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Sample records for variant strain indiana

  1. Reversion in variants from a duplication strain of Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, E.M.; Azevedo, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Strains of Aspergillus nidulans with a chromosome segment in duplicate, one in normal position and one translocated to another chromosome, are unstable at mitosis. In addition to variants which result from deletions in either of the duplicate segments, which usually have improved morphology, they produce variants with deteriorated morphology. Three deteriorated variants reverted frequently to parental type morphology, both spontaneously and after ultra-violet treatment. Of six reversions analysed genetically, five were due to suppressors and one was probably due to back mutation. The suppressors segregated as single genes and were not linked to the mutation which they suppress. The instability of these so-called 'deteriorated' variants is discussed in relation to mitotic instability phenomena in A. nidulans. (orig.) [de

  2. 77 FR 73934 - Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 To Include Residues of Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil... existing exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 in or on all food commodities by including residues of Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 variant soil...

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  4. The influence of Photorhabdus luminescens strains and form variants on the reproduction and bacterial retention of Heterorhabditis megidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, L.J.M.; Smits, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    The preference of nematodes for feeding on, and retention of strains and form variants of symbionts was tested. Heterorhabditis megidis strains DH-SH1 (= HSH) and NLH-E87.3 (= HE) could multiply on the primary forms of both symbionts. Photorhabdus luminescens strains PSH/1 and PE/1, respectively,

  5. Toxin Gene Analysis of a Variant Strain of Clostridium difficile That Causes Human Clinical Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambol, Susan P.; Merrigan, Michelle M.; Lyerly, David; Gerding, Dale N.; Johnson, Stuart

    2000-01-01

    A toxin variant strain of Clostridium difficile was isolated from two patients with C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD), one of whom died from extensive pseudomembranous colitis. This strain, identified by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) as type CF2, was not detected by an immunoassay for C. difficile toxin A. Culture supernatants of CF2 failed to elicit significant enterotoxic activity in the rabbit ileal loop assay but did produce atypical cytopathic effects in cell culture assay. Southern hybridization, PCR amplification, and DNA sequence analyses were performed on the toxin A (tcdA) and toxin B (tcdB) genes of type CF2 isolate 5340. Type CF2 5340 tcdA exhibited a 1,821-bp truncation, due to three deletions in the 3′ end of the gene, and a point mutation in the 5′ end of the gene, resulting in a premature stop codon at tcdA position 139. Type CF2 5340 tcdB exhibited multiple nucleotide base substitutions in the 5′ end of the gene compared to tcdB of the standard toxigenic strain VPI 10463. Type CF2 5340 toxin gene nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences showed a strong resemblance to those of the previously described variant C. difficile strain 1470, a strain reported to have reduced pathogenicity and no association with clinical illness in humans. REA of strain 1470 identified this strain as a distinct type (CF1) within the same REA group as the closely related type CF2. A review of our clinical-isolate collection identified five additional patients infected with type CF2, three of whom had documented CDAD. PCR amplification of the 3′ end of tcdA demonstrated identical 1.8-kb deletions in all seven type CF2 isolates. REA type CF2 is a toxin variant strain of C. difficile that retains the ability to cause disease in humans but is not detected in clinical immunoassays for toxin A. PMID:10992443

  6. Epstein-Barr virus strains and variations: Geographic or disease-specific variants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Marco; Marinho-Dias, Joana; Ribeiro, Joana; Sousa, Hugo

    2017-03-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is associated with the development of several diseases, including infectious mononucleosis (IM), Burkitt's Lymphoma (BL), Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, and other neoplasias. The publication of EBV genome 1984 led to several studies regarding the identification of different viral strains. Currently, EBV is divided into EBV type 1 (B95-8 strain) and EBV type 2 (AG876 strain), also known as type A and type B, which have been distinguished based upon genetic differences in the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigens (EBNAs) sequence. Several other EBV strains have been described in the past 10 years considering variations on EBV genome, and many have attempted to clarify if these variations are ethnic or geographically correlated, or if they are disease related. Indeed, there is an increasing interest to describe possible specific disease associations, with emphasis on different malignancies. These studies aim to clarify if these variations are ethnic or geographically correlated, or if they are disease related, thus being important to characterize the epidemiologic genetic distribution of EBV strains on our population. Here, we review the current knowledge on the different EBV strains and variants and its association with different diseases. J. Med. Virol. 89:373-387, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Program Contacts for Northwest Indiana Area (Indiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Indiana Area (Indiana) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  8. Similarities of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Strain in Mother and Son in Spain to UK Reference Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diack, Abigail B; Boyle, Aileen; Ritchie, Diane; Plinston, Chris; Kisielewski, Dorothy; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C

    2017-09-01

    We investigated transmission characteristics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a mother and son from Spain. Despite differences in patient age and disease manifestations, we found the same strain properties in these patients as in UK vCJD cases. A single strain of agent appears to be responsible for all vCJD cases to date.

  9. Pathogenic outcome following experimental infection of sheep with Chlamydia abortus variant strains LLG and POS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Morag; Wheelhouse, Nicholas; Ensor, Hannah; Rocchi, Mara; Maley, Stephen; Aitchison, Kevin; Wattegedera, Sean; Wilson, Kim; Sait, Michelle; Siarkou, Victoria; Vretou, Evangelia; Entrican, Gary; Dagleish, Mark; Longbottom, David

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the pathogenesis of two variant strains (LLG and POS) of Chlamydia abortus, in comparison to a typical wild-type strain (S26/3) which is known to be responsible for late term abortion in small ruminants. Challenge with the three strains at mid-gestation resulted in similar pregnancy outcomes, with abortion occurring in approximately 50-60% of ewes with the mean gestational lengths also being similar. However, differences were observed in the severity of placental pathology, with infection appearing milder for strain LLG, which was reflected in the lower number of organisms shed in vaginal swabs post-partum and less gross pathology and organisms present in placental smears. Results for strain POS were somewhat different than LLG with a more focal restriction of infection observed. Post-abortion antibody responses revealed prominent differences in seropositivity to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) present in elementary body (EB) preparations under denaturing conditions, most notably with anti-LLG and anti-POS convalescent sera where there was no or reduced detection of MOMP present in EBs derived from the three strains. These results and additional analysis of whole EB and chlamydial outer membrane complex preparations suggest that there are conformational differences in MOMP for the three strains. Overall, the results suggest that gross placental pathology and clinical outcome is not indicative of bacterial colonization and the severity of infection. The results also highlight potential conformational differences in MOMP epitopes that perhaps impact on disease diagnosis and the development of new vaccines.

  10. Pathogenic outcome following experimental infection of sheep with Chlamydia abortus variant strains LLG and POS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morag Livingstone

    Full Text Available This study investigated the pathogenesis of two variant strains (LLG and POS of Chlamydia abortus, in comparison to a typical wild-type strain (S26/3 which is known to be responsible for late term abortion in small ruminants. Challenge with the three strains at mid-gestation resulted in similar pregnancy outcomes, with abortion occurring in approximately 50-60% of ewes with the mean gestational lengths also being similar. However, differences were observed in the severity of placental pathology, with infection appearing milder for strain LLG, which was reflected in the lower number of organisms shed in vaginal swabs post-partum and less gross pathology and organisms present in placental smears. Results for strain POS were somewhat different than LLG with a more focal restriction of infection observed. Post-abortion antibody responses revealed prominent differences in seropositivity to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP present in elementary body (EB preparations under denaturing conditions, most notably with anti-LLG and anti-POS convalescent sera where there was no or reduced detection of MOMP present in EBs derived from the three strains. These results and additional analysis of whole EB and chlamydial outer membrane complex preparations suggest that there are conformational differences in MOMP for the three strains. Overall, the results suggest that gross placental pathology and clinical outcome is not indicative of bacterial colonization and the severity of infection. The results also highlight potential conformational differences in MOMP epitopes that perhaps impact on disease diagnosis and the development of new vaccines.

  11. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus strains in Argentina: Detection of the pathogenic variant CPV2c in vaccinated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Marina Gallo; Mattion, Nora; Bucafusco, Danilo; Fogel, Fernando; Remorini, Patricia; La Torre, Jose

    2009-08-01

    PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers was used to detect canine parvovirus (CPV) DNA in 38 rectal swabs from Argentine domestic dogs with symptoms compatible with parvovirus disease. Twenty-seven out of 38 samples analyzed were CPV positive. The classical CPV2 strain was not detected in any of the samples, but nine samples were identified as CPV2a variant and 18 samples as CPV2b variant. Further sequence analysis revealed a mutation at amino acid 426 of the VP2 gene (Asp426Glu), characteristic of the CPV2c variant, in 14 out of 18 of the samples identified initially by PCR as CPV2b. The appearance of CPV2c variant in Argentina might be dated at least to the year 2003. Three different pathogenic CPV variants circulating currently in the Argentine domestic dog population were identified, with CPV2c being the only variant affecting vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs during the year 2008.

  12. Carlow virus, a 2002 GII.4 variant Norovirus strain from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, Karen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis in Ireland (population 4 million). Due to the number of outbreaks, its massive impact on the Irish health service and its seasonality, Norovirus has gained public notoriety as The Winter Vomiting Bug. The increase in cases in Ireland in the 2002-2003 season coincided with the emergence of two new Genogroup II genotype 4 variant clusters of Norovirus worldwide. RESULTS: Little research has been done on the epidemiology or molecular biology of Norovirus strains in Ireland. In an effort to combat this discrepancy, we cloned a full length human norovirus genome as a cDNA clone (J3) which can produce full length transcripts in vitro. A polymerase mutant cDNA clone (X1), in addition to a sub genomic cDNA clone (1A) were produced for use in future work. Carlow virus (Hu\\/NoV\\/GII\\/Carlow\\/2002\\/Ire) genome is 7559 nts in length, excluding the 3-end poly A tail and represents the first Norovirus strain from Ireland to be sequenced. CONCLUSION: Carlow virus is a member of the Farmington Hills variant cluster of Genogroup II genotype 4 noroviruses.

  13. Correlation Among the Variant Group, Effective Grain Size, and Elastic Strain Energy During the Phase Transformation in 9Ni Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Moriguchi, Koji; Tomio, Yusaku; Yamagishi, Hideki; Morito, Shigekazu

    2017-12-01

    The effect of carbon content on the density of variant-pair boundaries was investigated in 9Ni steel using an electron backscatter diffraction patterns method. The changes in the density of variant-pair boundaries were correlated with the nondestructive measured values of shear modulus of the austenite phase at the phase transformation point. Furthermore, the effective grain size was correlated with the shear modulus and the density of variant-pair boundaries. These relations are discussed from the viewpoint of self-accommodation of elastic strain energy and the nucleation event in the bainite and martensitic transformations.

  14. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  15. Sequence analysis-based characterization and identification of neurovirulence-associated variants of 36 EV71 strains from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Desheng; Liu, Jiang; Su, Hong; Wang, Baolong

    2018-03-30

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and causes several neurological complications. As new strains of EV71 are constantly discovered, it is important to understand the genomic characteristics of the viruses and the mechanism of virulence. Herein, we isolated five strains of EV71 from HFMD patients with or without neurovirulence and sequenced their whole genomes. We then performed whole genome sequence analysis of totally 36 EV71 strains. The phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 region revealed all five isolated strains are clustered into C4a of C4 subgenotype. In addition, by comparing the complete genome sequences of 36 strains, 253 variable amino acid positions were found, 14 of which were identified to be associated with neurovirulence (P < 0.05). Moreover, a similar pattern of amino acid variants combination was identified in four strains without neurovirulence, indicating this type of variant pattern might be associated with avirulence. The strains with neurovirulence appeared to be distinguished from those without neurovirulence by the variants in VP1 and P2 regions, implying VP1 and P2 are the important regions associated with neurovirulence. Indeed, 3-D modeling of VP1 and P2 regions of non-neurovirulent and neurovirulent strains revealed that the different variants resulted in different protein structures and amino acid composition of ligand binding site, which might account for their difference in neurovirulence. In summary, our study reveals 14 variable amino acid positions of VP1, P2 and P3 regions are related to the virulence and that mutations in the capsid proteins of EV71 might contribute to neurovirulence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Impact of interplay between magnetic field, transformation strain, and coarsening on variant selection in L10-type FePd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, N.; Yasuda, H.; Yoshiya, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kakeshita, T.

    2014-01-01

    Variant selection of L1 0 -type ferromagnetic alloys has been numerically investigated using the phase-field modeling, to clarify the phenomena at greater temporal and spatial resolution and to reveal the underlying mechanism. The duration for which the external magnetic field is effective is found to be very short, and variant selection is significantly affected by not only direct response to the external magnetic field but also their interplay between the field, intrinsic transformation strain, and various thermodynamic energy components involved in the course of microstructure evolution. The detailed mechanism of the interplay was quantitatively analyzed in terms of the driving force for the variant selection, by partitioning it into the various energy components. Careful examination of the variant selection at the very early stage revealed that the slight difference in size and configuration of variants during disorder-to-order transition realized by the interplay between transformation strain and external field is essentially needed before proceeding to the latter stage of the variant selection driven by interface energy

  17. Koltunud Indiana Jones / Kutt Kommel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kommel, Kutt

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  18. Indiana Dzhons vozvrashtshajetsja / Melor Sturua

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sturua, Melor

    2008-01-01

    22 mail esilinastub Steven Spielbergi järjekordne Indiana Jones'i film, kaasstsenaristiks ja produtsendiks George Lucas ja Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull")

  19. Identification of a consistent pattern of mutations in neurovirulent variants derived from the sabin vaccine strain of poliovirus type 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Equestre, M; Genovese, D; Cavalieri, F; Fiore, L; Santoro, R; Perez Bercoff, R

    1991-01-01

    Complete nucleotide sequencing of the RNAs of two unrelated neurovirulent isolates of Sabin-related poliovirus type 2 revealed that two nucleotides and one amino acid (amino acid 143 in the major capsid protein VP1) consistently departed from the sequences of the nonneurovirulent poliovirus type 2 712 and Sabin vaccine strains. This pattern of mutation appeared to be a feature common to all neurovirulent variants of poliovirus type 2.

  20. Co-evolution of genomes and plasmids within Chlamydia trachomatis and the emergence in Sweden of a new variant strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skilton Rachel J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infections globally and the leading cause of preventable blindness in the developing world. There are two biovariants of C. trachomatis: 'trachoma', causing ocular and genital tract infections, and the invasive 'lymphogranuloma venereum' strains. Recently, a new variant of the genital tract C. trachomatis emerged in Sweden. This variant escaped routine diagnostic tests because it carries a plasmid with a deletion. Failure to detect this strain has meant it has spread rapidly across the country provoking a worldwide alert. In addition to being a key diagnostic target, the plasmid has been linked to chlamydial virulence. Analysis of chlamydial plasmids and their cognate chromosomes was undertaken to provide insights into the evolutionary relationship between chromosome and plasmid. This is essential knowledge if the plasmid is to be continued to be relied on as a key diagnostic marker, and for an understanding of the evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis. Results The genomes of two new C. trachomatis strains were sequenced, together with plasmids from six C. trachomatis isolates, including the new variant strain from Sweden. The plasmid from the new Swedish variant has a 377 bp deletion in the first predicted coding sequence, abolishing the site used for PCR detection, resulting in negative diagnosis. In addition, the variant plasmid has a 44 bp duplication downstream of the deletion. The region containing the second predicted coding sequence is the most highly conserved region of the plasmids investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the plasmids and chromosomes are fully congruent. Moreover this analysis also shows that ocular and genital strains diverged from a common C. trachomatis progenitor. Conclusion The evolutionary pathways of the chlamydial genome and plasmid imply that inheritance of the plasmid is tightly linked with its cognate chromosome. These data

  1. Identification of point mutations in clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains that produce small-colony variants auxotrophic for menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Melissa A; Olsen, Randall J; Long, S Wesley; Rosato, Adriana E; Musser, James M

    2014-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants (SCVs) are implicated in chronic and relapsing infections that are difficult to diagnose and treat. Despite many years of study, the underlying molecular mechanisms and virulence effect of the small-colony phenotype remain incompletely understood. We sequenced the genomes of five S. aureus SCV strains recovered from human patients and discovered previously unidentified nonsynonymous point mutations in three genes encoding proteins in the menadione biosynthesis pathway. Analysis of genetic revertants and complementation with wild-type alleles confirmed that these mutations caused the SCV phenotype and decreased virulence for mice.

  2. Indiana Bat (Towns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset includes towns that contain documented hibernacula or summer range occupied by federally endangered Indiana bats. Survey data used to create this...

  3. Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host-plant variants: two host strains or two distinct species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Pascaline; Legeai, Fabrice; Lemaitre, Claire; Scaon, Erwan; Orsucci, Marion; Labadie, Karine; Gimenez, Sylvie; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Henri, Hélène; Vavre, Fabrice; Aury, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Philippe; Kergoat, Gael J; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    The moth Spodoptera frugiperda is a well-known pest of crops throughout the Americas, which consists of two strains adapted to different host-plants: the first feeds preferentially on corn, cotton and sorghum whereas the second is more associated with rice and several pasture grasses. Though morphologically indistinguishable, they exhibit differences in their mating behavior, pheromone compositions, and show development variability according to the host-plant. Though the latter suggest that both strains are different species, this issue is still highly controversial because hybrids naturally occur in the wild, not to mention the discrepancies among published results concerning mating success between the two strains. In order to clarify the status of the two host-plant strains of S. frugiperda, we analyze features that possibly reflect the level of post-zygotic isolation: (1) first generation (F1) hybrid lethality and sterility; (2) patterns of meiotic segregation of hybrids in reciprocal second generation (F2), as compared to the meiosis of the two parental strains. We found a significant reduction of mating success in F1 in one direction of the cross and a high level of microsatellite markers showing transmission ratio distortion in the F2 progeny. Our results support the existence of post-zygotic reproductive isolation between the two laboratory strains and are in accordance with the marked level of genetic differentiation that was recovered between individuals of the two strains collected from the field. Altogether these results provide additional evidence in favor of a sibling species status for the two strains.

  4. Pullulan-hyperproducing color variant strain of Aureobasidium pullulans FB-1 newly isolated from phylloplane of Ficus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R S; Saini, G K

    2008-06-01

    The studies were carried out for the isolation of efficient pullulan producing strains of Aureobasidium pullulans. Five strains were isolated from phylloplane of different plants. Amongst these, three were producing black pigment melanin, while the remaining two produced pink pigment. These two color variant isolates of A. pullulans were designated as FB-1 and FG-1, and obtained from phylloplane of Ficus benjamina and Ficus glometa, respectively. The parameters employed for the identification of the isolates included morphology, nutritional assimilation patterns and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Isolates were compared with standard cultures for EPS production. A. pullulans FB-1 was the best producer of pullulan giving up to 1.9, 1.4 and 1.7 times more pullulan than the control of A. pullulans NCIM 976, NCIM 1048 and NCIM 1049, respectively. The IR spectra of the isolates and standard strains revealed that the polysaccharide was pullulan, but not aubasidan. The study also supported the fact that A. pullulans is a ubiquitous organism and phylloplane being the important niche of the organism.

  5. Anethole inhibits growth of recently emerged multidrug resistant toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-05-01

    To search natural compounds having inhibitory effect on bacterial growth is important, particularly in view of growing multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of bacterial pathogens. Like other bacterial pathogens, MDR Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of diarrheal disease cholera, is becoming a great concern. As an approach of searching new antimicrobial agents, here, we show that anethole, a well-studied natural component of sweet fennel and star anise seeds, could potentially inhibit the growth of MDR O1 El Tor biotype, the ongoing 7th cholera pandemic variant strains of toxigenic V. cholerae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of anethole against diverse O1 El Tor biotype strains is evaluated as 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the effect of anethole is bactericidal and exerts rapid-killing action on V. cholerae cells. This study is the first report which demonstrates that anethole, purified from natural compound, is a potent inhibitor of growth of toxigenic V. cholerae. Our data suggest that anethole could be a potential antimicrobial drug candidate, particularly against MDR V. cholerae mediated infections.

  6. Pathogenesis comparison between the United States porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains in conventional neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Gauger, Phillip C; Stafne, Molly R; Thomas, Joseph T; Madson, Darin M; Huang, Haiyan; Zheng, Ying; Li, Ganwu; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2016-05-01

    At least two genetically different porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) strains have been identified in the USA: US PEDV prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains. The objective of this study was to compare the pathogenicity differences of the US PEDV prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains in conventional neonatal piglets under experimental infections. Fifty PEDV-negative 5-day-old pigs were divided into five groups of ten pigs each and were inoculated orogastrically with three US PEDV prototype isolates (IN19338/2013, NC35140/2013 and NC49469/2013), an S-INDEL-variant isolate (IL20697/2014), and virus-negative culture medium, respectively, with virus titres of 104 TCID50 ml- 1, 10 ml per pig. All three PEDV prototype isolates tested in this study, regardless of their phylogenetic clades, had similar pathogenicity and caused severe enteric disease in 5-day-old pigs as evidenced by clinical signs, faecal virus shedding, and gross and histopathological lesions. Compared with pigs inoculated with the three US PEDV prototype isolates, pigs inoculated with the S-INDEL-variant isolate had significantly diminished clinical signs, virus shedding in faeces, gross lesions in small intestines, caeca and colons, histopathological lesions in small intestines, and immunohistochemistry staining in ileum. However, the US PEDV prototype and the S-INDEL-variant strains induced similar viraemia levels in inoculated pigs. Whole genome sequences of the PEDV prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains were determined, but the molecular basis of virulence differences between these PEDV strains remains to be elucidated using a reverse genetics approach.

  7. Cocirculation of Two env Molecular Variants, of Possible Recombinant Origin, in Gorilla and Chimpanzee Simian Foamy Virus Strains from Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Léa; Rua, Réjane; Betsem, Edouard; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Kazanji, Mirdad; Leroy, Eric; Njouom, Richard; Buseyne, Florence; Afonso, Philippe V; Gessain, Antoine

    2015-12-01

    Simian foamy virus (SFV) is a ubiquitous retrovirus in nonhuman primates (NHPs) that can be transmitted to humans, mostly through severe bites. In the past few years, our laboratory has identified more than 50 hunters from central Africa infected with zoonotic SFVs. Analysis of the complete sequences of five SFVs obtained from these individuals revealed that env was the most variable gene. Furthermore, recombinant SFV strains, some of which involve sequences in the env gene, were recently identified. Here, we investigated the variability of the env genes of zoonotic SFV strains and searched for possible recombinants. We sequenced the complete env gene or its surface glycoprotein region (SU) from DNA amplified from the blood of (i) a series of 40 individuals from Cameroon or Gabon infected with a gorilla or chimpanzee foamy virus (FV) strain and (ii) 1 gorilla and 3 infected chimpanzees living in the same areas as these hunters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of two env variants among both the gorilla and chimpanzee FV strains that were present in zoonotic and NHP strains. These variants differ greatly (>30% variability) in a 753-bp-long region located in the receptor-binding domain of SU, whereas the rest of the gene is very conserved. Although the organizations of the Env protein sequences are similar, the potential glycosylation patterns differ between variants. Analysis of recombination suggests that the variants emerged through recombination between different strains, although all parental strains could not be identified. SFV infection in humans is a great example of a zoonotic retroviral infection that has not spread among human populations, in contrast to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). Recombination was a major mechanism leading to the emergence of HIV. Here, we show that two SFV molecular envelope gene variants circulate among ape populations in Central Africa and that both can be transmitted to

  8. INDIANA: Beam dynamics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Beam dynamics experiments at the Indiana University Cooler Facility (IUCF) are helping to trace complicated non-linear effects in proton machines and could go on to pay important dividends in the detailed design of big new high energy proton storage rings

  9. Coal resources of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  10. Indiana protiv KGB / Anna Fedina, Pjotr Obraztsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fedina, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  11. Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  12. Draft genome and sequence variant data of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum strain Pi45 from the phylogenetically-distinct Clade-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerayuth Kittichotirat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum is a unique oomycete microorganism, capable of infecting humans and animals. The organism can be phylogenetically categorized into three distinct clades: Clade-I (strains from the Americas; Clade-II (strains from Asia and Australia, and Clade–III (strains from Thailand and the United States. Two draft genomes of the P. insidiosum Clade-I strain CDC-B5653 and Clade-II strain Pi-S are available in the public domain. The genome of P. insidiosum from the distinct Clade-III, which is distantly-related to the other two clades, is lacking. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the P. insidiosum strain Pi45 (also known as MCC13; isolated from a Thai patient with pythiosis; accession numbers BCFM01000001-BCFM01017277 as a representative strain of the phylogenetically-distinct Clade-III. We also report a genome-scale data set of sequence variants (i.e., SNPs and INDELs found in P. insidiosum (accessible online at the Mendeley database: http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r75799jy6c.1. Keywords: Pythium insidiosum, Pythiosis, Draft genome, Sequence variant

  13. Indiana's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Mark N. Webb; Barry T. Wilson; Jeff Settle; Ron J. Piva; Charles H. Perry; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Brett J. Butler; Mark Hansen; Mark Hatfield; Gary Brand; Charles. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Indiana's forests reports more than 4.75 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the white oak/red oak/hickory forest type, which occupies nearly a third of the total forest land area. Seventy-six percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 16...

  14. A real-time PCR method for quantification of the total and major variant strains of the deformed wing virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Bradford

    Full Text Available European honey bees (Apis mellifera are critically important to global food production by virtue of their pollination services but are severely threatened by deformed wing virus (DWV especially in the presence of the external parasite Varroa destructor. DWV exists as many viral strains with the two major variants (DWV-A and DWV-B varying in virulence. A single plasmid standard was constructed containing three sections for the specific determination of DWV-A (VP2 capsid region, DWV-B (IRES and a conserved region suitable for total DWV (helicase region. The assays were confirmed as specific and discriminatory with limits of detections of 25, 25 and 50 genome equivalents for DWV-A, DWV-B and total-DWV, respectively. The methods were successfully tested on Apis mellifera and V. destructor samples with varying DWV profiles. The new method determined a more accurate total DWV titre in samples with substantial DWV-B than the method currently described in the COLOSS Beebook. The proposed assays could be utilized for the screening of large quantities of bee material for both a total DWV load overview along with more detailed investigations into DWV-A and DWV-B profiles.

  15. Antigenic variants of influenza A virus, PR8 strain. I. Their development during serial passage in the lungs of partially immune mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GERBER, P; LOOSLI, C G; HAMBRE, D

    1955-06-01

    Antigenically different strains of mouse-adapted PR8 influenza A virus have been produced by 17 serial passages of the virus in the lungs of mice immunized with the homologous agent. Comparative serological tests show that the variant strains share antigenic components with the parent strain but the dominant antigen is different. By means of antibody absorption it was shown that the "new" antigenic component of the variant was already present in minor amounts up to the eighth passage and thereafter gained prominence with continued passage in vaccinated mice. Groups of mice vaccinated with either the PR8-S or T(21) virus and having comparable antibody titers showed no growth of virus in the lungs following aid-borne challenge with homologous strains. On the other hand, following heterologous air-borne challenge no deaths occurred, but virus grew in the lungs of both groups of vaccinated mice. Almost unrestricted virus multiplication took place in the lungs of mice vaccinated with the parent strain and challenged with the PR8-T(21) virus which resulted in extensive consolidation. Less virus grew in the lungs of the mice vaccinated with the variant strains and challenged with the PR8-S virus. In these animals only microscopic evidence of changes due to virus growth in the lungs was observed. The successful serial passage of PR8 influenza A virus in immunized animals was dependent on the initial selection of mice with uniformly low H.I. antibody titers as determined on tail blood, and the intranasal instillation of sufficient virus to favor the survival of those virus particles least related to the antibodies present. The epidemiological implications of these observations are discussed briefly.

  16. Typing Discrepancy Between Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization Revealing an Emerging Biovar 9 Variant of Smooth Phage-Resistant B. abortus Strain 8416 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yao-Xia; Li, Xu-Ming; Piao, Dong-Ri; Tian, Guo-Zhong; Jiang, Hai; Jia, En-Hou; Lin, Liang; Cui, Bu-Yun; Chang, Yung-Fu; Guo, Xiao-Kui; Zhu, Yong-Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A newly isolated smooth colony morphology phage-resistant strain 8416 isolated from a 45-year-old cattle farm cleaner with clinical features of brucellosis in China was reported. The most unusual phenotype was its resistance to two Brucella phages Tbilisi and Weybridge, but sensitive to Berkeley 2, a pattern similar to that of Brucella melitensis biovar 1. VITEK 2 biochemical identification system found that both strain 8416 and B. melitensis strains shared positive ILATk, but negative in other B. abortus strains. However, routine biochemical and phenotypic characteristics of strain 8416 were most similar to that of B. abortus biovar 9 except CO2 requirement. In addition, multiple PCR molecular typing assays including AMOS-PCR, B. abortus special PCR (B-ab PCR) and a novel sub-biovar typing PCR, indicated that strain 8416 may belong to either biovar 3b or 9 of B. abortus. Surprisingly, further MLVA typing results showed that strain 8416 was most closely related to B. abortus biovar 3 in the Brucella MLVA database, primarily differing in 4 out of 16 screened loci. Therefore, due to the unusual discrepancy between phenotypic (biochemical reactions and particular phage lysis profile) and molecular typing characteristics, strain 8416 could not be exactly classified to any of the existing B. abortus biovars and might be a new variant of B. abortus biovar 9. The present study also indicates that the present phage typing scheme for Brucella sp. is subject to variation and the routine Brucella biovar typing needs further studies.

  17. Molecular Analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1 Clinical Strains, Including New Nontoxigenic Variants Isolated in Mexico during the Cholera Epidemic Years between 1991 and 2000▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Quilici, Marie-Laure

    2009-01-01

    We studied the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the 1991 to 2000 cholera epidemic in Mexico by biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of strains collected during this period. Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. As previously reported, we characterized two populations among toxigenic strains, which were present from the first year of the epidemic. BglI rRNA analysis revealed that these strains had ribotype profiles, denoted M5 and M6 in our study, that were identical to those previously designated Koblavi B5 or Popovic 5 and Popovic 6a or Tamayo B21a, respectively. Ribotype M5 was isolated between 1991 and 1993. This ribotype had a low level of genetic variation as detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribotype M6 persisted from 1991 to 2000. However, PFGE profiles suggested that two epidemiologically unrelated strains coexisted within this single ribotype from 1995 until the end of the epidemic. We identified three new BglI ribotypes, Mx1, Mx2, and Mx3, from nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated between 1998 and 2000; one of them grouped strains positive for the toxin-coregulated pilus island. They differed from nontoxigenic clones isolated in Latin America and on the U.S. Gulf Coast and are probably autochthonous Mexican V. cholerae O1 variants. Most of these new variants were isolated from states surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, where the highest incidence of cholera in the country was recorded. Thus, the Mexican Gulf Coast, like the U.S. Gulf Coast, may act as an environmental reservoir of V. cholerae O1. PMID:19213700

  18. Molecular analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1 clinical strains, including new nontoxigenic variants isolated in Mexico during the Cholera epidemic years between 1991 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Quilici, Marie-Laure

    2009-05-01

    We studied the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the 1991 to 2000 cholera epidemic in Mexico by biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of strains collected during this period. Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. As previously reported, we characterized two populations among toxigenic strains, which were present from the first year of the epidemic. BglI rRNA analysis revealed that these strains had ribotype profiles, denoted M5 and M6 in our study, that were identical to those previously designated Koblavi B5 or Popovic 5 and Popovic 6a or Tamayo B21a, respectively. Ribotype M5 was isolated between 1991 and 1993. This ribotype had a low level of genetic variation as detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribotype M6 persisted from 1991 to 2000. However, PFGE profiles suggested that two epidemiologically unrelated strains coexisted within this single ribotype from 1995 until the end of the epidemic. We identified three new BglI ribotypes, Mx1, Mx2, and Mx3, from nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated between 1998 and 2000; one of them grouped strains positive for the toxin-coregulated pilus island. They differed from nontoxigenic clones isolated in Latin America and on the U.S. Gulf Coast and are probably autochthonous Mexican V. cholerae O1 variants. Most of these new variants were isolated from states surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, where the highest incidence of cholera in the country was recorded. Thus, the Mexican Gulf Coast, like the U.S. Gulf Coast, may act as an environmental reservoir of V. cholerae O1.

  19. Phylogenetic and genome-wide deep-sequencing analyses of canine parvovirus reveal co-infection with field variants and emergence of a recent recombinant strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Pérez

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV, a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population and a major recombinant strain (86.7%. The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity.

  20. Phylogenetic and Genome-Wide Deep-Sequencing Analyses of Canine Parvovirus Reveal Co-Infection with Field Variants and Emergence of a Recent Recombinant Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ruben; Calleros, Lucía; Marandino, Ana; Sarute, Nicolás; Iraola, Gregorio; Grecco, Sofia; Blanc, Hervé; Vignuzzi, Marco; Isakov, Ofer; Shomron, Noam; Carrau, Lucía; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Sosa, Katia; Tomás, Gonzalo; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population) and a major recombinant strain (86.7%). The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity. PMID:25365348

  1. Partial VP2 sequencing of canine parvovirus (CPV strains circulating in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: detection of the new variant CPV-2c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.X. Castro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV is the most important enteric virus for dogs and it seems to be undergoing continuous evolution, generating new genetic and antigenic variants throughout the world. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CPV variants from 1995 to 2009 and to investigate the circulation of the new variant CPV-2c in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In addition, the clinical features of CPV infection were also reported. After CPV laboratorial confirmation by HA/HI and PCR, thirty-two fecal samples were analyzed by sequencing a 583-bp fragment of the VP2 gene. One sample, collected in 2008 was typed as the new type CPV-2c. All samples from 1995 to 2003 were identified as "new CPV-2a". From 2004 to 2006, both "new CPV-2a" and CPV-2b were observed. From 2006 to 2009, most of the samples were characterized as CPV-2b. The classical signs of CPV enteritis were observed in 16/18 CPV-2a and 5/13 CPV-2b infected puppies. These results show that continuous epidemiological surveillance of CPV strain distribution is essential for studying the patterns of CPV-2a and 2b spread and for determining whether the new variant CPV-2c has become permanently established in Brazilian canine population.

  2. Insights into the evolution of the new variant rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (GI.2) and the identification of novel recombinant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvério, D; Lopes, A M; Melo-Ferreira, J; Magalhães, M J; Monterroso, P; Serronha, A; Maio, E; Alves, P C; Esteves, P J; Abrantes, J

    2018-02-11

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a viral disease that affects the European rabbit. RHD was detected in 1984 in China and rapidly disseminated worldwide causing a severe decline in wild rabbit populations. The aetiological agent, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), is an RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae, genus Lagovirus. Pathogenic (G1-G6 or variants GI.1a-GI.1d) and non-pathogenic strains (GI.4) have been characterized. In 2010, a new variant of RHDV, RHDV2/RHDVb/GI.2, was detected in France. GI.2 arrived to the Iberian Peninsula in 2011, and several recombination events were reported. Here, we sequenced full genomes of 19 samples collected in Portugal between 2014 and 2016. New GI.2 recombinant strains were detected, including triple recombinants. These recombinants possess a non-structural protein p16 related to a non-pathogenic strain. Evolutionary analyses were conducted on GI.2 VP60 sequences. Estimated time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) suggests an emergence of GI.2 in July 2008, not distant from its first detection in 2010. This is the first study on GI.2 evolution and highlights the need of continued monitoring and characterization of complete genome sequences when studying lagoviruses' evolution. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  4. Typing discrepancy between phenotypic and molecular characterization revealing an emerging biovar 9 variant of smooth phage-resistant B. abortus strain 8416 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaoXia eKang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly isolated smooth colony morphology phage-resistant (SPR strain 8416 isolated from a 45-year-old cattle farm cleaner with clinical features of brucellosis in China was reported. The most unusual phenotype was its resistance to two Brucella phages Tbilisi and Weybridge, but sensitive to Berkeley 2, a pattern similar to that of B. melitensis biovar 1. VITEK 2 biochemical identification system found that both strain 8416 and B. melitensis strains shared positive ILATk, but negative in other B. abortus strains. However, routine biochemical and phenotypic characteristics of strain 8416 were most similar to that of B. abortus biovar 9 except CO2 requirement. In addition, multiple PCR molecular typing assays including AMOS-PCR, B. abortus special PCR (B-ab PCR and a novel sub-biovar typing PCR, indicated that strain 8416 may belong to either biovar 3b or 9 of B. abortus. Surprisingly, further MLVA typing results showed that strain 8416 was most closely related to B. abortus biovar 3 in the Brucella MLVA database, primarily differing in 4 out of 16 screened loci. Therefore, due to the unusual discrepancy between phenotypic (biochemical reactions and particular phage lysis profile and molecular typing characteristics, strain 8416 couldn’t be exactly classified to any of the existing B. abortus biovars and might be a new variant of B. abortus biovar 9. The present study also indicates that the present phage typing scheme for Brucella spp. is subject to variation and the routine Brucella biovar typing needs further studies.

  5. Analysis of Coinfections with A/H1N1 Strain Variants among Pigs in Poland by Multitemperature Single-Strand Conformational Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lepek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and control of infections are key parts of surveillance systems and epidemiological risk prevention. In the case of influenza A viruses (IAVs, which show high variability, a wide range of hosts, and a potential of reassortment between different strains, it is essential to study not only people, but also animals living in the immediate surroundings. If understated, the animals might become a source of newly formed infectious strains with a pandemic potential. Special attention should be focused on pigs, because of the receptors specific for virus strains originating from different species, localized in their respiratory tract. Pigs are prone to mixed infections and may constitute a reservoir of potentially dangerous IAV strains resulting from genetic reassortment. It has been reported that a quadruple reassortant, A(H1N1pdm09, can be easily transmitted from humans to pigs and serve as a donor of genetic segments for new strains capable of infecting humans. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a simple, cost-effective, and rapid method for evaluation of IAV genetic variability. We describe a method based on multitemperature single-strand conformational polymorphism (MSSCP, using a fragment of the hemagglutinin (HA gene, for detection of coinfections and differentiation of genetic variants of the virus, difficult to identify by conventional diagnostic.

  6. Multiple-locus variant-repeat assay (MLVA) is a useful tool for molecular epidemiologic analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae strains causing bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Andreas; Bruheim, Torkjel; Afset, Jan Egil; Bergh, Kåre

    2012-06-15

    Group B streptococci (GBS) were considered a major cause of mastitis in cattle until preventive measures succeeded in controlling the disease in the 1970s and 1980s. During the last 5-6 years an increasing number of cases have been observed in some Scandinavian countries. A total of 187 GBS isolates from mastitis cases were collected from 119 animals in 34 Norwegian farms in the period from April 2007 to November 2010. 133 (71%) of the isolates were from farms with automated milking systems. The strains underwent typing of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and surface proteins, and were analyzed by multi-locus variable repeat assay (MLVA) to investigate the epidemiological relationship of strains within and between farms. The GBS strains were differentiated into 12 types by CPS and surface protein analysis, with CPS types V (54%) and IV (34%) predominating. MLVA was superior to CPS and protein typing for strain differentiation, resolving the 187 strains into 37 types. In 29 of 34 farms all GBS strains had identical MLVA profiles specific for each farm. However, in one farm represented with 48 isolates, four MLVA variants with differences in one repeat locus were observed during the almost 3-year long collection period. Similar variations were observed at four other farms. This might reflect the stability of repeat loci under in vivo conditions. Farms with automated milking systems were overrepresented in this material. In conclusion, the five-loci MLVA allowed rapid high-resolution genotyping of the bovine GBS strains within and between farms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The supposedly attenuated Hy-HK variant of highly virulent Hypr strain of Tick-borne encephalitis virus is obviously a strain of Langat virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Štěrba, Ján; Kopecký, Jan; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2006), s. 277-278 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479 Grant - others:Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia(CZ) 35/2005/P-BF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : TBE virus * Langat virus * Hy-HK attenuated variant Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.788, year: 2006

  8. Examining Adult Basic Education in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Alishea

    2017-01-01

    While it is known that over 500,000 individuals in the State of Indiana have not obtained a High School Diploma or Equivalency (StatsIndiana, 2015), limited empirical information exists on Indiana students pursuing adult basic education along with implications for a state that has changed its adult basic education high stakes high school…

  9. Virulent variants emerging in mice infected with the apathogenic prototype strain of the parvovirus minute virus of mice exhibit a capsid with low avidity for a primary receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Mari-Paz; López-Bueno, Alberto; Almendral, José M

    2005-09-01

    The mechanisms involved in the emergence of virulent mammalian viruses were investigated in the adult immunodeficient SCID mouse infected by the attenuated prototype strain of the parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp). Cloned MVMp intravenously inoculated in mice consistently evolved during weeks of subclinical infection to variants showing altered plaque phenotypes. All the isolated large-plaque variants spread systemically from the oronasal cavity and replicated in major organs (brain, kidney, liver), in sharp contrast to the absolute inability of the MVMp and small-plaque variants to productively invade SCID organs by this natural route of infection. The virulent variants retained the MVMp capacity to infect mouse fibroblasts, consistent with the lack of genetic changes across the 220-to-335 amino acid sequence of VP2, a capsid domain containing main determinants of MVM tropism. However, the capsid of the virulent variants shared a lower affinity than the wild type for a primary receptor used in the cytotoxic infection. The capsid gene of a virulent variant engineered in the MVMp background endowed the recombinant virus with a large-plaque phenotype, lower affinity for the receptor, and productive invasiveness by the oronasal route in SCID mice, eventually leading to 100% mortality. In the analysis of virulence in mice, both MVMp and the recombinant virus similarly gained the bloodstream 1 to 2 days postoronasal inoculation and remained infectious when adsorbed to blood cells in vitro. However, the wild-type MVMp was cleared from circulation a few days afterwards, in contrast to the viremia of the recombinant virus, which was sustained for life. Significantly, attachment to an abundant receptor of primary mouse kidney epithelial cells by both viruses could be quantitatively competed by wild-type MVMp capsids, indicating that virulence is not due to an extended receptor usage in target tissues. We conclude that the selection of capsid-receptor interactions of

  10. Intracellular activity of antibiotics in a model of human THP-1 macrophages infected by a Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variant strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient: pharmacodynamic evaluation and comparison with isogenic normal-phenotype and revertant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Denis, Olivier; Vergison, Anne; Theunis, Anne; Tulkens, Paul M; Struelens, Marc J; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2009-04-01

    Small-colony variant (SCV) strains of Staphylococcus aureus show reduced antibiotic susceptibility and intracellular persistence, potentially explaining therapeutic failures. The activities of oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, gentamicin, rifampin, vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, tigecycline, moxifloxacin, telavancin, and oritavancin have been examined in THP-1 macrophages infected by a stable thymidine-dependent SCV strain in comparison with normal-phenotype and revertant isogenic strains isolated from the same cystic fibrosis patient. The SCV strain grew slowly extracellularly and intracellularly (1- and 0.2-log CFU increase in 24 h, respectively). In confocal and electron microscopy, SCV and the normal-phenotype bacteria remain confined in acid vacuoles. All antibiotics tested, except tigecycline, caused a net reduction in bacterial counts that was both time and concentration dependent. At an extracellular concentration corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum (total drug), oritavancin caused a 2-log CFU reduction at 24 h; rifampin, moxifloxacin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin caused a similar reduction at 72 h; and all other antibiotics had only a static effect at 24 h and a 1-log CFU reduction at 72 h. In concentration dependence experiments, response to oritavancin was bimodal (two successive plateaus of -0.4 and -3.1 log CFU); tigecycline, moxifloxacin, and rifampin showed maximal effects of -1.1 to -1.7 log CFU; and the other antibiotics produced results of -0.6 log CFU or less. Addition of thymidine restored intracellular growth of the SCV strain but did not modify the activity of antibiotics (except quinupristin-dalfopristin). All drugs (except tigecycline and oritavancin) showed higher intracellular activity against normal or revertant phenotypes than against SCV strains. The data may help rationalizing the design of further studies with intracellular SCV strains.

  11. Molecular typing of canine distemper virus strains reveals the presence of a new genetic variant in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarute, Nicolás; Pérez, Ruben; Aldaz, Jaime; Alfieri, Amauri A; Alfieri, Alice F; Name, Daniela; Llanes, Jessika; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV, Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) is the causative agent of a severe infectious disease affecting terrestrial and marine carnivores worldwide. Phylogenetic relationships and the genetic variability of the hemagglutinin (H) protein and the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) allow for the classification of field strains into genetic lineages. Currently, there are nine CDV lineages worldwide, two of them co-circulating in South America. Using the Fsp-coding region, we analyzed the genetic variability of strains from Uruguay, Brazil, and Ecuador, and compared them with those described previously in South America and other geographical areas. The results revealed that the Brazilian and Uruguayan strains belong to the already described South America lineage (EU1/SA1), whereas the Ecuadorian strains cluster in a new clade, here named South America 3, which may represent the third CDV lineage described in South America.

