our understanding of FA buy-in has important implications, since buy-in can potentially affect whether students fully engage with and learn from FAs. We investigated FAs in 12 un...

  2. Comparison of buying behavior in depressed patients presenting with or without compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, M; Haberman, N; Solomon, J; Adès, J

    1999-01-01

    Compulsive buying is defined as repetitive impulsive and excessive buying leading to personal and familial distress. This study compares the buying behavior of depressed patients presenting with or without compulsive buying. The weight of promotional factors such as sales and advertising campaigns was systematically assessed. The impulsive nature of compulsive buying and the choice of items purchased were also investigated. For this purpose, we studied buying behavior among 52 inpatients diagnosed for major depressive episode with DSM-IV criteria. None of the patients presented mania or hypomania, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or alcohol or drug abuse or dependence disorder. We assessed the prevalence of compulsive buying and compared the "buying style" among patients with (CB+) and without (CB-) compulsive buying. The diagnosis of depression was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The diagnosis of compulsive buying was made using standardized criteria and a specific rating scale. All patients answered a specific questionnaire assessing the phenomenology of the buying behavior. Twenty-one of 52 depressives presented with compulsive buying. The CB+ group was not more sensitive to promotional factors. They did not seek sales or use loans significantly more than others. Upon entering a shop, the CB+ subjects did not change their choice more often than others. CB+ subjects were significantly more often alone while shopping (85% of cases v61% of CB- group, p = .05). Most purchases from the CB+ group were self-gifts or gifts to others (50.4% v 23.5%, p = .003); 14.4% of purchases in the CB+ group (v 2.2% in CB- group, P = .045) were made because the patients believed their social status requires acquisition. Items to be bought were more often considered by CB+ subjects as occasions not to be missed (31.4% v15.1%, P = .03). Purchases were significantly (57% v 16%) less often used than expected by the CB+ group (P = .002). Most

  3. [Variation pattern and its affecting factors of three-dimensional landscape in urban residential community of Shenyang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-Feng; Hu, Yuan-Man; Xiong, Zai-Ping; Liu, Miao

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1:10000 aerial photo in 1997 and the three QuickBird images in 2002, 2005, and 2008, and by using Barista software and GIS and RS techniques, the three-dimensional information of the residential community in Tiexi District of Shenyang was extracted, and the variation pattern of the three-dimensional landscape in the district during its reconstruction in 1997-2008 and related affecting factors were analyzed with the indices, ie. road density, greening rate, average building height, building height standard deviation, building coverage rate, floor area rate, building shape coefficient, population density, and per capita GDP. The results showed that in 1997-2008, the building area for industry decreased, that for commerce and other public affairs increased, and the area for residents, education, and medical cares basically remained stable. The building number, building coverage rate, and building shape coefficient decreased, while the floor area rate, average building height, height standard deviation, road density, and greening rate increased. Within the limited space of residential community, the containing capacity of population and economic activity increased, and the environment quality also improved to some extent. The variation degree of average building height increased, but the building energy consumption decreased. Population growth and economic development had positive correlations with floor area rate, road density, and greening rate, but negative correlation with building coverage rate.

  4. How spatial variation in areal extent and configuration of labile vegetation states affect the riparian bird community in Arctic tundra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-André Henden

    Full Text Available The Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by large herbivores and growing human activity. Thickets of tall shrubs represent a conspicuous vegetation state in northern and temperate ecosystems, where it serves important ecological functions, including habitat for wildlife. Thickets are however labile, as tall shrubs respond rapidly to both abiotic and biotic environmental drivers. Our aim was to assess how large-scale spatial variation in willow thicket areal extent, configuration and habitat structure affected bird abundance, occupancy rates and species richness so as to provide an empirical basis for predicting the outcome of environmental change for riparian tundra bird communities. Based on a 4-year count data series, obtained through a large-scale study design in low arctic tundra in northern Norway, statistical hierarchical community models were deployed to assess relations between habitat configuration and bird species occupancy and community richness. We found that species abundance, occupancy and richness were greatly affected by willow areal extent and configuration, habitat features likely to be affected by intense ungulate browsing as well as climate warming. In sum, total species richness was maximized in large and tall willow patches of small to intermediate degree of fragmentation. These community effects were mainly driven by responses in the occupancy rates of species depending on tall willows for foraging and breeding, while species favouring other vegetation states were not affected. In light of the predicted climate driven willow shrub encroachment in riparian tundra habitats, our study predicts that many bird species would increase in abundance, and that the bird community as a whole could become enriched. Conversely, in tundra regions where overabundance of large herbivores leads to decreased areal extent, reduced height and increased fragmentation

  5. Inhaled corticosteroid metered-dose inhalers: how do variations in technique for solutions versus suspensions affect drug distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Christie A; Tsourounis, Candy

    2013-03-01

    To assess the literature that evaluates how variations in metered-dose inhaler (MDI) technique affect lung distribution for inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) formulated as MDI suspensions and solutions. PubMed (up to November 2012) and Cochrane Library (up to November 2012) were searched using the terms metered-dose inhalers, HFA 134a, Asthma/*drug therapy, and inhaled corticosteroids. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All articles in English from the data sources that assessed MDI technique comparing total lung distribution (TLD) of MDI solutions or suspensions formulated with ICSs were included in the review. Five relevant studies were identified. Five controlled studies compared how variations in MDI technique affect TLD for ICS MDI solutions with suspensions. MDI solutions resulted in greater TLD compared with larger particle MDI suspensions. Delayed or early inspiration upon device actuation of MDI solutions resulted in less TLD than coordinated actuation, but with a 3- to 4-times greater TLD than MDI suspensions inhaled using a standard technique. A sixth study evaluated inspiratory flow rates (IFR) for small, medium, and large particles. Rapid and slow IFRs resulted in similar TLD for small particles, while far fewer particles reached the airways with medium and large particles at rapid, rather than slow, IFRs. Based on the literature evaluated, standard MDI technique should be used for ICS suspensions. ICS MDI solutions can provide a higher average TLD than larger-particle ICS suspensions using standard technique, discoordinated inspiration and medication actuation timing, or rapid and slow IFRs. ICS MDI solutions allow for a more forgiving technique, which makes them uniquely suitable options for patients with asthma who have difficultly with MDI technique.

  6. Narcissism predicts impulsive buying: phenotypic and genetic evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Huajian; Shi, Yuanyuan; Fang, Xiang; Luo, Yu L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsive buying makes billions of dollars for retail businesses every year, particularly in an era of thriving e-commerce. Narcissism, characterized by impulsivity and materialism, may serve as a potential antecedent to impulsive buying. To test this hypothesis, two studies examined the relationship between narcissism and impulsive buying. In study 1, we surveyed narcissism and the impulsive buying tendency among an online sample and found that while adaptive narcissism was not correlated wi...

  7. Consumer’s Buying Decision-Making Process in E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Puspitasari Nia; Nugroho W P Susatyo; Nilan Amyhorsea Deya; Susanty Aries

    2018-01-01

    The e-commerce growth and development in Indonesia is very rapid as well as the internet grows, but it is not well-balanced with the number of online buying transaction which is still relatively low. Even the today’s biggest B2C e-commerce people in Indonesia, Lazada, has continually decreased online purchasing. This research is aimed to describe factors affecting online buying decision- making in the e-commerce Lazada. The type of this research is confirmatory research. The variable used is ...

  8. Buy-back and revenue-sharing contracts in global supply shain

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main propose of this study is to investigate how exchange rate risk affects the buy-back and revenue-sharing contracts in the global supply chain, hence to improve the performance of global supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a two-echelon global supply chain, with the model equilibrium, this paper studies the difference between the buy-back contract and the revenue-sharing contract. By the transmitting of the exchange rate risk, it discusses the node-enterpris...

  9. Buying a Constant Competitive Ratio for Paging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csirik, János; Imreh, Csanád; Noga, John; Seiden, Steve S.; Woeginger, Gerhard; Meyer auf der Heide, Friedhelm

    2001-01-01

    We consider a variant of the online paging problem where the online algorithm may buy additional cache slots at a certain cost. The overall cost incurred equals the total cost for the cache plus the number of page faults. This problem and our results are a generalization of both, the classical

  10. Buying a constant competitive ratio for paging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csirik, J.; Imreh, Cs.; Noga, J.; Seiden, S.S.; Woeginger, G.J.; Meyer auf der Heide, F.

    2001-01-01

    We consider a variant of the online paging problem where the online algorithm may buy additional cache slots at a certain cost. The overall cost incurred equals the total cost for the cache plus the number of page faults. This problem and our results are a generalization of both, the classical

  11. Consumer Buying Goals and Communication Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    Four hundred eight female users of cosmetics in Madison, Wisconsin, responded to questionnaires which sought to discover correlations among the goal of the purchaser and the type and source of information sought in the buying decision. Two goals were identified: rational (cost, functional benefits of product, or possible undesirable consequences…

  12. Buying Impulses: A Study on Impulsive Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herabadi, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation's objectives were to validate impulse buying tendency as a genuinely distinctive construct related to impulse purchase behavior and attached to fundamental personality traits, and its relationships to a number of relevant factors. Studies reported were steps to a better

  13. 78 FR 41492 - Buy America Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... equipment, such as street sweepers, backhoes, refuse trucks, dump trucks, graders, etc.? Should the FHWA... marine diesel engines, electrical switchboards and switchgear, electric motors, pumps, ventilation fans... assembly is the standard for a vehicle, should the FHWA be concerned about Buy America when an engine is...

  14. BUYING AND SELLING A SMALL BUSINESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part One takes the form of a manual of the processes and techniques of buying and selling a small business . This material is presented in a...finalizing the transaction and planning for operation under new ownership and management . Part Two reports the nature of the research conducted during the

  15. Buying a laser - tips and pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J; Mysore, Venkataram; Ahmed, E Suhail

    2014-04-01

    Lasers and aesthetic procedures have transformed dermatology practice. They have aided in the treatment of hitherto untreatable conditions and allowed better financial remuneration to the physician. The availability of a variety of laser devices of different makes, specifications and pricing has lead to confusion and dilemma in the mind of the buying physician. There are presently no guidelines available for buying a laser. Since purchase of a laser involves large investments, careful consideration to laser specifications, training, costing, warranty, availability of spares, and reliability of service are important prerequisites. This article describes various factors that are needed to be considered and also attempts to lay down criteria to be assessed while buying a laser system that will be useful to physicians before investing in a laser machine. Meticulous planning of the type of machine, specifications, financial aspects, maintenance and warranties is important.It is wise to sign a contract or agreement between the buyer and seller before purchase of a laser which covers key aspects of installation, after sales service and maintenance of the machine.Adequate training is essential; understanding laser physics and laser-tissue interaction goes a long way in getting the best out of the machine.The credibility of the dealer and company should be ascertained in order to be assured of after-sales service.Buying used machines, sharing of equipment to offset high initial investments is a good option but even more care is required to ensure proper functioning and maintenance.

  16. 78 FR 63563 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Electronic Access An electronic copy of this document may be... provides for a waiver of the Buy America requirements when the application would be inconsistent with the... days following the effective date of the finding. Comments may be submitted to the FHWA's Web site via...

  17. 76 FR 64353 - Buy Quiet Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... no later than October 21, 2011: 1. Name: 2. Gender: 3. Date of Birth: 4. Place of birth (city, province, state, country): 5. Citizenship: 6. Passport Number: 7. Date of Passport Issue: 8. Date of... employee representatives who want to assist in bringing ``Buy Quiet'' programs into the workplace. Format...

  18. Organisational identity and food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    How do retailers decide what products to buy? Previous answers to this question have tended to focus on the decisions being made, typically investigating what criteria retail buyers use to choose between products and suppliers (Hansen & Skytte 1998). However, as the decisions made by retail buyer...

  19. The Hidden Cost of Buying a Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael

    1983-01-01

    In order to process data in a computer, application software must be either developed or purchased. Costs for modifications of the software package and maintenance are often hidden. The decision to buy or develop software packages should be based upon factors of time and maintenance. (MLF)

  20. 76 FR 72027 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Federal Register's home page at: http://www.archives.gov and the Government Printing Office's database at... explained that there are no vehicles on the market that currently meet the FHWA's Buy America standard... an all electric vehicle and that no vehicle on the market currently satisfies a 100 percent domestic...

  1. Vote Buying In Lampung Local Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robi Cahyadi Kurniawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vote buying in elections, both general elections and local elections is a phenomenon in Indonesian politics. Lampung Province has implemented direct elections simultaneously in December 2015 and February 2017. This study explains that vote buying can change voter choice in three regional head elections in Lampung Province. This study was conducted with the object of research residing in Way Kanan District on July 2014, Pringsewu District on February 2016 and Bandar Lampung City on November 2015. This study used a survey approach, using stratified random sampling method. The survey conducted on 662 respondents in each county or district and city object being studied. The results show that voters believe that vote buying will happen in local elections.Voters may be influenced their choice if given relief goods, gifts of money or the provision of project. The thesis in this study is vote buying can change voting choice of voters.

  2. 77 FR 74048 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... of Canadian and American steel given the unique financing arrangement of the project under which the... strong supporter of Buy America, but given the unique financing arrangement for the NITC project, AISI... (NITC) project. DATES: The effective date of the waiver is December 13, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  3. An Exploration of Taiwanese Adolescents' Impulsive Buying Tendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Lin, Hung-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine via a questionnaire the personal characteristics and impulsive buying tendencies of 15- to 19-year-old Taiwanese adolescents. Results indicated that the impulsive buying was significantly associated with gender, age, and amount of pocket money available. Females indicated more impulsive buying than did…

  4. Narcissism predicts impulsive buying: phenotypic and genetic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajian eCai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive buying makes billions of dollars for retail businesses every year, particularly in an era of thriving e-commerce. Narcissism, characterized by impulsivity and materialism, may serve as a potential antecedent to impulsive buying. To test this hypothesis, two studies examined the relationship between narcissism and impulsive buying. In study 1, we surveyed narcissism and the impulsive buying tendency among an online sample and found that while adaptive narcissism was not correlated with impulsive buying, maladaptive narcissism was significantly predictive of the impulsive buying tendency. By investigating narcissism and the impulsive buying tendency in 304 twin pairs, study 2 showed that global narcissism and its two components, adaptive and maladaptive narcissism, as well as the impulsive buying tendency were heritable. The study found, moreover, that the connections between global narcissism and impulsive buying, and between maladaptive narcissism and impulsive buying were genetically based. These findings not only establish a link between narcissism and impulsive buying but also help to identify the origins of the link. The present studies deepen our understanding of narcissism, impulsive buying, and their interrelationship.

  5. Effect on Perceived Stimulation dan Perceived Crowding on the Decision of the Unplanned Purchase (Impulse Buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggal Sriwardiningsih

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purchase decisions aren’t made necessarily planned, because impulsive buying is such a result of environmental stimuli shopping. Things affecting unplanned purchasing decisions are perceived by stimulation and crowding. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are influences between perceived crowding and stimulation of impulse buying simultaneously or partial. The object used is one of the largest retailers in Cilegon. This research design is quantitative analysis of the consumer unit. The collecting data technique includes using questionnaires, interviews, and literature from previous research. Data processed using the SPSS 16.0 program through the validity and reliability, normality test, and regression analysis. The study states that there is significant influence between perceived crowding and perceived stimulation both simultaneous and partial response to impulse buying

  6. Factors affecting spatial variation of annual apparent Q₁₀ of soil respiration in two warm temperate forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Luan

    Full Text Available A range of factors has been identified that affect the temperature sensitivity (Q₁₀ values of the soil-to-atmosphere CO₂ flux. However, the factors influencing the spatial distribution of Q₁₀ values within warm temperate forests are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the spatial variation of Q₁₀ values and its controlling factors in both a naturally regenerated oak forest (OF and a pine plantation (PP. Q₁₀ values were determined based on monthly soil respiration (R(S measurements at 35 subplots for each stand from Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2009. Large spatial variation of Q₁₀ values was found in both OF and PP, with their respective ranges from 1.7 to 5.12 and from 2.3 to 6.21. In PP, fine root biomass (FR (R = 0.50, P = 0.002, non-capillary porosity (NCP (R = 0.37, P = 0.03, and the coefficients of variation of soil temperature at 5 cm depth (CV of T₅ (R = -0.43, P = 0.01 well explained the spatial variance of Q₁₀. In OF, carbon pool lability reflected by light fractionation method (LLFOC well explained the spatial variance of Q₁₀ (R = -0.35, P = 0.04. Regardless of forest type, LLFOC and FR correlation with the Q₁₀ values were significant and marginally significant, respectively; suggesting a positive relationship between substrate availability and apparent Q₁₀ values. Parameters related to gas diffusion, such as average soil water content (SWC and NCP, negatively or positively explained the spatial variance of Q₁₀ values. Additionally, we observed significantly higher apparent Q₁₀ values in PP compared to OF, which might be partly attributed to the difference in soil moisture condition and diffusion ability, rather than different substrate availabilities between forests. Our results suggested that both soil chemical and physical characters contributed to the observed large Q₁₀ value variation.

  7. On the Nature of Extraversion: Variation in Conditioned Contextual Activation of Dopamine-Facilitated Affective, Cognitive, and Motor Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard allen Depue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports an association between extraversion and dopamine (DA functioning. DA facilitates incentive motivation and the conditioning and incentive encoding of contexts that predict reward. Therefore, we assessed whether extraversion is related to the efficacy of acquiring conditioned contextual facilitation of three processes that are dependent on DA: motor velocity, positive affect, and visuospatial working memory. We exposed high and low extraverts to three days of association of drug reward (methylphenidate, MP with a particular laboratory context (Paired group, a test day of conditioning, and three days of extinction in the same laboratory. A Placebo group and an Unpaired group (that had MP in a different laboratory context served as controls. Conditioned contextual facilitation was assessed by (i presenting video clips that varied in their pairing with drug and laboratory context and in inherent incentive value, and (ii measuring increases from day 1 to Test day on the three processes above. Results showed acquisition of conditioned contextual facilitation across all measures to video clips that had been paired with drug and laboratory context in the Paired high extraverts, but no conditioning in the Paired low extraverts (nor in either of the control groups. Increases in the Paired high extraverts were correlated across the three measures. Also, conditioned facilitation was evident on the first day of extinction in Paired high extraverts, despite the absence of the unconditioned effects of MP. By the last day of extinction, responding returned to day 1 levels. The findings suggest that extraversion is associated with variation in the acquisition of contexts that predict reward. Over time, this variation may lead to differences in the breadth of networks of conditioned contexts. Thus, individual differences in extraversion may be maintained by activation of differentially encoded central representations of incentive contexts that

  8. Direct and retrospective assessment of factors contributing to compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G; Redlin, Jennifer; Crosby, Ross; Stickney, Marcella; Mitchell, Jim; Wonderlich, Stephen; Faber, Ronald; Smyth, Joshua

    2003-03-01

    Compulsive buying is a disorder that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The results of a handful of studies suggest that compulsive buying occurs in response to negative emotions and results in a decrease in the intensity of the negative emotions. In this investigation, we used interview and self-monitoring methods to evaluate the antecedents and consequences of compulsive buying in a sample of women who met criteria for compulsive buying on the compulsive buying scale (J. Consumer Res. 19 (1992) 459). As a group, the participants reported negative emotions as the most common antecedents to compulsive buying, and euphoria or relief from the negative emotions as the most common consequence of compulsive buying. These findings were consistent across the interview and self-monitoring assessment methods. The implications for assessment and treatment are discussed.

  9. Consumer's Buying Decision-Making Process in E-Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Nia Budi; Susatyo, Nugroho W. P.; Amyhorsea, Deya Nilan; Susanty, Aries

    2018-02-01

    The e-commerce growth and development in Indonesia is very rapid as well as the internet grows, but it is not well-balanced with the number of online buying transaction which is still relatively low. Even the today's biggest B2C e-commerce people in Indonesia, Lazada, has continually decreased online purchasing. This research is aimed to describe factors affecting online buying decision- making in the e-commerce Lazada. The type of this research is confirmatory research. The variable used is following conceptual model i.e. Electronic Word of Mouth (EWOM), social identity, risk perception, trust, and purchase intention. The data were obtained through the questionnaire with Likert scale 1-5. There are 104 people researching sample who meets the criteria as Lazada consumer that, at least do a transaction in recent six months. Data analyzing were done using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method by Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) software. The results showed that the purchase intention has positively related to the purchase decision. Variable EWOM toward trust has positive relation, variable social identity and risk perception have no any significant relation to trust. Variable risk perception toward purchase intention has no significant relation, while the variable trust has significant positive relation to purchase intention.

  10. Bupropion Augmentation in a Case of Compulsive Buying Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepede, Gianna; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Sarchione, Fabiola; Fiori, Federica; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is a condition characterized by excessive preoccupations, impulses, and behaviors regarding buying, resulting in serious psychological, social, and financial problems. Even though it has not been included in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, "behavioral addictions" section, CBD is a hot topic in current clinical psychiatry, because of its relevant prevalence (at least 5% in adult populations) and severe effect on quality of life.The CBD shares some clinical features with substance-related and behavioral addictions, impulse control disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder, and it is often comorbid with other psychiatric illnesses (especially depressive and anxiety disorders). The treatment of CBD is therefore difficult, and clear therapeutic guidelines are not yet available. Treating the comorbid disorders as the first-line approach, or combining drugs with different pharmacodynamic profiles, has been suggested to address this challenging condition. A 60-year-old woman affected by a severe form of CBD with comorbid major depressive disorder, resistant/intolerant to previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatments and only partially responder to mirtazapine, achieved a good clinical improvement adding bupropion. Combining 2 agents with different pharmacological profiles and mechanisms of action, such as bupropion and mirtazapine, could be a useful strategy in the management of complex CBD cases.

  11. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most...

  12. Impulsive-compulsive buying disorder: clinical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Allen, Andrea; Altamura, A Carlo; Buoli, Massimiliano; Hollander, Eric

    2008-04-01

    Impulsive-compulsive buying disorder (ICBD) is an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS) characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviours (buying unneeded things), personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. Despite being described in the 19th century, serious attention to ICBD began only in the last decade with the first epidemiological and pharmacological investigation. Biological, social and psychological factors contribute to the aetiology of ICBD. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are currently considered the more effective interventions in the treatment of ICBD. The present review aims to provide a broad overview of the epidemiology, aetiology, phenomenology and treatment options of ICBD.

  13. Determining residential energy consumption-based CO2 emissions and examining the factors affecting the variation in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Melike; Akan, Perihan; Aydinalp Koksal, Merih; Gullu, Gulen

    2017-11-01

    Energy demand of Turkey has been showing a remarkable increase in the last two decades due to rapid increase in population and changes in consumption trends. In parallel to the increase in energy demand, the CO2 emissions in Turkey are also increasing dramatically due to high usage of fossil fuels. CO2 emissions from the residential sector covers almost one fourth of the total sectoral emissions. In this study, CO2 emissions from the residential sector are estimated, and the factors affecting the emission levels are determined for the residential sector in Ankara, Turkey. In this study, detailed surveys are conducted to more than 400 households in Ankara. Using the information gathered from the surveys, the CO2 emissions associated with energy consumption of the households are calculated using the methodology outlined at IPCC. The statistical analyses are carried out using household income, dwelling characteristics, and household economic and demographic data to determine the factors causing the variation in emission levels among the households. The results of the study present that the main factors impacting the amount of total energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions are household income, dwelling construction year, age, education level of the household, and net footage of the dwelling.

  14. How do low/high height and weight variation affect upper limb movements during manual material handling of industrial boxes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Oliveira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of surface height and load weight on upper limb movements and electromyographic (EMG recordings during manual handling performed by both experienced and inexperienced lifter subjects. METHODS: Sixteen experienced and sixteen inexperienced lifters handled a box (both 7 and 15 kg from an intermediate height (waist level to either a high or low surface. Electromyography and video images were recorded during the tasks. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the deltoid and biceps muscles, shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, and elbow flexion movements. Groups, right/left sides, weights and heights were compared. There were no differences between either groups or sides. RESULTS: Weight and height variations affected EMG and posture, although weight had more impact on EMG. Shoulder abduction and flexion movements higher than 60º occurred, particularly for the higher surface. Shoulder flexion was also higher when the box was moved to the low height. This study provides new evidence as shoulder postures during boxes handling on low surfaces had not previously been evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The high demand of upper limb in manual material handling tasks is clear, particularly for the shoulder. This knowledge can be used by physical therapists to plan better rehabilitation programs for manual material handling-related disorders, particularly focusing on return to work.

  15. RNA Sequencing Analysis Reveals Transcriptomic Variations in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Leaves Affected by Climate, Soil, and Tillage Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and development of plants are sensitive to their surroundings. Although numerous studies have analyzed plant transcriptomic variation, few have quantified the effect of combinations of factors or identified factor-specific effects. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis on tobacco leaves derived from 10 treatment combinations of three groups of ecological factors, i.e., climate factors (CFs, soil factors (SFs, and tillage factors (TFs. We detected 4980, 2916, and 1605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs that were affected by CFs, SFs, and TFs, which included 2703, 768, and 507 specific and 703 common DEGs (simultaneously regulated by CFs, SFs, and TFs, respectively. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in abiotic stress responses and secondary metabolic pathways were overrepresented in the common and CF-specific DEGs. In addition, we noted enrichment in CF-specific DEGs related to the circadian rhythm, SF-specific DEGs involved in mineral nutrient absorption and transport, and SF- and TF-specific DEGs associated with photosynthesis. Based on these results, we propose a model that explains how plants adapt to various ecological factors at the transcriptomic level. Additionally, the identified DEGs lay the foundation for future investigations of stress resistance, circadian rhythm and photosynthesis in tobacco.

  16. [Spatiotemporal variation characteristics and related affecting factors of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Cai, Yan-Cong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Based on the meteorological and hydrological data from 1970 to 2006, the advection-aridity (AA) model with calibrated parameters was used to calculate evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin in Northeast China. The original parameter of the AA model was tuned according to the water balance method and then four subbasins were selected to validate. Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of evapotranspiration and related affecting factors were analyzed using the methods of linear trend analysis, moving average, kriging interpolation and sensitivity analysis. The results showed that the empirical parameter value of 0.75 of AA model was suitable for the Hun-Taizi River Basin with an error of 11.4%. In the Hun-Taizi River Basin, the average annual actual evapotranspiration was 347.4 mm, which had a slightly upward trend with a rate of 1.58 mm · (10 a(-1)), but did not change significantly. It also indicated that the annual actual evapotranspiration presented a single-peaked pattern and its peak value occurred in July; the evapotranspiration in summer was higher than in spring and autumn, and it was the smallest in winter. The annual average evapotranspiration showed a decreasing trend from the northwest to the southeast in the Hun-Taizi River Basin from 1970 to 2006 with minor differences. Net radiation was largely responsible for the change of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin.

  17. Media and sustainable apparel buying intention

    OpenAIRE

    Lenne, de, Orpha; Vandenbosch, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose Using the theory of planned behavior, this paper examined the relationships between different types of media and the intention to buy sustainable apparel and tested whether attitudes, social norms, and self-efficacy beliefs may explain these relationships. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 681 young adults (18-26 years old). Findings Exposure to social media content of sustainable organizations, eco-activists and sustainable appar...

  18. CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi. S

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing internet literacy, the prospect of online marketing is increasing. There are millions of people online any time and they all are a potential consumer in the online market. Since there are so many providers, the most important thing for organizations is to understand what are consumer wants and needs in this competitive business environment. Customer buying behaviors are influenced by different factors such as culture, social class, references group relation, family, salary...

  19. Analysis Effect of Environment Attitude, Health Consciousness and Knowledge in Developing Product Perception and Intention to Buy (A Study on Organic Food Product)

    OpenAIRE

    Widyasari; Jony Oktavian Haryanto

    2010-01-01

    This research intends to study the factors that can affect the product perception and consumer intention in buying organic product.The study is necessary in that it explores at least some of the factors that can affect the product perception and consumer intention in buying organic product. The research results indicated that there was a positive influence of health consciousness towards environment attitude, consumer’s organic product knowledge towards organic product perception, environm...

  20. Narcissism predicts impulsive buying: phenotypic and genetic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huajian; Shi, Yuanyuan; Fang, Xiang; Luo, Yu L. L.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsive buying makes billions of dollars for retail businesses every year, particularly in an era of thriving e-commerce. Narcissism, characterized by impulsivity and materialism, may serve as a potential antecedent to impulsive buying. To test this hypothesis, two studies examined the relationship between narcissism and impulsive buying. In Study 1, we surveyed an online sample and found that while adaptive narcissism was not correlated with impulsive buying, maladaptive narcissism was significantly predictive of the impulsive buying tendency. By investigating 304 twin pairs, Study 2 showed that global narcissism and its two components, adaptive and maladaptive narcissism, as well as the impulsive buying tendency were heritable. The study found, moreover, that the connections between global narcissism and impulsive buying, and between maladaptive narcissism and impulsive buying were genetically based. These findings not only establish a link between narcissism and impulsive buying but also help to identify the origins of the link. The present studies deepen our understanding of narcissism, impulsive buying, and their interrelationship. PMID:26217251

  1. Narcissism predicts impulsive buying: phenotypic and genetic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huajian; Shi, Yuanyuan; Fang, Xiang; Luo, Yu L L

    2015-01-01

    Impulsive buying makes billions of dollars for retail businesses every year, particularly in an era of thriving e-commerce. Narcissism, characterized by impulsivity and materialism, may serve as a potential antecedent to impulsive buying. To test this hypothesis, two studies examined the relationship between narcissism and impulsive buying. In Study 1, we surveyed an online sample and found that while adaptive narcissism was not correlated with impulsive buying, maladaptive narcissism was significantly predictive of the impulsive buying tendency. By investigating 304 twin pairs, Study 2 showed that global narcissism and its two components, adaptive and maladaptive narcissism, as well as the impulsive buying tendency were heritable. The study found, moreover, that the connections between global narcissism and impulsive buying, and between maladaptive narcissism and impulsive buying were genetically based. These findings not only establish a link between narcissism and impulsive buying but also help to identify the origins of the link. The present studies deepen our understanding of narcissism, impulsive buying, and their interrelationship.

