Hendrix, Sam M; Baxter, Gary M
Most injuries, including those with significant tissue loss, can be successfully managed with proper therapy. With delayed healing, potential causes for the delay, such as sequestra, foreign bodies, and excessive motion,should be determined and treated to permit complete wound resolution. Horses have the innate ability to heal rapidly; however, minor injuries can quickly turn into complicated wounds, given the severity of the inciting trauma and the less than ideal environment in which the horses are housed. Wound management must focus on a combination of timely surgical and medical intervention to ensure the best potential outcome.
Clement, C I; Goldberg, Ivan
Complicated glaucomas present considerable diagnostic and management challenges. Response to treatment can be unpredictable or reduced compared with other glaucomas. However, target intraocular pressure and preservation of vision may be achieved with selected medical, laser and surgical treatment. The evidence for such treatment is expanding and consequently affords clinicians a better understanding of established and novel techniques. Herein we review the mechanisms involved in the development of complicated glaucoma and the current evidence supporting its management. PMID:21150026
Fadi Al Akhrass
Full Text Available Fusobacterium necrophorum is a non-spore-forming, obligate anaerobic, filamentous, gramnegative bacillus that frequently colonizes the human oral cavity, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. Fusobacterium species have rarely been implicated in cases of gastrointestinal variant of Lemierre's syndrome. We describe a case of F. necrophorum bacteremia associated with suppurative porto-mesenteric vein thrombosis (PVT following acute ruptured appendicitis. In addition, we list the documented twelve cases of Fusobacterium pylephlebitis. Recanalization of the porto-mesenteric veins and relief of the extrahepatic portal hypertension were achieved with early empiric antibiotic and local thrombolytic therapy. Our patient's case underscores the importance of recognizing Fusobacterium bacteremia as a possible cause of suppurative PVT after disruption of the gastrointestinal mucosa following an acute intraabdominal infectious process. Early treatment of this condition using anticoagulation and endovascular thrombolysis as adjunctive therapies may prevent PVT complications.
Cheung, Kevin; Walley, Kempland C; Rozental, Tamara D
This evidence-based article discusses the current management options of Dupuytren disease and strategies to avoid and manage any potential complications. Treatment options include fasciectomy, needle fasciotomy/aponeurotomy, and collagenase injection. Complications include digital nerve and artery injury, flexor tendon injury, skin fissures and wound healing complications, hematoma, infection, flare reaction/complex regional pain syndrome, and recurrence. Complication rates, prevention, and management differ with each treatment modality. A detailed understanding of each of these options allows hand surgeons to select the most appropriate treatment for each patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Falkowski, Anna L; Cathomas, Gieri; Zerz, Andreas; Rasch, Helmut; Tarr, Philip E
Pylephlebitis--suppurative thrombophlebitis of the portal and/or mesenteric veins--is a rare complication of abdominal infections, especially diverticulitis. It can lead to severe complications such as hepatic abscess, sepsis, peritonitis, bowel ischemia, etc., which increase the mortality rate. Here we present a case of suppurative thrombophlebitis of the inferior mesenteric vein, as a complication of sigmoid diverticulitis. The epidemiology, clinical and radiological features as well as treatment strategies are discussed. We also review the anatomy of the mesenteric vein given its anatomic variation in the present case and how this anatomic knowledge might influence the operative approach should surgery be necessary.
Desilets, David J
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has the highest risk of complication of any endoscopic procedure routinely performed by gastroenterologists or surgeons. Adverse events are inevitable when performing ERCP, and one must learn to manage these appropriately when they occur. One avenue for a successful outcome after a complication of ERCP is to follow the "5R model" of management: recognize, react, reach out, repent, and revisit. Several case studies are used as examples of intervention after complication, especially after retroperitoneal perforation. The literature is briefly reviewed in some areas, and I draw upon my own experience extensively in others. If there is a sixth R in the model it would be to "rejoice" when a patient is successfully managed and is finally sent home in good health.
Johnson, Kevin N; Fankhauser, Grant T; Chapital, Alyssa B; Merritt, Marianne V; Johnson, Daniel J
Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare condition that is usually found incidentally. It is most often asymptomatic but presenting symptoms are nonspecific and include abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, malabsorption, bleeding, obstruction, and/or perforation. A retrospective review of medical records between 1999 and 2012 at a tertiary referral center was conducted to identify patients requiring emergency management of complicated jejunal diverticulosis. Complications were defined as those that presented with inflammation, bleeding, obstruction, or perforation. Eighteen patients presented to the emergency department with acute complications of jejunal diverticulosis. Ages ranged from 47 to 86 years (mean, 72 years). Seven patients presented with evidence of free bowel perforation. Six had either diverticulitis or a contained perforation. The remaining five were found to have gastrointestinal bleeding. Fourteen of the patients underwent surgical management. Four patients were successfully managed nonoperatively. As a result of the variety of presentations, complications of jejunal diverticulosis present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the acute care surgeon. Although nonoperative management can be successful, most patients should undergo surgical intervention. Traditional management dictates laparotomy and segmental jejunal resection. Diverticulectomy is not recommended as a result of the risk of staple line breakdown. The entire involved portion of jejunum should be resected when bowel length permits.
Careyva, Beth; Stello, Brian
Gastrointestinal disorders are common complications of diabetes mellitus and include gastroparesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and chronic diarrhea. Symptoms of gastroparesis include early satiety, postprandial fullness, nausea, vomiting of undigested food, bloating, and abdominal pain. Gastroparesis is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and a delay in gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Gastric emptying scintigraphy is the preferred diagnostic test. Treatment involves glucose control, dietary changes, and prokinetic medications when needed. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its more severe variant, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, are becoming increasingly prevalent in persons with diabetes. Screening for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is not recommended, and most cases are diagnosed when steatosis is found incidentally on imaging or from liver function testing followed by diagnostic ultrasonography. Liver biopsy is the preferred diagnostic test for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Clinical scoring systems are being developed that, when used in conjunction with less invasive imaging, can more accurately predict which patients have severe fibrosis requiring biopsy. Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease involves weight loss and improved glycemic control; no medications have been approved for treatment of this condition. Diabetes is also a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with atypical symptoms, including globus sensation and dysphagia. Diabetes also may exacerbate hepatitis C and pancreatitis, resulting in more severe complications. Glycemic control improves or reverses most gastrointestinal complications of diabetes.
Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing global prevalence of nephrolithiasis has resulted in the development of new minimally invasive techniques and has also led to the resurgence of established methods such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. This procedure is now recommended as the first option for the treatment of single large or multiple renal stones and those in the inferior calyx. This study was done to assess the complications of PCNL and their management, in our centre. Methods: Medical records of 144 patients who underwent PCNL at Lumbini Medical College Teaching Hospital, during the last one year were reviewed. The demographic data, size, tract number and location of the calculi, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were evaluated. The various parameters of the calculi were evaluated. Descriptive analysis with frequencies was done. Results: Complications occurred in 13 (9.02% patients. Post operative bleeding occurred in seven (4.8% patients, out of which one patient developed pseudoaneurysms and the other developed arteriovenous fistula. One patient developed hypovolemic shock immediately after surgery. Frequent blockage of urine, excessive drainage of urine from the drain site, hemothorax and colonic perforation was seen in one patient each. One patient had mortality due to post operative bleeding. Complications increased with the number and size of stones and number and site of the tracts. Conclusion: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy has low complication rate in experienced hands and complications depend upon stone size, history of open stone surgery, tract number, and tract location.
Full Text Available Liver complications in haemoglobinopathies (thalassaemia and sickle cell disease are due to several factors, dominated (beside chronic viral infections, not considered here by chronic iron overload, biliary obstruction and venous thrombosis. Whereas the latter two factors can cause acute hepatic syndromes, all three mechanisms - when becoming chronic- can produce fibrosis and cirrhosis and even, in thalassaemia, hepatocellular carcinoma. These chronic hepatic complications are an indirect consequence of the significant improvement in life expectancy due to the overall amelioration of disease management. The diagnostic approach has benefited from non invasive (biochemical and imaging approaches which have considerably reduced the indication of liver biopsy. The therapeutic management involves relatively efficient curative medical, endoscopic or surgical methods, but should rest primarily on preventive measures focused on the haematological causative factors but also on hepatic co-morbidities. This chapter will focus on hepatic complications in thalassaemia and sickle cell disease (SCD, without considering the complications related to virus B or C infections which will be described in another chapter.
Ye, Sheng; Dong, Jia-Hong; Duan, Wei-Dong; Ji, Wen-Bing; Liang, Yu-Rong
The incidence of biliary complications after living donor adult liver transplantation (LDALT) is still high due to the bile duct variation and necessity reconstruction of multiple small bile ducts. The current surgical management of the biliary variants is unsatisfactory. We evaluated the role of a new surgical approach in a complicated hilar bile duct variant (Nakamura type IV and Nakamura type II) under emergent right lobe LDALT for high model for end-stage liver disease score patients. The common hepatic duct (CHD) and the left hepatic duct (LHD) of the donor were transected in a right-graft including short common trunks with right posterior and anterior bile ducts, whereas the LHD of the donor was anastomosed to the CHD and the common trunks of a right-graft bile duct and the recipient CHD was end-to-end anastomosed. Ten of 13 grafts (Nakamura types II, III, and IV) had two or more biliary orifices after right graft lobectomy; seven patients had biliary complications (53.8%). Later, the surgical innovation was carried out in five donors with variant bile duct (four Nakamura type IV and one type II), and, consequently, no biliary or other complications were observed in donors and recipients during 47-53 months of follow-up; significant differences ( P right hepatic ducts in a complicated donor bile duct variant may facilitate biliary reconstruction and reduce long-term biliary complications.
Qu, Yikun; Ren, Shiyan; Li, Chunmin; Qian, Songyi; Liu, Peng
Complications of post-splenectomy, especially intra-abdominal hemorrhage can be fatal, with delayed or inadequate treatment having a high mortality rate. The objective of this study was to investigate the cause, prompt diagnosis, and outcome of the fatal complications after splenectomy with a focus on early diagnosis and management of hemorrhage after splenectomy. The medical files of patients who underwent splenectomy between January 1990 and March 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. The cause, characteristics, management, and outcome in patients with post-splenectomy hemorrhage were analyzed. Fourteen of 604 patients (1.19%) undergoing splenectomy had intraperitoneal hemorrhage: reoperation was performed in 13 patients, and 3 patients died after reoperation, giving the hospital a mortality rate of 21.43%; whereas, 590 of 604 patients (98%) had no hemorrhage following splenectomy, and the mortality rate (0.34%) in this group was significantly lower (P splenectomy, including pneumonia pancreatitis, gastric fistula, gastric flatulence, and thrombocytosis, in patients with postoperative hemorrhage were significantly higher than those without hemorrhage (P splenectomy, 14 patients with post-splenectomy hemorrhage were grouped into two groups: splenic trauma (n = 9, group I) and portal hypertension (n = 5, group II). The median interval between splenectomy and diagnosis of hemorrhage was 15.5 hours (range, 7.25–19.5 hours). No differences were found between groups I and II in terms of incidence of postoperative hemorrhage, time of hemorrhage after splenectomy, volume of hemorrhage, and mortality of hemorrhage, except transfusion. Intra-abdominal hemorrhage after splenectomy is associated with higher hospital mortality rate and complications. Early massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage is often preceded by earlier sentinel bleeding; careful clinical inquiry and ultrasonography are the mainstays of early diagnosis. PMID:23438277
Hallerbach, A.; Bauer, Th.; Reichert, M.U.
When designing process-aware information systems, often variants of the same process have to be specified. Each variant then constitutes an adjustment of a particular process to specific requirements building the process context. Current Business Process Management (BPM) tools do not adequately
Full Text Available Penny J Ireland,1 Verity Pacey,2,3 Andreas Zankl,4 Priya Edwards,1 Leanne M Johnston,5 Ravi Savarirayan6 1Queensland Paediatric Rehabilitation Service, Royal Children’s Hospital, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland, 2Physiotherapy Department, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, 3Department of Health Professions, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, 4Genetic Medicine, Children’s Hospital, Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, 5School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, 6Victorian Clinical Genetics Service, Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Abstract: Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, resulting in disproportionate short stature, and affects over 250,000 people worldwide. Individuals with achondroplasia demonstrate a number of well-recognized anatomical features that impact on growth and development, with a complex array of medical issues that are best managed through a multidisciplinary team approach. The complexity of this presentation, whereby individual impairments may impact upon multiple activity and participation areas, requires consideration and discussion under a broad framework to gain a more thorough understanding of the experience of this condition for individuals with achondroplasia. This paper examines the general literature and research evidence on the medical and health aspects of individuals with achondroplasia and presents a pictorial model of achondroplasia based on The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF. An expanded model of the ICF will be used to review and present the current literature pertaining to the musculoskeletal, neurological, cardiorespiratory, and ear, nose, and throat impairments and complications across the lifespan, with discussion on the impact of these impairments upon activity and participation performance. Further research is required to
Fazil Emre Ozkurt
Full Text Available Purpose: We reported on the clinical approaches of ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology departments in the treatment of the orbital complications of sinusitis. We also included an in-depth literature review. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical files of 51 patients from January 2008 to January 2014. The records were evaluated for age, gender, type of orbital complications, symptoms, predisposing factors, imaging studies, medical and surgical management, culture results, and follow-up information. SPSS version 15.0 software (Statistical Analysis, The Statistical Package for Social Sciences Inc, Chicago, IL was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Fifty-one patients met the criteria, with available medical records, for the study (29 male, 22 female. Thirty-two (62.7% were diagnosed with preseptal cellulitis and 19 (37.3% with postseptal cellulitis. After a detailed evaluation, 15 were diagnosed with a subperiosteal abscess (SPA, and 4 were diagnosed with orbital cellulitis. The age and gender was similar for the two groups. Five patients with medial SPA were treated with endoscopic sinus surgery, one patient with inferior SPA was treated with external surgery, and six patients with other localizations were treated with a combination of endoscopic sinus surgery and external surgery. All patients presented with periorbital erythema and edema. The length of hospitalization and duration of symptoms were similar in both groups. Visual acuity was between 1/10 to 10/10 (mean 7/10 and statistically significant for preseptal and postseptal cellulitis groups (p<0.001. All patients received intravenous antibiotics upon the first day of admission. Conclusion: Orbital complications of acute sinusitis required intensive follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. A contrast-enhanced paranasal sinus computerized tomography (CT scan can detect the extent of the infection. An initial trial of intravenosus (IV antibiotics may be appropriate when
Simunovic, Carolina; Shinohara, Michi M
Tattooing is an ancient practice that enjoys continued popularity. Although a modern, professionally performed tattoo is generally safe, complications can occur. A skin biopsy of all tattoo reactions is recommended as some tattoo reactions have systemic implications. Tattoo-related infections are seen days to decades after tattooing, and range from acute pyogenic infections to cutaneous tuberculosis. In particular, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections happen in tattoos with increasing frequency and are introduced at the time of tattooing through contaminated ink or water used to dilute inks. Despite a transition in tattoo pigments from metal salts to industrial azo dyes, hypersensitivity reactions also persist, and include eczematous, granulomatous, lichenoid, and pseudoepitheliomatous patterns (among others). Granulomatous tattoo reactions can be a clue to cutaneous or systemic sarcoidosis, particularly in the setting of interferon use. Pseudoepitheliomatous tattoo reactions have substantial overlap with squamous cell carcinoma and keratoacanthoma, making diagnosis and management difficult. Other malignancies and their benign mimics can occur in tattoos, raising questions about the safety of tattoo ink and its role in carcinogenesis.
Ireland, Penny J; Pacey, Verity; Zankl, Andreas; Edwards, Priya; Johnston, Leanne M; Savarirayan, Ravi
Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, resulting in disproportionate short stature, and affects over 250,000 people worldwide. Individuals with achondroplasia demonstrate a number of well-recognized anatomical features that impact on growth and development, with a complex array of medical issues that are best managed through a multidisciplinary team approach. The complexity of this presentation, whereby individual impairments may impact upon multiple activity and participation areas, requires consideration and discussion under a broad framework to gain a more thorough understanding of the experience of this condition for individuals with achondroplasia. This paper examines the general literature and research evidence on the medical and health aspects of individuals with achondroplasia and presents a pictorial model of achondroplasia based on The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). An expanded model of the ICF will be used to review and present the current literature pertaining to the musculoskeletal, neurological, cardiorespiratory, and ear, nose, and throat impairments and complications across the lifespan, with discussion on the impact of these impairments upon activity and participation performance. Further research is required to fully identify factors influencing participation and to help develop strategies to address these factors. PMID:25053890
Full Text Available Among the inherited bone marrow failure disorders, dyskeratosis congenita is an X-linked inherited disorder arising as a consequence of short telomere and mutations in telomere biology. Production of the altered protein dyskerin, leads to vulnerable skin, nails, and teeth which lead to higher permeability for noxious agents which can induce carcinogenesis accounting for the classical triad of skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and oral leukoplakia. This condition is fatal and patients succumb to aplastic anemia, malignancy or immunocompromised state. We present a young male with the classic clinical triad and avascular necrosis of both femoral heads, with no evidence of hematologic anomaly or any malignancy. He was managed for osteonecrosis with uncemented total hip arthroplasty for the symptomatic left hip. Our case represents a benign form of such a fatal and rare condition, which if detected and managed early can result in improved quality of life for the patient suffering from this disorder. This patient is under our meticulous follow-up for the last 2 years in order to determine any late development of complications before being labelled as a variant of this syndrome.
Sinha, Shivam; Trivedi, Vikas; Krishna, Arvind; Rao, Nidhi
Among the inherited bone marrow failure disorders, dyskeratosis congenita is an X-linked inherited disorder arising as a consequence of short telomere and mutations in telomere biology. Production of the altered protein dyskerin, leads to vulnerable skin, nails, and teeth which lead to higher permeability for noxious agents which can induce carcinogenesis accounting for the classical triad of skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and oral leukoplakia. This condition is fatal and patients succumb to aplastic anemia, malignancy or immunocompromised state. We present a young male with the classic clinical triad and avascular necrosis of both femoral heads, with no evidence of hematologic anomaly or any malignancy. He was managed for osteonecrosis with uncemented total hip arthroplasty for the symptomatic left hip. Our case represents a benign form of such a fatal and rare condition, which if detected and managed early can result in improved quality of life for the patient suffering from this disorder. This patient is under our meticulous follow-up for the last 2 years in order to determine any late development of complications before being labelled as a variant of this syndrome. PMID:23904924
Full Text Available The sling procedures are the gold standard for SUI treatment. They are highly effective but not free from complications. The most common adverse effect for the surgery with the implant insertion is: overactive bladder occurring de novo after the surgery, voiding dysfunctions, urine retention, and unsatisfactory treatment outcome. The most important question that arises after 20 years of sling procedures is how to manage the complications and what can be offered to complicated patients. The above review summarises the ultrasound findings in complicated cases and shows the scheme of management of the clinical problems concerning the tape location in suburethral region.
Mellerup, Natja; Sørensen, Bjarke Lund; Kuriigamba, Gideon K.
BACKGROUND: Complications of unsafe abortion are a major contributor to maternal deaths in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical assessment for life-threatening complications and the following management in women admitted with complications from abortions at a rural...
Alamili, Mahdi; Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob
PURPOSE: The classic surgical treatment of acute complicated sigmoid diverticulitis with peritonitis is often a two-stage operation with colon resection and a temporary stoma. This approach is associated with high mortality and morbidity and the reversal of the stoma is in many cases not performed...... because of concurrent diseases and age. Recently, several studies have experimented with laparoscopic lavage as a treatment of acute complicated diverticulitis. The aim of this review was to give an overview of the literature for this new approach and to determine the safety compared with Hartmann......'s procedure for patients with acute complicated sigmoid diverticulitis. METHODS: A PubMed search was performed for publications between 1990 and May 2008. The terms acute, perforated, diverticulitis, lavage, drainage, and laparoscopy were used in combination. The EMBASE and Cochrane databases were also...
D'Addessi, Alessandro; Bassi, PierFrancesco
Retrograde exploration of the ureter and kidneys is currently a widely used and well-established procedure to deal with problems of a diagnostic and therapeutic nature with reduced invasiveness. The process of miniaturizing the instruments combined with the steady improvement in video quality has continuously amplified its potential applications, maintaining the procedure safe and rapid. During an operation, however, unexpected events may condition a change to the programme or determine the onset of even more serious complications. Our aim is to analyze such events and complications and recommend potential solutions to prevent and/or deal with such happenings. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Singh, Vikram; Sasidharan, Gopalakrishnan M; Bhat, Dhananjaya Ishwar; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira
Growing skull fracture (GSF) is a rare complication resulting from diastatic enlargement of a pediatric skull fracture. Orbitocranial GSF is a distinct variant with more complex management issues due to the displacement of the globe. This study aims to discuss surgical considerations in the management of GSF, with particular reference to orbitocranial variants. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 7 children operated for GSFs at our institute from 2008 to 2015. Four boys and 3 girls were operated during this period. The mean age at initial trauma was 2 years, and most of them sustained falls. The most frequent symptoms of GSF were progressive scalp swelling and proptosis. The most common location was the orbitofrontal region. Duraplasty with cranioplasty was performed in 5 patients, while duraplasty alone was only required in 2 patients. A postoperative complication was noted in 1 patient and managed successfully. Good cosmetic results were obtained in all of the cases. Duraplasty is essential in the repair of GSF and should be followed by cranioplasty to prevent recurrent leptomeningeal herniation. We recommend the use of autologous bone from the surgical site for cranioplasty. Orbital roof repair is advisable for good visual and cosmetic outcome in orbitocranial variants of GSF. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Background: Pneumonia remains a leading cause of U-5 morbidity and mortality in developing countries like Nigeria. This study was conducted to determine the clinical presentation, complications and factors contributing to mortality in the hospitalized children with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Maiduguri, ...
Chiang Jeng Tyng
Full Text Available Transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy plays a key role in prostate sampling for cancer detection. Among interventional procedures, it is one of the most frequent procedures performed by radiologists. Despite the safety and low morbidity of such procedure, possible complications should be promptly assessed and treated. The standardization of protocols and of preprocedural preparation is aimed at minimizing complications as well as expediting their management. The authors have made a literature review describing the possible complications related to transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy, and discuss their management and guidance to reduce the incidence of such complications.
Marenzi, Giancarlo; Marana, Ivana; Bartorelli, Antonio
Primary angioplasty represents the best strategy for myocardial reperfusion in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, it is associated with a high risk of developing contrast-induced nephropathy, a renal complication coupled with markedly increased morbidity and mortality rates. This paper summarizes, on the current evidence available, the clinical and prognostic relevance of renal insufficiency and contrast-induced nephropathy in acute myocardial infarction, and emphasizes new possible preventive strategies for kidney protection in this clinical setting.