  12. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  13. Characterization and Strain Improvement of a Hypercellulytic Variant, Trichoderma reesei SN1, by Genetic Engineering for Optimized Cellulase Production in Biomass Conversion Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuanchao; Zhong, Lixia; Hou, Yunhua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhong, Yaohua

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a widely used strain for cellulolytic enzyme production. A hypercellulolytic T. reesei variant SN1 was identified in this study and found to be different from the well-known cellulase producers QM9414 and RUT-C30. The cellulose-degrading enzymes of T. reesei SN1 show higher endoglucanase (EG) activity but lower β-glucosidase (BGL) activity than those of the others. A uracil auxotroph strain, SP4, was constructed by pyr4 deletion in SN1 to improve transformation efficiency. The BGL1-encoding gene bgl1 under the control of a modified cbh1 promoter was overexpressed in SP4. A transformant, SPB2, with four additional copies of bgl1 exhibited a 17.1-fold increase in BGL activity and a 30.0% increase in filter paper activity. Saccharification of corncob residues with crude enzyme showed that the glucose yield of SPB2 is 65.0% higher than that of SP4. These results reveal the feasibility of strain improvement through the development of an efficient genetic transformation platform to construct a balanced cellulase system for biomass conversion.

  14. Characterization and strain improvement of a hypercellulytic variant, Trichoderma reesei SN1, by genetic engineering for optimized cellulase production in biomass conversion improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yuanchao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a widely used strain for cellulolytic enzyme production. A hypercellulolytic T. reesei variant SN1 was identified in this study and found to be different from the well-known cellulase producers QM9414 and RUT-C30. The cellulose-degrading enzymes of T. reesei SN1 show higher endoglucanase (EG activity but lower β-glucosidase (BGL activity than those of QM9414 and RUT-C30. A uracil auxotroph strain, SP4, was constructed by pyr4 deletion in SN1 to improve transformation efficiency. The BGL1-encoding gene bgl1 under the control of a modified cbh1 promoter was overexpressed in SP4. A transformant, SPB2, with four additional copies of bgl1 exhibited a 17.1-fold increase in BGL activity and a 30% increase in filter paper activity. Saccharification of corncob residues with crude enzyme showed that the glucose yield of SPB2 is 65% higher than that of SP4. These results reveal the feasibility of strain improvement through the development of an efficient genetic transformation platform to construct a balanced cellulase system for biomass conversion.

  15. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Indiana single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  16. Anethole inhibits growth of recently emerged multidrug resistant toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    ZAHID, M. Shamim Hasan; AWASTHI, Sharda Prasad; HINENOYA, Atsushi; YAMASAKI, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    To search natural compounds having inhibitory effect on bacterial growth is important, particularly in view of growing multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of bacterial pathogens. Like other bacterial pathogens, MDR Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of diarrheal disease cholera, is becoming a great concern. As an approach of searching new antimicrobial agents, here, we show that anethole, a well-studied natural component of sweet fennel and star anise seeds, could potentially inhibit the grow...

  17. Insight into stereochemistry of a new IMP allelic variant (IMP-55) metallo-β-lactamase identified in a clinical strain of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza; Azizi, Omid; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh

    2017-07-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) such as IMPs are broad-spectrum β-lactamases that inactivate virtually all β-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems. In this study, we investigated the hydrolytic activity, phylogenetic relationship, three dimensional (3D) structure including zinc binding motif of a new IMP variant (IMP-55) identified in a clinical strain of Acinetobacter baumannii (AB). AB strain 56 was isolated from an adult ICU of a teaching hospital in Kerman, Iran. It exhibited MIC 32μg/ml to imipenem and showed MBL activity. Hydrolytic property of the MBL enzyme was measured phenotypically. Presence of bla IMP gene encoded by class 1 integrons was detected by PCR-sequencing. Phylogenetic tree of IMP protein was constructed using the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) and 3D model including zinc binding motif was predicted by bioinformatics softwares. Analysis of IMP sequence led to the identification of a novel IMP-type designated as IMP-55 (GenBank: KU299753.1; UniprotKB: A0A0S2MTX2). Impact in term of hydrolytic activity compared to the closest variants suggested efficient imipenem hydrolysis by this enzyme. Evolutionary distance matrix assessment indicated that IMP-55 protein is not closely related to other A. baumannii IMPs, however, shared 98% homology with Escherichia coli IMP-30 (UniprotKB: A0A0C5PJR0) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa IMP-1 (UniprotKB: Q19KT1). It consisted of five α-helices, ten β-sheets and six loops. A monovalent zinc ion attached to core of enzyme via His95, His97, His157 and Cys176. Multiple amino acid sequence alignments and mutational trajectory with reported IMPs showed 4 amino acid substitutions at positions 12(Phe→Ile), 31(Asp→Glu), 172(Leu→Phe) and 185(Asn→Lys). We suggest that the pleiotropic effect of mutations due to frequent administration of imipenem is responsible for emergence of new IMP variant in our hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. "Salatoimikud" Indiana Jonesi moodi / Inna-Katrin Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hein, Inna-Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  19. A yigP mutant strain is a small colony variant of E. coli and shows pleiotropic antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Tang, Qiongwei; Song, Jie; Ye, Jiang; Wu, Haizhen; Zhang, Huizhan

    2017-12-01

    Small colony variants (SCVs) are a commonly observed subpopulation of bacteria that have a small colony size and distinctive biochemical characteristics. SCVs are more resistant than the wild type to some antibiotics and usually cause persistent infections in the clinic. SCV studies have been very active during the past 2 decades, especially Staphylococcus aureus SCVs. However, fewer studies on Escherichia coli SCVs exist, so we studied an E. coli SCV during an experiment involving the deletion of the yigP locus. PCR and DNA sequencing revealed that the SCV was attributable to a defect in the yigP function. Furthermore, we investigated the antibiotic resistance profile of the E. coli SCV and it showed increased erythromycin, kanamycin, and d-cycloserine resistance, but collateral sensitivity to ampicillin, polymyxin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, rifampin, and nalidixic acid. We tried to determine the association between yigP and the pleiotropic antibiotic resistance of the SCV by analyzing biofilm formation, cellular morphology, and coenzyme Q (Q 8 ) production. Our results indicated that impaired Q 8 biosynthesis was the primary factor that contributed to the increased resistance and collateral sensitivity of the SCV. This study offers a novel genetic basis for E. coli SCVs and an insight into the development of alternative antimicrobial strategies for clinical therapy.

  20. A strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR for Australian rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses uncovers a new recombinant virus variant in rabbits and hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R N; Mahar, J E; Read, A J; Mourant, R; Piper, M; Huang, N; Strive, T

    2018-04-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, or GI.1) is a calicivirus in the genus Lagovirus that has been widely utilized in Australia as a biological control agent for the management of overabundant wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations since 1996. Recently, two exotic incursions of pathogenic lagoviruses have been reported in Australia; GI.1a-Aus, previously called RHDVa-Aus, is a GI.1a virus detected in January 2014, and the novel lagovirus GI.2 (previously known as RHDV2). Furthermore, an additional GI.1a strain, GI.1a-K5 (also known as 08Q712), was released nationwide in March 2017 as a supplementary tool for wild rabbit management. To discriminate between these lagoviruses, a highly sensitive strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed, which allows fast, cost-effective and sensitive detection of the four pathogenic lagoviruses currently known to be circulating in Australia. In addition, we developed a universal RT-qPCR assay to be used in conjunction with the multiplex assay that broadly detects all four viruses and facilitates quantification of viral RNA load in samples. These assays enable rapid detection, identification and quantification of pathogenic lagoviruses in the Australian context. Using these assays, a novel recombinant lagovirus was detected in rabbit tissue samples, which contained the non-structural genes of GI.1a-Aus and the structural genes of GI.2. This variant was also recovered from the liver of a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). The impact of this novel recombinant on Australian wild lagomorph populations and its competitiveness in relation to circulating field strains, particularly GI.2, requires further studies. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Indiana: Siberian Snake saves spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-01-15

    A team working at the Indiana University Cooler Ring has used a 'Siberian Snake' system to accelerate a spin-polarized proton beam through two depolarizing resonances with no loss of spin. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team under Alan Krisch overcame their first imperfection resonance hurdle at 108 MeV, and in a subsequent run vanquished a further resonance at 177 MeV.

  2. Indiana: Siberian Snake saves spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    A team working at the Indiana University Cooler Ring has used a 'Siberian Snake' system to accelerate a spin-polarized proton beam through two depolarizing resonances with no loss of spin. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team under Alan Krisch overcame their first imperfection resonance hurdle at 108 MeV, and in a subsequent run vanquished a further resonance at 177 MeV

  3. Travel Time Reliability in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Martchouk, Maria; Mannering, Fred L.; Singh, Lakhwinder

    2010-01-01

    Travel time and travel time reliability are important performance measures for assessing traffic condition and extent of congestion on a roadway. This study first uses a floating car technique to assess travel time and travel time reliability on a number of Indiana highways. Then the study goes on to describe the use of Bluetooth technology to collect real travel time data on a freeway and applies it to obtain two weeks of data on Interstate 69 in Indianapolis. An autoregressive model, estima...

  4. 76 FR 40649 - Indiana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... improve operational efficiency. This document provides the times and locations that the Indiana program... hours at the following location: Division of Reclamation, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, R.R... read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES or at http://www.regulations.gov . A. 312 IAC 25-1...

  5. Sources of the Indiana hardwood industry's competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silas Tora; Eva Haviarova

    2008-01-01

    The estimated 1,600 forest products-related firms in Indiana employ more than 56,000 workers. Hardwood manufacturers are the largest segment, adding approximately $2 billion per year of raw product value. A recent report by BioCrossroads ranked the hardwood industry as the most important in the agricultural sector in Indiana. Like most of the other forest products...

  6. Forests of Indiana: Their Economic Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Bratkovich; Joey Gallion; Earl Leatherberry; William Hoover; William Reading; Glenn Durham

    2007-01-01

    Mental images of Indiana often range from corn, soybeans, and hogs, to high school basketball. The average Hoosier has little knowledge, however, of the scope, productivity, and economic impact of Indiana's forestland. The State's best-kept secret is that its beautiful forests that draw many visitors are also economically vital to the State's economy....

  7. Molecular epidemiology of outbreak-related pseudomonas aeruginosa strains carrying the novel variant blaVIM-17 metallo-beta-lactamase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarkou, Victoria I; Vitti, Danai; Protonotariou, Efthimia; Ikonomidis, Alexandros; Sofianou, Danai

    2009-04-01

    A study was designed to investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics of multidrug-resistant outbreak-related Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected in a university hospital in northern Greece. Of 29 nonreplicate P. aeruginosa isolates resistant to carbapenems and ceftazidime, 14 were positive for metallo-beta-lactamase production. PCR analyses with primers specific for bla(VIM) and bla(IMP) revealed that 13 isolates carried a novel bla(VIM-2) gene variant, designated bla(VIM-17), and only 1 isolate carried bla(VIM-2), a gene predominant among P. aeruginosa strains in Greek hospitals. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested genomic DNAs showed a close genetic relationship for 12 of 13 bla(VIM-17)-carrying outbreak-related isolates, which were of the O11 serotype; the clonally unrelated isolate carrying bla(VIM-17) was of the O12 serotype. PCR mapping strategies for the detection of class 1 integrons and sequencing approaches revealed the presence of integrons containing one bla(VIM) cassette flanked by two aacA29 cassettes. These integrons were similar but not identical to In59 (GenBank accession number AF263519) initially described in France. All isolates carrying bla(VIM-17), regardless of their genetic profile, had an identical integron, named In59.3, indicating that although the hospital outbreak was mainly due to clonal dissemination, the horizontal transmission of the bla(VIM-17)-containing integron among P. aeruginosa isolates should also have occurred. An outbreak-related isolate and a control strain, both of which carried the bla(VIM-2) gene but which were clonally distinct, had an identical integron, named In59.2, which differed only at the level of the bla(VIM) gene from In59.3 integrons, suggesting a common ancestry. The spread of the bla(VIM-17)-containing integron in clonally unrelated P. aeruginosa isolates without any evidence of plasmid carriage is probably associated with a transposon.

  8. A full genomic characterization of the development of a stable Small Colony Variant cell-type by a clinical Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Long M G; Kidd, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    A key to persistent and recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections is its ability to adapt to diverse and toxic conditions. This ability includes a switch into a biofilm or to the quasi-dormant Small Colony Variant (SCV). The development and molecular attributes of SCVs have been difficult to study due to their rapid reversion to their parental cell-type. We recently described the unique induction of a matrix-embedded and stable SCV cell-type in a clinical S. aureus strain (WCH-SK2) by growing the cells with limiting conditions for a prolonged timeframe. Here we further study their characteristics. They possessed an increased viability in the presence of antibiotics compared to their non-SCV form. Their stability implied that there had been genetic changes; we therefore determined both the genome sequence of WCH-SK2 and its stable SCV form at a single base resolution, employing Single Molecular Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing that enabled the methylome to also be determined. The genetic features of WCH-SK2 have been identified; the SCCmec type, the pathogenicity and genetic islands and virulence factors. The genetic changes that had occurred in the stable SCV form were identified; most notably being in MgrA, a global regulator, and RsbU, a phosphoserine phosphatase within the regulatory pathway of the sigma factor SigB. There was a shift in the methylomes of the non-SCV and stable SCV forms. We have also shown a similar induction of this cell-type in other S. aureus strains and performed a genetic comparison to these and other S. aureus genomes. We additionally map RNAseq data to the WCH-SK2 genome in a transcriptomic analysis of the parental, SCV and stable SCV cells. The results from this study represent the unique identification of a suite of epigenetic, genetic and transcriptional factors that are implicated in the switch in S. aureus to its persistent SCV form. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The new allelic variant of the subtilase cytotoxin (subAB2) is common among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains from large game animals and their meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Sergio; Díaz-Sánchez, Sandra; Martínez, Remigio; Llorente, María Teresa; Herrera-León, Silvia; Vidal, Dolors

    2013-10-25

    Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is an AB5 toxin produced by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains usually lacking the eae gene product intimin. Two allelic variants of SubAB encoding genes have been described: subAB1, located on a plasmid, and subAB2, located on a pathogenicity island (PAI) together with tia gene. While subAB1 has been reported to be more frequent among bovine strains, subAB2 has been mainly associated with strains from small ruminants. We investigated the presence of the two variants of subAB among 59 eae-negative STEC from large game animals (deer and wild boar) and their meat and meat products in order to assess the role of other species in the epidemiology of subAB-positive, eae-negative STEC. For this approach, the strains were PCR-screened for the presence of subAB, including the specific detection of both allelic variants, for the presence of saa, tia and sab, and for stx subtyping. Overall, subAB genes were detected in 71.2% of the strains: 84.1% of the strains from deer and 33.3% of the strains from wild boar. Most of them (97.6%) possessed subAB2 and most of these subAB2-positive strains (92.7%) were also positive for tia and negative for saa, suggesting the presence of the subAB2-harbouring PAI. Subtype stx2b was present in most of the strains (67.8%) and a statistically significant association could be established between subAB2 and stx2b. Our results suggest that large game animals, mainly deer, may represent an important animal reservoir of subAB2-positive, eae-negative STEC, and also highlight the risk of human infection posed by the consumption of large game meat and meat products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  11. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars Indiana and Enteritidis from chickens in Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    Full Text Available A total of 310 Salmonella isolates were isolated from 6 broiler farms in Eastern China, serotyped according to the Kauffmann-White classification. All isolates were examined for susceptibility to 17 commonly used antimicrobial agents, representative isolates were examined for resistance genes and class I integrons using PCR technology. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. There were two serotypes detected in the 310 Salmonella strains, which included 133 Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates and 177 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates. Antimicrobial sensitivity results showed that the isolates were generally resistant to sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline and trimethoprim, and 95% of the isolates sensitive to amikacin and polymyxin. Among all Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates, 108 (81.2% possessed the blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6'-Ib-cr resistance genes. The detected carriage rate of class 1 integrons was 66.5% (206/310, with 6 strains carrying gene integron cassette dfr17-aadA5. The increasing frequency of multidrug resistance rate in Salmonella was associated with increasing prevalence of int1 genes (rs = 0.938, P = 0.00039. The int1, blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6'-Ib-cr positive Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates showed five major patterns as determined by PFGE. Most isolates exhibited the common PFGE patterns found from the chicken farms, suggesting that many multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana prevailed in these sources. Some isolates with similar antimicrobial resistance patterns represented a variety of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana genotypes, and were derived from a different clone.

  12. Absence of Evidence for a Causal Link between Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Strain Variant L-BSE and Known Forms of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Human PrP Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumain, Emilie; Quadrio, Isabelle; Herzog, Laetitia; Reine, Fabienne; Rezaei, Human; Andréoletti, Olivier; Laude, Hubert; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Haïk, Stéphane; Béringue, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Prions are proteinaceous pathogens responsible for subacute spongiform encephalopathies in animals and humans. The prions responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are zoonotic agents, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. The transfer of prions between species is limited by a species barrier, which is thought to reflect structural incompatibilities between the host cellular prion protein (PrP C ) and the infecting pathological PrP assemblies (PrP Sc ) constituting the prion. A BSE strain variant, designated L-BSE and responsible for atypical, supposedly spontaneous forms of prion diseases in aged cattle, demonstrates zoonotic potential, as evidenced by its capacity to propagate more easily than classical BSE in transgenic mice expressing human PrP C and in nonhuman primates. In humanized mice, L-BSE propagates without any apparent species barrier and shares similar biochemical PrP Sc signatures with the CJD subtype designated MM2-cortical, thus opening the possibility that certain CJD cases classified as sporadic may actually originate from L-type BSE cross-transmission. To address this issue, we compared the biological properties of L-BSE and those of a panel of CJD subtypes representative of the human prion strain diversity using standard strain-typing criteria in human PrP transgenic mice. We found no evidence that L-BSE causes a known form of sporadic CJD. Since the quasi-extinction of classical BSE, atypical BSE forms are the sole BSE variants circulating in cattle worldwide. They are observed in rare cases of old cattle, making them difficult to detect. Extrapolation of our results suggests that L-BSE may propagate in humans as an unrecognized form of CJD, and we urge both the continued utilization of precautionary measures to eliminate these agents from the human food chain and active surveillance for CJD phenotypes in the general population. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Compromised Futures: Indiana's Children in Poverty. Occasional Paper No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Judith B.

    The number of poor children in the United States is high, and estimates suggest that poverty among Indiana's children is increasing at twice the national rate. Presently, Indiana does not have readily available, comprehensive information about the state's children and adolescents. There are few ways to link Indiana's poverty data to other…

  14. Exploring Indiana's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Indiana is at the national forefront on private school choice. With the broadest eligibility guidelines among the country's 22 other school voucher programs, Indiana's Choice Scholarship Program has seen enrollment more than double each year since being enacted in 2011. Today, when compared with voucher programs in 12 other states, Indiana has the…

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    (nameplate, MW) 1,430 Source: BioFuels Atlas from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Case Studies Video Alternative Fuels Save Money in Indy April 1, 2012 More Case Studies Videos Text Version More Indiana Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Indiana Beverage Company Invests in Alternative Fuels Indiana Beverage

  16. Molecular Analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1 Clinical Strains, Including New Nontoxigenic Variants Isolated in Mexico during the Cholera Epidemic Years between 1991 and 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Lizárraga-Partida, Leonardo; Quilici, Marie-Laure

    2009-01-01

    International audience; We studied the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the 1991 to 2000 cholera epidemic in Mexico by biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of strains collected during this period. Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. As previously reported, we characterized two populations among toxigenic strains, which were present from the first year of the epidemic. BglI r...

  17. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  18. Cellulase variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Robert; Toriello, Nicholas; Emrich, Charles; Cohen, Richard N.; Koppel, Nitzan

    2015-07-14

    This invention provides novel variant cellulolytic enzymes having improved activity and/or stability. In certain embodiments the variant cellulotyic enzymes comprise a glycoside hydrolase with or comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to one or more of residues F64, A226, and/or E246 in Thermobifida fusca Cel9A enzyme. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a family 9 glycoside hydrolase. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a theme B family 9 glycoside hydrolase.

  19. A survey of bees (hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Indiana dunes and Northwest Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundel, R.; Jean, R.P.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Gibbs, J.; Glowacki, G.A.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Indiana Dunes, and nearby natural areas in northwest Indiana, are floristically rich Midwest U.S. locales with many habitat types. We surveyed bees along a habitat gradient ranging from grasslands to forests in these locales, collecting at least 175 bee species along this gradient plus 29 additional species in other nearby habitats. About 25% of all species were from the genus Lasioglossum and 12% of the species were associated with sandy soils. Several bumblebee (Bombus) species of conservation concern that should occur in this region were not collected during our surveys. Similarity of the northwest Indiana bee fauna to other published U.S. faunas decreased about 1.3% per 100 km distance from northwest Indiana. Thirty percent of bees netted from flowers were males. Males and females differed significantly in their frequency of occurrence on different plant species. For bees collected in bowl traps, the percentage captured in fluorescent yellow traps declined and in fluorescent blue traps increased from spring to late summer. Capture rates for different bee genera varied temporally, with about a quarter of the genera being captured most frequently in late spring and a quarter in late summer. Capture rates for most genera were higher in more open than in more closed canopy habitats. The maximum number of plant species on which a single bee species was captured plateaued at 24, on average. Forty-nine percent of bee species known to occur in Indiana were found at these northwest Indiana sites. Having this relatively high proportion of the total Indiana bee fauna is consistent with Indiana Dunes existing at a biogeographic crossroads where grassland and forest biomes meet in a landscape whose climate and soils are affected by proximity to Lake Michigan. The resulting habitat, plant, edaphic, and climatic diversity likely produces the diverse bee community documented.

  20. Rural Indiana Profile: Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This report examines alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use in rural parts of Indiana, as well as public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. The report is based on epidemiological, health, and criminal justice indicators; focus groups; and in-depth interviews with local officials, researchers, service providers, and civic leaders.…

  1. Libraries in Indiana: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3600 http://www.ecommunity.com/library Indiana University School of Dentistry Library 1121 West Michigan St. Indianapolis, IN 46202-5186 ... 502-4010 http://www.franciscanhealth.org St Elizabeth School of Nursing Sister Florianne Library 1501 Hartford Street Lafayette, IN 47904 765-423- ...

  2. Fire and the endangered Indiana bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Michael J. Lacki; Daniel R. Cox

    2009-01-01

    Fire and Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) have coexisted for millennia in the central hardwoods region, yet past declines in populations of this endangered species, and the imperative of fire use in oak silviculture and ecosystem conservation, call for an analysis of both the risks and opportunities associated with using fires on landscapes in...

  3. Summer ecology of Indiana bats in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a tree roosting species found throughout the eastern United States that is federally listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. A more detailed understanding of summer roosting and foraging habitat...

  4. Indiana Studies: Hoosier History, Government, and People. Unit III: From Sectional Division to Political Unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Harry D.; And Others

    Unit 3 of a six-unit series on Indiana state history designed to be taught in Indiana secondary schools tells the story of Indiana from 1829 to 1908. Chapter 1 discusses national issues in an Indiana context. The effects of social movements such as Abolition, the underground railroad, and the Fugitive Slave Law on Indiana politics are examined.…

  5. Part II: Strain- and sex-specific effects of adolescent exposure to THC on adult brain and behaviour: Variants of learning, anxiety and volumetric estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R J; Trow, J; Bye, C; McDonald, R J

    2015-07-15

    Marijuana is one of the most highly used psychoactive substances in the world, and its use typically begins during adolescence, a period of substantial brain development. Females across species appear to be more susceptible to the long-term consequences of marijuana use. Despite the identification of inherent differences between rat strains including measures of anatomy, genetics and behaviour, no studies to our knowledge have examined the long-term consequences of adolescent exposure to marijuana or its main psychoactive component, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in males and females of two widely used rat strains: Long-Evans hooded (LER) and Wistar (WR) rats. THC was administered for 14 consecutive days following puberty onset, and once they reached adulthood, changes in behaviour and in the volume of associated brain areas were quantified. Rats were assessed in behavioural tests of motor, spatial and contextual learning, and anxiety. Some tasks showed effects of injection, since handled and vehicle groups were included as controls. Performance on all tasks, except motor learning, and the volume of associated brain areas were altered with injection or THC administration, although these effects varied by strain and sex group. Finally, analysis revealed treatment-specific correlations between performance and brain volumes. This study is the first of its kind to directly compare males and females of two rat strains for the long-term consequences of adolescent THC exposure. It highlights the importance of considering strain and identifies certain rat strains as susceptible or resilient to the effects of THC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Väike psühhoanalüüs Indiana Jonesile / Aarne Ruben

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruben, Aarne, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  7. Genetic characterization of Anaplasma marginale strains from Tunisia using single and multiple gene typing reveals novel variants with an extensive genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Ben Asker, Alaa; Belkahia, Hanène; Ghribi, Raoua; Selmi, Rachid; Messadi, Lilia

    2018-05-12

    Anaplasma marginale, which is responsible for bovine anaplasmosis in tropical and subtropical regions, is a tick-borne obligatory intraerythrocytic bacterium of cattle and wild ruminants. In Tunisia, information about the genetic diversity and the phylogeny of A. marginale strains are limited to the msp4 gene analysis. The purpose of this study is to investigate A. marginale isolates infecting 16 cattle located in different bioclimatic areas of northern Tunisia with single gene analysis and multilocus sequence typing methods on the basis of seven partial genes (dnaA, ftsZ, groEL, lipA, secY, recA and sucB). The single gene analysis confirmed the presence of different and novel heterogenic A. marginale strains infecting cattle from the north of Tunisia. The concatenated sequence analysis showed a phylogeographical resolution at the global level and that most of the Tunisian sequence types (STs) formed a separate cluster from a South African isolate and from all New World isolates and strains. By combining the characteristics of each single locus with those of the multi-loci scheme, these results provide a more detailed understanding on the diversity and the evolution of Tunisian A. marginale strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Chromosome Y variants from different inbred mouse strains are linked to differences in the morphologic and molecular responses of cardiac cells to postpubertal testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchill Gary A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported previously that when chromosome Y (chrY from the mouse strain C57BL/6J (ChrYC57 was substituted for that of A/J mice (ChrYA, cardiomyocytes from the resulting "chromosome substitution" C57BL/6J-chrYA strain were smaller than that of their C57BL/6J counterparts. In reverse, when chrYA from A/J mice was substituted for that of chrYC57, cardiomyocytes from the resulting A/J-chrYC57 strain were larger than in their A/J counterparts. We further used these strains to test whether: 1 the origin of chrY could also be linked to differences in the profile of gene expression in the hearts of adult male mice, and 2 post-pubertal testosterone could play a role in the differential morphologic and/or molecular effects of chrYC57 and chrYA. Results The increased size of cardiomyocytes from adult male C57BL/6J mice compared to C57BL/6J-chrYA resulted from the absence of hypertrophic effects of post-pubertal testosterone on cells from the latter strain. However, gene profiling revealed that the latter effect could not be explained on the basis of an insensitivity of cells from C57BL/6J-chrYA to androgens, since even more cardiac genes were affected by post-pubertal testosterone in C57BL/6J-chrYA hearts than in C57BL/6J. By testing for interaction between the effects of surgery and strain, we identified 249 "interaction genes" whose expression was affected by post-pubertal testosterone differentially according to the genetic origin of chrY. These interaction genes were found to be enriched within a limited number of signaling pathways, including: 1 p53 signaling, which comprises the interacting genes Ccnd1, Pten and Cdkn1a that are also potential co-regulators of the androgen receptors, and 2 circadian rhythm, which comprises Arntl/Bmal1, which may in turn regulate cell growth via the control of Cdkn1a. Conclusion Although post-pubertal testosterone increased the size of cardiomyocytes from male C56BL/6J mice but not that from

  9. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J

    2013-01-02

    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers.

  10. HCV Drug Resistance Challenges in Japan: The Role of Pre-Existing Variants and Emerging Resistant Strains in Direct Acting Antiviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Chayama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustained virological response (SVR rates have increased dramatically following the approval of direct acting antiviral (DAA therapies. While individual DAAs have a low barrier to resistance, most patients can be successfully treated using DAA combination therapy. However, DAAs are vulnerable to drug resistance, and resistance-associated variants (RAVs may occur naturally prior to DAA therapy or may emerge following drug exposure. While most RAVs are quickly lost in the absence of DAAs, compensatory mutations may reinforce fitness. However, the presence of RAVs does not necessarily preclude successful treatment. Although developments in hepatitis C virus (HCV therapy in Asia have largely paralleled those in the United States, Japan’s July 2014 approval of asunaprevir plus daclatasvir combination therapy as the first all-oral interferon-free therapy was not repeated in the United States. Instead, two different combination therapies were approved: sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir/dasabuvir. This divergence in treatment approaches may lead to differences in resistance challenges faced by Japan and the US. However, the recent approval of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir in Japan and the recent submissions of petitions for approval of paritaprevir/ritonavir plus ombitasvir suggest a trend towards a new consensus on emerging DAA regimens.

  11. Emergence of rifampicin, tigecycline, and colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Iran; spreading of MDR strains of novel International Clone variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahador, Abbas; Taheri, Mohammad; Pourakbari, Babak; Hashemizadeh, Zahra; Rostami, Hossein; Mansoori, Noormohamad; Raoofian, Reza

    2013-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections are serious challenges for clinicians because of A. baumannii propensity to acquire resistance to a wide spectrum of antimicrobial agents. In this study, 91 A. baumannii isolates from patients in tertiary intensive care units of three university hospitals in the north, central, and south of Iran were selected and tested for susceptibility to 22 antimicrobials; amplified restriction fragment polymorphism and multiplex polymerase chain reaction methods were used to determine genetic relationships and International Clone (IC) of A. baumannii isolates, respectively. Twenty-four genotypes were identified in A. baumannii isolates. About 91.2% of isolates categorized into 4 distinct clusters; one was more heterogeneous and observed across the three locations. A considerable number of the isolates (27.5%) belonged to the novel IC variant, sequence group 7 (SG7), which was geographically widespread in three locations. The drug resistance pattern showed that 14.2%, 20%, and 77% of the A. baumannii isolates were resistant to colistin, tigecycline, and rifampicin, respectively. Nine percent of isolates (8) showed simultaneous resistance to colistin, rifampicin, and tigecycline. Interestingly, all of them were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam and/or tobramycin. According to our results, SG7 could be considered as a pan-Iranian clone.

  12. Indiana Underground Railroad Folklore: Western Route and Daviess County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Lois G.

    Materials for teaching a unit about the Underground Railroad (the system set up to assist fleeing, runaway slaves heading north) in Indiana are presented. Specifically, the Western Route that passed through Daviess County in Indiana is examined. The materials provide background on the Underground Railroad and the Western Route, plans for teaching…

  13. Resource selection by Indiana bats during the maternity season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn M. Womack; Sybill K. Amelon; Frank R. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Little information exists on resource selection by foraging Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) during the maternity season. Existing studies are based on modest sample sizes because of the rarity of this endangered species and the difficulty of radio-tracking bats. Our objectives were to determine resource selection by foraging Indiana bats during the maternity season and...

  14. Chicago, Indiana set for "world's largest scientific experiment"

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "The mission of The Hoosier Coefficient, which appears on MidestBusiness.com eveery Thursday, is to profile the often-overlooked rich technology development and commercialization in Indiana. The Hoosier state is home to four of the top technology research and engineering universities in the nation and tech pros ignore Indiana at their own peril." (1 page)

  15. Indiana Education: English Learner Instruction at the Primary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The number of students enrolled in United States public schools speaking a language other than English in their homes doubled over the last decade. In Indiana more than 60% of all public school districts reported having at least one English Learner student enrolled. It is projected that Indiana EL enrollment will increase 21% by the year 2021…

  16. LC-MS/MS Detection of Karlotoxins Reveals New Variants in Strains of the Marine Dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum from the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Krock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method was developed for the detection and quantitation of karlotoxins in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM mode. This novel method was based upon the analysis of purified karlotoxins (KcTx-1, KmTx-2, 44-oxo-KmTx-2, KmTx-5, one amphidinol (AM-18, and unpurified extracts of bulk cultures of the marine dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum strain CCMP2936 from Delaware (Eastern USA, which produces KmTx-1 and KmTx-3. The limit of detection of the SRM method for KmTx-2 was determined as 2.5 ng on-column. Collision induced dissociation (CID spectra of all putative karlotoxins were recorded to present fragmentation patterns of each compound for their unambiguous identification. Bulk cultures of K. veneficum strain K10 isolated from an embayment of the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean, yielded five previously unreported putative karlotoxins with molecular masses 1280, 1298, 1332, 1356, and 1400 Da, and similar fragments to KmTx-5. Analysis of several isolates of K. veneficum from the Ebro Delta revealed small-scale diversity in the karlotoxin spectrum in that one isolate from Fangar Bay produced KmTx-5, whereas the five putative novel karlotoxins were found among several isolates from nearby, but hydrographically distinct Alfacs Bay. Application of this LC-MS/MS method represents an incremental advance in the determination of putative karlotoxins, particularly in the absence of a complete spectrum of purified analytical standards of known specific potency.

  17. 78 FR 65590 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Indiana PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Indiana's state implementation plan as requested by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management....5 ) by establishing definitions related to PM 2.5 , defining PM 2.5 increment levels, and setting PM... changes define ``direct PM 2.5 ,'' addresses precursors to ozone and PM 2.5 , and revises existing...

  18. 40 CFR 81.216 - Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.216 Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Indiana) consists of the territorial area...

  19. 78 FR 9409 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...-FF03E00000] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines... documents related to the draft revised summer survey guidelines for the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) for an... U.S. mail address; Email: indiana_bat@fws.gov ; or Fax: 812-334-4273. Include ``Indiana Bat Summer...

  20. Analyzing the attributes of Indiana's STEM schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltz, Jeremy

    "Primary and secondary schools do not seem able to produce enough students with the interest, motivation, knowledge, and skills they will need to compete and prosper in the emerging world" (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2007a, p. 94). This quote indicated that there are changing expectations for today's students which have ultimately led to new models of education, such as charters, online and blended programs, career and technical centers, and for the purposes of this research, STEM schools. STEM education as defined in this study is a non-traditional model of teaching and learning intended to "equip them [students] with critical thinking, problem solving, creative and collaborative skills, and ultimately establishes connections between the school, work place, community and the global economy" (Science Foundation Arizona, 2014, p. 1). Focusing on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is believed by many educational stakeholders to be the solution for the deficits many students hold as they move on to college and careers. The National Governors Association (NGA; 2011) believes that building STEM skills in the nation's students will lead to the ability to compete globally with a new workforce that has the capacity to innovate and will in turn spur economic growth. In order to accomplish the STEM model of education, a group of educators and business leaders from Indiana developed a comprehensive plan for STEM education as an option for schools to use in order to close this gap. This plan has been promoted by the Indiana Department of Education (IDOE, 2014a) with the goal of increasing STEM schools throughout Indiana. To determine what Indiana's elementary STEM schools are doing, this study analyzed two of the elementary schools that were certified STEM by the IDOE. This qualitative case study described the findings and themes from two elementary STEM schools. Specifically, the research looked at the vital components to accomplish STEM

  1. Holoprosencephaly Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations in 15 patients (6 boys and 9 girls with middle interhemispheric variant (MIH of holoprosencephaly (HPE were compared with classic subtypes (alobar, semilobar, and lobar of HPE in a multicenter study at Stanford University School of Medicine and Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital; Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; University of California at San Francisco; Texas Scottish Rite Hospital, Dallas; and Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD.

  2. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line feature class that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  3. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - INSTITUTIONAL_CONTROLS_IDEM_IN.SHP: Institutional Control Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — INSTITUTIONAL_CONTROLS_IDEM_IN is a polygon shapefile that contains Institutional Control (IC) site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  4. Characterization of form variants of Xenorhabdus luminescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, L J; de Raay, G; Smits, P H

    1992-01-01

    From Xenorhabdus luminescens XE-87.3 four variants were isolated. One, which produced a red pigment and antibiotics, was luminescent, and could take up dye from culture media, was considered the primary form (XE-red). A pink-pigmented variant (XE-pink) differed from the primary form only in pigmentation and uptake of dye. Of the two other variants, one produced a yellow pigment and fewer antibiotics (XE-yellow), while the other did not produce a pigment or antibiotics (XE-white). Both were less luminescent, did not take up dye, and had small cell and colony sizes. These two variants were very unstable and shifted to the primary form after 3 to 5 days. It was not possible to separate the primary form and the white variant completely; subcultures of one colony always contained a few colonies of the other variant. The white variant was also found in several other X. luminescens strains. DNA fingerprints showed that all four variants are genetically identical and are therefore derivatives of the same parent. Protein patterns revealed a few differences among the four variants. None of the variants could be considered the secondary form. The pathogenicity of the variants decreased in the following order: XE-red, XE-pink, XE-yellow, and XE-white. The mechanism and function of this variability are discussed. Images PMID:1622273

  5. Isolation of a variant of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, H R; Price, M R; Daneo-Moore, L

    1982-01-01

    During the course of Candida albicans antigen production, a variant of this organism was encountered which did not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. Presented here are some of the characteristics of this variant. It produces hyphae at 25 degrees C on cornmeal agar and synthetic medium plus N-acetylglucosamine and Tween 80. At 37 degrees C, it does not produce hyphae on these media, although C. albicans normally does produce hyphae under these circumstances. In liquid synthetic medium, this variant does not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. The variant strain was analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content, and particle size. After 50 to 70 h in balanced exponential-phase growth, particle size distribution was narrow, and there were no differences in the DNA, RNA, or protein content per particle in the two strains. When balanced exponential-phase cultures were brought into stationary phase, both strains contained the same amount of DNA per cell. Images PMID:6752021

  6. Isolation of a variant of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, H R; Price, M R; Daneo-Moore, L

    1982-09-01

    During the course of Candida albicans antigen production, a variant of this organism was encountered which did not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. Presented here are some of the characteristics of this variant. It produces hyphae at 25 degrees C on cornmeal agar and synthetic medium plus N-acetylglucosamine and Tween 80. At 37 degrees C, it does not produce hyphae on these media, although C. albicans normally does produce hyphae under these circumstances. In liquid synthetic medium, this variant does not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. The variant strain was analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content, and particle size. After 50 to 70 h in balanced exponential-phase growth, particle size distribution was narrow, and there were no differences in the DNA, RNA, or protein content per particle in the two strains. When balanced exponential-phase cultures were brought into stationary phase, both strains contained the same amount of DNA per cell.

  7. Kolm tundi päevas jõusaalis ja dieet : nii voolis Harrison Ford end taas Indiana Jonesiks / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008. Indiana Jonesi tähestik

  8. Summer ecology of Indiana bats in Ohio : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a small, tree roosting species found throughout the eastern United States that is federally listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Although their major hibernacula are protected, information on...

  9. Isochronization calculations for the Indiana University cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    A series of calculations using measured magnetic fields was performed to determine the optimal gradient coil currents for the wide range of operating conditions to be experienced by the Indiana University main stage cyclotron. Depending on the particle type to be accelerated and final energy desired, the required radial field increase varies from 0.5 percent to 22 percent. An iterative least squares fitting technique is used to minimize orbit time variations. For the acceleration of 200 MeV protons (330 revolutions, fourth harmonic), the maximum phase excursion is predicted to be less than two rf degrees. The technique used can be adapted to using measured phase histories to predict corrections to gradient coil currents. (auth)

  10. Center for Applied Optics Studies: an investment in Indiana's future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Delbert J., II; Khorana, Brij M.

    1992-05-01

    To understand the involvement of the State of Indiana with the Center for Applied Optics at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, it is best to start with an explanation of the Indiana Corporation for Science and Technology (CST), its basic charter and its programs. Established in 1982 as a private not-for-profit corporation, CST was formed to promote economic development within the State of Indiana. Two programs that were initially a part of CST's charter and supported with state dollars were a seed capital investment program, aimed at developing new products and processes, and the establishment of university centers of technology development. The former was conceived to create jobs and new, technologically advanced industries in Indiana. The latter was an attempt to encourage technology transfer from the research laboratories of the state universities to the production lines of Indiana industry. Recently, CST has undergone a name change to the Indiana Business Modernization and Technology Corporation (BMT) and adopted an added responsibility of proactive assistance to small- and medium-sized businesses in order to enhance the state's industrial competitiveness.

  11. Landfills - LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Boundaries in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains boundaries for open dump sites, approved landfills, and permitted landfills in Indiana, provided...

  12. Fuel Processing Plants - ETHANOL_PRODUCTION_FACILITIES_IN: Ethanol Production Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This GIS layer shows the locations of ethanol production facilities in the state of Indiana. Attributes include the name and address of the facility, and information...

  13. Hydrogeology - HYDROGEOL_SETTINGS_IN: Hydrogeologic Terrains and Settings of Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:100,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — HYDROGEOL_SETTINGS_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows hydrogeologic terrains and settings of Indiana. The methodology of the investigation and definitions of terms...

  14. MICHIGAN/INDIANA: Siberian Snakes strike again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Siberian snakes are showing themselves to be even more deadly than expected in killing their prey, the depolarizing resonances which would make it very difficult to accelerate polarized protons to TeV energies at accelerators such as the Tevatron, UNK, LHC, and SSC. The snake concept was proposed in the mid-1970s by Siberians Yaroslav Derbenev and Anatoly Kondratenko at Novosibirsk, but the snakes lay almost dormant until Owen Chamberlain, Ernest Courant, Alan Krisch, and the late Kent Terwilliger organized the 1985 Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) polarized beam workshop in Ann Arbor, which highlighted the need to test the concept. The idea is to rotate the spin through 180° on each turn in the ring. With such successive spin flips, the depolarizing effects seen in one turn should be cancelled by an equal and opposite perturbation on the subsequent turn. The new Cooler Ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility then seemed an excellent test site for these eager but untested serpents. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team led by Krisch constructed the world's first snake and found that it could easily overcome its initial enemy, the imperfection depolarizing resonances caused by ring magnet imperfections (January/February 1990, page 20). In the next few years the growing team of ''herpetologists'' showed that Siberian snakes could overcome all kinds of depolarizing resonances, including the intrinsic kind (caused by the vertical betatron oscillations which keep the beam focused) and the synchrotron resonances (caused by synchrotron oscillations in energy). The team also discovered a new type of snake that was inadvertently built into the cooling section. This socalled type-3 snake rotates the spin around the vertical direction. A full type-1 snake (such as the team's superconducting solenoid magnet) rotates the spin by 180° around the beam direction; a type-2 snake rotates the spin around the radial direction

  15. Enzyme activities and antibiotic susceptibility of colonial variants of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, G E; Falkinham, J O

    1989-01-01

    A nonmucoid colonial variant of a mucoid Bacillus subtilis strain produced less amylase activity and a transparent colonial variant of a B. licheniformis strain produced less protease activity compared with their parents. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the colonial variants differed, and increased resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was correlated with increased production of extracellular beta-lactamase.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Indiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Indiana.

  17. The Indiana University proton radiation therapy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, C.; Derenchuk, V.; Cameron, J.; Fasano, M.; Gilmore, J.; Hashemian, R.; Hornback, N.; Low, D.A.; Morphis, J.; Peterson, C.; Rosselot, D.; Sandison, G.; Shen, R.N.; Shidnia, H.

    1993-01-01

    A fixed horizontal beam line at the Indiana University cyclotron facility (IUCF) has been equipped for proton radiation therapy treatment of head, neck, and brain tumors. The complete system will be commissioned and ready to treat patients early in 1993. IUCF can produce external proton beams from 45 to 200 MeV in energy, which corresponds to a maximum range in water of 26 cm. Beam currents over 100 nA are easily attained, allowing dose rates in excess of 200 cGy/min, even for large fields. Beam spreading systems have been tested which provide uniform fields up to 20 cm in diameter. Range modulation is accomplished with a rotating acrylic device, which provides uniform depth dose distributions from 3 to 18 cm in extent. Tests have been conducted on detectors which monitor the beam position and current, and the dose symmetry. This report discusses those devices, as well as the cyclotron characteristics, measured beam properties, safety interlocks, computerized dose delivery/monitoring system, and future plans. (orig.)