  2. Spatio-temporal variation in groundwater head affected by stratigraphic heterogeneity of the alluvial aquifer in Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, W. M.; Joshi, S. K.; Densmore, A. L.; Jackson, C. R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Lafare, A. E. A.; Gupta, S.; Mackay, J. D.; Mason, P. J.; Sinha, R.

    2017-12-01

    variation in the M0 for abstraction is controlled by stratigraphic and geomorphic heterogeneity. The fan margins and the interfan area are more affected by abstraction as these areas are underlain by fewer, and thinner, aquifer bodies them the fans themselves. Von Ashmuth et al,2008. Ground Water, 46 (1), 30-40

  3. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  4. Factors affecting variations in the detailed fatty acid profile of Mediterranean buffalo milk determined by 2-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegolo, S; Stocco, G; Mele, M; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-04-01

    Buffalo milk is the world's second most widely produced milk, and increasing attention is being paid to its composition, particularly the fatty acid profile. The objectives of the present study were (1) to characterize the fatty acid composition of Mediterranean buffalo milk, and (2) to investigate potential sources of variation in the buffalo milk fatty acid profile. We determined the profile of 69 fatty acid traits in 272 individual samples of Mediterranean buffalo milk using gas chromatography. In total, 51 individual fatty acids were identified: 24 saturated fatty acids, 13 monounsaturated fatty acids, and 14 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major individual fatty acids in buffalo milk were in the order 16:0, 18:1 cis-9, 14:0, and 18:0. Saturated fatty acids were the predominant fraction in buffalo milk fat (70.49%); monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were at 25.95 and 3.54%, respectively. Adopting a classification based on carbon-chain length, we found that medium-chain fatty acids (11-16 carbons) represented the greater part (53.7%) of the fatty acid fraction of buffalo milk, whereas long-chain fatty acids (17-24 carbons) and short-chain fatty acids (4-10 carbons) accounted for 32.73 and 9.72%, respectively. The n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were 0.46 and 1.77%, respectively. The main conjugated linoleic acid, rumenic acid, represented 0.45% of total milk fatty acids. Herd/test date and stage of lactation were confirmed as important sources of variation in the fatty acid profile of buffalo milk. The percentages of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids in buffalo milk increased in early lactation (+0.6 and +3.5%, respectively), whereas long-chain fatty acids decreased (-4.2%). The only exception to this pattern was butyric acid, which linearly decreased from the beginning of lactation, confirmation that its synthesis is independent of malonyl-CoA. These results seem to suggest that in early lactation the mobilization of energy reserves may have less

  5. Poverty and vote buying: Survey-based evidence from Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Sandholt; Justesen, Mogens K.

    2014-01-01

    Alongside the spread of democracy in the developing world, vote buying has emerged as an integral part of election campaigns. Yet, we know little about the causes of vote buying in young democracies. In this paper, we analyse the sources of vote buying in sub-Saharan African. Using data from...... the Afrobarometer, we focus on the impact of poverty on vote buying at the individual- and country-level. Results from multilevel regressions show that poor voters are significantly more likely to be targets of vote buying than wealthier voters. This effect increases when elections are highly competitive. Thus......, micro-level poverty seems to be an important source of vote buying in Africa and has major implications for the way electoral democracy operates....

  6. A Review of Pharmacologic Treatment for Compulsive Buying Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by se...

  7. Compulsive buying disorder: an untreated patient for 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam

    2017-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviors (buying unneeded things), personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. In this case report, we presented diagnostic and treatment process of 49 year old, female patient who had complaints amnesia, weight loss and insomnia. In her medical history, she had compulsive buying disorder for nearly twenty years but untreated until her current evaluation. Comorbid psychi...

  8. Experimental evidence for the influence of cognitions on compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Paul; Moulding, Richard; Kyrios, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Compulsive buying is a disabling condition, where individuals are unable to resist or control their buying behavior, leading to substantial social and financial problems. Cognitive models implicate the role of beliefs as one factor in buying behavior, for example, "this item is unique and will help me improve my life". This study experimentally examined the contribution of such beliefs to the disorder, in individuals who compulsively buy (N = 18) and in non-clinical controls (N = 17). Participants were presented with photographs of idiosyncratically appealing and unappealing items, in the context of imagined scenarios that either minimized or maximized aspects relevant to hypothesized "compulsive buying beliefs" (i.e., beliefs that acquisition can compensate for negative feelings, beliefs regarding uniqueness and lost opportunities, and emotional reasons for buying). It was found that individuals who compulsively buy demonstrated stronger urges to purchase than control participants, regardless of context, but the overall strength of these urges was responsive to manipulations of beliefs about consumer items said to be associated with compulsive buying. The main limitation of the study was a small sample size, potentially reducing power. Nonetheless, these findings provide insights into the processes underlying compulsive phenomena, in particular supporting the role of cognitions in compulsive buying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An analysis of Western European food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline of the st......In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline...

  10. Decision about buying a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganatra, R D

    1993-12-31

    A large part of the referral to a nuclear medicine department is usually for imaging studies. Sooner or later, the nuclear medicine specialist will be called upon to make a decision about when and what type of gamma camera to buy. There is no longer an option of choosing between a rectilinear scanner and a gamma camera as the former is virtually out of the market. The decision that one has to make is when to invest in a gamma camera, and then on what basis to select the gamma camera 1 tab., 1 fig

  11. Decision about buying a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A large part of the referral to a nuclear medicine department is usually for imaging studies. Sooner or later, the nuclear medicine specialist will be called upon to make a decision about when and what type of gamma camera to buy. There is no longer an option of choosing between a rectilinear scanner and a gamma camera as the former is virtually out of the market. The decision that one has to make is when to invest in a gamma camera, and then on what basis to select the gamma camera

  12. Seasonal water quality variations in a river affected by acid mine drainage: the Odiel River (South West Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olias, M.; Nieto, J.M.; Sarmiento, A.M.; Ceron, J.C.; Canovas, C.R

    2004-10-15

    This paper intends to analyse seasonal variations of the quality of the water of the Odiel River. This river, together with the Tinto River, drains the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), a region containing an abundance of massive sulphide deposits. Because of mining activity dating back to prehistoric times, these two rivers are heavily contaminated. The Odiel and Tinto Rivers drain into a shared estuary known as the Ria of Huelva. This work studies dissolved contaminant data in water of the Odiel River collected by various organisations, between October 1980 and October 2002, close to the rivers entry into the estuary. Flow data for this location were also obtained. The most abundant metals in the water, in order of abundance, are zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu). Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are also present but in much lower quantities. The quality of the river water is linked to precipitation; the maximum sulphate, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cd and Pb concentrations occur during the autumn rains, which dissolve the Fe hydroxysulphates that were precipitated during the summer months. In winter, the intense rains cause an increase in the river flow, producing a dilution of the contaminants and a slight increase in the pH. During spring and summer, the sulphate and metal concentration (except Fe) recover and once again increase. The Fe concentration pattern displays a low value during summer due to increased precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxides. The arsenic concentration displays a different evolution, with maximum values in winter, and minimum in spring and summer as they are strongly adsorbed and/or coprecipitated by the ferric oxyhydroxides. Mn and sulphates are the most conservative species in the water. Relative to sulphate, Mn, Zn and Cd, copper displays greater values in winter and lower ones in summer, probably due to its coprecipitation with hydroxysulphates during the spring and summer months. Cd and Zn also appear to be affected by the same

  13. Analysis Effect of Environment Attitude, Health Consciousness and Knowledge in Developing Product Perception and Intention to Buy (A Study on Organic Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyasari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to study the factors that can affect the product perception and consumer intention in buying organic product.The study is necessary in that it explores at least some of the factors that can affect the product perception and consumer intention in buying organic product. The research results indicated that there was a positive influence of health consciousness towards environment attitude, consumer’s organic product knowledge towards organic product perception, environment attitude and consumer’s organic knowledge towards intention to buy organic product. But, there was a negative influence between environment attitude, health consciousness towards consumer’s organic product perception, and consumer’s organic product towards intention to buy organic product.

  14. Impulsive Behaviors in Patients With Pathological Buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Heike; Claes, Laurence; Voth, Eva M; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid

    2016-09-01

    Aim To investigate impulsive behaviors in pathological buying (PB). Methods The study included three groups matched for age and gender: treatment seeking outpatients with PB (PB+), treatment seeking psychiatric inpatients without PB (PB-), and a healthy control group (HC). PB was assessed by means of the Compulsive Buying Scale and by the impulse control disorder (ICD) module of the research version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-ICD). All participants answered questionnaires concerning symptoms of borderline personality disorder, self-harming behaviors, binge eating and symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, comorbid ICDs were assessed using the SCID-ICD. Results The PB+ and PB- groups did not differ with regard to borderline personality disorder or ADHD symptoms, but both groups reported significantly more symptoms than the HC group. Frequencies of self-harming behaviors did not differ between the three groups. Patients with PB were more often diagnosed with any current ICD (excluding PB) compared to those without PB and the HC group (38.7% vs. 12.9% vs. 12.9%, respectively, p=.017). Discussion Our findings confirm prior research suggesting more impulsive behaviors in patients with and without PB compared to healthy controls. The results of the questionnaire-based assessment indicate that outpatients with PB perceive themselves equally impulsive and self-harm as frequently as inpatients without PB; but they seem to suffer more often from an ICD as assessed by means of an interview.

  15. A review of compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W

    2007-02-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is characterized by excessive shopping cognitions and buying behavior that leads to distress or impairment. Found worldwide, the disorder has a lifetime prevalence of 5.8% in the US general population. Most subjects studied clinically are women (~80%), though this gender difference may be artifactual. Subjects with CBD report a preoccupation with shopping, prepurchase tension or anxiety, and a sense of relief following the purchase. CBD is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity, particularly mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders, and other disorders of impulse control. The majority of persons with CBD appear to meet criteria for an Axis II disorder, although there is no special "shopping" personality. Compulsive shopping tends to run in families, and these families are filled with mood and substance use disorders. There are no standard treatments. Psychopharmacologic treatment studies are being actively pursued, and group cognitive-behavioral models have been developed and are promising. Debtors Anonymous, simplicity circles, bibliotherapy, financial counseling, and marital therapy may also play a role in the management of CBD.

  16. What you see is what you buy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim

    the findings from two eye-tracking studies on consumer attention and product choice, a choice experiment manipulating saliency, size and clutter of packaging elements and a quasi-experimental study using natural product variations. The study revealed that increases in the saliency and surface size of packaging......Previous research has shown that increases in the overall saliency of products packages lead to increases in attention and how attention affects choice. However, no studies have addressed this issue at the level of individual packaging elements such as product claims and labels. The paper reports...... elements are associated with greater fixation likelihood and that attention to elements such as product claims and organic labels is associated with increased choice probability whereas attention to nutrition-related elements such as GDA labels or the Nordic keyhole label is associated with decreased...

  17. Examining the Effect of Endorser Credibility on the Consumers' Buying Intentions: An Empirical Study in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sertoglu, Aysegul Ermec; Catlı, Ozlem; Korkmaz, Sezer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test whether the source credibility affects buying intention and measure the perceived credibility differences between created spokesperson and celebrity endorser. The influence that endorser credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise) have on purchase intentions of 326 young consumers has been examined. The results showed that all of the three credibility dimensions for both celebrity endorser and created spokesperson have a pos...

  18. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF ENDORSER CREDIBILITY ON THE CONSUMERS' BUYING INTENTIONS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Aysegul Ermec Sertoglu; Ozlem Catli; Sezer Korkmaz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test whether the source credibility affects buying intention and measure the perceived credibility differences between created spokesperson and celebrity endorser. The influence that endorser credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise) have on purchase intentions of 326 young consumers has been examined. The results showed that all of the three credibility dimensions for both celebrity endorser and created spokesperson have a pos...

  19. The Effect of Individual Differences on Adolescents' Impulsive Buying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Chuang, Shin-Chieh

    2005-01-01

    This study posits a relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Impulsive Buying Tendency (IBT). A survey of 574 adolescents found that high-EI adolescents manifested less impulsive behavior than did low-EI adolescents, and high-IBT adolescents were more likely to engage in more impulsive buying behavior than were low-IBT adolescents.…

  20. 47 CFR 76.505 - Prohibition on buy outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on buy outs. 76.505 Section 76.505... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Ownership of Cable Systems § 76.505 Prohibition on buy outs. (a) No local... operator's franchise area. (c) A local exchange carrier and a cable operator whose telephone service area...

  1. Socially responsible organizational buying : An analysis of concepts and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maignan, [No Value; Thorne, D; Krishnan, R; Viswanathan, M

    2001-01-01

    Organizational buying has been scrutinized extensively by marketing scholars (e.g., Barclay 1991; Bunn 1994; Webster and Wind 1972; Wren and Simpson 1996); yet, scant attention has been given to the nature, antecedents, and benefits of socially responsible organizational buying (SRB). The paper

  2. An analysis of Western Europe's food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan; Skytte, Hans

    A study concerning food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 West European countries. The study encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving towards pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the background for the study, the outline...

  3. 23 CFR 710.503 - Protective buying and hardship acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protective buying and hardship acquisition. 710.503 Section 710.503 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.503 Protective buying and...

  4. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Andresen, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies ...

  5. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  6. Buying Impulsive Trait: An effective moderator for shopping emotions and perceived risk

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Piyush Kumar; Mishra, Hari Govind; Kaul, Surabhi; Singh, Sarabjot

    2014-01-01

    The study provides an evidence of the relationship between buying traits, perceived risk and buying emotions. The study also indicates that the three emotional states of arousal and pleasure and dominance have significant relationship with impulsive buying behavior. Arousal which was active with buying intentions and impulsive buying was seen insignificant with moderating regression results. Buying impulsive trait was found to be significant moderator of pleasure, dominance, perceived risk an...

  7. Drift, selection, or migration? Processes affecting genetic differentiation and variation along a latitudinal gradient in an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortázar-Chinarro, Maria; Lattenkamp, Ella Z; Meyer-Lucht, Yvonne; Luquet, Emilien; Laurila, Anssi; Höglund, Jacob

    2017-08-14

    Past events like fluctuations in population size and post-glacial colonization processes may influence the relative importance of genetic drift, migration and selection when determining the present day patterns of genetic variation. We disentangle how drift, selection and migration shape neutral and adaptive genetic variation in 12 moor frog populations along a 1700 km latitudinal gradient. We studied genetic differentiation and variation at a MHC exon II locus and a set of 18 microsatellites. Using outlier analyses, we identified the MHC II exon 2 (corresponding to the β-2 domain) locus and one microsatellite locus (RCO8640) to be subject to diversifying selection, while five microsatellite loci showed signals of stabilizing selection among populations. STRUCTURE and DAPC analyses on the neutral microsatellites assigned populations to a northern and a southern cluster, reflecting two different post-glacial colonization routes found in previous studies. Genetic variation overall was lower in the northern cluster. The signature of selection on MHC exon II was weaker in the northern cluster, possibly as a consequence of smaller and more fragmented populations. Our results show that historical demographic processes combined with selection and drift have led to a complex pattern of differentiation along the gradient where some loci are more divergent among populations than predicted from drift expectations due to diversifying selection, while other loci are more uniform among populations due to stabilizing selection. Importantly, both overall and MHC genetic variation are lower at northern latitudes. Due to lower evolutionary potential, the low genetic variation in northern populations may increase the risk of extinction when confronted with emerging pathogens and climate change.

  8. THE LOYAL CUSTOMERS’ PERCEPTION REGARDING THE ONLINE BUYING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia BOBALCA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to investigate the Romanian online customers’ perception as regards to the process of buying products from the Internet. The research objectives are: (1 to identify the advantages and disadvantages of buying from the Internet, (2 to identify the reasons of buying from the Internet, (3 to identify the reasons of frequently buying from the same website. We employed a qualitative research method, based on depth interviews. It is an exploratory and instrumental research. The sample is represented by 30 Romanian online customers who frequently buy products from a specific website. The results show that the most important reasons for online shopping are: space accessibility, access convenience, evaluation convenience, delivery convenience, time saving and money saving. The motivations for repeating the purchase from the same website are: product quality, product diversity, quick delivery, easy to use, recommendations, good deals, safety, reputation and interactivity.

  9. Experimental Shifts in Intraclutch Egg Color Variation Do Not Affect Egg Rejection in a Host of a Non-Egg-Mimetic Avian Brood Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host’s ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins’ behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch. PMID:25831051

  10. Experimental shifts in intraclutch egg color variation do not affect egg rejection in a host of a non-egg-mimetic avian brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Croston

    Full Text Available Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host's ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius, hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater. We recorded robins' behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch.

  11. Wide variation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation interruption intervals among commercially available automated external defibrillators may affect survival despite high defibrillation efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David; Morgan, Carl

    2004-09-01

    Recent studies have associated interruptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation imposed by automated external defibrillators (AEDs) with poor resuscitation outcome. In particular, the "hands-off" interval between precordial compressions and subsequent defibrillation shock has been implicated. We sought to determine the range of variation among current-generation AEDs with respect to this characteristic. Seven AEDs from six manufacturers were characterized via stopwatch and arrhythmia simulator with respect to the imposed hands-off interval. All AEDs were equipped with new batteries, and measurements were repeated five times for each AED. A wide variation in the hands-off interval between precordial compressions and shock delivery was observed, ranging from 5.2 to 28.4 secs, with only one AED achieving an interruption of <10 secs. Laboratory and clinical data suggest that this range of variation could be responsible for a more than two-fold variation in patient resuscitation success, an effect that far exceeds any defibrillation efficacy differences that may hypothetically exist. In addition to defibrillation waveform and dose, researchers should consider the hands-off cardiopulmonary resuscitation interruption interval between cardiopulmonary resuscitation and subsequent defibrillation shock to be an important covariate of outcome in resuscitation studies. Defibrillator design should minimize this interval to avoid potential adverse consequences on patient survival.

  12. The Impact of Business Ownership Change on Employee Relations: Buy-outs in the UK and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruining (Hans); J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); D.M. Wright (Mike); N. Bacon (Nicolas)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractA buy-out is a fundamental change in the structure of ownership that may affect the way employee relations develop within an organisation. Little is known about the impact of buyouts upon employee relations. This paper aims to address this gap. We focus on two main questions. First, what

  13. Consumers' willingness to buy products with environmental and ethical claims: the roles of social representations and social identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, J.; Onwezen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how social representations and consumers' identification with organic food consumers affects intentions to buy products that make environmental and ethical claims. For the purposes of the study, an online panel study was conducted on a representative sample of consumers

  14. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  15. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Learn It, Buy It, Work It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiidenberg, Katrin; Baym, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes how pregnant women perform their pregnancies on Instagram. We ask whether they rely on and reproduce pre-existing discourses aimed at morally regulating pregnancy, or reject them and construct their own alternatives. Pregnancy today is highly visible, intensely surveilled......, marketed as a consumer identity, and feverishly stalked in its celebrity manifestations. This propagates narrow visions of what a “normal” pregnancy or “normal” pregnant woman should be like. We argue that pregnant women on Instagram do pregnancy via three overlapping and complimentary discourses of “learn...... it,” “buy it,” and “work it.” Together these form the current authoritative knowledge of pregnancy we call “intensive pregnancy” as performed on Instagram. Concurrently, this article highlights how the combined discursive power of hashtags, images, and captions may influence and enforce discursive...

  17. So, you are buying your first computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara-Love, R

    1999-06-01

    Buying your first computer need not be that complicated. The first thing that is needed is an understanding of what you want and need the computer for. By making a list of the various essentials, you will be on your way to purchasing that computer. Once that is completed, you will need an understanding of what each of the components of the computer is, how it works, and what options you have. This way, you will be better able to discuss your needs with the salesperson. The focus of this article is limited to personal computers or PCs (i.e., IBMs [Armonk, NY], IBM clones, Compaq [Houston, TX], Gateway [North Sioux City, SD], and so on). I am not including Macintosh or Apple [Cupertino, CA] in this discussion; most software is often made exclusively for personal computers or at least on the market for personal computers before becoming available in Macintosh version.

  18. Buying a laser - Tips and pearls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev J Aurangabadkar

    2014-01-01

    Meticulous planning of the type of machine, specifications, financial aspects, maintenance and warranties is important.It is wise to sign a contract or agreement between the buyer and seller before purchase of a laser which covers key aspects of installation, after sales service and maintenance of the machine.Adequate training is essential; understanding laser physics and laser-tissue interaction goes a long way in getting the best out of the machine.The credibility of the dealer and company should be ascertained in order to be assured of after-sales service.Buying used machines, sharing of equipment to offset high initial investments is a good option but even more care is required to ensure proper functioning and maintenance.

  19. Introduction to Modeling of Buying Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gruenwald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buying decision models of customers to adjust the competitiveness of organizations have been a challenge for marketing disciplines for several generations. This topic has been explored by researchers and academics in past years, and quite an extensive theoretical base exists with a number of approaches for dealing with this challenge.This paper presents some approaches for creating a customer decision model, and provides experimental results from an electronic investigation intended to build the Kano Model; to prove an ability to understand the modeling principle; and to find out the interpretation of the examined demand in a specific market segment involving students of a technical university. The last section of the paper contains a brief introduction to Choice-Based Modeling with Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis (CBC, which was tailored for modeling purchasing decisions.

  20. Modern food retailing buying behaviour in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu; Kuada, John

    2016-01-01

    by the overlapping food certification requirements of various government agencies, which impose limitations on the buyers’ decision. Due to the exploratory nature of the study and its focus on the context of a particular geographical marketplace, the findings may not be generalizable to other countries. Originality......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in developing economies using the case of Tanzania. This paper provides an insight into the decision-making practice of modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in emerging modern food distribution systems, where...... the buying task involves balancing the retailer’s commercial interests with more stringent government regulations that shape food business in the region. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative case study approach was used for the study. The researcher used semi-structured interviews with retailers...

  1. Family decision-making during food buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    Decision-making during food buying is a joint family activity involving both parents and children. Children manage to achieve a high degree of influence on many decisions, among other things, because they participate actively and help out doing various tasks. These decisions may turn out...... to be a choice of unhealthy food. Many decisions are made at the supermarket or other food shops, and food packaging is often used in the comparison of food products. Only rarely do families use nutritional information on food labels due to several problems in the understanding of these labels; this may result...... in difficulties in distinguishing among healthy and unhealthy food. Both parents and children being active in the decision process may lead to conflicts due to gaps in preference such as between healthy and unhealthy food. Families solve these conflicts via open communication patterns and a use of various...

  2. Consumer Ethnocentrism and Willingness to Buy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, A. Georg; Karpen, Ingo O.

    2011-01-01

    has also discovered important differences in the cognitive processes and behavior depending on demographic characteristics. However, there are competing views in the literature as to how these fundamental consumer characteristics influence and interact with consumer ethnocentrism. This study further......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to clarify how demographic consumer characteristics influence and interact with consumer ethnocentrism on willingness to buy. The authors analyze the direct effects of selected characteristics on the tendency for consumer ethnocentrism. Further, the moderating...... effects of these consumer characteristics are investigated. Design/methodology/approach – Data were gathered from 361 consumers in Australia. Data analysis was conducted using regression analysis with interactions and post hoc slope analysis. Findings – The empirical findings show that consumer tendencies...

  3. To buy green or not to buy: environmental concerned companies and individuals' rewarding behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Rodr??guez-Priego, Nuria; Montoro-R??os, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    The present research aim to examine individuals?? purchasing behavioural intention related with corporations who are environmental concerned. Two Structural Equations Models are proposed and tested independently for the behavioral intention or rewarding and punishing companies by buying or not their products. Results highlight the importance of increasing perceived consumer effectiveness of their energy saving actions, as well as involvement to enhance the risk perceived of global climate cha...

  4. Consumer Buying Behaviour; A Factor of Compulsive Buying Prejudiced by Windowsill Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed, Irfan; Soomro, Yasir

    2012-01-01

    This empirical research investigates the impact of windowsill placement on the compulsive buying behavior of consumers on three different types of products i.e., convenience products, shopping products, and specialty products. Positive effect of windowsill placement on all three types of product categories has been hypothesized. The categorical regression (Optimal scaling) was used to test the hypotheses. The data was collected via self administered questionnaire from Pakistan through systema...

  5. Consumers' willingness to buy food via the Internet: A review of the litterature and a model for future research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne; Grunert, Klaus G.

    In the first part of the paper, existing studies on consumer propensity to buy via the Internet are reviewed in an attempt to shed light on factors explaining consumer willingness to buy food via the Internet. Following a model by Sindhav and Balazs (1999), determinants relating to medium, product......, consumer, firm and environment are distinguished. In order to draw the various results together and provide a coherent framework for future research, we then propose a model which combines the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the lifestyle construct. The model can be used to analyse how beliefs affecting...... consumers intention to buy food via the Internet are formed and changed due to experience with such shopping....

  6.     Developmental acclimation affects clinal variation in stress resistance traits in Drosophila buzzatii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Loeschcke, Volker

    2010-01-01

      Patterns of clinal genetic variation in Drosophila are often characterized after rearing at constant temperatures. However, clinal patterns might change after acclimation if populations differ in their plastic response to fluctuating environments. We studied longevity, starvation and heat knock...... temperatures, especially in heat knock-down, for which clinal patterns disappeared when flies were reared at constant temperatures. This result emphasises the importance of determining whether populations originating from different environments differ in their plastic responses to stress....

  7. Make or buy decision model with multi-stage manufacturing process and supplier imperfect quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Mega Aria; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2017-11-01

    This research develops an make or buy decision model considering supplier imperfect quality. This model can be used to help companies make the right decision in case of make or buy component with the best quality and the least cost in multistage manufacturing process. The imperfect quality is one of the cost component that must be minimizing in this model. Component with imperfect quality, not necessarily defective. It still can be rework and used for assembly. This research also provide a numerical example and sensitivity analysis to show how the model work. We use simulation and help by crystal ball to solve the numerical problem. The sensitivity analysis result show that percentage of imperfect generally not affect to the model significantly, and the model is not sensitive to changes in these parameters. This is because the imperfect cost are smaller than overall total cost components.

  8. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects...... of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies choose a consulting services supplier. Five hypotheses are developed based...

  9. An analysis of the buy-vs-lease decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Jonathan W; Lexa, Frank J

    2006-02-01

    This article presents a financial model to analyze the buy-vs-lease decision. The model is constructed from the perspective of a lessee with an operating lease and uses the concept of net present value, which calculates the current value of predicted cash flows in the future. Predicted cash flows of an operating lease compared with buying are presented in the model, as is the after-tax borrowing rate, the appropriate discount rate used in a model of this type. The article also discusses nonfinancial factors that may influence the buy-vs-lease decision, including the need for flexibility in working capital and the anticipated technological obsolescence of equipment.

  10. Compulsive buying disorder: an untreated patient for 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviors (buying unneeded things, personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. In this case report, we presented diagnostic and treatment process of 49 year old, female patient who had complaints amnesia, weight loss and insomnia. In her medical history, she had compulsive buying disorder for nearly twenty years but untreated until her current evaluation. Comorbid psychiatric disorders started in the last two months which expedited her current referral. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 172-175

  11. Make-or-Buy Desicions on Technology-Intensive Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Elsner, Robert

    2018-01-01

    . The results show two kinds of make-or-buy decisions, called type 1 and type 2. In contrast to type 1 make-or-buy decisions whose scope is mostly limited to the production and quality function, type 2 decisions are strongly linked to engineering and R&D activities. Moreover, two new decision matrices...... are introduced: a ‘product/subsystem aggregation’ scheme and a ‘make-or-buy controlling’ matrix. In an environment in which companies move towards greater use of outsourcing, the framework ensures that company strategy and core competencies are followed in the long run despite short-range deviations of make...

  12. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...... of the association vary according to emotion category....

  13. Local variations in {sup 14}C - How is bomb-pulse dating of human tissues and cells affected?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, Kristina, E-mail: Kristina.Stenstrom@nuclear.lu.s [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Skog, Goeran [Lund University, GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Geocentrum II, Soelvegatan 12, SE-223 672 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Carl Magnus [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Hellborg, Ragnar [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svegborn, Sigrid Leide [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Georgiadou, Elisavet [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mattsson, Soeren [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s and early 1960s almost doubled the amount of {sup 14}C in the atmosphere. The resulting {sup 14}C 'bomb-pulse' has been shown to provide useful age information in e.g. forensic and environmental sciences, biology and the geosciences. The technique is also currently being used for retrospective cell dating in man, in order to provide insight into the rate of formation of new cells in the human body. Bomb-pulse dating relies on precise measurements of the declining {sup 14}C concentration in atmospheric CO{sub 2} collected at clean-air sites. However, it is not always recognized that the calculations can be complicated in some cases by significant local variations in the specific activity of {sup 14}C in carbon in the air and foodstuff. This paper presents investigations of local {sup 14}C variations in the vicinities of nuclear installations and laboratories using {sup 14}C. Levels of {sup 14}C in workers using this radioisotope are also discussed.