Full Text Available Background Diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnancy is difficult. Delay operation, increase complications. Objectives This study focused on early operation on base of careful history, precise physical examination, and rational close observation and evaluates its results with conventional investigation in pregnant women suspected acute appendicitis. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study in100 pregnant women and 100 aged matched non pregnant women underwent appendectomy during Sep 2011 - Dec 2014. The data were analyzed by chi-square test through SPSS 16.0. Results Age 16 - 37 years, mean age in pregnant women and no pregnant women were24.75 ± 4.4 and 27.56 ± 6.53 years (P > 0.05, respectively. 20 - 25 years age group, were more frequent = 44%. 70% patients were gravid 1, mean hospital stay in pregnant women, and non-pregnant women were 48 ± 6 and 85.2 ± 43.19 hours (P value < 0.001. respectively. acute appendicitis was confirmed histological in non-pregnant was 72%, but In pregnant women 62%, most cases were in the third Trimester 66% (n = 41. Peri umbilical pain, with migration to the right lower quadrant, was in 75% of patients. Right-lower-quadrant pain was the most common presenting symptom. Diagnosis (62% was made on base care full history and precise physical examination and close observation of 12 ± 8 hours. there were no maternal and fetal complications related to all of the appendectomies during the all trimester up to delivery period. Conclusions There are no diagnostic laboratory findings in acute appendicitis during pregnancy. Careful history and physical examination and close observation of 12 ± 8 hours are sufficient for surgery decision making. In spite of high negative appendectomy since it has no Surgical and obstetric complication, early Appendectomy without aggressive investigation recommend.
Chen, J; Lin, Y; Li, Y
To investigate the surgical treatment for severe complications after radial keratotomy (RK). A protocol of surgical treatment for 3 severe complications after RK, i.e., early corneal perforation and infection, corneal rupture following contusion and corneal leucoma, is proposed based on modern microsurgical techniques and computer assisted corneal topography. All eyes with such severe complications were salvaged and their visual outcomes were also satisfactory. Severe complications after RK threaten the eye. Special management should be applied for these situations. With the help of corneal topography, the refractive results of corneal surgeries can be improved.
Kinis, Vefa; Ozbay, Musa; Bakir, Salih; Yorgancilar, Ediz; Gun, Ramazan; Akdag, Mehmet; Sahin, Muhammed; Topcu, Ismail
The most common reason of orbital infections is sinusitis. Orbital complications of sinusitis are mostly seen in children. Loss of vision and intracranial infections are among the complications of sinusitis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is very important in the management of orbital complications. The orbital complication can be in the form of cellulitis or abscess. A retrospective review of 26 pediatric patients with orbital complications due to sinusitis was presented in this study. Of 26 patients, there were 13 cases of preseptal cellulitis, 2 cases of orbital cellulitis, and 11 cases of subperiosteal abscess. We grouped the preseptal and orbital cellulites in one category and the subperiosteal abscess in the other. All patients in the cellulitis group recovered by medical treatment. All the patients were treated by surgical drainage. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment method are vital for the treatment of orbital complications secondary to sinusitis.
Boules, Mena; Chang, Julietta; Haskins, Ivy N; Sharma, Gautam; Froylich, Dvir; El-Hayek, Kevin; Rodriguez, John; Kroh, Matthew
Understanding the technical constructs of bariatric surgery is important to the treating endoscopist to maximize effective endoluminal therapy. Post-operative complication rates vary widely based on the complication of interest, and have been reported to be as high as 68% following adjustable gastric banding. Similarly, there is a wide range of presenting symptoms for post-operative bariatric complications, including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, dysphagia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and weight regain, all of which may provoke an endoscopic assessment. Bleeding and anastomotic leak are considered to be early ( 30 d) complications. Treatment of complications in the immediate post-operative period may require unique considerations. Endoluminal therapies serve as adjuncts to surgical and radiographic procedures. This review aims to summarize the spectrum and efficacy of endoscopic management of post-operative bariatric complications.
Mellerup, Natja; Sørensen, Bjarke Lund; Kuriigamba, Gideon K.
BACKGROUND: Complications of unsafe abortion are a major contributor to maternal deaths in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical assessment for life-threatening complications and the following management in women admitted with complications from abortions at a rural...... abortion and by trimester. Actual management was compared to the audit criteria and presented by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Fifty six per cent of the women were in second trimester. Abortion complications were distributed as follows: 53 % incomplete abortions, 28 % threatened abortions, 12...... % inevitable abortions, 4 % missed abortions and 3 % septic abortions. Only one of 238 cases met all criteria of optimal clinical assessment and management. Thus, vital signs were measured in 3 %, antibiotic criteria was met in 59 % of the cases, intravenous fluid resuscitation was administered to 35...
Barnard, Abbey; Konyn, Peter; Saab, Sammy
Improved short- and long-term survival of liver transplant recipients has led to increased focus on complications of both the early and late posttransplant periods. A variety of metabolic complications have been observed in the post-orthotopic liver transplant population, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Although only a small proportion of patients experience metabolic complications prior to transplantation, the prevalence of these complications posttransplantation reaches or exceeds that of the general population. This is of particular concern, as cardiovascular disease is the second leading cause of death in the late transplant period. A number of mechanisms mediate these metabolic complications, including reversal of cirrhosis pathophysiology, patient lifestyle factors, and immunosuppressive medications. Titration and modification of immunosuppression have been demonstrated to improve and sometimes even eliminate these conditions. Therefore, given the multiple etiologies contributing to the metabolic derangements, an effective management approach must incorporate lifestyle modifications, immunosuppression titration, and medical management. Best practices and understanding of the mechanisms underlying these complications allow for discussion of initial therapies and strategies; however, further study is necessary to determine the optimal management of metabolic complications over time.
Barnard, Abbey; Konyn, Peter
Improved short- and long-term survival of liver transplant recipients has led to increased focus on complications of both the early and late posttransplant periods. A variety of metabolic complications have been observed in the post–orthotopic liver transplant population, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Although only a small proportion of patients experience metabolic complications prior to transplantation, the prevalence of these complications posttransplantation reaches or exceeds that of the general population. This is of particular concern, as cardiovascular disease is the second leading cause of death in the late transplant period. A number of mechanisms mediate these metabolic complications, including reversal of cirrhosis pathophysiology, patient lifestyle factors, and immunosuppressive medications. Titration and modification of immunosuppression have been demonstrated to improve and sometimes even eliminate these conditions. Therefore, given the multiple etiologies contributing to the metabolic derangements, an effective management approach must incorporate lifestyle modifications, immunosuppression titration, and medical management. Best practices and understanding of the mechanisms underlying these complications allow for discussion of initial therapies and strategies; however, further study is necessary to determine the optimal management of metabolic complications over time. PMID:27917074
Santosa, Katherine B.; Chung, Kevin C.; Waljee, Jennifer F.
Compressive neuropathies of the upper extremity are common and can result in profound disability if left untreated. Nerve releases are frequently performed, but can be complicated by both iatrogenic events as well as progression of neuropathy. In this review, we will examine the management of post-operative complications following two common nerve compression release procedures: carpal tunnel release and cubital tunnel release. PMID:25934192
Mohammed H. Abduljabbar
Conclusion: Injection related side effects are the most commonly seen, which are usually transient. Vascular occlusion is the most severe complication associated with hyaluronic acid filler injection. A thorough understanding of the facial vascular anatomy reduces the risk of vascular occlusion. Early identification of a vascular occlusion and a prompt intervention can significantly decrease the risk of long term sequelae. Guidelines to avoid, identify and manage different hyaluronic acid filler complications have been suggested.
Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Truong, Daniel D
Long-term dopaminomimetic therapy, not limited to levodopa, is complicated by the emergence of variations of motor response in a majority of Parkinson disease (PD) patients. These variations can occur in different forms, as early wearing off during the initial stage of motor complications, dyskinesias in the intermediate stage, and complex fluctuations in the advanced stage. Considered to be a major source of disability in advanced PD patients, recognition of these complications is critical in order to develop different strategies designed not only to treat these problems when they develop, but also to prevent troublesome complications associated with potential risk factors. In this article, authors classify a wide clinical spectrum of motor complications into different stages as the disease progresses through the treatment. A number of strategies are proposed in order to manage these complications as well as to avoid them. Better understanding of these potential complications will result in better management of these problems and lessen the disability associated with advanced PD.
Lauren L Levy
Full Text Available Over the past decade, facial rejuvenation procedures to circumvent traditional surgery have become increasingly popular. Office-based, minimally invasive procedures can promote a youthful appearance with minimal downtime and low risk of complications. Injectable botulinum toxin (BoNT, soft-tissue fillers, and chemical peels are among the most popular non-invasive rejuvenation procedures, and each has unique applications for improving facial aesthetics. Despite the simplicity and reliability of office-based procedures, complications can occur even with an astute and experienced injector. The goal of any procedure is to perform it properly and safely; thus, early recognition of complications when they do occur is paramount in dictating prevention of long-term sequelae. The most common complications from BoNT and soft-tissue filler injection are bruising, erythema and pain. With chemical peels, it is not uncommon to have erythema, irritation and burning. Fortunately, these side effects are normally transient and have simple remedies. More serious complications include muscle paralysis from BoNT, granuloma formation from soft-tissue filler placement and scarring from chemical peels. Thankfully, these complications are rare and can be avoided with excellent procedure technique, knowledge of facial anatomy, proper patient selection, and appropriate pre- and post-skin care. This article reviews complications of office-based, minimally invasive procedures, with emphasis on prevention and management. Practitioners providing these treatments should be well versed in this subject matter in order to deliver the highest quality care.
Stefan C. Kane
Full Text Available The neurological complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia are responsible for a major proportion of the morbidity and mortality arising from these conditions, for women and their infants alike. This paper outlines the evidence base for contemporary management principles pertaining to the neurological sequelae of preeclampsia, primarily from the maternal perspective, but with consideration of fetal and neonatal aspects as well. It concludes with a discussion regarding future directions in the management of this potentially lethal condition.
Objective: This retrospective study set out to explore associated injuries and complications in floating knee management. Design: A retrospective study. Materials and Methods: The investigation lasted ten years from 1st January, 2000 to 31st December, 2009. All the patients admitted in that period with a floating knee were ...
Hamdan, K; Somers, S; Chand, M
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and the past decade has witnessed an exponential rise in the number of bariatric operations performed. As a consequence, an increasing number of patients are presenting to non-specialist units with complications following bariatric procedures. This article outlines the management of the most common late postoperative complications that are likely to present to the general surgeon. A search was conducted for late postoperative complications after bariatric surgery using PubMed, Embase, OVID and Google search engines, and combinations of the terms bariatric surgery, gastric bypass, gastric banding or sleeve gastrectomy, and late or delayed complications. Only studies with follow-up longer than 6 months were included. The most common long-term complications after gastric banding include band slippage and erosion. Deflation or removal of the band is often required. Internal hernia, adhesions and anastomotic stenosis are common causes of intestinal obstruction after gastric bypass surgery. Hepatobiliary complications pose a particular challenge because of the altered anatomy. Functional disorders such as reflux and dumping, and nutritional deficiencies are common and should be differentiated from conditions that require urgent investigations and timely surgical intervention. The immediate management of bariatric patients presenting with complications outside the immediate postoperative period requires adherence to basic surgical principles. Accurate diagnosis often relies on high-quality contrast and cross-sectional imaging, and effective surgical intervention necessitates a broad understanding of the altered anatomy, advanced surgical skills and liaison with specialists in the field when necessary. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This paper examines how to develop a Model for Knowledge Management System (KMS) for diabetes complication diseases. People with diabetes have a higher risk of developing a series of serious health problems. Each patient has different condition that could lead to different disease and health problem. But, with the right information, patient could have early detection so the health risk could be minimized and avoided. Hence, the objective of this research is to propose a conceptual framework that integrates social network model, Knowledge Management activities, and content based reasoning (CBR) for designing such a diabetes health and complication disease KMS. The framework indicates that the critical knowledge management activities are in the process to find similar case and the index table for algorithm to fit the framework for the social media. With this framework, KMS developers can work with healthcare provider to easily identify the suitable IT associated with the CBR process when developing a diabetes KMS.
Mechanical ventilation is a fundamental aspect of critical care practice to help meet the respiratory needs of critically ill patients. Complications can occur though, as a direct result of being mechanically ventilated, or indirectly because of a secondary process. Preventing, identifying, and managing these complications significantly contribute to the role and responsibilities of critical care nurses in promoting patient safety. This article reviews common ventilator-associated events, including both infectious (eg, ventilator-associated pneumonia) and noninfectious causes (eg, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, and atelectasis). Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias (NTDTs), including thalassemia intermedia (TI), hemoglobin E beta thalassemia, and hemoglobin H disease, have sometimes been regarded as less severe than their transfusion-dependent variants; however, these disorders carry a substantial disease burden (e.g., splenomegaly, iron overload, skeletal effects, and cardiopulmonary disease). The aim of this review is to increase clinician awareness of the growing global problem of NTDT and TI, and discuss the current management strategies for these conditions. Recent peer-reviewed articles (publication years 2000 through 2015) addressing the epidemiology, complications, management, and monitoring of NTDT were identified in the PubMed database and reviewed. The changing epidemiology of thalassemia constitutes a growing health problem. Increased clinician awareness is necessary for the appropriate diagnosis and management of patients with NTDT. Management of NTDT requires a comprehensive approach, beginning with screening and prenatal diagnosis, monitoring for iron overload and associated complications, and iron chelation therapy. Several novel strategies are in the early stages of investigation and may help increase treatment options in patients with NTDT. Importantly, ethnic or cultural barriers may exist within the affected populations and need to be considered in the management approach.
Banu Torun Acar
Full Text Available Objectives: To report the intraoperative and postoperative follow-up complications and management of these in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK surgery. Materials and Methods: Two hundred eighty-four eyes of 252 patients followed up in our cornea clinic who underwent DALK using Anwar’s big-bubble technique with healthy Descemet’s membrane and endothelium were included in this study. Intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as the management and treatment of these complications were evaluated. Results: Big bubble was created in 220 (77.5% eyes of 284 eyes, and lamellar dissection was performed in 64 (22.5% eyes. Perforation occurred during trephination in 4 eyes, and the procedure was accomplished by penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Intraoperative microperforation occurred in 44 eyes. Perforation enlarged in 4 eyes and PK was performed. Operation was continued in 40 eyes with air injection into the anterior chamber. In postopertive follow-up period, double anterior chamber (DAC occurred in 32 of 40 eyes. DAC spontaneously regressed in 8 eyes, and air was given into the anterior chamber with a second surgical intervention in 24 eyes. DAC improved in 20 eyes. Four eyes underwent PK. Fungal keratitis evolved at the interface in one eye, because of no healing during the follow-up period, this eye underwent PK under antifungal therapy. Eyes with interface haze and Descemet’s membrane folds were followed. Conclusion: DALK is a difficult technique with a steep learning curve. In addition to the complications seen in PK, specific complications can occur in lamellar surgery. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 337-40
Terry, Mark A; Ousley, Paula J
To report the early vision-threatening complications in a large series of deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty (DLEK) procedures and discuss the management of these complications. The first 100 consecutive patients to reach the 6-month postoperative gate of a prospective, institutional review board-approved protocol for DLEK surgery were reviewed for intraoperative and postoperative complications. The method of treatment of these complications and the outcome of that treatment were recorded. Two eyes (2 of 100 = 2%) were converted to PK at the time of DLEK surgery. Of the 98 patients who had complete DLEK surgeries, 4 eyes (4 of 98 = 4%) were noted to have a dislocated disk on the first postoperative day. The dislocated disk in each case was repositioned in a short, often topical anesthesia technique, and all corneas cleared. One eye had primary graft failure (caused by surgeon error) resulting in disk dislocation. It was successfully replaced with another disk on postoperative day 1. Four patients (4 of 98 = 4%) experienced graft rejection of the donor disk from stopping steroids, but all grafts cleared with restarting of steroids. One patient required surgery for steroid-aggravated glaucoma. In the 5 cases of DLEK surgery in which the clear crystalline lens was left in place, no cataracts were induced at the 6-month postoperative gate. There were no infections, ulcerations, healing defects, or late dislocations. No patient required a contact lens, relaxing incision, or LASIK for residual refractive error. DLEK surgery is technically challenging, and yet complications from the surgery in our series were relatively rare and easily resolved. By eliminating sutures and high astigmatism, DLEK surgery avoids the usual complications often associated with transplant surgery.
Seo, Nieun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi Young; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu Bo [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a serious complication that sometimes occurs after percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG). We evaluated the incidence of bleeding complications after a PRG and its management including transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). We retrospectively reviewed 574 patients who underwent PRG in our institution between 2000 and 2010. Eight patients (1.4%) had symptoms or signs of upper GI bleeding after PRG. The initial presentation was hematemesis (n = 3), melena (n = 2), hematochezia (n = 2) and bloody drainage through the gastrostomy tube (n = 1). The time interval between PRG placement and detection of bleeding ranged from immediately after to 3 days later (mean: 28 hours). The mean decrease in hemoglobin concentration was 3.69 g/dL (range, 0.9 to 6.8 g/dL). In three patients, bleeding was controlled by transfusion (n = 2) or compression of the gastrostomy site (n = 1). The remaining five patients underwent an angiography because bleeding could not be controlled by transfusion only. In one patient, the bleeding focus was not evident on angiography or endoscopy, and wedge resection including the tube insertion site was performed for hemostasis. The other four patients underwent prophylactic (n = 1) or therapeutic (n = 3) TAEs. In three patients, successful hemostasis was achieved by TAE, whereas the remaining one patient underwent exploration due to persistent bleeding despite TAE. We observed an incidence of upper GI bleeding complicating the PRG of 1.4%. TAE following conservative management appears to be safe and effective for hemostasis.
Vanders, Rebecca L; Murphy, Vanessa E
Pregnancy is a unique state requiring alterations in maternal physiology to accommodate the growing fetus. Whilst the maternal immune system is normally well adept at performing this task, the presence of immune disorders, such as asthma, often lead to pregnancy-related complications affecting both mother and baby. Australia has a high prevalence of asthma; with approximately 12% of pregnant women reported to have current asthma. Poor control of asthma is of far greater risk than the use of asthma medications. Being able to identify complications associated with asthma during pregnancy is of great importance in providing appropriate asthma management and medical care to these pregnant women, which may have lifelong consequences for their offspring.
Engelmeier, R.L.; King, G.E.
Patients who receive radiation therapy to the head and neck suffer potential complications and undesirable side-effects of this therapy. The extent of undesirable responses is dependent on the source of irradiation, the fields of irradiation, and the dose. The radiotherapist determines these factors by the extent, location, and radiosensitivity of the tumor. The potential undesirable side-effects are xerostomia, mucositis, fibrosis, trismus, dermatitis, photosensitivity, radiation caries, soft tissue necrosis, and osteoradionecrosis. Each of these clinical entities and their proposed management have been discussed.
Vikram, Naval K
The world at present is facing a burden of rising prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. The developing countries are particularly facing the dual burden on under-nutrition and obesity. This is associated with appearance and clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities at an early age with development of chronic complications early and possible decrease in life span of these children and adolescents. In adults this clustering has been termed as 'metabolic syndrome' with definitions that can be used universally. However, in children and adolescents there is no consensus on a uniform definition of metabolic syndrome that can be applicable across the age groups and various ethnicities. Further, as childhood is a period of growth and development, changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity that occur with puberty may influence the thresholds of components used to define metabolic syndrome. Children of South Asian ethnicity appear to be more predisposed to develop abnormalities of metabolic syndrome, possible due to their adverse body fat patterning and genetic influences. The definition of pediatric metabolic syndrome proposed by International Diabetes Federation is useful across different ethnicities. Presence of at least one component of metabolic syndrome should lead to detailed screening for other components and complications. A multimodality approach including therapeutic lifestyle changes targeted at the individual, family and community is essential for management. Pharmacotherapy for individual components may be required if initial management strategies fail to achieve the goals.
Brian D. Duty
Full Text Available When compared with maintenance dialysis, renal transplantation affords patients with end-stage renal disease better long-term survival and a better quality of life. Approximately 9% of patients will develop a major urologic complication following kidney transplantation. Ureteral complications are most common and include obstruction (intrinsic and extrinsic, urine leak and vesicoureteral reflux. Ureterovesical anastomotic strictures result from technical error or ureteral ischemia. Balloon dilation or endoureterotomy may be considered for short, low-grade strictures, but open reconstruction is associated with higher success rates. Urine leak usually occurs in the early postoperative period. Nearly 60% of patients can be successfully managed with a pelvic drain and urinary decompression (nephrostomy tube, ureteral stent, and indwelling bladder catheter. Proximal, large-volume, or leaks that persist despite urinary diversion, require open repair. Vesicoureteral reflux is common following transplantation. Patients with recurrent pyelonephritis despite antimicrobial prophylaxis require surgical treatment. Deflux injection may be considered in recipients with low-grade disease. Grade IV and V reflux are best managed with open reconstruction.
Narayanan, Ram Prakash; Syed, Akheel A
Bariatric surgery is most commonly carried out in women of childbearing age. Whilst fertility rates are improved, pregnancy following bariatric surgery poses several challenges. Whilst rates of many adverse maternal and foetal outcomes in obese women are reduced after bariatric surgery, pregnancy is best avoided for 12-24 months to reduce the potential risk of intrauterine growth retardation. Dumping syndromes are common after bariatric surgery and can present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in pregnancy. Early dumping occurs due to osmotic fluid shifts resulting from rapid gastrointestinal food transit, whilst late dumping is characterized by a hyperinsulinemic response to rapid absorption of simple carbohydrates. Dietary measures are the mainstay of management of dumping syndromes but pharmacotherapy may sometimes become necessary. Acarbose is the least hazardous pharmacological option for the management of postprandial hypoglycemia in pregnancy. Nutrient deficiencies may vary depending on the type of surgery; it is important to optimize the nutritional status of women prior to and during pregnancy. Dietary management should include adequate protein and calorie intake and supplementation of vitamins and micronutrients. A high clinical index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis of surgical complications of prior weight loss procedures during pregnancy, including small bowel obstruction, internal hernias, gastric band erosion or migration and cholelithiasis.