  18. Mercury and methylmercury in reservoirs in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Fredericksen, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an element that occurs naturally, but evidence suggests that human activities have resulted in increased amounts being released to the atmosphere and land surface. When Hg is converted to methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems, MeHg accumulates and increases in the food web so that some fish contain levels which pose a health risk to humans and wildlife that consume these fish. Reservoirs unlike natural lakes, are a part of river systems that are managed for flood control. Data compiled and interpreted for six flood-control reservoirs in Indiana showed a relation between Hg transport, MeHg formation in water, and MeHg in fish that was influenced by physical, chemical, and biological differences among the reservoirs. Existing information precludes a uniform comparison of Hg and MeHg in all reservoirs in the State, but factors and conditions were identified that can indicate where and when Hg and MeHg levels in reservoirs could be highest.

  19. 76 FR 43372 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... RPBO primarily based on the discovery of the disease White Nose Syndrome in the State of Indiana, including the action area (which is within the Indiana bat Midwest Recovery Unit). Additionally, one new... continued existence of the Indiana bat and was not likely to adversely modify the bat's designated Critical...

  20. Indiana Jones on tagasi ja näitab, kuidas käituda / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    22 mail esilinastub Steven Spielbergi järjekordne Indiana Jones'i film, kaasstsenaristiks ja produtsendiks George Lucas ja Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull"). Saaga varasemast kolmest filmist

  1. 78 FR 28503 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lake and Porter Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...: FRL-9812-4] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lake and Porter...). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving Indiana's request to revise the Lake and Porter... approving new MOVES2010a-based budgets for the Lake and Porter County, Indiana 1997 8-hour ozone maintenance...

  2. 77 FR 3325 - Emergency Temporary Closure of the I-64 Sherman-Minton Bridge Over the Ohio River Between Indiana...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Temporary Closure of the I-64 Sherman-Minton Bridge Over the Ohio River Between Indiana and Kentucky AGENCY... temporary closure of the I-64 Sherman-Minton Bridge over the Ohio River between Indiana and Kentucky for an... Bridge over the Ohio River between Indiana and Kentucky which the Indiana Governor closed on September 9...

  3. Genetic heterogeneity of L-Zagreb mumps virus vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateljak-Lukacevic Sanja

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL, RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. Results We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes.

  4. Genetic heterogeneity of L-Zagreb mumps virus vaccine strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosutic-Gulija, Tanja; Forcic, Dubravko; Šantak, Maja; Ramljak, Ana; Mateljak-Lukacevic, Sanja; Mazuran, Renata

    2008-01-01

    Background The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL), RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. Results We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s) and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes. PMID:18616793

  5. Genetic heterogeneity of L-Zagreb mumps virus vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosutic-Gulija, Tanja; Forcic, Dubravko; Santak, Maja; Ramljak, Ana; Mateljak-Lukacevic, Sanja; Mazuran, Renata

    2008-07-10

    The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL), RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s) and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes.

  6. Geophysical investigations of the Western Ohio-Indiana region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, L.; LaForge, R.; Thorson, R.; Wagner, T.; Goudaen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Earthquake activity in the Western Ohio-Indiana region has been monitored with a seismograph network consisting of nine stations located in west-central Ohio and four stations located in Indiana. Six local and regional earthquakes have been recorded from October 1990 to September 1992 with magnitudes ranging from 0.6 to 5.0. A total of 36 local and regional earthquakes have been recorded in the past 6-year period (October 1986 to September 1992). Overall a total of 78 local and regional earthquakes have been recorded since the network went into operation in 1977. There was a peak in seismicity in 1986, including the July 12, 1986 St. Marys' event (mb=4.5), followed by an anomalously low level of seismicity for about 2 years. The most unusual feature of the seismicity in the past.year is the occurrence of three earthquakes in Indiana. The locations of the felt earthquakes are scattered across central Indiana; an area that had been aseismic. Analysis of arrival time data accumulated over the past 14 years shows that the Anna region crustal structure is ''slower'' than the average mid-continent crustal structure. This implies that the proposed Keewenawan rift in the Anna region has a different structure than that of other Keewenawan rifts in the mid-continent

  7. Education Technology Services at Indiana University: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichelmeyer, B. A.; Hara, Noriko; Yi, Jessi; Dennen, Vanessa; Avers, Dale; Tzeng, Jeng-Yi

    1998-01-01

    This paper, based on a qualitative research study, describes the technology resources available in the Indiana University School of Education, explains the range of services provided by Education Technology Services (ETS), documents the organizational structure of ETS, and describes the key processes and culture of ETS. (Author/AEF)

  8. Indiana and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medland, William J.; Rosenberg, Morton M.

    1984-01-01

    The Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the ban against slavery in the North, served as a catalyst to activate numerous groups which were unhappy with the Indiana Democratic Party. From this period emerged the new Republican party and also a revitalized Democratic party with new leadership. (IS)

  9. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Indiana. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  10. Indiana intelligent transportation systems commercial vehicle operations business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This business plan was developed by the Motor Carrier Services (MCS) division of the Indiana Department of Revenue. It is the result of a nine month study of the various state departments and agencies that directly and indirectly support the intersta...

  11. Influence of the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate on the intracellular activity of antibiotics against hemin- and menadione-auxotrophic small-colony variant mutants of Staphylococcus aureus and their wild-type parental strain in human THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Laetitia G; Lemaire, Sandrine; Kahl, Barbara C; Becker, Karsten; Proctor, Richard A; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2012-12-01

    In a previous study (L. G. Garcia et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56:3700-3711, 2012), we evaluated the intracellular fate of menD and hemB mutants (corresponding to menadione- and hemin-dependent small-colony variants, respectively) of the parental COL methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and the pharmacodynamic profile of the intracellular activity of a series of antibiotics in human THP-1 monocytes. We have now examined the phagocytosis and intracellular persistence of the same strains in THP-1 cells activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and measured the intracellular activity of gentamicin, moxifloxacin, and oritavancin in these cells. Postphagocytosis intracellular counts and intracellular survival were lower in PMA-activated cells, probably due to their higher killing capacities. Gentamicin and moxifloxacin showed a 5- to 7-fold higher potency (lower static concentrations) against the parental strain, its hemB mutant, and the genetically complemented strain in PMA-activated cells and against the menD strain in both activated and nonactivated cells. This effect was inhibited when cells were incubated with N-acetylcysteine (a scavenger of oxidant species). In parallel, we observed that the MICs of these drugs were markedly reduced if bacteria had been preexposed to H(2)O(2). In contrast, the intracellular potency of oritavancin was not different in activated and nonactivated cells and was not decreased by the addition of N-acetylcysteine, regardless of the phenotype of the strains. The oritavancin MIC was also unaffected by preincubation of the bacteria with H(2)O(2). Thus, activation of THP-1 cells by PMA may increase the intracellular potency of certain antibiotics (probably due to synergy with reactive oxygen species), but this effect cannot be generalized to all antibiotics.

  12. CDKL5 variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Hennig, Friederike; Leonard, Helen; Downs, Jenny; Clarke, Angus; Benke, Tim A.; Armstrong, Judith; Pineda, Mercedes; Bailey, Mark E.S.; Cobb, Stuart R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To provide new insights into the interpretation of genetic variants in a rare neurologic disorder, CDKL5 deficiency, in the contexts of population sequencing data and an updated characterization of the CDKL5 gene. Methods: We analyzed all known potentially pathogenic CDKL5 variants by combining data from large-scale population sequencing studies with CDKL5 variants from new and all available clinical cohorts and combined this with computational methods to predict pathogenicity. Results: The study has identified several variants that can be reclassified as benign or likely benign. With the addition of novel CDKL5 variants, we confirm that pathogenic missense variants cluster in the catalytic domain of CDKL5 and reclassify a purported missense variant as having a splicing consequence. We provide further evidence that missense variants in the final 3 exons are likely to be benign and not important to disease pathology. We also describe benign splicing and nonsense variants within these exons, suggesting that isoform hCDKL5_5 is likely to have little or no neurologic significance. We also use the available data to make a preliminary estimate of minimum incidence of CDKL5 deficiency. Conclusions: These findings have implications for genetic diagnosis, providing evidence for the reclassification of specific variants previously thought to result in CDKL5 deficiency. Together, these analyses support the view that the predominant brain isoform in humans (hCDKL5_1) is crucial for normal neurodevelopment and that the catalytic domain is the primary functional domain. PMID:29264392

  13. A rabies virus vampire bat variant shows increased neuroinvasiveness in mice when compared to a carnivore variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Leonardo Pereira; Gamon, Thais Helena Martins; Cuevas, Silvia Elena Campusano; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Fahl, Willian de Oliveira; Iamamoto, Keila; Scheffer, Karin Correa; Achkar, Samira Maria; Zanatto, Dennis Albert; Mori, Cláudia Madalena Cabrera; Maiorka, Paulo César; Mori, Enio

    2017-12-01

    Rabies is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is caused by several rabies virus (RABV) variants. These variants can exhibit differences in neurovirulence, and few studies have attempted to evaluate the neuroinvasiveness of variants derived from vampire bats and wild carnivores. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuropathogenesis of infection with two Brazilian RABV street variants (variant 3 and crab-eating fox) in mice. BALB/c mice were inoculated with RABV through the footpad, with the 50% mouse lethal dose (LD 50 ) determined by intracranial inoculation. The morbidity of rabies in mice infected with variant 3 and the crab-eating fox strain was 100% and 50%, respectively, with an incubation period of 7 and 6 days post-inoculation (dpi), respectively. The clinical disease in mice was similar with both strains, and it was characterized initially by weight loss, ruffled fur, hunched posture, and hind limb paralysis progressing to quadriplegia and recumbency at 9 to 12 dpi. Histological lesions within the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis with neuronal degeneration and necrosis were observed in mice infected with variant 3 and those infected with the crab-eating fox variant. However, lesions and the presence of RABV antigen, were more widespread within the CNS of variant-3-infected mice, whereas in crab-eating fox-variant-infected mice, RABV antigens were more restricted to caudal areas of the CNS, such as the spinal cord and brainstem. In conclusion, the results shown here demonstrate that the RABV vampire bat strain (variant 3) has a higher potential for neuroinvasiveness than the carnivore variant.

  14. Flood-inundation maps for White River at Petersburg, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-20

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 7.7-mile reach of the White River at Petersburg, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at White River at Petersburg, Ind. (03374000). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (PTRI3).

  15. Floods of June-July 1957 in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppenhorst, Charles E.

    1958-01-01

    The floods of June-July 1957 exceeded those previously known on some of the tributaries of the Wabash and White Rivers in central Indiana. Six lives were lost, 1,282 dwellings were damaged, and 125 business places were flooded. Heavy rains of June 27 and 28 resulted from remnants of Hurricane Audrey meeting a front that lay across central Indiana. Heaviest rainfall reported for the storm period at a U.S. Weather Bureau station was 10.15 inches at Rockville. Previous maximum stages during the period of record were exceeded at 12 gaging stations. The peak stage on Raccoon Creek at Mansfield exceeded the previous maximum known stage, which occurred in 1875. One of the notable rates of discharge recorded was 245 cfs per square mile from a drainage area of 440 square miles on Raccoon Creek at Coxville.

  16. Geophysical investigations of the Western Ohio-Indiana region: Volume 7, Annual report, October 1987--September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, S.Y.; Lay, T.; Young, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Earthquake activity in the Western Ohio--Indiana region has been monitored with a precision seismograph network consisting of nine stations located in west-central Ohio and four stations located in Indiana. No local earthquakes have been recorded during this report period. The low level of local seismicity in the last two years suggests that the occurrence of the m/sub b/ = 4.5 earthquake, in St. Marys, Ohio, on July 12, 1986, released most of the crustal strain accumulated. Four regional events were well recorded by the array stations during this year. Their magnitudes range from m/sub bLg/ = 3. 2--4.5. The largest of these events (7 September 1988 in northeastern Kentucky, m/sub b/ = 4.5) had minor damage reported. Upper mantle P wave (P/sub n/) velocities beneath the array stations have been investigated using relative time differences of arrivals recorded by stations located at similar back azimuth from given regional earthquake epicenters. Apparent P/sub n/ velocities determined from arrival times of earthquakes in northeastern Ohio (back azimuths of 50--70/degree/) reveal similar values to those obtained from earthquakes in southern Illinois and southeastern Missouri (back azimuths of 230--250/degree/). Comparable apparent P/sub n/ velocities obtained for rays traveling both to the northeast and to the southwest requires that the Moho not dip in either of these directions beneath the stations. The average P/sub n/ velocity of 8.41 km/s is similar to the values of 8.5 and 8.4 km/s that we obtained previously from the slope of P/sub n/ travel time curves constructed for earthquakes from northeastern Ohio and southeastern Illinois respectively. These values were slightly higher than the value of 8.2 km/s obtained previously from earthquakes in southwestern Indiana, northeastern Kentucky, and northeastern Missouri. 13 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  17. The physician assistant workforce in Indiana: preparing to meet future health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jennifer; Zorn, Jennifer; Gjerde, Tom; Burkhart, Jennifer; Rosebrock, Lori

    2011-12-01

    This study identifies baseline demographic and descriptive statistics for physician assistants (PAs) in Indiana from 1978 to 2010. Data were obtained from Indiana Professional Licensing Agency applications, the Indiana State Department of Health, and PA educational programs. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the PA workforce as well as their supervising physicians. Most PAs working in Indiana were born and educated outside the state. Of those educated in Indiana, 77% obtained an initial license in Indiana; as of May 2010, 62% were still licensed in the state. In the past 8 years, Indiana had a 97% increase in active licensed PAs. Only 24% of PAs work in primary care; 92% work in metropolitan areas. For 40 years, PAs have increasingly worked in areas that are medically underserved or experiencing a shortage of health professionals. However, the overall numbers of PAs working in those areas remain low. More PAs in Indiana are practicing in medical specialties than in primary care. As health care policy and regulatory changes evolve, future studies will be needed to understand the impact on the health care workforce of Indiana PAs. This study will serve as a baseline for those studies.

  18. 76 FR 27973 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... makes a minor revision to the definition of ``Nonphotochemically reactive hydrocarbons'' or ``negligibly... submission revises the Indiana Administrative Code (IAC) by amending and updating the definition of...

  19. Issues in third party attacks on SMCRA permits. [USA - Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, G.D. Jr. (Ice Miller Donadio Ryan, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Legal issues which have occurred in third party attacks on SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act) permit, mainly in Indiana, are discussed. Problems that can occur with the interrelationship of common law nuisance/injunction actions, the permit process, enforcement proceedings and collateral estoppel from administrative agency action, as well as finality issues in the permit process as related to other provisions of SMCRA. 37 refs.

  20. Characterization of Canine parvovirus 2 variants circulating in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntafis, Vasileios; Xylouri, Eftychia; Kalli, Iris; Desario, Costantina; Mari, Viviana; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) variants currently circulating in Greece. Between March 2008 and March 2009, 167 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic dogs from different regions of Greece. Canine parvovirus 2 was detected by standard polymerase chain reaction, whereas minor groove binder probe assays were used to distinguish genetic variants and discriminate between vaccine and field strains. Of 84 CPV-2-positive samples, 81 CPV-2a, 1 CPV-2b, and 2 CPV-2c were detected. Vaccine strains were not detected in any sample. Sequence analysis of the VP2 gene of the 2 CPV-2c viruses revealed up to 100% amino acid identity with the CPV-2c strains previously detected in Europe. The results indicated that, unlike other European countries, CPV-2a remains the most common variant in Greece, and that the CPV-2c variant found in Europe is also present in Greece.

  1. Penalizing recidivist drunk drivers in Indiana: impediments to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J P; Fricker, J D

    1987-12-01

    In 1983, Indiana enacted a law mandating that anyone convicted a second or subsequent time of Operating While Intoxicated (OWI) receive a minimum of 48 consecutive hours in jail or 10 days of community service. A representative random sample of Indiana counties was used to determine the extent of implementation of this law by the courts in 1984 and 1985. Analysis of the 1984 data concluded that nearly 70% of the cases did comply with the law in its first year of implementation. However, 13.8% of the recidivists received neither jail nor community service. Another 17.6% served some jail time and/or community service, but not of a sufficient length to comply with the law. Overall compliance increased to 75% in 1985, while the proportion who received neither jail nor community service increased to 17%. Several specific causes for noncompliance are identified and recommendations for their correction are offered. It is felt that the Indiana experience described in this paper will prove instructive to other states with newly-strengthened OWI laws.

  2. Coal Fields - COAL_HOUCHIN_CREEK_ELEVATION_IN: Elevation Ranges of the Houchin Creek Coal Member (Petersburg Formation, Pennsylvanian) in West-Central Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:126,720, Polygon Coverage)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — From 1985 to 1994, a series of reports on coal resources of selected counties in Indiana was published as part of the Special Report series of the Indiana Geological...

  3. Coal Fields - COAL_HYMERA_ELEVATION_IN: Elevation Ranges of the Hymera Coal Member (Dugger Formation, Pennsylvanian) in West-Central Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:126,720, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — From 1985 to 1994, a series of reports on coal resources of selected counties in Indiana was published as part of the Special Report series of the Indiana Geological...

  4. Coal Fields - COAL_DANVILLE_THICKNESS_IN: Thickness Ranges of the Danville Coal Member (Dugger Formation, Pennsylvanian) in West-Central Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:126,720, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — From 1985 to 1994, a series of reports on coal resources of selected counties in Indiana was published as part of the Special Report series of the Indiana Geological...

  5. Coal Fields - COAL_DANVILLE_ELEVATION_IN: Elevation Ranges of the Danville Coal Member (Dugger Formation, Pennsylvanian) in West-Central Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:126,720, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — From 1985 to 1994, a series of reports on coal resources of selected counties in Indiana was published as part of the Special Report series of the Indiana Geological...

  6. Coal Fields - COAL_HYMERA_THICKNESS_IN: Thickness Ranges of the Hymera Coal Member (Dugger Formation, Pennsylvanian) in West-Central Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:126,720, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — From 1988 to 1994, a series of reports on coal resources of selected counties in Indiana was published as part of the Special Report series of the Indiana Geological...

  7. Variants of cellobiohydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, Richard R.; Foukaraki, Maria; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R.; Kralj, Slavko; Nikolaev, Igor; Sandgren, Mats; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander

    2018-04-10

    Disclosed are a number of homologs and variants of Hypocrea jecorina Ce17A (formerly Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I or CBH1), nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The homologs and variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted and/or deleted.

  8. Eficiência e competitividade de variantes espontâneos isolados de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp recomendadas para a cultura da soja (Glycine max Effectiveness and competitiveness of spontaneous mutants isolated from Bradyrhizobium spp strains recommended for soybean crop (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Gomes de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo sucessivo de soja inoculada numa mesma área proporcionou a adaptação de uma população de rizóbios, que podem não ser tão eficientes quanto à capacidade de fixação de N2, mas apresentam alta competitividade, dificultando a introdução de novas estirpes mais eficientes. Com a finalidade de avaliar o desempenho simbiótico (eficiência e competitividade de variantes espontâneos isolados de estirpes de B. japonicum (SEMIA 5079 e SEMIA 5080 e B. elkanii (SEMIA 587 e SEMIA 5019, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação onde os variantes foram inoculados isoladamente e em diferentes combinações entre os variantes e uma estirpe comprovadamente mais competitiva (SEMIA 587 ou SEMIA 5019 a partir da adição de inóculos mistos (1/1; v/v no cultivar de soja BR-16. Por meio da avaliação das variáveis analisadas (nodulação, produção de matéria de seca da parte aérea, N total acumulado na parte aérea e ocupação nodular, foi possível constatar que o determinante da maior eficiência em tratamentos co-inoculados não foi a ocupação nodular de determinada estirpe ou variante presente no inóculo, mas, sim, o tipo de interação (sinérgica ou antagônica predominante no tratamento co-inoculado e que é possível selecionar variantes eficientes e competitivos para a cultura da soja a partir de estirpes parentais que já apresentam características desejáveis para utilização em inoculantes comerciais.The continuous cultivation of inoculated soybean in the same area can determine the soil colonization with a rhizobia population presenting low nitrogen fixation effectiveness. This fact can be a problem for the establishment of a more effective population. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the symbiotic effectiveness and competitiveness of spontaneous mutants isolated from B. japonicum (SEMIA 5079 and SEMIA 5080 and B. elkanii (SEMIA 587 and SEMIA 5019 strains. The soybean biovar BR 16 was

  9. 75 FR 29575 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Indiana Bat; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... hibernation, and possibly pesticides. An additional and emerging threat to Indiana bats is White-Nose Syndrome...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Indiana Bat; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental... Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), a Federal endangered species, from activities associated with the...

  10. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…

  11. 2011-2013 Indiana Statewide Imagery and LiDAR Program: Lake Michigan Watershed Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Indiana's Statewide LiDAR data is produced at 1.5-meter average post spacing for all 92 Indiana Counties covering more than 36,420 square miles. New LiDAR data was...

  12. Indiana Teachers' Perspectives on Testing Accommodations for Limited English Proficient Students Taking the Graduation Qualifying Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetler, Angela Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines teachers' perspectives on testing accommodations for Limited English Proficient (LEP) students taking Indiana's Graduation Qualifying Exam (GQE). The Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) states that the purpose of testing accommodations is to "level the playing field" between LEP students and their…

  13. 78 FR 63093 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... section into the Indiana SIP. 326 IAC 3-6-2 Source Sampling Protocols This section requires the owner or... Indiana SIP. 326 IAC 3-7-4 Fuel Oil Sampling; Analysis Methods This section specifies the test protocol... monitoring rules to EPA as a revision to its state implementation plan (SIP). The monitoring rules will be...

  14. 76 FR 29695 - Approval, and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Redesignation of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... directly or formed secondarily through chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Sulfates are a type of..., Indiana submitted modeling intended to show that the Evansville area would attain and maintain the... particular, on December 7, 2009, Indiana submitted the results of modeling purporting to show PM 2.5...

  15. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... Indiana State Implementation Plan (SIP) for lead (Pb) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb promulgated by EPA in 2008. DATES...

  16. A Peek Into the Classrooms of Indiana's Best-Performing Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Marilynn; Conrad, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on how successful Indiana charter schools implemented their planned goals and how their instructional strategies supported sound, research-based practices for improving student achievement. After identifying the three charter schools that consistently earned Indiana's academic designation of "exemplary progress" over a…

  17. 78 FR 34973 - Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 62 [EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0372; FRL-9820-9] Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana AGENCY... direct final rulemaking, Indiana's State Plan to control air pollutants from Sewage Sludge Incinerators...

  18. 76 FR 59600 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Redesignation of Lake and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Redesignation of Lake and Porter... redesignation of the Lake and Porter Counties, Indiana portion (Lake and Porter Counties) of the Chicago-Gary... or standard). EPA is proposing to approve the redesignation request for Lake and Porter Counties...

  19. 76 FR 8808 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement: Clark County, Indiana, and Jefferson County, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ..., financing, construction, operation and oversight of the Project, and an update to the major project finance... Indiana Ohio River Bridges (Project) in Clark County, Indiana and Jefferson County, Kentucky. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Duane Thomas, Project Manager, Federal Highway Administration, John C. Watts Federal...

  20. County and Parish Boundaries - COUNTY_GOVERNMENT_BOUNDARIES_IDHS_IN: Governmental Boundaries Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Polygon feature class)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_GOVERNMENT_BOUNDARIES_IDHS_IN is a polygon feature class that contains governmental boundaries maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel...

  1. Address Points - COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN: Address Points Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Point feature class)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN is an ESRI Geodatabase point feature class that contains address points maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel...

  2. Hydrogeology - AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_BEDROCK_IDNR_IN: Bedrock Aquifer Systems of Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_BEDROCK_IDNR_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows bedrock aquifer systems of the State of Indiana. The source scale of the map depicting the aquifers...

  3. Hydrogeology - AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_UNCONSOLIDATED_IDNR_IN: Unconsolidated Aquifer Systems of Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 1:48,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_UNCONSOLIDATED_IDNR_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows unconsolidated aquifer systems of the state of Indiana at a scale of 1:48,000. The following...

  4. Geophysical Features - SILURIAN_REEF_POLYGONS_MM54_IN: Silurian Reef Locations in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — SILURIAN_REEF_POLYGONS_MM54_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows the general locations of Silurian rock reef bank formations in Indiana. These data include two major...

  5. Geology, Bedrock - BEDROCK_TOPOGRAPHY_MM36_IN: Bedrock Topography Contours, Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Bedrock topography was converted from the original published map, Indiana Geological Survey Miscellaneous Map 36. The contours define the elevation/topography of the...

  6. Land Use and Land Cover - LAND_COVER_PRESETTLEMENT_IDNR_IN: Generalized Presettlement Vegetation Types of Indiana, Circa 1820 (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LAND_COVER_PRESETTLEMENT_IDNR_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile showing generalized presettlement vegetation types of Indiana, circa 1820. The work was based on original...

  7. Information Summary, Area of Concern: Grand Calumet River, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Page 179-183) 56 Waste Fill and Lagoon Sites Mapped Within the Grand Calumet Watershed (Source R13, Table 2-15) 57 Waste Fills of Greatest Concern...Percent Response for Single Species Sediment Bioassays from Indiana Harbor (Source RI, Table 18) 78 Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Collected from Stations 1, 2...3, 4, 5, and 12a, 3-4 May 88 (Source Rl, Table 22) 79 Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Collected from Stations 6, 7, 8, 9a, 10a, and 11, 3-4 and 19 May 88

  8. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.; Heinz, R.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Indiana University Task C group is participating in the experiments GEM at the SSC and MACRO at the Gran Sasso. After an introduction to GEM in paragraph II, a detailed report is presented on the work done during the current contract period on the design of the outer region of the GEM Central Tracker. The Central Tracker Monte Carlo, which was the other significant GEM activity by the group, is included. In paragraph III is introduced MACRO and a brief status report is given. Muon Astronomy analysis done using MACRO data is also presented

  9. Status of the low energy neutron source at Indiana University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.V.; Cameron, J.M.; Derenchuk, V.P.; Lavelle, C.M.; Leuschner, M.B.; Lone, M.A.; Meyer, H.O.; Rinckel, T.; Snow, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Science Foundation has recently approved funding for LENS (the low energy neutron source) at Indiana University and construction of this facility has begun. LENS represents a new paradigm for economically introducing neutron scattering into a university or industrial setting. In this design, neutrons are produced in a long-pulse (1 ms) mode through (p,n) reactions on a water-cooled Be target and the target is tightly coupled to a cryogenic moderator with a water reflector. This design gives a facility suitable for materials research, the development of new neutron instrumentation, and the education of new neutron scientists

  10. An overview of experiments at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    The research program of the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) is a product of many factors. Among these factors are the properties of the beams of charged particles available from the cyclotrons, the facilities and personnel available to support experiments, the guidance of the Program Advisory Committee, the decisions of the directors and the ideas and work of the users of the facility. It is the author's purpose, in this brief overview paper, to provide a summary of features and properties of accelerator operation, beams, experimental facilities and the user interaction of interest to a perspective experimental user and a discussion of recent results of measurements made at IUCF

  11. Migraine Variants in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headaches in Children FAQ Migraine Variants In Children Children Get Migraines Too! Learn More Migraine Information Find Help Doctors & Resources Get Connected Join the Conversation Follow Us on Social Media Company About News Resources Privacy Policy Contact Phone: ...

  12. Loss of an iridium-192 source and therapy misadministration at Indiana Regional Cancer Center, Indiana, Pennsylvania, on November 16, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    On December 1, 1992, the Indiana Regional Cancer Center reported to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Region I that they believed a 1.37 E + 11 becquerel (3.7-curie) iridium-192 source from their Omnitron 2000 high dose rate remote brachytherapy afterloader had been found at a biohazard waste transfer station in Carnegie, Pennsylvania. After notifying the NRC, this cancer center, one of several operated by the licensee, Oncology Services Corporation, retrieved the source, and Region I dispatched an inspector and a supervisor to investigate the event. The source was first detected when it triggered radiation alarms at a waste incinerator facility in. Warren, Ohio. The licensee informed the NRC that the source wire had apparently broken during treatment of a patient on November 16, 1992, leaving the source in the patient. On the basis of the seriousness of the incident, the NRC elevated its response to an Incident Investigation. The Incident Investigation Team initiated its investigation on December 3, 1992. The investigation team concluded that the patient received a serious misadministration and died on November 21, 1992, and that over 90 individuals were exposed to radiation from November 16 to December 1, 1992. In a press release dated January 26, 1993, the Indiana County Coroner stated that the cause of death listed in the official autopsy report was ''Acute Radiational Exposure and Consequences Thereof'' An almost identical source wire failure occurred with an afterloader in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on December 7, 1992, but with minimal radiological consequences. This incident was included in the investigation. This report discusses the Omnitron 2000 high dose rate afterloader source-wire failure, the reasons why the failure was not detected by Indiana Regional Cancer Center, the potential consequences to the patient, the estimated radiological doses to workers and the public, and regulatory aspects associated with this incident

  13. Typing of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christerson, Linus; de Vries, Henry J.C.; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Henrich, Birgit; Hoffmann, Steen; Schachter, Julius; Thorvaldsen, Johannes; Vall-Mayans, Martí; Klint, Markus; Morré, Servaas A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s, including a variant from Europe. PMID:21029543

  14. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.; Musser, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  15. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.; Musser, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Economic Impacts from Indiana's First 1,000 Megawatts of Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.; Flores-Espino, F.; Hauser, R.

    2014-08-01

    The magnitude of Indiana's available wind resource indicates that the development of wind power infrastructure has the potential to support millions of dollars of economic activity in the state. The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, are tools used to estimate some of the economic impacts of energy projects at the state level. JEDI calculates results in the form of jobs, earnings, and economic output in three categories: project development and onsite labor, local revenue and supply chain, and induced impacts. According to this analysis, the first 1,000 MW of wind power development in Indiana (projects built between 2008 and 2011): supported employment totaling more than 4,400 full-time-equivalent jobs in Indiana during the construction periods; supports approximately 260 ongoing Indiana jobs; supported nearly $570 million in economic activity for Indiana during the construction periods; supported and continues to support nearly $40 million in annual Indiana economic activity during the operating periods; generates more than $8 million in annual property taxes; generates nearly $4 million annually in income for Indiana landowners who lease their land for wind energy projects.

  17. Tubular Adenoma in the Indiana Pouch of a Patient With a History of Bladder Exstrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine G. Manka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An increased risk of neoplasm has been noted when bowel segments are used for urinary diversion. Particularly true for ureterosigmoidostomy, colonic adenocarcinoma has rarely been reported following Indiana Pouch diversion. This report describes a 42-year-old woman with a history of bladder exstrophy who developed a polyp in her Indiana Pouch 24 years after its creation. The polyp, found incidentally, was a tubular adenoma with high-grade dysplasia. Due to its malignant potential, the polyp was resected with preservation of the Indiana Pouch. This case highlights the need for lifetime surveillance in urinary reservoir patients who received diversions at a young age.

  18. Environmental Assessment of the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville, Indiana, October and November 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Ulberg, Amanda L.; Robinson, Bret A.

    2007-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville in Jennings County, Indiana, was completed during October and November 2005. As part of the Department of Defense Earth Science Program, the U.S. Geological Survey collected information about environmental conditions at the 825-acre former State of Indiana mental health facility prior to its conversion by the Indiana National Guard into an urban training center. The assessment was designed to investigate the type and extent of potential contamination associated with historical activities in selected areas of the facility.

  19. Indiana State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitter, E.L.; Hume, R.D.; Briggs, H.R.; Feigenbaum, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Indiana State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Indiana. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Indiana. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Indiana

  20. 78 FR 29657 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Vanderburgh County, Indiana, to a Nonappropriated Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...-AM82 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Vanderburgh County, Indiana, to a Nonappropriated Fund... County, IN; and Jefferson and Pulaski Counties, MO. The Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee, the... as follows: [[Page 29658

  1. 77 FR 56671 - Draft Shoreline Restoration Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for Indiana Dunes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... writing or picked up in person at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, 1100 N. Mineral Springs Road, Porter... for public inspection in their entirety. Dated: July 27, 2012. Michael T. Reynolds, Regional Director...

  2. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Indiana based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Indiana census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  3. New Chicago-Indiana computer network will handle dataflow from world's largest scientific experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Massive quantities of data will soon begin flowing from the largest scientific instrument ever built into an international netword of computer centers, including one operated jointly by the University of Chicago and Indiana University." (1,5 page)

  4. 75 FR 50730 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity Consultation Requirement... consists of transportation conformity criteria and procedures related to interagency consultation and... meet a requirement of the Clean Air Act and Transportation Conformity regulations. DATES: Comments must...

  5. Radiological Final Status Survey of the Hammond Depot, Hammond, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    ORISE conducted extensive scoping, characterization, and final status surveys of land areas and structures at the DNSC's Hammond Depot located in Hammond, Indiana in multiple phases during 2005, 2006 and 2007. This report provides a detailed discussion of the radiological survey planning, survey implementation, remediation, and the results for these activities supporting the conclusion that radioactive contamination previously identified at the Hammond Depot (HD) has been reduced to levels such that the site may be released without radiological restrictions. The objective of the radiological final status survey (FSS) was to obtain the data necessary to demonstrate compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved site-specific derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for both structural surfaces and outdoor areas (ORISE 2006a and NRC 2007). The DCGLs were modeled such that any residual licensed material would not exceed the NRC's basic dose limit for license termination of 25 millirem per year (mrem/y)

  6. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Indiana, elevation data are critical for flood risk management, agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, infrastructure and construction management, aviation navigation and safety, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  7. Paleozoic stratigraphy of two areas in southwestern Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, J.B.

    1976-09-01

    Two areas recommended for evaluation as solid waste disposal sites lie along the strike of Paleozoic rocks in southwestern Indiana. Thin Pennsylvanian rocks and rocks of the upper Mississippian are at the bedrock surface in maturely dissected uplands in both areas. The gross subsurface stratigraphy beneath both areas is the same, but facies and thickness variation in some of the subsurface Paleozoic units provide for some minor differences between the areas. Thick middle Mississippi carbonates grade downward into clastics of lower Mississippian (Borden Group) and upper Devonian (New Albany Shale) rocks. Middle Devonian and Silurian rocks are dominated by carbonate lithologies. Upper Ordovician (Maquoketa Group) overly carbonates of middle Ordovician age. Thick siltstone and shale of the Borden Group-New Albany Shale zone and Maquoketa Group rocks should be suitable for repository development

  8. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  9. Extension twin variant selection during uniaxial compression of a magnesium alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pei, Y.; Godfrey, A.; Jiang, J.

    2012-01-01

    is also observed in that smaller grains are less likely to contain lower ranked twin variants. For both 5% and 10% compression no clear relationship exists between the volume fraction of each twin variant in a given grain population and the Schmid factor for the twin variant. A positive linear......Samples of the magnesium alloy AZ31 have been deformed by compression to strains of 5% and 10% and microstructural observations made to investigate the activation of specific {1 0 1¯ 2} extension twin variants. The twinning has been analyzed on a grain-by-grain basis for more than 260 grains...... to determine both the number of extension twin variants in each grain, and the volume fraction of each. At 5% strain approx. 30% of the grains contain twins corresponding to variants with the third or lower ranked Schmid factor, with the fraction increasing to 40% after 10% compression. A grain size effect...

  10. In Vitro Development of Ciprofloxacin Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Indiana Isolates from Food Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Chuan-Zhen; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Gu, Xi-Xi; Li, Wan; Yang, Ling; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2017-09-01

    Difference in the development of resistance may be associated with the epidemiological spread and drug resistance of different Salmonella enterica serovar strains. In the present study, three susceptible S. enterica serovars, Typhimurium (ST), Enteritidis (SE), and Indiana (SI) strains, were subjected to stepwise selection with increasing ciprofloxacin concentrations. The results indicated that the mutation frequencies of the SI group were 10 1 -10 4 higher and developed resistance to ciprofloxacin more rapidly compared with the ST and SE groups. Ciprofloxacin accumulation in the SI strain was also higher than the other two strains in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor. The development of ciprofloxacin resistance was quite different among the three serovar strains. In SI, increasing AcrAB-TolC efflux pump expression and single or double mutations in gyrA with or without a single parC mutation (T57S) were found in the development of ciprofloxacin resistance. In SE, an increase in the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump regulatory gene ramA gradually decreased as resistant bacteria developed; then resistance resulted from gyrA D87G and gyrB E466D mutations and/or in other active efflux pumps besides AcrAB-TolC. For ST, ramA expression increased rapidly along with gyrA D87 N and/or gyrB S464F mutations. In conclusion, persistent use of ciprofloxacin may aggravate the resistance of different S. enterica serovars and prudent use of the fluoroquinolones is needed. The quicker resistance and higher mutation frequency of the SI isolates present a potential public health threat.

  11. The Saccharomyces Genome Database Variant Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Travis K; Hitz, Benjamin C; Engel, Stacia R; Song, Giltae; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Costanzo, Maria C; Dalusag, Kyla S; Demeter, Janos; Hellerstedt, Sage T; Karra, Kalpana; Nash, Robert S; Paskov, Kelley M; Skrzypek, Marek S; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D; Cherry, J Michael

    2016-01-04

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org) is the authoritative community resource for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae reference genome sequence and its annotation. In recent years, we have moved toward increased representation of sequence variation and allelic differences within S. cerevisiae. The publication of numerous additional genomes has motivated the creation of new tools for their annotation and analysis. Here we present the Variant Viewer: a dynamic open-source web application for the visualization of genomic and proteomic differences. Multiple sequence alignments have been constructed across high quality genome sequences from 11 different S. cerevisiae strains and stored in the SGD. The alignments and summaries are encoded in JSON and used to create a two-tiered dynamic view of the budding yeast pan-genome, available at http://www.yeastgenome.org/variant-viewer. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Histone variants and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghesan, Michela; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Oben, Jude; Pazienza, Valerio; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    Within nucleosomes, canonical histones package the genome, but they can be opportunely replaced with histone variants. The incorporation of histone variants into the nucleosome is a chief cellular strategy to regulate transcription and cellular metabolism. In pathological terms, cellular steatosis

  13. Genomic constitution of an H-2:Tla variant leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, F W; Chaganti, R S; Doucette, L A; Litman, G W; Steinmetz, M; Hood, L; Boyse, E A

    1984-10-01

    A TL+ leukemia of a (B6 X A)F1 hybrid mouse (H-2b/H-2a) was previously subjected to immunoselection against H-2a by passage in (B6 X A.SW)F1 mice (H-2b/H-2s). A variant leukemia line was obtained that serologically lacked not only the H-2a phenotype but also the TL phenotype determined by the linked cis Tlaa allele of strain A. The H-2b phenotype and the TL phenotype of the Tlab allele of the B6 strain, which is expressed only by leukemia cells, were retained by the variant. Southern blotting with an H-2 cDNA probe that identifies restriction fragment polymorphisms distinguishing alleles of the H-2 and Tla regions of the B6 and A strains indicates that both the H-2a and Tlaa alleles are missing from the genome of this H-2a:Tlaa negative variant. Since the variant has two apparently unaltered chromosomes 17, where the H-2:Tla complex is situated, and since the intensity of bands in Southern blotting is suggestive of H-2b homozygosity, it is considered that loss of the H-2a:Tlaa haplotype by the variant was accompanied by duplication of the H-2b:Tlab haplotype. The implied change from heterozygosity to homozygosity that the variant has undergone with respect to H-2:Tla was not paralleled by a similar change at the three other loci tested, since the variant retained heterozygosity for Pep-3 (chromosome 1), Gpi-1 (chromosome 7), and Es-1 (chromosome 8).

  14. Impact of Pathogen Population Heterogeneity and Stress-Resistant Variants on Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abee, T; Koomen, J; Metselaar, K I; Zwietering, M H; den Besten, H M W

    2016-01-01

    This review elucidates the state-of-the-art knowledge about pathogen population heterogeneity and describes the genotypic and phenotypic analyses of persister subpopulations and stress-resistant variants. The molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of persister phenotypes and genetic variants are identified. Zooming in on Listeria monocytogenes, a comparative whole-genome sequence analysis of wild types and variants that enabled the identification of mutations in variants obtained after a single exposure to lethal food-relevant stresses is described. Genotypic and phenotypic features are compared to those for persistent strains isolated from food processing environments. Inactivation kinetics, models used for fitting, and the concept of kinetic modeling-based schemes for detection of variants are presented. Furthermore, robustness and fitness parameters of L. monocytogenes wild type and variants are used to model their performance in food chains. Finally, the impact of stress-resistant variants and persistence in food processing environments on food safety is discussed.

  15. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Sarah [Davis, CA; Ward, Connie [Hamilton, MT; Cherry, Joel [Davis, CA; Jones, Aubrey [Davis, CA; Harris, Paul [Carnation, WA; Yi, Jung [Sacramento, CA

    2011-04-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  16. Mouse ribosomal RNA genes contain multiple differentially regulated variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Tseng

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous cytogenetic studies suggest that various rDNA chromosomal loci are not equally active in different cell types. Consistent with this variability, rDNA polymorphism is well documented in human and mouse. However, attempts to identify molecularly rDNA variant types, which are regulated individually (i.e., independent of other rDNA variants and tissue-specifically, have not been successful. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of seven mouse rDNA variants (v-rDNA. The identification of these v-rDNAs was based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs, which are conserved among individuals and mouse strains. The total copy number of the identified variants is less than 100 and the copy number of each individual variant ranges from 4 to 15. Sequence analysis of the cloned v-rDNA identified variant-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the transcribed region. These SNPs were used to develop a set of variant-specific PCR assays, which permitted analysis of the v-rDNAs' expression profiles in various tissues. These profiles show that three v-rDNAs are expressed in all tissues (constitutively active, two are expressed in some tissues (selectively active, and two are not expressed (silent. These expression profiles were observed in six individuals from three mouse strains, suggesting the pattern is not randomly determined. Thus, the mouse rDNA array likely consists of genetically distinct variants, and some are regulated tissue-specifically. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for cell-type-specific regulation of a subset of rDNA.

  17. Flood-Inundation Maps for Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Zachary W.

    2016-06-06

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (NWS site CRWI3).Flood profiles were computed for the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind., reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind., and high-water marks from the flood of April 19, 2013, which reached a stage of 15.3 feet. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 13 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 4.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 16.0 ft, which is the highest stage interval of the current USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 2 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar]) data having a 0.49-ft root mean squared error and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability

  18. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deficient strains of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Olaiya, A F; Steed, J R; Sogin, S J

    1980-01-01

    We analyzed a series of germ tube-negative variants isolated from Candida albicans 3153A for deoxyribonucleic acid content. As analyzed by flow microfluorometry, the deoxyribonucleic acid level in these variant strains was 50% of that of the parental strain and equivalent to that of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding was confirmed by comparison of survival rates when exposed to the mutagens ultraviolet light, ethyl methane sulfonate, and methyl methane sulfonate. The diameter of t...

  19. Microbial ecology of acid strip mine lakes in southern Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyure, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the limnology and microbial ecology of two acid strip mine lakes in the Greene-Sullivan State Forest near Dugger, Indiana. Reservoir 29 is a larger lake (225 ha) with water column pH of 2.7 and sediment pH of 3.8. Lake B, a smaller (20 ha) lake to the south of Reservoir 29, also has an acidic water column (pH 3.4) but more neutral sediments (pH 6.2). Both have very high sulfate concentrations: 20-30 mM in the water column and as high as 100 mM in the hypolimnion of Lake B. Low allochthonous carbon and nutrient input characterize these lakes as oligotrophic, although algal biomass is higher than would be expected for this trophic status. In both lakes, algal populations are not diverse, with a few species of single-celled Chlorophyta and euglenoids dominating. Algal biomass is concentrated in a thin 10 cm layer at the hypolimnion/metalimnion interface, although light intensity at this depth is low and severely limits productivity. Bacterial activity based on 14 C-glucose incorporation is highest in the hypolimnion of both lakes, and sulfate-reduction is a dominant process in the sediments. Rates of sulfate-reduction compare with those in other freshwater environments, but are not as high as rates measured in high sulfate systems like saltmarsh and marine sediments

  20. 36Cl in shallow, perched aquifers from central Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, S.; Elmore, D.; Fritz, S. J.

    1994-06-01

    36Cl/Cl ratios and chloride concentrations were measured in several shallow, perched aquifers situated within glacial till in west-central Indiana (USA). Most of these aquifers show 36Cl/Cl ratios which have to be attributed to admixed 36Cl from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s. Two wells from Purdue's Horticultural Farm tap perched aquifers uninfluenced by anthropogenic sources of chloride, and their 36Cl/Cl ratios are comparable with ratios measured in modern, local precipitation. As such, the chloride contents of these wells (1 to 3 ppm) reflect evaporative concentration of the precipitation's chloride contents (averaging 0.17 ppm) in the vadose zone. Since one of these two wells (HA-2a) does not contain any detectable tritium, we conclude that recent pre-bomb 36Cl/Cl ratios and 36Cl deposition in precipitation are quite similar to those in modern precipitation. We attribute the slight 36Cl excess of about 20% in both of these wells largely to 36Cl deposition associated with dry fall-out. As much as 2 × 10 4 at. 36Cl/cm 2 might reach the surface via dry fall-out annually.