  14. The erratic mitochondrial clock: variations of mutation rate, not population size, affect mtDNA diversity across birds and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galtier Nicolas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last ten years, major advances have been made in characterizing and understanding the evolution of mitochondrial DNA, the most popular marker of molecular biodiversity. Several important results were recently reported using mammals as model organisms, including (i the absence of relationship between mitochondrial DNA diversity and life-history or ecological variables, (ii the absence of prominent adaptive selection, contrary to what was found in invertebrates, and (iii the unexpectedly large variation in neutral substitution rate among lineages, revealing a possible link with species maximal longevity. We propose to challenge these results thanks to the bird/mammal comparison. Direct estimates of population size are available in birds, and this group presents striking life-history trait differences with mammals (higher mass-specific metabolic rate and longevity. These properties make birds the ideal model to directly test for population size effects, and to discriminate between competing hypotheses about the causes of substitution rate variation. Results A phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b third-codon position confirms that the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate is quite variable in birds, passerines being the fastest evolving order. On average, mitochondrial DNA evolves slower in birds than in mammals of similar body size. This result is in agreement with the longevity hypothesis, and contradicts the hypothesis of a metabolic rate-dependent mutation rate. Birds show no footprint of adaptive selection on cytochrome b evolutionary patterns, but no link between direct estimates of population size and cytochrome b diversity. The mutation rate is the best predictor we have of within-species mitochondrial diversity in birds. It partly explains the differences in mitochondrial DNA diversity patterns observed between mammals and birds, previously interpreted as reflecting Hill-Robertson interferences with the W

  15. 43 CFR 12.830 - Buy American Act-Construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act-Construction materials... Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.830 Buy American Act—Construction materials...—Construction Materials (a) The Buy American Act (41 U.S.C. 10) provides that the Government give preference to...

  16. Customers' values, beliefs on sustainable corporate performance, and buying behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, Christy M.; Steg, Linda

    Sustainable corporate performance (SCP) requires balancing a corporation's economic, social, and environmental performance. This research explores values, beliefs about the importance of SCP, and buying behaviors of supermarket customers from within a stakeholder framework. Beliefs about the

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Working with Sandia: What Does Sandia Buy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Management System Pollution Prevention History 60 impacts Diversity Locations Facts & Figures Does Sandia Buy? Opportunities Small Business Procurement Technical Assistance Program (PTAP) Current Technology Partnerships Business, Industry, & Non-Profits Government Universities Center for

  18. 22 CFR 96.36 - Prohibition on child buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Accreditation and Approval Ethical Practices and Responsibilities § 96.36 Prohibition on child buying. (a) The... person may remit reasonable payments for activities related to the adoption proceedings, pre-birth and.... Professional Qualifications and Training for Employees ...

  19. Hartford's gun buy-back program: are we on target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Laura W; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Shapiro, David S; Bentley, George C; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2013-09-01

    Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths.

  20. Acquisition: Buy American Act Issues on Procurements of Military Clothing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Spence National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2001. The Committee Report expressed concern over the number of violations of the Buy American Act identified in Inspector General, DoD, Report...

  1. Making or buying environmental public goods: do consumers care?

    OpenAIRE

    Bougherara, Douadia; Costa, Sandrine; Teisl, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Firms may voluntary abate pollution using one of two options: internalizing its own external effects and incuring abatement costs ("making") or delegating environmental protection by purchasing offsets ("buying"). We aim to elicit consumers' WTP for producers' use of the "making" option as compared to the "buying" option, controlling for spatial effects (joint local public goods) and level of GHG emissions. Using a stated choice survey with 722 respondents, we find consumers are more willing ...

  2. Group Buying: A New Mechanism for Selling Through Social Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqing Jing; Jinhong Xie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines a unique selling strategy, Group Buying, under which consumers enjoy a discounted group price if they are willing and able to achieve a required group size and coordinate their transaction time. We argue that Group Buying allows a seller to gain from facilitating consumer social interaction, i.e., using a group discount to motivate informed customers to work as "sales agents" to acquire less-informed customers through interpersonal information/knowledge sharing. We formall...

  3. A Make-or-buy Decision Process for Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Bajec, Patricija; Jakomin, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Should firms perform logistics services on their own or should they buy them from a logistics provider? Today’s global competition forces companies to re-evaluate their existing processes, technologies and services in order to focuse on strategic activities. Outsourcing is now increasingly used as a competitive weapon in today’s economy. External parties can often do job quicker, cheaper and better. This has resulted in an increasing awareness of the importance of the make-or-buy decision, th...

  4. Buying behavior and competition in the software market

    OpenAIRE

    Rosário, João Carlos Vinagre Ferreira do; Reis, António Palma dos

    2012-01-01

    In the actual world, the impact of the software buying decisions has a rising relevance in social and economic terms. This research tries to explain it focusing on the organizations buying decisions of Operating Systems and Office Suites for personal computers and the impact on the competition between incumbent and alternative players in the market in these software categories, although the research hypotheses and conclusions may extend to other software categories and platforms. We concluded...

  5. STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR IN RETAIL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Dubey; Dr. Siddharth Saini; Dr. Srishti Umekar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study are determining the impact of the most used tools of sales promotion in retail sector such as coupons, sample, price discount and buy one get one free on consumer buying behavior from two aspects are brand switching and customer loyalty. Consumer promotions should stimulate purchases, sustain brand-name recognition, and gain audience participation. Themes are underlying messages. Media should be selected. In this way include direct mail, newspapers, magazines, televis...

  6. MOTIVATION AND MOTIVES - DRIVER AND REASON OF CONSUMER'S BUYING BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    TICHINDELEAN Mihai; VINEREAN Simona

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to understand and measure consumer's motives as part of the complex mental structure which has as result a certain buying behavior. To achieve this goal, the authors structured the paper in two parts: the first part contains a literature review regarding the concepts of motivation and motives, while the second part tries to measure and explain several dimensions of buying motives by using a statistical analysis tool - exploratory factor analysis.

  7. Group-buying inventory policy with demand under Poisson process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammarat Kleebmek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The group-buying is the modern business of selling in the uncertain market. With an objective to minimize costs for sellers arising from ordering and reordering, we present in this paper the group buying inventory model, with the demand governed by a Poisson process and the product sale distributed as Binomial distribution. The inventory level is under continuous review, while the lead time is fixed. A numerical example is illustrated.

  8. Impact of colors on advertisement and packaging on buying behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabinda Seher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research paper is to find out relationship between varying color scheming in advertising and buying behavior. Data for this purpose were collected from 200 people through questionnaire. Results indicated that buying behavior is greatly influenced by color scheming of a product and its advertisement. Strategies discussing how to enhance color scheming of product and use of colors in ads are also discussed.

  9. [Intention] to buy organic food products among norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammed Zabiullah

    2012-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2012 The purpose of this thesis is to examine the buying intention of the Norwegian consumers towards ecological or eco-labeled food products. What are the factors that are leading people to buy organic food and which one are the most important factors among consumers. The thesis is divided into four sections, Phenomena, Theory, Reality, and conclusion. Each section is interrelated with each other. In this thesis, data w...

  10. Influence of product packaging colour on impulsive buying behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Pilelienė, Lina; Grigaliūnaitė, Viktorija; Stakauskaitė, Greta

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of the research. In the contemporary market economy, where competition among companies is very intensive, companies are looking for new, creative and effective ways to increase their profits. Seeking for the same aim, traditional marketing methods are supplemented with sensory, visual, scent, and sensation marketing. In order to increase the profit of a company by means of enhancing the volume of impulsive buying, visual marketing becomes very important, as impulsive buying is the r...

  11. Consumer attitudes on buying fish in Banja Luka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of research presented in the paper is to determine the basic parameters affecting the purchase, supply and consumption of fish in the market of the city of Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegovina. The survey was conducted on a random sample of 100 respondents. The data were analyzed by univariante (frequency and distribution and two-variant statistical methods and cross-tabulation. The conclusions are that for the purchase of fish, freshness is a primary factor, which is to be expected given the type of product as well as the origin, and price and type of fish. Out of all respondents, 41% said they were not informed enough about the fish as a food, while the remaining 59% said they got information through different media channels. It was found that consumers are generally informed about the importance of fish as a foodstuff through secondary promotion channels, i.e. 'word of mouth'. Consumers in Banja Luka prefer fresh fish, and the most consumed is freshwater fish. As a place of buying fish, both hypermarket and fish shops are equally represented. Factors of purchase may have a major role in creating consumer attitude towards fish and therefore, producers and sellers of fish are recommended too take into account the results of this and similar studies, in order to segment their markets and develop better marketing tools/strategies and thus make better approach of fish consumers to defined market segments.

  12. Money Buys Happiness When Spending Fits Our Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Sandra C; Gladstone, Joe J; Stillwell, David

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to decades of research reporting surprisingly weak relationships between consumption and happiness, recent findings suggest that money can indeed increase happiness if it is spent the "right way" (e.g., on experiences or on other people). Drawing on the concept of psychological fit, we extend this research by arguing that individual differences play a central role in determining the "right" type of spending to increase well-being. In a field study using more than 76,000 bank-transaction records, we found that individuals spend more on products that match their personality, and that people whose purchases better match their personality report higher levels of life satisfaction. This effect of psychological fit on happiness was stronger than the effect of individuals' total income or the effect of their total spending. A follow-up study showed a causal effect: Personality-matched spending increased positive affect. In summary, when spending matches the buyer's personality, it appears that money can indeed buy happiness. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Preferences of Moravian consumers when buying food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Turčínková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research of preferences of Moravian consumers when buying food. The research focuses on characteristics of consumer behavior on the market with food, the preferences of product characteristics, price characteristics, convenient distribution and influence of selected marketing communication tools. The data collection was conducted via questionnaire in April through June 2010 on a sample of 2017 respondents by a research team of Department of Marketing and Trade at FBE MENDELU in Brno. The results suggest that Moravian consumers prefer retail stores with fresh food (mean = 7.99 and wider assortment (7.71, their choice of outlet is also influenced by the convenience of its location – the most preferred are the ones nearest to respondents’ homes or job (7.31, nevertheless, there is greater variability in level of agreement with this behavior among respondents. Respondents develop a certain level of loyalty, most of them have their favorite store and do no alternate much (7.26. However, they tend to be as savvy as possible (6.89 and take their time to consider their final choice (6.52.

  14. Assessment of factors that may affect the moisture- and temperature variations in the concrete structures inside nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxfall, M.; Hassanzadeh, M.; Johansson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Three factors that may affect the climatic conditions inside Swedish nuclear reactor containments are the outdoor climate, the cooling water temperature and the operational state of the reactor. Those factors that have a considerable affect on the climatic conditions will be identified through comparisons to actual conditions during operation inside reactor containments. Knowledge about the impact of the factors on the climatic conditions is essential when developing a model to determine the prevailing and to predict future conditions in the concrete structures. The comparison between a Pressurized Water Reactor and a Boiling Water Reactor showed that there is no clear similarity, with regard to fluctuation of the indoor climate conditions, between the two reactor types. The indoor climate at a Pressurized Water Reactor seemed not to be affected of changes in the operational state, but it follows the fluctuations of the outdoor temperature and to some extent the water temperature. The Boiling water Reactor did not follow the water or outdoor temperature fluctuations. However, at a full power outage during a short period of time during the operational year the temperature drastically decreased. An operational year of a Boiling water reactor can be divided into three periods, where the first represents the yearly power outage, the second represents the autumn-winter-spring period and the third represents the summer period. The operational year of a pressurized water reactor can't easily be divided into stable periods, since the indoor temperature fluctuation follows the outdoor temperature fluctuation. Based on these measurements a simplified model which includes outer factors is possible for a BWR but more difficult for a PWR. (authors)

  15. Cultural variation in seasonal depression: cross-national differences in winter versus summer patterns of seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasof, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    Research suggests that two dimensions of national culture, individualism-collectivism and power distance, predict affective responses to the seasonally varying levels of ambient sunlight that may underlie regular cycles of mood and behavior in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Specifically, negative affect is predicted by the diminished sunlight of fall-winter in countries higher in individualism and lower in power distance, and by the increased sunlight of spring-summer in countries lower in individualism and higher in power distance. This study tests whether individualism correlates positively, and power distance negatively, with the frequency of winter-SAD relative to that of summer-SAD. A search for studies reporting frequencies of both winter-SAD and summer-SAD identified 55 samples encompassing 18 countries and 38,408 participants, including 1931 with SAD. The frequency of winter-SAD, relative to that of summer-SAD, correlated positively with individualism (r=.67, p=.001) and negatively with power distance (r=-.72, p=.0001). Countries in which winter-SAD was more common than summer-SAD were significantly more individualistic and less power-distant than countries in which summer-SAD was more common than winter-SAD. Results survived various tests of threats to validity. The study is limited by the quantity, quality, diversity, and representativeness of the research under review and by its correlational design. Individualism and power distance are strongly related to the relative prevalence of winter-SAD and summer-SAD. Culture may play an important but previously overlooked role in the etiology of SAD.

  16. Impact of attention biases to threat and effortful control on individual variations in negative affect and social withdrawal in very young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Claire E; Zapp, Daniel J; Fettig, Nicole B; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly

    2016-01-01

    Early temperamental sensitivity may form the basis for the later development of socioemotional maladjustment. In particular, temperamental negative affect places children at risk for the development of anxiety. However, not all children who show negative affect go on to develop anxiety or extreme social withdrawal. Recent research indicates that reactive control, in the form of attention to threat, may serve as a bridge between early temperament and the development of later social difficulties. In addition, variation in effortful control may also modulate this trajectory. Children (mean age=5.57 years) were assessed for attention bias to threatening and pleasant faces using a dot-probe paradigm. Attention bias to threatening (but not happy) faces moderated the direct positive relation between negative affect and social withdrawal. Children with threat biases showed a significant link between negative affect and social withdrawal, whereas children who avoided threat did not. In contrast, effortful control did not moderate the relation between negative affect and social withdrawal. Rather, there was a direct negative relation between effortful control and social withdrawal. The findings from this short report indicate that the relations among temperament, attention bias, and social withdrawal appears early in life and point to early emerging specificity in reactive and regulatory functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Variation at local government level in the support for families of severely disabled children and the factors that affect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Rob; McNally, Richard; James, Peter; Crossland, Kevin; Woolley, Mark; Colver, Allan

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine geographical variability in the support for families caring for children with severe disabilities as well as the relationships between this variability and local government social and educational performance indicators. Data were collected from a cross-sectional, self-completed postal survey of the families of 5862 children and young people (aged 0-24 y, mean 10 y 7 mo; 68% male) with severe disabilities resulting in a variety of impairments (21% with autism spectrum disorders, 16% with learning disabilities,* 13% with emotional and behavioural difficulties, and 13% with cerebral palsy [CP]). Data on the severity of intrinsic impairment were assessed using the Health Utilities Index, and the need for support was assessed from the results of a novel parent-completed questionnaire, the European Child Environment Questionnaire (ECEQ). These responses were related to data published by local authorities on educational and social policy. Higher levels of unmet need and lack of support, as reported by parents of children and young people with severe disabilities, are associated with greater impairment but not with socioeconomic deprivation. After controlling for impairment and diagnosis, variation at local government level is of the order of 1 to 1.5 ECEQ standard deviation scores. The best- and the worst-performing local authorities--in terms of the averages of the 'support' scores reported by their surveyed residents--cluster in urban areas. For children with CP, a positive correlation was found between the reported unmet educational support requirements in each local authority area and rates of mainstream school placement for children with special educational needs. This indicates that the placement of children with disabilities into mainstream schools is associated with reported unmet need (r=0.60; p=0.01). In the case of children with autism spectrum diagnoses, the provision of additional basic educational support in mainstream

  18. The Impact of Visual Merchandising on Consumer Impulse Buying Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram L. Bhatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In present Post-Modern Era, the competitive situation in the business is characterized by a cut throat competition, which subsequently results in companies and retailers to pay almost anything for undifferentiated merchandising. This merchandising tool is being used by today’s retailer to distinguish him from other competitors, to be prominent in the market and become a source of attraction for the customers. A few researchers contribute in this field by exploring the reasons which causes the customers impulsive buying, but still there is more to be determined. Purpose of this study is to identify the relation between the consumer impulsive buying and visual merchandising on buying behavior of customers. This study was based on primary data in the form of a questioner. A total of 350 questioners were floated in different consumer outlets (super marts and self-service stores of Rawalpindi, Pakistan out of which 344 questioners were completed and received. Defined four hypotheses were window display, forum display, floor merchandising and shop brand name. These hypotheses were tested for regression analysis by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS software. It was found that window display, forum display, floor merchandising and shop brand name (independent variables are significantly associated to consumer impulse buying behavior (dependent variable. Hence, forum display is negatively related to consumer impulse buying and window display; however, floor merchandising and shop brand name are positively related to consumer impulse buying behavior.

  19. Influence of demographic and individual difference factors on impulse buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Mihić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to determine the correlation of consumers’ demographic or socioeconomic characteristics and individual difference factors on the impulse buying behavior with respect to a number of single impulsivity indicators and one collective indicator. The paper consists of theoretical and research aspects. The first part encompasses theoretical insights into the secondary research regarding impulse buying while the practical part presents the methodology and primary research results. With respect to the subject matter, research goals as well as previous findings and primary research results, corresponding hypotheses were set and mainly confirmed. The results showed that demographic factors, such as the age and working status, are related to most impulse buying indicators and to the impulsivity collective indicator. However, household income produced opposite results. Household income proved to have no major influence on the majority of impulse buying indicators but to be related noticeably to the collective impulsivity indicator, indicating that this result should be regarded with caution. Research results also pointed to the fact that the majority of individual indicators (innovativeness, tendency to the fashionable and shopping enjoyment are positively and negatively related to the impulse buying behavior and that individual difference factors have a greater influence on impulse buying than do demographic characteristics. The paper also summarizes research limitations as well as the work contribution and future research guidelines.

  20. Psychiatric and socioeconomic aspects as possible predictors of compulsive buying behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Priscilla Lourenço; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible urge to buy various items. Compulsive buying disorder is a subject of growing interest to health professionals. It is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to identify predictors of compulsive buying in the Brazilian population, assessing possible relationships between compulsive buying, depression and anxiety....

  1. The thermal consequences of river-level variations in an urban groundwater body highly affected by groundwater heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñe, Enric; Schneider, Eduardo Garrido; Sánchez-Navarro, José Ángel; Mateo-Lázaro, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    The extensive implementation of ground source heat pumps in urban aquifers is an important issue related to groundwater quality and the future economic feasibility of existent geothermal installations. Although many cities are in the immediate vicinity of large rivers, little is known about the thermal river-groundwater interaction at a kilometric-scale. The aim of this work is to evaluate the thermal impact of river water recharges induced by flood events into an urban alluvial aquifer anthropogenically influenced by geothermal exploitations. The present thermal state of an urban aquifer at a regional scale, including 27 groundwater heat pump installations, has been evaluated. The thermal impacts of these installations in the aquifer together with the thermal impacts from "cold" winter floods have also been spatially and temporally evaluated to ensure better geothermal management of the aquifer. The results showed a variable direct thermal impact from 0 to 6 °C depending on the groundwater-surface water interaction along the river trajectory. The thermal plumes far away from the riverbed also present minor indirect thermal impacts due to hydraulic gradient variations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. How do microlocal environmental variations affect microbial activities of a Pinus halepensis litter in a Mediterranean coastal area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasemian, Leila; Guiral, Daniel; Farnet, Anne-Marie

    2014-10-15

    Mediterranean coastal ecosystems suffer many different types of natural and anthropogenic environmental pressure. Microbial communities, major conductors of organic matter decomposition are also subject to these environmental constraints. In this study, our aim was to understand how microbial activities vary at a small spatio-temporal scale in a Mediterranean coastal environment. Microbial activities were monitored in a Pinus halepensis litter collected from two areas, one close to (10 m) and one far from (300 m) the French Mediterranean coast. Litters were transferred from one area to the other using litterbags and studied via different microbial indicators after 2, 5 and 13 months. Microbial Basal Respiration, qCO₂, certain enzyme activities (laccase, cellulase, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) and functional diversity via Biolog microplates were assayed in litterbags left in the area of origin as well as in litterbags transferred from one area to the other. Results highlight that microbial activities differ significantly in this short spatial scale over time. The influence of microlocal conditions more intensified for litters situated close to the sea, especially during summer seems to have a stressful effect on microbial communities, leading to less efficient functional activities. However, microbial activities were more strongly influenced by temporal variations linked to seasonality than by location. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of Primary Factors Affecting the Variation of Modeled Oak Pollen Concentrations: A Case Study for Southeast Texas in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Wonbae; Choi, Yunsoo; Roy, Anirban; Pan, Shuai; Price, Daniel; Hwang, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Kyu Rang; Oh, Inbo

    2018-02-01

    Oak pollen concentrations over the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area in southeastern Texas were modeled and evaluated against in-situ data. We modified the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to include oak pollen emission, dispersion, and deposition. The Oak Pollen Emission Model (OPEM) calculated gridded oak pollen emissions, which are based on a parameterized equation considering a plant-specific factor ( C e ), surface characteristics, and meteorology. The simulation period was chosen to be February 21 to April 30 in the spring of 2010, when the observed monthly mean oak pollen concentrations were the highest in six years (2009-2014). The results indicated C e and meteorology played an important role in the calculation of oak pollen emissions. While C e was critical in determining the magnitude of oak pollen emissions, meteorology determined their variability. In particular, the contribution of the meteorology to the variation in oak pollen emissions increased with the oak pollen emission rate. The evaluation results using in-situ surface data revealed that the model underestimated pollen concentrations and was unable to accurately reproduce the peak pollen episodes. The model error was likely due to uncertainty in climatology-based C e used for the estimation of oak pollen emissions and inaccuracy in the wind fields from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model.

  4. Genomic Structural Variations Affecting Virulence During Clonal Expansion of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Biovar 3 in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firrao, Giuseppe; Torelli, Emanuela; Polano, Cesare; Ferrante, Patrizia; Ferrini, Francesca; Martini, Marta; Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco; Ermacora, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) biovar 3 caused pandemic bacterial canker of Actinidia chinensis and Actinidia deliciosa since 2008. In Europe, the disease spread rapidly in the kiwifruit cultivation areas from a single introduction. In this study, we investigated the genomic diversity of Psa biovar 3 strains during the primary clonal expansion in Europe using single molecule real-time (SMRT), Illumina and Sanger sequencing technologies. We recorded evidences of frequent mobilization and loss of transposon Tn6212, large chromosome inversions, and ectopic integration of IS sequences (remarkably ISPsy31, ISPsy36, and ISPsy37). While no phenotype change associated with Tn6212 mobilization could be detected, strains CRAFRU 12.29 and CRAFRU 12.50 did not elicit the hypersensitivity response (HR) on tobacco and eggplant leaves and were limited in their growth in kiwifruit leaves due to insertion of ISPsy31 and ISPsy36 in the hrpS and hrpR genes, respectively, interrupting the hrp cluster. Both strains had been isolated from symptomatic plants, suggesting coexistence of variant strains with reduced virulence together with virulent strains in mixed populations. The structural differences caused by rearrangements of self-genetic elements within European and New Zealand strains were comparable in number and type to those occurring among the European strains, in contrast with the significant difference in terms of nucleotide polymorphisms. We hypothesize a relaxation, during clonal expansion, of the selection limiting the accumulation of deleterious mutations associated with genome structural variation due to transposition of mobile elements. This consideration may be relevant when evaluating strategies to be adopted for epidemics management.

  5. A 'cost-effective' probabilistic model to select the dominant factors affecting the variation of the component failure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, C.

    1992-11-01

    Within the framework of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the component failure rate λ is a key parameter in the sense that the study of its behavior gives the essential information for estimating the current values as well as the trends in the failure probabilities of interest. Since there is an infinite variety of possible underlying factors which might cause changes in λ (e.g. operating time, maintenance practices, component environment, etc.), an 'importance ranking' process of these factors is considered most desirable to prioritize research efforts. To be 'cost-effective', the modeling effort must be small, i.e. essentially involving no estimation of additional parameters other than λ. In this paper, using a multivariate data analysis technique and various statistical measures, such a 'cost-effective' screening process has been developed. Dominant factors affecting the failure rate of any components of interest can easily be identified and the appropriateness of current research plans (e.g. on the necessity of performing aging studies) can be validated. (author)

  6. Weather daily variation in winter and its effect on behavior and affective states in day-care children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Enrica; Calussi, Pamela; Menesini, Ersilia; Mattei, Alessandra; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze the impact of winter weather conditions on young children's behavior and affective states by examining a group of 61 children attending day-care centers in Florence (Italy). Participants were 33 males, 28 females and their 11 teachers. The mean age of the children at the beginning of the observation period was 24.1 months. The day-care teachers observed the children's behavioral and emotional states during the morning before their sleeping time and filled in a questionnaire for each baby five times over a winter period of 3 weeks. Air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure and solar radiation data were collected every 15 min from a weather station located in the city center of Florence. At the same time, air temperature and relative humidity data were collected in the classroom and in the garden of each day-care center. We used multilevel linear models to evaluate the extent to which children's emotional and behavioral states could be predicted by weather conditions, controlling for child characteristics (gender and age). The data showed that relative humidity and solar radiation were the main predictors of the children's emotional and behavioral states. The outdoor humidity had a significant positive effect on frustration, sadness and aggression; solar radiation had a significant negative effect only on sadness, suggesting that a sunny winter day makes children more cheerful. The results are discussed in term of implications for parents and teachers to improve children's ecological environment.

  7. SMARTPHONE BRANDS DESIGN AND BUYING DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta DOSPINESCU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The wide range of mobile phones transform the decision making process of buyers in a tough assignment. One of the conditions that a smartphone to be successful on the market, when technical services and features offered are perceived as undifferentiated, represent elements of visual impact. The design is now one of the most important agents of satisfaction of the consumer universe of experiences. We intend to study the perception of the Romanian "Y Generation", students, about the smartphones design elements. The findings of this research study would be significant to smartphone producers, in understanding the bases for student’s preferences between Apple and Samsung brands of smartphone. The knowledge gained from this research could provide some elements to build strong brand equity and identity that would lead to increasing their sales volume. Research Problem The research problem refers to observing and determining the factors leading mobile phone design influence on the buying decision and positioning brands Samsung and Apple on the Romanian market, according to the perceptions of   "Y generation". The research methodology The research methodology includes documentary research and quantitative research using a questionnaire on the 120 respondents. The respondents ("Y Generation" are students from three faculties that exist in the North-East of Romania, Iasi City: Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Law. The conducting research involved electronic survey using GoogleDocs online platform. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version, 17.0. The most recent consumer surveys (Lee & Calugar-Pop, 2015 confirm that 18 – 24 years age-group has the highest penetration in terms of smartphone ownership with 85% in Finland and the UK. We use the same type of sample because the situation is similar in Romania.

  8. Systematic variation of prosthetic foot spring affects center-of-mass mechanics and metabolic cost during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelik, Karl E; Collins, Steven H; Adamczyk, Peter G; Segal, Ava D; Klute, Glenn K; Morgenroth, David C; Hahn, Michael E; Orendurff, Michael S; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Kuo, Arthur D

    2011-08-01

    Lower-limb amputees expend more energy to walk than non-amputees and have an elevated risk of secondary disabilities. Insufficient push-off by the prosthetic foot may be a contributing factor. We aimed to systematically study the effect of prosthetic foot mechanics on gait, to gain insight into fundamental prosthetic design principles. We varied a single parameter in isolation, the energy-storing spring in a prototype prosthetic foot, the controlled energy storage and return (CESR) foot, and observed the effect on gait. Subjects walked on the CESR foot with three different springs. We performed parallel studies on amputees and on non-amputees wearing prosthetic simulators. In both groups, spring characteristics similarly affected ankle and body center-of-mass (COM) mechanics and metabolic cost. Softer springs led to greater energy storage, energy return, and prosthetic limb COM push-off work. But metabolic energy expenditure was lowest with a spring of intermediate stiffness, suggesting biomechanical disadvantages to the softest spring despite its greater push-off. Disadvantages of the softest spring may include excessive heel displacements and COM collision losses. We also observed some differences in joint kinetics between amputees and non-amputees walking on the prototype foot. During prosthetic push-off, amputees exhibited reduced energy transfer from the prosthesis to the COM along with increased hip work, perhaps due to greater energy dissipation at the knee. Nevertheless, the results indicate that spring compliance can contribute to push-off, but with biomechanical trade-offs that limit the degree to which greater push-off might improve walking economy. © 2011 IEEE

  9. Natural variation in the VELVET gene bcvel1 affects virulence and light-dependent differentiation in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Julia; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Simon, Adeline; Traeger, Stefanie; Moraga, Javier; Collado, Isidro González; Viaud, Muriel; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is an aggressive plant pathogen causing gray mold disease on various plant species. In this study, we identified the genetic origin for significantly differing phenotypes of the two sequenced B. cinerea isolates, B05.10 and T4, with regard to light-dependent differentiation, oxalic acid (OA) formation and virulence. By conducting a map-based cloning approach we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in an open reading frame encoding a VELVET gene (bcvel1). The SNP in isolate T4 results in a truncated protein that is predominantly found in the cytosol in contrast to the full-length protein of isolate B05.10 that accumulates in the nuclei. Deletion of the full-length gene in B05.10 resulted in the T4 phenotype, namely light-independent conidiation, loss of sclerotial development and oxalic acid production, and reduced virulence on several host plants. These findings indicate that the identified SNP represents a loss-of-function mutation of bcvel1. In accordance, the expression of the B05.10 copy in T4 rescued the wild-type/B05.10 phenotype. BcVEL1 is crucial for full virulence as deletion mutants are significantly hampered in killing and decomposing plant tissues. However, the production of the two best known secondary metabolites, the phytotoxins botcinic acid and botrydial, are not affected by the deletion of bcvel1 indicating that other factors are responsible for reduced virulence. Genome-wide expression analyses of B05.10- and Δbcvel1-infected plant material revealed a number of genes differentially expressed in the mutant: while several protease- encoding genes are under-expressed in Δbcvel1 compared to the wild type, the group of over-expressed genes is enriched for genes encoding sugar, amino acid and ammonium transporters and glycoside hydrolases reflecting the response of Δbcvel1 mutants to nutrient starvation conditions.