Chronopoulos, Argyrios; Thumann, Gabriele; Schutz, James
Positive vitreous pressure occurs during anterior segment intraocular surgery associated with acute hypotony and is characterized by forward displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm with shallowing of the anterior chamber resistant to reformation, repeated iris prolapse, and, in severe cases, zonular rupture and vitreous or lens prolapse that can lead to a cascade of intraoperative complications. Positive vitreous pressure is particularly common during penetrating keratoplasty, conventional nuclear expression cataract extraction, and repair of anterior open-globe injury. Hypotony resulting from aqueous loss leads to elevated vitreous pressure from 3 possible causes: external scleral compression, acute intraocular intumescence, or rarely acutely increased vitreous volume. Understanding the pathophysiology of positive vitreous pressure helps in its prevention and management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dickinson, Jan Elizabeth; Tjioe, Yan Yan; Jude, Emily; Kirk, Daniel; Franke, Malcolm; Nathan, Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of amnioreduction to the management of singleton pregnancies that are complicated by symptomatic polyhydramnios. Retrospective review of all singleton pregnancies that received at least 1 amnioreduction for polyhydramnios from 2000-2012 at a single obstetric unit that provides a statewide service. The indications, procedural techniques, and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated. One hundred thirty-eight women with polyhydramnios (maximal vertical pocket [MVP], ≥8 cm) had 271 amnioreduction procedures during the study period. The median gestation at the first drain was 31.4 weeks (interquartile range, 28.4-34 weeks) and a median of 1 procedure (interquartile range, 1-2 procedures) was performed per pregnancy. Sixty-three women (45.6%) required >1 amnioreduction. The median volume removed per pregnancy was 2100 mL (interquartile range, 1500-4260 mL). The median duration from the first amnioreduction until delivery was 26 days (interquartile range, 15-52.5 days). There was no significant association between gestation at delivery and the volume per procedure or total volume that was removed. Earlier gestation at first drain was associated positively with earlier gestations at delivery. In 4.1% of amnioreduction procedures (11/271 procedures), there was an unplanned preterm birth within 48 hours. The median gestation at delivery was 36.4 weeks (interquartile range, 34-38 weeks). The final diagnoses were gastrointestinal malformations (21%), idiopathic polyhydramnios (20.3%), chromosomal anomaly (15.2%), syndromic condition (13.7%), and neurologic condition (8%). Amnioreduction has a useful role in the management of polyhydramnios in singleton pregnancies. Complications are uncommon, and delivery typically occurs near term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kassir, Radwan; Debs, Tarek; Blanc, Pierre; Gugenheim, Jean; Ben Amor, Imed; Boutet, Claire; Tiffet, Olivier
The epidemic in obesity has led to an increase in number of so called bariatric procedures. Doctors are less comfortable managing an obese patient after bariatric surgery. Peri-operative mortality is less than 1%. The specific feature in the obese patient is that the classical signs of peritoneal irritation are never present as there is no abdominal wall and therefore no guarding or rigidity. Simple post-operative tachycardia in obese patients should be taken seriously as it is a WARNING SIGNAL. The most common complication after surgery is peritonitis due to anastomotic fistula formation. This occurs typically as an early complication within the first 10 days post-operatively and has an incidence of 1-6% after gastric bypass and 3-7% after sleeve gastrectomy. Post-operative malnutrition is extremely rare after restrictive surgery (ring, sleeve gastrectomy) although may occur after malabsorbative surgery (bypass, biliary pancreatic shunt) and is due to the restriction and change in absorption. Prophylactic cholecystectomy is not routinely carried out during the same procedure as the bypass. Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis after bariatric surgery is a diagnosis which should be considered in the presence of any postoperative abdominal pain. Initially a first etiological assessment is performed (measurement of antithrombin III and of protein C and protein S, testing for activated protein C resistance). If the least doubt is present, a medical or surgical consultation should be requested with a specialist practitioner in the management of obese patients as death rates increase with delayed diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hachach-Haram, Nadine; Gerarchi, Paul; Benyon, Sarah L; Saggar, Anand; McLellan, Guy; Kirkpatrick, W Niall A
Cherubism is a rare, autosomal dominant, mostly self-limiting disease of the jaw. It is characterized by bilateral fibrous tissue hyperplasia, giant cell proliferation, and bony degeneration in the lower facial skeleton, which can result in a massive and severely deforming prominence of the maxillomandibular structure. This case study examines the multidisciplinary management of a severe case of cherubism complicated by neurofibromatosis type 1, 2 codominant nonsegregating conditions that were clinically and genetically diagnosed, an extremely rare combination. Adequate mandibular reduction, reconstruction, and dental implantation afforded good restoration of oral function as well as a marked aesthetic improvement. A 14-year-old Fijian girl was referred to our unit for management of severe overgrowth of her mandible that compromised her speech and deglutition. In addition, she displayed clinical features consistent with neurofibromatosis type 1. Radiologic, histologic, and genetic analyses confirmed the diagnosis of both conditions. Our craniofacial multidisciplinary team undertook mandibular reconstruction followed by placement of osseointegrated dental implants. Mandibular reduction, reconstruction, and dental implantation resulted in a significantly improved functional and aesthetic outcome with no further regrowth at 3-year follow-up when she returned to the United Kingdom for osseointegrated dental implant insertion. The successful outcome of this surgically challenging, grossly disfiguring, and rare condition was largely a result of the combined input from our multidisciplinary team, adequate preoperative planning, and the use of a novel surgical technique in debulking and reconstructing her mandible.
Iaccarino, Corrado; Mattogno, Pier P; Zanotti, Bruno; Bellocchi, Silvio; Verlicchi, Angela; Viaroli, Edoardo; Pastorello, Giulia; SGULò, Francesco; Ghadirpour, Reza; Servadei, Franco
After failing of autologous cranioplasty or when the bone flap is unavailable, the alloplastic (heterologous) materials are the choice for cranial reconstruction. No agreement has been reported about the material with a significant lower risk of septic complications. This is due to extremely heterogeneous prognostic factors related not only to the material used but also to the surgical procedures and/or to the timing of the procedure. More attention should be focused on the material whose characteristic could enable a delay in bacterial colonization, where an antibiotic therapy could be effective, without need of prosthesis removal. Four cases of severe septic complication following cranioplasty with porous hydroxyapatite (HA) prosthesis are presented. Patients were conservatively treated, without heterologous bone flap removal. All of our patients presented reasons for delaying HA cranioplasty removal: Patients 1, 3 and 4 had an associated shunted hydrocephalus and the need for non- removing the prosthesis was related to the predictable recurrence of overshunting and/or sinking skin flap syndrome. In case 4 the revision surgery would have also damaged the microvascular flap with latissimus dorsi muscle used by plastic surgeon for skin reconstruction. In case 2 the patient refused revision surgery. In all cases systemic and/or radiological signs of infection were observed. In Case 2 the infective process surrounded completely the HA prosthesis, while it was located in the epidural region in Case 1 and 4. In Case 3 a surgical curettage of the infected wound was performed over the HA prosthesis. Following prosthesis retention management with antibiotic therapy, all patients revealed systemic and/or radiological signs of sepsis resolution at follow-up. The possibility to avoid a prosthesis removal with effective antibiotic treatment is mainly due to the combination of three factors: targeted antibiotic therapy, good anatomical area revascularization (resulting of an
Bendix, J M; Hegaard, H K; Bergholt, T
analysed, 106 (45%) delivered within three days. Eighty-four women (36%) had at least one major complication and 45% of these complications occurred within three days. The complication rate was 64% in early PPROM before 28 weeks' gestation and 11% in late PPROM at 28 weeks' gestation or later. Nulliparous...
Dielubanza, Elodi J; Mazur, Daniel J; Schaeffer, Anthony J
This article presents an overview of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) from a urologic point of view. Discussion includes the evaluation and workup a complicated UTI through history, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and radiographic studies. Specific types of complicated UTI, such as urinary obstruction and renal abscess, are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schweiger, Martin; Vierecke, Juliane; Potapov, Evgenij; Krabatsch, Thomas
Management of complications in long-term LVAD support like aortic regurgitation, progressive decline of right ventricular function, or pump thrombosis are challenging. After 2.5 years on a HeartMate II left ventricular assist device (LVAD) a 59-year-old patient was admitted to hospital due to severe hemolysis caused by a partial occlusion and thrombosis caused by a shift of the LVAD inflow cannula towards the lateral wall of the left ventricle (LV). Preoperative assessment revealed additional severe aortic regurgitation and impaired right ventricular (RV) function (severe tricuspid regurgitation, RV ejection fraction 25%, central venous pressure 14 mmHg). After LVAD device exchange and aortic valve replacement (AVR) RV failure occurred and a temporary right ventricular assist device (RVAD) was employed. RVAD explantation was feasible 21 days after surgery. The patient was discharged to a rehabilitation center. In this case, LVAD exchange with concomitant AVR and temporary RVAD efforts saved the patient's life and restored a good quality of life.
Katsoulos, Konstantinos; Rallatos, Gerasimos Livir; Mavrikakis, Ioannis
To present the management of three patients suffering from ptosis of various etiologies, with scleral contact lenses. Three patients (five eyes) with ptosis resulting from levator dehiscence due to long-term rigid gas permeable contact lens wear for keratoconus, phthisis bulbi, and myopathy due to Kearns-Sayre syndrome were identified during a 2-year period. They were fitted with scleral contact lenses in order to provide cosmesis by lifting the upper eyelid with the bulk of the lens, and simultaneously provide vision correction where applicable. The scleral contact lenses provided comfortable wear, significantly improved cosmesis as both palpebral aperture and marginal reflex distance were increased, and visual acuity was also subjectively and objectively improved. Two of the patients opted for the scleral contact lenses, whereas the parents of the third patient, a 10-year-old girl with Kearns-Sayre syndrome, chose to undergo ptosis surgery due to handling issues of the scleral contact lenses. Scleral contact lenses can be a useful addition to the treatment option for patients with complicated ptosis.
Hobbs, Jonathan G; Young, Jacob S; Bailes, Julian E
Sports-related concussions (SRCs) are traumatic events that affect up to 3.8 million athletes per year. The initial diagnosis and management is often instituted on the field of play by coaches, athletic trainers, and team physicians. SRCs are usually transient episodes of neurological dysfunction following a traumatic impact, with most symptoms resolving in 7-10 days; however, a small percentage of patients will suffer protracted symptoms for years after the event and may develop chronic neurodegenerative disease. Rarely, SRCs are associated with complications, such as skull fractures, epidural or subdural hematomas, and edema requiring neurosurgical evaluation. Current standards of care are based on a paradigm of rest and gradual return to play, with decisions driven by subjective and objective information gleaned from a detailed history and physical examination. Advanced imaging techniques such as functional MRI, and detailed understanding of the complex pathophysiological process underlying SRCs and how they affect the athletes acutely and long-term, may change the way physicians treat athletes who suffer a concussion. It is hoped that these advances will allow a more accurate assessment of when an athlete is truly safe to return to play, decreasing the risk of secondary impact injuries, and provide avenues for therapeutic strategies targeting the complex biochemical cascade that results from a traumatic injury to the brain.
Porten, Sima P; Willis, Daniel; Kamat, Ashish M
The true clinical significance of variant histology is controversial and diagnosis is challenging, especially in the setting of nonmuscle invasive (NMI) disease. If the presence of variant architecture in NMI identifies a high-risk population with a worse prognosis and better suited for early aggressive intervention (i.e., radical cystectomy), then treatment recommendations should reflect this notion. This review outlines the current evidence and determines whether histologic variants should change management of patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Patients with high-risk NMI tumors and variant histology should be offered early cystectomy, especially if harboring pure squamous, adenocarcinoma, sarcomatoid, plasmacytoid, or micropapillary disease. In patients with small cell disease, systemic primary chemotherapy is the ideal option followed by local therapy for primary tumor control. For squamous/glandular differentiation, nested variant, and other rare variants, intravesical therapy is an option based on standard risk stratification in patients with NMI disease. Diligence is needed in the presence of variant histology to minimize the risk of understaging as well as close surveillance to not compromise the opportunity of cure. The management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer with variant histology is challenging, largely in part to the high risk of understaging and the background of already existing controversy regarding the management of high-risk NMI disease for standard urothelial cell carcinoma (early cystectomy vs. intravesical therapy). Future studies should be focused identifying if variant architecture confers different tumor biology than that of pure urothelial carcinoma, and if this difference translates into innovations in bladder sparing therapies.
Wagner, G; Gritzbach, B; Frank, J; Marzi, I
The acquisition of data and public discussion of complications after therapeutic procedures and surgeries is a sensitive subject, which is mostly avoided even in department meetings. However, it is evident that the broad discussion and the expression of different opinions and aspects provide useful information for continuous improvements. Therefore, we established a system for the transparent acquisition of complications in our department. Since January 2005, we systematically register operative and non-operative complications at our department, evaluate them and therefore gain a great benefit. All the complications are presented, discussed and evaluated within the weekly morbidity and mortality conferences. In 2005 and 2006, among a total number of 2730 and, respectively, 3124 operations, 102 (3.7 %) and 71 (2.3 %) complications have been registered and analysed according to different criteria. We have distinguished between complications which required surgery and complications which only required conservative treatment. There was a higher number of complications which needed surgery. In this group, the most common complications have been found in vertebral spine surgery. The groups of complications with conservative treatment were mostly related to nerve lesions and deep venous thrombosis. With the aid of the internal department evaluation of the registered data, especially the number of complications in vertebral spine surgery could be clearly reduced in 2006. The described method has created a transparency of occurring complications because each colleague is informed as well as involved in the solution process. Furthermore, it is planned to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the various performed surgeries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Barnard, Abbey; Konyn, Peter; Saab, Sammy
Improved short- and long-term survival of liver transplant recipients has led to increased focus on complications of both the early and late posttransplant periods. A variety of metabolic complications have been observed in the post–orthotopic liver transplant population, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Although only a small proportion of patients experience metabolic complications prior to...
Denis I. Lyndin
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study the peculiarities of development and the stages of activity of management system of product policy of enterprise. Author has established four variants of product policy on basis of classification signs, disclosed the contents and developed a sequence of designing, formation, support and optimization of management system of enterprise’s product policy.
Lua, Jyc; Tan, V H; Sivasubramanian, H; Kwek, Ebk
Open tibial fractures result in high rates of complications. This study aims to elucidate the risk factors causing these complications, and suggest antimicrobial regimens based on the organisms grown in post-operative infections. Over a period of five years, 173 patients had sustained open tibial fractures and undergone operative treatment at a single institution. All surgical data was gathered retrospectively through online medical records. Thirty-one patients (17.9%) had sustained post-operative bony complications, while infective complications were reported in 37 patients (21.4%). Patients with Gustilo type III fractures were found to be more than three times as likely to sustain post-operative infective (p=0.007) or bony (p=0.015) complications, compared to Gustilo type I or II fractures. The fracture location and time taken to fixation did not significantly affect the complication rate, but results were trending towards significance. The commonest cause of infective complications were hospital-acquired organisms, such as Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (40.5%). Closer monitoring of patients sustaining high grade Gustilo open fractures, as well as antimicrobial prophylaxis for both hospital-acquired organisms and environmental contaminants, will result in the best outcome for patients. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted, to determine the significance of fracture location and time taken to fixation on complication rates.
Full Text Available Open tibial fractures result in high rates of complications. This study aims to elucidate the risk factors causing these complications, and suggest antimicrobial regimens based on the organisms grown in post-operative infections. Over a period of five years, 173 patients had sustained open tibial fractures and undergone operative treatment at a single institution. All surgical data was gathered retrospectively through online medical records. Thirty-one patients (17.9% had sustained post-operative bony complications, while infective complications were reported in 37 patients (21.4%. Patients with Gustilo type III fractures were found to be more than three times as likely to sustain post-operative infective (p=0.007 or bony (p=0.015 complications, compared to Gustilo type I or II fractures. The fracture location and time taken to fixation did not significantly affect the complication rate, but results were trending towards significance. The commonest cause of infective complications were hospital-acquired organisms, such as Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (40.5%. Closer monitoring of patients sustaining high grade Gustilo open fractures, as well as antimicrobial prophylaxis for both hospital-acquired organisms and contaminants, will result in the best outcome for patients. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted, to determine the significance of fracture location and time taken to fixation on complication rates.
Bathan, Andrew J; Constantinidou, Anastasia; Pollack, Seth M; Jones, Robin L
The purpose of this review is to present the most recent advances in the diagnosis of the more common leiomyosarcoma (LMS) anatomic variants, potentially useful prognostic markers that have recently been identified and the systemic approaches currently used or under evaluation to improve the outcome of patients with this disease. Over the last few years emphasis has been placed on incorporating effective imaging tools and using pathological biomarkers in the diagnostic workup of LMS. Moreover, efforts are being made to identify meaningful prognostic and predictive parameters that will aid the development of effective novel therapeutics. The number of systemic therapies available to treat LMS has increased over the last decade, but the selection of systemic therapy is not based on the anatomic origin of LMS. Currently, the only curative option in LMS is surgery and despite progress in systemic therapy the outcome of patients with advanced/metastatic disease remains poor. Better understanding of the underlying biology of the LMS variants, improved diagnostics and more effective, less toxic therapeutic agents are required.
Patrocinio, Tomas Gomes; Loredo, Bruno Alvarenga Silva; Arevalo, Carlos Eduardo Arnez; Patrocinio, Lucas Gomes; Patrocinio, José Antonio
Complications in blepharoplasty are uncommon and, when they occur, they are usually mild and transient, such as hematomas and chemosis. However, sometimes they can be severe, such as blindness, or they might require surgical correction, such as ectropion. To evaluate the results and complications of transcutaneous blepharoplasty performed in the same procedure, discussing how to treat and how to avoid them. A retrospective study of 200 medical records of consecutive patients that underwent transcutaneous blepharoplasty from January 2007 to January 2009. The variables analyzed were age, gender, complications, clinical outcome, patient satisfaction, and photographic documentation. The incidence of complications was 9.5% (19 patients). The complications were 1 hematoma, 12 cases of chemosis and 13 patients who underwent canthoplasty, 6 patients with malposition of the lower eyelid (5 retractions and 1 ectropion). Medical treatment was performed in 12 patients and revision surgery in 7 cases of all the patients who had complications. We demonstrated that blepharoplasty is a procedure with a high satisfaction and a low complication rate, and it is an excellent surgical procedure, when properly indicated.
Trzciński, Radzisław; Kresińska-Kaba, Teresa; Dziki, Adam
Stoma complications occur in 21-75% of patients, and 30% of them require redo surgery within 10 years after previous surgical treatment. Medical treatment is successful in most cases with no need for surgery. However, severe stoma complications are the real challenge for medical team and require an individual approach to each patient. The aim of the study was to report stoma patients with severe complications of both ileo- and/or colostomy and present different options of medical treatment. Between March 2005 and April 2007 we treated 8 patients with severe stoma complications at the Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Łódź. There were 4 patients with colostomy, 3 patients with ileostomy and one patient with both ileo- and colostomy. The mean age of patients was 56,7 years (range 30-68 years). In all patients we achieved either complete stoma-related wound healing or we observed substantial progress of wound healing with medical treatment. No patient required surgery for stoma complications. Stoma complications still occur in spite of adherence to rules of stoma care and surgical technique. Most of them can be treated conservatively. Much emphasis is put on close team work comprising doctors and nurses in the treatment of severe stoma complications.
Kim, Dong Hun [Chosun University Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Dong Erk; Yang, Seung Boo; Choi, Deuk Lin; Moon Cheul [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)
Endovascular procedures are becoming the standard type of care for the management of hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction. As with any type of medical procedure, these techniques can result in procedure-related complications, although the expected number of complications is low. The clinical extent of these complications varies from case to case. Management of these cases depends on the clinical presentation. Major complications such as vein rupture, arterial embolism, remote site bleeding or hematoma, symptomatic pulmonary embolism and puncture site complications necessitating treatment require major therapy. Minor complications such as non-flow compromising small puncture site hematoma or pseudoaneurysms require little or no therapy. It is essential that the interventionist be prepared to manage these complications appropriately when they arise.
Wong, Hai Ming
With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given.
With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given. PMID:24511293
Morieux, Yves; Tollman, Peter
Provides managers with six simple rules to manage organizational complexity. The authors show why and how the rules work, enabling managers to reinvigorate employees and foster autonomy and cooperation...
Jeffery, Timothy; Petersen, Rodney; Quinlivan, Julie
Controversy surrounds the role of fetal cardiotocography (CTG) in the antenatal management of pregnancy complicated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim was to investigate whether antenatal CTG aids management in pregnancy complicated by GDM. A prospective audit of 1404 consecutive antenatal CTG in women diagnosed with GDM. Outcomes for all CTG were audited to determine whether CTG altered pregnancy management. In women requiring combination therapy (diet and medication), 43 CTG were required to change management of a pregnancy. In women managed by diet alone with a secondary pregnancy complication, 161 CTG were required to change management. In women managed by diet alone with no secondary pregnancy complication, CTG did not change management. Antenatal CTG is not recommended in women with GDM managed by diet alone with no secondary pregnancy complication. Antenatal CTG is recommended in women with GDM who require combination therapy (diet and medication). The role of CTG in women managed by diet alone with a secondary pregnancy complication should be based upon the nature of the complication. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Jahn, K; Homey, B; Gerber, P A
The use of hyaluronic acid fillers for treatment of rhytides (wrinkles) is widespread in aesthetic dermatology and is considered a safe procedure; however, complications can occur especially if the injections are carried out by an inexperienced person and/or with a lack of anatomical knowledge. The two cases presented here exemplify this problem. In conclusion, both cases demonstrate complications after uncritical injection of hyaluronic acid fillers into "risk" or "expert" regions. While the patients in these two cases recovered completely, the injection of filler substances can also lead to the risk of potentially permanent side effects, such as granuloma, necrosis with scar tissue formation and even blindness. The frequency and severity of complications often show a direct correlation with the qualification or expertise of the person treating and hence injection treatments should be performed solely by physicians.
Dourmishev, Lyubomir A.; Rusinova, Darena; Botev, Ivan
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated. PMID:23439912
Lyubomir A Dourmishev
Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.
Frongillo, F; Lirosi, M C; Nure, E; Inchingolo, R; Bianco, G; Silvestrini, N; Avolio, A W; De Gaetano, A M; Cina, A; Di Stasi, C; Sganga, G; Agnes, S
We assessed the usefulness of color Doppler imaging in diagnosis and monitoring hepatic artery complications after liver transplantation. Subjects were 421 liver transplant recipients who underwent serial ultrasound (US) color Doppler evaluations of the hepatic arteries after surgery. We saw 4 hepatic arterial complications after liver transplantation (13 thrombosis, 29 stenosis, 2 kinking, 2 pseudo-aneurysm, and 2 pseudo-aneurysm rupture). All subjects underwent US color Doppler examination periodically after surgery. In 6 cases of early thrombosis, hepatic arterial obstruction was diagnosed with absence of Doppler signals; in the other 7 cases (late hepatic artery thrombosis), thrombosis was suspected for the presence of intra-parenchymal "tardus-parvus" waveforms. In all of the cases, computed tomography angiography showed obstruction of the main arterial trunk and the development of compensatory collateral circles (late hepatic artery thrombosis). In 10 of the 29 cases of stenosis, Doppler ultrasonography examination revealed stenotic tract and intra-hepatic tardus-parvus waveforms; in 17 stenosis cases, the site of stenosis could not be identified, but intra-parenchymal tardus-parvus waveforms were recorded. In 2 patients, hepatic artery stenosis occurred with ischemic complications. The use of US color Doppler examination allows the early diagnosis of hepatic arterial complications after liver transplantation. Tardus-parvus waveforms indicated severe impairment of hepatic arterial perfusion from either thrombosis or severe stenosis. The presence of these indirect signs enhanced the accuracy of color Doppler diagnosis, and detection should prompt therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Results: Methods ranges from surgical closure techniques, use of drains, physical therapy and pharmacological means. Studies reviewed have shown that no single modality effectively minimizes postoperative pain, swelling and trismus without undesirable effects. Conclusion: Inflammatory complications after third molar ...
Meisner, S.; Lehur, P.-A.; Moran, B.