  1. Physiological ecology of heterotrophic bacteria in two Indiana lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Rates of bacterial production of particulate organic carbon in two hardwater Indiana lakes were studied. Primary production rates were calculated from rates of photosynthetic H 14 CO 3 - incorporation and bacterial (secondary) production from rates of 3 H-(methyl)-thymidine incorporation by natural samples. The relationship of thymidine incorporation to rates of bacterial growth in diluted natural samples was used to calculate the conversion factor 2.2 x 10 18 cells produced (mole thymidine incorporated) -1 . Bacteria in Little Crooked Lake were found to be growing at suboptimal temperatures throughout most of the water column, even during the summer months. Even rapidly growing metalimnetic populations displayed no noticable adaptation to low environmental temperatures. This indicates that temperature could have limited the growth of bacteria in this lake throughout the period of thermal stratification. The extracellular release of photosynthetically fixed organic carbon by healthy phytoplankton was not found to be an important carbon source for planktonic bacteria. Slow carbon release mechanisms, such as algal decomposition, seem to have been more important

  2. Low-flow characteristics for selected streams in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.; Wilson, John T.

    2015-01-01

    The management and availability of Indiana’s water resources increase in importance every year. Specifically, information on low-flow characteristics of streams is essential to State water-management agencies. These agencies need low-flow information when working with issues related to irrigation, municipal and industrial water supplies, fish and wildlife protection, and the dilution of waste. Industrial, municipal, and other facilities must obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits if their discharges go directly to surface waters. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) requires low-flow statistics in order to administer the NPDES permit program. Low-flow-frequency characteristics were computed for 272 continuous-record stations. The information includes low-flow-frequency analysis, flow-duration analysis, and harmonic mean for the continuous-record stations. For those stations affected by some form of regulation, low-flow frequency curves are based on the longest period of homogeneous record under current conditions. Low-flow-frequency values and harmonic mean flow (if sufficient data were available) were estimated for the 166 partial-record stations. Partial-record stations are ungaged sites where streamflow measurements were made at base flow.

  3. The Impacts of Budget Reductions on Indiana's Public Schools: The Impact of Budget Changes on Student Achievement, Personnel, and Class Size for Public School Corporations in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Del W.; Boyland, Lori G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, economic downturn and changes to Indiana's school funding have resulted in significant financial reductions in General Fund allocations for many of Indiana's public school corporations. The main purpose of this statewide study is to examine the possible impacts of these budget reductions on class size and student achievement. This…

  4. Complete Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of the Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Variant in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4 was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted of 7,558 bp and contained three open reading frame (ORF composites throughout the whole genome: ORF1 (5,100 bp, ORF2 (1,623 bp, and ORF3 (807 bp. Phylogenetic analyses showed that gg-12-08-04 belonged to the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, sharing 98.92% nucleotide similarity with this variant strain. According to SimPlot analysis, the gg-12-08-04 strain was a recombinant strain with breakpoint at the ORF1/2 junction between Osaka 2007 and Apeldoorn 2008 strains. This study is the first report of the complete sequence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in South Korea. Therefore, this may represent the standard sequence of the norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea and could therefore be useful for the development of norovirus vaccines.

  5. Space use and resource selection by foraging Indiana bats at the northern edge of their distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowski, David S.; Johnson, Joshua B.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Edwards, John W.; Ford, W. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite 4 decades of conservation concern, managing endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) populations remains a difficult wildlife resource issue facing natural resource managers in the eastern United States. After small signs of population recovery, the recent emergence of white-nose syndrome has led to concerns of local and/or regional extirpation of the species. Where Indiana bats persist, retaining high-quality foraging areas will be critical to meet physiological needs and ensure successful recruitment and overwinter survival. However, insight into foraging behavior has been lacking in the Northeast of the USA. We radio-tracked 12 Indiana bats over 2 summers at Fort Drum, New York, to evaluate factors influencing Indiana bat resource selection during night-time foraging. We found that foraging space use decreased 2% for every 100 m increase in distance to water and 6% for every 100 m away from the forest edge. This suggests high use of riparian areas in close proximity to forest and is somewhat consistent with the species’ foraging ecology in the Midwest and upper South. Given the importance of providing access to high-quality foraging areas during the summer maternity season, Indiana bat conservation at the northern extent of the species’ range will be linked to retention of forested habitat in close proximity to riparian zones. 

  6. Accurate genotyping across variant classes and lengths using variant graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibbesen, Jonas Andreas; Maretty, Lasse; Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2018-01-01

    of read k-mers to a graph representation of the reference and variants to efficiently perform unbiased, probabilistic genotyping across the variation spectrum. We demonstrate that BayesTyper generally provides superior variant sensitivity and genotyping accuracy relative to existing methods when used...... collecting a set of candidate variants across discovery methods, individuals and databases, and then realigning the reads to the variants and reference simultaneously. However, this realignment problem has proved computationally difficult. Here, we present a new method (BayesTyper) that uses exact alignment...... to integrate variants across discovery approaches and individuals. Finally, we demonstrate that including a ‘variation-prior’ database containing already known variants significantly improves sensitivity....

  7. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    Full Text Available Although cutaneous ulcers (CU in the tropics is frequently attributed to Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue, the causative agent of yaws, Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of CU in yaws-endemic regions of the South Pacific islands and Africa. H. ducreyi is generally susceptible to macrolides, but CU strains persist after mass drug administration of azithromycin for yaws or trachoma. H. ducreyi also causes genital ulcers (GU and was thought to be exclusively transmitted by microabrasions that occur during sex. In human volunteers, the GU strain 35000HP does not infect intact skin; wounds are required to initiate infection. These data led to several questions: Are CU strains a new variant of H. ducreyi or did they evolve from GU strains? Do CU strains contain additional genes that could allow them to infect intact skin? Are CU strains susceptible to azithromycin?To address these questions, we performed whole-genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 5 CU strains obtained from Samoa and Vanuatu and 9 archived class I and class II GU strains. Except for single nucleotide polymorphisms, the CU strains were genetically almost identical to the class I strain 35000HP and had no additional genetic content. Phylogenetic analysis showed that class I and class II strains formed two separate clusters and CU strains evolved from class I strains. Class I strains diverged from class II strains ~1.95 million years ago (mya and CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP ~0.18 mya. CU and GU strains evolved under similar selection pressures. Like 35000HP, the CU strains were highly susceptible to antibiotics, including azithromycin.These data suggest that CU strains are derivatives of class I strains that were not recognized until recently. These findings require confirmation by analysis of CU strains from other regions.

  8. 77 FR 41980 - Uniontown Hydro, LLC, Project No. 12958-001-Kentucky and Indiana, Uniontown Hydroelectric Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ...-001-Kentucky and Indiana, Uniontown Hydroelectric Project; Newburgh Hydro, LLC, Project No. 12962-001-Kentucky and Indiana, Newburgh Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Revised Restricted Service List for a... licenses for the proposed Uniontown Hydroelectric Project and Newburgh Hydroelectric Project. The...

  9. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.73 Section 81.73 Protection of Environment... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  10. Attendance and Chronic Absenteeism in Indiana: The Impact on Student Achievement. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 3, Summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradlin, Terry; Cierniak, Katherine; Shi, Dingjing; Chen, Minge

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief summarizes the research and data analysis completed by the Center for Evaluation and Education Policy (CEEP) on Indiana's student attendance and absenteeism data. The study was initiated by The Indiana Partnerships Center and conducted by CEEP with funding from USA Funds and State Farm. Additional partners in the study…

  11. USA valimiste võitja võib selguda varakult - kui Obama võtab Indiana / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendivalimistel suletakse valimisjaoskonnad esimesena Indianas. Demokraatide kampaania konsultandi Doug Schoeni hinnangul viitab isegi tasavägine tulemus Indianas ilmselt Barack Obama suurele üleriigilisele võidule. Reutersi vaatlejate hinnanguid. Vt. samas: Kas populaarsusküsitlused ikka ennustavad valimistulemuse õigesti? Kaart, tabelid, graafikud: Barack Obama läheb võitma

  12. Influence of population diversity on neurovirulence potential of plaque purified L-Zagreb variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic-Jelecki, Jelena; Forcic, Dubravko; Jagusic, Maja; Kosutic-Gulija, Tanja; Mazuran, Renata; Balija, Maja Lang; Isakov, Ofer; Shomron, Noam

    2016-04-29

    Despite continuing research efforts, determinants of mumps virus virulence are still largely unknown. One of consequences of this is difficulty in striking a balance between efficacy and safety of live attenuated mumps vaccines. Among mumps vaccine strains associated with occurrence of postvaccinal aseptic meningitis is L-Zagreb, developed by further attenuation of vaccine strain L-3. Starting from an archived L-Zagreb sample with suboptimal neuroattenuation score, we isolated different viral variants and compared their genetic and phenotypic properties, in investigation of neurovirulence markers. Six different L-Zagreb variants were isolated by plaque purification. Their neurovirulent status was determined by rat-based neurovirulence test; population structure was determined by deep sequencing. We isolated one well neuroattenuated viral variant, two marginally neuroattenuated, and three insufficiently neuroattenuated. No genetic markers of neurovirulence could be identified. None of variants had detectable amounts of defective interfering particles. Two characteristics set insufficiently neuroattenuated variants apart from less-neurovirulent ones: elevated variability level in regions 1293-3314, 5363-7773 and 9382-11657, and/or elevated number of mutations present in frequencies ≥ 1%. The most neurovirulent variants possessed both of these features. Distinctive heterogeneity profiles were obtained for insufficiently neuroattenuated L-Zagreb variants. No markers that would discriminate between marginally and well neuroattenuated variants were identified. The findings of this study may serve as a guideline during development of an improved L3/L-Zagreb vaccine strain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Variants of Moreau's sweeping process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.H.; Manchanda, P.

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness of two variants of Moreau's sweeping process -u'(t) is an element of Nc (t) (u(t)), where in one variant we replace u(t) by u'(t) in the right-hand side of the inclusion and in the second variant u'(t) and u(t) are respectively replaced by u''(t) and u'(t). (author)

  14. Hairy cell leukemia-variant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadri, Mohammad I.; Al-Sheikh, Iman H.

    2001-01-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia variant is a very rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder and is closely related to hairy cell leukemia. We hereby describe a case of hairy cell leukaemia variant for the first time in Saudi Arabia. An elderly Saudi man presented with pallor, massive splenomegaly, and moderate hepatomegaly. Hemoglobin was 7.7 g/dl, Platelets were 134 x109/l and white blood count was 140x10 9/l with 97% being abnormal lymphoid cells with cytoplasmic projections. The morphology, cytochemistry, and immunophenotype of the lymphoid cells were classical of hairy cell leukaemia variant. The bone marrow was easily aspirated and findings were consistent with hairy cell leukaemia variant. (author)

  15. Organic geochemistry in Pennsylvanian tidally influenced sediments from SW Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Kvale, E.P.; Stankiewicz, B.A.; Portle, K.

    1999-01-01

    Tidal rhythmites are vertically stacked small-scale sedimentary structures that record daily variations in tidal current energy and are known to overlie some low-sulfur coals in the Illinois Basin. Tidal rhythmites from the Pennsylvanian Brazil Formation in Indiana have been analyzed sedimentologically, petrographically, and geochemically in order to understand the character and distribution of organic matter (OM) preserved in an environment of daily interactions between marine and fresh waters. The concentration of organic matter (TOC) ranges from traces to 6.9% and sulfur rarely exceeds 0.1% in individual laminae. Angular vitrinite is the major organic matter type, accounting for 50-90% of total OM. The C/S ratio decreases as the verfical distance from the underlying coal increases. A decreasing C/S ratio coupled with decreases in Pr/Ph, Pr/n-C17, Ph/n-C18 ratios and a shift of carbon isotopic composition towards less negative values suggest an increase in salinity from freshwater in the mudflat tidal rhythmite facies close to the coal to brackish/marine in the sandflat tidal rhythmite facies further above from the coal. Within an interval spanning one year of deposition, TOC and S values show monthly variability. On a daily scale, TOC and S oscillations are still detectable but they are of lower magnitude than on a monthly scale. These small-scale variations are believed to reflect oscillations in water salinity related to tidal cycles.Tidal rhythmites are vertically stacked small-scale sedimentary structures that record daily variations in tidal current energy and are known to overlie some low-sulfur coals in the Illinois Basin. Tidal rhythmites from the Pennsylvanian Brazil Formation in Indiana have been analyzed sedimentologically, petrographically, and geochemically in order to understand the character and distribution of organic matter (OM) preserved in an environment of daily interactions between marine and fresh waters. The concentration of organic matter

  16. Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements.

  17. Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements

  18. Development of Vehicle Platoon Distribution Models and Simulation of Platoon Movements on Indiana Rural Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yi; Li, Shou; Shamo, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1980s, traffic volumes have experienced a rapid growth of approximately 30% in Indiana. Traffic data indicates that more than 70% of vehicles travel in platoons on Indiana highway corridors in the vicinity of urban areas. At a rural highway intersection consisting of a major road with high traffic volume and a minor road with low traffic volume, it is very common that the green time cannot be used efficiently, especially when the vehicle detectors on the major road are imbedded clos...

  19. Regional bankfull-channel dimensions of non-urban wadeable streams in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    During floods, damage to properties and community infrastructure may result from inundation and the processes of erosion. The damages imparted by erosion are collectively termed the fluvial erosion hazard (FEH), and the Indiana Silver Jackets Multi-agency Hazard Mitigation Taskforce is supporting a program to build tools that will assist Indiana property owners and communities with FEH-mitigation efforts. As part of that program, regional channel-dimension relations are identified for non-urban wadeable streams in Indiana. With a site-selection process that targeted the three largest physiographic regions of the state, field work was completed to measure channel-dimension and channel-geometry characteristics across Indiana. In total, 82 sites were identified for data collection; 25 in the Northern Moraine and Lake region, 31 in the Central Till Plain region, and 26 in the Southern Hills and Lowlands region. Following well established methods, for each data-collection site, effort was applied to identify bankfull stage, determine bankfull-channel dimensions, and document channel-geometry characteristics that allowed for determinations of channel classification. In this report, regional bankfull-channel dimension results are presented as a combination of plots and regression equations that identify the relations between drainage area and the bankfull-channel dimensions of width, mean depth, and cross-sectional area. This investigation found that the channel-dimension data support independent relations for each of the three physiographic regions noted above. Furthermore, these relations show that, for any given drainage area, northern Indiana channels have the smallest predicted dimensions, southern Indiana channels have the largest predicted dimensions, and central Indiana channels are intermediate in their predicted dimensions. When considering the suite of variables that influence bankfull-channel dimensions, it appears that contrasting runoff characteristics

  20. Product Variant Master as a Means to Handle Variant Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildre, Hans Petter; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    be implemented in the CAD system I-DEAS. A precondition for high degree of computer support is identification of a product variant master from which new variants can be derived. This class platform defines how a product build up fit certain production methods and rules governing determination of modules...

  1. Differences in antimicrobial susceptibility of pigmented and unpigmented colonial variants of Mycobacterium avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, R S; Falkinham, J O

    1989-01-01

    Unpigmented colonial variants were isolated from pigmented Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the environment. The variants were interconvertible: the rate of transition from unpigmented to pigmented type was 4.0 x 10(-5) variants per cell per generation. The unpigmented variants were more tolerant to antibiotics, especially beta-lactams, and Cd2+ and Cu2+ salts than were their pigmented parents. Both pigmented and unpigmented variants of the strains produced beta-lactamase, although beta-lactamase did not appear to be a determinant of beta-lactam susceptibility. Pigmented variants grew more rapidly in a number of commonly used mycobacterial media, were more hydrophobic, and had higher carotenoid contents than their unpigmented segregants. PMID:2808669

  2. Numerically-quantified two dimensionality of microstructure evolution accompanying variant selection of FePd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, N; Yoshiya, M; Yasuda, H; Fukuda, T; Kakeshita, T

    2015-01-01

    Through three-dimensional (3D) simulations of microstructure evolution by phase-field modeling (PFM), microstructures have been quantified during their time evolution by an image processing technique with particular attention to the shape of variants in the course of variant selection. It is found that the emerging variants exhibit planar shapes rather than 3D shapes due to the elastic field around the variants arising upon disorder-to-order transition to the L1 0 phase. The two-dimensionality is more pronounced as variant selection proceeds. Although three equivalent variants compete for dominance under an external field, one of the three variants vanishes before final competition occurs between the remaining variants, which can be explained by the elastic strain energy. These numerical analyses provide better understanding of the microstructure evolution in a more quantitative manner, including the small influence of the third variant, and the results obtained confirm that the understanding of variant selection obtained from two-dimensional (2D) simulations by PFM is valid. (paper)

  3. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati Arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky , and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. (USGS)

  4. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  5. GROWTH AND ENZYME PRODUCTION DURING CONTINUOUS CULTURES OF A HIGH AMYLASE-PRODUCING VARIANT OF Aspergillus Oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Zangirolami,T.C.; Carlsen,M.; Nielsen,J.; Jørgensen,S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Growth and product formation by a selected variant of Aspergillus oryzae showing high alpha-amylase production was studied in continuous cultivations carried out at six different specific growth rates, using glucose as the growth-limiting nutrient. The analysis of the steady-state data revealed that the variant and wild-type strains were similar with respect to glucose uptake system and stoichiometric coefficients. However, the variant was capable of maintaining an enzyme production as high a...

  6. Tree regeneration response to the group selection method in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; George R. Parker

    1997-01-01

    Tree regeneration response following the use of the group selection method was studied within 36 group openings on the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division in south central Indiana. Two different aspects and three time periods since cutting were examined. The objectives were to determine whether aspect, age, species group, location within the opening, or their...

  7. Elementary Lessons from Indiana's Underground Railroad Institute (July 22-27, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis. Geography Educators' Network of Indiana.

    The Geography Educators' Network of Indiana's 2001 Exploring and Teaching Institute led 23 educators from around the state on a six day traveling adventure. Participants explored art, literature/folklore, historical sites and archives, physical environments, architecture, economics, politics, and cultures associated with the Underground Railroad…

  8. Secondary Lessons from Indiana's Underground Railroad Institute (July 22-27, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis. Geography Educators' Network of Indiana.

    The Geography Educator's Network of Indiana's 2001 Exploring and Teaching Institute series led 23 educators from around the state on a six day traveling adventure. Participants explored art, literature/folklore, historical sites and archives, physical environments, architecture, economics, politics, and cultures associated with the Underground…

  9. Habitat use by bats in two Indiana forests prior to silvicultural treatments for oak regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. Sheets; Joseph E. Duchamp; Megan K. Caylor; Laura D' Acunto; John O. Whitaker; Virgil Jr. Brack; Dale W. Sparks

    2013-01-01

    As part of a study examining the effects of silvicultural treatments for oak regeneration on habitat use by bats, we surveyed forest stands prior to the implementation of treatments in two state forests in Indiana. Interior forest sites corresponding to areas designated for silvicultural treatments were surveyed for 2 nights each during the summers of 2007 and 2008....

  10. The Coping Strategies of Nontraditional Female Students in Southwest Michigan and Northern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Desiree

    2017-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of this research study was to examine the coping strategies of nontraditional female students in a private university in Southwest Michigan, and a public university in Northern Indiana. According to Carney-Compton & Tan (2002), nontraditional female students characterize the leading emergent set of students beginning…

  11. Priorities and Practices of Career and Technical Education Directors in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Cory D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the importance and priority of practices for directors of career and technical education in the state of Indiana. An analysis was prepared to determine the rankings and correlations of importance and priorities of 50 leadership practices as well as 11 categories of practices for the career…

  12. Neisseria meningitidis ST11 Complex Isolates Associated with Nongonococcal Urethritis, Indiana, USA, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Evelyn; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Batteiger, Byron E; Williams, James A; Arno, Janet N; Tai, Albert; Batteiger, Teresa A; Nelson, David E

    2017-02-01

    At a clinic in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, we observed an increase in Neisseria gonorrhoeae-negative men with suspected gonococcal urethritis who had urethral cultures positive for N. meningitidis. We describe genomes of 2 of these N. meningitidis sequence type 11 complex urethritis isolates. Clinical evidence suggests these isolates may represent an emerging urethrotropic clade.

  13. Indiana bat summer maternity distribution: effects of current and future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan C. Loeb; Eric A. Winters

    2013-01-01

    Temperate zone bats may be more sensitive to climate change than other groups of mammals because many aspects of their ecology are closely linked to temperature. However, few studies have tried to predict the responses of bats to climate change. The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a federally listed endangered species that is found in the eastern...

  14. 75 FR 50708 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... during the Regional Office normal hours of operation, and special arrangements should be made for... Background for This Action? On August 10, 2005, the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation... Indiana portions of the Cincinnati area have combined motor vehicle emissions budgets and thus must work...

  15. 78 FR 50360 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Infrastructure SIP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... ensure that the structural components of each state's air quality management program are adequate to meet... SIP. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) has requested that EPA approve these... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2011-0888; EPA-R05-OAR-2011-0969; EPA...

  16. Fire and human history of a barren-forest mosaic in Southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey; Michael C. Stambaugh

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide quantitative fire history information from a historically unique region, the oak barrens of the Interior Low Plateau Ecoregion. We sampled 27 post oak (Quercus stellata Wangenh.) trees from the Boone Creek watershed in southern Indiana. The period of tree-ring record ranged in calendar years from 1654 to 1999...

  17. The history of human disturbance in forest ecosystems of southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Jenkins

    2013-01-01

    The forests of southern Indiana have been shaped and defined by anthropogenic disturbance. Native Americans influenced composition and structure through land clearing and burning, but the scale and rate of human disturbance intensified with European settlement. Sustained settlement led to the loss of forest land to agriculture and livestock grazing. Forests were also...

  18. Dreams and Despair: The Early Years of the Great Depression in Gary, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Historian, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Based on official reports, newspapers, the memories of citizens, and historical studies, a description of Gary, Indiana during the Great Depression shows how many people in Gary were affected by the Depression. Gary began to grow rapidly beginning in 1906 with the organization of two steel companies. Black, European, and Mexican immigrants came to…

  19. Las remesas indianas en Gran Canaria en el primer cuarto del siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa TORRES SANTANA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las remesas indianas, del dinero que bien en efectivo o en joyas afluía a la isla de Gran Canaria procedente del continente americano, ha sido un problema que ha preocupado en gran medida a los historiadores canarios. Sin embargo, su análisis siempre ha resultado problemático, por varias razones.

  20. 75 FR 18757 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Alternate Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Station Unit 7. The scrubber adds moisture to the exhaust gas, which condenses as the gas stream cools. According to Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM), the condensation causes unreliable... impairment caused by particulate and light impairment caused by moisture. The scrubber also removes some PM...

  1. Death in Indiana: "The Massacre at Fall Creek" by Jessamyn West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Interpreted is the novel, "The Massacre at Fall Creek," that dramatizes an event that occurred in Indiana in 1824 in which White men killed unarmed Seneca Indians. The Whites were brought to trial, convicted, and hanged. The novel demonstrates the moral ambiguity that often characterizes responses toward crime and punishment. (RM)

  2. Competencies in Entomology Needed by Agribusiness Teachers and Extension Agents in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William H.; Walker, Leon

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of the data from an 84.2 percent questionnaire response by Indiana extension agents and agribusiness teachers provides 12 conclusions regarding their competency needs and five recommendations regarding inservice teacher training and courses needed in the areas of entomology. (BP)

  3. 75 FR 55725 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Kentucky; Louisville...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... addition to the sites listed in the table above, three sites, Barret Avenue, Cannons Lane, and Indiana... period. The first of these three sites, Barret Avenue (site number 21-111- 0048), ended operation at the... this period, the Barret Avenue site monitored an average annual concentration of 14.1 [micro]g/m\\3...

  4. Neisseria meningitidis ST11 Complex Isolates Associated with Nongonococcal Urethritis, Indiana, USA, 2015–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Evelyn; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Batteiger, Byron E.; Williams, James A.; Arno, Janet N.; Tai, Albert; Batteiger, Teresa A.

    2017-01-01

    At a clinic in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, we observed an increase in Neisseria gonorrhoeae–negative men with suspected gonococcal urethritis who had urethral cultures positive for N. meningitidis. We describe genomes of 2 of these N. meningitidis sequence type 11 complex urethritis isolates. Clinical evidence suggests these isolates may represent an emerging urethrotropic clade. PMID:28098538

  5. Indiana bats, northern long-eared bats, and prescribed fire in the Appalachians: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Loeb; Joy O' Keefe

    2014-01-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalist) is an endangered species and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis) has been proposed for listing as endangered. Both species are found throughout the Appalachians, and they commonly inhabit fire-dependent ecosystems such as pine and pine-oak forests. Due to their legal status, prescribed burns in areas where these species...

  6. 78 FR 6035 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio and Indiana; Cincinnati...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... document that growth and control strategy assumptions for non-motor vehicle sources continue to be valid... the projections need to be made. Ohio and Indiana find that growth and control strategy assumptions... original submittal for the years 2005, 2015, and 2020. As a result, the growth and control strategy...

  7. Loads of nitrate, phosphorus, and total suspended solids from Indiana watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Aubrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Transport of excess nutrients and total suspended solids (TSS) such as sediment by freshwater systems has led to degradation of aquatic ecosystems around the world. Nutrient and TSS loads from Midwestern states to the Mississippi River are a major contributor to the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, an area of very low dissolved oxygen concentration in the Gulf of Mexico. To better understand Indiana’s contribution of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River, annual loads of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, and TSS were calculated for nine selected watersheds in Indiana using the load estimation model, S-LOADEST. Discrete water-quality samples collected monthly by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management’s Fixed Stations Monitoring Program from 2000–2010 and concurrent discharge data from the U. S. Geological Survey streamflow gages were used to create load models. Annual nutrient and TSS loads varied across Indiana by watershed and hydrologic condition. Understanding the loads from large river sites in Indiana is important for assessing contributions of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River Basin and in determining the effectiveness of best management practices in the state. Additionally, evaluation of loads from smaller upstream watersheds is important to characterize improvements at the local level and to identify priorities for reduction.

  8. Predicting stump sprouting and competitive success of five oak species in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; Chao-Ying Joanne Peng

    2002-01-01

    We measured 2188 oak trees (Quercus spp.) on the Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana before and 1, 5, and 10 years after clear-cutting to determine the influence of parent tree age, diameter breast height, and site index on the probability that there was one or more living sprouts per stump: (i) 1 year after clear-cutting (sprouting...

  9. Case: The Ethics and Economics of Expanding Interstate 69 in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp-Itnyre, Alisa

    2000-01-01

    Presents and discusses a case used in a business communication class that centers on an interstate highway extension in southern Indiana. Describes the rationale for teaching the case, and student responses. Notes that, in confronting these issues, students learn to see that facts yield to different interpretations based on differing perspectives…

  10. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb promulgated by EPA in 2008. DATES: This... FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16, ``National primary and secondary ambient air quality...

  11. 77 FR 3975 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Regional Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... visibility for the worst days over the approximately 10-year period of the SIP and ensure no degradation in... Plastics (formerly GE Plastics), and Mittal Steel USA Inc.-Burns Harbor. Indiana did not consider EGUs in... (ESSROC Cement Corporation, SABIC Innovative Plastics, and Mittal Steel USA Inc.-- Burns Harbor) showed...

  12. 77 FR 65341 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Delaware County (Muncie...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... emissions model. Once this proposal is finalized, future transportation conformity determinations would use... Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) 2010a emissions model. Indiana submitted this request to EPA... Regional Office official hours of business are Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., excluding...

  13. THE INDIANA ENTERPRISE ZONE PROGRAM: FISCAL IMPACT OF A JOB CREATION TAX CREDIT

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Sarah A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper estimated the fiscal impact of a job creation tax credit, a proposed incentive for establishments participating in the Indiana enterprise zone program. State unemployment insurance files were utilized with GIS to obtain enterprise zone data. Labor demand and labor supply were estimated. Job creation due to the credit was calculated from empirical results.

  14. Urban and community forests of the North Central East region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends,...

  15. 77 FR 38725 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... compound (VOC) emissions limits and other restrictions on consumer products that are sold, supplied.... This supplementary information section is arranged as follows: I. Background II. Contents of Indiana's... approval is based on the model rule developed by the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) for consumer products...

  16. Spatial and Temporal Relationships of Old-Growth and Secondary Forests in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; George R. Parker; Eric J. Gustafson

    1997-01-01

    We examined the spatial pattern of forests in Indiana to: (1) determine the extent, connectivity and percent edge of all forests, (2) examine the change in connectivity among these forests if all riparian zones were replanted to forest or other native vegetation, (3) determine the location, spatial dispersion and percent edge of current old-growth forest remnants, (4)...

  17. Dominant height-based height-diameter equations for trees in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A., Jr. Kershaw; Robert C. Morrissey; Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert; James B. McCarter

    2008-01-01

    Height-diameter equations are developed based on dominant tree data collected in 1986 in 8- to 17-year-old clearcuts and the phase 2 Forest Inventory and Analysis plots on the Hoosier National Forest in south central Indiana. Two equation forms are explored: the basic, three-parameter Chapman-Richards function, and a modification of the three-parameter equation...

  18. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  19. 75 FR 8246 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... for Lake and Porter Counties in Indiana AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final... available control technology (RACT) requirements for the Lake and Porter County portion of the Chicago-Gary... subsequently submitted the required VOC RACT rules for the Lake and Porter County portion of that nonattainment...

  20. 78 FR 28550 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lake and Porter Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0021;EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0022; FRL-9812-3] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lake and Porter... Porter State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard, and the 1997 annual fine...

  1. 75 FR 12087 - Determination of Attainment, Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... the Clean Air Act (CAA) affecting the Indiana portion (Lake and Porter Counties) of the Chicago-Gary... Oxides (NO X ) in Lake and Porter Counties from CAA Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT... Lake and Porter Counties, also published in today's Federal Register, the Chicago-Gary-Lake County, IL...

  2. 76 FR 76302 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Redesignation of Lake and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Redesignation of Lake and Porter...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking several related actions affecting Lake and Porter Counties and... redesignation of Lake and Porter Counties to attainment of the 1997 annual PM 2.5 standard. EPA is approving, as...

  3. 78 FR 55234 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... satisfy Indiana's VOC RACT requirements for the Lake and Porter County portion of the Chicago-Gary-Lake... revised its Industrial Solvent Cleaning rule, 326 IAC 8-17, for sources in Lake and Porter Counties as... emissions because there are no coating, ink, adhesive and resin manufacturers in Lake and Porter Counties...

  4. Indiana's New and (Somewhat) Improved K-12 School Finance System. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    Education finance policy has become an urgent concern in many state legislatures. Demands for greater equity and accountability have forced states to review, and in many cases to revise, the method by which schools are funded. This study sheds light on Indiana's financing of public K-12 education by providing a clear explanation of the components…

  5. 75 FR 34450 - Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... 3rd Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Indiana has scheduled a Special General Election on November 2, 2010, to fill.... Committees required to file reports in connection with the Special General Election on November 2, 2010...

  6. The Impact of Educational Policy on English Learners in a Rural Indiana School Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, April M.

    2015-01-01

    Indiana English learners (ELs) constitute a rapidly growing portion of the state's school-aged population, and those classified as limited English proficient are low performers on the state test. The purpose of this embedded mixed methods study was to understand how school personnel respond to accountability mandates, interpret test scores, and…

  7. Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with a firefighting response - Indiana and Michigan, June 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    On June 20, 2011, the Indiana Department of Homeland Security notified the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) of an Indiana fire station that reported gastrointestinal illness among a substantial percentage of their workers, causing missed workdays and one hospitalization as a result of cryptosporidiosis. All ill firefighters had responded to a barn fire in Michigan, 15 miles from the Michigan-Indiana border on June 6; responding firefighters from Michigan also had become ill. ISDH immediately contacted the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) concerning this outbreak. The investigation was led by MDCH in partnership with ISDH and the Michigan local health department (LHD). Among 34 firefighters who responded to the fire, 33 were interviewed, and 20 (61%) reported gastrointestinal illness ≤12 days after the fire. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in human stool specimens, calf fecal samples, and a swimming pond. Based on these findings, the following public health recommendations were issued: 1) discontinue swimming in the pond, 2) practice thorough hygiene to reduce fecal contamination and fecal-oral exposures, and 3) decontaminate firefighting equipment properly. No additional primary or secondary cases associated with this exposure have been reported. The findings highlight a novel work-related disease exposure for firefighters and the need for public education regarding cryptosporidiosis prevention.

  8. 78 FR 23492 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... addressing the NAAQS for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), PM 10 and PM 2.5 . EPA will be... IDEM's requested removal of the annual PM 10 NAAQS is approvable. Indiana also requests in its... into the SIP, specifically at 326 IAC 1-4-1. These terms include ``SO 2 '', ``CO'' (carbon monoxide...

  9. Benchmarking Various Green Fluorescent Protein Variants in Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Lactococcus lactis for Live Cell Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overkamp, Wout; Beilharz, Katrin; Weme, Ruud Detert Oude; Solopova, Ana; Karsens, Harma; Kovacs, Akos T.; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2013-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) offers efficient ways of visualizing promoter activity and protein localization in vivo, and many different variants are currently available to study bacterial cell biology. Which of these variants is best suited for a certain bacterial strain, goal, or experimental

  10. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deficient strains of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiya, A F; Steed, J R; Sogin, S J

    1980-03-01

    We analyzed a series of germ tube-negative variants isolated from Candida albicans 3153A for deoxyribonucleic acid content. As analyzed by flow microfluorometry, the deoxyribonucleic acid level in these variant strains was 50% of that of the parental strain and equivalent to that of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding was confirmed by comparison of survival rates when exposed to the mutagens ultraviolet light, ethyl methane sulfonate, and methyl methane sulfonate. The diameter of the variant cells as compared to the diameter of the parental 3153A strain showed a relationship similar to that of the diameters of haploid versus diploid S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that those strains may be representative of the imperfect stage of C. albicans.

  11. Large-scale climate variation modifies the winter grouping behavior of endangered Indiana bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; McKann, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Power laws describe the functional relationship between 2 quantities, such as the frequency of a group as the multiplicative power of group size. We examined whether the annual size of well-surveyed wintering populations of endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) followed a power law, and then leveraged this relationship to predict whether the aggregation of Indiana bats in winter was influenced by global climate processes. We determined that Indiana bat wintering populations were distributed according to a power law (mean scaling coefficient α = −0.44 [95% confidence interval {95% CI} = −0.61, −0.28). The antilog of these annual scaling coefficients ranged between 0.67 and 0.81, coincident with the three-fourths power found in many other biological phenomena. We associated temporal patterns in the annual (1983–2011) scaling coefficient with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in August (βNAOAugust = −0.017 [90% CI = −0.032, −0.002]), when Indiana bats are deciding when and where to hibernate. After accounting for the strong effect of philopatry to habitual wintering locations, Indiana bats aggregated in larger wintering populations during periods of severe winter and in smaller populations in milder winters. The association with August values of the NAO indicates that bats anticipate future winter weather conditions when deciding where to roost, a heretofore unrecognized role for prehibernation swarming behavior. Future research is needed to understand whether the three-fourths–scaling patterns we observed are related to scaling in metabolism.

  12. Feasibility Study of Residential Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Odeh, Mahmoud

    This study aims to measure the financial viability of installing and using a residential grid-connected PV system in the State of Indiana while predicting its performance in eighteen geographical locations within the state over the system's expected lifetime. The null hypothesis of the study is that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. Using a systematic approach consisting of six steps, data regarding the use of renewable energy in the State of Indiana was collected from the website of the US Department of Energy to perform feasibility analysis of the installation and use of a standard-sized residential PV system. The researcher was not able to reject the null hypothesis that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. This study found that the standard PV system does not produce a positive project balance and does not pay for itself within 25 years (the life time of the system) assuming the average cost of a system. The government incentive programs are not enough to offset the cost of installing the system against the cost of the electricity that would not be purchased from the utility company. It can be concluded that the cost of solar PV is higher than the market valuation of the power it produces; thus, solar PV did not compete on the cost basis with the traditional competitive energy sources. Reducing the capital cost will make the standard PV system economically viable in Indiana. The study found that the capital cost for the system should be reduced by 15% - 56%.

  13. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places - BRIDGES_HISTORIC_IDNR_IN: Historic Bridge Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains point locations of historic bridges in Indiana. It includes buildings, districts, sites, structures and objects...

  14. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERY_AREAS_IDNR_IN: Cemetery Site Areas in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains locations of cemetery sites in Indiana, regardless of age, number of graves, or size of the cemetery. Is it not...

  15. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERY_SITES_IDNR_IN: Cemetery Site Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains locations of cemetery sites in Indiana, regardless of age, number of graves, or size of the cemetery. Is it not...

  16. Bench-Scale Investigation of Composting for Remediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soils from Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, Indiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    ...), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine (HMX). The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Crane, Indiana, provides material and logistic support to the Navy's weapon systems, including expendable and nonexpendable ordnance items...

  17. Hospitals - HOSPITALS_HAZUS_IN: Hospitals and Clinics in Indiana, Derived from HAZUS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — HOSPITALS_HAZUS_IN is a point shapefile that shows locations of hospitals and clinics in Indiana. HOSPITALS_HAZUS_IN was derived from the shapefile named "HOSPITAL."...

  18. 75 FR 8428 - The Indiana Rail Road Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Martin and Lawrence Counties, IN; CSX...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...; Richard Wilson, on behalf of Radius Indiana; Citizens Against Rails-to-Trails; and several landowners..., Lawrence County Tourism Commission Executive Director; Gene McCracken, Lawrence County Economic Growth...

  19. Forty-Sixth Indiana Regiment: A Tactical Analysis of Amphibious Operations and Major Combat Engagements during the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    cohesion and morale of the 46th Indiana. The monotony of camp life, severe weather, illness and disease , high casualty rates, and lack of food and...sickness and disease were a common cause of casualties during the war and the regiment experienced the same hardships caused by the harsh conditions... Carrion Crow Bayou. 161Bernard F. Schermerhorn, letter to wife, 9 November 1863, Bernard Schermerhorn Papers, 1862-1864, Indiana Historical Society

  20. Changing Pattern of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, France, 2010–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Arabella; Sperandio, Clément; Hénin, Nadège; Laurier-Nadalié, Cécile; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2016-01-01

    We describe a change in the molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in an outbreak of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in France during January 2010–April 2015. Until 2012, the C. trachomatis L2b strain predominated; however, starting in 2013, most cases involved the L2 strain. We also identified 4 genetic L2b ompA variants. PMID:27767927

  1. Changing Pattern of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, France, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuchant, Olivia; Touati, Arabella; Sperandio, Clément; Hénin, Nadège; Laurier-Nadalié, Cécile; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2016-11-01

    We describe a change in the molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in an outbreak of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in France during January 2010-April 2015. Until 2012, the C. trachomatis L2b strain predominated; however, starting in 2013, most cases involved the L2 strain. We also identified 4 genetic L2b ompA variants.

  2. Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.4-mile reach of the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana, from where the Flatrock and Driftwood Rivers combine to make up East Fork White River to just upstream of the confluence of Clifty Creek with the East Fork White River, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv/?site_no=03364000&agency_cd=USGS&). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana at their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system Website (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/), that may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data), having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and a 1.02 ft

  3. Predicting the implementation of environmental education in Indiana K--8 schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ling

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors from the literature that influence teachers' implementation of environmental education (EE), and to predict the implementation of EE in the Indiana K--8 Schools by knowledge of these factors. By adapting two earlier instruments, a complete EE assessment instrument was developed, consisting of scales measuring teachers' implementation of EE, their pre-/in-service environmental training, their attitudes toward and competencies in teaching EE, their perceived barriers in teaching EE, and their significant life experiences related to the environment or EE. A questionnaire was sent to 1,200 randomly selected K--8 teachers in public schools throughout Indiana in April 2003, and 385 completed surveys were returned (32.1% return rate). The demographic characteristics of the respondents and the Indiana teacher population were found to be similar. Thus, the results from this study can be generalized to the Indiana teacher population. The construct validity and reliability of each scale were examined after the completion and return of the questionnaires by using factor analysis, item-test correlation analysis, and ANOVA, and also by assessing their alpha indices. It was found that all nine scales were homogeneous, valid, and reliable. Multiple regression analysis was calculated to predict the level of EE implementation in Indiana K--8 schools. Regression analyses indicated that the extent of the teachers' exposure to EE during their pre- and in-service training, the teachers' attitudes toward and competencies in teaching EE, and the barrier "EE not relevant to what I teach" were significant in the full model. This model accounted for 63% of the variance in the teachers' implementation of EE. The teachers' attitudes toward EE had the greatest effect on the teachers' EE implementation when compared to the other significant predictors in the model. The net effects of the extent of the teachers' pre-service and in

  4. A novel multi-variant epitope ensemble vaccine against avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Defang; Wang, Guihua; Huang, Libo; Zheng, Qiankun; Li, Chengui; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2017-12-04

    The hypervariable antigenicity and immunosuppressive features of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) has led to great challenges to develop effective vaccines. Epitope vaccine will be a perspective trend. Previously, we identified a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope in hypervariable region 1 (hr1) of ALV-J, N-LRDFIA/E/TKWKS/GDDL/HLIRPYVNQS-C. BLAST analysis showed that the mutation of A, E, T and H in this epitope cover 79% of all ALV-J strains. Base on this data, we designed a multi-variant epitope ensemble vaccine comprising the four mutation variants linked with glycine and serine. The recombinant multi-variant epitope gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The expressed protein of the variant multi-variant epitope gene can react with positive sera and monoclonal antibodies of ALV-J, while cannot react with ALV-J negative sera. The multi-variant epitope vaccine that conjugated Freund's adjuvant complete/incomplete showed high immunogenicity that reached the titer of 1:64,000 at 42 days post immunization and maintained the immune period for at least 126 days in SPF chickens. Further, we demonstrated that the antibody induced by the variant multi-variant ensemble epitope vaccine recognized and neutralized different ALV-J strains (NX0101, TA1, WS1, BZ1224 and BZ4). Protection experiment that was evaluated by clinical symptom, viral shedding, weight gain, gross and histopathology showed 100% chickens that inoculated the multi-epitope vaccine were well protected against ALV-J challenge. The result shows a promising multi-variant epitope ensemble vaccine against hypervariable viruses in animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measles in Italy: Co-circulation of B3 variants during 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magurano, Fabio; Baggieri, Melissa; Bordi, Licia; Lalle, Eleonora; Chironna, Maria; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Amendola, Antonella; Baldanti, Fausto; Ansaldi, Filippo; Filia, Antonietta; Declich, Silvia; Iannazzo, Stefania; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Bucci, Paola; Marchi, Antonella; Nicoletti, Loredana

    2016-06-01

    In 2013, the majority of the WHO/EUR countries reported an annual incidence of >1 case per one million population indicating that the elimination target is far from being met. Thus, there is the urgent need to uncover and analyze chains of measles virus (MV) transmission with the objective to identify vulnerable groups and avoid possible routes of introduction of MV variants in the European population. The analysis of molecular epidemiology of MV B3 strains identified in 2014 has shown that four different variants co-circulated in Italy, including the strain that caused a cruise-line ship outbreak at the beginning of the year. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Who knew? First Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) maternity colony in the coastal plain of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Germain, Michael J.; Kniowski, Andrew B.; Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark

    2017-01-01

    We report the first confirmed Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) maternity colony in Virginia, discovered at Fort A.P. Hill Military Reservation in Caroline County along the Piedmont-Coastal Plain Fall Line. Acoustic surveys conducted in 2014 indicated likely presence of Indiana Bats on the installation. Subsequent focal mist-netting during May–June 2015 resulted in capture of 4 lactating females that we subsequently radio tracked to a maternity colony site containing at least 20 individuals. The core roosting-area was comprised of Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine) snags with abundant exfoliating bark and high solar exposure. This forest patch was adjacent to a large emergentshrub wetland and within a larger matrix of mature, mid-Atlantic hardwood forests. The site where we found the colony location is 140 km east of the nearest known hibernaculum and is outside of the previously documented extent of this species' occurrence.