  10. Variation in flow and suspended sediment transport in a montane river affected by hydropeaking and instream mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar, M.; Vericat, D.; Batalla, R. J.; Gibbins, C. N.

    2018-06-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of water and sediment loads of rivers is controlled by a suite of factors whose individual effects are often difficult to disentangle. While land use changes and localised human activities such as instream mining and hydropeaking alter water and sediment transfer, tributaries naturally contribute to discharge and sediment load of mainstem rivers, and so may help compensate upstream anthropogenic factors. The work presented here aimed to assess water and the sediment transfer in a river reach affected by gravel extraction and hydropeaking, set against a backdrop of changes to the supply of water and sediment from tributaries. Discharge and suspended sediment transport were monitored during two average hydrological years at three cross-sections along a 10-km reach of the upper River Cinca, in the Southern Pyrenees. Water and sediment loads differed substantially between the reaches. The upper reach showed a largely torrential discharge regime, controlled mainly by floods, and had high but variable water and sediment loads. The middle reach was influenced markedly by hydropeaking and tributary inflows, which increased its annual water yield four-fold. Suspended sediment load in this reach increased by only 25% compared to upstream, indicating that dilution predominated. In the lowermost section, while discharge remained largely unaltered, sediment load increased appreciably as a result of changes to sediment availability from instream mining and inputs from tributaries. At the reach scale, snowmelt and summer and autumn thunderstorms were responsible for most of the water yield, while flood flows determined the magnitude and transport of the sediment load. The study highlights that a combination of natural and human factors control the spatial and temporal transfer of water and sediment in river channels and that, depending on their geographic location and effect-size, can result in marked variability even over short downstream

  11. Difficulty buying food, BMI, and eating habits in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Anne; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Chen, Yang; Lebovic, Gerald; Omand, Jessica; Parkin, Patricia; Birken, Catherine S

    2018-01-22

    To determine whether parent report of difficulty buying food was associated with child body mass index (BMI) z-score or with eating habits in young children. This was a cross-sectional study in primary care offices in Toronto, Ontario. Subjects were children aged 1-5 years and their caregivers, recruited through the TARGet Kids! Research Network from July 2008 to August 2011. Regression models were developed to test the association between parent report of difficulty buying food because of cost and the following outcomes: child BMI z-score, parent's report of child's intake of fruit and vegetables, fruit juice and sweetened beverages, and fast food. Confounders included child's age, sex, birth weight, maternal BMI, education, ethnicity, immigration status, and neighbourhood income. The study sample consisted of 3333 children. Data on difficulty buying food were available for 3099 children, and 431 of these (13.9%) were from households reporting difficulty buying food. There was no association with child BMI z-score (p = 0.86). Children from households reporting difficulty buying food (compared with never having difficulty buying food) had increased odds of consuming three or fewer servings of fruits and vegetables per day (odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.69), more than one serving of fruit juice/sweetened beverage per day (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), and, among children 1-2 years old, one or more servings of fast food per week (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.67-5.08). Parental report of difficulty buying food is associated with less optimal eating habits in children but not with BMI z-score.

  12. Natural variation in the VELVET gene bcvel1 affects virulence and light-dependent differentiation in Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schumacher

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is an aggressive plant pathogen causing gray mold disease on various plant species. In this study, we identified the genetic origin for significantly differing phenotypes of the two sequenced B. cinerea isolates, B05.10 and T4, with regard to light-dependent differentiation, oxalic acid (OA formation and virulence. By conducting a map-based cloning approach we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in an open reading frame encoding a VELVET gene (bcvel1. The SNP in isolate T4 results in a truncated protein that is predominantly found in the cytosol in contrast to the full-length protein of isolate B05.10 that accumulates in the nuclei. Deletion of the full-length gene in B05.10 resulted in the T4 phenotype, namely light-independent conidiation, loss of sclerotial development and oxalic acid production, and reduced virulence on several host plants. These findings indicate that the identified SNP represents a loss-of-function mutation of bcvel1. In accordance, the expression of the B05.10 copy in T4 rescued the wild-type/B05.10 phenotype. BcVEL1 is crucial for full virulence as deletion mutants are significantly hampered in killing and decomposing plant tissues. However, the production of the two best known secondary metabolites, the phytotoxins botcinic acid and botrydial, are not affected by the deletion of bcvel1 indicating that other factors are responsible for reduced virulence. Genome-wide expression analyses of B05.10- and Δbcvel1-infected plant material revealed a number of genes differentially expressed in the mutant: while several protease- encoding genes are under-expressed in Δbcvel1 compared to the wild type, the group of over-expressed genes is enriched for genes encoding sugar, amino acid and ammonium transporters and glycoside hydrolases reflecting the response of Δbcvel1 mutants to nutrient starvation conditions.

  13. [Compulsive buying disorder: a review and a case vignette].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Hermano; Lobo, Daniela Sabbatini S; Fuentes, Daniel; Black, Donald W

    2008-05-01

    Compulsive buying disorder was first described as a psychiatric syndrome in the early twentieth century. Its classification remains elusive, and investigators have debated its potential relationship to mood, substance use, obsessive-compulsive, and impulse control disorders. The objective of this study is to present a review of compulsive buying disorder and present a case vignette. Two databases were reviewed (Medline and PsycINFO) in search for articles published in the last 40 years. Selected terms included oniomania, compulsive buying, and compulsive shopping. Other relevant articles were also identified through reference lists. Compulsive buying disorder is a prevalent and chronic condition that is found worldwide, sharing commonalities with impulse control disorders. In clinical samples, women make up more than 80% of subjects. Its etiology is unknown, but neurobiologic and genetic mechanisms have been proposed. The disorder is highly comorbid with mood, substance use, eating and impulse control disorders. Treatment recommendations derived from the literature and clinical experience suggest that problem shoppers can benefit from psychosocial interventions. Cognitive-behavioral group models appear promising. Medication trials have reported mixed results. The identification and treatment of psychiatric comorbidity is also a key aspect of treatment. In order to determine the validity of compulsive buying disorder, future work should focus on psychopathology and neurobiological findings unique to the syndrome.

  14. Compulsive buying disorder: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W

    2007-02-01

    Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding shopping and spending that lead to subjective distress or impaired functioning. Compulsive buying disorder is estimated to have a lifetime prevalence of 5.8% in the United States general adult population. In clinical settings, most individuals with compulsive buying disorder are women (approximately 80%). This gender difference may be artifactual. Compulsive buying disorder is typically chronic or intermittent, with an age of onset in the late teens or early 20s. Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders, and other disorders of impulse control are common, as are Axis II disorders. The disorder occurs worldwide, mainly in developed countries with market-based economies, and it tends to run in families with mood disorders and substance abuse. There is no standard treatment for compulsive buying disorder, but group cognitive-behavioral models seem promising, and psychopharmacologic treatments are being actively studied. Other treatment options include simplicity circles, 12-step programs, financial counseling, bibliotherapy, marital therapy, and financial counseling. Directions for future research are discussed.

  15. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the make or buy problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the first one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Methods: The paper discusses ways of fulfilling company's transportation needs (MAKE-or-BUY problem. It means the choice between using company's own and outside fleet (buying transportation services in a market. The essence of the MAKE-or-BUY problem lies in a time dependency, a seasonal nature of transportation needs. It leads to the MAKE-and-BUY solutions including utilization of both in-house and outside fleets. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the MAKE-and-BUY analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows a low economic justification for using the MAKE option in practice. Especially when a fleet composed of brand new vehicles is considered. Conclusions: The paper will be continued in two further papers dedicated to strategic vehicle fleet management problems including fleet sizing / composition and fleet replacement.

  16. Behaviour of Czech customers when buying food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Starzyczná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of the primary research conducted through a questionnaire survey focused on the behaviour of Czech consumers when buying food, with regard to the behaviour of men and women. Specific objectives included are a brief outline of the theoretical issues examined and secondary research on the buying behaviour of consumers when buying food, based on available statistical data and information. After 1989, the quality of the market has changed, sales space has increased as well as the level of sales conditions. Offer in stores has widened. Recently the results of inspections of supervisory authorities show a lot of negative information, mainly relating to foreign chains. The supply of poor quality food is more common. Some food is offered even though it’s expired. The proposed premises are based on the current situation in the Czech retail market. Despite increased consumer awareness about the quality of food, the majority of respondents buy food in large commercial units (supermarket, hypermarket, discounts. The majority of respondents do not follow information on the packaging of food products, but follow the expiration date. Sales of food with expired shelf life or expiration date re-taped is usually notified by the supervisory authorities, therefore, is noticed by consumers. Buying behaviour of men and women shows some differences. Our results, however, have not proved any significant ones, although a small difference has emerged.

  17. Requirements for change in consumer car buying practices - observations from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickelgren, Mikael (Center for Consumer Science, School of Economics, Business and Law Univ. of Gothenburg (Sweden)); Sprei, Frances; Karlsson, Sten (Physical Resource Theory, Dept. of Energy and Environment, Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The Swedish car fleet today consists of the largest, heaviest, most powerful and most fuel consuming automobiles in Europe. This cannot be explained by demographics, national income, geography, and climate reasons only. Beyond the reasons for the current state of affairs the main focus for the present study is to learn more on how the individual car buyer deliberates when considering buying a new automobile. A main question is what would make the car buyer consider an alternative motor vehicle to what has usually been the preferred choice, especially in regard to car size, engine choice and the type of fuel (energy source) used to propel the vehicle. Around the individual consumer there are a number of stakeholders that have a vested interest in affecting the choice of the individual consumer. Among these stakeholders we find car producers, car dealers, importers, the government represented by many different agents, the automobile industry organizations, environmental organizations, and representatives for the media. These stakeholders are all taking action in pursuing their interests and achieving their goals, which by nature are in conflict towards other stakeholders. The study maps the way these stakeholders act to affect the development of the new car market. All this is taking place in the midst of the present debate on global warming and the way human beings affect the climate, which enhances the interest from most parties and stakeholders to navigate in these turbulent times of changing consumer preferences and car buying patterns.

  18. FOODSTAGRAM ENDORSEMENT AND BUYING INTEREST IN CAFÉ / RESTAURANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwee Nadia Vercellia King

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numbers of food businesses exist in contemporary time. They make the businessmen engaged in the same field have to be creative in the marketing to be more attractive to public. One creative idea is through endorser in foodstagram Instagram. The study aimed to determine the influence of endorser foodstagram (Ty-pical-person endorser toward customers buying interest. The dimensions of the endorser were used in this study consisted of the visibility, credibility, attractiveness, and power. It used 125 respondents and multiple regressions to determine the effect of each dimension used. The endorser foodstagram (Typical-person en-dorser effected on buying interest. However, when the endorser dimensions were tested individually, there were only two dimensions that influence the buying interest, which were attractiveness and power.

  19. Make or buy strategy decision making in supply quality chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Seyedhosseini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the total cost is absolutely the goal of each supply chain, which is most of the time pursued. In this regards, quality related costs that have significant roles are sometimes neglected. Selecting suppliers, which supply relatively high quality raw materials in a lower cost is considered as a strategic decision. Make or Buy decision can be also noticed in supplier selection process. In this paper, the supply strategy: Make or Buy decision (SS: MOB is studied in order to find which strategy (Make or Buy should be chosen to minimize the total costs of supply chain. Therefore, two separate models are generated for each strategy and several examples are solved for the respective models. Computational experiments show the efficiency of the proposed models for making decision about selecting the best strategy.

  20. The relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Redlin, Jennifer; Wonderlich, Steve; Crosby, Ross; Faber, Ron; Miltenberger, Ray; Smyth, Joshua; Stickney, Marci; Gosnell, Blake; Burgard, Melissa; Lancaster, Kathy

    2002-07-01

    Compulsive buying has received increased research attention in the last decade. The disorder has high rates of comorbidity for other disorders, including eating disorders. This study explored the possible relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders. Twenty women who scored in the pathological range on a measure of compulsive buying and 20 controls were recruited via the media. Various measures of psychopathology and eating disorder symptoms were administered to both groups. Compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have a higher lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence. No differences existed between normal controls and compulsive buyers in prevalence of current or lifetime eating disorders, nor were there differences in scores of eating-related psychopathology. This work failed to demonstrate an increased risk for eating disorder in compulsive buyers, although a higher rate of substance dependence or abuse and higher scores on pathological personality dimension scales were seen.

  1. Consumer Perception and Buying Decisions(The Pasta Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Syeda Quratulain

    2012-11-01

    The project ìconsumer perception and buying behavior (the pasta studyî) is basically measures the development of perception through different variables and identify those factors which stimulate buying decision of consumer. Among various variables which effect consumer buying pattern I choose AWARENESS and AVAILABILITY of the product as two main variables which have strong effect on popularity and sale of pasta product. As my research is totally based on qualitative method thatís why I choose quota sampling technique and collect data by interviewing house wives resides in different areas of Karachi. The reason of choosing only house wives as respondent is that house wives can give true insight factors which hinder the popularity of pasta products in Pakistan. Focus group discussions have been conducted to extract findings. 30 house wives have been interviewed and their responses have been analyzed.

  2. Factors Influencing Indonesian Internet Users Intention on Buying Books Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrik Messah

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to discover and analyse factors influencing Indonesian internet users intention on buying books online. Certain factors will be investigated are demographic, features, convenience, web design, and security. This research used questionaires to obtain data from the respondents. After the data collected, SPSS software is used to process the data with using Chi-Square test. The result found that features, convenience, and security factors of online bookstores and level of education, income, and occupation of the Indonesian Internet Users influence the people intention on buying books online. In the other hand, web design of the online bookstores and the age of the Indonesian internet users have no influence on their intention on buying books online.

  3. Buy-back and Revenue-Sharing Contracts in Global Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main propose of this study is to investigate how exchange rate risk affects the buy-back and revenue-sharing contracts in the global supply chain, hence to improve the performance of global supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a two-echelon global supply chain, with the model equilibrium, this paper studies the difference between the buy-back contract and the revenue-sharing contract. By the transmitting of the exchange rate risk, it discusses the node-enterprises’ optimal strategies. Findings: The result shows that: (1 Both these two contracts can diminish the inefficiency caused by demand risk, but none of them can manage the exchange rate risk. (2 No matter which currency is used to settle the payment, both these two contracts will lead to the transmitting of exchange rate risk from one node-enterprise to another. (3 When the currency of the supplier’s country in the relatively appreciating, it is better to use the buy-back contract; when the currency of the supplier’s country in the relatively depreciating, the revenue-sharing contract will lead to a better result. Research limitations/implications: Though this study analyzes how the exchange rate risk affects these two contracts, it based on the assumption that node-enterprises’ goal is maximizing theirs expected profit. In fact, many firms not only focus on maximizing theirs expected profit; the risk-taking is also an important concern. For future researches, how firms’ risk-preferences affects theirs decisions in the global supply chain will be an interesting question. Also, will there be any difference if consider the node-enterprises’ utility functions instead of the expected profit. Originality/value: Existing literature about the global supply chain mainly focus on the exchange rate risk management, few of them considers the double marginalization effect caused by the demand risk. Therefore, with the exchange rate fluctuation, we discuss the

  4. Food retailers' buying behaviour: An analysis in 16 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries....... The study encompassed the retailers' buying behaviour for fish and cheese products. The results demonstrate that the traditional four P's are losing ground to some previously neglected attributes, which now demand consideration by retail suppliers of products and services and by researchers....

  5. Compulsive buying and binge eating disorder--a case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Darko; Bolanca, Marina; Rudan, Vlasta

    2006-12-30

    Compulsive buying behaviour has recently received long overdue attention as a clinical issue. Aim of this report is to describe treatment of two female patients diagnosed with compulsive buying disorder in comorbidity with binge eating disorder. In both cases, criteria for diagnosing of other axis I or axis II disorder were not present. Fluvoxamine was used in pharmacotherapy, and psychodynamic psychotherapy as a psychotherapeutical approach. We conclude that fluvoxamine and psychodynamic psychotherapy may be effective in treatment of compulsive buyers in comorbidity with binge eating disorder.

  6. Investasi: Komparasi Strategi Buy and Hold dengan Pendekatan Teknikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natica Ardani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyse effectivity of technical analysis moving average compare to buy and hold strategy on index LQ-45 (as emerging market and S&P500 (as developed market. Using descriptive approach, this research analysed by metastock program with moving average exponential crossovers method. This research data samples use LQ45 and S&P500 from year 2001-2011. The findings of this research indicate that technical analysis more effective when economic situation on crisis (bearish. Whereas buy and hold strategy more effective on good economic condition (bullish. The results consistent for LQ-45 and S&P500.

  7. YouTubers' impact on viewers' buying behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vähäjylkkä, Miina; Lepistö, Emmi-Julia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to examine the influence Finnish female lifestyle YouTubers have on their viewers buying behavior, what is their decision-making process and what are the external factors influencing their buying behavior. The goal was to provide valuable infor- mation for viewers, YouTubers themselves and content providers as they work together with YouTubers to market their brand. The research was carried out using qualitative approach as eight semi-structured interviews were c...

  8. The hidden cost of microtransactions: Buying in-game advantages in online games decreases a player’s status

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Ellen; van de Ven, Niels; Weeda, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: With the advent of the internet, computer games have undergone substantial changes. Many games now contain some form of social interaction with other players. Furthermore, many games offer players the opportunity to buy upgrades using microtransactions. Based on social psychological theories on social comparisons, deservedness, and envy, we tested whether the use of these microtransactions would affect how players perceive another player using them. In one survey and two experimenta...

  9. A randomized, controlled trial of group cognitive-behavioral therapy for compulsive buying disorder: posttreatment and 6-month follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mueller, Ulrike; Silbermann, Andrea; Reinecker, Hans; Bleich, Stefan; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial comparing the efficacy of a group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention designed for the treatment of compulsive buying disorder to a waiting list control (WLC) group. Thirty-one patients with compulsive buying problems according to the criteria developed by McElroy et al. were assigned to receive active treatment (12 weekly sessions and 6-month follow-up) and 29 to the WLC group. The treatment was specifically aimed at interrupting and controlling the problematic buying behavior, establishing healthy purchasing patterns, restructuring maladaptive thoughts and negative feelings associated with shopping and buying, and developing healthy coping skills. Primary outcome measures were the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV), and the German Compulsive Buying Scale (G-CBS). Secondary outcome measures were the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R). The study was completed between November 2003 and May 2007 at the University Hospital of Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between the CBT and the WLC groups on the primary outcome variables (outcome-by-time-by-group effect, Pillai's trace, F = 6.960, df = 1, p = .002). The improvement was maintained during the 6-month follow-up. The treatment did not affect other psychopathology, e.g., compulsive hoarding, impulsivity, or SCL-90-R scores. We found that lower numbers of visited group therapy sessions and higher pretreatment hoarding traits as measured with the SI-R total score were significant predictors for nonresponse. The results suggest that a disorder-specific cognitive-behavioral intervention can significantly impact compulsive buying behavior.

  10. Reproductive phenology of Creole horses in Ecuador in the absence of photoperiod variation: The effects of forage availability and flooding affecting body condition of mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Juan; Yoong, Washington A; Mateos, Concha; Caño Vergara, Belén; Gómez, Chian L; Macías, Verónica

    2017-12-01

    Horse reproduction tends to be seasonal. The main adjusting factor in their original temperate ranges is photoperiod variation, although it is absent in equatorial areas where horses were introduced by European colonizers. Hence, dates of reproduction in these areas may be influenced by factors affecting mares' conditions and the success of foaling. Here we study reproductive timing in Creole horses in Ecuador reared in an extensive production system. We found that foaling peaked in August. Mares' conditions showed one peak in June-July, before the start of the breeding season, and another in December, and it was highly variable along the year. Mares' conditions increased after a period of vegetation growth and thus appeared negatively associated with the increment of grass greenness (normalized difference vegetation index data). Seasonal flooding of some pasturelands during March and April appeared to seriously impair mares' conditions and probably influenced the timing of foaling toward the dry season. Our results evidenced that horse breeding in these equatorial areas tended to be seasonal and point to some key factors that influence phenology by affecting body condition of mares, which may have implications for horse biology and management. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Impulsive buying tendency: Measuring important relationships with a new perspective and an indigenous scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Jyoti Badgaiyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the opening up of the economy and the proliferation of mall culture, the economic relevance of impulsive buying behaviour has assumed significance. Impulsive buying behaviour is better understood by examining the impulsive buying tendency that shapes such behaviour, and since consumer behaviour differs across cultures, by incorporating an indigenous perspective in understanding and measuring the tendency. Studies were conducted to develop an Indian scale for measuring impulsive buying tendency and to validate it by examining its association with other relevant variables. A two factor, 8-item scale was developed; a significant positive relationship was seen between impulsive buying tendency and impulsive buying behaviour, and the relationship between impulsive buying tendency and self-control was found to be inversely significant. Results also showed significant relationship between impulsive buying tendency and the two personality constructs of Conscientiousness and Extraversion.

  12. Why do Investors Buy Sovereign Default Insurance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, Patrick; Sokolovski, Valeri; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.

    local and regional channels that may explain the trading in sovereign CDS: (a) country-specific credit risk shocks, including changes in a country's credit rating and related outlook changes, (b) the announcement and issuance of domestic and international debt, (c) macroeconomic sentiment derived from......We provide a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of trading in the sovereign credit default swaps (CDS) market, using weekly data for single-name sovereign CDS from October 2008 to September 2015. We describe the anatomy of the sovereign CDS market, derive a law of motion for gross positions...... of the variation in sovereign CDS net notional amounts outstanding. Moreover, unlike for CDS spreads, common global factors explain very little of the variation in sovereign CDS trading and net notional amounts outstanding, suggesting that it is driven primarily by idiosyncratic country risk. We analyze several...

  13. Variation in essential oil composition within individual leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is more affected by leaf position than by leaf age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ravit; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Rubin, Baruch; Dudai, Nativ

    2011-05-11

    The aroma in sweet basil is a factor affecting the commercial value of the crop. In previous studies leaf age was considered to be a factor that influences the composition of essential oil (EO). In this study it was hypothesized that a single observation of the EO content in leaves from different positions on the main stem (young vs old) could predict the developmental changes in the plant during its life cycle. Plants harvested at week 16 demonstrated an exponential increase (R(2) = 0.92) in EO concentration in leaves on the main stem and lateral shoots, indicating higher EO concentrations in younger than in older leaves. Eugenol and methyleugenol predominated (28-77%) in the extract. Eugenol levels were higher in younger leaves (∼53%), and methyl-eugenol levels predominated in older leaves (∼68%). Linalool was lower in mature leaves than in younger leaves. This suggested that eugenol converted into methyleugenol and linalool decreased as leaf mature. However, in weekly monitored plants, the levels of these compounds in the EO had limited variation in the maturing leaf regardless of its position on the stem. This proposed that the EO composition in an individual leaf is mostly affected by the leaf position on the stem and not by its maturation process. Because leaf position is related to plant development, it is probable that the plant's physiological age at the time of leaf formation from the primordial tissue is the factor affecting the EO composition. It was concluded that interpretation of scientific observations should be carried out with caution and that hypotheses should be tested utilizing multifaceted approaches.

  14. A sensemaking perspective on retailer buying behaviour: Towards a new conceptual framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the shortcomings of the existing literature on retailer buying behaviour and discusses the potential contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective. A new conceptual framework for understanding retailer buying behaviour is outlined....... It is argued that sensemaking related to retailer buying behaviour can be analysed at several, inter-related levels of analysis. The framework developed draws on discussions of sensemaking within strategic management and organisation science and discusses how concepts such as organisational identity, image...

  15. Perception of using group buying sites to acquire tourist services cou-pons

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Mendes Filho; Vanessa Araújo Jorge; Otávio Bezerra de Sena Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Technologies brought new forms of business as in the case of group buying sites, which are basically a way to sell on the Internet that allows consumers to buy goods and services at lower prices. This study analyzed the travelers’ perception of the use of group buying sites to acquire tourist services coupons. The research presents a quantitative-exploratory approach using the Technology Acceptance Model to investigate the use of group buying sites to acquire tourist services coupons during a...

  16. Impulsive buying tendency: Measuring important relationships with a new perspective and an indigenous scale

    OpenAIRE

    Anant Jyoti Badgaiyan; Anshul Verma; Saumya Dixit

    2016-01-01

    With the opening up of the economy and the proliferation of mall culture, the economic relevance of impulsive buying behaviour has assumed significance. Impulsive buying behaviour is better understood by examining the impulsive buying tendency that shapes such behaviour, and since consumer behaviour differs across cultures, by incorporating an indigenous perspective in understanding and measuring the tendency. Studies were conducted to develop an Indian scale for measuring impulsive buying te...

  17. A sensemaking perspective on retailer buying behaviour: Towards a new conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the shortcomings of the existing literature on retailer buying behaviour and discusses the potential contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective. A new conceptual framework for understanding retailer buying behaviour is outlined. It is argued that sensemaking related to retailer buying behaviour can be analysed at several, inter-related levels of analysis. The framework developed draws on discussions of sensemaking within strategic man...

  18. Requirements for change in new car buying practices. Observations from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprei, F. [Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Wickelgren, M. [Center for Consumer Science, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 600, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-03-15

    The Swedish car fleet today consists of the largest, heaviest, most powerful and most fuel-consuming automobiles in Europe. This cannot be explained by demographics, national income, geography and climate reasons only. Beyond the reasons for the current state of affairs, the main focus for the present study is to learn more on how the individual car buyer deliberates when considering buying a new automobile. Have there been any substantial changes in preferences, especially in regard to car size, engine choice and the type of fuel (energy source) used to propel the vehicle? Around the individual consumer there are a number of stakeholders that have a vested interest in affecting the choice of the individual consumer. Among these stakeholders, we find car producers, car dealers, importers, the government represented by many different agents, the automobile industry organisations, environmental organisations and representatives for the media. These stakeholders are all taking action in pursuing their interests and achieving their goals, which by nature are in conflict towards other stakeholders. The study maps the way these stakeholders act to affect the development of the new car market. All this is taking place in the midst of the present debate on global warming and increased fuel prices, which enhances the interest from most parties and stakeholders to navigate in these turbulent times of changing consumer preferences and car-buying patterns.

  19. Effects of Strategies Marketing of Collective Buying about Impulsive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Elen Ferreira Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the second largest e-commerce market in the world. One model used in this sector is "collective buying", a feature of which is impulse sales. Consumer behavior can be influenced by several factors, two of which are addressed in this article: the individual impulsivity of consumers and strategies of mix marketing. Impulsive buying is characterized by an unplanned purchase, i.e. the need to acquire the product arises just before the purchase. Consumers respond differently to mixed strategies depending on their degree of impulsivity. Thus, this article aims to analyze the efficacy of different marketing mix strategies for impulsive and non-impulsive consumer purchasing behavior. 137 participants were given a questionnaire containing the Buying Impulsiveness scale from Rook and Fisher (1995, and statements about the marketing strategies used by collective buying sites. Through a regression analysis, three strategies were found to relate more to impulsivity: search for products from well-known brands, search for deals with big discounts and confidence in receiving the product. For e-commerce and researchers, this study elucidates which strategies, from the consumer's perspective, effectively persuade purchasing behavior.

  20. Make or Buy? That's Really Not the Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Donald J.; Glazer, Joshua L.; Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell

    2012-01-01

    Conventional thinking holds that districts and schools face a strategic decision between two fundamentally different alternatives: make or buy? The former refers to planning, designing, and enacting school-specific improvement initiatives. The latter refers to contracting with external providers of schoolwide improvement programs. However, there…

  1. Acquisition (Purchasing of ERP Systems from Organizational Buying Behavior Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Bhatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems are becoming a mature infrastructure in many organizations. Organizations purchase these systems to integrate, improve internal business processes, serve their customers better and fulfill their needs. The buying process of these systems is more complicated and it requires a lot more consideration as it can have long term effects and consequences for the organization as well as for its stakeholders. Acquisition (purchasing of ERP systems is a complex behavior for organizations and has a lot to consider, from motives all the way to goals being pursued. Buying organizations consider several components that make up its business entity: like vendors, consumers, competitors, and regulations (Harris, 2013. Importance and relevance should be given to each one of these components as they all play key essential roles in sales organizations and their success. Typical organizations treat the purchasing process as a problem solving situation and rely on consultants or sometimes miss out on systematic buying process and the success factors to be considered vary from technicality, price, risk aversion, reputation, all the way to ethical decisions and legal regulations (Bellizzi, 2009. This research paper describe the current acquisition processes, critical success factors literature and propose integrated ERP systems acquisition model for organizations interested in buying similar systems in future.