, the associated health-economic burden of medium to longterm complications has been poorly described. Aim: The aim of the present study was to create a model to estimate treatment costs of PSCs using the standardized assessment Ostomy Skin Tool as a reference. The resultant model was applied to a real-life global...
Harbor, Anetra L.; Martin, Marshall A.
The emergence of a corn rootworm "variant" has reduced the effectiveness of a corn-soybean rotation in some areas of Indiana. This research identifies potential control alternatives. Empirical results suggest that younger, more educated managers of larger farms would be the most likely to adopt transgenic corn for rootworm control.
Deitel, M.; To, T.B.
Hospitalization was required in 57 patients for intestinal injuries following radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix, endometrium, ovary, bladder, rectum, and other primary sites. Intestinal complications included stenosis, perforation, rectal ulcer, and rectovaginal, ileovaginal, and ileovesical fistula; 27 patients had multiple intestinal complications. Operation was necessary in 33 patients, as follows: bowel resections, 18; colostomy alone, five; adhesiolysis, five; ileocolic bypass, three; and Hartmann's procedure for sigmoid perforation, two. Five anastomotic leaks and six postoperative deaths occurred. Causes of death among the remaining patients included residual cancer (ten), de novo bowel cancer (two), radiation injury (four), and unrelated causes (six). Resection to uninvolved bowel, omental wrap of anterior resection anastomosis, avoidance of unnecessary adhesiolysis, and long-tube orientation seemed to contribute to successful operations. Nutritional support was used for repletion, post-operative fistulas, and short-gut syndrome.
Hong, Joseph; Sanfilippo, James A; Rihn, Jeffrey; Fernandez, Carmella; Winegar, Corbett D; Friel, Brian; Ludwig, Steven; Gelb, Daniel; Vaccaro, Alexander R
Charcot spinal arthropathy is a relatively rare, destructive process characterized by a cycle of progressive deformity, destruction, and worsening instability as a result of repetitive trauma and inflammation. It may result from nontraumatic as well as traumatic causes. Historically, patients with severe symptomatic instability have been successfully treated with combined anterior and posterior fusion techniques. The long-term outcomes and potential complications, however, have not been well reported. The authors report on 2 such cases of Charcot spinal arthropathy treated surgically, one with a traumatic and one with a nontraumatic etiology. They include the unique pitfalls encountered while treating these patients, as well as their surgical treatments, complications, and long-term results.
Hai Ming Wong
With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one’s overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The ...
Bémeur, Chantal; Butterworth, Roger F
Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic liver diseases that is often associated with a poor prognosis including worsening of clinical outcome, neuropsychiatric complications as well as outcome following liver transplantation. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis is challenging owing to confounding factors related to liver failure. The objectives of nutritional intervention in cirrhotic patients are the support of liver regeneration, the prevention or correction of specific nutritional deficiencies and the prevention and/or treatment of the complications of liver disease per se and of liver transplantation. Nutritional recommendations target the optimal supply of adequate substrates related to requirements linked to energy, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Some issues relating to malnutrition in chronic liver disease remain to be addressed including the development of an appropriate well-validated nutritional assessment tool, the identification of mechanistic targets or therapy for sarcopenia, the development of nutritional recommendations for obese cirrhotic patients and liver-transplant recipients and the elucidation of the roles of vitamin A hepatotoxicity, as well as the impact of deficiencies in riboflavin and zinc on clinical outcomes. Early identification and treatment of malnutrition in chronic liver disease has the potential to lead to better disease outcome as well as prevention of the complications of chronic liver disease and improved transplant outcomes.
Macrovascular complications of diabetes include cardiovascular events, whereas common microvascular complications include neuropathy, retinopathy, and diabetic kidney disease. Control of hypertension and dyslipidemia is an important step in minimizing the risk of complications. Blood pressure (BP) levels should be maintained at less than 140 mm Hg systolic and less than 90 mm Hg diastolic. In older adults, medical therapy to reduce BP to less than 130/70 mm Hg is not recommended. In these patients, a systolic BP level less than 130 mm Hg has not been shown to improve atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes, and a diastolic BP less than 70 mm Hg is associated with a higher mortality risk. Patients with diabetes and a history of ASCVD should be treated with high-dose statins. A combination of ezetimibe and a moderate-dose statin is an option for patients who cannot tolerate high-dose therapy. Screening for kidney disease should be performed using estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine albumin measurement. Clinicians should be familiar with the limitations of both methods. Whether patients with diabetes are at increased risk of concomitant depression is not well understood, although a link has been shown in large, observational studies. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Lazica, D A; Brandt, A S; Roth, S
Open surgical reconstruction of the ureter is a urological procedure with a potentially high risk of complications. The correct selection of patients and time of operation are important aspects regarding the treatment strategy. Position and length of the affected ureter segment to be reconstructed determine the surgical intervention possibilities. The psoas hitch procedure is a well-established technique for distal reconstruction of the ureter where most iatrogenic injuries occur. In more proximal or complex defects, several procedures are available. Partial or complete replacement of the ureter with bowel is still considered the standard for bridging long ureteral defects but is accompanied with higher intra- and postoperative complication rates. In specific patients and situations, autotransplantation of the kidney and subcutaneous pyelovesical bypasses are clinical options. Using mucosal grafts or tissue engineering may be new therapeutic prospects to cover ureteral defects but the clinical impact still needs to be clarified. All therapeutic strategies share the fact that great surgical expertise and experience are necessary as the operative technique must be mastered to avoid severe complications.
Rajendra Prasad Ray
Conclusions: JJ stent related long-term complications are not uncommon and are usually seen after 6 months of indwelling time. Endourological procedure should be the initial approach with a high success rate. Coordinated use multimodality and technology helps in management of difficult cases. Open surgery is rarely required. Prevention of the complication by judicious use and early removal is the cornerstone.
Helo, Sevann; Moulton, Carol-Anne E
Errors are inherent in medicine due to the imperfectness of human nature. Health care providers may have a difficult time accepting their fallibility, acknowledging mistakes, and disclosing errors. Fear of litigation, shame, blame, and concern about reputation are just some of the barriers preventing physicians from being more candid with their patients, despite the supporting body of evidence that patients cite poor communication and lack of transparency as primary drivers to file a lawsuit in the wake of a medical complication. Proper error disclosure includes a timely explanation of what happened, who was involved, why the error occurred, and how it will be prevented in the future. Medical mistakes afford the opportunity for individuals and institutions to be candid about their weaknesses while improving patient care processes. When a physician takes the Hippocratic Oath they take on a tremendous sense of responsibility for the care of their patients, and often bear the burden of their mistakes in isolation. Physicians may struggle with guilt, shame, and a crisis of confidence, which may thwart efforts to identify areas for improvement that can lead to meaningful change. Coping strategies for providers include discussing the event with others, seeking professional counseling, and implementing quality improvement projects. Physicians and health care organizations need to find adaptive ways to deal with complications that will benefit patients, providers, and their institutions.
Shin, J H; Kim, J E; Kim, R J
This article describes the management of a complicated crown root fracture. A young patient presented with a crown root fracture of the maxillary left central incisor with an oblique subgingival fracture line...
Murchie, Bryan Daniel
This is the second-part of this three-part series. The first paper discussed the occlusal and cracked tooth aetiological factors which may be responsible for restoration failure. This paper will outline the restorative options for cracked and root canal-treated teeth. It will also briefly give an overview of some of the potential endodontic complications commonly associated with failed restorations. The third, and final, part of the series will provide an overview of the previous papers and conclude with a case report. Clinical relevance: Failure of amalgam restorations is a commonly encountered clinical problem in general practice and no one case presents in the same way. Therefore, a competent endodontic diagnosis and implementation of the most appropriate, minimally invasive restorative option requires an adequate knowledge of the current literature.
Chahed, H; Bachraoui, R; Kedous, S; Ghorbel, H; Houcine, A; Mediouni, A; Marrakchi, J; Zainine, R; Ben Amor, M; Beltaief, N; Besbes, G
Describe the clinical presentations of orbital complications of acute sinusitis and discuss therapeutic approaches. Retrospective study of 29 cases of acute sinusitis with orbital extension hospitalized over a period of 12years (2000 to 2012). There were 23 men and 6 women. The mean age was 15.75years. The average time until consultation was 7.68 days. Sinusitis was ethmoido-maxillary in 20 cases, ethmoidal in 6 cases, and frontal in 3 cases. Orbital extension was grouped according to the Chandler classification: stage I (3 cases), stage II (3 cases), stage III (15 cases), stage IV (8 cases). Antibiotic therapy was prescribed in all cases. Surgery was performed in 22 cases. Bacterial cultures revealed streptococcus (2 cases), aspergillus fumigatus (1 case) and were negative in 8 cases. The outcome was favorable in 27 cases. In two cases, the outcome was unfavorable with associated intracranial complications. Oculoorbital extension of acute sinusitis is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency. Paranasal sinus CT is essential to confirm orbital extension and identify the causative sinus. Intravenous antibiotic therapy is the main treatment. The roles of corticosteroid and heparin therapy remain controversial. Surgery is indicated in the case of abscess or high visual risk. Endoscopic endonasal surgery appears to have a double role, in diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A critical analysis of the surgical treatment of fibroids compares all available techniques of myomectomy. Different statistical analyses reveal the advantages of the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic approach. Complications can arise from the location of the fibroids. They range from intermittent bleedings to continuous bleedings over several weeks, from single pain episodes to severe pain, from dysuria and constipation to chronic bladder and bowel spasms. Very seldom does peritonitis occur. Infertility may result from continuous metro and menorrhagia. The difficulty of the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic myomectomy lies in achieving satisfactory haemostasis using the appropriate sutures. The hysteroscopic myomectomy requires an operative hysteroscope and a well-experienced gynaecologic surgeon.
Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B; Skupski, Daniel; Chasen, Stephen T
Ethics is an essential dimension of the clinical management of pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. Utilizing the ethical principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy, this review first sets out the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient. This concept provides the basis for a comprehensive approach to ethical issues in the management of pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. Practical, ethically justified guidance is given for the physician's role in counseling pregnant women about aggressive management, termination of pregnancy, selective termination of multifetal pregnancies, nonaggressive management, cephalocentesis, and fetal research.
Background: Management of hand deformities in Apert's acro-cephalo-syndactyly usually poses a great challenge to the reconstructive hand surgeon due to grossly abnormal anatomy of skeletal and soft tissue structures associated with a progressive disease process. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed all ...
Monique A. Hartley-Brown
Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is an incurable disease, although patient survival has increased with the availability of novel agents. Both multiple myeloma and its therapies often affect the renal, immune, skeletal, hematologic, and nervous systems. The resulting organ dysfunctions often impair the quality of life of affected patients, complicate and limit subsequent therapies, and may result in significant mortality. Research on the treatment of complications of multiple myeloma has been limited; hence, preventative and management strategies for patients with these complications are heterogeneous and often based on anecdotal experience. In this paper, we review the effects of myeloma and the novel therapies on organ systems and suggest management strategies.
Full Text Available Ilias Georgalas1, Dimitris Papaconstantinou2, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea2, George Kalantzis2, Dimitris Karagiannis2, Gerasimos Georgopoulos2, Ioannis Ladas21Department of Ophthalmology, “G. Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, NHS, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, “G. Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Angioid streaks are visible irregular crack-like dehiscences in Bruch’s membrane that are associated with atrophic degeneration of the overlying retinal pigmented epithelium. Angioid streaks may be associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Paget’s disease, sickle-cell anemia, acromegaly, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, and diabetes mellitus, but also appear in patients without any systemic disease. Patients with angioid streaks are generally asymptomatic, unless the lesions extend towards the foveola or develop complications such as traumatic Bruch’s membrane rupture or macular choroidal neovascularization (CNV. The visual prognosis in patients with CNV secondary to angioid streaks if untreated, is poor and most treatment modalities, until recently, have failed to limit the devastating impact of CNV in central vision. However, it is likely that treatment with antivascular endothelial growth factor, especially in treatment-naive eyes to yield favorable results in the future and this has to be investigated in future studies.Keywords: angioid streaks, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, choroidal neovascularization
Aspromonte, Nadia; Cruz, Dinna N; Valle, Roberto; Ronco, Claudio
The pathophysiology of acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS), defined as a change or worsening in heart failure symptoms and signs, is complex. The variety of adverse neurohormonal adaptations includes increased levels of plasma renin, aldosterone and angiotensin II, all responsible for cardio-renal dysfunction. In fact, such alterations result in an array of clinical changes that include abnormal haemodynamics, altered ventricular filling pressures, pathological neurohormonal responses, leading to fluid overload, congestion and ultimately heart failure symptoms. Clinical pictures can be various: in spite of a usual improvement in dyspnoea, little weight change and significant morbidity are generally observed during hospitalization. Short-term outcomes are characterized by a high 60-day re-hospitalization and high mortality rates; apparently, both can be predicted from pre-discharge characteristics. The most frequently used treatments for AHF care include diuretics, inotropic agents, and vasodilator/vasoactive agents; however, the final therapeutic strategy is often individualized. Diuretics are currently the most used agents, but resistance to diuretic therapy is common. In addition, several studies have demonstrated that aggressive diuresis can contribute to reduced renal function, and high doses of diuretics have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Many patients with AHFS also suffer from acute or from chronic renal dysfunction (cardio-renal syndromes type 1 and 2, respectively), which further complicate the outcomes and treatment strategies. A personalized patient evaluation of the combined heart and kidney functions is advised to implement the best possible multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
Carter, Yvette; Sippel, Rebecca S; Chen, Herbert
Hypothyroidism is a common disease that is easily treated in the majority of cases, when readily diagnosed; however, presentation of an aggregate of its symptoms is often clinically overlooked or attributed to another disease and can potentially be lethal. Already prevalent in older women, its occurrence in younger patients is rising as a result of radiation therapy, radioactive iodine therapy, and newer antineoplastic agents used to manage various malignancies. The presence of nonspecific constitutional symptoms and neuropsychiatric complaints in cancer patients can be attributed to a myriad of other diagnoses and therapies. Thyroid dysfunction can be easily overlooked in cancer patients because of the complexity of cancer's clinical picture, particularly in the pediatric population. Underdiagnosis can have important consequences for the management of both hypothyroidism and the malignancy. At minimum, quality of life is adversely affected. Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to heart failure, psychosis, and coma and can reduce the effectiveness of potentially life-saving cancer therapies, whereas iatrogenic causes can provoke atrial fibrillation and osteoporosis. Consequently, the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism in cancer patients are pertinent. We summarize the history, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and management of hypothyroidism in cancer patients.
Carter, Yvette; Sippel, Rebecca S.
Hypothyroidism is a common disease that is easily treated in the majority of cases, when readily diagnosed; however, presentation of an aggregate of its symptoms is often clinically overlooked or attributed to another disease and can potentially be lethal. Already prevalent in older women, its occurrence in younger patients is rising as a result of radiation therapy, radioactive iodine therapy, and newer antineoplastic agents used to manage various malignancies. The presence of nonspecific constitutional symptoms and neuropsychiatric complaints in cancer patients can be attributed to a myriad of other diagnoses and therapies. Thyroid dysfunction can be easily overlooked in cancer patients because of the complexity of cancer’s clinical picture, particularly in the pediatric population. Underdiagnosis can have important consequences for the management of both hypothyroidism and the malignancy. At minimum, quality of life is adversely affected. Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to heart failure, psychosis, and coma and can reduce the effectiveness of potentially life-saving cancer therapies, whereas iatrogenic causes can provoke atrial fibrillation and osteoporosis. Consequently, the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism in cancer patients are pertinent. We summarize the history, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and management of hypothyroidism in cancer patients. PMID:24309982
Keech, P M; Ichikawa, L; Barlow, W
Understanding the rate of contact lensrelated complications and the factors that affect their occurrence can facilitate better prescribing decisions. In a managed care setting, 1496 patient visits were evaluated using a common protocol by 11 optometrists to determine the prevalence of all contact lens-related complications. Over one-half (61%) of the visits were normal, with the remainder showing some type of complication. The more prevalent complications included superficial punctate staining (17.3%) and neovascularization (11.4%). Total complications were less prevalent with rigid gas permeable (RGP) and disposable lens types. Planned replacement soft lenses, used on a daily wear schedule, had the lowest prevalence of more serious complications when compared to conventional soft and disposable lenses. Patients on an extended wear schedule greater than 3 days were more likely to experience complications. The use of nonapproved care systems showed more complications, with serious complications reduced when a one-step care system was used. Choice of lens type, wearing schedule, and care system does affect the prevalence of complications, which underlines the importance of the recommendations of the prescriber.
Nishio, Shin-Ya; Usami, Shin-Ichi
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have given rise to new challenges due to the difficulties in variant pathogenicity interpretation and large dataset management, including many kinds of public population databases as well as public or commercial disease-specific databases. Here, we report a new database development tool, named the "Clinical NGS Database," for improving clinical NGS workflow through the unified management of variant information and clinical information. This database software offers a two-feature approach to variant pathogenicity classification. The first of these approaches is a phenotype similarity-based approach. This database allows the easy comparison of the detailed phenotype of each patient with the average phenotype of the same gene mutation at the variant or gene level. It is also possible to browse patients with the same gene mutation quickly. The other approach is a statistical approach to variant pathogenicity classification based on the use of the odds ratio for comparisons between the case and the control for each inheritance mode (families with apparently autosomal dominant inheritance vs. control, and families with apparently autosomal recessive inheritance vs. control). A number of case studies are also presented to illustrate the utility of this database. © 2016 The Authors. **Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hemendra N Shah
Full Text Available We reviewed the incidence, predisposing factors, presentation and management of complications related to the use of synthetic mesh in the management of stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse repair. Immediate complications, such as bleeding, hematoma, injury to adjacent organs during placement of mesh and complication of voiding dysfunction are not discussed in this review, since they are primarily related to technique. A PubMed search of related articles published in English was done from April 2008 to March 2011. Key words used were urinary incontinence, mesh, complications, midurethral sling, anterior prolapse, anterior vaginal repair, pelvic organ prolapse, transvaginal mesh, vault prolapse, midurethral slings, female stress urinary incontinence, mesh erosion, vaginal mesh complications, and posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Since there were very few articles dealing with the management of mesh-related complications in the period covered in the search we extended the search from January 2005 onwards. Articles were selected to fit the scope of the topic. In addition, landmark publications and Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE data (FDA website were included on the present topic. A total of 170 articles were identified. The use of synthetic mesh in sub-urethral sling procedures is now considered the standard for the surgical management of stress urinary incontinence. Synthetic mesh is being increasingly used in the management of pelvic organ prolapse. While the incidence of extrusion and erosion with mid-urethral sling is low, the extrusion rate in prolapse repair is somewhat higher and the use in posterior compartment remains controversial. When used through the abdominal approach the extrusion and erosion rates are lower. The management of mesh complication is an individualized approach. The choice of the technique should be based on the type of mesh complication, location of the extrusion and/or erosion
Fragulidis, Georgios; Marinis, Athanasios; Polydorou, Andreas; Konstantinidis, Christos; Anastasopoulos, Georgios; Contis, John; Voros, Dionysios; Smyrniotis, Vassilios
AIM:To investigate injuries of anatomy variants of hepatic duct confluence during hepatobiliary surgery and their impact on morbidity and mortality of these procedures. An algorithmic approach for the management of these injuries is proposed. METHODS: During a 6-year period 234 patients who had undergone major hepatobiliary surgery were retrospectively reviewed in order to study postoperative bile leakage. Diagnostic workup included endoscopic and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (E/MRCP), scintigraphy and fistulography. RESULTS: Thirty (12.8%) patients who developed postoperative bile leaks were identified. Endoscopic stenting and percutaneous drainage were successful in 23 patients with bile leaks from the liver cut surface. In the rest seven patients with injuries of hepatic duct confluence, biliary variations were recognized and a stepwise therapeutic approach was considered. Conservative management was successful only in 2 patients. Volume of the liver remnant and functional liver reserve as well as local sepsis were used as criteria for either resection of the corresponding liver segment or construction of a biliary-enteric anastomosis. Two deaths occurred in this group of patients with hepatic duct confluence variants (mortality rate 28.5%). CONCLUSION: Management of major biliary fistulae that are disconnected from the mainstream of the biliary tree and related to injury of variants of the hepatic duct confluence is extremely challenging. These patients have a grave prognosis and an early surgical procedure has to be considered. PMID:18494057
Turner, Michael D
Saliva is one of the most versatile, multifunctional substances produced by the body and has a critical role in the preservation of the oropharyngeal health. It comprises a serous and mucinous component and is secreted by the major salivary glands. The mucins in the saliva serve to protect and lubricate the hard and soft tissues of the mouth, protecting them from chemical and mechanical damage. Hyposalivation can be managed by various salivary substitutes, peripheral sialagogues, and central sialagogues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Avdonina, M A; Abramov, I S; Ammour, Y I; Nasedkina, T V
Infectious complications that arise during the treatment of children with acute leukemia with chemotherapeutic agents at high doses represent a serious problem in oncohematology. To find genetic conditions that may lead to the development of postchemotherapy infections, the genomes of 12 children with acute leukemia who had severe infectious complications during therapy were examined. At the same time, the coding regions of 17 genes involved in the regulation of the immune response were determined by massive parallel sequencing. The analysis revealed 39 nonsynonymous SNPs that lead to amino acid substitutions, including the following informative genetic markers: PTPN22 c.1858C>T (rs2476601), TLR4 c.896A>G (rs4986790) and TLR4 c.1196C>T (rs4986791), IL7R c.197T>C (rs1494555) and IL7R c.412G>A (rs1494558). The results of massive parallel sequencing were validated by Sanger sequencing. The identification of genetic markers associated with the predisposition to infectious complications may allow one to assess the individual risk of the severe infection development in children with acute leukemia during the treatment with chemotherapeutic agents and to begin the development of personalized approaches to anticancer therapy.
Sink, Ernest L; Faro, Francis; Polousky, John; Flynn, Katherine; Gralla, Jane
Elastic intramedullary nails are commonly the preferred treatment option for operative stabilization of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures. Increased complication rates have been reported in unstable fractures and older patients treated with TENs (titanium elastic nails). The reported complications have led to a change in management at our institution: limiting the use of TENs and using submuscular plating and trochanteric entry nails as alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether this change in management has improved outcomes defined by a decrease in complications between 2 time periods. This retrospective study compared 2 cohorts of femur fractures: those treated from January 2001 to January 2003 versus those treated from January 2003 to December 2006. Patient's age, weight, fracture type (stable or unstable), operative fixation technique, and complications were compared. Outcomes were measured by major or minor complications that occurred after operative treatment. Period I consisted of 46 patients and Period II of 95 patients. There was a significant decrease in TEN use in unstable fractures in Period II versus Period I. Submuscular plating increased from 9% in Period I to 28% in Period II. All complications decreased from 52% in Period I to 23% in Period II. Major complications decreased from 22% to 5%, and minor complications decreased from 30% to 18%. Complications in unstable fractures decreased from 57% to 26% and in stable fractures from 48% to 22%. Outcomes of pediatric femur fractures are improved with limiting the use of TENs to stable fractures. Complications resulting from unstable femur fracture management have decreased with other methods of stabilization such as submuscular plating or trochanteric entry nails.