  7. Making better babies: public health and race betterment in Indiana, 1920-1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alexandra Minna

    2002-05-01

    In 1920, Indiana's Division of Infant and Child Hygiene inaugurated its first Better Babies Contest at the state fair. For the next 12 years, these contests were the centerpiece of a dynamic infant and maternal welfare program that took shape in Indiana during the decade of the federal Sheppard-Towner act. More than just a lively spectacle for fairgoers, these contests brought public health, "race betterment," and animal breeding together in a unique manner. This article describes one of the most popular expressions of public health and race betterment in rural America. It also raises questions about the intersections between hereditarian and medical conceptions of human improvement during the early 20th century, especially with respect to child breeding and rearing.

  8. Making Better Babies: Public Health and Race Betterment in Indiana, 1920–1935

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alexandra Minna

    2002-01-01

    In 1920, Indiana's Division of Infant and Child Hygiene inaugurated its first Better Babies Contest at the state fair. For the next 12 years, these contests were the centerpiece of a dynamic infant and maternal welfare program that took shape in Indiana during the decade of the federal Sheppard–Towner act. More than just a lively spectacle for fairgoers, these contests brought public health, “race betterment,” and animal breeding together in a unique manner. This article describes one of the most popular expressions of public health and race betterment in rural America. It also raises questions about the intersections between hereditarian and medical conceptions of human improvement during the early 20th century, especially with respect to child breeding and rearing. PMID:11988439

  9. Indiana bats roost in ephemeral, fire-dependent pine snags in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy M. O' Keefe; Susan C. Loeb

    2017-01-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), a species that is federally endangered in the U.S., is being impacted by white-nose  yndrome and habitat loss across much of its range. A better understanding of summer roost ecology of the species will enable us to develop management strategies that promote summer survival for breeding adult females and their pups. We conducted a 5...

  10. Exploring the Link Between Streamflow Trends and Climate Change in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Kam, J.; Thurner, K.; Merwade, V.

    2007-12-01

    Streamflow trends in Indiana are evaluated for 85 USGS streamflow gaging stations that have continuous unregulated streamflow records varying from 10 to 80 years. The trends are analyzed by using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test with prior trend-free pre-whitening to remove serial correlation in the data. Bootstrap method is used to establish field significance of the results. Trends are computed for 12 streamflow statistics to include low-, medium- (median and mean flow), and high-flow conditions on annual and seasonal time step. The analysis is done for six study periods, ranging from 10 years to more than 65 years, all ending in 2003. The trends in annual average streamflow, for 50 years study period, are compared with annual average precipitation trends from 14 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) stations in Indiana, that have 50 years of continuous daily record. The results show field significant positive trends in annual low and medium streamflow statistics at majority of gaging stations for study periods that include 40 or more years of records. In seasonal analysis, all flow statistics in summer and fall (low flow seasons), and only low flow statistics in winter and spring (high flow seasons) are showing positive trends. No field significant trends in annual and seasonal flow statistics are observed for study periods that include 25 or fewer years of records, except for northern Indiana where localized negative trends are observed in 10 and 15 years study periods. Further, stream flow trends are found to be highly correlated with precipitation trends on annual time step. No apparent climate change signal is observed in Indiana stream flow records.

  11. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Portions of Grissom Air Force Base, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    and the surrounding portions of central Indiana consists of level plains or gently rolling hills, with streams and small closed depressions ...in enclosed areas, such as basements. The cancer risk caused by exposure, through the inhalation of radon, is currently a topic of concern. 3-70...enter quality should he Implemented. Additional mitigative eggecimnetely 20 Fredetral endeavored, thraetened and candidate mamas should alao he

  12. Mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies of streams and marshes of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, R. Edward; South, Eric J.; Robertson, Desiree R.; Marburger, Joy E.; Smith, Wendy W.; Brinson, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract United States National Parks have protected natural communities for one hundred years. Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (INDU) is a park unit along the southern boundary of Lake Michigan in Indiana, USA. An inventory of 19 sites, consisting of a seep, 12 streams, four marshes, a bog, and a fen were examined for mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), and caddisflies (Trichoptera) (EPT taxa). Volunteers and authors collect 35 ultraviolet light traps during summer 2013 and supplementary benthic and adult sampling added species not attracted by lights or that were only present in colder months. Seventy-eight EPT species were recovered: 12 mayflies, two stoneflies, and 64 caddisflies. The EPT richness found at INDU was a low proportion of the number of species known from Indiana: caddisflies contributed only 32.7% of known state fauna, mayflies and stoneflies contributed 8.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Site EPT richness ranged from one for a seep to 34 for an 8 m-wide stream. Richness in streams generally increased with stream size. Seven new state records and rare species are reported. The number of EPT species at INDU is slightly larger than that found at Isle Royale National Park in 2013, and the community composition and evenness between orders were different. PMID:26877693

  13. Keynote Speech: 90th Anniversary Symposium Indiana University School of Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cuomo

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In celebration of 90 years of social work education at Indiana University, the School of Social Work sponsored an Anniversary Symposium on April 12, 2002. Andrew Cuomo, former U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and current candidate for New York State Governor, delivered the keynote address. In his address,Mr. Cuomo recognized the history and growth of Indiana University School of Social Work from its origin in 1911 to its current status as a state-wide, multi-campus enterprise. He discussed the formation of Project Help (Housing Enterprise for the Less Privileged and shared some of his experiences as Secretary of HUD. He also explored several contemporary social, political, and philosophical issues, including the potential long-term effects of the tragic events of September 11, 2001. Introduced by Ms. Jane Schlegel, M.S.W., Chair of the Indiana University School of Social Work Campaign Committee, Mr. Cuomo interspersed his prepared remarks with spontaneous reflections.His comments are presented here in unedited fashion.

  14. Data-variant kernel analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Motai, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Describes and discusses the variants of kernel analysis methods for data types that have been intensely studied in recent years This book covers kernel analysis topics ranging from the fundamental theory of kernel functions to its applications. The book surveys the current status, popular trends, and developments in kernel analysis studies. The author discusses multiple kernel learning algorithms and how to choose the appropriate kernels during the learning phase. Data-Variant Kernel Analysis is a new pattern analysis framework for different types of data configurations. The chapters include

  15. Micromechanics of transformation-induced plasticity and variant coalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketz, F.; Fischer, F.D.; University for Mining and Metallurgy, Leoben; Tanaka, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative micromechanics descriptions of both transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) associated with the martensitic transformation in an Fe-Ni alloy and of variant coalescence in a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy are presented. The macroscopic deformation behavior of a polycrystalline aggregate as a result of the rearrangements within the crystallites is modelled with the help of a finite element based periodic microfield approach. In the case of TRIP the parent→martensite transformation is described by microscale thermodynamic and kinetic equations taking into account internal stress states. The simulation of a classical experiment on TRIP allows to quantify the Magee-effect and the Greenwood-Johnson effect. Furthermore, the development of the martensitic microstructure is studied with respect to the stress-assisted transformation of preferred variants. In the case of variant coalescence the strain energy due to internal stress states has an important influence on the mechanical behavior. Formulating the reorientation process on the size scale of self-accommodating plate groups in terms of the mobility of the boundaries between martensitic variants the macroscopic behavior in uniaxial tension is predicted by an incremental modelling procedure. Furthermore, influence of energy dissipation on the overall behavior is quantified. (orig.)

  16. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwinyi, Obinna C; Ajayi, Oluseyi O; Amund, Olukayode O

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2). Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R(2)=1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  17. GCPII Variants, Paralogs and Orthologs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlouchová, Klára; Navrátil, Václav; Tykvart, Jan; Šácha, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 9 (2012), s. 1316-1322 ISSN 0929-8673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/12/0847 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : PSMA * GCPIII * NAALADase L * splice variants * homologs * PSMAL Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.070, year: 2012

  18. Odontogenic keratocyst: a peripheral variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, H; Vij, R; Gupta, V; Sengupta, S

    2011-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst, which is developmental in nature, is an intraosseous lesion though on rare occasions it may occur in an extraosseous location. The extraosseous variant is referred to as peripheral odontogenic keratocyst. Though, clinically, peripheral odontogenic keratocyst resembles the gingival cyst of adults, it has histologic features that are pathognomonic of odontogenic keratocyst. This article presents a case of this uncommon entity.

  19. Space-time models for a panzootic in bats, with a focus on the endangered Indiana bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; King, R. Andrew; Szymanski, Jennifer A.; Pruitt, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of current trends of quickly spreading infectious wildlife diseases is vital to efficient and effective management. We developed space-time mixed-effects logistic regressions to characterize a disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), quickly spreading among endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in eastern North America. Our goal was to calculate and map the risk probability faced by uninfected colonies of hibernating Indiana bats. Model covariates included annual distance from and direction to nearest sources of infection, geolocational information, size of the Indiana bat populations within each wintering population, and total annual size of populations known or suspected to be affected by WNS. We considered temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal formulae through the use of random effects for year, complex (a collection of interacting hibernacula), and yearxcomplex. Since first documented in 2006, WNS has spread across much of the range of the Indiana bat. No sizeable wintering population now occurs outside of the migrational distance of an infected source. Annual rates of newly affected wintering Indiana bat populations between winter 2007 to 2008 and 2010 to 2011 were 4, 6, 8, and 12%; this rate increased each year at a rate of 3%. If this increasing rate of newly affected populations continues, all wintering populations may be affected by 2016. Our models indicated the probability of a wintering population exhibiting infection was a linear function of proximity to affected Indiana bat populations and size of the at-risk population. Geographic location was also important, suggesting broad-scale influences. For every 50-km increase in distance from a WNS-affected population, risk of disease declined by 6% (95% CI=5.2-5.7%); for every increase of 1,000 Indiana bats, there was an 8% (95% CI = 1-21%) increase in disease risk. The increasing rate of infection seems to be associated with the movement of this disease into the core of the Indiana bat range. Our

  20. Molecular insights into the evolutionary pathway of Vibrio cholerae O1 atypical El Tor variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lee, Dokyung; Moon, Se Hoon; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Ouk; Song, Manki; Das, Bhabatosh; Clemens, John D; Pape, Jean William; Nair, G Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

    2014-09-01

    Pandemic V. cholerae strains in the O1 serogroup have 2 biotypes: classical and El Tor. The classical biotype strains of the sixth pandemic, which encode the classical type cholera toxin (CT), have been replaced by El Tor biotype strains of the seventh pandemic. The prototype El Tor strains that produce biotype-specific cholera toxin are being replaced by atypical El Tor variants that harbor classical cholera toxin. Atypical El Tor strains are categorized into 2 groups, Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains, based on genomic variations and the CTX phage that they harbor. Whole-genome analysis of V. cholerae strains in the seventh cholera pandemic has demonstrated gradual changes in the genome of prototype and atypical El Tor strains, indicating that atypical strains arose from the prototype strains by replacing the CTX phages. We examined the molecular mechanisms that effected the emergence of El Tor strains with classical cholera toxin-carrying phage. We isolated an intermediary V. cholerae strain that carried two different CTX phages that encode El Tor and classical cholera toxin, respectively. We show here that the intermediary strain can be converted into various Wave 2 strains and can act as the source of the novel mosaic CTX phages. These results imply that the Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains may have been generated from such intermediary strains in nature. Prototype El Tor strains can become Wave 3 strains by excision of CTX-1 and re-equipping with the new CTX phages. Our data suggest that inter-chromosomal recombination between 2 types of CTX phages is possible when a host bacterial cell is infected by multiple CTX phages. Our study also provides molecular insights into population changes in V. cholerae in the absence of significant changes to the genome but by replacement of the CTX prophage that they harbor.

  1. First Japanese case of infectious endocarditis due to Enterococcus faecalis small-colony variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Shinji; Saito, Ryoichi; Sawabe, Etsuko; Hagihara, Michio; Tohda, Shuji

    2016-10-01

    A male patient was admitted to our hospital due to infectious endocarditis. He had been treated with levofloxacin for 6 weeks, sulbactam/cefoperazone for 4 weeks, and benzylpenicillin for 2 days prior to valve replacement surgery. Gram-positive cocci, with morphology consistent with γ-Streptococcus, were detected in blood cultures obtained at admission, as well as in vegetation obtained from the aortic valve. However, the strain could not be identified using biochemical methods. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the culture was a small-colony variant of Enterococcus faecalis. This is the first case in Japan of infectious endocarditis due to E. faecalis small-colony variants. Small-colony variants are subpopulations of bacteria with slow growth, reduced sugar fermentation, and unstable phenotype. As a result, these strains tend to be misidentified. Further, small-colony variants are associated with recurrent and persistent infections such as prosthetic joint infection and infectious endocarditis. These strains are found in various bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but rarely in Enterococcus species. The case highlights the need to be vigilant of E. faecalis small-colony variants, especially in patients who received long-term courses of antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Data base for assessment of streambed scour and channel instability at selected bridges in Indiana, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mark S.; Robinson, Bret A.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation, has collected data at 5,587 bridges in Indiana built with federal aid. These data, which can be useful for assessing Streambed scour and channel instability, are maintained in a computerized data base at the U.S. Geological Survey in Indianapolis, Indiana. The data elements are grouped under one of five headings: General Site Characteristics, Observed and Calculated Scour Characteristics, Bridge Characteristics, Stream Characteristics, and Debris Characteristics. The description of the data in each group includes the element name; examples of the data from bridge number 89-54 crossing Lick Creek in Wayne County, Indiana; and a brief description of each element. The data already have been used in Indiana to produce an observed-scour index and a potential-scour index and may be useful in other applications as well. For computers with Internet access, the files containing the data for all 5,587 sites are available for downloading at the following URL:

  3. Allele Variants of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Are Globally Transmitted and Associated with Colonization Factors

    KAUST Repository

    Joffré, Enrique

    2015-01-15

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally.

  4. Allele Variants of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Are Globally Transmitted and Associated with Colonization Factors

    KAUST Repository

    Joffré , Enrique; von Mentzer, Astrid; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Oezguen, Numan; Savidge, Tor; Dougan, Gordon; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjö ling, Å sa

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally.

  5. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  6. Epidemiological dynamics of norovirus GII.4 variant New Orleans 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Maria Cristina; Tummolo, Fabio; De Grazia, Simona; Calderaro, Adriana; De Conto, Flora; Terio, Valentina; Chironna, Maria; Bonura, Floriana; Pucci, Marzia; Bányai, Kristián; Martella, Vito; Giammanco, Giovanni Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is one of the major causes of diarrhoeal disease with epidemic, outbreak and sporadic patterns in humans of all ages worldwide. NoVs of genotype GII.4 cause nearly 80-90 % of all NoV infections in humans. Periodically, some GII.4 strains become predominant, generating major pandemic variants. Retrospective analysis of the GII.4 NoV strains detected in Italy between 2007 and 2013 indicated that the pandemic variant New Orleans 2009 emerged in Italy in the late 2009, became predominant in 2010-2011 and continued to circulate in a sporadic fashion until April 2013. Upon phylogenetic analysis based on the small diagnostic regions A and C, the late New Orleans 2009 NoVs circulating during 2011-2013 appeared to be genetically different from the early New Orleans 2009 strains that circulated in 2010. For a selection of strains, a 3.2 kb genome portion at the 3' end was sequenced. In the partial ORF1 and in the full-length ORF2 and ORF3, the 2011-2013 New Orleans NoVs comprised at least three distinct genetic subclusters. By comparison with sequences retrieved from the databases, these subclusters were also found to circulate globally, suggesting that the local circulation reflected repeated introductions of different strains, rather than local selection of novel viruses. Phylogenetic subclustering did not correlate with changes in residues located in predicted putative capsid epitopes, although several changes affected the P2 domain in epitopes A, C, D and E.

  7. The Impact of School Accountability Laws on Measures of Trust between Indiana Public School Superintendents and Teacher Union Leaders within the Forum of Mandatory Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the school accountability laws "No Child Left Behind" and Indiana's Public Law 221 on Superintendents' perception of their relationship with the Teachers' Union Leader in their mandatory discussion meetings. Both school accountability laws contain provisions for the Indiana's Department of Education to…

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Five-Factor Personality Traits Model as Predictors among Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Fields at Indiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Sowmya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify any trends in personality traits of students at a mid-western university along with the influence of gender, choice of STEM or non-STEM academic major, and level of education on personality traits. The chosen mid-western university is Indiana State University (ISU) located in Terre Haute, Indiana. This…

  9. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Sequence Variants of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Genes from Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are very harmful to living organisms due to the potential oxidation of membrane lipids, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. Transformed E.coli strain QC 871, superoxide dismutase (SOD) double-mutant, with three sequence variant MnSOD1, MnSOD2, and MnSOD3 manganese supero...

  10. In vitro selection of rape variants resistant to oxalic acid using haploid stem apexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yifei; Huang Jianhua; Lu Ruiju; Sun Yuefang; Zhou Runmei; Zhou Zhijiang; Xie Zhujie; Liu Chenghong

    2002-01-01

    Mutagenic treatment was made of the haploid stem apexes rape strain '9841' and '9885' with Pingyangmycin. As a result of positive selection with oxalic acid providing selection pressure, variants with significantly higher tolerance to oxalic acid than the original ones were obtained. 3 germplasm with significantly higher resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than cultivar Hu You 12 were selected from field test

  11. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  12. Ultrastructural studies on variants of Streptomyces SP-765 obtained after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasova, D.I.; Krystev, Kh.I.; Todorov, I.O.; Dzhedzheva, G.M.; Popov, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The study has been carried out with two variants of Streptomyces SP-765, gray and olygosporous, obtained after 1000 Gy gamma irradiation of spore suspension from the initial strain. The gray variant has chains of spores which are oval or oblong with rounded-off edges. Sporulation is highly inhibited in the olygosporous variant. Eleven electron-microscopic pictures of ultrathin sections from colonies of the two variants are presented. The gray variant reveals the presence of a large number of lyzed cells, spores, and scarce vegetative cells; typical of the lyzed cells are the spherical and highly osmiophilic formations on the outer and inner surface of their cytoplasmic membrane. The oligosporous variant shows lyzed cells of various sizes, cells void of content with thick walls, relativelly small number of vegetative cells and individual wall-less cells, shperoplast and protoplast formation, lamellar membrane structure of nearly all cells. Both lyzed and vegetable cells have individual anomalous form containing daughter cells. The conclusion is made that gray and oligosporous variants of Streptomyces SP-765, obtained after irradiation of its spores, possess different ultrastructural organization

  13. Microcystic Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma is one of the new variants of urothelial carcinoma that was added to the WHO classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma. Methods. Various internet search engines were used to identify reported cases of the tumour. Results. Microscopic features of the tumour include: (i Conspicuous intracellular and intercellular lumina/microcysts encompassed by malignant urothelial or squamous cells. (ii The lumina are usually empty; may contain granular eosinophilic debris, mucin, or necrotic cells. (iii The cysts may be variable in size; round, or oval, up to 2 mm; lined by urothelium which are either flattened cells or low columnar cells however, they do not contain colonic epithelium or goblet cells; are infiltrative; invade the muscularis propria; mimic cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis; occasionally exhibit neuroendocrine differentiation. (iv Elongated and irregular branching spaces are usually seen. About 17 cases of the tumour have been reported with only 2 patients who have survived. The tumour tends to be of high-grade and high-stage. There is no consensus opinion on the best option of treatment of the tumour. Conclusions. It would prove difficult at the moment to be dogmatic regarding its prognosis but it is a highly aggressive tumour. New cases of the tumour should be reported in order to document its biological behaviour.

  14. Water-resources programs and hydrologic-information needs, Marion County, Indiana, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwelius, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources are abundant in Marion County, Indiana, and have been developed for public and industrial supply, energy generation, irrigation, and recreation. The largest water withdrawals are from surface water, and the two largest water uses are public supply and cooling water for electrical-generating plants. Water-resources programs in the county are carried out by Federal, State and local agencies to address issues of surface and groundwater availability and quality. The programs of each agency are related to the functions and goals of the agency. Although each agency has specific information needs to fulfill its functions, sometimes these needs overlap, and there are times when the same hydrologic information benefits all. Overlapping information needs and activities create opportunities for interagency coordination and cooperation. Such cooperation could lead to a savings of dollars spent on water-resources programs and could assure an improved understanding of the water resources of the county. Representatives from four agencies-- the Indiana Department of Environmental Management, the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, the Indianapolis Department of Public Works, and the U.S. Geological Survey--met four times in 1987 to describe their own water-resources programs, to identify hydrologic-information needs, and to contact other agencies with related programs. This report presents the interagency findings and is intended to further communication among water resource agencies by identifying current programs and common needs for hydrologic information. Hydrologic information needs identified by the agency representatives include more precise methods for determining the volume of water withdrawals and for determining the volume of industrial and municipal discharges to surface water. Maps of flood-prone areas need to be updated as more of the county is developed. Improved aquifer maps of the inter-till aquifers are needed, and additional observation

  15. Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates incorporating site effects - An example from Indiana, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, J.S.; Park, C.H.; Nowack, R.L.; Hill, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published probabilistic earthquake hazard maps for the United States based on current knowledge of past earthquake activity and geological constraints on earthquake potential. These maps for the central and eastern United States assume standard site conditions with Swave velocities of 760 m/s in the top 30 m. For urban and infrastructure planning and long-term budgeting, the public is interested in similar probabilistic seismic hazard maps that take into account near-surface geological materials. We have implemented a probabilistic method for incorporating site effects into the USGS seismic hazard analysis that takes into account the first-order effects of the surface geologic conditions. The thicknesses of sediments, which play a large role in amplification, were derived from a P-wave refraction database with over 13, 000 profiles, and a preliminary geology-based velocity model was constructed from available information on S-wave velocities. An interesting feature of the preliminary hazard maps incorporating site effects is the approximate factor of two increases in the 1-Hz spectral acceleration with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for parts of the greater Indianapolis metropolitan region and surrounding parts of central Indiana. This effect is primarily due to the relatively thick sequence of sediments infilling ancient bedrock topography that has been deposited since the Pleistocene Epoch. As expected, the Late Pleistocene and Holocene depositional systems of the Wabash and Ohio Rivers produce additional amplification in the southwestern part of Indiana. Ground motions decrease, as would be expected, toward the bedrock units in south-central Indiana, where motions are significantly lower than the values on the USGS maps.

  16. Indiana University receives grant from National Science Foundation to help build global grid network

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The NSF awarded a consortium of 15 universities $13.65 million to build the International Virtual Data Grid Laboratory, or iVDGL. The iVDGL will consist of a seamless network of thousands of computers at 40 locations in the US, Europe and Asia. These computers will work together as a powerful grid capable of handling petabytes of data. Indiana University will make significant contributions to this project by providing a prototype Tier-2 Data Center for the ATLAS high energy physics experiment and the International Grid Operations Center.

  17. Assessing the value of collaboration in tourism networks: A case study of Elkhart County, Indiana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian; Racherla, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the determinants of perceived value derived from interorganizational collaborations in a tourism destination. The authors propose a theoretical model of perceived value drawing upon the rich stream of literature related to strategic collaborations and interorganizational...... networks. The model was tested using a cross section of tourism organizations operating within Elkhart County, Indiana. The results indicate that a significant positive value of collaboration is achieved from dyadic relationships. Importantly, the results suggest that the positive effect achieved from one......-to-one partnerships decreases once an organization collaborates with several other organizations. The article discusses various implications for managing strategic tourism partnerships....

  18. Middle Holocene Changes in Midwestern Precipitation Intensity Captured by Indiana Stalagmites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, P. D.; Brook, G. A.; Liang, F.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Three stalagmites collected from Upper Porter Cave in southern Indiana provide a record of Midwestern hydroclimate changes for the period 2.3-8.4 ka BP. Our record spans the Middle Holocene, known as a time of mid-continental drying for North America and used as an analog for warmer future climates. The spatial extent of this drying is not well constrained, and some eastern North American records show wetter conditions coinciding with the drying of the continental interior. Southern Indiana is located on the eastern periphery of mid-continental North America, and our stalagmite records can help constrain the eastern extent of drying. Upper Porter Cave floods easily during heavy rain events, and modern observations suggest frequent cave flooding prevents stalagmite growth. Thus, we view periods of stalagmite growth as a proxy for a less intense and possibly drier precipitation regime that limits cave flooding. All three stalagmites began growing 8.4 ka BP and stopped growing 7.5 ka BP. This hiatus at 7.5 ka BP is associated with laminae dissolution and greater sediment incorporation (see image), supporting increased precipitation intensity and cave flooding at this time. This contrasts with concurrent drying in the mid-continent and suggests a Middle Holocene with a steeper east-west precipitation gradient than present. This period of greater precipitation intensity extended until 4.9 ka BP when one stalagmite re-initiated growth, possibly due to mid-continental dryness expanding eastward into southern Indiana. This renewed growth was intermittent at 4.7-4.9, 3.6-4.2, and 2.3-3.1 ka BP, and multi-century flood-driven hiatuses separate these drier periods. A more intense precipitation regime that lasts until present provoked final growth cessation at 2.3 ka BP. Combined with other regional hydroclimate records, our stalagmite suggests that the transition from the Middle to Late Holocene was a period of unstable precipitation regimes for the eastern mid

  19. The Impact of an Indiana (United States Drug Court on Criminal Recidivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Gallagher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated a drug court located in a metropolitan area of Indiana (United States, focusing specifically on identifying variables that predicted recidivism among drug court participants and comparing criminal recidivism patterns among drug court and probation participants. Drug court participants were most likely to recidivate if they were younger, had a violation within the first 30 days of the program, had a previous criminal record, and were terminated unsuccessfully from the program. Furthermore, drug court participants were less likely to recidivate than probationers who had similar offense and demographic characteristics. Implications for drug court practice, policy advocacy, and future research are discussed.

  20. New Chicago-Indiana computer network prepared to handle massive data flow

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The Chicago-Indiana system is ont of five Tier-2 (regional) centers in the United States that will receive data from one of four massive detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory in Geneva. When the new instrument begins operating late next year, beams of protons will collide 40 million times a second. When each of those proton beams reaches full intensity, each collision will produce approximately 23 interactions between protons that will create various types of subatomic particles." (1,5 page)

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Wind Turbine Generators at the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joseph Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot site in Newport, Indiana, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the sitefor possible wind turbine electrical generator installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different wind energy options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a wind system at the site.

  2. Indiana University high energy physics group, task C: Technical progress report, December 1, 1987-November 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.R.; Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of the US software effort. We have been performing extensive Monte Carlo design and data analysis calculations. We are also doing development work on the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are setting up a Quality Assurance liquid scintillator laboratory in Frascati, Italy. We are producing vertical scintillator tank endplates and calibration boats in our machine shop

  3. Variant selection of primary, secondary and tertiary twins in a deformed Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Sijia; Jonas, John J.; Gottstein, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Samples of magnesium alloy AZ31 were deformed in plane strain compression in a channel die at 100 °C and a strain rate of 5 × 10 −3 s −1 . The initial texture was favorably oriented for extension twinning. At a true strain of ε = −0.11, many primary extension twins were observed to consume their parent grains completely. Furthermore, numerous secondary contraction twins formed within the primary extension twins and some tertiary extension twins grew within the secondary contraction twins. The orientations of the parent grains and all three generations of twins were measured. The twin variants selected during each of the three stages of twinning were determined by electron backscatter diffraction techniques and the absent potential twin variants were also identified. The way in which the selected primary extension twins grow so as to consume the parent grains and contact all the neighboring grains is explained in terms of the accommodation strains imposed on the neighboring grains. The analysis shows that the primary twin selected is not necessarily the variant with the highest Schmid factor but the one that requires the least accommodation work in most of the neighboring grains. The same principle was found to hold for the secondary and tertiary twins. By contrast, potential high Schmid factor twins that required the consumption of appreciable accommodation energy did not form. A Taylor simulation produced similar results and indicates that the accommodation strain concept is consistent with the principle of the minimization of plastic work.

  4. A live, attenuated pseudorabies virus strain JS-2012 deleted for gE/gI protects against both classical and emerging strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wu; Li, Guoxin; Liang, Chao; Liu, Fei; Tian, Qing; Cao, Yanyun; Li, Lin; Zheng, Xuchen; Zheng, Hao; Tong, Guangzhi

    2016-06-01

    Emerging pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant have led to pseudorabies outbreaks in Chinese pig farms. The commercially available PRV vaccine provides poor protection against the PRV variant. In this study, a gE/gI deleted PRV strain JS-2012-△gE/gI was generated from a PRV variant strain using homologous DNA recombination. Compared to the parental strain JS-2012, JS-2012-△gE/gI grew slowly and showed small plaque morphology on Vero cells. The safety and immunological efficacy of JS-2012-△gE/gI was evaluated as a vaccine candidate. JS-2012-△gE/gI was avirulent to suckling piglets, but was able to provide full protection for young piglets against challenge with both the classical virulent PRV and the emerging PRV variant. After sows were vaccinated with the gE/gI-deleted strain, their suckling offspring were resistant to an otherwise lethal challenge with the classical and the variant PRVs. Piglets inoculated with JS-2012-△gE/gI did not develop PRV-specific gE-ELISA antibodies. Thus, JS-2012-△gE/gI appears to be a promising marker vaccine candidate to control PRV variant circulating in pig farms in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces pigment production and enhances virulence in a white phenotypic variant of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonic, Vlado; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Zhang, Binxue; Izadjoo, Mina J; Alavi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin is a virulence factor which protects Staphylococcus aureus in stress conditions. We isolated two pigment variants of S. aureus and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a single wound infection. S. aureus variants displayed white and yellow colony phenotypes. The sequence of the operons for staphyloxanthin synthesis indicated that coding and promoter regions were identical between the two pigment variants. Quorum sensing controls pigment synthesis in some bacteria. It is also shown that P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecules affect S. aureus transcription. We explored whether the co-infecting P. aeruginosa can affect pigment production in the white S. aureus variant. In co-culture experiments between the white variants and a selected number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, only P. aeruginosa induced pigment production in the white variant. Gene expression analysis of the white variant did not indicate upregulation of the crtM and other genes known to be involved in pigment production (sigB, sarA, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene [FPP-synthase], hfq). In contrast, transcription of the catalase gene was significantly upregulated after co-culture. P. aeruginosa-induced pigment synthesis and catalase upregulation correlated with increased resistance to polymyxin B, hydrogen peroxide, and the intracellular environment of macrophages. Our data indicate the presence of silent but functional staphyloxanthin synthesis machinery in a white phenotypic variant of S. aureus which is activated by a co-infecting P. aeruginosa via inter-species communication. Another S. aureus virulence factor, catalase is also induced by this co-infecting bacterium. The resulting phenotypic changes are directly correlated with resistance of the white variant to stressful conditions.

  6. Building a stakeholder network for the Indiana Climate Change Impacts Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, J. S.; Widhalm, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Indiana Climate Change Impacts Assessment (IN CCIA) is a stakeholder-informed, service-driven resource developed under the coordination of the Purdue Climate Change Research Center (PCCRC) and with involvement from a diverse mix of contributors throughout the state. The IN CCIA brings together the best available climate change research into a series of reports aimed at helping Hoosiers better understand climate change-related risks so they can prepare for challenges and capitalize on opportunities. The IN CCIA development process aims to 1) increase the dialogue about climate change across the state, 2) provide Indiana decision makers with accessible, credible climate impact information, and 3) build a network of experts and stakeholders to support ongoing assessment efforts and knowledge sharing. This presentation will report on our experience with developing and maintaining a diverse stakeholder network. We will describe our efforts to connect with stakeholders before, during, and after the development of assessment reports and share the top themes that emerged from our pre-assessment inquires and other interactions.

  7. Ecosystem level assessment of the Grand Calumet Lagoons, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, P.M. [National Biological Service, Porter, IN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Grand Calumet Lagoons make up the eastern section of the Grand Calumet River (GCR), Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal and nearshore Lake Michigan Area of Concern (AOC). The GCR AOC is the only one of the 42 Great Lakes Areas of Concern identified by the International Joint Commission with all 14 designated uses classified as impaired. Included within the boundaries of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (INDU), is the central section of the Grand Calumet Lagoons. A number of biotic and abiotic factors were tested to determine the effects of an industrial landfill that borders the lagoons to assess the potential impact on park resources. Analysis included water quality testing, assessments of macroinvertebrate, fish, algae and aquatic plant communities and contaminant concentrations in water, sediment and plant and fish tissue. Surface water testing found very few contaminants, but significantly higher nutrient levels were found in the water column closest to the landfill. Macroinvertebrate, aquatic plant and fish communities all showed significant impairment in relationship to their proximity to the landfill. Aquatic plant growth habit became limited next to the landfill with certain growth habits disappearing entirely. Aquatic plants collected close to the landfill had high concentrations of several heavy metals in their stems and shoots. Using the index of biotic integrity (IBI), fish community assessment indicated impairment in the areas adjacent to the landfill. Sediments tested at one site had over 12% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from this site had whole fish tissue concentrations over 1 mg/kg PAH.

  8. Population-level impact of white-nose syndrome on the endangered Indiana bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; King, R. Andrew; McKann, Patrick C.; Szymanski, Jennifer A.; Pruitt, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Establishing status and trend for an endangered species is critical to recovery, especially when it is faced with a nascent extinction agent. We calculated, with hierarchical log-linear change-point models, hibernaculum-level population trends between 1983 and 2009 for the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) now subjected to the fast-spreading fungal disease white-nose syndrome. We combined trends from 222 wintering populations before and after onset of the disease to determine trend for clusters of interacting wintering populations, recovery units, and the species. Before onset of the disease, a west-to-east gradient in trends existed, with westernmost populations declining and easternmost populations increasing in abundance. The species as a whole, however, was stationary between 1983 and 2005 (-0.5% mean annual change; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.8, +1.8%). Estimated mean population size in 2009 was 377,124 bats (195,398-957,348), with large variance apparently caused by white-nose syndrome. With the onset of white-nose syndrome (2006-2009), the species exhibited a 10.3% annual decline (95% CI = -21.1, +2.0%). White-nose syndrome is having an appreciable influence on the status and trends of Indiana bat populations, stalling and in some cases reversing population gains made in recent years.

  9. Vulnerable transportation and utility assets near actively migrating streams in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperl, Benjamin J.

    2017-11-02

    An investigation was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs that found 1,132 transportation and utility assets in Indiana are vulnerable to fluvial erosion hazards due to close proximity to actively migrating streams. Locations of transportation assets (bridges, roadways, and railroad lines) and selected utility assets (high-capacity overhead power-transmission lines, underground pipelines, water treatment facilities, and in-channel dams) were determined using aerial imagery hosted by the Google Earth platform. Identified assets were aggregated by stream reach, county, and class. Accompanying the report is a polyline shapefile of the stream reaches documented by Robinson. The shapefile, derived from line work in the National Hydrography Dataset and attributed with channel migration rates, is released with complete Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata. The data presented in this report are intended to help stakeholders and others identify high-risk areas where transportation and utility assets may be threatened by fluvial erosion hazards thus warranting consideration for mitigation strategies.

  10. Flood-inundation maps for the St. Marys River at Decatur, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Kellan R.

    2015-08-24

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.9-mile reach of the St. Marys River at Decatur, Indiana, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/), depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) of the St. Marys River at Decatur (USGS station number 04181500). The maps are useful for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation by referencing concurrent USGS streamgage information at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/. In addition, the streamgage information was provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed during this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.

  11. Flood-inundation maps for the White River at Indianapolis, Indiana, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile reach of the White River in Indianapolis, Indiana, from 0.3 miles upstream of Michigan Street to the Harding Street Generating Station dam (at the confluence with Lick Creek), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the White River at Indianapolis, Ind. (station number 03353000). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service athttp://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site.

  12. Indiana Advanced Electric Vehicle Training and Education Consortium (I-AEVtec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruthers, James; Dietz, J.; Pelter, Libby; Chen, Jie; Roberson, Glen; McGinn, Paul; Kizhanipuram, Vinodegopal

    2013-01-31

    The Indiana Advanced Electric Vehicle Training and Education Consortium (I-AEVtec) is an educational partnership between six universities and colleges in Indiana focused on developing the education materials needed to support electric vehicle technology. The I-AEVtec has developed and delivered a number of degree and certificate programs that address various aspects of electric vehicle technology, including over 30 new or significantly modified courses to support these programs. These courses were shared on the SmartEnergyHub. The I-AEVtec program also had a significant outreach to the community with particular focus on K12 students. Finally, the evGrandPrix was established which is a university/college student electric go-kart race, where the students get hands-on experience in designing, building and racing electric vehicles. The evGrandPrix now includes student teams from across the US as well as from Europe and it is currently being held on Opening Day weekend for the Indy500 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.

  13. Indiana Wesleyan University SPS Physics Outreach to Rural Middle School and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Joshua; Rose, Heath; Burchell, Robert; Ramos, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    The Society of Physics Students chapter at Indiana Wesleyan University is unusual in that it has no physics major, only physics minors. Yet while just over a year old, IWU-SPS has been active in performing physics outreach to middle school and high school students, and the rural community of Grant County. Our year-old SPS chapter consists of majors from Chemistry, Nursing, Biology, Exercise Science, Computer Science, Psychology, Pastoral Studies, and Science Education, who share a common interest in physics and service to the community. IWU currently has a physics minor and is currently working to build a physics major program. Despite the intrinsic challenges, our multi-disciplinary group has been successful at using physics demonstration equipment and hands-on activities and their universal appeal to raise the interest in physics in Grant County. We report our experience, challenges, and successes with physics outreach. We describe in detail our two-pronged approach: raising the level of physics appreciation among the IWU student community and among pre-college students in a rural community of Indiana. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge the support of the Society of Physics Students through a Marsh White Outreach Award and a Blake Lilly Prize.

  14. School District Fiscal Strain: Implications for State and Federal Financial Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert; Yagielski, John

    1982-01-01

    Uses a model portraying school district decision makers as "consumers" to analyze fiscal strain's causes (enrollment decline, input price increases, and changes in input mix) as variants of the general consumer model. Measures the impact of each cause of fiscal strain and discusses implications for state and federal aid. (Author/RW)

  15. Shift-Variant Multidimensional Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-29

    x,y;u,v) is the system response at (x,y) to an unit impulse applied at (u,v). The presence of additive noise in the preceding input-output model of a...space model developed works very effi- ciently to deblur images affected by 2-D linear shift- varying blurs, its use, in presence of noise needs to be...causal linear shift-variant (LSV) system, whose impulse res- ponse is a K-th order degenerate sequence, a K-th order state-space model was obtained

  16. 77 FR 24734 - Final White-tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Indiana Dunes National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... National Lakeshore, 1100 North Mineral Springs Road, Porter, Indiana 46304; telephone 219-395- 1550. A copy... time to ensure that the local deer population does not become a dominant force that negatively... populations that provides multi-year (three to five years) efficacy for does. Alternative C would include all...

  17. 78 FR 56695 - Proposed Listing of Additional Waters To Be Included on Indiana's 2010 List of Impaired Waters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9900-95--Region 5] Proposed Listing of Additional Waters To Be Included on Indiana's 2010 List of Impaired Waters Under the Clean Water Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: EPA is reopening the comment period...

  18. 76 FR 66775 - Emergency Temporary Closure of the I-64 Sherman-Minton Bridge Over the Ohio River Between Indiana...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Temporary Closure of the I-64 Sherman-Minton Bridge Over the Ohio River Between Indiana and Kentucky... Transportation to continue temporary closure of the I-64 Sherman-Minton Bridge over the Ohio River between... Administration (FHWA) announces the continued closure of the I-64 Sherman-Minton Bridge over the Ohio River...

  19. Reading and Reality. Proceedings of the Annual Reading Conference (14th, Terre Haute, Indiana, June 14, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Vanita M., Comp.; Waterman, David C., Comp.

    Intended for reading teachers, this pamphlet contains the presentations of the 14th annual reading conference at Indiana State University, beginning with opening remarks by David C. Waterman and welcoming comments by J. Stephen Hazlett. In the opening address, "What Good is Comprehension without Composition?" by Sharon and David Moore, the role of…

  20. 77 FR 61657 - Indiana Northeastern Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Branch and St. Joseph Counties, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Northeastern Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Branch and St. Joseph Counties, MI Indiana... Branch County, Mich., and milepost 100.69 near Sturgis in St. Joseph County, Mich. (the Line). The Line... .'' Decided: October 2, 2012. By the Board, Rachel D. Campbell, Director, Office of Proceedings. Derrick A...

  1. Cutting through Complexity: Using Behavioral Science to Improve Indiana's Child Care Subsidy Program. OPRE Report 2016-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechausay, Nadine; Anzelone, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a collaboration between the Indiana Office of Early Childhood and Out-of-School Learning (OECOSL) and the Behavioral Interventions to Advance Self-Sufficiency (BIAS) team. The OECOSL is the lead agency responsible for administering the state's Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), which provides child care subsidies to…

  2. The Expanded Core Curriculum at the Indiana School for the Blind and Visually Impaired: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Gail Mulholland

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigated how the Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC) was taught to high school students who are blind or visually impaired at the Indiana School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (ISBVI). The study focused on three students pursing different academic tracks with varying degrees of vision. The students were observed throughout…

  3. How Property Tax Caps and Funding Formulas Have Changed the Role of the School Superintendent in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Patrick L.; Hirth, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    There has been debate among states as to how to properly fund schools. The debate has been focused on how much funding is supplied through property tax and is motivated by tax payer anger over fluctuating tax bills. Many of the policies have been implemented without looking at the effects that they will have on schools, especially in Indiana,…

  4. Variation in catchment areas of Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) hibernacula inferred from stable hydrogen (δ2H) isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.R. Britzke; S.C. Loeb; C.S. Romanek; K.A. Hobson; M.J. Vonhof

    2013-01-01

    Understanding seasonal movements of bats is important for effective conservation efforts. Although female Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis Miller and Allen, 1928) have been documented to migrate >500 km, knowledge of their migratory patterns is still extremely limited. We used the relationship between latitude and stable hydrogen isotope ratio in bat hair (δ...

  5. 76 FR 71604 - Kamal Tiwari, M.D.; Pain Management and Surgery Center of Southern Indiana; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ..., and his principal place of business, the Pain Management and Surgery Center (Respondent PMSC), holder... Certificate of Registration, BP4917413, issued to Respondent Pain Management and Surgery Center of Southern..., M.D. and Pain Management and Surgery Center of Southern Indiana, to renew or modify such...

  6. "El Miedo y El Hambre": Understanding the Familial, Social, and Educational Realities of Undocumented Latino Families in North Central Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viramontez Anguiano, Ruben P.; Lopez, Anayeli

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how different ecological factors, within and outside the family, affected the educational success of the children of undocumented families. The sample consisted of 63 immigrant Latino parents (40 families) who resided in North Central Indiana. This study utilized an ethnographic research design. Findings demonstrated that…

  7. Schools' Responses to Voucher Policy: Participation Decisions and Early Implementation Experiences in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…

  8. A novel pAA virulence plasmid encoding toxins and two distinct variants of the fimbriae of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Rie; Struve, Carsten; Boll, Erik J.

    2017-01-01

    phylogenetically distinct, strains harboring the major pilin subunits from both AAF/III and AAF/V. Whole-genome and plasmid sequencing revealed that in these six strains the agg3A and agg5A genes were located on a novel pAA plasmid variant. Moreover, the plasmid also encoded several other virulence genes including...... some not previously found on pAA plasmids. Thus, this plasmid endows the host strains with a remarkably high number of EAEC associated virulence genes hereby likely promoting strain pathogenicity....