  2. Buying Modular Systems in Technology-Intensive Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, R.T.; Stremersch, S.; Weiss, Allen M.; Dellaert, B.

    2003-01-01

    Technology-intensive markets consist of products that are often interdependent and operate together as a modular system. Although prior research has extensively addressed standardization and network externalities in such markets, it has not addressed the buying of modular systems. The authors

  3. 77 FR 26723 - Notice of Proposed Buy America Waivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Administration (FTA) received several requests to waive its Buy America requirements for products used in ticket... (BV-6000) Currency Validator Tekpak. FTA seeks public comment before deciding whether to grant the...'s (Nextek) BV-6000AG (BV-6000) Currency Validator Tekpak, or whether FTA should extend the non-shift...

  4. Socially Responsible Organizational Buying: How Can Stakeholders Dictate Purchasing Policies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maignan, I.S.J.; MacAlister, D.

    2003-01-01

    This article investigates socially responsible buying (SRB), a subject that has received little attention in past marketing literature on buyer-seller relationships. On the basis of a brief review of the literature on corporate social responsibility, the article proposes a conceptualization of SRB

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.501-2 - Standardized buying programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standardized buying programs. 101-26.501-2 Section 101-26.501-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT...

  6. Do pharmacists buy Bayer? : Informed shoppers and the brand premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.J.A.M.; Dube, J.-P.; Gentzkow, M.; Shapiro, J.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the effect of information and expertise on consumers’ willingness to pay for national brands in physically homogeneous product categories. In a detailed case study of headache remedies we find that more informed or expert consumers are less likely to pay extra to buy national brands,

  7. The Role of Social Media Advertising in Consumer Buying Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available P Consumer buying behavior is known also as consumer decision making is the process by which individuals search for, select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods and services to satisfy require needs. This study has been designed to answer main question about the role of social media advertising on consumer buying behavior in very active field which is fashion retail industry, then determine the differences if existed in this relation regarding to the name of the brands and consumer demographics factors. By electronic questionnaires conducted for consumers live in Istanbul-Turkey, findings showed weak relation between social media advertising and consumer need recognition, no relation at all with search for information, strong relation with evaluate the alternatives, and moderate relation for both buying decision and post-purchase behavior, as those steps represent the five steps need recognition model in consumer buying behavior. Moreover, findings showed no changes in this relation regarding to consumer’s age, and education level. However, there were changes between Females and males in the relation with consumer need recognition, and search for information. In addition, another changes regarding to income between social media advertising and evaluate the alternatives especially for consumers earn more than 5.000TL among other income groups.

  8. Choosing a Vendor: Where to Buy a Micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    Examines options for buying microcomputers (the manufacturer or his/her representative, computer stores, general retail stores, mail order, system integrators, traditional vendors, second-hand). Three major factors are considered: support before sale; price/cost; and support after sale. Advantages and disadvantages of each option and…

  9. Preparing for the Market. Teacher Edition. Fashion Buying Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cindy

    This teacher's guide presents material for a unit on preparing for the retail fashion market. Content focuses on merchandise plans, computing open-to-buy, computing turnover, the components of a model stock plan, and criteria used when selecting a supplier. The guide contains 5 objectives, 6 group learning activities keyed to the objectives, 21…

  10. Food retailers' buying behaviour: A sensemaking perspective - Preliminary thoughts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    . It is argued that sensemaking related to retailer buying behaviour can be analysed at several, inter-related levels of analysis. The framework developed draws on discussions of sensemaking within strategic management and organisation science and discusses how concepts such as organisational identity, image...

  11. Food retailers' buying behaviour: A sensemaking perspective: Preliminary thoughts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    . It is argued that sensemaking related to retailer buying behaviour can be analysed at several, inter-related levels of analysis. The framework developed draws on discussions of sensemaking within strategic management and organisation science and discusses how concepts such as organisational identity, image...

  12. Teaching about Consumption: The "Not Buying It" Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauerholz, Liz; Bubriski-McKenzie, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an experiential exercise designed to heighten students' awareness of overconsumption in the United States and allow them to see how their own consumption habits are linked to larger social factors. Students engaged in the "Not Buying It" project--which involved refraining from purchasing all but essentials for a set…

  13. Getting There: A Phenomenology of the Contexts of Car Buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanstoos, Christopher M.; Barrell, James J.

    The importance of understanding the manner in which the desire to buy arises in buyers has been neglected in the study of consumer psychology. This report identifies those few research projects which have studied the origins of consumer motivation and describes a phenomenologically-guided investigation which studied individuals' desires to…

  14. Buying business services : towards a structured service purchasing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.; Rozemeijer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to uncover the specific difficulties associated with buying services and proposes a structured purchasing process which can help organisational buyers to overcome the problems associated with services purchasing. Design/methodology/approach – The authors

  15. Food retailers' buying behaviour: An analysis in 16 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries...

  16. Buying land for conservation purposes in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Lucia Perez-Weil; Juan Carlos G. Bravo

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Jaguar Reserve is 50,000 acres and one of the largest privately owned wildlife preserves in Sonora. Buying land in remote parts of Sonora takes special knowledge as ownership rules may not be clear and boundaries may not be defined in the records. There are complex legal procedures to guarantee ownership in which letters of intent play a crucial role, and...

  17. Compulsive buying. Demography, phenomenology, and comorbidity in 46 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, S; Black, D W; Repertinger, S; Freet, D

    1994-05-01

    Compulsive buying has been generally ignored in the psychiatric literature, although it is apparently frequent, underrecognized, and can lead to severe financial and legal consequences for its sufferers. The current investigation was designed to assess the overall life-style and problems of subjects identified as compulsive shoppers. Forty-six compulsive buyers were assessed for comorbid psychiatric disorders with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, the Structured Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders, and a semistructured interview to assess buying behavior. The typical shopper was a 31-year-old female who had developed compulsive buying at age 18 years. Subjects spent their money on clothing, shoes, and records/compact discs. The average debt load accrued was $5,422 out of an average yearly income of $23,443. More than two-thirds met lifetime criteria for a major (Axis I) mental disorder, most commonly anxiety, substance abuse, and mood disorders. Nearly 60% were found to meet criteria for a DSM-III-R personality disorder, most commonly the obsessive-compulsive, borderline, and avoidant types. The authors conclude that compulsive buying is a definable clinical syndrome which can cause its sufferers significant distress and is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity.

  18. A Review of Pharmacologic Treatment for Compulsive Buying Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by searching the PubMed/MEDLINE database. Selection criteria were applied, and 21 studies were identified. Pharmacological classes reported included antidepressants, mood stabilizers, opioid antagonists, second-generation antipsychotics, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. We found only placebo-controlled trials for fluvoxamine; none showed effectiveness against placebo. Three open-label trials reported clinical improvement with citalopram; one was followed by a double-blind discontinuation. Escitalopram was effective in an open-label trial but did not show efficacy in the double-blind phase. Memantine was identified as effective in a pilot open-label study. Fluoxetine, bupropion, nortriptyline, clomipramine, topiramate and naltrexone were only reported to be effective in clinical cases. According to the available literature, there is no evidence to propose a specific pharmacologic agent for compulsive buying disorder. Future research is required for a better understanding of both pathogenesis and treatment of this disorder.

  19. Determinants of attitude and buying intention of organic milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Faletar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of organic milk is increasing rapidly. However, the behaviour of organic milk consumers is still not enough investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine variables which influence the attitude towards organic milk consumption, as well as variables which influence the buying intention of organic milk. Thereat, factors such as positive opinion toward organic milk and food related lifestyle, as well as level of trust in home as in EU organic food label, objective knowledge and gender of respondents showed to have a significant influence on organic milk buying intention. More precisely, a significant and positive influence on buying intention of organic milk was observed considering the belief in positive aspects of organic milk, subjective knowledge, objective knowledge, and attitude towards buying organic milk. According to the results of this study recommendations for marketing practice and especially for communication policy might be created. Communication directed to female population should use classic advertising based on functional information, while the one directed to male population should use more emotional advertising. By using classic advertising education of consumers should be performed in order to promote benefits of organic milk in regards to conventional milk.

  20. Consumption motives, sport identification and buying behaviours of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research applied the motivation for sport consumption theory to evaluate the directand indirect relationship between the fundamental psychological motives for sport consumption and buying behaviours of football fans. Subsequently, the direct- and indirect effects of sport fan identity with team to this relationship were ...

  1. The consumers' rent vs. buy decision in the rentailer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knox, G.A.H.; Eliashberg, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the perspective and business model of the rentailer — a retail outlet that rents and sells new and used home video titles. This requires predicting the consumer's decision to rent or buy a particular title, segmenting its customer base, and pricing new and used titles. We

  2. 77 FR 43080 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Make-or-Buy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... by make-or-buy decisions under certain Government prime contracts. Accordingly, FAR 15.407-2, Make-or...; Information Collection; Make-or- Buy Program AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning Make- or-Buy Program. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this...

  3. 48 CFR 1852.215-78 - Make or buy program requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and size status. (g) Any recommendations to defer make-or-buy decisions when categorization of some... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Make or buy program... and Clauses 1852.215-78 Make or buy program requirements. As prescribed in 1815.408-70(a), insert the...

  4. The order of buying and selling: Multiple equilibria in the housing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sniekers, F.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Moving between owner-occupied houses requires both buying and selling. During the Great Recession, the majority of movers sold their old houses before buying new ones, while in the preceding years the majority first bought new houses. In an equilibrium search model, by choosing the order of buying

  5. 76 FR 30966 - Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... the Buy American waiver requested by the Deschutes River Conservancy (DRC) to purchase foreign... project contract by more than 25 percent. The waiver process is initiated by a requesting organization... its Buy American decision is required pursuant to the Buy American Act, 2 CFR 176.80(b)(2). Upon...

  6. Prevalence and construct validity of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and

  7. The order of buying and selling: multiple equilibria in the housing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sniekers, F.

    2014-01-01

    Moving between owner-occupied houses requires both buying and selling. During the Great Recession, the majority of movers sold their old houses before buying new ones, while in the preceding years the majority first bought new houses. In an equilibrium search model, by choosing the order of buying

  8. 77 FR 46556 - Notice of Request to Rescind Buy America Waiver for Minivans and Minivan Chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... and future demand on FTA-funded projects. With certain exceptions, FTA's Buy America requirements... Request to Rescind Buy America Waiver for Minivans and Minivan Chassis AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to rescind Buy America waiver and call for comments. SUMMARY: The...

  9. 77 FR 43081 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ...; Information Collection; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate AGENCIES... approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli..., Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate, by any of the following...

  10. Student Buy-In to Active Learning in a College Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Andrew J.; Aragón, Oriana R.; Chen, Xinnian; Couch, Brian; Durham, Mary; Bobrownicki, Aiyana; Hanauer, David I.; Graham, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of introducing active learning in college science courses are well established, yet more needs to be understood about student buy-in to active learning and how that process of buy-in might relate to student outcomes. We test the exposure-persuasion-identification-commitment (EPIC) process model of buy-in, here applied to student (n =…

  11. Consumer Reports - Best Buy Drugs’ Outreach Project in Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, PharmD, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives for this study were to apply four different approaches for disseminating Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs (CR-BBD information about effectiveness, safety, and cost to patients for therapeutic classes of medications that they were using and then (1 evaluate the usefulness of the information to participants and (2 document resultant information seeking. For the three approaches that utilized face-to-face contact (Approaches 2 through 4, we also compared them in terms of (1 number of medications reviewed per person, (2 availability of CR-BBD information per person, (3 changes that could be made for each person, and (4 potential/likely cost savings (per person per month. Finally, we described the availability of CR-BBD information for each participant categorized by the 19 therapeutic classes of medications for which there were Best Buy Drugs reports. Data were collected via self-administered surveys, in-person interviews, and telephone interviews. The results showed that almost all of the participants in the information sessions held for this study had at least one medication for which Best Buy Drug information was available with significant savings potential to be gained by using the recommended Best Buy Drug. Potential cost savings through the use of recommended Best Buy Drugs was $89.47 per person per month averaged over all participants (n = 172 and was $157.20 per person per month for those with savings over zero dollars (n = 98. Thirty-two percent of respondents to our evaluation survey reportedly sought more information from a physician and 30 percent sought more information from a pharmacist. We concluded that provision of information about effectiveness, safety, and cost to patients has the potential for achieving significant cost savings. Recommendations regarding (1 the timing of provision, (2 targeting of recipients and (3 traversing impediments are given.

  12. Consumer Reports - Best Buy Drugs' Outreach Project in Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C. Schommer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives for this study were to apply four different approaches for disseminating Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs (CR-BBD information about effectiveness, safety, and cost to patients for therapeutic classes of medications that they were using and then (1 evaluate the usefulness of the information to participants and (2 document resultant information seeking. For the three approaches that utilized face-to-face contact (Approaches 2 through 4, we also compared them in terms of (1 number of medications reviewed per person, (2 availability of CR-BBD information per person, (3 changes that could be made for each person, and (4 potential/likely cost savings (per person per month. Finally, we described the availability of CR-BBD information for each participant categorized by the 19 therapeutic classes of medications for which there were Best Buy Drugs reports. Data were collected via self-administered surveys, in-person interviews, and telephone interviews. The results showed that almost all of the participants in the information sessions held for this study had at least one medication for which Best Buy Drug information was available with significant savings potential to be gained by using the recommended Best Buy Drug. Potential cost savings through the use of recommended Best Buy Drugs was $89.47 per person per month averaged over all participants (n = 172 and was $157.20 per person per month for those with savings over zero dollars (n = 98. Thirty-two percent of respondents to our evaluation survey reportedly sought more information from a physician and 30 percent sought more information from a pharmacist. We concluded that provision of information about effectiveness, safety, and cost to patients has the potential for achieving significant cost savings. Recommendations regarding (1 the timing of provision, (2 targeting of recipients and (3 traversing impediments are given.   Type: Original Research

  13. Expression conservation within the circadian clock of a monocot: natural variation at barley Ppd-H1 affects circadian expression of flowering time genes, but not clock orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoli, Chiara; Shtaya, Munqez; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2012-06-21

    The circadian clock is an endogenous mechanism that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both agricultural productivity and evolutionary fitness. In barley, the photoperiod response regulator and flowering-time gene Ppd-H1 is orthologous to the Arabidopsis core-clock gene PRR7. However, relatively little is known about the role of Ppd-H1 and other components of the circadian clock in temperate crop species. In this study, we identified barley clock orthologs and tested the effects of natural genetic variation at Ppd-H1 on diurnal and circadian expression of clock and output genes from the photoperiod-response pathway. Barley clock orthologs HvCCA1, HvGI, HvPRR1, HvPRR37 (Ppd-H1), HvPRR73, HvPRR59 and HvPRR95 showed a high level of sequence similarity and conservation of diurnal and circadian expression patterns, when compared to Arabidopsis. The natural mutation at Ppd-H1 did not affect diurnal or circadian cycling of barley clock genes. However, the Ppd-H1 mutant was found to be arrhythmic under free-running conditions for the photoperiod-response genes HvCO1, HvCO2, and the MADS-box transcription factor and vernalization responsive gene Vrn-H1. We suggest that the described eudicot clock is largely conserved in the monocot barley. However, genetic differentiation within gene families and differences in the function of Ppd-H1 suggest evolutionary modification in the angiosperm clock. Our data indicates that natural variation at Ppd-H1 does not affect the expression level of clock genes, but controls photoperiodic output genes. Circadian control of Vrn-H1 in barley suggests that this vernalization responsive gene is also controlled by the photoperiod-response pathway. Structural and functional characterization of the barley circadian clock will set the basis for future studies of the adaptive significance of the circadian clock in Triticeae species.

  14. Novel rare missense variations and risk of autism spectrum disorder: whole-exome sequencing in two families with affected siblings and a two-stage follow-up study in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Egawa

    Full Text Available Rare inherited variations in multiplex families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are suggested to play a major role in the genetic etiology of ASD. To further investigate the role of rare inherited variations, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES in two families, each with three affected siblings. We also performed a two-stage follow-up case-control study in a Japanese population. WES of the six affected siblings identified six novel rare missense variations. Among these variations, CLN8 R24H was inherited in one family by three affected siblings from an affected father and thus co-segregated with ASD. In the first stage of the follow-up study, we genotyped the six novel rare missense variations identified by WES in 241 patients and 667 controls (the Niigata sample. Only CLN8 R24H had higher mutant allele frequencies in patients (1/482 compared with controls (1/1334. In the second stage, this variation was further genotyped, yet was not detected in a sample of 309 patients and 350 controls (the Nagoya sample. In the combined Niigata and Nagoya samples, there was no significant association (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.1-29.6. These results suggest that CLN8 R24H plays a role in the genetic etiology of ASD, at least in a subset of ASD patients.

  15. Compulsive buying and credit card misuse among credit card holders: The roles of self-esteem, materialism, impulsive buying and budget constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Asiah Omar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to examine the factors that influence credit card misuse among working adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The relationship among self-esteem, materialism, impulsive buying, budget constraint, compulsive buying and credit card misuse are explored in this study. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 186 questionnaires was collected via convenience sampling from credit card users of working adults in Malaysia. A structural equation model that assesses the relationship between the proposed variables is tested using AMOS 20. Findings: The findings reveal that budget constraints, impulsive buying and materialism have a statistically significant influence on compulsive buying. In terms of credit card misuse, it is influenced negatively by self-esteem while positively by compulsive buying. Originality/value: Despite vast research on compulsive buying and credit card misuse, very few studies have examined it in the non-Western context.

  16. Money Can't Buy Me Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jeppe; Robson, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    country partners’ government to support alliances with local, developing country partners. Applying motivation crowding theory to trust processes, we develop theoretical logic explaining how and under what conditions such third-party financial support negatively affects the local partner's trust. Our...

  17. Cultural Aspects of Compulsive Buying in Emerging and Developed Economies: A Cross Cultural Study in Compulsive Buying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, C.; Adiguzel, F.; van Herk, H.

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies focused on understanding of compulsive buying in developed countries, this phenomenon remains understudied in other parts of the world. This is rather surprising since there is an increasing interest in understanding shopping behavior of consumers in emergent markets due to

  18. [A case of compulsive buying--impulse control disorder or dependence disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croissant, Bernhard; Klein, Oliver; Löber, Sabine; Mann, Karl

    2009-05-01

    It is unclear what disease entity causes compulsive buying. In ICD-10 and DSM-IV, compulsive buying is classified as "Impulse control disorder--not otherwise classified". Some publications interpret compulsive buying rather as a dependence disorder. We present the case of a male patient with compulsive buying syndrome. We discuss the close relationship to dependence disorders. The patient showed symptoms which would normally be associated with a dependence disorder. On the basis of a wider understanding of the dependency concept, as it is currently being discussed, we believe that the patient has shown a typical buying behavior that has presumably activated a reward loop similar to that of a substance dependency.

  19. Compulsive buying and depressive symptoms among female citizens of the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Al-Menhali, Salwa; Humeidan, Majeda

    2016-03-30

    Compulsive buying is particularly relevant in nations with high levels of consumer spending. Most previous studies have focused on European and North America populations. This study explores compulsive buying amongst citizens of the United Arab Emirates, an Arab nation with high retail outlet density, and high levels of consumer spending. Female college students (N=100) completed an English/Arabic version of the compulsive buying scale along with a measure of depression. Rates of compulsive buying were higher than those reported in any previously published study. Furthermore, in line with previous findings from other nations, compulsive buying was associated with elevated depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors Affecting Temporal and Spatial Variations of Microcystins in Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu, with Potential Risk of Microcystin Contamination to Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of the seasonal variation of microcystin (MC concentration was performed in Gonghu Bay (a total of 15 sampling sites of Lake Taihu from January to December 2008. Microcystis spp. biomass and intra-/extracellular MCs were significantly correlated with water temperature, suggesting the importance of temperature in cyanobacterial blooming in the lake. Higher MC concentration was found in summer and autumn, and peaks of Microcystis biomass and intra-/extracellular MC concentrations were all present in October. Spatially, risk of MCs was higher in littoral zones than in the pelagic area. There were significant correlations between N or P concentrations, and Microcystis biomass or MC content, suggesting that N and P levels affected MC production through influencing Microcystis biomass. Intra-/extracellular MCs and Microcystis biomass had negative exponential relationships with TN:TP, and the maximum values all occurred when TN:TP was <25. Multivariate analyses by pcca indicated that intra- and extracellular MC concentrations had better correlations with biological factors (such as Microcystis biomass and chl-a than physicochemical factors. The maximum concentration reached up to 17 µg/L MC-Lreq, considerably higher drinking water safety standard (1 µg/L recommended who. So it is necessary take measures reduce exposure risk of cyanobacterial toxins human beings.

  1. Variation in soil aggregate-size distribution affects the dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in long-term field-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Ni, Jinzhi; Chen, Weifeng; Yang, Yusheng

    2017-10-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the main adsorbent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the principal aggregating agent for soil aggregation that can affect PAH bioavailability and bioaccessibility in soils. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between PAH dissipation and variation in soil aggregate-size distribution in two field-contaminated soils with different soil organic C (SOC) content (Anthrosols, 1.41% SOC; Phaeozems, 8.51% SOC) in phytoremediation with alfalfa. The results showed that there were significant reductions of 10.2 and 15.4% of the total PAHs in unplanted and planted treatments, respectively, for Anthrosols. However, there was no significant reduction of total PAHs in either unplanted or planted treatment for Phaeozems. For Anthrosols, mass percentages of coarse sand and fine sand were significantly reduced while coarse silt and fine silt were significantly increased for the planted soil compared to the initial soil (p soil was slightly reduced. The main reason for the dissipation of PAHs in Anthrosols could be that macroaggregates were broken into microaggregates, which made some trapped PAHs become bioaccessible to soil microorganisms.

  2. Do Higher Salaries Buy Better Teachers?

    OpenAIRE

    Eric A. Hanushek; John F. Kain; Steven G. Rivkin

    1999-01-01

    Important policy decisions rest on the relationship between teacher salaries and the quality of teachers, but the evidence about the strength of any such relationship is thin. This paper relies upon the matched panel data of the UTD Texas School Project to investigate how shifts in salary schedules affect the composition of teachers within a district. The panel data permit separation of shifts in salary schedules from movement along given schedules, and thus the analysis is much more closely ...

  3. Heuristics and stock buying decision: Evidence from Malaysian and Pakistani stock markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Hussain Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Applying both qualitative and quantitative approaches, we examine whether or not investors fall prey to three heuristics; namely, anchoring and adjustment, representativeness, and availability, while investing in stocks. We also compare investors' vulnerability to these heuristics based on their economic association, their type and demographic factors such as income, education and experience. For the data collection, a self-constructed questionnaire was administered to investors in the Malaysian and Pakistani stock exchanges. Data has been analyzed through description, correlation and regression analysis. The results indicate that all three heuristics are likely to affect the investors' stock buying decisions. The effect of heuristics is similar across the sample countries, the type of investors, and the income groups. However, the investors with a higher level of education and more experience are less likely to be affected by the heuristics.

  4. Pathological Buying Online as a Specific Form of Internet Addiction: A Model-Based Experimental Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotzke, Patrick; Starcke, Katrin; Müller, Astrid; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate different factors of vulnerability for pathological buying in the online context and to determine whether online pathological buying has parallels to a specific Internet addiction. According to a model of specific Internet addiction by Brand and colleagues, potential vulnerability factors may consist of a predisposing excitability from shopping and as mediating variable, specific Internet use expectancies. Additionally, in line with models on addiction behavior, cue-induced craving should also constitute an important factor for online pathological buying. The theoretical model was tested in this study by investigating 240 female participants with a cue-reactivity paradigm, which was composed of online shopping pictures, to assess excitability from shopping. Craving (before and after the cue-reactivity paradigm) and online shopping expectancies were measured. The tendency for pathological buying and online pathological buying were screened with the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) and the Short Internet Addiction Test modified for shopping (s-IATshopping). The results demonstrated that the relationship between individual's excitability from shopping and online pathological buying tendency was partially mediated by specific Internet use expectancies for online shopping (model's R² = .742, p buying tendencies were correlated (r = .556, p buying (t(28) = 2.98, p buying and suggests potential parallels. The presence of craving in individuals with a propensity for online pathological buying emphasizes that this behavior merits potential consideration within the non-substance/behavioral addictions.

  5. Negative and positive urgency may both be risk factors for compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul; Segrist, Daniel J

    2014-06-01

    Descriptions of compulsive buying often emphasize the roles of negative moods and trait impulsivity in the development of problematic buying habits. Trait impulsivity is sometimes treated as a unidimensional trait in compulsive buying research, but recent factor analyses suggest that impulsivity consists of multiple components that are probably best treated as independent predictors of problem behavior. In order to draw greater attention to the role of positive moods in compulsive buying, in this study we tested whether negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly while in negative moods) and positive urgency (the tendency to act rashly while in positive moods) account for similar amounts of variance in compulsive buying. North American adults (N = 514) completed an online survey containing the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (Ridgway, Kukar-Kinney & Monroe, 2008), established measures of positive and negative urgency (Cyders et al., 2007), ad hoc measures of buying-specific positive and negative urgency, measures of extraversion and neuroticism obtained from the International Personality Item Pool (http://ipip.ori.org/), and demographic questions. In several multiple regression analyses, when demographic variables, neuroticism, and extraversion were controlled, positive urgency and negative urgency both emerged as significant predictors of compulsive buying. Whether the two urgency variables were domain-general or buying-specific, they accounted for similar amounts of variance in compulsive buying. Preventing and reducing compulsive buying may require attention not only to the purchasing decisions people make while in negative states, but also to the purchasing decisions they make while in positive states.

  6. Consumer’s Buying Decision-Making Process in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Puspitasari Nia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The e-commerce growth and development in Indonesia is very rapid as well as the internet grows, but it is not well-balanced with the number of online buying transaction which is still relatively low. Even the today’s biggest B2C e-commerce people in Indonesia, Lazada, has continually decreased online purchasing. This research is aimed to describe factors affecting online buying decision- making in the e-commerce Lazada. The type of this research is confirmatory research. The variable used is following conceptual model i.e. Electronic Word of Mouth (EWOM, social identity, risk perception, trust, and purchase intention. The data were obtained through the questionnaire with Likert scale 1-5. There are 104 people researching sample who meets the criteria as Lazada consumer that, at least do a transaction in recent six months. Data analyzing were done using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM method by Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS software. The results showed that the purchase intention has positively related to the purchase decision. Variable EWOM toward trust has positive relation, variable social identity and risk perception have no any significant relation to trust. Variable risk perception toward purchase intention has no significant relation, while the variable trust has significant positive relation to purchase intention.

  7. The influence of advertising on compulsive buying - The role of persuasion knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak-Degrauwe, Kalina; Brengman, Malaika

    2014-03-01

    The growing concern over compulsive buying (CB) among consumers has led to vast amount of research examining the antecedents of this maladaptive behaviour. The focus of previous research was, however, mainly on examining the internal, psychological factors contributing to CB. The current research, on the other hand, sheds light on one of the external triggers which can possibly stimulate CB, namely advertising. An online survey has been conducted to identify the attitudes and scepticism towards advertising as well as ad avoidance and persuasion knowledge among a sample of 582 Belgian consumers. Furthermore, all participants were screened with regard to compulsive buying tendencies. This research provides evidence that positive attitudes towards advertising can lead to CB. An important factor in this relation is persuasion knowledge. The study results lead to the conclusion that people higher in persuasion knowledge dispose less positive attitudes towards advertising which can subsequently prevent them from engaging in CB. Moreover high scores on scepticism towards advertising and ad avoidance among Belgian consumers in our sample point to a need for advertisers to modify their practices in order to gain more trust from consumers. This study also shows that advertising in particular attracts and seems to affect an already disadvantaged group of people - namely compulsive buyers.