Full Text Available Timely diagnosis and the early start of therapy for cognitive impairments (CI are extremely important. Unfortunately, there is a serious problem of belated CI diagnosis (it is often diagnosed only at the stage of severe dementia. The article discusses the current CI classification by the severity level. Special attention is paid to clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria, and the basic principles of managing dementia patients. The differences in the severity levels of dementia are discussed in detail; special attention is given to severe dementia. It is noted that the presence of severe dementia in the patient is indicated by permanent dependence on physical assistance. The demand for structuring the clinical assessment of the state of cognitive functions and of the CI influence on daily activity is emphasized. For this purpose, it is recommended that special clinical scales listing cognitive symptoms that are most typical of various stages of cognitive deficit are used. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR Scale is one of the well-proved scales. The main approaches for managing patients with severe dementia, including modern drugs for correction of CI and behavioral disorders, are discussed. The possibility and advisability are discussed for treating severe dementia with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and/or a competitive blocker of the NMDA-receptor, memantine. Special attention is paid to behavioral disorders in patients with severe dementia. These disorders require both the medication correction and psychological support from relatives. The critical significance is emphasized for the proper patient care and for the correction of associated disorders, including pelvic disorders. Neurogenic inappropriate urination often accompanies the manifestations of CI and other neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with severe dementia. The main groups of medications that are used for drug therapy of this condition, as well as possibilities for using modern
Full Text Available Luigi Padeletti1, Giosuè Mascioli2, Alessandro Paoletti Perini1, Gino Grifoni1, Laura Perrotta1, Procolo Marchese3, Luca Bontempi3, Antonio Curnis31Istituto di Clinica Medica e Cardiologia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italia; 2Elettrofisiologia, Istituto Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo, Italia; 3Elettrofisiologia, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItaliaAbstract: Population aging and broader indications for the implant of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs are the main reasons for the continuous increase in the use of pacemakers (PMs, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs and devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-P, CRT-D. The growing burden of comorbidities in CIED patients, the greater complexity of the devices, and the increased duration of procedures have led to an augmented risk of infections, which is out of proportion to the increase in implantation rate. CIED infections are an ominous condition, which often implies the necessity of hospitalization and carries an augmented risk of in-hospital death. Their clinical presentation may be either at pocket or at endocardial level, but they can also manifest themselves with lone bacteremia. The management of these infections requires the complete removal of the device and subsequent, specific, antibiotic therapy. CIED failures are monitored by competent public authorities, that require physicians to alert them to any failures, and that suggest the opportune strategies for their management. Although the replacement of all potentially affected devices is often suggested, common practice indicates the replacement of only a minority of devices, as close follow-up of the patients involved may be a safer strategy. Implantation of a PM or an ICD may cause problems in the patients' psychosocial adaptation and quality of life, and may contribute to the development of affective disorders. Clinicians are usually unaware of the psychosocial impact of implanted PMs and ICDs. The
Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key chemokine involved in tissue growth and organ repair processes, particularly angiogenesis. Elevated circulating VEGF levels are believed to play a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D microvascular complications, especially diabetic retinopathy. Recently, a genome-wide association study identified two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs6921438 and rs10738760 explaining nearly half of the variance in circulating VEGF levels. Considering the putative contribution of VEGF to T2D and its complications, we aimed to assess the effect of these VEGF-related SNPs on the risk of T2D, nephropathy and retinopathy, as well as on variation in related traits.SNPs were genotyped in several case-control studies: French and Danish T2D studies (N(cases = 6,920-N(controls = 3,875 and N(cases = 3,561-N(controls = 2,623; respectively, two French studies one for diabetic nephropathy (N(cases = 1,242-N(controls = 860 and the other for diabetic retinopathy (N(cases = 1,336-N(controls = 1,231. The effects of each SNP on quantitative traits were analyzed in a French general population-based cohort (N = 4,760 and two French T2D studies (N = 3,480. SNP associations were assessed using logistic or linear regressions.In the French population, we found an association between the G-allele of rs6921438, shown to increase circulating VEGF levels, and increased T2D risk (OR = 1.15; P = 3.7×10(-5. Furthermore, the same allele was associated with higher glycated hemoglobin levels (β = 0.02%; P = 9.2×10(-3. However, these findings were not confirmed in the Danes. Conversely, the SNP rs10738760 was not associated with T2D in the French or Danish populations. Despite having adequate statistical power, we did not find any significant effects of rs6921438 or rs10738760 on diabetic microvascular complications or the variation in related traits in T2D patients.In spite of their
Ferrer, M; Bartra, J; Giménez-Arnau, A; Jauregui, I; Labrador-Horrillo, M; Ortiz de Frutos, J; Silvestre, J F; Sastre, J; Velasco, M; Valero, A
In spite of being an old disease and apparently easy to diagnose, chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is still perceived as an uncontrollable and difficult to manage disease. The perception of the patient is that his/her condition is not well understood and that is suffering from a disorder with hidden causes that doctors are not able to tackle. Sometimes patients go through a number of clinicians until they found some CSU expert who is familiar with the disease. It is surprising that myths and believes with no scientific support still persist. Guidelines are not widely implemented, and recent tools to assess severity are infrequently used. European and American recent guidelines do not agree in several key points related to diagnosis and treatment, which further contributes to confusion. With the aim to clarify some aspects of the CSU picture, a group of allergists and dermatologists from the Spanish Dermatology and Allergy societies developed a Frequent Asked Questions leaflet that could facilitate physicians work in daily practice and contribute to a better knowledge of common clinical scenarios related to patients with CSU. PMID:25429900
Skamra, Carly; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with SLE have an excess risk compared with the general population; this is particularly pronounced in younger women with SLE who have an excess risk of over 50-fold compared with population controls. There is a higher prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with SLE compared with controls, as demonstrated by a variety of imaging modalities discussed in this review. The causality of the excess risk of CVD and subclinical atherosclerosis is multifactorial in patients with SLE. While traditional risk factors play a role, after controlling for the traditional Framingham risk factors, the excess risk is still 7.5-fold greater than the general population. This review will also cover novel cardiovascular risk factors and some SLE-specific variables that contribute to CVD risk. This review discusses the risk factor modification and the evidence available for treatment of these risk factors in SLE. There have not yet been any published randomized, controlled trials in patients with SLE with respect to CVD risk factor modifications. Thus, the treatment and management recommendations are based largely on published guidelines for other populations at high risk for CVD. PMID:20305727
Adukpo, Selorme; Gyan, Ben A; Ofori, Michael F; Dodoo, Daniel; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Meyer, Christian G
Malaria elicits inflammatory responses, which, if not well regulated, may exert detrimental effects. When activated, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) enhances inflammatory responses by increasing secretion of IL-8 and other Th1 cytokines. In contrast, TREM-like transcript 1 (TREML-1) promotes anti-inflammatory responses by binding to TREM-1 ligands and competing with TREM-1, thus antagonizing TREM-1 activation to reduce inflammation. Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) also mediates anti-inflammatory responses by activating endothelial protein C (PC). Upon microbial stimulation, soluble forms of TREM-1 (sTREM-1) and soluble EPCR (sEPCR) are released. Their plasma levels reflect the degree of inflammation and the severity of infection. In a cross-sectional study comparing patients with severe with uncomplicated malaria, sTREM-1, soluble TREML-1 (sTREML-1) and sEPCR plasma levels as well as plasma levels of sEPCR derived from convalescent patients were quantified. Samples were collected on admittance of paediatric patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum to hospitals in Accra, Ghana. Distinct genetic regions of the genes encoding TREM-1, EPCR, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-18 encompassing known genetic polymorphisms that influence plasma levels underwent DNA sequencing. Higher sTREM-1 levels were observed among children suffering from severe malaria compared to those with uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.049). Low TREM-1 to TREML-1 ratios were associated with uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.033). The TREM1 rs2234237T variant causing the amino acid exchange Thr25Ser, which has been associated with higher TREM-1 plasma levels, was significantly more frequent among patients with severe malaria than in those with uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.036). Low levels of sEPCR were observed in severe and uncomplicated malaria, while variant genotypes of IL8, IL18 and EPCR did not show any association. Higher plasma levels of sTREM-1 alone or relative to s
Full Text Available Oral complications from radiation to the head and neck or chemotherapy for any malignancy can compromise patients′ health and quality of life and affect their ability to complete planned cancer treatment. For some patients the complications can be so debilitating that they may tolerate only lower doses of therapy, postpone scheduled treatments, or discontinue treatment entirely. Oral complications can also lead to serious systemic infections. Medically necessary oral care before, during, and after cancer treatment can prevent or reduce the incidence and severity of oral complications, enhancing both patient survival and quality of life. In the present article we present an overview of oral complications, and their possible management, after radiation therapy in the head-and-neck region.
Fiedler, Amy G; Schutt, Robert C; Greenhouse, David; Stone, James; Sundt, Thoralf M; Sakhuja, Rahul
Septic coronary embolization in a patient with endocarditis is a rare and can be a devastating complication. The management of this clinical problem in the current era may be best served with a multi-modality approach. We present an interesting case of a patient with septic coronary embolization managed with the combined use of aspiration thrombectomy followed by surgical management of the infected valve.
Lareyre, Fabien; Raffort, Juliette; Dommerc, Carine; Habib, Yacoub; Bourlon, François; Mialhe, Claude
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is associated with substantial rates of vascular complications. The aim of our study is to describe the surgical management of percutaneous transfemoral access by a vascular surgeon and to report the 30-day postoperative vascular complications and mortality. Perioperative procedures to manage the femoral access site were recorded retrospectively from 220 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI. Postoperative vascular complications related to the main access were categorized according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 classification. Perioperative procedures related to vascular access were performed for 56 (25.4%) patients: 6 patients required open surgical repair, 48 patients underwent endovascular stenting, and 2 patients had both procedures. The all-cause mortality was 3.6%, but no death related to a vascular complication was reported during the 30-day postoperative follow-up period. Ten (4.5%) patients developed postoperative hematomas; 2 (0.9%) of them were retroperitoneal and led to major bleeding requiring an unplanned surgical intervention. Our study underlines the utility of a multidisciplinary approach to manage the percutaneous access in TAVI for managing postoperative vascular complications.
Full Text Available KCNQ1 has been identified as a susceptibility gene of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Asian populations through genome-wide association studies. However, studies on the association between gene polymorphism of KCNQ1 and T2DM complications remain unclear. To further analyze the association between different alleles at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2237892 within KCNQ1 and TD2M and its complications, we conducted a case-control study in a Chinese Han population. The C allele of rs2237892 variant contributed to susceptibility to T2DM (odds ratio [OR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.75. Genotypes CT (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.24–3.15 and CC (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.57–3.95 were associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Multivariate regression analysis was performed with adjustment of age, gender, and body mass index. We found that systolic blood pressure (P = 0.015, prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.037, and risk of macrovascular disease (OR, 2.10; CI, 1.00–4.45 were significantly higher in subjects with the CC genotype than in the combined population with genotype either CT or TT. Therefore, our data support that KCNQ1 is associated with an increased risk for T2DM and might contribute to the higher incidence of hypertension and macrovascular complications in patients with T2DM carrying the risk allele C though it needs further to be confirmed in a larger population.
Zhang, Wanlin; Wang, Hailing; Guan, Xiaomin; Niu, Qing; Li, Wei
KCNQ1 has been identified as a susceptibility gene of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asian populations through genome-wide association studies. However, studies on the association between gene polymorphism of KCNQ1 and T2DM complications remain unclear. To further analyze the association between different alleles at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2237892 within KCNQ1 and TD2M and its complications, we conducted a case-control study in a Chinese Han population. The C allele of rs2237892 variant contributed to susceptibility to T2DM (odds ratio [OR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.75). Genotypes CT (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.24-3.15) and CC (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.57-3.95) were associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Multivariate regression analysis was performed with adjustment of age, gender, and body mass index. We found that systolic blood pressure (P=0.015), prevalence of hypertension (P=0.037), and risk of macrovascular disease (OR, 2.10; CI, 1.00-4.45) were significantly higher in subjects with the CC genotype than in the combined population with genotype either CT or TT. Therefore, our data support that KCNQ1 is associated with an increased risk for T2DM and might contribute to the higher incidence of hypertension and macrovascular complications in patients with T2DM carrying the risk allele C though it needs further to be confirmed in a larger population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Complicated tooth extractions may lead to various post-extraction complications, including Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD. Despite of the rare incidence, a delayed treatment of the TMD will cause more problems in the future as well as increased morbidity rate. The purpose of the current study was to elaborate the symptoms as well as the management of TMD as a post tooth extraction complication. The types of TMD as a post tooth extraction complication includes dislocated condyle, osteoarthritis, fracture condyle and disc displacement. These type of complications may resulted from an extensive opening of the mouth as well as an over pressure on the mandible during tooth extraction. In relation to this, some of the TMD symptoms that might cause a certain level of interference for patients may include pain, limited mouth opening and joint sounds, with pain and limited mouth opening as the initial symptoms. The first measure of the pain management would be warm light compress around the TMJ followed by a soft diet for food intake. A definitive treatment should then be based on the diagnosis of the TMD. It is concluded that TMD may occur as a complication of a tooth extraction that initiated by pain and limited mouth opening. Immediate treatment would be pain relieve and load reduction of the Temporomandibular Joint by employing soft diet and mandibular movement restriction.
Full Text Available Background: The optimal bladder management method should preserve renal function and minimize the risk of urinary tract complications. The present study is conducted to assess the overall incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI and other urological complications in spinal cord injury patients (SCI, and to compare the incidence of these complications with different bladder management subgroups. Materials and Methods: 545 patients (386 males and 159 females of traumatic spinal cord injury with the mean age of 35.4±16.2 years (range, 18 - 73 years were included in the study. The data regarding demography, bladder type, method of bladder management, and urological complications, were recorded. Bladder management methods included indwelling catheterization in 224 cases, clean intermittent catheterization (CIC in 180 cases, condom drainage in 45 cases, suprapubic cystostomy in 24 cases, reflex voiding in 32 cases, and normal voiding in 40 cases. We assessed the incidence of UTI and bacteriuria as the number of episodes per hundred person-days, and other urological complications as percentages. Results: The overall incidence of bacteriuria was 1.70 / hundred person-days. The overall incidenceof urinary tract infection was 0.64 / hundered person-days. The incidence of UTI per 100 person-days was 2.68 for indwelling catheterization, 0.34 for CIC, 0.34 for condom drainage, 0.56 for suprapubic cystostomy, 0.34 for reflex voiding, and 0.32 for normal voiding. Other urological complications recorded were urethral stricture (n=66, 12.1%, urethritis (n=78, 14.3%, periurethral abscess (n=45, 8.2%, epididymorchitis (n=44, 8.07%, urethral false passage (n=22, 4.03%, urethral fistula (n=11, 2%, lithiasis (n=23, 4.2%, hematuria (n=44, 8.07%, stress incontinence (n=60, 11%, and pyelonephritis (n=6, 1.1%. Clean intermittent catheterization was associated with lower incidence of urological complications, in comparison to indwelling catheterization. Conclusions
Luo, Sheng-Kang; Chen, Gunang-Ping; Sun, Zhong-Shen; Cheng, Ning-Xin
Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) was once widely used in breast augmentation in China. Although it had been banned for augmentation mammaplasty in 2006, a large number of patients whose breasts were augmented with the gel injection have continued to seek medical advice because of its complications. The clinical management of these complications has never been standardised. The data of a total of 235 patients with complications following PAAG-injected breast augmentation have been summarised and the types and causations analysed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken in 228 patients with palpable masses, breast pain or tenderness, asymmetry or deformity and functional or psychological problems to eliminate neoplasm, infection and to delineate the diseases. The surgical gel evacuation via periareolar incisions was performed for all patients and immediate silicone breast prostheses were implanted in 108 patients and were delayed in 28 cases by 6 months. Most patients (214/235) of the group were satisfied with the treatment, and symptoms disappeared after removal of the gel. The gel distribution and involved tissue were well defined and neoplasm was ruled out by MRI. Postoperative MRI in 68 patients revealed that no obvious PAAG remaining. In either immediate or delayed reconstructive patients with silicone breast implants, good breast contour presented. A diagnosis and management strategy for these complications is proposed. In conclusion, the breast masses, pain and deformity are major complications after PAAG-injected breast augmentation. Psychological problems should be paid attention to. MRI is a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosis and treatment evaluation. Surgical removal of injected gel is the preferred method for complication management. The implantation of silicone prostheses for breast contour restoration after PAAG evacuation is effective for patients under strict selection. Our strategy for treating PAAG-related complications proved useful
Mattei, Tobias A; Teles, Alisson R; Mendel, Ehud
Several types of soft tissue sarcomas may locally extend to the spine. The best therapeutic strategy for such lesions strongly depends on the histological diagnosis. In this article the authors provide an up-to-date review of current guidelines regarding the management of soft tissue sarcomas involving the spine. Special attention is given to outcomes and complications of modern surgical series in order to highlight current challenges in the management of such lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Diabetes is a major public health problem that is approaching epidemic proportions globally. Diabetes self-management can reduce complications and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes self-management and microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 562 Iranian patients older than 30 years of age with type 2 diabetes who received treatment at the Diabetes Research Center of the Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences were identified. The participants were enrolled and completed questionnaires between January and April 2014. Patients’ diabetes self-management was assessed as an independent variable by using the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire translated into Persian. The outcomes were the microvascular complications of diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, identified from the clinical records of each patient. A multiple logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs between diabetes self-management and the microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between the diabetes self-management sum scale and neuropathy (adjusted OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.92, p=0.01. Additionally, weak evidence was found of an association between the sum scale score of diabetes self-management and nephropathy (adjusted OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.05, p=0.09. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with type 2 diabetes, a lower diabetes self-management score was associated with higher rates of nephropathy and neuropathy.
Full Text Available Two cases of young patients with traumatized permanent teeth having complicated crown fractures are reported. Endodontic management included partial pulpotomy by the Cvek technique; restorative management included resin restoration and reattachment of the teeth fragments. Treatments were considered successful in all cases according to the following criteria: absence of clinical symptoms, absence of X-ray signs of pathology, and presence of pulpal vitality 6 to 25 months after treatment.
Samar K Basak
Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the complications and their managements in Descemet′s stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK in consecutive 430 cases by single surgeon in a tertiary eye hospital. Materials and Methods: 430 eyes of 366 patients with endothelial dysfunctions scheduled for DSEK, were analyzed retrospectively. In all cases donor dissection was performed manually, and ′Taco′ insertion and unfolding technique was used. Intra-operative and postoperative complications with their managements and outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. Periodic endothelial cell density was analyzed for each patient till the last visit. Follow-up period was between 3 to 60 months (mean 18.7 months. Results: 13 (3.0% eyes had operative complications during donor dissection and 16 (3.7% had during recipient procedure. In 7 (1.6% eyes, donor lenticule was replaced with a new one during the surgery. In early postoperative period, 21 (4.9% eyes had donor dislocation and 12 (2.8% eyes had air-induced pupillary block; and they were managed immediately. 2 cases had primary graft failure and in 1 case had postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis requiring evisceration. In late postoperative period, 48 (11.3% eyes had secondary glaucoma and 14 (3.3% eyes had late secondary graft failure. Endothelial rejection occurred in 5 (1.2% cases. Mean endothelial cell loss was 19.7% after 3 months and 54.2% after 5 years. Total graft failure in this series was 31 (7.2% and in 17 cases re-DSEK was performed successfully. Conclusions: Both operative and postoperative complications do occur in DSEK. Most of these complications can be managed by medical or appropriate surgical means. Some of the complications can be avoided and reduced with experience.
Boermeester, Marja A; Humes, David J; Velmahos, George C; Søreide, Kjetil
Acute colonic diverticulitis is a common clinical condition. Severity of the disease is based on clinical, laboratory, and radiological investigations and dictates the need for medical or surgical intervention. Recent clinical trials have improved the understanding of the natural history of the disease resulting in new approaches to and better evidence for the management of acute diverticulitis. We searched the Cochrane Library (years 2004-2015), MEDLINE (years 2004-2015), and EMBASE (years 2004-2015) databases. We used the search terms "diverticulitis, colonic" or "acute diverticulitis" or "divertic*" in combination with the terms "management," "antibiotics," "non-operative," or "surgery." Registers for clinical trials (such as the WHO registry and the https://clinicaltrials.gov/ ) were searched for ongoing, recruiting, or closed trials not yet published. Antibiotic treatment can be avoided in simple, non-complicated diverticulitis and outpatient management is safe. The management of complicated disease, ranging from a localized abscess to perforation with diffuse peritonitis, has changed towards either percutaneous or minimally invasive approaches in selected cases. The role of laparoscopic lavage without resection in perforated non-fecal diverticulitis is still debated; however, recent evidence from two randomised controlled trials has found a higher re-intervention in this group of patients. A shift in management has occurred towards conservative management in acute uncomplicated disease. Those with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis may be treated without antibiotics. For complicated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis, the use of peritoneal lavage appears to be non-superior to resection.
Camargo, José de Jesus Peixoto; Camargo, Spencer Marcantonio; Machuca, Tiago Noguchi; Perin, Fabíola Adélia; Schio, Sadi Marcelo; Felicetti, José Carlos
Many advances have substantially improved the clinical results of lung transplantation. However, the incidence of bronchial complications is still high, with significant impact on survival and limited interventional strategies for complex cases. Our aim is to evaluate the surgical management of bronchial complications following lung transplantation. From May 1989 to June 2007, 251 patients were submitted to lung transplantation at our institution. In five cases, the bronchial complications observed were dealt with open surgical procedures. Complications surgically dealt were one broncho-arterial fistula and four stenosis. One left upper sleeve lobectomy, one right upper sleeve lobectomy and three segmental bronchial resections with anastomosis were performed. In all five cases the surgical procedure was successful and optimal bronchial healing was observed. Three patients died due to causes unrelated to the bronchial anastomosis 5, 21 and 32 months after the bronchoplastic procedure. Two patients are still alive and functionally well at 52 and 70 months post-bronchoplasty. Surgical management of bronchial complications after lung transplantation may be the last resort in complex, recalcitrant cases, nevertheless it is a feasible procedure and can provide good results not only on short- but also long-term follow-up.
Pearson, Andrew C; Steinberg, Steven; Shah, Manisha H; Bloomston, Mark
Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) has been recognized as a successful way of managing symptomatic and/or progressive hepatic carcinoid metastases not amenable to surgical resection. Although it is a fairly safe procedure, it is not without its complications. This is a case of a 53 year-old woman with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and mild pulmonary hypertension who underwent TACE for progressive carcinoid liver metastases. She developed acute heart failure, due to a severe inflammatory response; this resulted in pneumatosis intestinalis due to non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia. We describe the successful non-operative management of her pneumatosis intestinalis and the role of a PFO in this patient's heart failure. TACE remains an effective and safe treatment for metastatic carcinoid not amenable to resection, this case illustrates the complexity of complications that can arise. A multi-disciplinary approach including ready access to advanced critical care facilities is recommended in managing such complex patients.
Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD is a congenital hepatorenal fibrocystic disease. The hepatic manifestations of ARPKD can range from asymptomatic to portal hypertension and massively dilated biliary system that results in liver transplantation. Hepatic complications of ARPKD typically present with signs of portal hypertension (splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia or cholangitis. Liver disease in ARPKD does not always correlate with severity of renal disease. Management of ARPKD-related liver disease is largely treating specific symptoms, such as antibiotics for cholangitis or endoscopic treatment for variceal bleeding. If complications cannot be managed medically, liver transplantation may be indicated. This mini-review will discuss the clinical manifestations and management of children with ARPKD liver disease.
Killeen, S; Gunn, J; Hartley, J
The medical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in pregnancy and the puerperium is well defined. Data on surgical management of complicated IBD in this setting are lacking. This study aimed to determine the optimal surgical strategy for medically refractory IBD during pregnancy and the puerperium. Three databases were systematically reviewed to identify all published series or case reports of women undergoing surgery for Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) while pregnant or during the puerperium. Thirty-two papers were identified, including 86 patients. Nearly one-fifth (18%) of cases were de novo presentations and intervention was required at all stages of pregnancy. UC refractory to medical treatment and perforated small bowel CD were the commonest indications for surgery. Operations used included colectomy, colectomy with mucous fistula and Turnbull-blowhole colostomy for complicated UC and open or laparoscopic small bowel resection with stoma formation for CD. Surgical intervention during the third trimester universally resulted in the onset of labour. Endoscopic and radiological interventions were rarely employed. In studies after 1980 there was no maternal or foetal mortality but there was an almost 50% preterm delivery rate. Surgical management of complicated IBD during pregnancy and the puerperium needs to be tailored to disease severity, the type of complications and foetal status. It should involve gastroenterologists, colorectal surgeons, obstetricians and neonatal specialists in a multidisciplinary manner within a single unit. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Malmquist, Jay P
Oral and maxillofacial surgeons perform a wide variety of surgical procedures. One of the major complications of these various surgical techniques is uncontrolled bleeding. The best management of perioperative hemorrhage is prevention. This includes proper preoperative patient evaluation, knowledge of the various bleeding disorders, and the characterization of the correct methods of management. This article evaluates various causes of bleeding, and identifies both local and systemic and pathways. Considerations of treatment for patients with these various disorders are discussed regarding the best management options for adequate hemostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
da Gama, A Dinis; Martins, Carlos; Pedro, L Mendes; Evangelista, Ana; Almeida, Paulo; Gimenez, J Luis; Rodriguez, J Maria
In this paper the clinical condition of two male patients, aged 58 and 65 years are presented, after being admitted as a consequence of a rare complication of an inflammatory aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, which is an ureteral compression, with hydronephrosis, anuria and acute renal failure. After having an urgent haemodialysis session, the etiology of the process was diagnosed by echography and abdominal CT-scans, followed by ureteral catheterization, restoration of diuresis and normalization of renal function. Conventional surgery was performed later, in elective conditions, and the post operative course was normal, without complications. The main features of this clinical entity, its diagnosis and multidisciplinary management are presented and discussed.
Ezenwaka, C; Eckel, J
The IDF report has indicated that about 80% of four million diabetes-related deaths that occur every year comes from the developing world. The IDF report suggests the need to focus more on preventing diabetes complications in poor countries. Thus, considering the economic constraints in combating the explosion of diabetes complications in the developing regions of the world, it appears that exploring culturally adaptable educational intervention programmes for specific regions would be the appropriate strategy. We believe that diabetes-related deaths could be reduced in developing countries through intensified diabetes self-management education.
Marcotte, Eric; Chand, Bipan
Bariatric surgery is well-recognized for its effects on health, beyond weight-loss. It underwent a revolution recently with the growing performance of laparoscopic procedures, leading to enhanced recovery and a reduction in procedural risk. However, surgical complications, although rare, do develop. It is important to recognize the complications, and ideally prevent them from happening. This article reviews the risks of the four most commonly performed bariatric procedures, with an emphasis on technique and management in the intraoperative and postoperative period. The nutritional aspect of bariatric surgery is of the utmost importance, because catastrophic consequences have been linked to malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although liver injury scale does not predict need for surgical intervention, a high-grade complex liver injury should alert the physician to expect an increased risk of hepatic complications following trauma. The aim of the current study was to define hepatic related morbidity in patients sustaining high-grade hepatic injuries that could be safely managed non-operatively. Patients and methods This is a retrospective study of patients with liver injury admitted to Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centre over a 10-year period. Grade 3-5 injuries were considered to be high grade. Collected data included the number and types of liver-related complications. Interventions which were required for these complications in patients who survived longer than 24 hours were analysed. Results Of 398 patients with liver trauma, 64 (16% were found to have high-grade liver injuries. Mechanism of injury was blunt trauma in 43 cases, and penetrating in 21. Forty patients (62% required operative treatment. Among survivors 22 patients (47.8% developed liver-related complications which required additional interventional treatment. Bilomas and bile leaks were diagnosed in 16 cases post-injury. The diagnosis of bile leaks was suspected with abdominal CT scan, which revealed intraabdominal collections (n = 6, and ascites (n = 2. Three patients had continuous biliary leak from intraabdominal drains left after laparotomy. Nine patients required ERCP with biliary stent placement, and 2 required percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. ERCP failed in one case. Four angioembolizations (AE were performed in 3 patients for rebleeding. Surgical treatment was found to be associated with higher complication rate. AE at admission was associated with a significantly higher rate of biliary complications. There were 24 deaths (37%, the majority from uncontrolled haemorrhage (18 patients. There were only 2 hepatic-related mortalities due to liver failure
Full Text Available Background. Complications at the gastrojejunal anastomosis after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB are challenging in terms of diagnosis, therapy, and prevention. This study aims at identifying these complications and discussing their management. Methods. Data of 228 patients who underwent a LRYGB between October 2008 and December 2011 were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the frequency and treatment of complications such as stenoses, marginal ulcers, perforated marginal ulcers, or anastomotic leaks related to the operation. Results. Follow-up information was available for 209 patients (91.7% with a median follow-up of 38 months (range 24–62 months. Of these patients 16 patients (7.7% experienced complications at the gastrojejunostomy. Four patients (1.9% had stenoses and 12 patients (5.7% marginal ulcers, one of them with perforation (0.5%. No anastomotic leaks were reported. One case with perforated ulcer and one with recurrent ulcers required surgical revision. Conclusion. Gastrojejunal anastomotic complications are frequent and occur within the first few days or up to several years after surgery. Stenoses or marginal ulcers are usually successfully treated nonoperatively. Laparoscopic repair, meanwhile, is an appropriate therapeutic option for perforated ulcers.
Merve Mese; Merve Akcay; Bilal Yasa; Huseyin Akcay
The purpose of this case report was to present the multidisciplinary management of a subgingival crown-root fracture of a patient undergoing apexification treatment. A 12-year-old male patient was referred to the pediatric dentistry clinic with an extensive tooth fracture of the right permanent maxillary lateral incisor. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed the presence of a complicated crown-root fracture, which had elongated to the buccal subgingival area. The dental history disc...
Bruneau, Stéphane; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Scolozzi, Paolo
To estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors for facial nerve paralysis (FNP) and other postoperative complications after the use of the retromandibular subparotid approach (RMSA) for the treatment of condylar fractures. Radiologic and clinical data from all patients who underwent an RMSA from 2007 through 2015 at the University Hospital of Geneva (Geneva, Switzerland) were retrospectively reviewed. The primary and secondary outcome variables were, respectively, FNP and other complications (unesthetic scars, infection, nonunion, malocclusion, salivary fistula, Frey syndrome, and loosening or breaking of plates and screws). Predictor variables included age, gender, mechanism of injury, delay from injury to surgery, surgeon's experience, location of fracture, side and pattern of fracture, concomitant facial fractures, and status of healing. Univariable logistic regression statistics were computed. Forty-eight subcondylar fractures in 43 consecutive patients were treated using the RMSA. Six fracture sites (12.5%) developed a temporary FNP that completely resolved within 4 months. Fractures at the neck level and with the comminution pattern were significant risk factors of postoperative FNP (P = .04 and P FNP rate after the RMSA to surgery for condylar fractures was similar to that reported after the transparotid variant; 2) the FNP was transient and completely resolved in all patients; 3) neck and comminuted condylar fractures were statistically associated with increased risk of developing a postoperative temporary FNP; and 4) the final outcome was favorable with no major complications in any of the patients. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keim, Samuel M
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Airway management is a critical procedure performed frequently in emergency departments (EDs. Previous studies have evaluated the complications associated with this procedure but have focused only on the immediate complications. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence and nature of delayed complications of tracheal intubation performed in the ED at an academic center where intubations are performed by emergency physicians (EPs.METHODS: All tracheal intubations performed in the ED over a one-year period were identified; 540 tracheal intubations were performed during the study period. Of these, 523 charts (96.9% were available for review and were retrospectively examined. Using a structured datasheet, delayed complications occurring within seven days of intubation were abstracted from the medical record. Charts were scrutinized for the following complications: acute myocardial infarction (MI, stroke, airway trauma from the intubation, and new respiratory infections. An additional 30 consecutive intubations were examined for the same complications in a prospective arm over a 29-day period.RESULTS: The overall success rate for tracheal intubation in the entire study group was 99.3% (549/553. Three patients who could not be orally intubated underwent emergent cricothyrotomy. Thus, the airway was successfully secured in 99.8% (552/553 of the patients requiring intubation. One patient, a seven-month-old infant, had unanticipated subglottic stenosis and could not be intubated by the emergency medicine attending or the anesthesiology attending. The patient was mask ventilated and was transported to the operating room for an emergent tracheotomy. Thirty-four patients (6.2% [95% CI 4.3 - 8.5%] developed a new respiratory infection within seven days of intubation. Only 18 patients (3.3% [95% CI 1.9 - 5.1%] had evidence of a new respiratory infection within 48 hours, indicating possible aspiration pneumonia secondary to airway
Echeverría-García, Fernando Enrique; García-Perdomo, Herney Andrés; Barney, Erika
To determine the frecuency of complications during the management of bladder trauma and its associated factors in a third level reference Hospital. A cross-sectional study of adult patients admitted in a reference Hospital from January 2006 to June 2011 with the diagnosis of bladder trauma. We identified demographic variables, type of trauma (blunt, penetrating), diagnostic method, associated traumatisms, management of bladder traumatism, frequency of complications and mortality. Univariate analysis was performed with frequency tables, measures of central tendency and dispersion. Similarly, bivariate analysis was performed to explore the association between variables. We used chi-square test for categorical variables and Student's t test to compare quantitative variables. We reviewed 40 medical records, which met the eligibility criteria. The median age was 27 years (range 16-;67) and 85% (34 patients) were male. Twenty-nine patients (72.5%) had penetrating injuries, being mainly firearm projectile (96.55%) and 11 patients (27.5%) blunt injuries. Most patients had intraoperative diagnosis (67.5%), while 25%, 5% and 2% were diagnosed by CT-cystography, cystoscopy and voiding cystography respectively. 70% (28 patients) had intraperitoneal bladder injuries. Of the forty patients enrolled, thirty six (90%) underwent surgery, while only four (10%) received conservative management. A total of ten patients (25%) had some type of complication. The most frequent was persistent hematuria (40%) followed by surgical site infection (30%), orchitis (20%), urinary tract infection (10%), urine leakage through the operative site, or to the peritoneal cavity (10%). No mortality was detected. On the bivariate logistic regression model type of trauma, number of injuries, performance of cystostomy, use of perivesical drainage tube, chest trauma and small bowel trauma, no association was found with the presence of complications. The frequency of complications was 25%. The presence of
Hong, Choon Chiet; Liu, Ka Po Gabriel
Study Design Case report and literature review. Objective Multiregional spinal stenosis (MRSS) has not been described in the English literature, although a few studies report the concept of tandem spinal stenosis. Due to the concurrent spinal stenosis occurring in three separate regions of the spine, clinical presentation of MRSS may be less distinct, and its surgical treatment priorities and challenges differ from single-region spinal stenosis. The purpose of this article is to describe a new concept and a rare case of MRSS as separated segments of spinal stenosis in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. Methods A retrospective case description of MRSS and surgical strategies used in managing such extensive multiregional stenosis and its potential complications. Results A novel surgical strategy using a combination of laminectomies with fusion and laminoplasty without fusion to treat this patient with such extensive cervical to thoracic myelopathic cord compression is described. Initial good recovery after cervical cord decompression was followed by a delayed recurrence of symptoms from thoracic cord compression. The subsequent thoracic surgical decompression, its complications and management, and patient recovery are discussed with a literature review highlighting the possible mechanisms for postoperative loss of neurologic function after thoracic decompression. Conclusion MRSS is a rare cause of extensive compression of multiple regions of the spinal cord. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this report is the first to use the term multiregional spinal stenosis to describe this new emergent clinical entity, surgical management strategies, and potential complications.
Bossone, Eduardo; Pyeritz, Reed E; Braverman, Alan C; Peterson, Mark D; Ehrlich, Marek; O'Gara, Patrick; Suzuki, Toru; Trimarchi, Santi; Gilon, Dan; Greason, Kevin; Desai, Nimesh D; Montgomery, Daniel G; Isselbacher, Eric M; Nienaber, Christoph A; Eagle, Kim A
Shock is among the most dreaded and common complications of type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD). However, clinical correlates, management, and short- and long-term outcomes of TAAAD patients presenting with shock in real-world clinical practice are not known. We evaluated 2,704 patients with TAAAD enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection between January 1, 1996, and August 18, 2012. On admission, 407 (15.1%) TAAAD patients presented with shock. Most in-hospital complications (coma, myocardial or mesenteric ischemia or infarction, and cardiac tamponade) were more frequent in shock patients. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in TAAAD patients with than without shock (30.2% vs 23.9%, P=.007), regardless of surgical or medical treatment. Most shock patients underwent surgical repair, with medically managed patients demonstrating older age and more complications at presentation. Estimates using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that most (89%) TAAAD patients with shock discharged alive from the hospital survived 5years, a rate similar to that of TAAAD patients without shock (82%, P=.609). Shock occurred in 1 of 7 TAAAD patients and was associated with higher rates of in-hospital adverse events and mortality. However, TAAAD survivors with or without shock showed similar long-term mortality. Successful early and aggressive management of shock in TAAAD patients has the potential for improving long-term survival in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A 53-year-old man with chronic renal tubular acidosis and subclinical hypothyroidism underwent lower leg amputation surgery under general anesthesia. Perioperative acid-base management in such patients poses many difficulties because both pathophysiologies have the potential to complicate the interpretation of capnometry and arterial blood gas analysis data; inappropriate correction of chronic metabolic acidosis may lead to postoperative respiratory deterioration. We discuss the management of perioperative acidosis in order to achieve successful weaning from mechanical ventilation and promise a complete recovery from anesthesia.
Xu, Bin; Xue, Min; Xu, Dabao
To demonstrate a technique for hysteroscopic diagnosis and management of a rare variant of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS) in a virgin girl. Presentation of a rare variant of HWWS and a step-by-step description of the technique using videos, images, and title slides (educative video) (Canadian Task Force classification III). HWWS is a congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract, typically characterized by uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Of HWWS cases, 11.5% are a rare variant of the syndrome, with a septate bicollis uterus and obstructed hemivagina. HWWS is often diagnosed in adolescent girls and virgin patients. Early diagnosis and treatment should be achieved using a convenient, minimally invasive, and effective surgical approach to prevent complications. A 14-year-old virgin girl had aggressive cyclic dysmenorrhea for 7 months. We made a diagnosis of the non-classic HWWS variant: septate uterus with double cervix, obstructed right hemivagina with hematocolpos, and unilateral renal agenesis. Diagnostic hysteroscopy indicated a flat hemivaginal septum, left cervix, and uterine cavity, but no right cervix or other associated channel. Hysteroscopic incision of the bulging oblique vaginal septum was performed medially from the most prominent point of the septum up to the left cervix and then down to the low edge of the oblique septum. An inflated Foley catheter was placed in the right hemivagina for 2 days to prevent adhesion of the incised septum. Surgery was successful, and the intact hymen was preserved. The patient has been symptom-free for 4 months after surgery. Hysteroscopic incision of the oblique vaginal septum is a convenient, minimally invasive, and effective approach for treating HWWS in adolescents with cyclic dysmenorrhea and hematocolpos. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dohan, A; Guerrache, Y; Dautry, R; Boudiaf, M; Ledref, O; Sirol, M; Soyer, P
The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of intraperitoneal bleeding and other major complications of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) and analyze their outcome and management. The clinical files of 341 consecutive patients who had TJLB were retrospectively analyzed. There were 237 men and 104 women (mean age: 51.38±12.8 years; range: 17-89 years). All patients had TJLB because standard percutaneous transhepatic biopsy was contraindicated. Patients' files were reviewed to search for major and minor procedure-related complications during or immediately after TJLB. TJLBs were technically successful in 331/341 patients (97.07%; 95%CI: 94.67-98.58%). Major complications consisted exclusively of intraperitoneal bleeding due to liver capsule perforation and were observed in 2/341 patients (0.59%; 95%CI: 0.07-2.10%). They were treated using transcatheter arterial or venous embolization with a favorable outcome. The most frequent minor complications were abdominal pain (35/341; 10.26%; 95%CI: 7.25-13.99%) and supraventricular arrhythmia (15/341; 4.40%; 95%CI: 2.48-7.15%). No cases of inadvertent injury of the carotid artery were observed. Major complications during TJLB are extremely rare and can be managed using arterial or venous embolization with a favorable outcome. Our results reinforce the general assumption that TJLB is a safe and well-tolerated technique. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wang, Hsin-Hsiao S; Wiener, John S; Ferrandino, Michael N; Lipkin, Michael E; Routh, Jonathan C
The management of upper urinary tract stones in patients with spina bifida is challenging but poorly described in the literature. We compared urolithiasis interventions and related complications in patients with spina bifida to those in other stone formers using a national database. We retrospectively reviewed the NIS to identify hospital admissions for renal and ureteral stones from 1998 to 2011. We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify urological interventions, including shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteral stent placement. NSQIP data were used to identify postoperative complications. We identified 4,287,529 weighted stone hospital admissions, including 12,315 (0.3%) of patients with spina bifida. Compared to those without spina bifida the patients with spina bifida who had urolithiasis were significantly younger (mean age 34 vs 53 years), more likely to have public insurance (72% vs 44%) and renal vs ureteral calculi (81% vs 58%), and undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy (27% vs 8%). After adjusting for age, insurance, comorbidity, treatment year, surgery type, stone location and hospital factors patients with spina bifida were more likely to have urinary tract infections (OR 2.5), urinary complications (OR 3.1), acute renal failure (OR 1.9), respiratory complications (OR 2.0), pneumonia (OR 1.5), respiratory insufficiency (OR 3.2), prolonged mechanical ventilation (OR 3.2), sepsis (OR 2.7), pulmonary embolism (OR 3.0), cardiac complications (OR 2.4) and bleeding (OR 1.6). Compared to those without spina bifida the patients with spina bifida who were hospitalized for urolithiasis were younger, and more likely to have renal stones and undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Urolithiasis procedures in patients with spina bifida were associated with a significantly higher risk of in-hospital postoperative complications. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Eckenrode, Brian J; Carey, James L; Sennett, Brian J; Zgonis, Miltiadis H
The goal of this paper is to review the current management and prevention of post-operative complications after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Trends in rehabilitation techniques will be presented, in addition to suggestions for interventions and expected milestones in ACL reconstruction recovery. ACL reconstruction protocols have evolved to more of a criterion-based progression rather than a tissue-healing time frame. Given the evolution of ACL surgical reconstruction techniques and rehabilitation protocols, the risk of post-operative complications can arise both early and late in the recovery process. This paper will discuss the role of preventative measures as it applies to the post-operative patient with ACL reconstruction. Short-term complications following ACL reconstruction include infection and deficits to knee motion and strength, whereas long-term complications include secondary ACL injury to either the involved or contralateral knee and lack of ability to return to high-level sports following this procedure. Future research should continue to address the multifactorial causes of secondary ACL injury and limited ability of patients to return to high level activities.
Kamei, Takashi; Miyazaki, S
Salvage esophagectomy has been increasing as a second-line treatment after failure of definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal cancer. A number of patients who have received CRT, especially those who have residual tumors and shorter waiting times until operation, have developed malnutrition and problems in their immunologic condition because of decreasing oral intake and bone marrow suppression. Because high-dose radiation causes inflammation, fibrosis and peripheral circulatory disturbance of various tissues in the treatment fields, salvage surgery can be a technically difficult operation. In our previous experience, postoperative complications of salvage esophagectomy are more frequent and more serious than that of planned esophagectomy. For example, we have experienced necrosis of the reconstructed gastric tube, esophago-tracheal fistula, mediastinal abscess, hard-to-treat acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and so on. In particular, respiratory tract necrosis or perforation is the most critical complication and frequently becomes lethal. Patients who undergo a salvage esophagectomy have a significantly higher risk of pulmonary and cardiac complication, and have high rates of repeated surgery. Rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment of complications are necessary to reduce postoperative mortality. To improve the overall outcome, it is very important to better understand the condition of patients after CRT, so appropriate surgery can be carefully planned. Furthermore, it is absolutely essential to perform the operation with great care and to meticulously manage the perioperative care for salvage esophagectomy.
Bangalore, Sripal; Gupta, Navdeep; Guo, Yu; Lala, Anuradha; Balsam, Leora; Roswell, Robert O; Reyentovich, Alex; Hochman, Judith S
In the SHOCK trial, an invasive strategy of early revascularization was associated with a significant mortality benefit at 6 months when compared with initial stabilization in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. Our objectives were to evaluate the data on real-world practice and outcomes of invasive vs conservative management in patients with cardiogenic shock. We analyzed data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2011 with primary discharge diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and secondary diagnosis of cardiogenic shock. Propensity score matching was used to assemble a cohort of patients managed invasively (with cardiac catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery) vs conservatively with similar baseline characteristics. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. We identified 60,833 patients with cardiogenic shock, of which 20,644 patients (10,322 in each group) with similar propensity scores, including 11,004 elderly patients (≥75 years), were in the final analysis. Patients who underwent invasive management had 59% lower odds of in-hospital mortality (37.7% vs 59.7%; odds ratio [OR] 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.43; P < .0001) when compared with those managed conservatively. This lower mortality was consistently seen across all tested subgroups; specifically in the elderly (≥75 years) (44.0% vs 63.6%; OR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.42-0.49; P < .0001) and those younger than 75 years (30.6% vs 55.1%; OR 0.36; 95% CI, 0.33-0.39; P < .0001), although the magnitude of risk reduction differed (Pinteraction < .0001). In this largest cohort of patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction, patients managed invasively had significantly lower mortality when compared with those managed conservatively, even in the elderly. Our results emphasize the need for aggressive management in this high-risk subgroup. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Johansen, Mette Dencker; Hejlesen, Ole
Diabetes is one of the top priorities in medical science and health care management, and an abundance of data and information is available on these patients. Whether data stem from statistical models or complex pattern recognition models, they may be fused into predictive models that combine patient information and prognostic outcome results. Such knowledge could be used in clinical decision support, disease surveillance, and public health management to improve patient care. Our aim was to review the literature and give an introduction to predictive models in screening for and the management of prevalent short- and long-term complications in diabetes. Predictive models have been developed for management of diabetes and its complications, and the number of publications on such models has been growing over the past decade. Often multiple logistic or a similar linear regression is used for prediction model development, possibly owing to its transparent functionality. Ultimately, for prediction models to prove useful, they must demonstrate impact, namely, their use must generate better patient outcomes. Although extensive effort has been put in to building these predictive models, there is a remarkable scarcity of impact studies. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.