  9. Molecular Evolution of the VP1 Gene in Human Norovirus GII.4 Variants in 1974–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Motoya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human norovirus (HuNoV is a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide, of which GII.4 is the most predominant genotype. Unlike other genotypes, GII.4 has created various variants that escaped from previously acquired immunity of the host and caused repeated epidemics. However, the molecular evolutionary differences among all GII.4 variants, including recently discovered strains, have not been elucidated. Thus, we conducted a series of bioinformatic analyses using numerous, globally collected, full-length GII.4 major capsid (VP1 gene sequences (466 strains to compare the evolutionary patterns among GII.4 variants. The time-scaled phylogenetic tree constructed using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method showed that the common ancestor of the GII.4 VP1 gene diverged from GII.20 in 1840. The GII.4 genotype emerged in 1932, and then formed seven clusters including 14 known variants after 1980. The evolutionary rate of GII.4 strains was estimated to be 7.68 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year. The evolutionary rates probably differed among variants as well as domains [protruding 1 (P1, shell, and P2 domains]. The Osaka 2007 variant strains probably contained more nucleotide substitutions than any other variant. Few conformational epitopes were located in the shell and P1 domains, although most were contained in the P2 domain, which, as previously established, is associated with attachment to host factors and antigenicity. We found that positive selection sites for the whole GII.4 genotype existed in the shell and P1 domains, while Den Haag 2006b, New Orleans 2009, and Sydney 2012 variants were under positive selection in the P2 domain. Amino acid substitutions overlapped with putative epitopes or were located around the epitopes in the P2 domain. The effective population sizes of the present strains increased stepwise for Den Haag 2006b, New Orleans 2009, and Sydney 2012 variants. These results suggest that HuNoV GII.4 rapidly

  10. Human polyomavirus JC variants in Papua New Guinea and Guam reflect ancient population settlement and viral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryschkewitsch, C F; Friedlaender, J S; Mgone, C S; Jobes, D V; Agostini, H T; Chima, S C; Alpers, M P; Koki, G; Yanagihara, R; Stoner, G L

    2000-07-01

    The peopling of the Pacific was a complex sequence of events that is best reconstructed by reconciling insights from various disciplines. Here we analyze the human polyomavirus JC (JCV) in Highlanders of Papua New Guinea (PNG), in Austronesian-speaking Tolai people on the island of New Britain, and in nearby non-Austronesian-speaking Baining people. We also characterize JCV from the Chamorro of Guam, a Micronesian population. All JCV strains from PNG and Guam fall within the broad Asian group previously defined in the VP1 gene as Type 2 or Type 7, but the PNG strains were distinct from both genotypes. Among the Chamorro JCV samples, 8 strains (Guam-1) were like the Type 7 strains found in Southeast Asia, while nine strains (Guam-2) were distinct from both the mainland strains and most PNG strains. We identified three JCV variants within Papua New Guinea (PNG-1, PNG-2 and PNG-3), but none of the Southeast Asian (Type 7) strains. PNG-1 strains were present in all three populations (Highlanders and the Baining and Tolai of New Britain), but PNG-2 strains were restricted to the Highlanders. Their relative lack of DNA sequence variation suggests that they arose comparatively recently. The single PNG-3 strain, identified in an Austronesian-speaking Tolai individual, was closely related to the Chamorro variants (Guam-2), consistent with a common Austronesian ancestor. In PNG-2 variants a complex regulatory region mutation inserts a duplication into a nearby deletion, a change reminiscent of those seen in the brains of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patients. This is the first instance of a complex JCV rearrangement circulating in a human population.

  11. Flood-inundation maps for the Mississinewa River at Marion, Indiana, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9-mile (mi) reach of the Mississinewa River from 0.75 mi upstream from the Pennsylvania Street bridge in Marion, Indiana, to 0.2 mi downstream from State Route 15 were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Mississinewa River at Marion (station number 03326500). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site. Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the current stage-discharge relation at the Mississinewa River streamgage, in combination with water-surface profiles from historic floods and from the current (2002) flood-insurance study for Grant County, Indiana. The hydraulic model was then used to compute seven water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-fo (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 10 ft, which is near bankfull, to 16 ft, which is between the water levels associated with the estimated 10- and 2-percent annual exceedance probability floods (floods with recurrence interval between 10 and 50 years) and equals the “major flood stage” as defined by the NWS. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data having a 0.98 ft vertical accuracy and 4.9 ft

  12. Flood-inundation maps for the Elkhart River at Goshen, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Kellan R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs, created digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.3-mile reach of the Elkhart River at Goshen, Indiana, extending from downstream of the Goshen Dam to downstream from County Road 17. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to nine selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Elkhart River at Goshen (station number 04100500). Current conditions for the USGS streamgages in Indiana may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/. In addition, stream stage data have been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Elkhart River at Goshen streamgage. The hydraulic model was then used to compute nine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull (5 ft) to greater than the highest recorded water level (13 ft). The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital-elevation model (DEM), derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and 3.9-ft horizontal resolution in order to delineate the area flooded at each

  13. Flood-inundation maps for the Driftwood River and Sugar Creek near Edinburgh, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.; Kim, Moon H.; Menke, Chad D.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 11.2 mile reach of the Driftwood River and a 5.2 mile reach of Sugar Creek, both near Edinburgh, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Camp Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center, Edinburgh, Indiana. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 03363000 Driftwood River near Edinburgh, Ind. Current conditions at the USGS streamgage in Indiana may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/current/?type=flow. In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/. The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated at USGS streamgages. That forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. For this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the USGS streamgage 03363000 Driftwood River near Edinburgh, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to determine elevations throughout the study reaches for nine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to nearly the highest recorded water level at the USGS streamgage 03363000 Driftwood River near Edinburgh, Ind. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geospatial digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to

  14. Flood-inundation maps for the Tippecanoe River near Delphi, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Chad D.; Bunch, Aubrey R.; Kim, Moon H.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 11-mile reach of the Tippecanoe River that extends from County Road W725N to State Road 18 below Oakdale Dam, Indiana (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03333050, Tippecanoe River near Delphi, Ind. Current conditions at the USGS streamgages in Indiana may be obtained online at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/current/?type=flow. In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often co-located at USGS streamgages. That forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, water-surface profiles were simulated for the stream reach by means of a hydraulic one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at USGS streamgage 03333050, Tippecanoe River near Delphi, Ind., and USGS streamgage 03332605, Tippecanoe River below Oakdale Dam, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to simulate 13 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals reference to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to delineate the

  15. Competitive Dominance by a Bacteriocin-Producing Vibrio harveyi Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, P R; Sizemore, R K

    1982-09-01

    Vibrio (Beneckea) harveyi, a bioluminescent marine bacterium, has been shown to produce a bacteriocin-like substance the production of which is mediated by a plasmid. This substance is assumed to be proteinaceous because of its sensitivity to certain proteolytic enzymes. It is stable at low temperatures and can be concentrated by ammonium sulfate precipitation or negative-pressure dialysis. The molecular weight of the bacteriocin was determined to be 2.4 x 10 by molecular exclusion chromatography. Competition experiments indicated that bacteriocin-producing strains predominated over cured variants of the same strain in broth culture experiments. We studied several environmental parameters (pH, salinity, temperature, nutrient concentration) to determine their effects on the competitive advantage bestowed on a bacteriocin-producing strain. Under simulated free-living conditions, no competitive advantage attributable to bacteriocin production was observed. In a simulated enteric habitat, a bacteriocin-producing strain showed dramatic (>90%) inhibition of the sensitive strain within 24 h.

  16. Antigenic variants of yellow fever virus with an altered neurovirulence phenotype in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, K D; Xie, H; Ledger, T N; Campbell, G A; Barrett, A D

    1997-04-14

    The live-attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine virus, strain 17D-204, has long been known to consist of a heterologous population of virions. Gould et al. (J. Gen. Virol. 70, 1889-1894 (1989)) previously demonstrated that variant viruses exhibiting a YF wild-type-specific envelope (E) protein epitope are present at low frequency in the vaccine pool and were able to isolate representative virus variants with and without this epitope, designated 17D(+wt) and 17D(-wt), respectively. These variants were employed here in an investigation of YF virus pathogenesis in the mouse model. Both the 17D-204 parent and the 17D(+wt) variant viruses were lethal for adult outbred mice by the intracerebral route of inoculation. However, the 17D(-wt) variant was significantly attenuated (18% mortality rate) and replicated to much lower titer in the brains of infected mice. A single amino acid substitution in the envelope (E) protein at E-240 (Ala-->Val) was identified as responsible for the restricted replication of the 17D(-wt) variant in vivo. The 17D(+wt) variant has an additional second-site mutation, believed to encode a reversion to the neurovirulence phenotype of the 17D-204 parent virus. The amino acid substitution in the E protein at E-173 (Thr-->Ile) of the 17D(+wt) variant which results in the appearance of the wild-type-specific epitope or nucleotide changes in the 5' and 3' noncoding regions of the virus are proposed as a candidates.

  17. Developing consistent pronunciation models for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation lexicons often contain pronunciation variants. This can create two problems: It can be difficult to define these variants in an internally consistent way and it can also be difficult to extract generalised grapheme-to-phoneme rule sets...

  18. Semantic prioritization of novel causative genomic variants

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2017-04-17

    Discriminating the causative disease variant(s) for individuals with inherited or de novo mutations presents one of the main challenges faced by the clinical genetics community today. Computational approaches for variant prioritization include machine learning methods utilizing a large number of features, including molecular information, interaction networks, or phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate the PhenomeNET Variant Predictor (PVP) system that exploits semantic technologies and automated reasoning over genotype-phenotype relations to filter and prioritize variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets. We demonstrate the performance of PVP in identifying causative variants on a large number of synthetic whole exome and whole genome sequences, covering a wide range of diseases and syndromes. In a retrospective study, we further illustrate the application of PVP for the interpretation of whole exome sequencing data in patients suffering from congenital hypothyroidism. We find that PVP accurately identifies causative variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets and provides a powerful resource for the discovery of causal variants.

  19. Semantic prioritization of novel causative genomic variants

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene; Mohamad Razali, Rozaimi; Kulmanov, Maxat; Hashish, Yasmeen; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Goncalves-Serra, Eva; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Schofield, Paul N.; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Discriminating the causative disease variant(s) for individuals with inherited or de novo mutations presents one of the main challenges faced by the clinical genetics community today. Computational approaches for variant prioritization include machine learning methods utilizing a large number of features, including molecular information, interaction networks, or phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate the PhenomeNET Variant Predictor (PVP) system that exploits semantic technologies and automated reasoning over genotype-phenotype relations to filter and prioritize variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets. We demonstrate the performance of PVP in identifying causative variants on a large number of synthetic whole exome and whole genome sequences, covering a wide range of diseases and syndromes. In a retrospective study, we further illustrate the application of PVP for the interpretation of whole exome sequencing data in patients suffering from congenital hypothyroidism. We find that PVP accurately identifies causative variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets and provides a powerful resource for the discovery of causal variants.

  20. Fundamental Characteristics of Industrial Variant Specification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    fundamental concepts related to this task, which are relevant to understand for academia and practitioners working with the subject. This is done through a description of variant specification tasks and typical aspects of system solutions. To support the description of variant specification tasks and systems...

  1. Characterization of form variants of Xenorhabdus luminescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, L.J.M.; Raay, de G.; Smits, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    From Xenorhabdus luminescens XE-87.3 four variants were isolated. One, which produced a red pigment and antibiotics, was luminescent, and could take up dye from culture media, was considered the primary form (XE-red). A pink-pigmented variant (XE-pink) differed from the primary form only in

  2. CLEVER: Clique-Enumerating Variant Finder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschall, T.; Costa, I.; Canzar, S.; bauer, m; Klau, G.W.; Schliep, A.; Schönhuth, A.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Next-generation sequencing techniques have facilitated a large-scale analysis of human genetic variation. Despite the advances in sequencing speed, the computational discovery of structural variants is not yet standard. It is likely that many variants have remained undiscovered in most

  3. Watershed Boundaries - WATERSHEDS_HUC06_USGS_IN: 6-Digit Accounting Units, Hydrologic Units, in Indiana, (Derived from US Geological Survey, 1:24,000 Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — WATERSHEDS_HUC06_USGS_IN is a polygon shapefile showing the boundaries of accounting units (HUA) in Indiana. Accounting units are noted by a 6-digit hydrologic unit....

  4. Demographic Data - URBAN_AREAS_TIGER00_IN: Indiana Major Urban Areas (U.S. Census Bureau, 1:100,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — URBAN_AREAS_TIGER00_IN contains major urban areas in Indiana identified by the US Bureau of the Census. Data is from U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau,...

  5. Hydrography - RIVERS_OUTSTANDING_NRC_IN: Outstanding Rivers in Indiana Listed by the Natural Resource Commission (Bernardin-Lochmueller and Associates, 1:100,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — RIVERS_OUTSTANDING_NRC_IN represents river and stream segments on the NRC’s Outstanding Rivers list for Indiana. The source data was last updated in October 1997....

  6. Index Grids - QUADRANGLES_24K_USGS_IN: Boundaries of 7.5-Minute Quadrangles in Indiana, (United States Geological Survey, 1:24,000 Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — QUADRANGLES_24K_USGS_IN is a polygon shapefile defining the boundaries of the USGS 7.5-minute (1:24,000-scale) quadrangles which cover the state of Indiana. Dates of...

  7. Water Quality Data from Two Agricultural Drainage Basins in Northwestern Indiana and Northeastern Illinois: I. Lagrangian and Synoptic Data, 1999-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antweiler, Ronald C; Smith, Richard L; Voytek, Mary A; Boehlke, John-Karl; Richards, Kevin D

    2004-01-01

    Methods of data collection and results of analyses are presented for Lagrangian and synoptic water-quality data collected from two agricultural drainages, the Iroquois River in northwestern Indiana...

  8. Environmental Setting of the Sugar Creek and Leary Weber Ditch Basins, Indiana, 2002-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    The Leary Weber Ditch Basin is nested within the Sugar Creek Basin in central Indiana. These basins make up one of the five study sites in the Nation selected for the Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate topical study, a part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. In this topical study, identifying the natural factors and human influences affecting water quality in the Leary Weber Ditch and Sugar Creek Basins are the focus of the assessment. A detailed comparison between the environmental settings of these basins is presented. Specifics of the topical study design as implemented in the Leary Weber Ditch and Sugar Creek Basins are described.

  9. Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir in patients with previous pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannel, R.S.; Braly, P.S.; Buller, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Little information exists on the use of continent urinary reservoirs in patients with previous pelvic irradiation. We report the use of the Indiana pouch urinary reservoir in ten women with a history of pelvic irradiation for cervical cancer, of whom eight underwent a total pelvic exenteration for recurrent pelvic tumor and two had diversion for radiation-induced vesicovaginal fistula. All ten women achieved daytime continence, with a median time between catheterizations of 4.5 hours and a median pouch capacity of 500 mL. There was no evidence of leakage from the reservoir or significant ureteral reflux or obstruction on postoperative radiographic evaluation. No patient has required reoperation or had significant postoperative complications with the technique described

  10. The art, history, and geoscience of hindustan whetstone gravestones in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Powell, R.L.; McNerney, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cemeteries can be intriguing places to people, in part because of a fascination with death but also because of the quiet solitude and artistic beauty found there. Many grave monuments are really works of art and can be appreciated on that basis alone. Cemeteries can also serve as teaching laboratories for geologists. Monument types, carving styles, ornamentation, and durability are all related, to some extent, to the type of rock used. The older the monument dates the more variability one can see in the character of the stones. Pioneer cemeteries in southern Indiana, some of which date back to the early 1800s, can be used to teach concepts in mineralogy, depositional environments, and paleoastronomy. This can be very useful to someone teaching some of the basic concepts of geology.

  11. The art, history, and geoscience of Hindostan whetstone gravestones in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Powell, R.L.; McNerney, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cemeteries can be intriguing places to people, in part because of a fascination with death but also because of the quiet solitude and artistic beauty found there. Many grave monuments are really works of art and can be appreciated on that basis alone. Cemeteries can also serve as teaching laboratories for geologists. Monument types, carving styles, ornamentation, and durability are all related, to some extent, to the type of rock used. The older the monument dates the more variability one can see in the character of the stones. Pioneer cemeteries in southern Indiana, some of which date back to the early 1800s, can be used to teach concepts in mineralogy, depositional environments, and paleoastronomy. This can be very useful to someone teaching some of the basic concepts of geology.

  12. Flood-inundation maps for the White River near Edwardsport, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.3-mile reach of the White River near Edwardsport, (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03360730, White River near Edwardsport, Ind. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (site EDWI3.)

  13. Indiana University high-energy physics group. Technical progress report, December 1, 1982-October 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabson, B.B.; Crittenden, R.R.; Dzierba, A.R.; Heinz, R.M.; Martin, H.J.; Ogren, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    The Indiana University High-Energy Physics Group has been actively involved in a variety of research programs during the current contract period. These programs are associated with major experiments conducted by our group at SLAC, Fermilab, Brookhaven and CERN. The physics areas under investigation include studies of psi meson production in hadron interactions (CERN WA-11), a study of low-p/sub t/ and high-p/sub t/ collisions utilizing the Multiparticle Spectrometer at Fermilab (E110/557/672), a glueball search (Brookhaven E771), and a high resolution study of e + e - interactions at high energy at SLAC (PEP HRS experiment). The status of the various efforts are discussed

  14. Surficial Geologic Map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David W.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Counts, Ronald C.; Martin, Steven L.; Andrews, William M.; Newell, Wayne L.; Murphy, Michael L.; Thompson, Mark F.; Taylor, Emily M.; Kvale, Erik P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    The geologic map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, area depicts and describes surficial deposits according to their origin and age. Unconsolidated alluvium and outwash fill the Ohio River bedrock valley and attain maximum thickness of 33-39 m under Diamond Island, Kentucky, and Griffith Slough, south of Newburgh, Indiana. The fill is chiefly unconsolidated, fine- to medium-grained, lithic quartz sand, interbedded with clay, clayey silt, silt, coarse sand, granules, and gravel. Generally, the valley fill fines upward from the buried bedrock surface: a lower part being gravelly sand to sandy gravel, a middle part mostly of sand, and a surficial veneer of silt and clay interspersed with sandy, natural levee deposits at river's edge. Beneath the unconsolidated fill are buried and discontinuous, lesser amounts of consolidated fill unconformably overlying the buried bedrock surface. Most of the glaciofluvial valley fill accumulated during the Wisconsin Episode (late Pleistocene). Other units depicted on the map include creek alluvium, slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits, colluvium, dune sand, loess, and sparse bedrock outcrops. Creek alluvium underlies creek floodplains and consists of silt, clayey silt, and subordinate interbedded fine sand, granules, and pebbles. Lenses and beds of clay are present locally. Silty and clayey slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits extensively underlie broad flats northeast of Evansville and around Henderson and are as thick as 28 m. Fossil wood collected from an auger hole in the lake and alluvial deposits of Little Creek, at depths of 10.6 m and 6.4 m, are dated 16,650+-50 and 11,120+-40 radiocarbon years, respectively. Fossil wood collected from lake sediment 16 m below the surface in lake sediment was dated 33,100+-590 radiocarbon years. Covering the hilly bedrock upland is loess (Qel), 3-7.5 m thick in Indiana and 9-15 m thick in Kentucky, deposited about 22,000-12,000 years before present. Most mapped surficial

  15. Origin of discontinuities in coal-bearing strata at Roaring Creek (Basal Pennsylvanian of Indiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W J; Eggert, D L; Dimichele, W A; Stecyk, A C

    1985-05-01

    Basal Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata exposed along Roaring Creek, west-central Indiana, exhibit extreme lateral discontinuity. Coal seams abruptly change in thickness and elevation; they split, grade into shale, are cut out by channels and disrupted by soft-sediment deformational structures. Initial sediments were laid down by a network of southwest- flowing streams that traversed a deeply channelized upland surface of Mississippian carbonate rocks. Channels aggraded rapidly as uplands were worn down, so the region changed through time from uplands to upper deltaic plain. Local environments included channels, localized point bars, small natural levees and crevasse splays, overbank deposits, and swamps. Differential compaction and subsidence, slumping stream banks, and possibly collapsing sinkholes influenced sedimentation. As a consequence, coals are too discontinuous for economical mining, although they are locally thick and high in quality. 16 references.

  16. Botulism associated with commercially canned chili sauce--Texas and Indiana, July 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-03

    On July 7 and July 11, 2007, public health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported to CDC four suspected cases of foodborne botulism, two in each state. Investigations conducted by state and local health departments revealed that all four patients had eaten brands of Castleberry's hot dog chili sauce before illness began. Botulinum toxin type A was detected in the serum of one Indiana patient and in a leftover chili mixture obtained from his home. CDC informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the apparent link between illness and consumption of the chili sauce. On July 18, FDA issued a consumer advisory, and the manufacturer, Castleberry's Food Company (Augusta, Georgia), subsequently recalled the implicated brand and several other products produced in the same set of retorts (commercial-scale pressure cookers for processing canned foods) at the same canning facility. Examination of the canning facility in Georgia during the outbreak investigation had identified deficiencies in the canning process. On July 19, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued a press release that announced a recall of chili and certain meat products from the Castleberry canning facility and provided recommendations to consumers. That recall was expanded on July 21 to include additional canned products. A fifth case of botulism potentially linked to one of the recalled products is under investigation in California. This report describes the ongoing investigation by members of OutbreakNet and others and the measures undertaken to control the outbreak, which is the first outbreak of foodborne botulism in the United States associated with a commercial canning facility in approximately 30 years. Clinicians should be vigilant for symptoms of botulism, including symmetric cranial nerve palsies, especially if accompanied by descending flaccid paralysis. Consumers should not eat any of the recalled chili sauce or other recalled

  17. Feasibility of a low-cost hearing screening in rural Indiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Khan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hearing loss remains a neglected public health issue in the rural and agricultural communities in the United States and therefore, promotion of a low-cost hearing screening may be important for these underserved populations. The major objectives of our study were to assess feasibility of a low-cost telephone-administered hearing test in rural Indiana and to identify the challenges, barriers and viable implementation strategies associated with this test. Also, we evaluated whether a focus group session could change the hearing health attitude of rural residents. Methods We recruited 126 adults from six rural Indiana counties who participated in study activities in the following order: 1 a pre-focus group demographic, knowledge and attitude survey, 2 a focus group for discussing the feasibility of a telephone-administered hearing screening, 3 a post focus group attitude survey and 4 hearing was screened using an audiometer and self-assessment scale. These activities generated both qualitative and quantitative data, which were subsequently analyzed. Results Hearing impairment was perceived as an important public health issue. Many participants expressed interests to try the low-cost National Hearing Test (NHT. However, participants recommended NHT to be facilitated by community organizations to provide access to landline phones. The focus group turned out to be an excellent awareness building activity producing significant improvement in hearing health attitudes. Comparison of self and audiometric evaluations indicated underestimation of hearing handicap in our rural study population. Conclusions The study results underscore the urgent need for an effective strategy to promote low-cost hearing screening in rural US communities.

  18. Identification of Heterobilharzia americana infection in a dog residing in Indiana with no history of travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jessica Y; Camp, Joseph W; Lenz, Stephen D; Kazacos, Kevin R; Snowden, Karen F

    2016-04-01

    A 1-year-old castrated male dog residing in Indiana was examined because of intermittent vomiting of 4 months' duration. The dog's condition did not resolve with medication. Diagnostic imaging revealed a possible partial obstruction at the ileocecal junction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed. The jejunum contained diffusely distributed, nodular, intramural lesions; 2 biopsy specimens were collected from representative lesions. The pancreas was grossly swollen, and pancreatitis was presumed present. No other abnormalities were observed in the abdomen. Histologic examination of the submitted biopsy specimens revealed infection with Heterobilharzia americana. After diagnosis, the dog was treated with fenbendazole suspension (48 mg/kg [21.8 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 10 days. This treatment was subsequently repeated 11 and 80 days later. One week after the end of the last fenbendazole treatment, several H americana eggs were detected in a fecal sample via saline sedimentation, and the dog was given praziquantel (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 2 days. No gastrointestinal signs were evident 4 months after that treatment. The dog described in this report was the first autochthonous canine case of H americana infection in Indiana, to the authors' knowledge; this case has confirmed that the distribution of this parasite in the Midwestern United States is broader than previously known. Increased awareness of the distribution of H americana should aid veterinarians in early, noninvasive diagnosis and appropriate treatment of affected animals. Repeated treatments and recheck fecal examinations may be necessary when managing these cases.

  19. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

  20. Lay responder naloxone access and Good Samaritan law compliance: postcard survey results from 20 Indiana counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dennis P; Ray, Bradley; Robison, Lisa; Huynh, Philip; Sightes, Emily; Walker, La Shea; Brucker, Krista; Duwve, Joan

    2018-04-06

    To reduce fatal drug overdoses, two approaches many states have followed is to pass laws expanding naloxone access and Good Samaritan protections for lay persons with high likelihood to respond to an opioid overdose. Most prior research has examined attitudes and knowledge among lay responders in large metropolitan areas who actively use illicit substances. The present study addresses current gaps in knowledge related to this issue through an analysis of data collected from a broader group of lay responders who received naloxone kits from 20 local health departments across Indiana. Postcard surveys were included inside naloxone kits distributed in 20 Indiana counties, for which 217 returned cards indicated the person completing it was a lay responder. The survey captured demographic information and experiences with overdose, including the use of 911 and knowledge about Good Samaritan protections. Few respondents had administered naloxone before, but approximately one third had witnessed a prior overdose and the majority knew someone who had died from one. Those who knew someone who had overdosed were more likely to have obtained naloxone for someone other than themselves. Also, persons with knowledge of Good Samaritan protections or who had previously used naloxone were significantly more likely to have indicated calling 911 at the scene of a previously witnessed overdose. Primary reasons for not calling 911 included fear of the police and the person who overdosed waking up on their own. Knowing someone who has had a fatal or non-fatal overdose appears to be a strong motivating factor for obtaining naloxone. Clarifying and strengthening Good Samaritan protections, educating lay persons about these protections, and working to improve police interactions with the public when they are called to an overdose scene are likely to improve implementation and outcomes of naloxone distribution and opioid-related Good Samaritan laws.

  1. Hydrodynamics and Connectivity of Channelized Floodplains: Insights from the Meandering East Fork White River, Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, J. A.; David, S. R.; Edmonds, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    High resolution topography reveals that meandering river floodplains in Indiana commonly have networks of channels. These floodplain channel networks are most prevalent in agricultural, low-gradient, wide floodplains. It appears that these networks are formed when floodplain channels connect oxbows to each other and the main river channel. Collectively, the channels in the floodplain create an interconnected network of pathways that convey water beginning at flows less than bankfull, and as stage increases, more of the floodplain becomes dissected by floodplain channels. In this work, we quantify the hydrodynamics and connectivity of the flow on the floodplain and in the main channel of the East Fork White River near Seymour, Indiana, USA. We constructed a two-dimensional numerical model using HECRAS of the river-floodplain system from LiDAR data and from main-channel river bathymetry to elucidate the behaviour of these floodplain channels across a range of flows. Model calibration and verification data included stage from a USGS gage, high-water marks at a high and medium flow, and an aerial photograph of inundation in the floodplain channels. The numerical model simulated flow depth and velocity, which was used to quantify connectivity of the floodplain channels, exchange between the main channel and floodplain channels, and residence time of water on the floodplain. Model simulations suggest that the floodplain channels convey roughly 50% of the total flow at what is typically considered "bankfull" flow. Overall, we present a process-based approach for analyzing complex floodplain-river systems where an individual floodplain-river system can be distilled down to a set of characteristic curves. Notably, we map the East Fork White River system to exchange-residence time space and argue that this characterization forms the basis for thinking about morphologic evolution (e.g., sediment deposition and erosion) and biogeochemistry (e.g., nitrate removal) in floodplain

  2. Roosting and foraging social structure of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Silvis

    Full Text Available Social dynamics are an important but poorly understood aspect of bat ecology. Herein we use a combination of graph theoretic and spatial approaches to describe the roost and social network characteristics and foraging associations of an Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis maternity colony in an agricultural landscape in Ohio, USA. We tracked 46 bats to 50 roosts (423 total relocations and collected 2,306 foraging locations for 40 bats during the summers of 2009 and 2010. We found the colony roosting network was highly centralized in both years and that roost and social networks differed significantly from random networks. Roost and social network structure also differed substantially between years. Social network structure appeared to be unrelated to segregation of roosts between age classes. For bats whose individual foraging ranges were calculated, many shared foraging space with at least one other bat. Compared across all possible bat dyads, 47% and 43% of the dyads showed more than expected overlap of foraging areas in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Colony roosting area differed between years, but the roosting area centroid shifted only 332 m. In contrast, whole colony foraging area use was similar between years. Random roost removal simulations suggest that Indiana bat colonies may be robust to loss of a limited number of roosts but may respond differently from year to year. Our study emphasizes the utility of graphic theoretic and spatial approaches for examining the sociality and roosting behavior of bats. Detailed knowledge of the relationships between social and spatial aspects of bat ecology could greatly increase conservation effectiveness by allowing more structured approaches to roost and habitat retention for tree-roosting, socially-aggregating bat species.

  3. Variant Review with the Integrative Genomics Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James T; Thorvaldsdóttir, Helga; Wenger, Aaron M; Zehir, Ahmet; Mesirov, Jill P

    2017-11-01

    Manual review of aligned reads for confirmation and interpretation of variant calls is an important step in many variant calling pipelines for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. Visual inspection can greatly increase the confidence in calls, reduce the risk of false positives, and help characterize complex events. The Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV) was one of the first tools to provide NGS data visualization, and it currently provides a rich set of tools for inspection, validation, and interpretation of NGS datasets, as well as other types of genomic data. Here, we present a short overview of IGV's variant review features for both single-nucleotide variants and structural variants, with examples from both cancer and germline datasets. IGV is freely available at https://www.igv.org Cancer Res; 77(21); e31-34. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Local binary patterns new variants and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces Local Binary Patterns (LBP), arguably one of the most powerful texture descriptors, and LBP variants. This volume provides the latest reviews of the literature and a presentation of some of the best LBP variants by researchers at the forefront of textual analysis research and research on LBP descriptors and variants. The value of LBP variants is illustrated with reported experiments using many databases representing a diversity of computer vision applications in medicine, biometrics, and other areas. There is also a chapter that provides an excellent theoretical foundation for texture analysis and LBP in particular. A special section focuses on LBP and LBP variants in the area of face recognition, including thermal face recognition. This book will be of value to anyone already in the field as well as to those interested in learning more about this powerful family of texture descriptors.

  5. Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, G.M.; Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants are a common occurrence in clinical practice. In this chapter a large number of skeletal anomalies of the spine and pelvis are reviewed. Some of the more common skeletal anomalies of the extremities are also presented. The second section of this chapter deals with normal skeletal variants. Some of these variants may simulate certain disease processes. In some instances there are no clear-cut distinctions between skeletal variants and anomalies; therefore, there may be some overlap of material. The congenital anomalies are presented initially with accompanying text, photos, and references, beginning with the skull and proceeding caudally through the spine to then include the pelvis and extremities. The normal skeletal variants section is presented in an anatomical atlas format without text or references

  6. Strain-Modulated Epitaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, April

    1999-01-01

    Strain-Modulated Epitaxy (SME) is a novel approach, invented at Georgia Tech, to utilize subsurface stressors to control strain and therefore material properties and growth kinetics in the material above the stressors...

  7. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring ... There are 3 levels of hamstring strains: Grade 1 -- mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends ...

  8. Adaptive response in Drosophila melanogaster heat shock proteins mutant strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikov, M.V.; Moskalev, A.A.; Turysheva, E.V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The members of the heat shock proteins (Hsp) family function as molecular chaperones and assist intracellular folding of newly synthesized proteins. Also it is possible that molecular chaperones are induced during adaptive response to oxidative stress and radiation. The aim of our research was to exam the role of heat shock proteins in adaptive response to oxidative stress after low dose rate gamma-irradiation in Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophilamelanogaster strains were kindly provided by Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (University of state of Indiana, Bloomington, USA). We used wild type strain (CS), heat shock protein mutant strains (Hsp22, Hsp70, Hsp83), and heat shock factor mutant strain (Hsf). Strains were chronically exposured to adaptive dose of gamma-irradiation in dose rate of 0.17 cGy/h during all stages of life history (from the embrional stage to the stage of matured imago). The rate of absorbed dose was 60 cGy. For oxidative-stress challenge twodays old flies were starved in empty vials for 6 h and then transferred to vials containing only filter paper soaked with 20 mM paraquat in 5% sucrose solution. Survival data were collected after 26 h of treatment. Dead flies were counted daily. The obtained data were subjected to survival analysis by Kaplan and Meier method and presented as survival curves. Statistical analysis was held by non-parametric methods. To test the significance of the difference between the two age distributions Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied. Gehan-Braslow- Wilcoxon and Cox-Mantel tests were used for estimation of median life span differences. In addition the minimal and maximal life span, time of 90% death, and mortality rate doubling time (MRDT) were estimated. The obtained results will be discussed in presentation.

  9. Current situation, genetic relationship and control measures of infectious bronchitis virus variants circulating in African regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Khataby

    2016-08-01

    Three S1 gene hypervariable regions were studied and compared to the reference genotypes/serotypes that found emerging in African regions. This comparison was based on phylogenetic trees, nucleotide and amino-acid sequence analysis. It clearly appears that IBV variants reported in Africa, display a low genetic relationship between them and with the majority of the reference strains emerging in neighboring countries, except the case of variants from Libya and Egypt that show a high relatedness. Also the Massachusetts serotypes were the most prevalent co-circulating with both serotypes, Italy02 type in Morocco and Qx-like genotype in South part of the African continent. In order to control the IBV variants in African regions, an efficient vaccination strategy program should be implemented.

  10. Studies in the genus Hevea. VIII. Notes on Infraspecific variants of Hevea brasiliensis (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultes, R.E.

    Supplying 98% of the world's natural rubber, Hevea brasiliensis has transformed life around the world in only a century. This species - one of 10 in its genus - gives the best natural rubber, but much more remains to be studied concerning the numerous localized strains of the species. The British introduced to the orient seeds from the lower Amazon - representatives of a not superior ecotype of the species but, at that time a century ago, the only available germ plasm. The time for study of the intraspecific variants of H. brasiliensis and their use in programs of genetic manipulation of the genus is long overdue. But basic to this desired program is a clear taxonomic understanding of infraspecific variants, still awaiting evaluation. Although numerous taxonomic treatments of subspecific variants have been offered, there is little available to give genetic programs concrete information.

  11. Proteogenomic Investigation of Strain Variation in Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Heunis, Tiaan; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Warren, Robin M.; van Helden, Paul D.; van der Merwe, Ruben G.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Pain, Arnab; Sampson, Samantha L.; Tabb, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M. tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean isolates. Using this approach we identified 59 peptides containing single amino acid variants, which covered ~9% of all total coding nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants detected by whole-genome sequencing. Furthermore, we identified 29 distinct peptides that mapped to a hypothetical protein not present in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference proteome. Here we provide evidence for the expression of this protein in the clinical M. tuberculosis SAWC3651 isolate. The strain-specific databases enabled confirmation of genomic differences (i.e. large genomic regions of difference and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants) in these two clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and allowed strain differentiation at the proteome level. Our results contribute to the growing field of clinical microbial proteogenomics and can improve our understanding of phenotypic variation in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

  12. Proteogenomic Investigation of Strain Variation in Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Heunis, Tiaan

    2017-08-18

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M. tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean isolates. Using this approach we identified 59 peptides containing single amino acid variants, which covered ~9% of all total coding nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants detected by whole-genome sequencing. Furthermore, we identified 29 distinct peptides that mapped to a hypothetical protein not present in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference proteome. Here we provide evidence for the expression of this protein in the clinical M. tuberculosis SAWC3651 isolate. The strain-specific databases enabled confirmation of genomic differences (i.e. large genomic regions of difference and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants) in these two clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and allowed strain differentiation at the proteome level. Our results contribute to the growing field of clinical microbial proteogenomics and can improve our understanding of phenotypic variation in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

  13. Proteogenomic Investigation of Strain Variation in Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunis, Tiaan; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Warren, Robin M; van Helden, Paul D; van der Merwe, Ruben G; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Pain, Arnab; Sampson, Samantha L; Tabb, David L

    2017-10-06

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of the utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study, we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M. tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean isolates. Using this approach, we identified 59 peptides containing single amino acid variants, which covered ∼9% of all coding nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants detected by whole-genome sequencing. Furthermore, we identified 29 distinct peptides that mapped to a hypothetical protein not present in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference proteome. Here, we provide evidence for the expression of this protein in the clinical M. tuberculosis SAWC3651 isolate. The strain-specific databases enabled confirmation of genomic differences (i.e., large genomic regions of difference and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants) in these two clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and allowed strain differentiation at the proteome level. Our results contribute to the growing field of clinical microbial proteogenomics and can improve our understanding of phenotypic variation in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

  14. Indiana Humanities Council Request for the Indianapolis Energy Conversion Inst. For Phase I of the Indianapolis Energy Conservation Res Initiative also called the smartDESKTOP Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, John B.

    2007-12-06

    The smartDESKTOP Initiative at the Indiana Humanities Council received critical support in building and delivering a digital desktop for Indiana educators through the Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-06ER64282. During the project period September 2006 through October of 2007, the number of Indiana educators with accounts on the smartDESKTOP more than tripled from under 2,000 to more than 7,000 accounts. An external review of the project conducted for the purposes of understanding the impact of the service in Indiana schools revealed that the majority of respondents felt that using the smartDESKTOP did reduce the time they spent managing paper. The same study revealed the challenges of implementing a digital desktop meant to help teachers leverage technology to improve their teaching and ultimately student learning. The most significant outcome of this project is that the Indiana Department of Education expressed interest in assuming responsibility for sustaining this project. The transition of the smartDESKTOP to the Indiana Department of Education was effective on November 1, 2007.

  15. Somatic cancer variant curation and harmonization through consensus minimum variant level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah I. Ritter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To truly achieve personalized medicine in oncology, it is critical to catalog and curate cancer sequence variants for their clinical relevance. The Somatic Working Group (WG of the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen, in cooperation with ClinVar and multiple cancer variant curation stakeholders, has developed a consensus set of minimal variant level data (MVLD. MVLD is a framework of standardized data elements to curate cancer variants for clinical utility. With implementation of MVLD standards, and in a working partnership with ClinVar, we aim to streamline the somatic variant curation efforts in the community and reduce redundancy and time burden for the interpretation of cancer variants in clinical practice. Methods We developed MVLD through a consensus approach by i reviewing clinical actionability interpretations from institutions participating in the WG, ii conducting extensive literature search of clinical somatic interpretation schemas, and iii survey of cancer variant web portals. A forthcoming guideline on cancer variant interpretation, from the Association of Molecular Pathology (AMP, can be incorporated into MVLD. Results Along with harmonizing standardized terminology for allele interpretive and descriptive fields that are collected by many databases, the MVLD includes unique fields for cancer variants such as Biomarker Class, Therapeutic Context and Effect. In addition, MVLD includes recommendations for controlled semantics and ontologies. The Somatic WG is collaborating with ClinVar to evaluate MVLD use for somatic variant submissions. ClinVar is an open and centralized repository where sequencing laboratories can report summary-level variant data with clinical significance, and ClinVar accepts cancer variant data. Conclusions We expect the use of the MVLD to streamline clinical interpretation of cancer variants, enhance interoperability among multiple redundant curation efforts, and increase submission of

  16. [Comparative analysis on the complete genome sequence of mumps epidemic strain and mumps vaccine strain S79 isolated in Zhejiang province, China between year 2005 and 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Yan; Feng, Yan; Zhong, Shu-Ling; Lu, Yi-Yu; Zhuang, Fang-Cheng; Xu, Chang-Ping

    2012-03-01

    To compare the differences in the complete genome sequence between mumps epidemic strain and mumps vaccine strain S79 isolated in Zhejiang province. A total of 4 mumps epidemic strains, which were separated from Zhejiang province during 2005 to 2010, named as ZJ05-1, ZJ06-3, ZJ08-1 and ZJ10-1 were selected in the study. The complete genome sequences were amplified using RT-PCR. The genetic differences between vaccine strain S79 and other genotype strains were compared; while the genetic-distance was calculated and the evolution was analyzed. The biggest difference between the 4 epidemic strains and the vaccine strain S79 was found on the membrane associated protein gene; whose average nucleotide differential number was 42.5 +/- 3.0 and the average variant ratio was 13.6%; while the mean amino acid differential number was 12.8 +/- 1.5 and the average variant ratio was 22.4%. The smallest difference among the 4 epidemic strains and the vaccine strain was found in stromatin genes, whose average nucleotide differential number was 73.8 +/- 2.5 and the average variant ratio was 5.9%; while the mean amino acid differential number was 3.0 +/- 0.8 and the average variant ratio was 0.8%. The dn/ds value of the stromatin genes of the 4 epidemic strains reached the highest, as 0.6526; but without any positive pressure (dn/ds 0.05). There were mutations happened on the known antigen epitope, as 8th amino acid of membrane associated protein genes and on the 336th and 356th amino acid of hemagglutinin/neuraminidase proteins. Compared with the vaccine strain, the glycosylation sites of ZJ05-1, ZJ06-3, ZJ08-1 and ZJ10-1 increased 1, 1, 2 and 2 respectively. The complete amino acid sequence of all strains showed that there were 17 characteristic sites found on the genotype-F mumps strain. Within the complete genome, the genetic-distance between epidemic strains and vaccine strains in Zhejiang province (0.071) was significantly larger than the genetic-distance between strains in

  17. Synthesis of spatially variant lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Raymond C; Pazos, Javier

    2012-07-02

    It is often desired to functionally grade and/or spatially vary a periodic structure like a photonic crystal or metamaterial, yet no general method for doing this has been offered in the literature. A straightforward procedure is described here that allows many properties of the lattice to be spatially varied at the same time while producing a final lattice that is still smooth and continuous. Properties include unit cell orientation, lattice spacing, fill fraction, and more. This adds many degrees of freedom to a design such as spatially varying the orientation to exploit directional phenomena. The method is not a coordinate transformation technique so it can more easily produce complicated and arbitrary spatial variance. To demonstrate, the algorithm is used to synthesize a spatially variant self-collimating photonic crystal to flow a Gaussian beam around a 90° bend. The performance of the structure was confirmed through simulation and it showed virtually no scattering around the bend that would have arisen if the lattice had defects or discontinuities.

  18. Different Variants of Fundamental Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarczyński Waldemar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the fundamental portfolio of securities. This portfolio is an alternative for the classic Markowitz model, which combines fundamental analysis with portfolio analysis. The method’s main idea is based on the use of the TMAI1 synthetic measure and, in limiting conditions, the use of risk and the portfolio’s rate of return in the objective function. Different variants of fundamental portfolio have been considered under an empirical study. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions has been related to the classic portfolio constructed with the help of the Markowitz model and the WIG20 market index’s rate of return. All portfolios were constructed with data on rates of return for 2005. Their effectiveness in 2006- 2013 was then evaluated. The studied period comprises the end of the bull market, the 2007-2009 crisis, the 2010 bull market and the 2011 crisis. This allows for the evaluation of the solutions’ flexibility in various extreme situations. For the construction of the fundamental portfolio’s objective function and the TMAI, the study made use of financial and economic data on selected indicators retrieved from Notoria Serwis for 2005.

  19. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  20. A duplex PCR assay for the detection of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II strains in Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Cellier

    Full Text Available Banana wilt outbreaks that are attributable to Moko disease-causing strains of the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs remain a social and economic burden for both multinational corporations and subsistence farmers. All known Moko strains belong to the phylotype II lineage, which has been previously recognized for its broad genetic basis. Moko strains are paraphyletic and are distributed among seven related but distinct phylogenetic clusters (sequevars that are potentially major threats to Musaceae, Solanaceae, and ornamental crops in many countries. Although clustered within the Moko IIB-4 sequevar, strains of the epidemiologically variant IIB-4NPB do not cause wilt on Cavendish or plantain bananas; instead, they establish a latent infection in the vascular tissues of plantains and demonstrate an expanded host range and high aggressiveness toward Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Although most molecular diagnostic methods focus on strains that wilt Solanaceae (particularly potato, no relevant protocol has been described that universally detects strains of the Musaceae-infecting Rs phylotype II. Thus, a duplex PCR assay targeting Moko and IIB-4NPB variant strains was developed, and its performance was assessed using an extensive collection of 111 strains representing the known diversity of Rs Moko-related strains and IIB-4NPB variant strains along with certain related strains and families. The proposed diagnostic protocol demonstrated both high accuracy (inclusivity and exclusivity and high repeatability, detected targets on either pure culture or spiked plant extracts. Although they did not belong to the Moko clusters described at the time of the study, recently discovered banana-infecting strains from Brazil were also detected. According to our comprehensive evaluation, this duplex PCR assay appears suitable for both research and diagnostic laboratories and provides reliable detection of phylotype II Rs strains that infect Musaceae.

  1. Molecular detection and characterization of Hop stunt viroid sequence variants from naturally infected pomegranate (Punica granatum L. in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten GORSANE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunisian pomegranate Hop stunt viroid (HSVd variants are described. Dot-blot hybridization, S-Page, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of RNA extracts from infected tissues were carried out. Results obtained by these techniques were confirmed by cDNA sequencing. The genetic diversity among the Tunisian variants was investigated, which also involved analysis of sequences of previously described HSVd variants from Tunisian citrus var. clementine and fig, and from fruit trees from other Mediterranean countries. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Tunisian pomegranate HSVd variants were clustered into two groups: a cachexia strain within the citrus type group and a recombinant citrus-plum type group. Results also showed a high haplotype diversity which was not related either to the host or to the geographical origin. Selective neutrality and genetic network tests suggest that the HSVd isolates have spread rapidly.