  8. The influence of advertising on compulsive buying – The role of persuasion knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak-Degrauwe, Kalina; Brengman, Malaika

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The growing concern over compulsive buying (CB) among consumers has led to vast amount of research examining the antecedents of this maladaptive behaviour. The focus of previous research was, however, mainly on examining the internal, psychological factors contributing to CB. The current research, on the other hand, sheds light on one of the external triggers which can possibly stimulate CB, namely advertising. Methods: An online survey has been conducted to identify the attitudes and scepticism towards advertising as well as ad avoidance and persuasion knowledge among a sample of 582 Belgian consumers. Furthermore, all participants were screened with regard to compulsive buying tendencies. Results: This research provides evidence that positive attitudes towards advertising can lead to CB. An important factor in this relation is persuasion knowledge. Conclusions: The study results lead to the conclusion that people higher in persuasion knowledge dispose less positive attitudes towards advertising which can subsequently prevent them from engaging in CB. Moreover high scores on scepticism towards advertising and ad avoidance among Belgian consumers in our sample point to a need for advertisers to modify their practices in order to gain more trust from consumers. This study also shows that advertising in particular attracts and seems to affect an already disadvantaged group of people – namely compulsive buyers. PMID:25215215

  9. Small Variations in Early-Life Environment Can Affect Coping Behaviour in Response to Foraging Challenge in the Three-Spined Stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rohaa Langenhof

    Full Text Available An increasing concern in the face of human expansion throughout natural habitats is whether animal populations can respond adaptively when confronted with challenges like environmental change and novelty. Behavioural flexibility is an important factor in estimating the adaptive potential of both individuals and populations, and predicting the degree to which they can cope with change.This study on the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus is an empiric illustration of the degree of behavioural variation that can emerge between semi-natural systems within only a single generation. Wild-caught adult sticklebacks (P, N = 400 were randomly distributed in equal densities over 20 standardized semi-natural environments (ponds, and one year later offspring (F1, N = 652 were presented with repeated behavioural assays. Individuals were challenged to reach a food source through a novel transparent obstacle, during which exploration, activity, foraging, sociability and wall-biting behaviours were recorded through video observation. We found that coping responses of individuals from the first generation to this unfamiliar foraging challenge were related to even relatively small, naturally diversified variation in developmental environment. All measured behaviours were correlated with each other. Especially exploration, sociability and wall-biting were found to differ significantly between ponds. These differences could not be explained by stickleback density or the turbidity of the water.Our findings show that a differences in early-life environment appear to affect stickleback feeding behaviour later in life; b this is the case even when the environmental differences are only small, within natural parameters and diversified gradually; and c effects are present despite semi-natural conditions that fluctuate during the year. Therefore, in behaviourally plastic animals like the stickleback, the adaptive response to human-induced habitat disturbance

  10. Small Variations in Early-Life Environment Can Affect Coping Behaviour in Response to Foraging Challenge in the Three-Spined Stickleback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Apperloo, Rienk; Komdeur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An increasing concern in the face of human expansion throughout natural habitats is whether animal populations can respond adaptively when confronted with challenges like environmental change and novelty. Behavioural flexibility is an important factor in estimating the adaptive potential of both individuals and populations, and predicting the degree to which they can cope with change. This study on the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an empiric illustration of the degree of behavioural variation that can emerge between semi-natural systems within only a single generation. Wild-caught adult sticklebacks (P, N = 400) were randomly distributed in equal densities over 20 standardized semi-natural environments (ponds), and one year later offspring (F1, N = 652) were presented with repeated behavioural assays. Individuals were challenged to reach a food source through a novel transparent obstacle, during which exploration, activity, foraging, sociability and wall-biting behaviours were recorded through video observation. We found that coping responses of individuals from the first generation to this unfamiliar foraging challenge were related to even relatively small, naturally diversified variation in developmental environment. All measured behaviours were correlated with each other. Especially exploration, sociability and wall-biting were found to differ significantly between ponds. These differences could not be explained by stickleback density or the turbidity of the water. Our findings show that a) differences in early-life environment appear to affect stickleback feeding behaviour later in life; b) this is the case even when the environmental differences are only small, within natural parameters and diversified gradually; and c) effects are present despite semi-natural conditions that fluctuate during the year. Therefore, in behaviourally plastic animals like the stickleback, the adaptive response to human-induced habitat disturbance may occur

  11. Natural variations in snow cover do not affect the annual soil CO2 efflux from a mid-elevation temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Schindlbacher, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Climate change might alter annual snowfall patterns and modify the duration and magnitude of snow cover in temperate regions with resultant impacts on soil microclimate and soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ). We used a 5-year time series of Fsoil measurements from a mid-elevation forest to assess the effects of naturally changing snow cover. Snow cover varied considerably in duration (105-154 days) and depth (mean snow depth 19-59 cm). Periodically shallow snow cover (soil freezing or increased variation in soil temperature. This was mostly not reflected in Fsoil which tended to decrease gradually throughout winter. Progressively decreasing C substrate availability (identified by substrate induced respiration) likely over-rid the effects of slowly changing soil temperatures and determined the overall course of Fsoil . Cumulative CO2 efflux from beneath snow cover varied between 0.46 and 0.95 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) and amounted to between 6 and 12% of the annual efflux. When compared over a fixed interval (the longest period of snow cover during the 5 years), the cumulative CO2 efflux ranged between 0.77 and 1.18 t C ha(-1) or between 11 and 15% of the annual soil CO2 efflux. The relative contribution (15%) was highest during the year with the shortest winter. Variations in snow cover were not reflected in the annual CO2 efflux (7.44-8.41 t C ha(-1) ) which did not differ significantly between years and did not correlate with any snow parameter. Regional climate at our site was characterized by relatively high amounts of precipitation. Therefore, snow did not play a role in terms of water supply during the warm season and primarily affected cold season processes. The role of changing snow cover therefore seems rather marginal when compared to potential climate change effects on Fsoil during the warm season. © 2013 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Physician buy-in for EMRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackanicz, Lori; Kerr, Richard; Levick, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Implementing an EMR in an ambulatory practice requires intense workflow analysis, introduction of new technologies and significant cultural change for the physicians and physician champion. This paper will relate the experience at Lehigh Valley Health Network in the implementation of an ambulatory EMR and with the physician champions that were selected to assist the effort. The choice of a physician champion involves political considerations, variation in leadership and communication styles, and a cornucopia of personalities. Physician leadership has been shown to be a critical success factor for any successful technology implementation. An effective physician champion can help develop and promote a clear vision of an improved future, enlist the support of the physicians and staff, drive the process changes needs and manage the cultural change required. The experience with various types of physician champions will be discussed, including, the "reluctant leader", the "techie leader", the "whiny leader", and the "mature leader". Experiences with each type have resulted in a valuable, "lessons learned" summary. LVHN is a tertiary academic community medical center consisting of 950 beds and over 450 employed physicians. LVHN has been named to the Health and Hospital Network's 100 Top Wired and 25 Most Wireless Hospitals.

  13. Consumers' willingness to buy food through the internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Ramus, Kim

    2005-01-01

    the internet. Practical implications: The literature review suggests that concepts combining convenience and an emphasis on information intensive food products will be most successful, and that consumers having a "wired lifestyle" are the most likely users. However, much more detailed insights will be possible......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review literature on factors that may have an impact on consumers' probability to buy food over the internet, and to suggest a model that can guide future research. Design/methodology/approach: Determinants of consumer intention to buy food via the internet...... of scattered evidence is available, there is a need for a coherent, operational, theory-based model that can summarize findings and guide future research. Research limitations/implications: The proposed model is operational and can be used in future empirical research on consumers' food shopping via...

  14. Arousal, Executive Control and Decision Making in Compulsive Buying Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Zöega; Zuraigat, Farah Qureshi; Jacobsen, Catrine

    2013-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actua......, products of interest (e.g. fashion items) produce bottom-up emotional responses that skews the decision-making process, leading CBD sufferers to make bad purchase decisions.......Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actual...

  15. Validation of three compulsive buying scales on an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Marco; Busonera, Alessandra

    2012-12-01

    Compulsive shopping is an impulse control disorder that produces psychological distress. Appropriate measurement scales of compulsive buying are important to identify compulsive buyers. Three compulsive buying scales (Faber and O'Guinn scale, Edwards scale, Yale and Brown scale) were tested in an Italian sample composed of 438 participants randomly selected from the general population. Self-report questionnaires measured psychiatric dysfunctions and personality traits. The data confirmed that high anxiety, obsessive-compulsive dysfunctions, depression, psychoticism, and low self-esteem were associated with inappropriate shopping. The Faber and O'Guinn scale and Edwards Scale are appropriate for surveys, while the Yale and Brown scale are more appropriate for clinical diagnosis of psychological dependences.

  16. Consumers' willingness to buy food through the internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Ramus, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review literature on factors that may have an impact on consumers' probability to buy food over the internet, and to suggest a model that can guide future research. Design/methodology/approach: Determinants of consumer intention to buy food via the internet...... are sorted into the categories medium, product, consumer, firm, and environment. In order to draw the various results together and provide a coherent framework for future research, a model is proposed that combines the theory of planned behaviour and the lifestyle construct. Findings: While a lot...... of scattered evidence is available, there is a need for a coherent, operational, theory-based model that can summarize findings and guide future research. Research limitations/implications: The proposed model is operational and can be used in future empirical research on consumers' food shopping via...

  17. Guava Jam packaging determinant attributes in consumer buying decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Souza Dantas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using packaging and labels to lure consumers and to communicate product benefits directly on the shelf is a competitive advantage factor in the food industry sector. The label is especially effective since besides supplying basic details, such as weight, ingredients, and instructions in compliance with governmental regulations, it attracts consumers' attention and the desire to buy and which often becomes synonymous to the brand name. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information on consumers' attitudes, opinions, behavior, and concepts regarding guava jam packaging using the focus group technique. The results showed that label color and design, packaging type and information, and brand name and price are determinant attributes in the consumers' decision to buy guava jam.

  18. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten

    Empirical studies of retailer buying behaviour show which attributes are important when retail buyers choose between new products and suppliers. Skytte & Blunch (1998) identified which attributes make a difference to retail buyers in Western Europe when buying fish products, and they identified...... the following five segments of retail buyer policy based on the results: 1) 'Relationship builders' are small chains that focus on long term relationships. 2) 'The traditional chains' are small or medium-sized and include many co-operative chains that demand high product quality. They also want suppliers...... that are able to deliver sufficient quantities. 3) Voluntary chains are dominating the 'large chains' segment. They have a high share of private label products and want long term relationships with suppliers and sufficient quantities. 4) 'Green shops' include many small wholesalers sponsored chains and co...

  19. What you see is what you buy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Scholderer, Joachim; Jeppesen, H.B.

    reports the findings from an eye-tracking study on consumer attention and product choice. The study revealed that increases in the saliency and surface size of packaging elements are associated with greater fixation likelihood and that attention to elements such as product claims and organic labels......Previous research has shown that increases in the overall saliency of products packages lead to increases in attention and how attention affects choice. However, no studies have addressed this issue at the level of individual packaging elements such as product claims and labels. The present paper...... is associated with increased choice probability whereas attention to nutrition-related elements such as GDA labels or the Nordic keyhole label is associated with decreased choice probability....

  20. Effective advertising and its influence on consumer buying behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Niazi, Ghulam Shabbir Khan; Siddiqui, Javaria; Shah, Burhan Ali; Hunjra, Ahmed Imran

    2011-01-01

    Advertising is a way of communication to convince an audience for taking purchase decision about a product or service and delivering information to viewers. This paper examines the relationship between environmental response and emotional response which are independent variables with dependent variable i.e. consumer buying behavior. This research investigates the relationship between the variables involved, by taking the 200 responses in twins’ cities of Pakistan. Findings of this study show ...

  1. Compulsive buying behavior: Re‐evaluating its dimensions and screening

    OpenAIRE

    Maccarrone‐Eaglen, Agata; Schofield, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Despite the significant research in the consumer behavior literature on compulsive buying behavior (CBB), there is still no general agreement about the dimensionality or diagnostic screening of the disorder. Previous studies have identified two principal dimensions: compulsivity and impulsivity, although more recent strands of theory characterize CBB with reference to loss of self‐control and behavioral addiction. This study challenges the impulsive–compulsive paradigm by validating a new mod...

  2. Compulsive buying behavior: clinical comparison with other behavioral addictions

    OpenAIRE

    Granero, Roser; Fernández Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Maria Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón Magriñá, José Manuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gamb...

  3. In-store buying behaviour : memories of forgotten needs

    OpenAIRE

    Kanabar, Amrita Dilipkumar Ranchhod

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to better illustrate in-store buying behaviour, in terms of how different stimuli activate parts of shoppers’ brains to remember items that were not part of their shopping plans. The aim is to shed some light on shopper’s attitudes and reactions towards national brands or private labels, the impact of loyalty cards on cardholders’ shopping decisions, how shoppers with company behave differently than solo shoppers, and on the role of consumers’ hedonic and utilit...

  4. Consumer Reports - Best Buy Drugs’ Outreach Project in Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, PharmD, PhD; Marcia M. Worley, PhD, RPh; Jon C. Schommer, PhD

    2013-01-01

    The objectives for this study were to apply four different approaches for disseminating Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs (CR-BBD) information about effectiveness, safety, and cost to patients for therapeutic classes of medications that they were using and then (1) evaluate the usefulness of the information to participants and (2) document resultant information seeking. For the three approaches that utilized face-to-face contact (Approaches 2 through 4), we also compared them in terms of (1) nu...

  5. A Strategic Household Purchase: Consumer House Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mateja Kos Koklic; Irena Vida

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine consumer house-buying behavior from the consumers’ perspective. In view of the existing literature exploring consumer decision making, the purpose of this research was threefold: (a) to propose a conceptual model of consumer decision making within the frame of consumer behavior; (b) to gain knowledge of factors impacting this process from the empirical standpoint with the focus on prefabricated house purchases; and (c) to offer implications for beneficial p...

  6. BUYING BEHAVIOUR RELATED TO HEATING SYSTEMS IN GERMANY

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Thomas; Zapilko, Marina; Menrad, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The decision for buying a heating system is a long-term one, as many different aspects have an influence on this choice which were analysed in a Germany-wide, written survey. The respondents (only owners of a private house) had to answer questions about their attitude towards e.g. economics, convenience or ecological aspects related to heating systems and the respective combustibles. Using a multinomial logistic regression model the choice of the heating system is mainly explained by ecologic...

  7. Fight or buy? A comparison of internationalization strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Kirstein

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates three internationalization strategies of a company that considers invading a foreign market: • It can buy a firm that resides in the target market (acquisition strategy), • it can produce at home and export into the target market (export strategy), • or the two firms can agree upon produce in the invader's home country and sell the products in the target market (OEM strategy). For simplicity, we assume that the incumbent firm in the target country has a monopoly position. ...

  8. Characteristics of online compulsive buying in Parisian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duroy, David; Gorse, Pauline; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Online compulsive buying is a little-studied behavioral disorder. To better understand its clinical aspects by focusing on (i) prevalence rate, (ii) correlation with other addictions, (iii) influence of means of access, (iv) motivations to shop to the internet and (v) financial and time-consuming consequences. Cross-sectional study. 200 students in two different centers of Paris Diderot University - Paris VII. Brief self-questionnaires, to screen online compulsive buying, internet addiction, alcohol and tobacco use disorders, to rate frequency of online purchase by private-sale websites, by advertising banners, by mobile phone or to avoid stores, to rate motivations like "more discreet", "lonelier", "larger variety of products", "more immediate positive feelings", and "cheaper" and to assess the largest amount of online purchasing and the average proportion of monthly earnings, and time spent, both day and night. Prevalence of online compulsive buying was 16.0%, while prevalence of internet addiction was 26.0%. We found no significant relationship with cyberdependence, alcohol or tobacco use disorders. Online compulsive buyers accessed more often shopping online by private-sale websites (56.2% vs 30.5%, pmobile phone (22.5% vs 7.9%, p=0.005) and preferred online shopping because of exhaustive offer (p<0.0001) and immediate positive feelings (p<0.0001). Online compulsive buyers spent significantly more money and more time in online shopping. Online compulsive buying seems to be a distinctive behavioral disorder with specific factors of loss of control and motivations, and overall financial and time-consuming impacts. More research is needed to better characterize it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Customer Buying Behavior : - Online shopping towards electronic product

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Yang, Liuzi

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Online shopping in EU has been shown to a good potential market. The electronic equipment takes a high percent of the individuals shopping. Compared with other goods, online shopping of electronic goods adds great convenience to the life of the people. Buying electronic gadgets online gives customers an opportunity to find a great variety of product online, and customers can review a wide selection of products and find special offers and discount with the best deals online. In the co...

  10. Psychotherapy for compulsive buying disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Leite, Priscilla; Pereira, Valeska Martinho; Nardi, Antônio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2014-11-30

    Based on a literature review, the purpose is to identify the main therapeutic approaches for the compulsive buying disorder, a present time disorder characterized by excessive and uncontrollable concerns or behaviors related to buying or expenses, which may lead to adverse consequences. The systematic review was carried out by searching the electronic scientific bases Medline/Pubmed, ISI, PsycInfo. The search was comprised of full-text articles, written in Portuguese and English, with no time limit or restrictions on the type of study and sample. A total of 1659 references were found and, by the end, 23 articles were selected for this review. From the articles found, it was determined that, although there are case studies and clinical trials underlining the effectiveness of the treatment for compulsive buying, only those studies with a focus on the cognitive-behavioral therapy approach make evident the successful response to the treatment. The publication of new studies on the etiology and epidemiology of the disorder is necessary, in order to establish new forms of treatment and to verify the effectiveness and response of the Brazilian population to the existing protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. INSTALLATION OF A BUYING AGENT ON THE CERN SITE

    CERN Multimedia

    Head of SPL Division

    1999-01-01

    In March, the Finance Committee approved the installation of a Buying Agent on the CERN site to process orders with a value below 5,000 CHF.The role of a Buying Agent is to supply low-cost products that are widely available on the market to a number of different clients. By purchasing quantities far in excess of CERN's own requirements, the Buying Agent is thus able to obtain better prices.In addition, the Agent must guarantee that purchasing requests are handled within a given time and that the product exactly matches users' needs; he must also check that the article delivered is the one ordered, and follow up all disputes and delivery delays.To offer you these services, the company LOGITRADE will be setting up office on the CERN site - Building 73, floor 3 - as of 3 May 1999 (phone No. 72280 _ 79167). Seen from the users, this company will have the same task as any other purchasing office on the site.Internal Purchase Requisitions (DAI) for a value of less than 5,000 CHF relating, initially, to computer con...

  12. Searching online to buy commonly prescribed psychiatric drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha

    2018-02-01

    The use of online pharmacies to purchase prescription drugs is increasing. The patient experience when searching to buy commonly prescribed psychiatric drugs was investigated. Using the search term "buy [drug name] online" in Google, 38 frequently prescribed drugs, including 13 with a high potential for abuse, were searched by brand and generic names. The first page of results were analyzed, including with pharmacy certification checkers and ICANN WHOIS. Search results for all drugs yielded 167 pharmacies, of which 147 (88%) did not require a prescription. Considering all searches, the average number of pharmacies requiring a prescription was 2.7 for a brand name drug and 2.4 for a generic name. A phrase like "buy without a prescription" usually appeared on the search results page. All results for drugs with a high potential for abuse were for illegal pharmacies. Information from certification agencies was often conflicting. Most pharmacies were registered internationally. Patients searching online to purchase prescription psychiatric drugs are presented predominantly with illegal pharmacies, and find conflicting certification data. Patient education should address typical search results. Societal pressures may increase the use of online pharmacies including prescription drug costs, stigma, loss of trust in expert opinion, and the changing patient role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Motivation, engagement, attitudes and buying intent of female Facebook users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene le Roux

    2016-05-01

    Research purpose: The primary purpose was to investigate the interrelationship between motives, engagement, brand attitudes and buying intent of female Facebook brand apparel community members in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Social media created a new tool for marketers to break through advertising clutter. Scholars assert that the influence of social media brand communities on consumers’ attitudes, behaviour and intentions need to be studied, and such research should be applied to a specific industry. Research design, approach and method: A total of 333 female apparel brand community members on Facebook completed a quantitative, structured online survey. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used to investigate the interrelationship between the constructs. Main findings: The results indicated significant relationships between some of the hypothesised constructs, namely hedonic motives and brand attitude, as well as brand attitude and buyingintention. Practical/managerial implications: The findings suggested marketers should create entertaining and useful brand community experiences, as that lead to favourable attitudes, and positively influence buying intention. Suggestions for marketers to use this platform effectively to engage community members were provided. Contribution: The research contributed to the limited knowledge on brand community behaviour on Facebook in an emerging market context. This research examined female consumers, an influential segment of social media users. It provided empirical support for the theoretical relationship between brand attitude and buying intention.

  14. Impaired decision making under ambiguity but not under risk in individuals with pathological buying-behavioral and psychophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotzke, Patrick; Starcke, Katrin; Pedersen, Anya; Müller, Astrid; Brand, Matthias

    2015-09-30

    Pathological buying (PB) is described as dysfunctional buying behavior, associated with harmful consequences. It is discussed whether decision-making deficits are related to PB, because affected individuals often choose the short-term rewarding option of buying despite persistent negative long-term consequences. We investigated 30 patients suffering from PB and 30 matched control participants with two different decision-making tasks: the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures decisions under ambiguity and involves emotional feedback processing, whereas the Game of Dice Task (GDT) measures decisions under risk and can be solved strategically. Potential emotional and cognitive correlates of decision making were investigated by assessing skin conductance response (SCR) and executive functioning. In comparison to the control participants, the patients showed more disadvantageous decisions under ambiguity in the IGT. These data were supported by the SCR results: patients failed to generate SCRs that usually occur before disadvantageous decisions. The physiological and behavioral performance on decisions under risk and executive functioning did not differ between groups. Thus, deficits in emotional feedback processing might be one potential factor in etiology and pathogenesis of PB and should be considered in theory and treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Identifying and Prioritizing the Key Factors Influencing Customer Decision Making in Buying Organizational Software (A survey about HAMKARAN Co.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahryar Azizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of adopting information systems, specially packed software, facilitate managing the organizational process, hence, identification the factors influence customer buying decision is vital for software providers. This mixed method study tried to identify the factors affecting decision making of buying new organizational software, classify and rank them beside. In-depth interviews with 10 customers of Hamkaran system that had the potential of buying new software have been done and content analysis of these interviews revealed some factors in five categories that became the base of questionnaire design. This study is applied in view of aim, and is descriptive-survey in view of entity. Sample of 177 customers of System Group Co. have been chosen for the study. Kruskal-Wallis test and T test of normality showed all factors to be effective. Then the factors have been prioritized using Frideman test which are as follows: buyer`s internal organizational factors, product feature, factors related to sellers organization, factors related to process and selling promotion, market and environmental factors.

  16. The Pathological Buying Screener: Development and Psychometric Properties of a New Screening Instrument for the Assessment of Pathological Buying Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Trotzke, Patrick; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to develop a new screening instrument for pathological buying (PB), and to examine its psychometric properties in a large-scale sample. By using a facet theoretical approach and based on literature as well as on clinical experience, a 20-item Pathological Buying Screener (PBS) was developed and administered to a representative German sample (n = 2,539). Valid data were available from 2,403 participants who were subjects for three subsequent empirical studies. The first study explored the factor structure using exploratory factor analyses in a subsample of 498 participants. Based on factor loadings, a 13-item version with the two factors loss of control / consequences and excessive buying behavior was revealed. This two-factor model was confirmed in study 2 by confirmatory factor analysis performed on another subsample (n = 1,905). Study 3 investigated age and gender effects and convergent validity of the PBS using the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) in the full sample (N = 2,403). The total PBS score was adequately correlated with the CBS score. Hierarchical regression analyses with the CBS score as the dependent variable and the two PBS factors as the predictors indicated an own incremental validity of the two factors in participants ≤ 65 years. The reliability of the total score as well as of the two subscales was good to excellent. Overall, the PBS represents a useful measure for PB. Future studies are needed to replicate the two-factor structure in clinical samples and to define a valid cutoff for PB.

  17. The Pathological Buying Screener: Development and Psychometric Properties of a New Screening Instrument for the Assessment of Pathological Buying Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Müller

    Full Text Available The study was designed to develop a new screening instrument for pathological buying (PB, and to examine its psychometric properties in a large-scale sample. By using a facet theoretical approach and based on literature as well as on clinical experience, a 20-item Pathological Buying Screener (PBS was developed and administered to a representative German sample (n = 2,539. Valid data were available from 2,403 participants who were subjects for three subsequent empirical studies. The first study explored the factor structure using exploratory factor analyses in a subsample of 498 participants. Based on factor loadings, a 13-item version with the two factors loss of control / consequences and excessive buying behavior was revealed. This two-factor model was confirmed in study 2 by confirmatory factor analysis performed on another subsample (n = 1,905. Study 3 investigated age and gender effects and convergent validity of the PBS using the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS in the full sample (N = 2,403. The total PBS score was adequately correlated with the CBS score. Hierarchical regression analyses with the CBS score as the dependent variable and the two PBS factors as the predictors indicated an own incremental validity of the two factors in participants ≤ 65 years. The reliability of the total score as well as of the two subscales was good to excellent. Overall, the PBS represents a useful measure for PB. Future studies are needed to replicate the two-factor structure in clinical samples and to define a valid cutoff for PB.

  18. Optimal strategy for selling on group-buying website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to help business marketers with offline channels to make decisions on whether to sell through Group-buying (GB websites and how to set online price with the coordination of maximum deal size on GB websites. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the deal structure of GB websites especially for the service fee and minimum deal size limit required by GB websites, advertising effect of selling on GB websites, and interaction between online and offline markets, an analytical model is built to derive optimal online price and maximum deal size for sellers selling through GB website. This paper aims to answer four research questions: (1 How to make a decision on maximum deal size with coordination of the deal price? (2 Will selling on GB websites always be better than staying with offline channel only? (3 What kind of products is more appropriate to sell on GB website? (4How could GB website operator induce sellers to offer deep discount in GB deals? Findings and Originality/value: This paper obtains optimal strategies for sellers selling on GB website and finds that: Even if a seller has sufficient capacity, he/she may still set a maximum deal size on the GB deal to take advantage of Advertisement with Limited Availability (ALA effect; Selling through GB website may not bring a higher profit than selling only through offline channel when a GB site only has a small consumer base and/or if there is a big overlap between the online and offline markets; Low margin products are more suitable for being sold online with ALA strategies (LP-ALA or HP-ALA than high margin ones; A GB site operator could set a small minimum deal size to induce deep discounts from the sellers selling through GB deals. Research limitations/implications: The present study assumed that the demand function is determinate and linear. It will be interesting to study how stochastic demand and a more general demand function affect the optimal

  19. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation.

  20. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation. (letter)

  1. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF ENDORSER CREDIBILITY ON THE CONSUMERS' BUYING INTENTIONS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Ermec Sertoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test whether the source credibility affects buying intention and measure the perceived credibility differences between created spokesperson and celebrity endorser. The influence that endorser credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise have on purchase intentions of 326 young consumers has been examined. The results showed that all of the three credibility dimensions for both celebrity endorser and created spokesperson have a positive relationship with purchase intention. Created spokesperson is perceived to be more trustworthy and competent whereas the celebrity endorser is found to be more attractive by the respondents. This study is unique in a way that it covers fairly new and rapidly growing Turkish market. One factor that makes this study unique in Turkey, in which the usage of celebrity endorsers holds significant part in the marketing of products, is the lack of studies that would measure the effectiveness of this method.

  2. Variation in tree mortality and regeneration affect forest carbon recovery following fuel treatments and wildfire in the Lake Tahoe Basin, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson Chris H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forest fuel treatments have been proposed as tools to stabilize carbon stocks in fire-prone forests in the Western U.S.A. Although fuel treatments such as thinning and burning are known to immediately reduce forest carbon stocks, there are suggestions that these losses may be paid back over the long-term if treatments sufficiently reduce future wildfire severity, or prevent deforestation. Although fire severity and post-fire tree regeneration have been indicated as important influences on long-term carbon dynamics, it remains unclear how natural variability in these processes might affect the ability of fuel treatments to protect forest carbon resources. We surveyed a wildfire where fuel treatments were put in place before fire and estimated the short-term impact of treatment and wildfire on aboveground carbon stocks at our study site. We then used a common vegetation growth simulator in conjunction with sensitivity analysis techniques to assess how predicted timescales of carbon recovery after fire are sensitive to variation in rates of fire-related tree mortality, and post-fire tree regeneration. Results We found that fuel reduction treatments were successful at ameliorating fire severity at our study site by removing an estimated 36% of aboveground biomass. Treated and untreated stands stored similar amounts of carbon three years after wildfire, but differences in fire severity were such that untreated stands maintained only 7% of aboveground carbon as live trees, versus 51% in treated stands. Over the long-term, our simulations suggest that treated stands in our study area will recover baseline carbon storage 10–35 years more quickly than untreated stands. Our sensitivity analysis found that rates of fire-related tree mortality strongly influence estimates of post-fire carbon recovery. Rates of regeneration were less influential on recovery timing, except when fire severity was high. Conclusions Our ability to predict

  3. Variation in tree mortality and regeneration affect forest carbon recovery following fuel treatments and wildfire in the Lake Tahoe Basin, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Chris H; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Safford, Hugh D

    2012-06-28

    Forest fuel treatments have been proposed as tools to stabilize carbon stocks in fire-prone forests in the Western U.S.A. Although fuel treatments such as thinning and burning are known to immediately reduce forest carbon stocks, there are suggestions that these losses may be paid back over the long-term if treatments sufficiently reduce future wildfire severity, or prevent deforestation. Although fire severity and post-fire tree regeneration have been indicated as important influences on long-term carbon dynamics, it remains unclear how natural variability in these processes might affect the ability of fuel treatments to protect forest carbon resources. We surveyed a wildfire where fuel treatments were put in place before fire and estimated the short-term impact of treatment and wildfire on aboveground carbon stocks at our study site. We then used a common vegetation growth simulator in conjunction with sensitivity analysis techniques to assess how predicted timescales of carbon recovery after fire are sensitive to variation in rates of fire-related tree mortality, and post-fire tree regeneration. We found that fuel reduction treatments were successful at ameliorating fire severity at our study site by removing an estimated 36% of aboveground biomass. Treated and untreated stands stored similar amounts of carbon three years after wildfire, but differences in fire severity were such that untreated stands maintained only 7% of aboveground carbon as live trees, versus 51% in treated stands. Over the long-term, our simulations suggest that treated stands in our study area will recover baseline carbon storage 10-35 years more quickly than untreated stands. Our sensitivity analysis found that rates of fire-related tree mortality strongly influence estimates of post-fire carbon recovery. Rates of regeneration were less influential on recovery timing, except when fire severity was high. Our ability to predict the response of forest carbon resources to anthropogenic and

  4. Compulsive buying and hoarding as identity substitutes: The role of materialistic value endorsement and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Müller, Astrid; Luyckx, Koen

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the relationship between identity confusion and compulsive buying (offline/online) and hoarding is mediated by materialistic value endorsement and depression. The community sample consisted of 254 Flemish adults who completed self-report questionnaires to assess identity confusion (Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory), compulsive buying tendencies (Compulsive Buying Scale/short-Internet Addiction Scale, adapted for shopping), hoarding tendencies (Saving-Inventory Revised), materialistic value endorsement (Materialistic Value Scale), and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9). We found significant positive associations between identity confusion, compulsive buying, and hoarding. The association between identity confusion and compulsive buying was fully mediated by materialistic value endorsement; whereas depression mediated the association between identity confusion and hoarding. The results suggest that the collection or buying of material goods can be considered as identity substitutes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Student Buy-In to Active Learning in a College Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Andrew J.; Aragón, Oriana R.; Chen, Xinnian; Couch, Brian; Durham, Mary; Bobrownicki, Aiyana; Hanauer, David I.; Graham, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of introducing active learning in college science courses are well established, yet more needs to be understood about student buy-in to active learning and how that process of buy-in might relate to student outcomes. We test the exposure–persuasion–identification–commitment (EPIC) process model of buy-in, here applied to student (n = 245) engagement in an undergraduate science course featuring active learning. Student buy-in to active learning was positively associated with engagement in self-regulated learning and students’ course performance. The positive associations among buy-in, self-regulated learning, and course performance suggest buy-in as a potentially important factor leading to student engagement and other student outcomes. These findings are particularly salient in course contexts featuring active learning, which encourage active student participation in the learning process. PMID:27909026

  6. Analysis of Product Buying Decision on Lazada E-commerce based on Previous Buyers’ Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Aldrin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present research are: 1 to know that product buying decision possibly occurs, 2 to know how product buying decision occurs on Lazada e-commerce’s customers, 3 how previous buyers’ comments can increase product buying decision on Lazada e-commerce. This research utilizes qualitative research method. Qualitative research is a research that investigates other researches and makes assumption or discussion result so that other analysis results can be made in order to widen idea and opinion. Research result shows that product which has many ratings and reviews will trigger other buyers to purchase or get that product. The conclusion is that product buying decision may occur because there are some processes before making decision which are: looking for recognition and searching for problems, knowing the needs, collecting information, evaluating alternative, evaluating after buying. In those stages, buying decision on Lazada e-commerce is supported by price, promotion, service, and brand.