Lladó, Laura; Fabregat, Joan; Ramos, Emilio; Baliellas, Carme; Torras, Jaume; Julià, David; Berrozpe, Ana; Jorba, Rosa; Rafecas, Antoni
Management of biliary tract complications (BTC) after liver transplantation (LT) has progressed in recent years. The aims of this study were, to analyse the incidence and management in our institution of BTC after 1000 LT; and to study the management of patients with anastomotic strictures (AS). The incidence of BTC was 23%. There were 76 cases of bile leak, 106 cases of anastomotic strictures, 46 non-anastomotic strictures, 42 choledocolithiasis and 19 other complications. Among 106 cases of anastomotic strictures, radiological treatment, either PTC or ERCP, was initially indicated in 62. The AS of 38 patients (33%) were resolved with surgical treatment, 18 of them after a previous attempt at radiological treatment. Patients who were treated initially by radiologically required more procedures. Morbidity and mortality related to BTC were slightly higher in the group of patients treated by radiology (morbidity: surgical: 4 (18%) vs. radiological: 20 (32%); p=0.2 and mortality: surgical: 0% vs. radiological: 8 (11%); p=0.23). Among 46 patients with non-anastomotic strictures, 29 were resolved with retransplantation (63%). Surgery has a significant role in the management of BTC, and is the treatment of choice in some cases of anastomotic strictures. Retransplantation may be the preferred option in patients with non-anastomotic strictures. Copyright (c) 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Aguilar-Espinosa, F; Maza-Sánchez, R; Vargas-Solís, F; Guerrero-Martínez, G A; Medina-Reyes, J L; Flores-Quiroz, P I
Bilioenteric fistulas are the abnormal communication between the bile duct system and the gastrointestinal tract that occurs spontaneously and is a rare complication of an untreated gallstone in the majority of cases. These fistulas can cause diverse clinical consequences and in some cases be life-threatening to the patient. To identify the incidence of bilioenteric fistula in patients with gallstones, its clinical presentation, diagnosis through imaging study, surgical management, postoperative complications, and follow-up. A retrospective study was conducted to search for bilioenteric fistula in patients that underwent cholecystectomy at our hospital center due to cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, or cholangitis, within a 3-year time frame. Four patients, 2 men and 2 women, were identified with cholecystoduodenal fistula. Their mean age was 81.5 years. Two of the patients presented with acute cholangitis and 2 presented with bowel obstruction due to gallstone ileus. All the patients underwent surgical treatment and the diagnostic and therapeutic management of each of them was analyzed. The incidence of cholecystoduodenal fistula was similar to that reported in the medical literature. It is a rare complication of gallstones and its diagnosis is difficult due to its nonspecific symptomatology. It should be contemplated in elderly patients that have a contracted gallbladder with numerous adhesions. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sialorrhoea, the unintentional loss of saliva through the mouth, is the frequent complication of neurological disorders affecting strength or coordination of oropharyngeal muscles, such as motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MND/ALS or Parkinson’s disease. Sialorrhoea might affect up to 42% of ALS patients, with almost half of them having poorly managed symptoms. Sialorrhoea can impair patients’ social life, while dermatological complications, such as skin rashes, may arise due to constant exposure to moisture. Moreover, the excess mouth-retained saliva in ALS patients may lead to serious complications, such as choking, which causes anxiety, and aspiration with the consequent pneumonia. The inclusion of a sialorrhoea-related item in the ALS functional rating scale testifies both the incidence and importance of sialorrhoea during the ALS clinical course. Because of the progressive nature of ALS, presence and severity of sialorrhoea should be assessed at every visit and, when present, active treatment pursued. Available treatments include behavioural therapy, i.e. techniques to enhance periodic swallowing of saliva, systemic or local anticholinergic medications, botulinum toxin injection, electron beam irradiation, and surgical techniques. This review paper briefly describes the available options with related side-effects and current guideline recommendations for managing sialorrhoea in ALS patients.
Munck, A; Languepin, J; Debray, D; Lamireau, T; Abely, M; Huet, F; Maudinas, R; Michaud, L; Mas, E
The gastrointestinal tract is a major source of morbidity in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF), with a wide range of complications, some of them being specific to the underlying disease. Abnormal CFTR function, with reduced bicarbonate and other ion transport levels through the apical surface of epithelial cells, affects the intestinal tract including the pancreas and the liver. Similarly to what is observed in the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal CFTR dysfunction leads to mucus accumulation, dysmotility, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and inflammation with alteration of innate immune responses, all of which being likely to be interrelated. In developed countries, almost half of patients with CF are adults followed in multidisciplinary CF care centres by pneumologists who often have to manage gastrointestinal complications. It therefore appears essential that adult gastroenterologists develop the expertise needed for managing CF gastrointestinal complications in close collaboration with multidisciplinary CF care centre teams to improve the quality of life of adults with CF. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Roman, Horace; Rozsnayi, Francisc; Puscasiu, Lucian; Resch, Benoit; Belhiba, Hend; Lefebure, Benoit; Scotte, Michel; Michot, Francis; Marpeau, Loïc; Tuech, Jean Jacques
To evaluate intra- and postoperative complications associated with laparoscopic management of rectal endometriosis by either colorectal segmental resection or nodule excision. During 39 consecutive months, 46 women underwent laparoscopic management of rectal endometriosis and were included in a retrospective comparative study. The distinguishing feature of the study is that the choice of the surgical procedure is not related to the characteristics of the nodule. Colorectal segmental resection with colorectal anastomosis was carried out in 15 patients (37%), while macroscopically complete rectal nodule excision was performed in 31 women (63%). No intraoperative complications were recorded. In the colorectal resection group, 3 women (18%) had a bladder atony (spontaneously regressive in 2 women), 4 women (24%) experienced chronic constipation, one had an anastomosis leakage (6%), while 2 women (13%) had acute compartment syndrome with peripheral sensory disturbance. In the nodule excision group, 1 woman (4%) developed transitory right obturator nerve motor palsy. Based on both postoperative pain and improvement in quality of life, all 29 women in the excision group (100%) and 14 women in the colorectal resection group (82%) would recommend the surgical procedure to a friend suffering from the same disease. Our study suggests that carrying out colorectal segmental resection in rectal endometriosis is associated with unfavourable postoperative outcomes, such as bladder and rectal dysfunction. These outcomes are less likely to occur when rectal nodules are managed by excision. Information about complications related to both surgical procedures should be provided to patients managed for rectal endometriosis and should be taken into account when a decision is being made about the most appropriate treatment of rectal endometriosis in each case.
Full Text Available Lopa Misra,1 Norio Fukami,2 Katarina Nikolic,1 Terrence L Trentman1 1Department of Anesthesiology, 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, USA Abstract: Achalasia refers to the lack of smooth muscle relaxation of the distal esophagus. Although nonsurgical treatments such as pneumatic dilatation of the distal esophagus and botulinum toxin injections have been performed, these procedures have limited duration. Similarly, surgical treatment with Heller myotomy is associated with complications. At our institution, we perform the peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM in qualified patients. Briefly, POEM involves endoscopic creation of a mid-esophageal submucosal bleb, creation of a submucosal tunnel with the endoscope, and then a distal myotomy, resulting in relaxation of the distal esophagus. The aim of our study is to document perioperative pain and associated pain management for our initial patients undergoing POEM and to review the literature for perioperative complications of this procedure. Therefore, anesthetic and pain management for our initial eleven patients undergoing POEM were reviewed. Patient demographics, pre-POEM pain medication history, perioperative pain medication requirements, and post-POEM pain scores were examined. We found post-POEM pain was usually in the mild–moderate range; a combination of medications was effective (opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen. Our literature search revealed a wide frequency range of complications such as pneumoperitoneum and subcutaneous emphysema, with rare serious events such as capnopericardium leading to cardiac arrest. In conclusion, our experience with POEM suggests pain and can be managed adequately with a combination of medications; the procedure appears to be safe and reasonable to perform in an outpatient endoscopy unit. Keywords: pain management, retrospective study, combination of medicines, perioperative, endoscopy
Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Campins, Lluís; García-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renée; Clavé, Pere
Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:20811545
Gandhi, Jason; Dagur, Gautam; Warren, Kelly; Smith, Noel L; Khan, Sardar A
Diabetes mellitus is a vastly prevalent metabolic disorder with escalating global health concerns. Particularly when mismanaged, chronic micro- and macrovascular complications may highly impair physiological systems while immunodeficiency disposes us to infection. We investigate infections, localized complications, and neoplasms of the genitourinary system secondary to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in males and females. A comprehensive MEDLINE® search was guided using key words relevant to diabetes mellitus and the genitourinary system. Pathogen-friendly environments may implicate the sequelae of urinary tract and genital mycotic infections, potentially generating necrosis, abscess, and other inflammatory complications, which may present concomitantly with neurogenic and/or vasculogenic dysfunction to further exacerbate an existing genitourinary condition. Manifestations of the adrenal, renal, and genital organs and tissues are discussed as they relate to vascular, immunodeficient, and other hyperglycemic complications of the diabetic state. Among those, chronic kidney disease and cystopathy are the most prevailing and detrimental. Though studies have connected diabetes to either an increased risk of developing or poor prognosis of bladder, renal, prostate, endometrial, and cervical cancers, the explicit biological relationships are as of yet inconclusive. Despite the availability of precise treatments to ameliorate most presently reviewed conditions, particularly urinary tract and genital mycotic infection-related sequelae, reversing permanent vascular damage remains a great challenge. Leading a healthier lifestyle and managing diabetes mellitus with a patient-centric approach from the outset are the most putative methods for preventing critical long-term genitourinary manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abdur-Rahman, L O; Baba, Suleiman; Bamigbola, K T; Olaoye, I; Oyinloye, A O; Nasir, A A; Adeniran, J O
Extragonadal teratomas (EXGTs) are ubiquitous in the human body; hence, they have varied presentation. In underdeveloped areas presentation and management are affected by socio-economic, cultural and health facilities factors. The aim of this study was to review the outcome of management of complicated EXGT in a tertiary health centre. A review data of paediatric patients with EXGT was done between January 1999 and December 2012. Variables reviewed were bio-data, mode of presentation and site of tumour, comorbidity, treatments and outcome. The data was analysed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS (R)) version 16.0. There were 21 complicated EXGT (77.8%) among 27 children, age ranges from 4 days to 16 years (median = 2 years). Male:Female ratio of 1:2. The complications per region of the body at presentation were cervical 4 (66.7%), mediastinal 2 (100%), abdominal 3 (75%) and sacrococcygeal 12 (75%). The complications were respiratory distress 6, intestinal obstruction 5, faecal incontinence 2, bladder outlet obstruction 3, malignant transformation 5, ruptured sacrococcygeal teratoma 2, ulcerated tumour 2, anaemia 3 and malnutrition 3. There were 5 (23.8%) progressive disease post-excision outside our facility. Excision biopsy was successful in 19 (85%) patients two of which had neoadjuvant cytotoxic therapy. Overall mortality was 5 (23.8%) (septicaemia, anaemia, respiratory distress, renal failure) and post-excision mortality was 11.8% (endotracheal tube blockage and progressive disease). Delay presentation (due to local belief, ignorance and poverty) malnutrition, sepsis, malignant transformation characterised presentation of children in this study and the lack of paediatric intensive care unit facility and intensivists compromised survival of children with EXGT.
L O Abdur-Rahman
Full Text Available Background: Extragonadal teratomas (EXGTs are ubiquitous in the human body; hence, they have varied presentation. In underdeveloped areas presentation and management are affected by socio-economic, cultural and health facilities factors. The aim of this study was to review the outcome of management of complicated EXGT in a tertiary health centre. Materials and Methods: A review data of paediatric patients with EXGT was done between January 1999 and December 2012. Variables reviewed were bio-data, mode of presentation and site of tumour, comorbidity, treatments and outcome. The data was analysed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS (R version 16.0. Results: There were 21 complicated EXGT (77.8% among 27 children, age ranges from 4 days to 16 years (median = 2 years. Male:Female ratio of 1:2. The complications per region of the body at presentation were cervical 4 (66.7%, mediastinal 2 (100%, abdominal 3 (75% and sacrococcygeal 12 (75%. The complications were respiratory distress 6, intestinal obstruction 5, faecal incontinence 2, bladder outlet obstruction 3, malignant transformation 5, ruptured sacrococcygeal teratoma 2, ulcerated tumour 2, anaemia 3 and malnutrition 3. There were 5 (23.8% progressive disease post-excision outside our facility. Excision biopsy was successful in 19 (85% patients two of which had neoadjuvant cytotoxic therapy. Overall mortality was 5 (23.8% (septicaemia, anaemia, respiratory distress, renal failure and post-excision mortality was 11.8% (endotracheal tube blockage and progressive disease. Conclusion: Delay presentation (due to local belief, ignorance and poverty malnutrition, sepsis, malignant transformation characterised presentation of children in this study and the lack of paediatric intensive care unit facility and intensivists compromised survival of children with EXGT.
Hernández, Bernardo; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo
To describe the incidence and management of severe maternal and newborn complications in selected health facilities in Mexico. As part of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn health, information was collected from medical records of women with deliveries and/or severe maternal complications during pregnancy or puerperium in 14 hospitals in Mexico City and the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. Of 13 311 women, 157 (12 per 1 000 live births) had severe maternal complications including 4 maternal deaths. The most frequent complications were preeclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, and chronic hypertension. Adverse perinatal outcomes were more frequent among women with severe maternal complications. A high use of uterotonics and parenteral antibiotics was found. A small proportion of women with eclampsia received magnesium sulfate. This study provides indicators on the incidence and management of maternal and neonatal complications in Mexico, which may be useful in studying and evaluating the performance of obstetric services.
Yuan, Jin; Chen, Jia-qi; Zhou, Shi-you; Wang, Zhi-chong; Huang, Ting; Gu, Jian-jun; Shao, Ying-feng
To explore the clinical value and management of complications of the transplantation of Titanium skirt compounded keratoprosthesis for severe corneal blindness eyes. It was a retrospective case series study. Nine eyes from 9 male patients, aged 28 to 52 years old, accepted permanent keratoprosthesis transplantation in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center from March 2002 to June 2005. All patients had corneal lesion in both eyes for 1.5 to 5.0 years. Among the 9 treated eyes, 6 eyes was severe vascularization after alkali burns, 3 eyes explosive injuries. Light perception was remained in all patients before surgery, however, 2 eyes only had a questionable orientation of light perception among them. Surgical management was divided into two stages. In the first stage, transplantation of Titanium skirt compound keratoprosthesis was performed, and the explant was reinforced by the self auricular cartilage and Tendons capsule. The second stage of surgery was performed in 5 to 6 months later, in which the membrane in the front of keratoprosthesis was cut. After the surgery, visual acuity, visual field, intraocular pressure and retina were examined. The complications were noticed and managed. All treated eyes were followed up for 1 to 3 years. After the treatment, 7 eyes divorced from blindness with uncorrected visual acuity 20/200 (0.1), and 2 eyes among them got corrected visual acuity 20/30 (0.6). Two eyes with the questionable orientation of light perception before treatment gained uncorrected visual acuity 4/200 (0.02) and 8/200 (0.04) after treatment respectively. Complications were found to include 5 recurrent frontal membrane of keratoprosthesis, one back membrane of keratoprosthesis, and one limited corneal melting. Complications were controlled by the corresponding treatments, such as membrane resection for the recurrent frontal membrane of keratoprosthesis, courage under microscope for back membrane of keratoprosthesis, and reinforcement of acellular dermis for corneal
Shah Manisha H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE has been recognized as a successful way of managing symptomatic and/or progressive hepatic carcinoid metastases not amenable to surgical resection. Although it is a fairly safe procedure, it is not without its complications. Case presentation This is a case of a 53 year-old woman with a patent foramen ovale (PFO and mild pulmonary hypertension who underwent TACE for progressive carcinoid liver metastases. She developed acute heart failure, due to a severe inflammatory response; this resulted in pneumatosis intestinalis due to non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia. We describe the successful non-operative management of her pneumatosis intestinalis and the role of a PFO in this patient's heart failure. Conclusion TACE remains an effective and safe treatment for metastatic carcinoid not amenable to resection, this case illustrates the complexity of complications that can arise. A multi-disciplinary approach including ready access to advanced critical care facilities is recommended in managing such complex patients.
Full Text Available Regional epidemiological data and resistance profiles are essential for selecting appropriate antibiotic therapy for intra-abdominal infections (IAIs. However, such information may not be readily available in many areas of Asia and current international guidelines on antibiotic therapy for IAIs are for Western countries, with the most recent guidance for the Asian region dating from 2007. Therefore, the Asian Consensus Taskforce on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (ACT-cIAI was convened to develop updated recommendations for antibiotic management of complicated IAIs (cIAIs in Asia. This review article is based on a thorough literature review of Asian and international publications related to clinical management, epidemiology, microbiology, and bacterial resistance patterns in cIAIs, combined with the expert consensus of the Taskforce members. The microbiological profiles of IAIs in the Asian region are outlined and compared with Western data, and the latest available data on antimicrobial resistance in key pathogens causing IAIs in Asia is presented. From this information, antimicrobial therapies suitable for treating cIAIs in patients in Asian settings are proposed in the hope that guidance relevant to Asian practices will prove beneficial to local physicians managing IAIs.
Panpitpat, Pitvara; Thipaporn, Tharavanij; Somprasit, Charintip; Tanprasertkul, Chamnan; Suwannarurk, Komsun
To compare maternal and neonatal complications ofgestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between conservative and systematic management. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand. GDM subjects who were diagnosed and treated from October 2004 to March 2007 were classified as the conservative management group (CMG). The participants who were diagnosed and treated from April 2007 to September 2009 were classified as the systematic management group (SMG). SMG was ambulatory-managed per standard protocol by a multidisciplinary team (physician, diabetes nurse case manager nutritionist and pharmacologist). There were 87 and 118 subjects in CMG and SMG, respectively. Mean age and body mass index before pregnancy in CMG and SMG were not statistical different. Oral glucose tolerance tests (50 and 100 gram) were similar in both groups. The prevalence of GDM A2 was 57.5 and 55.1% in CMG and SMG, respectively. Mean gestational age at DM clinic consultation and number of hospital admission of SMG was less than CMG (p management by a multidisciplinary team conducted according to a practical guideline has the benefit of neonatal hypoglycemia reduction and hospital admission included postpartum DM surveillance increments.
Leece, E; Cherubini, G
A 13-month-old pug with severe trismus because of suspected masticatory muscle myositis underwent anaesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging. When regurgitation occurred, the tongue was pulled from the mouth to enable suctioning but could not be repositioned into the oral cavity as it was not possible to open the mouth. Swelling due to venous congestion and a bite wound were treated using nebulised adrenaline and resolved within 2 hours allowing retraction of the tongue. The use of nebulised adrenaline offers a non-invasive method of managing this potentially life-threatening complication. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
In recent decades advances in dentistry have enabled more patients to keep their teeth for longer. However, when the time does come to extract these teeth it can be far from straightforward. This article, and the associated session at the 2014 British Dental Conference & Exhibition, describes the assessment of teeth for extraction and highlights potential problem areas and how to deal with them. Tips and techniques for dealing with failed or stubborn extractions are also discussed, as well as how to manage some of the more common complications of dental extractions.
Antonini, Angelo; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Odin, Per
Levodopa is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) signs and symptoms, and patients invariably will require it during the course of the disease. It also provides benefits in activities of daily living, quality of life and life expectancy. However, after a few years of levodopa treatment the majority of patients will experience motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Initial use of a dopamine receptor agonist may delay the emergence of motor fluctuations but at the cost of reduced symptomatic control compared with the use of levodopa in some cases. Adequate management of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia is essential to maintaining satisfactory quality of life at the advanced stage of disease. Various levodopa-based strategies are currently available that aim to control motor complications (wearing-off and dyskinesia) in PD and each approach has its own unique benefit and risk profile. Strategies such as dose fragmentation (smaller, more frequent dosing) or the use of orally administered, liquid levodopa formulations or melevodopa can reduce off-time intervals or facilitate absorption. More recently introduced, continuous delivery of dopaminergic medications may represent a more effective approach to treat motor complications in advanced PD and its effect can be perceived from improvement in clinical scales, as well as in health-related items. Indeed, continuous levodopa delivery by duodenal infusion may stabilize and significantly improve motor function as well as patients' quality of life. We propose a treatment algorithm that takes into account all currently available levodopa-based treatment strategies for motor complications in patients with PD.
Monden, Nobuya; Nishikawa, Kunio; Morishita, Tokiwa; Nagata, Motoki; Tominaga, Susumu [National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan)
With the population over age 70 growing, treatment for head and neck cancer in the elderly has increased. We retrospectively evaluated their management and outcome. Subjects numbered 121, 83 men and 38 women from 70 to 94 years old, initially treated at our hospital. We classified them into 2 groups by age, the aged at 70-79 years (55 men and 26 women) and the very old at 80 years and older (28 men and 12 women). We also evaluated a younger control group aged 50-59 years (37 men and 19 women). Primary tumor sites were the oral cavity (28.1%), larynx (28.1%), paranasal sinus (15.8%), and hypopharynx (9.9%). Preoperative geriatric disease was seen in 54% of controls, 74% of the aged, and 93% of the very old. Cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were most common. Surgical treatment and irradiation were essential for cancer treatment. Postoperative complications, including pneumonia, delirium, renal and cardiovascular hypofunction occurred in 56.5% of controls, 48.2% of the aged, and 47.8% of the very old. The frequency of postoperative complications correlated significantly with the American Society of Anesthesiologist classification of physical status (ASA) and preoperative performance status (PS). The complications of irradiation including pneumonia, dehydration, and feeding disturbance occurred in 53% of the very old. Cures were achieved in 83.9% of controls, 81.5% of the aged, and 65.0% of the very old. Cause specific 5-year survival in those cured was 85.2% of controls, 84.5% of the aged, and 80.0% of the very old. Median survival in those not cured was 4 months in controls, 9.6 months in the aged, and 5 months in the very old. We concluded that curative treatment is important in the elderly, and the success of curative treatment and the prevention of complications depend on careful assessment of systemic disease, PS, ASA, and mental activity. (author)
Patterson, Benjamin O; Holt, Peter J; Nienaber, Christoph; Fairman, Ronald M; Heijmen, Robin H; Thompson, Matt M
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) of various pathologies has been associated with peri-interventional neurologic complication rates of up to 15%. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the management of the left subclavian artery (LSA) on neurologic complications and to define subgroups that might benefit from LSA revascularization. The Medtronic Thoracic Endovascular Registry (MOTHER; Medtronic, Santa Rosa, Calif), consists of data from five sponsored trials and one institutional series incorporating 1010 patients undergoing TEVAR from 2002 to 2010. Perioperative stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI) rates were described according to the management of the LSA and presenting pathology. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors associated with perioperative neurologic complications. Of 1002 patients included in the analysis, stroke occurred in 48 (4.8%), and SCI developed in 42 (4.2%) ≤ 30 days of surgery. The stroke rate was 2.2% in patients with no coverage of the LSA vs 9.1% with coverage alone and 5.1% in patients who underwent LSA revascularization before coverage (P < .001). This relationship was strongest in the aneurysm group. Coverage of the LSA without revascularization was independently associated with stroke (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-7.1), specifically in the posterior territory (OR, 11.7; 95% CI, 2.5-54.6), as was previous cerebrovascular accident (OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 2.2-23.1; P = .001), whereas a covered LSA was not associated with an increased risk of SCI. Coverage of the LSA without revascularization is an important modifiable risk factor for stroke in patients undergoing TEVAR for a thoracic aortic aneurysm. Prior revascularization appears to protect against posterior circulation territory stroke. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.