  2. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. New fracture detail of Indiana has been observed and mapped from ERTS-1 imagery. Studies so far indicate a close relationship between the directions of fracture traces mapped from the imagery, fractures measured on bedrock outcrops, and fractures measured in the underground mines. First hand observations and discussions with underground mine operators indicate good correlation of mine hazard maps prepared from ERTS-1/aircraft imagery and actual roof falls. The inventory of refuse piles/slurry ponds of the coal field of Indiana has identified over 225 such sites from past mining operations. These data will serve the State Legislature in making tax decisions on coal mining which take on increased importance because of the energy crisis.

  3. Development of index of biotic integrity expectations for the ecoregions of Indiana. I. Central corn belt plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The Clean Water Act Amendments of 1987 mandate the development of biological criteria for evaluating the nation's surface waters. The requirements of Section 304(a) was implemented in Indiana to determine water resource degradation. A total of 197 headwater and wading stream sites were sampled in the Central Corn Belt Plain ecoregion in order to develop and calibrate an Index of Biotic Integrity for use in Indiana. Based on inherent variance within the ecoregion, sub-basins were established based on the concept of natural areas as recognized by Homoya et al. (1985). Site specific data; locality information; and species specific scoring criteria for tolerance classification, trophic guilds, and reproductive guilds are included in the appendix

  4. Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus helveticus DSM 20075 variants with improved autolytic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spus, Maciej; Liu, Hua; Wels, Michiel; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

    2017-01-16

    Lactobacillus helveticus is widely used in dairy fermentations and produces a range of enzymes, which upon cell lysis can be released into the cheese matrix and impact degradation of proteins, peptides and lipids. In our study we set out to explore the potential of Lb. helveticus DSM 20075 for increased autolytic capacity triggered by conditions such as low pH and high salt concentrations encountered in cheese environments. Lb. helveticus DSM 20075 was subjected to varied incubation temperatures (ranging from 37 to 50°C). High-temperature incubation (in the range of 45 to 50°C) allowed us to obtain a collection of six variant strains (V45-V50), which in comparison to the wild-type strain, showed higher growth rates at elevated temperatures (42°C-45°C). Moreover, variant strain V50 showed a 4-fold higher, in comparison to wild type, autolytic capacity in cheese-like conditions. Next, strain V50 was used as an adjunct in lab-scale cheese making trials to measure its impact on aroma formation during ripening. Specifically, in cheeses made with strain V50, the relative abundance of benzaldehyde increased 3-fold compared to cheeses made with the wild-type strain. Analysis of the genome sequence of strain V50 revealed multiple mutations in comparison to the wild-type strain DSM 20075 including a mutation found in a gene coding for a metal ion transporter, which can potentially be linked to intracellular accumulation of Mn 2+ and benzaldehyde formation. The approach of high-temperature incubation can be applied in dairy industry for the selection of (adjunct) cultures targeted at accelerated cheese ripening and aroma formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasonographic imaging of papillary thyroid carcinoma variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hee [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasonography (US) is routinely used to evaluate thyroid nodules. The US features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid malignancy, include hypoechogenicity, spiculated/microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and a nonparallel orientation. However, many PTC variants have been identified, some of which differ from the classic type of PTC in terms of biological behavior and clinical outcomes. This review describes the US features and clinical implications of the variants of PTC. With the introduction of active surveillance replacing immediate biopsy or surgical treatment of indolent, small PTCs, an understanding of the US characteristics of PTC variants will facilitate the individualized management of patients with PTC.

  6. Genetic homogeneity of Clostridium botulinum type A1 strains with unique toxin gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Brian H; Luquez, Carolina; McCroskey, Loretta M; Joseph, Lavin A; Jacobson, Mark J; Johnson, Eric A; Maslanka, Susan E; Andreadis, Joanne D

    2008-07-01

    A group of five clonally related Clostridium botulinum type A strains isolated from different sources over a period of nearly 40 years harbored several conserved genetic properties. These strains contained a variant bont/A1 with five nucleotide polymorphisms compared to the gene in C. botulinum strain ATCC 3502. The strains also had a common toxin gene cluster composition (ha-/orfX+) similar to that associated with bont/A in type A strains containing an unexpressed bont/B [termed A(B) strains]. However, bont/B was not identified in the strains examined. Comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated identical genomic content among the strains relative to C. botulinum strain ATCC 3502. In addition, microarray data demonstrated the absence of several genes flanking the toxin gene cluster among the ha-/orfX+ A1 strains, suggesting the presence of genomic rearrangements with respect to this region compared to the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain. All five strains were shown to have identical flaA variable region nucleotide sequences. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the strains were indistinguishable when digested with SmaI, and a shift in the size of at least one band was observed in a single strain when digested with XhoI. These results demonstrate surprising genomic homogeneity among a cluster of unique C. botulinum type A strains of diverse origin.

  7. Selection of tree roosts by male Indiana bats during the autumn swarm in the Ozark Highlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Stephen C. Brandebura; Thomas S. Risch

    2016-01-01

    We identified 162 roosts for 36 male Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) across 3 study areas in the Ozarks of northern Arkansas, USA, during the autumn swarm (late Aug to late Oct, 2005 and 2006). Bats utilized 14 tree species; snags of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) were the most utilized (30% of roosts) and pines were selected over hardwoods. Diameter of trees and snags...

  8. A presence-only model of suitable roosting habitat for the endangered Indiana bat in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.R. Hammond; J.M. O’Keefe; S.P. Aldrich; Susan Loeb

    2016-01-01

    We know little about how forest bats, which are cryptic and mobile, use roosts on a landscape scale. For widely distributed species like the endangered Indiana bat Myotis sodalis, identifying landscape-scale roost habitat associations will be important for managing the species in different regions where it occurs. For example, in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA...

  9. Development and validation of the Chinese Version of Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale (CV-IJSS) for people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hector W H; Wong, Alvin

    2005-06-01

    Job satisfaction has been increasingly regarded as an important outcome of vocational rehabilitation programs among people with mental illness. Chinese measures of job satisfaction for individuals with mental illness are however extremely scarce. The aim of this study was to translate the 32-item Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale to Chinese. By means of the expert panel method, the culturally relevant 28-item Chinese Version of Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale (CV-IJSS) was then finalized. A validation study among a group of 125 individuals with mental illness showed that the scale had acceptable psychometric properties. Coefficient alpha of the total score was 0.81 with subscales ranging from 0.63 to 0.87. Test re-test reliability as measured by ICC was 0.77 for the total score and ranged from 0.54 to 0.72 for the subscales. Factorial analysis yielded a four factor solution (general satisfaction, job ambiguity and stress, advancement and security, and job recognition) accounting for 44% of the total variance. The factor solution had similarities as well as differences when compared with the Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale. The differences are discussed in the light of cultural differences. Relationship between scores of CV-IJSS and work performance, quality of life and self-esteem was positive in general which may act as evidence to its concurrent validity. The Chinese Version of Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale is ready for use by rehabilitation professionals to assess vocational rehabilitation outcome for individuals with mental illness in Hong Kong and other Chinese societies. Directions for further studies are suggested.

  10. Environmental setting and natural factors and human influences affecting water quality in the White River Basin, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Baker, Nancy T.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Bayless, E. Randall; Jacques, David V.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1999-01-01

    The White River Basin drains 11,349 square miles of central and southern Indiana and is one of 59 Study Units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National WaterQuality Assessment Program. Defining the environmental setting of the basin and identifying the natural factors and human influences that affect water quality are important parts of the assessment.

  11. Construction of Nef-positive doxycycline-dependent HIV-1 variants using bicistronic expression elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velden, Yme U. van der; Kleibeuker, Wendy; Harwig, Alex; Klaver, Bep; Siteur-van Rijnstra, Esther; Frankin, Esmay; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T., E-mail: a.t.das@amc.uva.nl

    2016-01-15

    Conditionally replicating HIV-1 variants that can be switched on and off at will are attractive tools for HIV research. We previously developed a genetically modified HIV-1 variant that replicates exclusively when doxycycline (dox) is administered. The nef gene in this HIV-rtTA variant was replaced with the gene encoding the dox-dependent rtTA transcriptional activator. Because loss of Nef expression compromises virus replication in primary cells and precludes studies on Nef function, we tested different approaches to restore Nef production in HIV-rtTA. Strategies that involved translation via an EMCV or synthetic internal ribosome entry site (IRES) failed because these elements were incompatible with efficient virus replication. Fusion protein approaches with the FMDV 2A peptide and human ubiquitin were successful and resulted in genetically-stable Nef-expressing HIV-rtTA strains that replicate more efficiently in primary T-cells and human immune system (HIS) mice than Nef-deficient variants, thus confirming the positive effect of Nef on in vivo virus replication. - Highlights: • Different approaches to encode additional proteins in the HIV-1 genome were tested. • IRES translation elements are incompatible with efficient HIV-1 replication. • Ubiquitin and 2A fusion protein approaches allow efficient HIV-1 replication. • Doxycycline-controlled HIV-1 variants that encode all viral proteins were developed. • Nef stimulates HIV-rtTA replication in primary cells and human immune system mice.

  12. Identifying pathogenicity of human variants via paralog-based yeast complementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the health implications of personal genomes, we now face a largely unmet challenge to identify functional variants within disease-associated genes. Functional variants can be identified by trans-species complementation, e.g., by failure to rescue a yeast strain bearing a mutation in an orthologous human gene. Although orthologous complementation assays are powerful predictors of pathogenic variation, they are available for only a few percent of human disease genes. Here we systematically examine the question of whether complementation assays based on paralogy relationships can expand the number of human disease genes with functional variant detection assays. We tested over 1,000 paralogous human-yeast gene pairs for complementation, yielding 34 complementation relationships, of which 33 (97% were novel. We found that paralog-based assays identified disease variants with success on par with that of orthology-based assays. Combining all homology-based assay results, we found that complementation can often identify pathogenic variants outside the homologous sequence region, presumably because of global effects on protein folding or stability. Within our search space, paralogy-based complementation more than doubled the number of human disease genes with a yeast-based complementation assay for disease variation.

  13. Evolution and Strain Variation in BCG

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah

    2017-11-07

    BCG vaccines were derived by in vitro passage, during the years 1908–1921, at the Pasteur Institute of Lille. Following the distribution of stocks of BCG to vaccine production laboratories around the world, it was only a few decades before different BCG producers recognized that there were variants of BCG, likely due to different passaging conditions in the different laboratories. This ultimately led to the lyophilization of stable BCG products in the 1950s and 1960s, but not before considerable evolution of the different BCG strains had taken place. The application of contemporary research methodologies has now revealed genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic differences between BCG strains. These molecular differences in part account for phenotypic differences in vitro between BCG strains, such as their variable secretion of antigenic proteins. Yet, the relevance of BCG variability for immunization policy remains elusive. In this chapter we present an overview of what is known about BCG evolution and its resulting strain variability, and provide some speculation as to the potential relevance for a vaccine given to over 100 million newborns each year.

  14. H(+) -ATPase-defective variants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus contribute to inhibition of postacidification of yogurt during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Ren, Hongyang; Liu, Dayu; Wang, Bing; Zhu, Wenyou; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Continued acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus during the chilled storage of yogurt is the major cause of postacidification, resulting in a short shelf life. Two H(+) -ATPase defective variants of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were successfully isolated and their H(+) -ATPase activities were reduced by 51.3% and 34.3%, respectively. It was shown that growth and acid production of variants were remarkably inhibited. The variants were more sensitive to acidic condition and had a significant rate for inactivation of H(+) -ATPase by N, N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), along with a low H(+) -extrusion, suggesting that H(+) -ATPase is direct response for H(+) -extrusion. In addition, the variants were also more sensitive to NaCl, while H(+) -ATPase activities of variants and parent strain were significantly enhanced by NaCl stress. Obviously, H(+) -ATPase might be involved in Na(+) transportation. Furthermore, variants were inoculated in fermented milk to ferment yogurt. There was no significant difference in flavor, whereas the postacidification of yogurt during chilled storage was remarkably inhibited. It is suggested that application of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with reduced H(+) -ATPase activity in yogurt fermentation is one of effect, economic and simple avenues of inhibiting postacidification of yogurt during refrigerated storage, giving a longer shelf life. During yogurt fermentation, continued acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus during the chilled storage of yogurt leads to milk fermentation with high postacidification, resulting in a short shelf life. In this work, 2 acid-sensitive variant strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were isolated. The characteristics related to H(+) -ATPase were compared and it was observed that milk fermented by the variants had lower postacidification, giving a longer shelf life. Application of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with reduced H(+) -ATPase activity

  15. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Abdelmagid

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway. Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines-generated from the prior two strains, displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89-174Mb containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism. Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11-2.02; p-value = 0.008 after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE.

  16. Geologic characterization and carbon storage resource estimates for the knox group, Illinois Basin, Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, David; Ellett, Kevin; Rupp, John; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    Research documented in this report includes (1) refinement and standardization of regional stratigraphy across the 3-state study area in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, (2) detailed core description and sedimentological interpretion of Knox cores from five wells in western Kentucky, and (3) a detailed calculation of carbon storage volumetrics for the Knox using three different methodologies. Seven regional cross sections document Knox formation distribution and thickness. Uniform stratigraphic nomenclature for all three states helps to resolve state-to-state differences that previously made it difficult to evaluate the Knox on a basin-wide scale. Correlations have also refined the interpretation of an important sandstone reservoir interval in southern Indiana and western Kentucky. This sandstone, a CO2 injection zone in the KGS 1 Blan well, is correlated with the New Richmond Sandstone of Illinois. This sandstone is over 350 ft (107 m) thick in parts of southern Indiana. It has excellent porosity and permeability at sufficient depths, and provides an additional sequestration target in the Knox. The New Richmond sandstone interval has higher predictability than vuggy and fractured carbonates, and will be easier to model and monitor CO2 movement after injection.

  17. RAGE splicing variants in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterenczak, Katharina Anna; Nolte, Ingo; Murua Escobar, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of environmental stressors which plays key roles in pathophysiological processes, including immune/inflammatory disorders, Alzheimer's disease, diabetic arteriosclerosis, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Besides the full-length RAGE protein in humans nearly 20 natural occurring RAGE splicing variants were described on mRNA and protein level. These naturally occurring isoforms are characterized by either N-terminally or C-terminally truncations and are discussed as possible regulators of the full-length RAGE receptor either by competitive ligand binding or by displacing the full-length protein in the membrane. Accordingly, expression deregulations of the naturally occurring isoforms were supposed to have significant effect on RAGE-mediated disorders. Thereby the soluble C-truncated RAGE isoforms present in plasma and tissues are the mostly focused isoforms in research and clinics. Deregulations of the circulating levels of soluble RAGE forms were reported in several RAGE-associated pathological disorders including for example atherosclerosis, diabetes, renal failure, Alzheimer's disease, and several cancer types. Regarding other mammalian species, the canine RAGE gene showed high similarities to the corresponding human structures indicating RAGE to be evolutionary highly conserved between both species. Similar to humans the canine RAGE showed a complex and extensive splicing activity leading to a manifold pattern of RAGE isoforms. Due to the similarities seen in several canine and human diseases-including cancer-comparative structural and functional analyses allow the development of RAGE and ligand-specific therapeutic approaches beneficial for human and veterinary medicine.

  18. Genetic variants of ghrelin in metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, Olavi

    2011-11-01

    An increasing understanding of the role of genes in the development of obesity may reveal genetic variants that, in combination with conventional risk factors, may help to predict an individual's risk for developing metabolic disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates that ghrelin plays a role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis and it is a reasonable candidate gene for obesity-related co-morbidities. In cross-sectional studies low total ghrelin concentrations and some genetic polymorphisms of ghrelin have been associated with obesity-associated diseases. The present review highlights many of the important problems in association studies of genetic variants and complex diseases. It is known that population-specific differences in reported associations exist. We therefore conclude that more studies on variants of ghrelin gene are needed to perform in different populations to get deeper understanding on the relationship of ghrelin gene and its variants to obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TREM2 Variants in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Rita; Wojtas, Aleksandra; Bras, Jose; Carrasquillo, Minerva; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Majounie, Elisa; Cruchaga, Carlos; Sassi, Celeste; Kauwe, John S.K.; Younkin, Steven; Hazrati, Lilinaz; Collinge, John; Pocock, Jennifer; Lashley, Tammaryn; Williams, Julie; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Amouyel, Philippe; Goate, Alison; Rademakers, Rosa; Morgan, Kevin; Powell, John; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in TREM2, encoding the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 protein, have previously been associated with an autosomal recessive form of early-onset dementia. METHODS We used genome, exome, and Sanger sequencing to analyze the genetic variability in TREM2 in a series of 1092 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 1107 controls (the discovery set). We then performed a meta-analysis on imputed data for the TREM2 variant rs75932628 (predicted to cause a R47H substitution) from three genomewide association studies of Alzheimer's disease and tested for the association of the variant with disease. We genotyped the R47H variant in an additional 1887 cases and 4061 controls. We then assayed the expression of TREM2 across different regions of the human brain and identified genes that are differentially expressed in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and in control mice. RESULTS We found significantly more variants in exon 2 of TREM2 in patients with Alzheimer's disease than in controls in the discovery set (P = 0.02). There were 22 variant alleles in 1092 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 5 variant alleles in 1107 controls (P<0.001). The most commonly associated variant, rs75932628 (encoding R47H), showed highly significant association with Alzheimer's disease (P<0.001). Meta-analysis of rs75932628 genotypes imputed from genomewide association studies confirmed this association (P = 0.002), as did direct genotyping of an additional series of 1887 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 4061 controls (P<0.001). Trem2 expression differed between control mice and a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS Heterozygous rare variants in TREM2 are associated with a significant increase in the risk of Alzheimer's disease. (Funded by Alzheimer's Research UK and others.) PMID:23150934

  20. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  1. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  2. Vibrio cholerae O1 epidemic variants in Angola: a retrospective study between 1992 and 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy eValia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is still a major public health concern in many African countries. In Angola, after a decade of absence, cholera reemerged in 1987, spreading throughout the country until 1996, with outbreaks recurring in a seasonal pattern. In 2006 Angola was hit by one of the most severe outbreaks of the last decade, with ca. 240,000 cases reported.We analyzed 21 clinical strains isolated between 1992 and 2006 from several provinces throughout the country: Benguela, Bengo, Luanda, Cuando Cubango and Cabinda. We used two multiplex PCR assays to investigate discriminatory mobile genetic elements (ICEs, VSP-II, GI12, GI14, GI15, K and TLC phages and we compared the profiles obtained with those of different reference V. cholerae O1 variants (prototypical, altered and hybrid, responsible for the ongoing 7th pandemic. We also tested the strains for the presence of specific VSP-II variants and for the presence of a genomic island (WASA-1, correlated with the transmission of seventh pandemic cholera from Africa to South America. Based on the presence/absence of the analyzed genetic elements, five novel profiles were detected in the epidemic strains circulating in the 1990s. The most frequent profiles, F and G, were characterized by the absence of ICEs and the three GIs tested, and the presence of genomic island WASA-1 and the WASA variant of the VSP-II island. Our results identified unexpected variability within the 1990s epidemic, showing different rearrangements in a dynamic part of the genome not present in the prototypical V. cholerae O1 N16961. Moreover the 2006 strains differed from the current pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain. Taken together, our results highlight the role of horizontal gene transfer in diversifying the genetic background of V. cholerae within a single epidemic.

  3. Vibrio cholerae O1 epidemic variants in Angola: a retrospective study between 1992 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valia, Romy; Taviani, Elisa; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Colombo, Mauro M

    2013-01-01

    Cholera is still a major public health concern in many African countries. In Angola, after a decade of absence, cholera reemerged in 1987, spreading throughout the country until 1996, with outbreaks recurring in a seasonal pattern. In 2006 Angola was hit by one of the most severe outbreaks of the last decade, with ca. 240,000 cases reported. We analyzed 21 clinical strains isolated between 1992 and 2006 from several provinces throughout the country: Benguela, Bengo, Luanda, Cuando Cubango, and Cabinda. We used two multiplex PCR assays to investigate discriminatory mobile genetic elements (MGE) [Integrative Conjugative Elements (ICEs), VSP-II, GI12, GI14, GI15, K, and TLC phages] and we compared the profiles obtained with those of different reference V. cholerae O1 variants (prototypical, altered, and hybrid), responsible for the ongoing 7th pandemic. We also tested the strains for the presence of specific VSP-II variants and for the presence of a genomic island (GI) (WASA-1), correlated with the transmission of seventh pandemic cholera from Africa to South America. Based on the presence/absence of the analyzed genetic elements, five novel profiles were detected in the epidemic strains circulating in the 1990s. The most frequent profiles, F and G, were characterized by the absence of ICEs and the three GIs tested, and the presence of GI WASA-1 and the WASA variant of the VSP-II island. Our results identified unexpected variability within the 1990s epidemic, showing different rearrangements in a dynamic part of the genome not present in the prototypical V. cholerae O1 N16961. Moreover the 2006 strains differed from the current pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain. Taken together, our results highlight the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in diversifying the genetic background of V. cholerae within a single epidemic.

  4. Fitness of isogenic colony morphology variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in murine airway infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Rakhimova

    Full Text Available Chronic lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are associated with the diversification of the persisting clone into niche specialists and morphotypes, a phenomenon called 'dissociative behaviour'. To explore the potential of P. aeruginosa to change its morphotype by single step loss-of-function mutagenesis, a signature-tagged mini-Tn5 plasposon library of the cystic fibrosis airway isolate TBCF10839 was screened for colony morphology variants under nine different conditions in vitro. Transposon insertion into 1% of the genome changed colony morphology into eight discernable morphotypes. Half of the 55 targets encode features of primary or secondary metabolism whereby quinolone production was frequently affected. In the other half the transposon had inserted into genes of the functional categories transport, regulation or motility/chemotaxis. To mimic dissociative behaviour of isogenic strains in lungs, pools of 25 colony morphology variants were tested for competitive fitness in an acute murine airway infection model. Six of the 55 mutants either grew better or worse in vivo than in vitro, respectively. Metabolic proficiency of the colony morphology variant was a key determinant for survival in murine airways. The most common morphotype of self-destructive autolysis did unexpectedly not impair fitness. Transposon insertions into homologous genes of strain PAO1 did not reproduce the TBCF10839 mutant morphotypes for 16 of 19 examined loci pointing to an important role of the genetic background on colony morphology. Depending on the chosen P. aeruginosa strain, functional genome scans will explore other areas of the evolutionary landscape. Based on our discordant findings of mutant phenotypes in P. aeruginosa strains PAO1, PA14 and TBCF10839, we conclude that the current focus on few reference strains may miss modes of niche adaptation and dissociative behaviour that are relevant for the microevolution of complex traits in the wild.

  5. Flood-inundation maps for the Wabash River at Memorial Bridge at Vincennes, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.; Menke, Chad D.

    2017-08-23

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 10.2-mile reach of the Wabash River from Sevenmile Island to 3.7 mile downstream of Memorial Bridge (officially known as Lincoln Memorial Bridge) at Vincennes, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03343010, Wabash River at Memorial Bridge at Vincennes, Ind. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site.For this study, flood profiles were computed for the Wabash River reach by means of a one-dimensional stepbackwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgage 03343010, Wabash River at Memorial Bridge at Vincennes, Ind., and preliminary high-water marks from a high-water event on April 27, 2013. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 19 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 10 feet (ft) or near bankfull to 28 ft, the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM, derived from Light Detection and Ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps—along with Internet information

  6. Flood-inundation maps for the Wabash River at Lafayette, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon H.

    2018-05-10

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximately 4.8-mile reach of the Wabash River at Lafayette, Indiana (Ind.) were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03335500, Wabash River at Lafayette, Ind. Current streamflow conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the internet at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv?site_no=03335500. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system (https://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS AHPS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages, including the Wabash River at Lafayette, Ind. NWS AHPS-forecast peak-stage information may be used with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.For this study, flood profiles were computed for the Wabash River reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgage 03335500, Wabash River at Lafayette, Ind., and high-water marks from the flood of July 2003 (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [USACE], 2007). The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 23 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model derived

  7. Flood-inundation maps for the White River at Noblesville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Zachary W.

    2017-11-02

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 7.5-mile reach of the White River at Noblesville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science website at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the White River at Noblesville, Ind., streamgage (USGS station number 03349000). Real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at the same site as the USGS streamgage (NWS site NBLI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional, step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current (2016) stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03349000, White River at Noblesville, Ind., and documented high-water marks from the floods of September 4, 2003, and May 6, 2017. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 15 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 10.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 24.0 ft, which is the highest stage interval of the current (2016) USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 2 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability of these maps, along with internet

  8. Flood-inundation maps for Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2018-02-27

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 1.9-mile reach of Cedar Creek at Auburn, Indiana (Ind.), from the First Street bridge, downstream to the streamgage at 18th Street, then ending approximately 1,100 feet (ft) downstream of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. (station number 04179520). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, although forecasts of flood hydrographs are not available at this site (ABBI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. streamgage and the documented high-water marks from the flood of March 11, 2009. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute seven water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft, or near bankfull, to 13 ft, in 1-foot increments. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps, along with internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at Cedar Creek

  9. Flood-inundation maps for the Patoka River in and near Jasper, southwestern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2018-01-23

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9.5-mile reach of the Patoka River in and near the city of Jasper, southwestern Indiana (Ind.), from the streamgage near County Road North 175 East, downstream to State Road 162, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Patoka River at Jasper, Ind. (station number 03375500). The Patoka streamgage is located at the upstream end of the 9.5-mile river reach. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, although flood forecasts and stages for action and minor, moderate, and major flood stages are not currently (2017) available at this site (JPRI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Patoka River at Jasper, Ind., streamgage and the documented high-water marks from the flood of April 30, 2017. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute five water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 15 feet (ft), or near bankfull, to 19 ft. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98 ft vertical accuracy and 4.9 ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these flood-inundation maps, along with real

  10. Flood-inundation maps for the Wabash River at Terre Haute, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.3-mi reach of the Wabash River from 0.1 mi downstream of the Interstate 70 bridge to 1.1 miles upstream of the Route 63 bridge, Terre Haute, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to select water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Wabash River at Terre Haute (station number 03341500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv/?site_no=03341500&agency_cd=USGS&p"). In addition, the same data are provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps//). Within this system, the NWS forecasts flood hydrographs for the Wabash River at Terre Haute that may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Wabash River at the Terre Haute streamgage. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 22 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-ft interval referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bank-full to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and a 1.02-ft horizontal accuracy) to delineate the area flooded at each water

  11. Flood-inundation maps for the Flatrock River at Columbus, Indiana, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the Flatrock River on the western side of Columbus, Indiana, from County Road 400N to the river mouth at the confluence with Driftwood River, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Flatrock River at Columbus (station number 03363900). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service, which also presents the USGS data, at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/. Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Flatrock River streamgage, high-water marks that were surveyed following the flood of June 7, 2008, and water-surface profiles from the current flood-insurance study for the City of Columbus. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 12 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 9 ft or near bankfull to 20 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.37 ft

  12. Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River near Bedford, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 1.8-mile reach of the East Fork White River near Bedford, Indiana (Ind.) were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selectedwater levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03371500, East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind. Current conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv?site_no=03371500. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages, including the East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. For this study, flood profiles were computed for the East Fork White River reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgage 03371500, East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind., and documented high-water marks from the flood of June 2008. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 20 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM, derived from

  13. Flood-inundation maps for the St. Marys River at Fort Wayne, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Chad D.; Kim, Moon H.; Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9-mile reach of the St. Marys River that extends from South Anthony Boulevard to Main Street at Fort Wayne, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Fort Wayne. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 04182000 St. Marys River near Fort Wayne, Ind. Current conditions at the USGS streamgages in Indiana may be obtained from the National Water Information System: Web Interface. In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system. The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated at USGS streamgages. That forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, water-surface profiles were simulated for the stream reach by means of a hydraulic one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relation at the USGS streamgage 04182000 St. Marys River near Fort Wayne, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to simulate 11 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A flood inundation map was generated for each water-surface profile stage (11 maps in all) so that for any given flood stage users will be

  14. Cap-and-trade policy: The influence on investments in carbon dioxide reducing technologies in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahie, Monique

    With most of the energy produced in the state of Indiana coming from coal, the implementation of policy instruments such as cap-and-trade, which is included in the most recent climate bill, will have significant effects. This thesis provides an analysis of the effects that a cap-and-trade policy might have on the investment decisions for alternative technologies in the power plant sector in Indiana. Two economic models of representative coal-fired power plants, Gallagher (600MW) and Rockport (2600MW), are selected and used to evaluate the repowering decision of a plant for several technologies: integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), wind farm combined with natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC). The firm will make its decisions based on the net present value (NPV) of cost estimates for these CO2 reducing technologies, the cost of purchasing offsets and CO 2 allowances. This model is applied to a base case and three American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 cases derived from the Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2009b). A sensitivity analysis is done on the discount rate and capital costs. The results of the study indicate that a SCPC plant without carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the least costly compliance option for both plants under all of the cases while retrofitting the existing plant with CCS is the most expensive. Gallagher's three least expensive options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and investment in wind plus NGCC. Rockport's three least expensive compliance options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and IGCC without CCS. For both plants, when a 12% discount rate is utilized, NPV of costs are generally lower and the operation of the existing plant technology with the aid of allowances and offsets to be in compliance is the cheapest option. If capital costs were to decrease by 30%, a SCPC

  15. Flood-inundation maps for North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Zachary W.

    2017-11-13

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.2-mile reach of North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science website at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding that correspond to selected water levels (stages) at the North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Ind., streamgage (USGS station number 03371650). Real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also shows observed USGS stages at the same site as the USGS streamgage (NWS site NFSI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional, step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current (2015) stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03371650, North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 12 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals, except for the highest profile of 22.9 ft, referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 12.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 22.9 ft, which is the highest stage of the current (2015) USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 1.9 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability of these maps, along with information regarding current stage from the USGS

  16. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  17. Through our children's eyes--the public health impact of the vision screening requirements for Indiana school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Edwin C; Meetz, Richard E; Harmon, L'erin L

    2010-02-01

    The vision screening of preschool and school children is a widely accepted procedure to detect vision problems that can interfere with learning. The Indiana General Assembly requires the annual vision screening with the Modified Clinical Technique (MCT) of all children upon their enrollment in either kindergarten or the first grade, with the exception of schools that apply for and receive waivers to conduct only a distance Snellen chart screening. In association with the Indiana State Department of Health, the Indiana University School of Optometry conducted an analysis of statewide school screening data on 36,967 grade 1 children from 139 of the 294 Indiana school corporations that submitted data for the 2000-2001 school year to examine differences in referral rate by screening method, the socioeconomic status of children screened, and academic performance. The MCT was used by 125 of the school corporations, and some other technique was used by 14 school corporations. Significant differences were seen when comparing the mean referral rates of school corporations that conduct the MCT against school corporations that do not conduct the MCT (P = 0.001) and in the rate of referral by median family income of the children screened (P = 0.050). A median family income of $46,500 was identified as the level at which the income-specific difference in referral rates ceased to be significant (P = 0.074). In spite of an observed tendency toward a higher referral rate for children who performed below average on the standardized Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress Plus (ISTEP+) exam, results were found to be not significant (P = 0.116) when comparing the percentage of grade 1 children referred to an eye care provider in 2000-2001 with their percentages of passing both the English/language arts and mathematics components of the 2002-2003 ISTEP+ exam (in grade 3). Schools using the highly sensitive and specific MCT identified more visually at-risk children than

  18. Molecular characterization of atypical antigenic variants of canine rabies virus reveals its reintroduction by wildlife vectors in southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Ayala, Fabiola; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Ortiz-Alcántara, Joanna M; González-Durán, Elizabeth; Pérez-Agüeros, Sandra I; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Torres-Longoria, Belem; López-Martínez, Irma; Hernández-Rivas, Lucía; Díaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2017-12-01

    Rabies is an infectious viral disease that is practically always fatal following the onset of clinical signs. In Mexico, the last case of human rabies transmitted by dogs was reported in 2006 and canine rabies has declined significantly due to vaccination campaigns implemented in the country. Here we report on the molecular characterization of six rabies virus strains found in Yucatan and Chiapas, remarkably, four of them showed an atypical reaction pattern when antigenic characterization with a reduced panel of eight monoclonal antibodies was performed. Phylogenetic analyses on the RNA sequences unveiled that the three atypical strains from Yucatan are associated with skunks. Analysis using the virus entire genome showed that they belong to a different lineage distinct from the variants described for this animal species in Mexico. The Chiapas atypical strain was grouped in a lineage that was considered extinct, while the others are clustered within classic dog variants.

  19. Beta-glucosidase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogulis, Mark; Harris, Paul; Osborn, David

    2017-06-27

    The present invention relates to beta-glucosidase variants, e.g. beta-glucosidase variants of a parent Family GH3A beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the beta-glucosidase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the beta-glucosidase variants.

  20. A naturally occurring variant of the human prion protein completely prevents prion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Emmanuel A; Smidak, Michelle; Grimshaw, Andrew; Houghton, Richard; Tomlinson, Andrew; Jeelani, Asif; Jakubcova, Tatiana; Hamdan, Shyma; Richard-Londt, Angela; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Alpers, Michael; Whitfield, Jerome; Mead, Simon; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Collinge, John

    2015-06-25

    Mammalian prions, transmissible agents causing lethal neurodegenerative diseases, are composed of assemblies of misfolded cellular prion protein (PrP). A novel PrP variant, G127V, was under positive evolutionary selection during the epidemic of kuru--an acquired prion disease epidemic of the Fore population in Papua New Guinea--and appeared to provide strong protection against disease in the heterozygous state. Here we have investigated the protective role of this variant and its interaction with the common, worldwide M129V PrP polymorphism. V127 was seen exclusively on a M129 PRNP allele. We demonstrate that transgenic mice expressing both variant and wild-type human PrP are completely resistant to both kuru and classical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) prions (which are closely similar) but can be infected with variant CJD prions, a human prion strain resulting from exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions to which the Fore were not exposed. Notably, mice expressing only PrP V127 were completely resistant to all prion strains, demonstrating a different molecular mechanism to M129V, which provides its relative protection against classical CJD and kuru in the heterozygous state. Indeed, this single amino acid substitution (G→V) at a residue invariant in vertebrate evolution is as protective as deletion of the protein. Further study in transgenic mice expressing different ratios of variant and wild-type PrP indicates that not only is PrP V127 completely refractory to prion conversion but acts as a potent dose-dependent inhibitor of wild-type prion propagation.

  1. Survey of forensic mental health experts on pro se competence after Indiana v. Edwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Andrew R; Knoll, James L; Way, Bruce B; Leonard, Cecilia; Widroff, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In Indiana v. Edwards (2008) the U.S. Supreme Court held that a higher standard may be required for pro se competence (PSC) than for competence to stand trial (CST), but provided little guidance for the trial court judge. This survey of forensic mental health experts studied potential PSC criteria. Sixty-eight (22.7%) forensic evaluators replied. Three McGarry criteria were reported as requiring a much higher standard for PSC: to appraise the available legal defenses (45.6%), to plan a legal strategy (51.5%), and to question and challenge witnesses (44.1%). Sixty percent agreed that standby counsel should be mandatory. Respondents opined that average abilities were sufficient for intelligence (77.9%), literacy (69.1%), and verbal ability (70.6%) were sufficient. PSC examiners may wish to assess appraisal of available legal defenses, planning a legal strategy, and questioning and challenging witnesses for a higher standard than CST. Evaluators should also assess the defendant's willingness to accept standby counsel (SBC) and the defendant's motivation for attempting a pro se defense.

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report GHETA 83-309-1405, Chrysler Corporation Foundry, Indianapolis, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, A.

    1984-01-01

    In response to a request arising out of employee concerns over the medical surveillance program at the Chrysler Corporation Foundry located in Indianapolis, Indiana, an evaluation was made of chest radiographs evaluated by the program with specific concern directed to disagreement on the radiographic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. The request was made by the Chrysler Corporation and the United Auto Workers National Joint Committee on Health and Safety. Three NIOSH certified B-readers independently interpreted a set of 78 systematically sampled posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs from the system files. These interpretations were compared among themselves and with company interpretations. While none of the radiographs was deemed unreadable, 35% were classified as having poor technical quality. Only one film was found which had a profusion of small opacities, and the company had interpreted the film as positive. Overall, agreement on proportion of positive readings and agreement on individual films was as good between the company and B-readers as it was between any two of the individual B-readers. The author recommends, however, that in order to avoid future complaints of the nature, the company should use standard radiographic equipment and techniques, NIOSH certified B-readers, and current international classifications of radiographs for pneumoconioses in their medical surveillance program

  3. My Most Memorable AAS Meeting-December 1957, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, F. K.

    1999-05-01

    My attendance at AAS meetings began with the 46th meeting in September 1931 at the brand new Perkins Observatory. This was the first semester of my junior year at Indiana University. Professor Wilbur Cogshall, my astronomy professor, took me to the meeting, and paid my expenses for dormitory accommodations and meals. Hence, my attendance at AAS meetings covers a span of nearly 68 years. There have been so many "memorable" meetings that it is hard to pick just one. However, the 99th meeting in December 1957 at Butler University in Indianapolis, a joint meeting with the AAAS, is memorable because I was in a wheel chair and using crutches, following an injury to my right knee cap. I was a member of the AAAS Committee to select the "best paper" presented at the meeting to receive the Newcomb Cleveland Prize, and Martin Schwarzschild's first report of results from Project Stratoscope was on the program. I showed up at the Committee meeting in my wheel chair, and nominated Martin's paper for the "best paper" award. The Committee asked a lot of questions and then approved the paper by a unanimous vote. The wheel chair and crutches obviously played a role in convincing the Committee that I had strong feelings about the merits of Martin's paper. Allan Sandage was the Warner Prize Lecturer, and reported on the current status of his revision of the cosmic distance scale. Hubble's 1936 distances needed to be increased by a factor of five to ten.

  4. Organochlorine accumulation by Sentinel Mallards at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Sparks, D.W.; Sobiech, S.A.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Farm-raised l2-month-old female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were released at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana. Five mallards were sacrificed at the start of the study and at approximately 10-day intervals through day 100. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in carcasses increased linearly with time of exposure and exceeded 16 mcg/g wet weight by day 100; PCBs in breast muscle exceeded 3.9 mcg/g by day 100. These PCB values are among the highest recorded for wild or sentinel waterfowl. PCB concentrations in breast muscle (26-523 mcg/g lipid weight) were 50-1,000 times greater than human consumption guidelines for edible poultry in Canada (0.5 mcg/g lipid weight) and 9-176 times greater than consumption guidelines for edible poultry in the United States (3.0 mcg/g lipid weight). Additionally, PCB concentrations in carcass and breast muscle exceeded the threshold of the Great Lakes Sport Fish Consumption Advisory 'do not eat' category (1.9 mcg/g wet weight) by day 20 and day 50, respectively. Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases including BROD (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), and PROD (pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase) were induced over 5-fold compared to reference mallards. BROD, EROD, and PROD were each significantly correlated to total PCBs and to the toxicity of selected PCB congeners, relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

  5. Do Wind Turbines Affect Weather Conditions?: A Case Study in Indiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan F. Henschen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming increasingly widespread in the United States as the world looks for cleaner sources of energy. Scientists, policymakers, and citizens have strong opinions regarding the positive and negative effects of wind energy projects, and there is a great deal of misinformation about wind energy circulating on the Web and other media sources. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of how the rotation of hundreds of turbines can influence local weather conditions within a wind farm and in the surrounding areas. This experiment measures temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and evaporation with five weather instruments at Meadow Lake Wind Farm located in White, Jasper, and Benton Counties, Indiana, from November 4 through November 18, 2010. The data show that as wind passes throughout the wind farm, the air warms during the overnight and early morning hours and cools during daytime hours. Observed lower humidity rates and higher evaporation rates downwind also demonstrate that the air dries out as it travels through the wind farm. Further research over multiple seasons is necessary to examine the effects of warmer nighttime temperatures and drier conditions progressively downwind of the installation. Nevertheless, wind turbines did not negatively affect local weather patterns in our small-scale research and may actually prevent frost, which could have important positive implications for farmers by potentially prolonging the growing season.

  6. A report on the Indiana University Workshop on future U.S. hadron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphers, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In July 1994 a workshop was held at Indiana University to study and discuss options for future hadron collider facilities in the United States, and to identify related R ampersand D programs. The workshop was conducted under the auspices of the Accelerator Physics, Technologies, and Facilities Working Group of the DPF Long Term Planning Study. Roughly 50 participants from 17 institutions in the U.S. and Europe (CERN) were organized into six working groups to study magnets, cryogenics and vacuum, antiproton sources, injectors, interaction regions, and lattice and beam dynamics. Upgrades to existing facilities (namely, Fermilab) and a post-LHC facility were discussed at the workshop. In this paper, the discussion will focus on the post-LHC facility. One of the specific goals of the workshop was to develop a defensible parameters list for a 30 TeV x 30 TeV hadron collider with luminosity of 1 x 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 . While this accelerator would have only 50% higher energy than the SSC design, it was realized that the role of synchrotron radiation at this energy would significantly enhance the design and operation of the machine. Radiation damping times of a few hours, rather than one day, can be realized thus allowing less intense, but brighter proton beams

  7. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Indiana. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  8. Travel to Steel Warehouse Inc., Southbend, Indiana. Trip report, May 4, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    On May 4, 1995 the author visited a steel plate and coil, cold reduction facility at Steel Warehouse Inc. located in South Bend, Indiana about 150 miles from Argonne. Some very interesting facts were learned about cold reduction of hot rolled steel during this visit. The company selected is only a cold reduction mill and buys steel from a number of steel producers. The author spent a total of about three hours with these people, and this included a tour of their pickling line, the small cold reduction mill which at present is limited to 15.5 in width maximum, and their large cold reduction mill which produces sheet and coil up to 72 in. wide. Some of the things that were learned, that will have an impact on the production of the Atlas steel plates are given here. (1) Hot rolled coils have some inherent, interesting, characteristics that must be taken into consideration when being cold reduced. (2) The monitoring of the coil thickness is only done along the center line of the coil, this has a serious impact on QC of plates cut from this coil for a number of reasons. (3) Hot rolled coils of steel in this particular instance may come from a number of different sources. This could cause problems if magnetic permeability is a serious issue. It was the author's impression that this facility is fairly typical of what one might expect from any similar facility

  9. Succession of insects on unreclaimed coal strip mine spoil banks in Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Selected sites at a western Indiana unreclaimed coal strip mine and adjacent undisturbed area sampled by Munsee in 1964 were restudied in 1981. Slope and exposure, soil pH and texture, vegetation and tree tallies, on-site rainfall and local weather records were used to characterize 18 spoilbanks and two unmined sites. Surface-active arthropods were sampled by replicated pitfall taps the summer of 1981 at the same locations and dates trapped by Munsee in 1964. Plant cover was sampled by a modified point-contact method. Trees over one inch dbh were tallied and measured for basal area. Clustering by similarity based on chi-square differences was performed for plants, trees, ants, springtails and ground beetles, using the undisturbed forest and a highly acid un-revegetated mined site as the extremes. Soil pH and texture changed rapidly on one moist spoilbank. Soil moisture levels generally decreased between 1964 and 1981 and depth of water penetration generally increased. Ant, springtail and carabid populations changed on revegetating sites. Myrmica spatulata and Smithistruma clypeata were major new ants on the sites in 1981. Iridomyrmex pruinosus analis and Pheidole bicarinata characteristic of barren spoilbanks in 1964 survived on only one remaining barren site in 1981. The collembolan Entomobrya quadrilineata decreased while Hypogastrura denticulata increased on the revegetating sites. Known habitat preference of some of these insects matched their occurrence on the spoilbanks.