  7. A STUDY OF THE CHANGING CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR IN ORGANISED RETAILING IN LUCKNOW CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Zubair Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    The major factor of consumer behaviour in organised retailing is the changing buying behaviour. Various management thinkers have conducted several studies to understand the relationship of buying behaviour and organised retailing. Consumer behaviour is defined as the behaviour that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. (L.G. Schiffman, L.L. Kanuk, 2005). Consumer buying behaviour ...

  8. The Impact of Promotional Tools on Consumer Buying Behavior at Matahari Department Store Manado Town Square

    OpenAIRE

    Pangemanan, Sifrid S.; Saerang, David Paul Elia; Malombeke, Shintia

    2014-01-01

    For maximizing market share, every company will carry out various forms of marketing strategies aimed to boost sales. Promotional activity is one form of marketing strategy that aims to introduce and simultaneously influence consumers to buy the products offered by the company so as to increase the volume of sales. The purpose of this study was to find the impact of promotional tools such as buy one get one free, price discount, coupon promotion and physical surroundings on consumer buying be...

  9. The Analysis Of Buying Motives In Purchase Decision Of Virtual Goods In Online Game

    OpenAIRE

    Ajara, Rizky

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed to analyze consumers' buying motives to purchase virtual goods in online games. The sample technique used purposive sampling technique because respondents selected in accordance with characteristic that meet the criteria in the study. Structured interviews were used to analyze respondents' buying motives in purchase decision of virtual goods in online games. The data were collected by interviewing the respondent one-to-one discussion session. The buying motives has divided...

  10. Psychiatric and socioeconomic aspects as possible predictors of compulsive buying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Priscilla Lourenço; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible urge to buy various items. Compulsive buying disorder is a subject of growing interest to health professionals. It is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. The main objective of this study was to identify predictors of compulsive buying in the Brazilian population, assessing possible relationships between compulsive buying, depression and anxiety. The Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale was administered to screen for compulsive buying and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in a sample of 359 participants. Pearson coefficients were used to test for correlations. Our study identified an interaction between female gender and compulsion to purchase. Furthermore, people's occupations also appear to have an influence on the problem. We found a correlation between depressive symptoms and oniomania. Our study has certain limitations, such as the difficulty in recruiting individuals with compulsive buying disorder. Since compulsive buying is a phenomenon that is seldom investigated, it therefore remains unidentified. However, this is nevertheless a pioneering paper on the Brazilian population.

  11. Cross-correlations in volume space: Differences between buy and sell volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Dong Il; Kim, Min Jae; Koh, In Gyu; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    We study the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes on the Korean stock market in high frequency. We observe that the pulling effects of volumes are as small as that of returns. The properties of the correlations of buy and sell volumes differ. They are explained by the degree of synchronization of stock volumes. Further, the pulling effects on the minimal spanning tree are studied. In minimal spanning trees with directed links, the large pulling effects are clustered at the center, not uniformly distributed. The Epps effect of buy and sell volumes are observed. The reversal of the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes is also detected.

  12. Psychiatric and socioeconomic aspects as possible predictors of compulsive buying behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Lourenço Leite

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible urge to buy various items. Compulsive buying disorder is a subject of growing interest to health professionals. It is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to identify predictors of compulsive buying in the Brazilian population, assessing possible relationships between compulsive buying, depression and anxiety. Methods: The Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale was administered to screen for compulsive buying and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in a sample of 359 participants. Pearson coefficients were used to test for correlations. Results: Our study identified an interaction between female gender and compulsion to purchase. Furthermore, people's occupations also appear to have an influence on the problem. We found a correlation between depressive symptoms and oniomania. Conclusion: Our study has certain limitations, such as the difficulty in recruiting individuals with compulsive buying disorder. Since compulsive buying is a phenomenon that is seldom investigated, it therefore remains unidentified. However, this is nevertheless a pioneering paper on the Brazilian population.

  13. Consumer motives for buying fresh or frozen plaice: A means end chain approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Sørensen, Elin; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1997-01-01

    Consumer motives for buying or not buying a seafood product can be analysed in terms of means-end chain theory. According to this theory, con-su-mers are motivated to buy a product to the extent that it, in the mind of the con-sumer, contributes t fulfilment of personal life values. Means......, wholesomeness, convenience, and p Different levels of expe-rience with seafood influence how consumers perceive the two products. Accor-ding to our investigation, the main life values motivating or demotiva-ting consumers to buy seafood are care for the family, health, and joy/ happiness....

  14. E-commerce: Buying and Selling through Internet in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Jusuf Qarkaxhija

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Before internet was invented, there were invented numerous networks that helped American businesses in multiple savings. First of, they didn’t spend money on buying printers or scanners for the computers they possessed, meaning that the money spent before on buying hundreds of them, now was saved and used to buy a few of printers and scanners. How was this done? This worked by binding the entire computers of a floor to a single network. Second, the factor mostly taken into account is the energy saving and various abuses. Imagine the enormous amount of electricity that hundreds of printers and scanners would spend  and how much energy tens of them would spend, moreover  just think about how much these devices would be used in offices, where nobody is looking, for personal interests. American business, as the most creative one and the strongest was bothered by only one thing . This was the misuse of secret corporation information. These abuses occurred when the data had to be printed and transferred to corporate subsidiaries around the world. During the transfer the data could also be lost or damaged (intentionally or unintentionally and then the corporation would suffer losses (the data were transferred via floppy discs, or they were printed in hard copies. The solution for these problems came from the US military that had invented the internet earlier and after having consumed it for its own needs, decided to put it up for American businesses. The internet has developed its own services such as : www, ftp, e-mail, and buying and selling though internet (e-commerce. Nowadays, information exchanges with corporate branches are not made roughly, but electronically in real time. Additionally, this made it possible for a new category of web designers to be created and they created a powerful web-site through which some businesses created virtual shops and they started earning more money than they used to, in their physical stores. This American

  15. Nakupno vedenje slovenskih porabnikov: vloga nacionalne identitete = Consumer Buying Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Vida

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable goods. Consumers evaluated various characteristics of products made in the EU more favorably relative to those made in Slovenia.

  16. Bringing the DERP to consumers: 'Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Steven D

    2006-01-01

    Consumers Union, publisher of Consumer Reports magazine, has used the drug class reviews of the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) as one critical component of a free public information project on the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of prescription drugs. The project translates the DERP findings for consumers. Drawing on other sources and adding information on drug costs, the project chooses Best Buy drugs in each category it evaluates. This guidance can help consumers save up to thousands of dollars per year, and it has the potential to reduce overall drug spending.

  17. Why buy an album? The motivations behind recorded music purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Steven; Knox, Don

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined why music fans choose to buy recorded music given the multitude of other ways to listen to music without payment. A sample of 135 participants (68.88% female) with a mean age of 29.05 years completed an open-ended questionnaire. These written responses were analysed thematically. Two key themes were identified: Short-term comparisons, and Long-term considerations. Motivations focused on value-maximisation across both themes, with short-term comparisons including how...

  18. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  19. 10 points about buying C.I.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    On October 16, 1992, the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) settled the antidumping case against the CIS republics by imposing price and volume quotas on CIS uranium imported into the United States. Bound by a suspension agreement, each of the six uranium-producing CIS republics is responsible for restricting the flow of imports to the US-either directly or indirectly. (As the NUKEM Market Report went to press, the Ukraine government notified the DOC of its intent not to terminate the suspension agreement.) This action is to prevent undercutting price levels in the US domestic uranium markets. What follows are ten points about everything you should know about importing uranium from the uranium-producing CIS republics- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Newcomers to the CIS scene should follow this simple roadmap and be aware of the issues they face as importers in terms of Commerce/Customs requirements and documentation and where to get them, when to buy the material and how to transport it, how to deal effectively with CIS exporters, and how to avoid unnecessary complications when buying CIS

  20. Buying versus exploring for reserves in the Canadian oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayer, F.

    1992-01-01

    The issue of a business strategy for Canadian oil companies focussed on either buying reserves or on exploration is examined. A measurement of the amount of merger and acquisition (M ampersand A) transactions vs the amount of exploration activity shows that the number of M ampersand A transactions has risen from 262 in 1989 to an estimated 1,500 in 1992. This sales activity has partly resulted from major companies selling assets to pay down debt. In the same period, the number of licensed exploration wells has decreased from 2,800 to 1,500. An analysis of statistics on the costs of acquisitions vs cost of finding and development shows acquisitions costs are lower in all cases. In addition, the median acquisition price has been falling steadily. Buying reserves has other advantages, including the fact that reserves can be added more quickly, lower risk, and readily available financing. Exploration, however, has its advantages, including the potential for very large reserve additions, higher tax deductions and incentives available, less competition from the industry, and low input costs. The acquisition vs exploration strategies are illustrated using the stock performance of two companies. If the acquisitions trend continues, there will be increases in the profitability of existing reserves, the number of companies, and tax receipts, However, in the long term there will be a drop in Canadian reserves and a significant reduction in the size of the industry. 14 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Market Segmentation Based on the Consumers' Impulsive Buying Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Mihić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of this research is to determine the sufficiently different segments of consumers based on their impulsivity in the buying behaviour. The research was conducted in Splitsko-Dalmatinska county on the sample of 180 respondents. Based on the subject matter and research goals, the basic as well as four additional hypotheses were set. The used methodology comprised of the cluster analysis, which helped to divide three segments that were named as: ‘’rational’’, ‘’somewhat rational and somewhat impulsive’’ and ‘’impulsive’’ consumers. The variance analysis was used in order to describe the segments properly and to determine whether they are different enough with respect to demographic, socio-economic characteristics and individual differences variables. The findings confirmed the hypothesis based on the possibility of dividing different consumer segments according to the analysed variables. Correlating the demographics and individual differences factors with the impulse buy, the expected results were gained. When analyzing demographics the results indicate the segment differentiation solely in the case of age and working status. However, from the aspect of majority of individual differences variables the distinction among the segments is significant.

  2. Thyroid Function Variations Within the Reference Range Do Not Affect Quality of Life, Mood, or Cognitive Function in Community-Dwelling Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Mary H; Kaimal, Rajani; Waring, Avantika; Fink, Howard A; Yaffe, Kristine; Hoffman, Andrew R; Orwoll, Eric; Bauer, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    Variations in thyroid function within the laboratory reference range have been associated with a number of clinical outcomes. However, quality of life, mood, and cognitive function have not been extensively studied, and it is not clear whether mild variations in thyroid function have major effects on these neurocognitive outcomes. Data were analyzed from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study, a cohort of community-dwelling men aged 65 years and older in the United States. A total of 539 participants who were not taking thyroid medications and had age-adjusted TSH levels within the reference range underwent detailed testing of quality of life, mood, and cognitive function at baseline. The same quality of life, mood, and cognitive outcomes were measured again in 193 of the men after a mean follow-up of 6 years. Outcomes were analyzed using thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels as continuous independent variables, adjusting for relevant covariates. At baseline, there were no associations between TSH or FT4 levels and measures of quality of life, mood, or cognition in the 539 euthyroid men. Baseline thyroid function did not predict changes in these outcomes over a mean of 6 years in the 193 men in the longitudinal analysis. Variations in thyroid function within the age-adjusted laboratory reference range are not associated with variations in quality of life, mood, or cognitive function in community-dwelling older men.

  3. Supplementation of dextrose to the diet during the weaning to estrus interval affects subsequent variation in within-litter piglet birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of supplementation of dextrose to the diet of sows during the weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) on subsequent litter size and within-litter variation were investigated. After weaning, 223 sows (first to fifth parity) were fed 3.5 kg/d. Half of the sows additionally received 150 g of dextrose

  4. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, chemical and physical defenses that affect mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, attack and tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Daniel S; Yanchuk, Alvin D; Huber, Dezene P W; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2011-09-01

    Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction.

  5. Variation of milk urea in dairy cattle : a study on factors that affect the relationship between urea concentration in milk and urea excretion in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to increase the applicability of milk urea nitrogen concentration (MUN) as a predictor of urinary urea nitrogen excretion (UUN) by identifying and quantifying factors that can explain variation in MUN that is not related to UUN. A literature study was conducted in

  6. The Analysis of Product, Price, Place, Promotion and Service Quality on Customers’ Buying Decision of Convenience Store: A Survey of Young Adult in Bekasi, West Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Junio Andret; Nabila H Zhafira; Sheila S Akmal; Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This research aim to analyze why the number of convenience store keep increasing by identify the dominant factors which are product, price, place, promotion and service quality that affect customer buying decision of convenience store in Bekasi. This research also as an input to help smaller traders in having better performance in future market. This research involves 300 Bekasi populations to obtain the required data. Then the questionnaire result analyzed with SPPS statistics wh...

  7. Compulsive buying and credit card misuse among credit card holders: the roles of self-esteem, materialism, impulsive buying and budget constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Nor Asiah; Rahim, Ruzita Abdul; Wel, Che Aniza Che; Alam, Syed Shah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the factors that influence credit card misuse among working adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The relationship among self-esteem, materialism, impulsive buying, budget constraint, compulsive buying and credit card misuse are explored in this study. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 186 questionnaires was collected via convenience sampling from credit card users of working adults in Malaysia. A structural equation model that assesses the relationship b...

  8. Compulsive Buying among College Students: An Investigation of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Implications for Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)

  9. Cue-induced craving in pathological buying: empirical evidence and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotzke, Patrick; Starcke, Katrin; Pedersen, Anya; Brand, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Pathological buying is associated with marked distress and impaired functioning in important life domains. It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered a behavioral addiction. In analogy to results reported in addicted individuals, craving reactions elicited by addiction-related cues might be an underlying mechanism for the etiology and pathogenesis of pathological buying. In the present study, 30 pathological buyers and 30 matched control participants were examined with a cue-reactivity paradigm consisting of shopping and control cues. Skin conductance responses, as well as subjective ratings for arousal, valence, and urge to buy, were assessed. Subjective craving reactions were measured before and after the cue-reactivity paradigm. On a physiological level, skin conductance responses toward shopping cues were higher in pathological buyers (mean [M; standard deviation {SD}] = 0.26 [0.13]) compared with control participants (M [SD] = 0.19 [0.09]; t(58) = 2.29, p = .025, d = 0.60). On a behavioral level, the individuals with pathological buying rated the shopping cues as more arousing and more positive, and reported a greater urge to buy compared with control participants and with control cues. An increase in subjective craving after completing the cue-reactivity paradigm was observed only in the pathological buyers (Mpre [SD] = 1.95 [1.47], Mpost [SD] = 2.87 [1.79]; t(29) = 5.07, p buying. The results demonstrate similarities between pathological buying and substance or behavioral addictions and provide implications for clinical treatment.

  10. 76 FR 54486 - Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... decision to approve the Buy American waiver requested by the SDBOC to purchase foreign ductile iron flanges... the Buy American waiver requested by the Sunnyside Division Board of Control (SDBOC) to purchase... will increase the cost of the overall project contract by more than 25 percent. The waiver process is...

  11. Sourcing strategies for services that become part of the buying company's value proposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.; Weele, van A.J.; Jahns, C.; Hartmann, E.

    2009-01-01

    Organisations are increasingly buying services that become part of their value proposition to their customers. At the same time, business services traditionally are sourced and contracted for in a traditional way. We study the single case of buying cleaning services by a Train Maintenance Company

  12. 76 FR 31415 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Buy American Exemption for Commercial Information Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... 9000-AL62 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Buy American Exemption for Commercial Information Technology... from the Buy American Act for acquisition of information technology that is a commercial item. DATES: Effective Date: May 31, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Cecelia L. Davis, Procurement Analyst, at...

  13. A comparative study of East and West Europe's food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan; Skytte, Hans; Esbjerg, Lars

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a project comparing retail buy-ing behaviour in Poland and Germany. The study demon-strates several differences in the way listing decisions are made in the two countries - differences which at the same time raise prob-lems and offer opportunities for small...

  14. Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    core aviation program and is approved for full- rate production through the future years defense program. If the proposal is approved, the Army buy ...Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist...

  15. 75 FR 10246 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery... nationwide categorical waivers of the Buy American requirements of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act... domestic manufacturers for these products. This strategy will ensure that all future determinations of...

  16. 77 FR 17456 - Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ...-2138-01] Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 AGENCY... exception to the Buy American Provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA or... future years on electricity. The contract specifications required that all exterior photovoltaic...

  17. The shopping brain: math anxiety modulates brain responses to buying decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William J; Childers, Terry L; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Metacognitive theories propose that consumers track fluency feelings when buying, which may have biological underpinnings. We explored this using event-related potential (ERP) measures as twenty high-math anxiety (High MA) and nineteen low-math anxiety (Low MA) consumers made buying decisions for promoted (e.g., 15% discount) and non-promoted products. When evaluating prices, ERP correlates of higher perceptual and conceptual fluency were associated with buys, however only for High MA females under no promotions. In contrast, High MA females and Low MA males demonstrated greater FN400 amplitude, associated with enhanced conceptual processing, to prices of buys relative to non-buys under promotions. Concurrent late positive component (LPC) differences under no promotions suggest discrepant retrieval processes during price evaluations between consumer groups. When making decisions to buy or not, larger (smaller) P3, sensitive to outcome responses in the brain, was associated with buying for High MA females (Low MA females) under promotions, an effect also present for males under no promotions. Thus, P3 indexed decisions to buy differently between anxiety groups, but only for promoted items among females and for no promotions among males. Our findings indicate that perceptual and conceptual processes interact with anxiety and gender to modulate brain responses during consumer choices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Buying stolen goods: the ambiguity in trading consumer-to-consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Tobias; Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Demant, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the buying of stolen goods in Denmark. The study consists of a self-report survey based on a representative sample of the general Danish population (n = 2311) and six focus group interviews consisting of both informants experienced with buying stolen goods and of those...... with no experience (n = 37). The survey showed that 4.8% had bought stolen goods, while 15.7% were uncertain whether they had bought stolen goods. Young people, males, and unemployed were more likely to purchase stolen goods. No clear correlation between income and buying stolen goods was found. Focus groups suggest...... the buyers of stolen goods did not buy stolen goods because they could not afford legitimate products. We recommend targeting consumers not interested in buying stolen goods with information about how to avoid such activity....

  19. Gender Differences in Pathways to Compulsive Buying in Chinese College Students in Hong Kong and Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Terence H W; Tang, Catherine S; Wu, Anise; Yan, Elsie

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The addictive nature of compulsive buying implies that mood disturbances, stress, and cognitive biases that underlie compulsive buying might operate in ways similar in both genders. In the current study, we aimed to test hypothetical pathways of mood compensation and irrational cognitions, which may explain compulsive buying tendencies. We also examined potential gender differences in these pathways. Methods Two-hundred and thirty-two male (age: M = 20.30, SD = 1.74) and 373 female Chinese college students (age: M = 19.97, SD = 1.74) in Hong Kong and Macau completed measures assessing compulsive buying, psychological distress, avoidance coping, materialism, and buying-related cognitions. Mediation analyses via a structural equation modeling approach explained by Cheung (2007, 2009) were conducted, with gender as a grouping variable. Results There was a gender difference in the mood compensation pathway; avoidance coping partially mediated the link between psychological distress and compulsive buying severity in females only. On the other hand, the irrational cognitive pathway, in which irrational buying-related cognitions fully mediated the link between materialism and compulsive buying severity, was supported for both genders. There was no gender difference in the extent of mediation within the irrational cognitive pathway, and the mediation effect within the irrational cognitive pathway was larger than that within the mood compensation pathway for both genders. Conclusions Mood compensation processes in compulsive buying might be female specific, and secondary to irrational cognitions, which were gender invariant. Gender-dependent mechanisms and irrational cognitions should be emphasized in compulsive buying treatment.

  20. Gender Differences in Pathways to Compulsive Buying in Chinese College Students in Hong Kong and Macau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Terence H. W.; Tang, Catherine S.; Wu, Anise; Yan, Elsie

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The addictive nature of compulsive buying implies that mood disturbances, stress, and cognitive biases that underlie compulsive buying might operate in ways similar in both genders. In the current study, we aimed to test hypothetical pathways of mood compensation and irrational cognitions, which may explain compulsive buying tendencies. We also examined potential gender differences in these pathways. Methods Two-hundred and thirty-two male (age: M = 20.30, SD = 1.74) and 373 female Chinese college students (age: M = 19.97, SD = 1.74) in Hong Kong and Macau completed measures assessing compulsive buying, psychological distress, avoidance coping, materialism, and buying-related cognitions. Mediation analyses via a structural equation modeling approach explained by Cheung (2007, 2009) were conducted, with gender as a grouping variable. Results There was a gender difference in the mood compensation pathway; avoidance coping partially mediated the link between psychological distress and compulsive buying severity in females only. On the other hand, the irrational cognitive pathway, in which irrational buying-related cognitions fully mediated the link between materialism and compulsive buying severity, was supported for both genders. There was no gender difference in the extent of mediation within the irrational cognitive pathway, and the mediation effect within the irrational cognitive pathway was larger than that within the mood compensation pathway for both genders. Conclusions Mood compensation processes in compulsive buying might be female specific, and secondary to irrational cognitions, which were gender invariant. Gender-dependent mechanisms and irrational cognitions should be emphasized in compulsive buying treatment. PMID:27156378

  1. 75 FR 81708 - Notice of Decision To Issue Buy American Waivers for Foreign Object Debris (FOD) Detection Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... issuing any Buy American Waivers to foreign manufacturers, if in the future these foreign companies begin... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Decision To Issue Buy... that it was considering issuing waivers to Buy American requirements of 49 USC 50101 to foreign...

  2. 42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (a) Categories included in buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that are..., Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa may choose any of the following coverage groups: (1) Group... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the...

  3. The Wheels on the Bus Go “Buy Buy Buy”: School Bus Advertising Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment “forum analysis” as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property. PMID:22742065

  4. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF STUDENTS ON THE BEER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jąder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research conducted in November among 220 students at the University of Life Sciences in Poznań. The aim was study the preferences and buying behaviour of students on the beer market. It shows the place of beer among other alcohols, frequency and place of consumption, as well the place of beer shopping and the criteria of beer purchase. The most popular brands and tastes of beer were researched. Otherwise was analysed preference for beer packaging and promotion effects on students. It was found that beer is the most often chosen alcohol among this group of consumers, and vast majority of them consume it at least once a week. Students often drink beer at home or at friends, and favourite brands are: Lech, Redd’s, Desperados and Żubr.

  5. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB.

  6. Learn It, Buy It, Work It: Intensive Pregnancy on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Tiidenberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how pregnant women perform their pregnancies on Instagram. We ask whether they rely on and reproduce pre-existing discourses aimed at morally regulating pregnancy, or reject them and construct their own alternatives. Pregnancy today is highly visible, intensely surveilled, marketed as a consumer identity, and feverishly stalked in its celebrity manifestations. This propagates narrow visions of what a “normal” pregnancy or “normal” pregnant woman should be like. We argue that pregnant women on Instagram do pregnancy via three overlapping and complimentary discourses of “learn it,” “buy it,” and “work it.” Together these form the current authoritative knowledge of pregnancy we call “intensive pregnancy” as performed on Instagram. Concurrently, this article highlights how the combined discursive power of hashtags, images, and captions may influence and enforce discursive hegemonies.

  7. Operating an Advertising Programmatic Buying Platform: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gonzalvez-Cabañas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how new technological developments and the possibilities generated by the internet are shaping the online advertising market. More specifically it focuses on a programmatic advertising case study. The origin of the problem is how publishers resort to automated buying and selling when trying to shift unsold inventory. To carry out our case study, we will use a programmatic online advertising sales platform, which identifies the optimal way of promoting a given product. The platform executes, evaluates, manages and optimizes display advertising campaigns, all in real-time. The empirical analysis carried out in the case study reveals that the platform and its exclusion algorithms are suitable mechanisms for analysing the performance and efficiency of the various segments that might be used to promote products. Thanks to Big Data tools and artificial intelligence the platform performs automatically, providing information in a user-friendly and simple manner.

  8. A study on gender differences influencing on online buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirnima Negahdari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the diffusion of the Internet as a retail and distribution channel has undergone a great growth. This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of gender differences on online buying. The study explored gender differences among 13 factors concerning the internet buyer. With regard to factors and consistent with Hypothesis and sub hypothesis, differences were detected across genders using t-student tests and the findings were in alignment with the ANOVA test. For data collection and final testing of the E-SAT model a questionnaire was designed and distributed among 100 randomly people who resided in Iran. The analysis show that merchandising, security and company items gained more scores for men than women in online shopping.

  9. Phonotactic probability of brand names: I'd buy that!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Donoso, Alexander J

    2012-11-01

    Psycholinguistic research shows that word-characteristics influence the speed and accuracy of various language-related processes. Analogous characteristics of brand names influence the retrieval of product information and the perception of risks associated with that product. In the present experiment we examined how phonotactic probability-the frequency with which phonological segments and sequences of segments appear in a word-might influence consumer behavior. Participants rated brand names that varied in phonotactic probability on the likelihood that they would buy the product. Participants indicated that they were more likely to purchase a product if the brand name was comprised of common segments and sequences of segments rather than less common segments and sequences of segments. This result suggests that word-characteristics may influence higher-level cognitive processes, in addition to language-related processes. Furthermore, the benefits of using objective measures of word characteristics in the design of brand names are discussed.

  10. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  11. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in the Netherlands : A prospective and retrospective study of seasonal mood variation in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersch, PPA; Middendorp, HM; Bouhuys, AL; Beersma, DGM; van den Hoofdakker, RH; Middendorp, Hermine M.

    1999-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in The Netherlands. Methods: The subjects (n = 5356), randomly selected from community registers, were given the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and the Centre for Epidemiological

  12. Modeling Individual Differences in Within-Person Variation of Negative and Positive Affect in a Mixed Effects Location Scale Model Using BUGS/JAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Philippe; Hofer, Scott M.; Sparks, Catharine

    2012-01-01

    A mixed effects location scale model was used to model and explain individual differences in within-person variability of negative and positive affect across 7 days (N=178) within a measurement burst design. The data come from undergraduate university students and are pooled from a study that was repeated at two consecutive years. Individual…

  13. The buying motives of European retail buyers: An analysis of buying behaviour for pork in four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Skytte, Hans

    consequences and values sought by buyers, and to identify the relationship between and hierarchy of specific attributes, consequences and values in the four countries, and with the purpose of analysing differences. To analyse the values of retail buyers, 83 laddering interviews were conducted with the retail...... buyers responsible for buying pork in the four countries. The value maps created by the means-end structures showed that many of the attributes, consequences and values were the same across countries and products. While there was a similarity in the elements used, we found major differences...... in the relationship of attributes and consequences for product quality, consumer satisfaction and retail image among retail buyers of pork. Our study also showed that the same attributes lead to different consequences in the four countries. The study revealed that it is possible to analyse what the retail buyers want...

  14. Placebo-controlled study of fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninan, P T; McElroy, S L; Kane, C P; Knight, B T; Casuto, L S; Rose, S E; Marsteller, F A; Nemeroff, C B

    2000-06-01

    Compulsive buying is a syndrome characterized by the impulsive and/or compulsive buying of unneeded objects that results in personal distress, impairment in vocational or social functioning, and/or financial problems. Results from a two-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled 13-week trial of fluvoxamine are presented. Subjects had problematic buying behavior that they could not control for the previous 6 months or longer and met DSM-IV criteria for impulse control disorder-not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS) and the University of Cincinnati criteria for compulsive buying. Assessments included clinician-rated scales-the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for compulsive buying, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-and patient self-reports using daily diaries, which measured episodes of compulsive buying. Forty-two subjects gave informed consent, with 37 subjects providing evaluable information and 23 completing the study. Current or past psychiatric comorbidity was present in 74% of subjects. Intent-to-treat and completer analyses failed to show a significant difference between treatments on any measures of outcome. A high placebo-response rate, possibly from the behavioral benefits of maintaining a daily diary, prevents any definitive statement on the efficacy of fluvoxamine in treating compulsive buying.

  15. Hoarding with and without excessive buying: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möllenkamp, Maike; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Previous research demonstrated a close relationship between hoarding disorder (compulsive hoarding, CH) and compulsive buying (CB). Hoarding disorder was included in the 5th version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (APA, 2013) with excessive acquisition as a specifier. This pilot study aimed to investigate whether individuals with both hoarding and buying symptoms (CBCH group) will present with the highest severity levels of hoarding as well as buying psychopathology compared to the respective group exhibiting only one syndrome (CH group: only hoarding, CB group: only buying). The three groups (CH: n = 40, CBCH: n = 60, CB: n = 35) completed the Saving Inventory-Revised, the Compulsive Acquisition Scale und the Compulsive Buying Scale. Data were analysed using non-parametric tests. The CBCH group did not differ from the CH group with regard to the severity of key hoarding symptoms such as clutter, difficulty discarding possessions, and the acquisition of free things, but showed a higher severity of CB than the CB group. While the findings indicate remarkable overlap in primary features of CH in compulsive hoarders with and without excessive buying, they suggest more severe CB in individuals with both hoarding and buying symptoms compared to individuals with only CB. Future studies should address the question whether both disorders are part of a larger construct. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Pathological Buying Online as a Specific Form of Internet Addiction: A Model-Based Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotzke, Patrick; Starcke, Katrin; Müller, Astrid; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate different factors of vulnerability for pathological buying in the online context and to determine whether online pathological buying has parallels to a specific Internet addiction. According to a model of specific Internet addiction by Brand and colleagues, potential vulnerability factors may consist of a predisposing excitability from shopping and as mediating variable, specific Internet use expectancies. Additionally, in line with models on addiction behavior, cue-induced craving should also constitute an important factor for online pathological buying. The theoretical model was tested in this study by investigating 240 female participants with a cue-reactivity paradigm, which was composed of online shopping pictures, to assess excitability from shopping. Craving (before and after the cue-reactivity paradigm) and online shopping expectancies were measured. The tendency for pathological buying and online pathological buying were screened with the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) and the Short Internet Addiction Test modified for shopping (s-IATshopping). The results demonstrated that the relationship between individual’s excitability from shopping and online pathological buying tendency was partially mediated by specific Internet use expectancies for online shopping (model’s R² = .742, p behavior merits potential consideration within the non-substance/behavioral addictions. PMID:26465593

  17. Pre-exercise blood glucose affects glycemic variation of aerobic exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Zhang, Dan-Feng; Dai, Lu; Li, Zheng; Li, Hui-Qin; Li, Feng-Fei; Liu, Bing-Li; Sun, Xiao-Juan; Ye, Lei; He, Ke; Ma, Jian-Hua

    2018-05-03

    Considering the insulin sensitivity may increase by exercise particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), glycemic variation during exercise needs to be studied when the patients are treated with insulin. This study aimed to explore the influence factors of the efficacy and safety of aerobic exercise in patients with T2D treated with Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII). A total of 267 patients with T2D, treated with CSII, were included. Glycemic variations were assessed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Patients were asked to complete 30 min aerobic exercise for at least one time during CGM. The patients were divided into effective and ineffective group by incremental glucose area under curve from 0 to 60 min after exercise (AUC 0-60 min ). The patients completed a total of 776 times of aerobic exercises. Blood glucose decreased fastest in the first 60 min of exercise. Pre-exercise blood glucose (PEBG) was negatively correlated with AUC 0-60 min (standardized β = -0.386, P AUC of blood glucose ≤ 4.4 mmol/L (standardized β = -0.078, P = 0.034), and was significantly higher in effective group than in ineffective group (P AUC 0-60 min during post-dinner was significantly higher than that during pre-lunch, post-lunch and pre-dinner (P  16.7 mmol/L. Post-dinner exercise decreases the blood glucose better than other periods of the day. ChiCTR-ONC-17010400, www.chictr.org.cn. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Compulsive buying in bipolar disorder: is it a comorbidity or a complication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Sermin; Işitmez, Sema; Gündoğar, Duru

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of compulsive buying in bipolar disorder (BD), to compare it with healthy controls, and to search if there is a difference between bipolar cases with and without compulsive buying in terms of sociodemographic qualities, temperament, clinical characteristics and comorbid diagnoses. One-hundred outpatient cases diagnosed as BD according to DSM-IV were evaluated consecutively. Following the diagnosis interview (SCID-I and II) the subjects completed the mood disorders registry form, Compulsive Buying Scale and TEMPS-A. Compulsive buying scores were higher in bipolar patients than healthy controls (pcompulsive buying revealed higher cyclothymic and irritable temperament scores than other bipolar patients (p=0.029 vs 0.045). Premenstrual syndrome and postpartum onset were more frequent, while psychotic symptoms were less in compulsive buyer bipolar patients (p=0.002, 0.009 vs 0.034). Severity of episode was lower (p=0.01), number of episodes was higher (p=0.009). Acute onset and remission before and after maintenance treatment were more frequent in patients with compulsive buying (p=0.011 and p=0.011). Full remission between episodes was 100%. Cases with axis-1 and axis-2 comorbidities demonstrated higher compulsive buying scores (p=0.025 and 0.005). Treatment regimen differences between patients are a limitation of the study. This is the first study to relate compulsive buying with the clinical characteristics of BD. Our results reveal that compulsive buying in BD occurs together with mood episodes which are not very severe, but frequent and with abrupt onset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumer motivations toward buying local rice: The case of northern Iranian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    This research had two purposes. The first aim was to identify Iranian and Non-Iranian rice consumers based on demographic characteristics and examine difference of these features with buying behaviors. The second purpose of study was to investigate consumer's motivation to buy local rice in Iran. The sample were 1500 people (men and women). The data was collected by using questionnaire based on a face-to-face survey. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple linear regression were applied to assess collected data by a questionnaire survey. Regarding Iranian local rice buyers, 884 people buy local rice. Chi-square test showed that there is a significant difference between gender, having children, and marital status in buying local rice. Habitual Iranian local rice buyers include: female (51%), people who are more than 45 years old (51%), people with children (63%), people who are living urban (61%), married people (48%) and individuals that their monthly income is between 321.5 and 625 Dollars (53%). Regarding non-Iranian rice buyers, 616 people buy it. Also there is a significant difference between gender, location, marital status, and income in buying local rice. For considering consumers motivation toward buying local rice the econometrical model is used. Model had three aspects including; quality aspects (taste, good appearance), economic aspects (price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism), and safety aspects (health, not using pesticides and environment protection) and seven subset. The results of analysis indicated that quality aspects, economic aspects and safety aspects have positive effects on buying Iranian local rice. Also, indicative variables including; taste, good appearance, price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism, health, not using pesticides and environment have significant effects on buying it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Can Allowance, Personal Budgeting and Self Control as Mediating Role Manage Compulsive Buying Behavior Among College Students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alce Mariani Labito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive Buying Behavior seemed to be increasing, especially among college students. The aim of this study was to explain some factors that influence compulsive buying behavior. This study involved 189 undergraduate students and data collected by distributing questionnaires. The result showed that allowance, personal budgeting, were related to compulsive buying behavior. The other results indicated that self-control was able to weaken the influence of allowance on compulsive buying behavior. Also, the outcome empirically showed that college students are knowledgeable with some alternative methods for overcoming compulsive buying behavior.

  1. On the Cost-vs-Quality Tradeoff in Make-or-Buy Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The make-or-buy decision is analyzed in a simple two-task principal-agent model. There is a cost-saving/quality tradeoff in effort provision. The principal faces a dichotomous choice between weak ("make") and strong ("buy") cost-saving incentives for the agent; the dichotomy is due to an incomplete-contracting limitation necessitating that one party be residual claimant. Choosing "buy" rather than "make" leads to higher cost-saving effort and -- in a plausible "main case" -- to lower quality ...

  2. A Real Options Approach to Quantity and Cost Optimization for Lifetime and Bridge Buys of Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    As it is shown in Fig. 8, by increasing the buy size, the total cost of the system with a fixed EOS of 40 years and a fixed WACC of 3%, decreases...1000 uncertain demand event paths are considered in both analyses. For a 3% WACC , as illustrated in Fig. 9-a, the DES method gives an optimum buy size...consistency, other WACC values were tests as well. For example, for a 12% WACC , as illustrated in Fig. 9-b, the DES method gives an optimum buy size range

  3. Aspects regarding the analysis of the rationality of the buying decision of the Romanian consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina PELĂU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of economic theory is to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of economic activities and processes. In terms of consumer behavior this can be defined by the rationality of the buying decision. In this article there are presented several theories that have defined over time and still influence the rationality of the consumer. There are also presented the results of a research which aims to analyze the rationality of the consumer. In particular there are analyzed the relations between different quantitative aspects of the buying decision and the impulsive buying reactions of the consumer.

  4. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles—a combination of laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  5. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles-a combination of laboratory and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  6. Variations in grain lipophilic phytochemicals, proteins and resistance to Fusarium spp. growth during grain storage as affected by biological plant protection with Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowska, Urszula; Tańska, Małgorzata; Konopka, Iwona

    2016-06-16

    Modern agriculture relies on an integrated approach, where chemical treatment is reduced to a minimum and replaced by biological control that involves the use of active microorganisms. The effect of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans on proteins and bioactive compounds (alkylresorcinols, sterols, tocols and carotenoids) in winter wheat grain and on the colonization of wheat kernels by fungal microbiota, mainly Fusarium spp. pathogens, was investigated. Biological treatment contributed to a slight increase contents of tocols, alkylresorcinols and sterols in grain. At the same time, the variation of wheat grain proteins was low and not significant. Application of A. pullulans enhanced the natural yeast colonization after six months of grain storage and inhibited growth of F. culmorum pathogens penetrating wheat kernel. This study demonstrated that an integrated approach of wheat grain protection with the use of the yeast-like fungus A. pullulans reduced kernel colonization by Fusarium spp. pathogens and increased the content of nutritionally beneficial phytochemicals in wheat grain without a loss of gluten proteins responsible for baking value. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Sacubitril Is Selectively Activated by Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) in the Liver and the Activation Is Affected by CES1 Genetic Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian; Wang, Xinwen; Nguyen, Jenny; Wu, Audrey H; Bleske, Barry E; Zhu, Hao-Jie

    2016-04-01

    Sacubitril was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in combination with valsartan for the treatment of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. As a prodrug, sacubitril must be metabolized (hydrolyzed) to its active metabolite sacubitrilat (LBQ657) to exert its intended therapeutic effects. Thus, understanding the determinants of sacubitril activation will lead to the improvement of sacubitril pharmacotherapy. The objective of this study was to identify the enzyme(s) responsible for the activation of sacubitril, and determine the impact of genetic variation on sacubitril activation. First, an incubation study of sacubitril with human plasma and the S9 fractions of human liver, intestine, and kidney was conducted. Sacubitril was found to be activated by human liver S9 fractions only. Moreover, sacubitril activation was significantly inhibited by the carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) inhibitor bis-(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate in human liver S9. Further incubation studies with recombinant human CES1 and carboxylesterase 2 confirmed that sacubitril is a selective CES1 substrate. The in vitro study of cell lines transfected with wild-type CES1 and the CES1 variant G143E (rs71647871) demonstrated that G143E is a loss-of-function variant for sacubitril activation. Importantly, sacubitril activation was significantly impaired in human livers carrying the G143E variant. In conclusion, sacubitril is selectively activated by CES1 in human liver. The CES1 genetic variant G143E can significantly impair sacubitril activation. Therefore, CES1 genetic variants appear to be an important contributing factor to interindividual variability in sacubitril activation, and have the potential to serve as biomarkers to optimize sacubitril pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Effect of Situational Factors and Product on Consumer Buying Decision In Hypermart at Manado City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Christian Mamuaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at (1 understanding and analyzing the effect of situational and non situational (produc factors, simultaneously or partially, on the consumer buying decision in hypermart at Manado City, (2 understanding and analyzing factor with dominant effect on consumer buying decision in hypermart at Manado City. The observed situational and non situational (product factors through Belk Theory. Sampling has been developed through accidental sampling, resulting in 60 respondents. Data  have  been  collected  by main instrument of questionnaire, 5-point Likert Scale to measure the respondents’ answer, data analysis using multiple linier regression. Results of research indicate that situational factor and product have significant effect simultaneously or partially on consumer buying decisions in hypermart at Manado City and product assortment has dominant effect on consumer buying decision in hypermart at Manado City.

  9. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  10. The due-diligence process of purchasing or buying into a dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Vincent L

    2003-01-01

    A due-diligence or evaluation process is necessary when assessing a practice purchase opportunity. The standards for assessing the investment remain the same whether the buyer is purchasing a practice outright or buying a co-ownership interest.

  11. How Amount of Brand Advertising is Related to Consumer Buying Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, James E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Finds that total brand advertising in 63 consumer product categories is positively and significantly related to the total number of brands in the category and to the average number of brands consumers usually buy. (FL)

  12. Children's influence on family decision-making in food buying and consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Miguel Romero; Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates children's participation and influence in the family decision process during food buying and consumption. Danish 10 to 13-year-old children and their parents participated in the study. First, an ethnographic field study was carried out with 20 families. The field worker...... visited children at school and families at home during food buying, cooking and eating. Secondly, a survey was carried out with 451 families. The primary findings are that children participate and gain influence on several decision stages and areas during family food buying and that family everyday...... routines are an explaining factor of children's influence on family food decisions. When families buy and consume food, parents are not the only participants and decision-makers. Children and parents not always agree. Implications are that research should include parents as well as children; and that food...

  13. Materialism and addictive buying in women: the mediating role of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-López, José Manuel; Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz

    2013-08-01

    There is empirical evidence regarding the interrelationships between materialism, negative emotions, and addictive buying. The aim of this study was to clarify the direction of the relationships among these variables. Specifically, the main objective was to explore the possible mediating roles of anxiety and depression in the link between materialism and addictive buying. Path analysis results, using a sample of 685 women, generally supported the suitability of the proposed model in which anxiety and depression mediated the effects of the materialism dimensions, "importance" and "success," on addictive buying, and that depression also mediates the influence of the "importance" and "happiness" dimensions. Moreover, a direct effect of the importance dimension on addictive buying was found.

  14. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  15. Hubungan Self Monitoring Dengan Impulsive Buying Terhadap Produk Fashion Pada Remaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Anin F

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between self monitoring and impulsive buying towards fashion product on adolescent. It was hypothesized that there is a positive relationship between self monitoring and impulsive buying towards fashion product on adolescent. The subjects of this study (N = 92 were the students of Faculty of Economy Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Two questionnaires were applied to measure self monitoring and impulsive buying towards fashion product on adolescent. The result indicated a positive and significant relationship between attitude towards modernization and entrepreneurship on adolescent (r = 0,402; p = 0,000, meaning that the research hypothesis was accepted. The determination coefficient was 0,162 indicating that the self monitoring contributes 16,2% to the impulsib\\ve buying toward fashion product on adolescent.

  16. A model of real estate and psychological factors in decision-making to buy real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Grum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the psychological characteristics of potential real estate buyers connected with their decision to buy. Through a review of research, it reveals that most studies of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate have a partial and dispersed orientation, and examine individual factors independently. It appears that the research area is lacking clearly defined models of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate that would integrally and relationally explain the role of psychological characteristics of real estate buyers and their expectations in relation to a decision to buy. The article identifies two sets of psychological factors, motivational and emotional, determines their interaction with potential buyers’ expectations when deciding to purchase real estate and offers starting points for forming a model.

  17. APPLICATION OF THE HOWARD'S MODEL ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN BUYING INSURANCE POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Martje Paais; Semuel Souhoka

    2017-01-01

    This research intends to predict factors that drive consumer to buy insurance policy, based on consumer behavior model by Howard. In main variable used is buying decision. In addition, this study also includes information, brand image, confidence and attitude as the control variables. The analysis units are exclusive policy insured in Malang region. The data was collected using questionnaire. The t-test in simple regression models are used to test hypotheses. The research finds about: first, ...

  18. Relations of Brand Image Tocustomers Buying Decisionon Grand Inna Muara Hotel Padang

    OpenAIRE

    Zengga, Zengga; Chair, Ira Meirina; Abrian, Youmil

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to describe the relations between brand image to customers buying decision room in hotel grand inna muara padang. This study is a descriptive correlational study. The study population as many as 1694 consists of guest during stay on grand inna muara hotel padang. The descriptive analysis of the results showed that brand image categorized excellent (56%) and categorized quite good (33%). The descriptive analysis of the result results showed that customers buying decision categ...

  19. Brand Image and Perceived Quality on Consumer Buying Decision of Samsung Mobile Phone in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Lapian, Joyce; Maindoka, Raiza

    2014-01-01

    Buying decision is the stage in which consumers make the decision or take an action whether to purchase a certain product or not. The purpose of this research is to analyze the simultaneous effect of brand images and perceived quality of consumer buying decision. This research, the population refers to people in the city of Manado which used mobile phone brand Samsung with sample size as many as 100 respondents. This research used quantitative analyze by using questionnaires and used Multiple...

  20. Customer benefits and willingness to buy of Samsung Galaxy Gear in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Hrabě, David

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is dedicated to analysis of customer benefits and willingness to buy of Samsung Galaxy Gear in the Czech Republic. The theoretical part includes information needed in relation to the marketing research problem and in the practical part the researcher collects and analyses the information gathered through several research methods. At the end the bachelor thesis, the author tries to explain the main reasons of willingness or unwilligness to buy of Samsung Galaxy Gear in the...

  1. Supporting make or buy decision for reconfigurable manufacturing system, in multi-site context

    OpenAIRE

    BENAMA , Youssef; Alix , Thecle; PERRY , Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Knowledge Discovery and Sharing; International audience; The make or buy decision is a strategic issue. When looking for finding out which components or products should be manufactured or externalized then buy, capacity for human and technical resources at the workshop level as well as costs of the externalization are key questions to be answered. In the case of mobile manufacturing systems that are movable between various locations, long term strategic aspects must be considered when...

  2. Make-or-buy decisions and the manipulability of performance measures

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    Abstract in Undetermined The make-or-buy decision is analyzed in a simple framework combining contractual incompleteness with the existence of an imperfect but contractible performance measure. Contractual incompleteness gives rise to two regimes, identified with make and buy. The performance measure on which comprehensive contracts can be written is imperfect in the sense of being subject to manipulation. The performance incentives faced by the agent are stronger in the “buy” regime. A posit...

  3. Differences and similarities between impulse buying and variety seeking: A personality-based perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tudoran, Ana Alina; Honkanen, Pirjo

    2016-01-01

    Although personality is a key determinant of consumer purchasing decision making, the role of personality traits on impulse buying and variety seeking is not conclusive. This research uses a personality perspective to determine the unique associations between impulse buying tendency (IBT), variety......: Neuroticism and Openness to Experience. Specifically, the present study indicates that Neuroticism predicted IBT positively and VST negatively, while Openness was a strong predictor of VST and unrelated to IBT....

  4. Modeling the impact of normative beliefs in the context of online buying: Direct and moderating effects

    OpenAIRE

    Iconaru Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Normative beliefs tend to play a significant role in the context of online buying, having both direct and moderating effects. The results of the structural equation modeling indicate a direct effect of normative beliefs on the intention to buy online. Also, the magnitude of the relationship between online trust and perceived risk depends on the level of normative beliefs, showing that the effect of online trust on perceived risk varies as a function of the level of the moderator variable. Thi...

  5. The Role of Self-esteem and Fear of Negative Evaluation in Compulsive Buying

    OpenAIRE

    Biolcati, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new addictive disorder that interferes with everyday functioning and may result in serious psychological and financial problems (1). A very few data are currently available regarding this behavioral addiction. This study investigated gender differences in the relationships between contingent self-esteem (CSE), fear of negative evaluation (FNE), and compulsive buying. Participants included 240 Italian adults (170 females, M age = 33.80) who responded to self-r...

  6. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S.; Requi?o, Marinalva G.; Marasaldi, Renata F.; Filomensky, Tatiana Z.; Hodgins, David C.; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the ...

  7. Characteristics and Service Use of Medicaid Buy-In Participants with Higher Incomes: A Descriptive Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Hoffman; Kristin Andrews; Valerie Cheh

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics and service use of Medicaid Buy-In participants with higher incomes (above 250 percent of the federal poverty line), relative to participants with lower incomes. The study found higher-income participants were less likely to enroll in Medicare and more likely to be enrolled in third-party insurance. Service use for higher-income Buy-In participants concentrated on prescription drugs and durable medical equipment, and Medicaid expenditures for a selected...

  8. Intention to buy organic food among consumers in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Olivová, Kristýna

    2011-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2011 The purpose of the thesis is to investigate intention to buy organic food. The aim is to examine which determinants influence the intention to buy organic food among consumers in the Czech Republic. Moreover, the study focuses to find out which determinant influences consumers’ intention the most. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and literature review a conceptual model was proposed. The model ...

  9. The Relationships Between Instagram Social Media Usage, Hedonic Shopping Motives and Financial Literacy on Impulse Buying

    OpenAIRE

    Asri Triwidisari; Ahmad Nurkhin; Muhsin Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to determine the effect of using instagram social media and hedonic shopping motives to impulse buying media and to know whether financial literacy is able to moderate the influence of instagram social media use and hedonic shopping motives to impulse buying. This type of research is quantitative research. The population of this research was students of Accounting Economics Education Study Program of Economics Faculty of Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES). The research sam...

  10. Developing a Retail Buying Model Based on the Use of Assortment Decision Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bahng, Youngjin

    2011-01-01

    As end-consumers are surrounded by a tremendous number of multi-channel retailers and their products, clothing retailers are exposed to numerous clothing samples with a variety of styles in various price ranges, offered by onshore and offshore manufacturers. Although manufacturers or vendors offer well-salable products, a retail business may not be successful in maximizing profits without a strategic retail buying planning process. The purpose of this study is to develop a retail buying mo...

  11. The Influence of Brand Recognition, Brand Recall, and Top of Mind to Consumer Buying Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Langi, Kalvin

    2013-01-01

    There are several important aspects that can influence brand awareness from the company to make their products have been known in the society, which are Brand Recognition, Brand Recall, and Top of Mind. These three aspects play an important role to create Brand Awareness for Consumer Buying Decision. The research objective is to analyze the influence of Brand Recognition, Brand Recall, and Top of Mind to Consumer Buying Decision in aqua mineral water product on Manado. The population in this ...

  12. Buy, don't build -- What does that mean for a software developer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, T.; Rahi, M.A.; Sinclair, C.

    1995-01-01

    The buzz phrase of the 1990's for the petroleum software industry has become ''buy, don't build.'' For an end user in an oil company, this generally means acquiring application software rather than developing it internally. The concept of buy, don't build can also apply for a software developer. Purchasing software toolkit components can expedite the development of an application as well as reduce future support requirements

  13. Pengaruh Hedonic Shopping Motivation Terhadap Impulse Buying Pada Toko Online: Studi Pada Toko Online Zalora

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Lia Octaria; Dewi, Citra Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping, including shopping for fashion goods, has become a trend in Indonesia. One of buyer's motivations to do online-fashion-shopping is hedonic shopping motivation. This research aims to examine the influence of hedonic shopping motivation on impulse buying process. Using 100 buyers of Zalora (an online shop) as the respondents, this study confirms that hedonic shopping motivation has a significant influence on the impulse buying process.

  14. Using Factor Analysis Tool to Analyze the Important Packaging Elements that Impact Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vjollca Visoka Hasani; Jusuf Zeqiri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the elements that play an important role on consumer’s buying behavior. The purpose of this research is to find out the main important factors related with the packaging effect. Companies in order to create the right packaging for their products, they must understand the consumer buying process and understand the role and the impact of packaging elements as variables that can influence the purchase decision. So, by understanding what factors influen...

  15. Analysis Using Popularity Awareness Index, Recency Index and Purchase Diversity in Group Buying

    OpenAIRE

    Shirai, Yasuyuki; Morita, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Masakazu; Oyama, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We propose new metrics for customers’ purchasing behaviors in a group buying coupon website, based on HITS algorithms and information entropy: that is, popularity awareness index, recency index, and purchase diversity. These indices are used to classify customers and predict future behaviors. This paper includes definitions of these new indices to be used in real group buying websites. In these websites, adequate characteristics for customers are strongly required and are critical for marketi...

  16. The Role of Television Advertisements Toward Housewives Buying Pattern in Manado City

    OpenAIRE

    Delimayanti, Anisa

    2014-01-01

    Advertisement used as a major tool in marketing managers which helps enable the companies to sell goods and services. Television advertisement is the main media in current time. This research is designed to have a clearer image and deeper understanding about the role of television advertisements among housewives buying pattern in Manado city. The method used qualitative research methodology with case study approach which provide descriptive insight about housewives€™ buying pattern toward tel...

  17. The Impact of Brands on Consumer Buying Behavior: An Empirical Study On Smartphone Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas Akkucuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to understand the factors behind smartphone purchase decisions of consumers. Nowadays companies make use of various strategies in order to attract new customers, retain existing customers and differentiate their products from those of their competitors. Perhaps, the most important and effective strategy to influence consumer behavior in the product selection is emphasizing the “brand name” of the products. Our aim in this paper is to investigate how smartphone brands can influence consumers’ buying decisions. Brand equity is a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand name and symbol, which add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service. It enhances the customer’s ability to interpret and process information, improves confidence in the purchase decision and affects the quality of the user experience. Using this construct widely discussed in the literature, we use and build our hypothesis based on Aaker model about the brand equity, including perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association and brand loyalty. The study involved a questionnaire administered to 171 smartphone consumers between December 2015 and March 2016. The consumers were chosen by convenience sampling among the students from a prestigious university in the Istanbul district of Turkey.

  18. Investigating the Effective Index on Customers Choice in Buying Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rangavar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The competitive world today, with increasing customers satisfaction and expanding the definition of hosting and its direct connection with quality of products is essential. Thus not only the current customers stay fixed but also it increases. The purpose of this study was to investigate and ranking the crucial indicators that influence the choice of furniture by customers. Because of this, the studied indexes are classified in 6 group: quality, beauty, design, creating a suitable atmosphere for selling the goods, selling conditions and advertising. Population consisted of three major commercial areas in Tehran (Delawaran, Hassan Abad and Yaftabad. Statistical sample consisted a number of 100 people. A questionnaire was developed to gather data. Reliability of the questionnaires has been approved through Cronbach's Alpha coefficient (0.921. Investigation of effective indexes was done by chi-square method and in order to final ranking the indexes, friedman analyses have been used. The results obtained of ranking showed the chief factor in customers choice is under category of beauty due to this elegancy role in customers point of view. After elegancy, according to the classified elements studied in this research, raw material in making furniture, wood production’s price, ergonomy, customers satisfaction for his last purchase and immediate delivery, respectively, are the most important effective index in buying furniture by consumer.

  19. Grace buys aquatic quimica to boost water treatment stake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.

    1993-01-01

    How W.R. Grace (Boca Raton, FL) president and newly appointed CEO J.P. Bolduc plans to expand Grace's core businesses following his drastic portfolio pruning during the past 18 months is a key question for Grace watchers. Grace's acquisition of $70-million/year water treatment firm Aquatec Quimica (Sao Paulo) is one indicator. Grace's $300-million/year Dearborn water treatment business is currently a weak number three [in the world market], and we want to be number one or number two, nothing less, Bolduc insists. The Aquatc buy meets his criterion of a synergistic and strategic acquisition with which he plans to expand the business, backed by more focused R ampersand D. Disposal last month of Homco oil field services operation, for $98.5 million, takes Bolduc toward his $500-million target for the year for asset sales. These totaled $1.1 billion at the end of 1992. The final tally will be more than the $1.5-billion target previously stated, Bolduc says, due to higher realizations on certain sales and additions to the list, including Grace Culinary and Colowyo Coal

  20. Variation in levels of non-starch polysaccharides and endogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanases affects the nutritive value of wheat for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, V; Fernandes, E A; Santos, H M M; Maçãs, B; Lordelo, M M; Telo da Gama, Luis; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Ribeiro, T

    2018-04-01

    1. Endo-1,4-β-xylanase is known to improve the nutritive value of wheat-based diets for poultry by degrading dietary arabinoxylans. However, broilers' response to supplementation of wheat-based diets with exogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanase is not always observed. 2. In this study, 108 different wheat lots were analysed for levels of extract viscosity as well as for endogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity, and the impact of these two variables in animal performance was tested. 3. Results revealed that endogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity and extract viscosity content varied widely among different wheat lots. Thus, a trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of exogenous enzyme supplementation in broiler diets using wheats with different levels of extract viscosity and endogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity. 4. The data revealed that exogenous enzyme supplementation was only effective when the wheat present in the diet had high levels of extract viscosity (14.8 cP) with low endogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity (347.0 U/kg). Nevertheless, it is apparent that exogenous microbial xylanases reduce digesta extract viscosity and feed conversion ratio independently of the endogenous properties presented by different wheat lots. 5. The data suggest that extract viscosity and/or endogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity affect the response to enzyme supplementation by poultry fed on wheat-based diets.