  10. Limitations of constitutional protections in Jackson v. Indiana pertaining to charges with no statute of limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodol, Liban; Epson, Martin F; Bloom, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    There has been a long-standing link between the civil and criminal commitment procedures for individuals found incompetent to stand trial (IST). In the criminal system, when restoration of competency fails to be realized in a reasonable time, the civil commitment process becomes the default system for commitment. While there have been recent calls for improved mechanisms for predicting competence restorability, there has been little attention paid to individuals who can oscillate indefinitely between commitment in both the criminal and civil systems. We provide an example of one such case where an individual falls into the legal space that sits outside of the judicial guidance outlined in the landmark case Jackson v. Indiana. This review of Oregon public documents surrounding an ongoing murder case highlights the potential for indefinite detention of individuals who have been charged with serious crimes that do not have a statute of limitations, who are unlikely to be restored to competency to stand trial, and who are inconsistently found to be dangerous under civil commitment standards.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Sixteen. Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Indiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Unavoidable Pressure Ulcers: Development and Testing of the Indiana University Health Pressure Ulcer Prevention Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joyce; Beeson, Terrie; Terry, Colin; Dillon, Jill; Hampton, Charity; Kerley, Denise; Mosier, Judith; Gumiela, Ellen; Tucker, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Despite prevention strategies, hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) continue to occur in the acute care setting. The purpose of this study was to develop an operational definition of and an instrument for identifying avoidable/unavoidable HAPUs in the acute care setting. The Indiana University Health Pressure Ulcer Prevention Inventory (PUPI) was developed and psychometric testing was performed. A retrospective pilot study of 31 adult hospitalized patients with an HAPU was conducted using the PUPI. Overall content validity index of 0.99 and individual item content validity index scores (0.9-1.0) demonstrated excellent content validity. Acceptable PUPI criterion validity was demonstrated with no statistically significant differences between wound specialists' and other panel experts' scoring. Construct validity findings were acceptable with no statistically significant differences among avoidable or unavoidable HAPU patients and their Braden Scale total scores. Interrater reliability was acceptable with perfect agreement on the total PUPI score between raters (κ = 1.0; P = .025). Raters were in total agreement 93% (242/260) of the time on all 12 individual PUPI items. No risk factors were found to be significantly associated with unavoidable HAPUs. An operational definition of and an instrument for identifying avoidable/unavoidable HAPUs in the acute care setting were developed and tested. The instrument provides an objective and structured method for identifying avoidable/unavoidable HAPUs. The PUPI provides an additional method that could be used in root-cause analyses and when reporting adverse pressure ulcer events.

  13. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  14. The genomic landscape shaped by selection on transposable elements across 18 mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellåker, Christoffer; Keane, Thomas M; Yalcin, Binnaz; Wong, Kim; Agam, Avigail; Belgard, T Grant; Flint, Jonathan; Adams, David J; Frankel, Wayne N; Ponting, Chris P

    2012-06-15

    Transposable element (TE)-derived sequence dominates the landscape of mammalian genomes and can modulate gene function by dysregulating transcription and translation. Our current knowledge of TEs in laboratory mouse strains is limited primarily to those present in the C57BL/6J reference genome, with most mouse TEs being drawn from three distinct classes, namely short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and the endogenous retrovirus (ERV) superfamily. Despite their high prevalence, the different genomic and gene properties controlling whether TEs are preferentially purged from, or are retained by, genetic drift or positive selection in mammalian genomes remain poorly defined. Using whole genome sequencing data from 13 classical laboratory and 4 wild-derived mouse inbred strains, we developed a comprehensive catalogue of 103,798 polymorphic TE variants. We employ this extensive data set to characterize TE variants across the Mus lineage, and to infer neutral and selective processes that have acted over 2 million years. Our results indicate that the majority of TE variants are introduced though the male germline and that only a minority of TE variants exert detectable changes in gene expression. However, among genes with differential expression across the strains there are twice as many TE variants identified as being putative causal variants as expected. Most TE variants that cause gene expression changes appear to be purged rapidly by purifying selection. Our findings demonstrate that past TE insertions have often been highly deleterious, and help to prioritize TE variants according to their likely contribution to gene expression or phenotype variation.

  15. GROWTH AND ENZYME PRODUCTION DURING CONTINUOUS CULTURES OF A HIGH AMYLASE-PRODUCING VARIANT OF Aspergillus Oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Zangirolami

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth and product formation by a selected variant of Aspergillus oryzae showing high alpha-amylase production was studied in continuous cultivations carried out at six different specific growth rates, using glucose as the growth-limiting nutrient. The analysis of the steady-state data revealed that the variant and wild-type strains were similar with respect to glucose uptake system and stoichiometric coefficients. However, the variant was capable of maintaining an enzyme production as high as 40 FAUgDW-1h-1 at a dilution rate of 0.2 h-1, while the wild-type strain reached a maximum specific alpha-amylase production rate of 17 FAUgDW-1h-1 at a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1. Using a morphologically structured model originally proposed for the wild-type strain, it was possible to describe enzyme production, biomass formation and glucose consumption after modification of a few parameters to adjust the model to the characteristics of the selected variant.

  16. A trans-acting Variant within the Transcription Factor RIM101 Interacts with Genetic Background to Determine its Regulatory Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Read

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most genetic variants associated with disease occur within regulatory regions of the genome, underscoring the importance of defining the mechanisms underlying differences in regulation of gene expression between individuals. We discovered a pair of co-regulated, divergently oriented transcripts, AQY2 and ncFRE6, that are expressed in one strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ∑1278b, but not in another, S288c. By combining classical genetics techniques with high-throughput sequencing, we identified a trans-acting single nucleotide polymorphism within the transcription factor RIM101 that causes the background-dependent expression of both transcripts. Subsequent RNA-seq experiments revealed that RIM101 regulates many more targets in S288c than in ∑1278b and that deletion of RIM101 in both backgrounds abrogates the majority of differential expression between the strains. Strikingly, only three transcripts undergo a significant change in expression after swapping RIM101 alleles between backgrounds, implying that the differences in the RIM101 allele lead to a remarkably focused transcriptional response. However, hundreds of RIM101-dependent targets undergo a subtle but consistent shift in expression in the S288c RIM101-swapped strain, but not its ∑1278b counterpart. We conclude that ∑1278b may harbor a variant(s that buffers against widespread transcriptional dysregulation upon introduction of a non-native RIM101 allele, emphasizing the importance of accounting for genetic background when assessing the impact of a regulatory variant.

  17. Enterococcus faecium strains characterization through polymorphism study of VNTR loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belteghi, C.,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are commensally bacteria of the gastrointestinal and female genital tract in humans and some mammals and birds, and one of the significant causes of hospital-acquired infections, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Genetic fingerprinting (DNA fingerprinting is a tool for identifying, marking and prevention of infectious agents dissemination. SSR (short sequence repeat are known to suffer frequent variations in the number of repetitive units.MLVA (multiple locus variable number tandem repeats analysis is a variant of genetic fingerprinting, in epidemiological studies on the pathogenetic Enterococcus faecium. Our study included laboratory Enterococcus faecium strains or isolated from clinical cases or from the environment (2003-2008. All analyzed strains of Enterococcus faecium were sensitive to vancomycin, except BM4147, and resistant to oxacilin. Strains isolated from the birds’ samples have shown a smaller resistance profile than those of human origin. 33 Enterococus faecium strains were analyzed by PCR amplification. 27 MT (VNTR profiles were obtained: six in the case of the strains isolated from birds, 15 in the case of the strains isolated form humans, 4 in the case of the collection strains and 2 in the case of the strains isolated from water samples. Among the strains isolated from humans and those isolated from animals, identical profiles were not recorded. Within the strains isolated from clinical cases, and those isolated from birds, circulating genotypes were noted, which can be considered as epidemical. The strains used as probiotics proved to be different from those circulating in birds. All MLVA profiles codes compared with those published on line in the UMC Utrecht database proved to be different. Results obtained in this study support the usefulness of the polymorphic VNTR analysis, as genetic marker, inepidemiological investigations.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces pigment production and enhances virulence in a white phenotypic variant of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonic V

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vlado Antonic,1–3 Alexander Stojadinovic,3–5 Binxue Zhang,1–3 Mina J Izadjoo,1–3,5 Mohammad Alavi1–3 1Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Diagnostic and Translational Research Center, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 3Combat Wound Initiative Program, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA; 5Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Staphyloxanthin is a virulence factor which protects Staphylococcus aureus in stress conditions. We isolated two pigment variants of S. aureus and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a single wound infection. S. aureus variants displayed white and yellow colony phenotypes. The sequence of the operons for staphyloxanthin synthesis indicated that coding and promoter regions were identical between the two pigment variants. Quorum sensing controls pigment synthesis in some bacteria. It is also shown that P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecules affect S. aureus transcription. We explored whether the co-infecting P. aeruginosa can affect pigment production in the white S. aureus variant. In co-culture experiments between the white variants and a selected number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, only P. aeruginosa induced pigment production in the white variant. Gene expression analysis of the white variant did not indicate upregulation of the crtM and other genes known to be involved in pigment production (sigB, sarA, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene [FPP-synthase], hfq. In contrast, transcription of the catalase gene was significantly upregulated after co-culture. P. aeruginosa-induced pigment synthesis and catalase upregulation correlated with increased resistance to polymyxin B, hydrogen peroxide, and the intracellular environment of macrophages. Our data indicate the presence of silent but functional staphyloxanthin synthesis machinery in a white phenotypic variant

  19. Word Variant Identification in Old French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of historical texts are available in machine-readable form, which retain the original spelling, which can be very different from the modern-day equivalents due to the natural evolution of a language, and because the concept of standardisation in spelling is comparatively modern. Among medieval vernacular writers, the same word could be spelled in different ways and the same author (or scribe might even use several alternative spellings in the same passage. Thus, we do not know,a priori, how many variant forms of a particular word there are in such texts, let alone what these variants might be. Searching on the modern equivalent, or even the commonest historical variant, of a particular word may thus fail to retrieve an appreciable number of occurrences unless the searcher already has an extensive knowledge of the language of the documents. Moreover, even specialist scholars may be unaware of some idiosyncratic variants. Here, we consider the use of computer methods to retrieve variant historical spellings.

  20. Splicing analysis of 14 BRCA1 missense variants classifies nine variants as pathogenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlborn, Lise B; Dandanell, Mette; Steffensen, Ane Y

    2015-01-01

    by functional analysis at the protein level. Results from a validated mini-gene splicing assay indicated that nine BRCA1 variants resulted in splicing aberrations leading to truncated transcripts and thus can be considered pathogenic (c.4987A>T/p.Met1663Leu, c.4988T>A/p.Met1663Lys, c.5072C>T/p.Thr1691Ile, c......Pathogenic germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose carriers to early onset breast and ovarian cancer. Clinical genetic screening of BRCA1 often reveals variants with uncertain clinical significance, complicating patient and family management. Therefore, functional examinations are urgently...... needed to classify whether these uncertain variants are pathogenic or benign. In this study, we investigated 14 BRCA1 variants by in silico splicing analysis and mini-gene splicing assay. All 14 alterations were missense variants located within the BRCT domain of BRCA1 and had previously been examined...

  1. Identification of a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope in hypervariable region 1 of avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Minbo; Zhou, Defang; Li, Gen; Guo, Huijun; Liu, Jianzhu; Wang, Guihua; Zheng, Qiankun; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2016-03-08

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a hypervariable oncogenic retrovirus that causes great economic loss in poultry. Antigenic variations in the variable regions make the development of an effective vaccine a challenging task. In the present study, we identified a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope using reverse vaccinology methods. First, we predicted the B-cell epitopes in gp85 gene of ALV-J strains by DNAman and bioinformatics. Fourteen candidate epitopes were selected and linked in tandem with glycines or serines as a multi-epitope gene. The expressed protein of multi-epitope gene can induce high-titer antibody that can recognize nature ALV-J and neutralize the infectivity of ALV-J strains. Next, we identified a high effective epitope using eight overlapping fragments of gp85 gene reacting with mAb 2D5 and anti-multi-epitope sera. The identified epitope contained one of the predicted epitopes and localized in hyervariable region 1 (hr1), indicating a variant epitope. To better understand if the variants of the epitope have a good antigenicity, we synthesized four variants to react with mAb 2D5 and anti-ALV-J sera. The result showed that all variants could react with the two kinds of antibodies though they showed different antigenicity, while could not react with ALV-J negative sera. Thus, the variant antigenic neutralizing epitope was determined as 137-LRDFIA/E/TKWKS/GDDL/HLIRPYVNQS-158. The result shows a potential use of this variant epitopes as a novel multi-epitope vaccine against ALV-J in poultry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Variations in glycoprotein B contribute to immunogenic difference between PRV variant JS-2012 and Bartha-K61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Qing; Tong, Wu; Zheng, Hao; Li, Li-Wei; Li, Guo-Xin; Gao, Fei; Wang, Tao; Liang, Chao; Ye, Chao; Wu, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Qinfeng; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2017-09-01

    A newly emerged pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant has been identified in many Bartha-K61-vaccinated pig farms. This variant has caused great economic losses to the swine industry in China since 2011. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the gB gene of the emerging PRV variant JS-2012 had multiple variations compared with the vaccine strain Bartha-K61. In the study, a specific CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with homologous recombination was used to construct two recombinant viruses, BJB (Bartha-K61+JS-2012gB) and JBJ (JS-2012-ΔgE/gI+Bartha-K61gB), by interchanging the full-length gB genes between Bartha-K61 and JS-2012-ΔgE/gI. The two recombinant viruses showed similar characteristics in growth kinetics in vitro and similar pathogenicity in mice, as compared to their parental strains. Immunization of mice with inactivated BJB or JBJ followed by challenge of JS-2012 showed that BJB could increase protective efficacy to 80%, compared to only 40% protection by the parental Bartha-K61 strain. JBJ had a decreased protective efficacy of 65%, as compared to 90% protection by its parental JS-2012-ΔgE/gI strain. Exchange of the gB gene markedly altered the immunogenicity of the recombinant PRV. These data suggest that variations in gB might play an important role in the virulence of the reemergent PRV variant in China. Our results demonstrate the importance of gB in protective immunity and suggest that the recombinant virus BJB could be a promising vaccine candidate for eradication of the PRV variant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Heterozygous genotype at codon 129 correlates with prolonged disease course in Heidenhain variant sporadic CJD: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Ryan A; Dawson, Elliot T; Drubach, Daniel A

    2018-02-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rapid and fatal neurodegenerative disease defined by misfolded prion proteins accumulating in the brain. A minority of cases initially present with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) phenotype, also known as Heidenhain variant or visual variant CJD. This case provides further evidence of sCJD presenting as PCA. The case also provides evidence for early DWI changes and cortical atrophy over 30 months before neurologic decline and subsequent death. The prolonged disease course correlates with prion protein codon 129 heterozygosity and coexistence of multiple prion strains.

  4. The Skin Bacterium Propionibacterium acnes Employs Two Variants of Hyaluronate Lyase with Distinct Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazipi, Seven; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Kristian; Scavenius, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans are extracellular matrix components in the human epidermis and dermis. One of the most prevalent skin microorganisms, Propionibacterium acnes, possesses HA-degrading activity, possibly conferred by the enzyme hyaluronate lyase (HYL). In this study......, we identified the HYL of P. acnes and investigated the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Investigations include the generation of a P. acneshyl knockout mutant and HYL activity assays to determine the substrate range and formed products. We found that P. acnes employs two distinct variants...... of the observed differences between P. acnes phylotype IA and IB/II strains. Whereas type IA strains are primarily found on the skin surface and associated with acne vulgaris, type IB/II strains are more often associated with soft and deep tissue infections, which would require elaborate tissue invasion...

  5. Genomic diversity of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Peng; Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Xi, Yu; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2013-07-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a baculovirus that selectively infects the domestic silkworm. In this study, six BmNPV strains were compared at the whole genome level. We found that the number of bro genes and the composition of the homologous regions (hrs) are the two primary areas of divergence within these genomes. When we compared the ORFs of these BmNPV variants, we noticed a high degree of sequence divergence in the ORFs that are not baculovirus core genes. This result is consistent with the results derived from phylogenetic trees and evolutionary pressure analyses of these ORFs, indicating that ORFs that are not core genes likely play important roles in the evolution of BmNPV strains. The evolutionary relationships of these BmNPV strains might be explained by their geographic origins or those of their hosts. In addition, the total number of hr palindromes seems to affect viral DNA replication in Bm5 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Biotype Variant Clinical Isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti, Including a Molecular Genetic Analysis of Virulence Genes ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mike S.; Megli, Christina J.; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Qadri, Firdausi; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, is divided into two biotypes: classical and El Tor. Both biotypes produce the major virulence factors toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT). Although possessing genotypic and phenotypic differences, El Tor biotype strains displaying classical biotype traits have been reported and subsequently were dubbed El Tor variants. Of particular interest are reports of El Tor variants that produce various levels of CT, including levels typical of classical biotype strains. Here, we report the characterization of 10 clinical isolates from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and a representative strain from the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak. We observed that all 11 strains produced increased CT (2- to 10-fold) compared to that of wild-type El Tor strains under in vitro inducing conditions, but they possessed various TcpA and ToxT expression profiles. Particularly, El Tor variant MQ1795, which produced the highest level of CT and very high levels of TcpA and ToxT, demonstrated hypervirulence compared to the virulence of El Tor wild-type strains in the infant mouse cholera model. Additional genotypic and phenotypic tests were conducted to characterize the variants, including an assessment of biotype-distinguishing characteristics. Notably, the sequencing of ctxB in some El Tor variants revealed two copies of classical ctxB, one per chromosome, contrary to previous reports that located ctxAB only on the large chromosome of El Tor biotype strains. PMID:21880975

  7. Genetics in psychiatry: common variant association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxbaum Joseph D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many psychiatric conditions and traits are associated with significant heritability. Genetic risk for psychiatric conditions encompass rare variants, identified due to major effect, as well as common variants, the latter analyzed by association analyses. We review guidelines for common variant association analyses, undertaking after assessing evidence of heritability. We highlight the importance of: suitably large sample sizes; an experimental design that controls for ancestry; careful data cleaning; correction for multiple testing; small P values for positive findings; assessment of effect size for positive findings; and, inclusion of an independent replication sample. We also note the importance of a critical discussion of any prior findings, biological follow-up where possible, and a means of accessing the raw data.

  8. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  9. Revised description and classification of atypical isolates of Pasteurella multocida from bovine lungs based on genotypic characterization to include variants previously classified as biovar 2 of Pasteurella canis and Pasteurella avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Angen, Øystein; Olsen, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Strains deviating in key phenotypic characters, mainly isolated from cases of bovine pneumonia in five European countries, were genotyped in order to examine their genotypic relationship with Pasteurella multocida. Twenty-two strains of Pasteurella avium biovar 2, including variants in indole, xy...

  10. [Clinico-pathogenetic variants of chronic gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, V V; Dzhulaĭ, G S

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate specific features of the course of chronic gastritis (CG), morphofunctional condition of gastric mucosa, vegetative regulation, adrenergic and cholinergic shifts, histamine metabolism and effects of exogenic and endogenic risk factors in CG patients; to study clinicopathogenetic variants of CG. A total of 311 CG patients aged from 16 to 72 years were studied. They were divided into three groups by their gastric mucosa condition. The control group consisted of 30 healthy donors. The following parameters were studied: visual and histological condition of gastric mucosa, total acidity, the levels of free hydrochloric acid, pepsin, bioelectric gastric activity, general autonomic tonicity, cholinesterase activity. Three clinicopathogenetic variants of the disease have been identified. Variant 1 was characterized by a recurrent course, subjective manifestation of the disease only in exacerbation, surface (primarily antral) mucosal affection, normal or enhanced secretory and motor functions of the stomach, adequate reaction of acid production to caffeine and histamine stimulation, parasympathicotonia, absolute hyperhistaminemia, relative hypoacetylcholinemia, subnormal urinary excretion of adrenalin. Variant 2 manifested with rare recurrences, longer and more severe exacerbations, frequent spontaneous and provoked aggravations, moderate focal atrophy of the mucosa, secretory insufficiency with adequate reaction to histamine and minor to caffeine stimuli, hypomotor gastric dyskinesia, vegetative eutonia, normohistaminemia, absolute hypoacetylcholinemia, subnormal urinary excretion of noradrenaline. Variant 3 runs without definite remissions and exacerbations, with continuous abdominal pain and dyspepsia, frequent spontaneous aggravations, marked extended mucosal atrophy with secretory insufficiency up to achlorhydria, no stimulation of acid production in response to caffeine and histamine, gastric hypomotility, sympathicotonia, absolute hypohistaminemia

  11. Aging Effects of Caenorhabditis elegans Ryanodine Receptor Variants Corresponding to Human Myopathic Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Nicoll Baines

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Delaying the decline in skeletal muscle function will be critical to better maintenance of an active lifestyle in old age. The skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor, the major intracellular membrane channel through which calcium ions pass to elicit muscle contraction, is central to calcium ion balance and is hypothesized to be a significant factor for age-related decline in muscle function. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a key model system for the study of human aging, and strains were generated with modified C. elegans ryanodine receptors corresponding to human myopathic variants linked with malignant hyperthermia and related conditions. The altered response of these strains to pharmacological agents reflected results of human diagnostic tests for individuals with these pathogenic variants. Involvement of nerve cells in the C. elegans responses may relate to rare medical symptoms concerning the central nervous system that have been associated with ryanodine receptor variants. These single amino acid modifications in C. elegans also conferred a reduction in lifespan and an accelerated decline in muscle integrity with age, supporting the significance of ryanodine receptor function for human aging.

  12. Normal variants of skin in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available 2221 consecutive live births taking place between March 1994 and February 1995 were evaluated for a minimum period of 5 days to note for the occurrence of various normal anatomical variants specially those of skin. Birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, socio-economic status and consanguinity were carefully recorded in all the cases. Mongolian spots (72%, Epstein pearls (43.8%, Milia (26.2% and Erythema toxicum (25.2%, were the common dermatological variants noted. Maturity of the babies and possibly genetic factors (consanguinity are important factors in their causation as ordered in our study.

  13. The curation of genetic variants: difficulties and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kapil Raj; Maden, Narendra; Poudel, Barsha; Pradhananga, Sailendra; Sharma, Amit Kumar

    2012-12-01

    The curation of genetic variants from biomedical articles is required for various clinical and research purposes. Nowadays, establishment of variant databases that include overall information about variants is becoming quite popular. These databases have immense utility, serving as a user-friendly information storehouse of variants for information seekers. While manual curation is the gold standard method for curation of variants, it can turn out to be time-consuming on a large scale thus necessitating the need for automation. Curation of variants described in biomedical literature may not be straightforward mainly due to various nomenclature and expression issues. Though current trends in paper writing on variants is inclined to the standard nomenclature such that variants can easily be retrieved, we have a massive store of variants in the literature that are present as non-standard names and the online search engines that are predominantly used may not be capable of finding them. For effective curation of variants, knowledge about the overall process of curation, nature and types of difficulties in curation, and ways to tackle the difficulties during the task are crucial. Only by effective curation, can variants be correctly interpreted. This paper presents the process and difficulties of curation of genetic variants with possible solutions and suggestions from our work experience in the field including literature support. The paper also highlights aspects of interpretation of genetic variants and the importance of writing papers on variants following standard and retrievable methods. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Internally Mounting Strain Gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, J. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for mounting strain gages inside bolt or cylinder simultaneously inserts gage, attached dowel segment, and length of expandable tubing. Expandable tubing holds gage in place while adhesive cures, assuring even distribution of pressure on gage and area gaged.

  15. Running Title: Strained Yoghurts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... ever, the traditional method of producing strained yoghurt ... Food market studies have the essential function of providing ..... Communication No: 2001/21. ... fermented foods and beverages of Turkey. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr.

  16. Flood inundation maps for the Wabash and Eel Rivers at Logansport, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.3-mile reach of the Wabash River and a 7.6-mile reach of the Eel River at Logansport, Indiana (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage Wabash River at Logansport, Ind. (sta. no. 03329000) and USGS streamgage Eel River near Logansport, Ind. (sta. no. 03328500). Current conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. For this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgages 03329000, Wabash River at Logansport, Ind., and 03328500, Eel River near Logansport, Ind. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine five water-surface profiles for flood stage at 1-foot intervals referenced to the Wabash River streamgage datum, and four water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the Eel River streamgage datum. The stages range from bankfull to approximately the highest

  17. Characterization of small microsatellite loci isolated in endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) for use in non-invasive sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fike, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Primers for 10 microsatellite loci were developed specifically to amplify low quantity and quality DNA in the endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis). In a screen of 20 individuals from a population in Missouri, the 10 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from seven to 18 alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although two loci revealed significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses and for use in mark-recapture studies that utilize DNA collected non-invasively from fecal pellets, which will ultimately aid in management efforts.

  18. Hydrologic conditions in the coal mining district of Indiana and implications for reclamation of abandoned mine lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1998-01-01

    Bedrock strata of the mining district of Indiana (Indiana Coal Mining District, ICMD) include numerous coalbeds of economic importance, together with underclays, roof shales, limestones, and sandstones of Pennsylvanian age. These are typically poor aquifers with low hydraulic conductivities and specific yields. Surficial materials include loess, till, alluvium, and other deposits of pleistocene age. The loess and till also have low hydraulic conductivities, so that very few shallow aquifers exist in the vicinities of abandoned mine land (AML) sites, except where they are close to the alluvial fill of large bedrock valleys. The hydrologic cascade at AML sites in Indiana is strongly conditioned by the existence of elevated deposits of coarse-grained coal-preparation refuse and flooded underground mine workings. Flooded mines are the principal conduits of groundwater flow in the area, but their boundaries, flowpaths, and mechanisms of recharge and discharge are very different from those of natural aquifers and are poorly understood. Acidic mine drainage often emerges as seepages and springs on the edges of the elevated refuse deposits, but the low permeability of the natural surficial materials and bedrock inhibits the development of off-site groundwater contaminant plumes. The water balance across the surface of the refuse deposits is critical to reclamation planning and success. Enhancing runoff through reduction of infiltration capacity has the beneficial effect of reducing recharge through the acid-generating refuse, but the excess runoff may be accompanied by soil erosion that can lead to reclamation failure. Furthermore, during cool seasons and stormy periods, a well vegetated surface promotes recharge through increased infiltration, resulting in greater rates of acidic baseflow seepage. Passive Anoxic Limestone Drains (PALDs) have been successfully coupled with wetland treatment systems to improve surface waters that discharge from AML sites. Storm runoff from

  19. THE TRUE IDENTITY OF COPELAND'S AQUATIC SCUTTLE FLY (DIPTERA: PHORIDAE) FROM INDIANA AND RECOGNITION OF A SIBLING SPECIES FROM TEXAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, R Henry L; Copeland, Robert S; Murrell, Ebony

    2009-07-01

    Among the insects reported by Copeland (1989) breeding in the waters retained by treeholes in Indiana was a scuttle fly identified by W. H. Robinson as Megaselia scalaris (Loew). It is here reported that in fact this fly, along with fresh material from Illinois and Missouri, is M. imitatrix Borgmeier, whose type series was from Puerto Rico. An aquatic species reported from Texas is recognized as a sibling species of M. imitatrix and is named M. hansonix Disney, sp. nov. A single female from Brazil represents a third species of this complex, thus raising doubts about the identity of specimens from Brazil attributed to M. imitatrix by Benton and Claugher (2000).

  20. Superimposed deformation in seconds: breccias from the impact structure at Kentland, Indiana (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnerud, M. G.

    1998-05-01

    Breccias from the central uplift at the Kentland, Indiana impact structure have outcrop and microscopic characteristics that give insight into events that may occur in a carbonate-dominated sedimentary sequence in the moments following hypervelocity impact. Three distinct types of brecciated rock bodies — fault breccias, breccia lenses, and breccia dikes — suggest multiple mechanisms of fragmentation. The fault breccias occur along steeply dipping faults that coincide with compositional discontinuities in the stratigraphic succession. The breccia lenses and dikes are less localized in occurrence and show no systematic spatial distribution or orientation. The fault breccias and breccia lenses show no consistent cross-cutting relationships, but both are transected by the breccia dikes. Textural analysis reveals significant differences in particle size distributions for the different breccias. The fault breccias are typically monomict, coarsest and least uniform in grain size, and yield the highest power-law exponent (fractal dimension) in plots of particle size vs. frequency. The polymict dike filling is finest and most uniform in grain size, has the lowest power-law exponent, and is locally laminated and size-sorted. SEM images of the dike-filling breccia show that fragmentation occurred to the scale of microns. Material within the breccia lenses has textural characteristics intermediate between the other two types, but the irregular morphology of these bodies suggests a mechanism of formation different from that of either of the other breccia categories. The breccia lenses and dikes both have sub-mm-scale spheroidal vugs that may have been formed by carbon dioxide bubbles released during sudden devolatilization of the carbonate country rock. Collectively, these observations shed light on the processes that occur during the excavation and modification phases of crater formation in carbonate strata — heterogeneous, polyphase, multiscale deformation accomplished

  1. Modeling habitat distributions of bats using GIS: wind energy and Indiana bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Jason; Jansen, Erik; Friedel, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Post-construction monitoring indicates that commercial wind energy facilities are a source of bat mortality resulting from collisions or other negative interactions with operational turbines. An understanding of the potential distribution and movement of bats on the landscape is essential to minimizing these impacts. Using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems software, we present a modelling approach that evaluates the distribution of bat roosting and foraging habitat and potential flight paths at a landscape scale which may be used to assess the risk to bats from the development of a wind energy facility. Accurate assessment of these risks can minimize schedule delays and unexpected costs. Applied to the behaviour and ecology of the United States federally endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) at two hypothetical wind farms, this method predicts the areas where the species is likely to travel while foraging, thereby highlighting the riskiest areas within a project area. The results of our modelling indicate that risk to bats is not directly proportional to habitat availability or suitability, in part because risk is associated with areas where bats are travelling. This modelling approach will assist wind energy developers in making both large-scale (e.g., choosing between different development locations) and small-scale decisions (e.g., choosing where to locate turbines) aimed at minimizing impacts to bats. Using habitat models can provide a cost-effective method for evaluating bat risk, satisfying requirements of regulatory agencies, and limiting the more intensive survey methods to projects that absolutely require them. (Author)

  2. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Armstrong and Indiana Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.; Malizia, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Armstrong County and Indiana County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  3. Floristic response to urbanization: Filtering of the bioregional flora in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Rebecca W; Aronson, Myla F J; Hipp, Andrew L

    2017-08-09

    Globally, urban plant populations are becoming increasingly important, as these plants play a vital role in ameliorating effects of ecosystem disturbance and climate change. Urban environments act as filters to bioregional flora, presenting survival challenges to spontaneous plants. Yet, because of the paucity of inventory data on plants in landscapes both before and after urbanization, few studies have directly investigated this effect of urbanization. We used historical, contemporary, and regional plant species inventories for Indianapolis, Indiana USA to evaluate how urbanization filters the bioregional flora based on species diversity, functional traits, and phylogenetic community structure. Approximately 60% of the current regional flora was represented in the Indianapolis flora, both historically and presently. Native species that survived over time were significantly different in growth form, life form, and dispersal and pollination modes than those that were extirpated. Phylogenetically, the historical flora represented a random sample of the regional flora, while the current urban flora represented a nonrandom sample. Both graminoid habit and abiotic pollination are significantly more phylogenetically conserved than expected. Our results likely reflect the shift from agricultural cover to built environment, coupled with the influence of human preference, in shaping the current urban flora of Indianapolis. Based on our analyses, the urban environment of Indianapolis does filter the bioregional species pool. To the extent that these filters are shared by other cities and operate similarly, we may see increasingly homogenized urban floras across regions, with concurrent loss of evolutionary information. © 2017 Dolan et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  4. Anthropogenic modifications to drainage conditions on streamflow variability in the Wabash River basin, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C.; Bowling, L. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Wabash River watershed is the largest watershed in Indiana and includes the longest undammed river reach east of the Mississippi River. The land use of the Wabash River basin began to significantly change from mixed woodland dominated by small lakes and wetlands to agriculture in the mid-1800s and agriculture is now the predominant land use. Over 80% of natural wetland areas were drained to facilitate better crop production through both surface and subsurface drainage applications. Quantifying the change in hydrologic response in this intensively managed landscape requires a hydrologic model that can represent wetlands, crop growth, and impervious area as well as subsurface and surface drainage enhancements, coupled with high resolution soil and topographic inputs. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model wetland algorithm has been previously modified to incorporate spatially-varying estimates of water table distribution using a topographic index approach, as well as a simple urban representation. Now, the soil water characteristics curve and a derived drained to equilibrium moisture profile are used to improve the model's estimation of the water table. In order to represent subsurface (tile) drainage, the tile drainage component of subsurface flow is calculated when the simulated water table rises above a specified drain depth. A map of the current estimated extent of subsurface tile drainage for the Wabash River based on a decision tree classifier of soil drainage class, soil slope and agricultural land use is used to activate the new tile drainage feature in the VIC model, while wetland depressional storage capacity is extracted from digital elevation and soil information. This modified VIC model is used to evaluate the performance of model physical variations in the intensively managed hydrologic regime of the Wabash River system and to understand the role of surface and subsurface storage, and land use and land cover change on hydrologic change.

  5. Energy resources of the west tailings pond, Airline-Sponsler Mine, Greene County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, D.L.; Miller, L.V.; Irwin, P.N.

    1980-12-01

    The west tailings pond at the Airline-Sponsler Mine is a manmade prograding fan-delta system in which wastes from preparing coal are deposited in expected sequences. The tailings pond, originally a surface-mine final-cut and haulage road, is about 10,000 feet long, 200 to 300 feet wide, and 25 to 60 feet deep. The Indiana Geological Survey drilled eight auger holes at the pond. The first hole was 50 feet from the entry point, the second hole was 200 feet from the first, and the remaining six holes were 700 feet apart. At each hole samples were taken on 5-foot intervals, and a composite sample of each hole was also prepared. Coarse coal, dense rock fragments, and sulfide minerals settle first and are followed by medium to fine coal and clay and very fine coal. At the entry point ash is high (65.4 percent), sulfur is high (12 percent), calorific value is low (3220 Btu), and particle size is large. At the distal end ash is low near the surface but increases near the base (15.5 to 59.3 percent), sulfur is high near the surface but decreases near the base (2.6 to 1.0 percent), calorific value is high near the surface but decreases near the base (12,000 to 5250 Btu), and particle size is large near the surface but decreases near the base. Washability determinations indicate that some tailings located distally to the entry point might be reclaimed as a fuel with little further preparation and those located proximally could be upgraded by further preparation.

  6. Description of the physical environment an coal-mining history of West-Central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Crawford, Charles G.; Duwelius, Richard F.; Renn, Danny E.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the physical and human environment and coal-mining history of west-central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds selected for study of the hydrologic effects of surface coal mining. The report summarizes information on the geology, geomorphology, soils, climate, hydrology, water use, land use, population, and coal-mining history of Clay, Owen, Sullivan, and Vigo Counties in Indiana. Site-specific information is given on the morphology, geology, soils, land use, coal-mining history, and hydrologic instrumentation of the six watersheds, which are each less than 3 square miles in area.

  7. A Framework for Statewide Analysis of Site Suitability, Energy Estimation, Life Cycle Costs, Financial Feasibility and Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms: A Case Study of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Indraneel

    In the last decade, Midwestern states including Indiana have experienced an unprecedented growth in utility scale wind energy farms. For example, by end of 2013, Indiana had 1.5 GW of wind turbines installed, which could provide electrical energy for as many as half-a-million homes. However, there is no statewide systematic framework available for the evaluation of wind farm impacts on endangered species, required necessary setbacks and proximity standards to infrastructure, and life cycle costs. This research is guided to fill that gap and it addresses the following questions. How much land is suitable for wind farm siting in Indiana given the constraints of environmental, ecological, cultural, settlement, physical infrastructure and wind resource parameters? How much wind energy can be obtained? What are the life cycle costs and economic and financial feasibility? Is wind energy production and development in a state an emission free undertaking? The framework developed in the study is applied to a case study of Indiana. A fuzzy logic based AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) spatial site suitability analysis for wind energy is formulated. The magnitude of wind energy that could be sited and installed comprises input for economic and financial feasibility analysis for 20-25 years life cycle of wind turbines in Indiana. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for uncertainty and nonlinearity in various costs and price parameters. Impacts of incentives and cost variables such as production tax credits, costs of capital, and economies of scale are assessed. Further, an economic input-output (IO) based environmental assessment model is developed for wind energy, where costs from financial feasibility analysis constitute the final demand vectors. This customized model for Indiana is used to assess emissions for criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) across life cycle events of wind turbines. The findings of the case study include

  8. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  9. Associations between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains and Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Velji, Preya

    2010-01-01

    To inform development of tuberculosis (TB) control strategies, we characterized a total of 2,261 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates by using multiple phenotypic and molecular markers, including polymorphisms in repetitive sequences (spoligotyping and variable-number tandem repeats [VNTRs]) and large sequence and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The Beijing family was strongly associated with multidrug resistance (p = 0.0001), and VNTR allelic variants showed strong associations with spoligotyping families: >5 copies at exact tandem repeat (ETR) A, >2 at mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit 24, and >3 at ETR-B associated with the East African–Indian and M. bovis strains. All M. tuberculosis isolates were differentiated into 4 major lineages, and a maximum parsimony tree was constructed suggesting a more complex phylogeny for M. africanum. These findings can be used as a model of pathogen global diversity. PMID:20113558

  10. Comparative genomic analyses of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic 168 strain and its high-passaged attenuated strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L and carried out comparative genomic analyses. Results We performed the first comprehensive analysis of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated strain and made a preliminary survey of coding sequences (CDSs) that may be related to virulence. The 168-L genome has a highly similar gene content and order to that of 168, but is 4,483 bp smaller because there are 60 insertions and 43 deletions in 168-L. Besides these indels, 227 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified. We further investigated the variants that affected CDSs, and compared them to reported virulence determinants. Notably, almost all of the reported virulence determinants are included in these variants affected CDSs. In addition to variations previously described in mycoplasma adhesins (P97, P102, P146, P159, P216, and LppT), cell envelope proteins (P95), cell surface antigens (P36), secreted proteins and chaperone protein (DnaK), mutations in genes related to metabolism and growth may also contribute to the attenuated virulence in 168-L. Furthermore, many mutations were located in the previously described repeat motif, which may be of primary importance for virulence. Conclusions We studied the virulence attenuation mechanism of M. hyopneumoniae by comparative genomic analysis of virulent strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L. Our findings provide a preliminary survey of CDSs that may be related to virulence. While these include reported virulence-related genes, other novel virulence determinants were also detected. This new information will form

  11. Magnetic resonance angiography: infrequent anatomic variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejo, Mariano; Meli, Francisco; Lambre, Hector; Blessing, Ricardo; Gigy Traynor, Ignacio; Miguez, Victor

    2002-01-01

    We studied through RM angiography (3D TOF) with high magnetic field equipment (1.5 T) different infrequent intracerebral vascular anatomic variants. For their detection we emphasise the value of post-processed images obtained after conventional angiographic sequences. These post-processed images should be included in routine protocols for evaluation of the intracerebral vascular structures. (author)

  12. Report of a rare anatomic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brucker, Y; Ilsen, B; Muylaert, C

    2015-01-01

    We report the CT findings in a case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) from the left upper lobe in an adult. PAPVR is an anatomic variant in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or its tributaries, rather than into the left atrium. This results in a left...

  13. Analysis of the energy development variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetanov, P.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the variants of energy development is made as the third stage of a procedure of energy-economy interrelations dynamics study, the other two stages being the scenarios description and the formulation of the variants. This stage includes a research on the dimensions and the dynamics of the resources demands, the general features and the trends of the national energy development. There is a presentation of a comparative analysis of the variants in terms of economic indices and energy values, computed by the model IMPACT-B. A resource evaluation of the development variants is given in terms of investments, requirements (direct, indirect and total) and limited national resources demands of the energy system. The trends of the national energy development discussed are: trends characterizing the changes in the structure of the energy consumption, resulting from changes in the economy; trends of the energy system impact on the productivity of labor; general trends of the proportionality in the industrial, the household and services sector development. 16 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs. (R.Ts.)

  14. Cellobiohydrolase I gene and improved variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, William S [Golden, CO; Decker, Stephen R [Berthoud, CO; Mc Carter, Suzanne [San Carlos, CA; Baker, John O [Golden, CO; Nieves, Raphael [Lakewood, CO; Himmel, Michael E [Littleton, CO; Vinzant, Todd B [Golden, CO

    2008-05-20

    The disclosure provides a method for preparing an active exoglucanase in a heterologous host of eukaryotic origin. The method includes mutagenesis to reduce glycosylation of the exoglucanase when expressed in a heterologous host. It is further disclosed a method to produce variant cellobiohydrolase that is stable at high temperature through mutagenesis.

  15. XVCL: XML-based Variant Configuration Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarzabek, Stan; Basset, Paul; Zhang, Hongyu

    2003-01-01

    XVCL (XML-based Variant Configuration Language) is a meta-programming technique and tool that provides effective reuse mechanisms. XVCL is an open source software developed at the National University of Singapore. Being a modern and versatile version of Bassett's frames, a technology that has...

  16. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, S

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four cases of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have so far been reported in Japan. Among them, 21 G6PD variants have been characterized. Nineteen out of the 21 variants were characterized in our laboratory and G6PD Heian and "Kyoto" by others. G6PD Tokyo, Tokushima, Ogikubo, Kurume, Fukushima, Yokohama, Yamaguchi, Wakayama, Akita, Heian and "Kyoto" were classified as Class 1, because all these cases showed chronic hemolytic anemia and severe enzyme deficiency. All these variants showed thermal instability. G6PD Mediterranean-like, Ogori, Gifu and Fukuoka were classified as Class 2, whereas G6PD Hofu, B(-) Chinese, Ube, Konan, Kamiube and Kiwa belonged to Class 3. All the 6 Class 3 variants were found as the results of the screening tests. The incidence of the deficiency in Japanese seems to be 0.1-0.5% but that of the cases which may slow drug-induced hemolysis would be much less. G6PD Ube and Konan appear to be relatively common in Japan.

  17. Genetic variants influencing phenotypic variance heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Weronica E; Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Karlsson, Torgny; Enroth, Stefan; Gyllensten, Ulf; Johansson, Åsa

    2018-03-01

    Most genetic studies identify genetic variants associated with disease risk or with the mean value of a quantitative trait. More rarely, genetic variants associated with variance heterogeneity are considered. In this study, we have identified such variance single-nucleotide polymorphisms (vSNPs) and examined if these represent biological gene × gene or gene × environment interactions or statistical artifacts caused by multiple linked genetic variants influencing the same phenotype. We have performed a genome-wide study, to identify vSNPs associated with variance heterogeneity in DNA methylation levels. Genotype data from over 10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and DNA methylation levels at over 430 000 CpG sites, were analyzed in 729 individuals. We identified vSNPs for 7195 CpG sites (P mean DNA methylation levels. We further showed that variance heterogeneity between genotypes mainly represents additional, often rare, SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the respective vSNP and for some vSNPs, multiple low frequency variants co-segregating with one of the vSNP alleles. Therefore, our results suggest that variance heterogeneity of DNA methylation mainly represents phenotypic effects by multiple SNPs, rather than biological interactions. Such effects may also be important for interpreting variance heterogeneity of more complex clinical phenotypes.

  18. Genetic variants associated with lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyagarajan, Bharat; Wojczynski, Mary; Minster, Ryan L

    2014-01-01

    with exceptional longevity have not been identified. METHOD: We conducted a genome wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants associated with lung function in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n = 3,899). Replication was performed using data from the CHARGE/SpiroMeta consortia...

  19. Variants of β-lactamase KPC-2 that are resistant to inhibition by avibactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Winkler, Marisa L; Taracila, Magdalena A; Bonomo, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    220 contribute significantly to the mechanism of avibactam inactivation of KPC-2. Fortunately, the emergence of S130G, K234R, and R220M variants of KPC in the clinic should not result in failure of ceftazidime-avibactam, as the ceftazidime partner is potent against E. coli DH10B strains possessing all of these variants. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. A novel inactivated gE/gI deleted pseudorabies virus (PRV) vaccine completely protects pigs from an emerged variant PRV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhenqing; Dong, Jing; Wang, Jichun; Hou, Chengcai; Sun, Haifeng; Yang, Wenping; Bai, Juan; Jiang, Ping

    2015-01-02

    A highly virulent and antigenic variant of pseudorabies virus (PRV) broke out in China at the end of 2011 and caused great economic loss in the pig industry. In this study, an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone containing the full-length genome of the emerged variant PRV ZJ01 strain was generated. The BAC-derived viruses, vZJ01-GFPΔgE/gI (gE/gI deleted strain, and exhibiting green autofluorescence), vZJ01ΔgE/gI (gE/gI deleted strain), and vZJ01gE/gI-R (gE/gI revertant strain), showed similar in vitro growth to their parent strain. In pigs, inactivated vZJ01ΔgE/gI vaccine generated significantly high levels of neutralizing antibodies against ZJ01 compared with Bartha-K61 live vaccine (pvaccine group survived without exhibiting any clinical sings, but two of five animals exhibited central nervous signs in the Bartha-K61 group. Meanwhile, all the non-vaccinated control animals died at 7 days post-challenge. This indicates that the inactivated vZJ01ΔgE/gI vaccine is a promising vaccine candidate for controlling the variant strains of PRV now circulating in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.