Solves, Pilar; Carpio, Nelly; Moscardo, Federico; Lancharro, Aima; Cano, Isabel; Moya, Angel; López-Andujar, Rafael; Sanz, Miguel Ángel
Liver transplantation (LT) has traditionally been associated with major blood loss and consequently high blood transfusion requirements. Our objective was to analyze transfusion management and incidence of immunohematologic complications in patients undergoing LT at our institution. A retrospective analysis of immunohematologic events and transfusion outcomes was carried out at La Fe University Hospital in Valencia. Data from 654 patients were reviewed: 654 underwent only one LT while 36 underwent second LT. Patients received a median of 3 red blood cell (RBC) concentrates, 2 platelets concentrates (PCs) and 2 fresh frozen plasma units (FFPs). Variables significantly influencing RBC transfusions were: the MELD score, hemoglobin levels, and the platelet counts before LT. 27 patients (4.1%) had a positive antibody screening before transplant. Immunohematologic events occurred in 8% of the patients, mostly in the first month after LT, and involved hemolysis in 13 cases. Mortality was significantly higher in patients developing immunohematologic disorders (42.8 vs. 18.3%; p Transfusion management of patients that underwent LT can be complicated by immunohematologic problems. Blood banks should implement the DAT test in each transfusion to detect them.
Chang, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Po-Lin; Hung, Jia-Horung; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Lai, Chun-Chieh; Ou, Chun-Yen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Wang, Chien-Kuo; Cheng, Hon-Chun; Tseng, Sung-Huei
Purpose Paranasal sinusitis is widespread and can lead to orbital complications, blindness, and death. However, the correlation between ophthalmological findings and disease staging remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the staging, acute ophthalmological manifestations, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis during a 27-year period. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients with orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis hospitalized at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital, a medical center in Taiwan during 1988–2015. Sex, age, symptoms, history, ophthalmological findings, laboratory and imaging findings, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed by staging. Results Eighty-three patients aged 9 days to 80 years had stage I (preseptal cellulitis, n = 39 patients), II (postseptal orbital cellulitis, n = 8), III (subperiosteal abscess, n = 16), IV (orbital abscess, n = 8), or V (intracranial involvement, n = 12) complications. Peak incidences occurred in patients aged 0–19 and 60–69 years. Chronic sinusitis and diabetes mellitus were common preexisting diseases. Extraocular movement limitation and proptosis predicted postseptal (stage II or more) involvement. The likelihood of elevated intraocular pressure increased with stage. Reduced visual acuity and presence of relative afferent pupillary defect indicated consideration of magnetic resonance imaging to investigate possible intracranial extension. Ipsilateral maxillary (81.7%) and ethmoidal (75.6%) sinuses were the most common sources of infection, and the most frequently implicated pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (25.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.5%). All patients received intravenous antimicrobial therapy (multi-drug therapy in 88.0%), and 55.4% underwent surgery, most commonly endoscopic sinus surgery. One (1.2%) diabetic man with stage V complications died of fungal sinusitis with
Full Text Available Paranasal sinusitis is widespread and can lead to orbital complications, blindness, and death. However, the correlation between ophthalmological findings and disease staging remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the staging, acute ophthalmological manifestations, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis during a 27-year period.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients with orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis hospitalized at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital, a medical center in Taiwan during 1988-2015. Sex, age, symptoms, history, ophthalmological findings, laboratory and imaging findings, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed by staging.Eighty-three patients aged 9 days to 80 years had stage I (preseptal cellulitis, n = 39 patients, II (postseptal orbital cellulitis, n = 8, III (subperiosteal abscess, n = 16, IV (orbital abscess, n = 8, or V (intracranial involvement, n = 12 complications. Peak incidences occurred in patients aged 0-19 and 60-69 years. Chronic sinusitis and diabetes mellitus were common preexisting diseases. Extraocular movement limitation and proptosis predicted postseptal (stage II or more involvement. The likelihood of elevated intraocular pressure increased with stage. Reduced visual acuity and presence of relative afferent pupillary defect indicated consideration of magnetic resonance imaging to investigate possible intracranial extension. Ipsilateral maxillary (81.7% and ethmoidal (75.6% sinuses were the most common sources of infection, and the most frequently implicated pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (25.3% and Staphylococcus aureus (20.5%. All patients received intravenous antimicrobial therapy (multi-drug therapy in 88.0%, and 55.4% underwent surgery, most commonly endoscopic sinus surgery. One (1.2% diabetic man with stage V complications died of fungal sinusitis with intracranial invasion. Five (6
Agbenorku, Pius; Akpaloo, Joseph; Chirurgie, Facharzt; Aboah, Ken; Klutsey, Ellen; Hoyte-Williams, Paa Ekow; Farhat, Boutros; Turkson, Edmund; Yorke, Joseph; Chirurgie, Facharzt; Ametih, Richard; Hussey, Romeo
A chemical burn refers to irritation and destruction of human tissue caused by exposure to a chemical, usually by direct contact with the chemical or its fumes. The study investigated the trend and complications following chemical burns and their management. The study involved a retrospective review of Burns Registry at the Burns Intensive Care Unit of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital on patients who were admitted for burns from May 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. Chemical burns admissions accounted for 3.5% (n = 17) out of the total 487 burns cases, consisting of 12 males (70.6%) and 5 females (29.4%). Mean total burns surface area was 21.9%; mean length of stay in Burns Intensive Care Unit was 9.5 days. The etiological agents for the chemical burns included the following: hot caustic soda 1 (5.9%); acid 9 (53.9%)-the most common; hot ethanol 3 (17.6%); and other chemicals such as other bases, oxidizers, solvents, etc. accounted for 4 (23.5%) etiological agents. Outcome included 11 discharges (64.7%), 6 transferred out to other wards (35.3%), and 0 deaths (0.0%). The complications included severe scar contractures in 5 patients (29.4%), loss of vision: partial/total = 2 (11.8%), gross keloidal/hypertrophic scars = 10 (58.8%). Chemical burns are severe and often cause severe debilitating sequelae including partial/total loss of vision. But the current study showed that only a small population (3.5%) were affected by chemical burns and no death was recorded; society has to be continually conscious of chemicals, especially caustic agents, and hence take the necessary precautions so as to prevent these avoidable complications.
Full Text Available Purpose: To report the 1-year follow-up results of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI for the management of complications of retinal artery macroaneurysms (RAM. Methods: A retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series of 4 eyes of 4 patients (all female, aged 68–91 years, 3 treatment naive treated with IAI 2 mg for complications of RAM [macular edema (ME 2, submacular hemorrhage (SMH 1, and vitreous hemorrhage (VH 1] was conducted. Baseline parameters consisted of complete ocular examination, medical history, best-corrected Snellen VA, fundus photography, IVFA and SD OCT, unless precluded by VH (1. All patients completed ≥1 year follow-up. Results: Baseline VA was hand motions in the eye with SMH (31 mm2 area and 1,478 μm thickness; 20/40 and 20/100 with ME (CST 390 and 337 μm, respectively, and 20/200 in the eye with VH. At 1 month, both patients with ME showed resolution of ME with CST <300 μm with improvement in VA which was maintained through 1 year. VH resolved in one eye at 1 month with no recurrence after 1 year. The eye with SMH developed macular scar and had counting fingers vision at 1 year. Thrombosis of RAM was noted in all eyes and hairpin-like remodeling of artery in one. No eye required repeat injection or laser. Conclusion: ME and VH from RAM were effectively treated with IAI. However, the eye with thick SMH had poor visual outcome despite thrombosis of RAM. Single IAI provided effective therapy for complications of RAM with excellent anatomical and visual results in each eye, except one with thick SMH, and merits further study.
Bhardwaj, Amit; Nagandla, Kavitha
Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal symptom in pregnancy that can present as lumbar pain or pelvic girdle pain, with significant physical and psychosocial implications. Pelvic girdle pain is more prevalent and results in greater disability than lumbar pain. It is possible to distinguish between these two conditions from a detailed history based on the site of the pain, its intensity, disability and pain provocation tests. Management of low back pain in pregnancy is conservative, with physical exercise for lumbar pain and minimising activities that exacerbate pain, analgesics and bed rest for pelvic girdle pain, as well as avoiding abduction beyond the pain-free zone in labour. There is evidence that stabilising exercises in patients with pelvic girdle pain postpartum have a beneficial effect. Other treatment modalities that have been shown to be safe and effective include pelvic belts, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture and complementary therapy with yoga. Other orthopaedic complications in pregnancy such as carpal tunnel syndrome, pubic symphysis rupture, transient osteoporosis and osteonecrosis are usually self-limiting with a satisfactory outcome. However, a lack of awareness and failure to recognise these complications can result in long-term morbidity. Knowledge of the preoperative diagnostic investigations, surgical approaches and intraoperative positioning of the mother to avoid gravid uterus compression is vital in orthopaedic emergencies such as lumbar disc herniation, cauda equina syndrome, fractures and acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb to ensure a safe maternal and fetal outcome and to prevent serious disability. Pregnancy is not contraindicated in women with pre-existing orthopaedic complications such as kyphoscoliosis and total hip arthroplasty as there is no evidence to suggest increased maternal or fetal risks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use
Akpaloo, Joseph; Chirurgie, Facharzt; Aboah, Ken; Klutsey, Ellen; Hoyte-Williams, Paa Ekow; Farhat, Boutros; Turkson, Edmund; Yorke, Joseph; Chirurgie, Facharzt; Ametih, Richard; Hussey, Romeo
Background: A chemical burn refers to irritation and destruction of human tissue caused by exposure to a chemical, usually by direct contact with the chemical or its fumes. The study investigated the trend and complications following chemical burns and their management. Methods: The study involved a retrospective review of Burns Registry at the Burns Intensive Care Unit of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital on patients who were admitted for burns from May 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. Results: Chemical burns admissions accounted for 3.5% (n = 17) out of the total 487 burns cases, consisting of 12 males (70.6%) and 5 females (29.4%). Mean total burns surface area was 21.9%; mean length of stay in Burns Intensive Care Unit was 9.5 days. The etiological agents for the chemical burns included the following: hot caustic soda 1 (5.9%); acid 9 (53.9%)—the most common; hot ethanol 3 (17.6%); and other chemicals such as other bases, oxidizers, solvents, etc. accounted for 4 (23.5%) etiological agents. Outcome included 11 discharges (64.7%), 6 transferred out to other wards (35.3%), and 0 deaths (0.0%). The complications included severe scar contractures in 5 patients (29.4%), loss of vision: partial/total = 2 (11.8%), gross keloidal/hypertrophic scars = 10 (58.8%). Conclusions: Chemical burns are severe and often cause severe debilitating sequelae including partial/total loss of vision. But the current study showed that only a small population (3.5%) were affected by chemical burns and no death was recorded; society has to be continually conscious of chemicals, especially caustic agents, and hence take the necessary precautions so as to prevent these avoidable complications. PMID:26579354
Moghadasi, Setareh; Eccles, Diana M; Devilee, Peter; Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; van Asperen, Christi J
In 2008, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) proposed a system for classifying sequence variants in highly penetrant breast and colon cancer susceptibility genes, linked to clinical actions. This system uses a multifactorial likelihood model to calculate the posterior probability that an altered DNA sequence is pathogenic. Variants between 5%-94.9% (class 3) are categorized as variants of uncertain significance (VUS). This interval is wide and might include variants with a substantial difference in pathogenicity at either end of the spectrum. We think that carriers of class 3 variants would benefit from a fine-tuning of this classification. Classification of VUS to a category with a defined clinical significance is very important because for carriers of a pathogenic mutation full surveillance and risk-reducing surgery can reduce cancer incidence. Counselees who are not carriers of a pathogenic mutation can be discharged from intensive follow-up and avoid unnecessary risk-reducing surgery. By means of examples, we show how, in selected cases, additional data can lead to reclassification of some variants to a different class with different recommendations for surveillance and therapy. To improve the clinical utility of this classification system, we suggest a pragmatic adaptation to clinical practice. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.
M. Fawzi Mahomoodally
Full Text Available Religious communities from Mauritius still rely on traditional therapies (TT for primary healthcare. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of scientific information on TT used by the different religious groups to manage diabetes and related complications (DRC. This study aimed to gather ethnomedicinal knowledge on TT used by the different religious groups against DRC. Diabetic patients (n=95 and traditional healers (n=5 were interviewed. Fifty-two plant species belonging to 33 families and 26 polyherbal formulations were documented to manage DRC. The most reported DRC was hypertension (n=36. Leaves (45.2% and juice (36% were the most cited mode of preparation of herbal recipes. Plants which scored high relative frequency of citation were Citrus aurantifolia (0.55 and Morinda citrifolia (0.54. The cultural importance index showed that Ocimum tenuiflorum, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Camellia sinensis, and Ophiopogon japonicas were the most culturally important plants among Hindu, Muslim, Christian, and Buddhist community, respectively. Hindu and Muslim community showed the highest similarity of medicinal plants usage (Jaccard index = 95.8. Seven animal species distributed over 4 classes were recorded for the management of DRC. Plants and animals recorded as TT should be submitted to scientific studies to confirm safety and efficacy in clinical practice and to identify pharmacologically active metabolites.
Full Text Available Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach.
Orenstein, S R
Therapy of supraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children nearly always includes "lifestyle modifications" (conservative or nonpharmacologic therapy). Depending on the severity of the GERD manifestation, pharmacotherapy is often added. Although data to support the practice are not abundant, it is rational to begin with prokinetic pharmacotherapy and to add acid suppression if pathologic effects of acid contact with the esophagus or airway are suspected. Pathologic effects of acid produce most forms of supraesophageal GERD; the exception is infantile regurgitation, the most common example of supraesophageal GERD, which is often unaccompanied by either esophagitis or evidence of acid entry into the airway. Currently, fundoplication is rarely required for pediatric GERD, but the supraesophageal complications of GERD are more common indications for this surgery than the esophageal complications in children. Other management options for supraesophageal symptoms in children include delivery of nutrients by tube feeding slowly and continuously into the stomach or, better, small intestine. Short-term or trial tube feeding uses a transnasal tube, for example, for nasojejunal feeding; longer-term tube feeding is simplified by a gastrostomy, which can be placed relatively noninvasively using endoscopy or fluoroscopy.
Full Text Available The scope of the study was to evidence the methods recommended for avoiding, managing and implementing an efficient treatment capable of reducing the biological complications accompanying implant therapies. Materials and method. The study evaluates the patients with prosthesis charged implants - or during their osseointegration period - inserted in the Clinic of The Emergency Military Hospital of Sibiu, over a 5 year period (2009-2014. Retrospective investigation was based on the evaluation of the treatment files and on the imagistic and clinical analyses of the 125 patients to whom 385 implants had been inserted. Results and discussion. The study demonstrates that, when implants are the support of an overdenture, surrounded by either limited keratinized gingiva or mobile tissues, the presence of the bacterial plaque is considerable, the peri-implant pocket exceeds 5 mm, and sensitivity and bleeding are produced on contact with the probe. In susceptible patients, or in those with pathological periodontal antecedents, the re-infection potential has been always higher. The clinical study confirms that, invariably, peri-implantitis is associated with the existence of the bacterial plaque and also with the presence of a peri-implant pocket exceeding 4 mm (8.9%, with partial exposure of the covering screw (4.5% and fixed restaurations without self-cleaning spaces (2%. Conclusions. Out of the post-surgery biological complications, peri-implantitis is the most frequent one, causing a – sometimes total – loss of the alveolar bone around the osseointegrated implant.
Ilan, Ophir; Gross, Menachem; Zaltzman, Yacov; Sasson, Ady; Marcus, Esther-Lee
Complications associated with long-term tracheotomy are obstruction of the distal end of the tube by granulation tissue and tracheomalacia. These complications have traditionally been surgically treated. Prospective study in a chronic ventilator-dependent division, including 234 consecutive patients with tracheotomy and mechanical ventilation. Endoscopic evaluation was performed in patients in whom there was respiratory distress with difficulty in passing a suction catheter through the tube, and/or increased inspiratory resistance and increased peak inspiratory pressure. Nineteen patients were diagnosed with granulation or tracheomalacia. Two patients were treated by surgical removal of the obstructing tissue. Nonsurgical patients were conservatively managed with symptoms' resolution by bypassing the pathology with a longer tube than the previous one or by an adjustable flange tube under endoscopic visualization, with a median symptom-free period of 433 days (range, 55-1230 days). In nonsurgical candidates, insertion of a longer tube is a conservative and feasible long-term treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Healy, Kelly; Chamsuddin, Abbas; Spivey, James; Martin, Louis; Nieh, Peter; Ogan, Kenneth
Advances in endoscopic techniques have transformed the management of urolithiasis. We sought to evaluate the role of such urological interventions for the treatment of complex biliary calculi. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n=9) undergoing percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary calculi over a 4-year period (12/2003 to 12/2007). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTHC (n=7), or both of these. Access to the biliary system was obtained via an existing percutaneous transhepatic catheter or T-tube tracts. Endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy was performed via a flexible cystoscope or ureteroscope. Stone clearance was confirmed intra- and post-operatively. A percutaneous transhepatic drain was left indwelling for follow-up imaging. Mean patient age was 65.6 years (range, 38 to 92). Total stone burden ranged from 1.7 cm to 5 cm. All 9 patients had stones located in the CBD, with 2 patients also having additional stones within the hepatic ducts. All 9 patients (100%) were visually stone-free after one endoscopic procedure. No major perioperative complications occurred. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days. At a mean radiological follow-up of 5.4 months (range, 0.5 to 21), no stone recurrence was noted. Percutaneous endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive alternative to open salvage surgery for complex biliary calculi refractory to standard approaches. This treatment is both safe and efficacious. Success depends on a multidisciplinary approach.
Sun, J; Zeng, H; Wang, Y Q; Zhao, Y Y
Takayasu's arteritis is a rare, idiopathic, chronic inflammatory disease. Its course is unpredictable, but slow progression is usual, leading to stenosis, occlusion, or aneurismal degeneration of the aorta or its major branches. We present the anesthesia management of pregnancy in four women admitted to Peking University Third Hospital for caesarean section from year 2006 to 2015 complicated with Takayasu's arteritis and review this disease with special reference to natural history, diagnostic criteria, classification, prognostic factors, and anesthesia considerations. Anesthesiological data were retrospectively analyzed for clinical manifestations, anesthesia process, perioperative complications, and pregnancy outcome. One patient received only epidural anesthesia, while the other three patients received combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA). Surgeries for all the four patients were successful with stable vital signs. We found comprehensive examinations including whether the disease was in the active phase and the clinical classification of the disease before conception was recommended for patients diagnosed with Takayasu's arteritis. CSEA and continuous epidural block could be both used as anesthesiological method in patients with Takayasu's arteritis. During the surgery, to avoid rapid hemodynamic fluctuations and protect the major organs' function is very essential to allow for a satisfactory outcome.
Gutaj, Paweł; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa
This review discusses available literature on the diagnosis and management of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in women with type 1 diabetes. IUGR is diagnosed when ultrasound-estimated fetal weight is below the 10th percentile for gestational age. IUGR diagnosis implies a pathologic process behind low fetal weight. IUGR in pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes is usually caused by placental dysfunction related to maternal vasculopathy. Prevention of IUGR should ideally start before pregnancy. Strict glycemic control and intensive treatment of nephropathy and hypertension are essential. Low-dose aspirin initiated before 16 gestational weeks can also reduce IUGR risk in women with vasculopathy. Umbilical and uterine artery Doppler studies can guide diagnosis and surveillance of fetuses with IUGR. Decisions regarding the timing of delivery should be based on assessment of umbilical artery Doppler. The risk of prematurity and impaired fetal lung maturation should always be considered, especially in fetuses younger than 32 weeks.
Full Text Available Blunt penile trauma during sexual activity, although highly underreported due to the associated patient embarrassment, constitutes a real urological emergency requiring immediate attention and possibly early surgical intervention. We report a case of a 58-year old man who presented with penile pain following excessive masturbation. Although there were no clinical signs of penile deformity or hematoma, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of a rupture in the tunica albuginea. The patient opted for non-surgical management and his recovery period was complicated by the formation of an abscess at the site of the albugineal tear thus prolonging his hospital stay. The abscess was surgically drained and the patient reports to have normal erections at 3-month follow up.
Le Roy, B; Gelli, M; Serji, B; Memeo, R; Vibert, E
Portal biliopathy (PB) refers to the biliary abnormalities of the biliary ducts observed in patients with extrahepatic portal hypertension. Although majority of patients are asymptomatic, approximately 20% of these patients present with biliary symptoms (pain, pruritus, jaundice, cholangitis). The pathogenesis of PB is uncertain but compression by dilated veins into or around common bile duct may play the main role. CT-scan, MR cholangiopancreatography with MR portography should be the initial investigations in the evaluation of PB. Treatment is limited to symptomatic cases and is dictated by clinical manifestations and complications of the disease. Treatment of PB could be done by endoscopy (sphincterotomy, stone extraction or biliary stenting of the common bile duct) or surgery (definitive decompression by porto-systemic shunt followed by bilioenteric anastomosis, if necessary). This review describes pathogenesis, clinical features, investigation and management of portal biliopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Judge, Pavan; Meckler Mshs, Garth
Congenital heart disease is the most common form of all congenital malformations and, despite advances in prenatal and newborn screening, it may present undiagnosed to the emergency department. Signs and symptoms of congenital heart disease are variable and often nonspecific, making recognition and treatment challenging. Patient presentations can range from life-threatening shock or cyanosis in a neonate to respiratory distress or failure to thrive in infants. Advances in surgical techniques have improved short- and long-term survival of infants and children with congenital heart disease, but these children are at risk for a variety of complications related to the underlying or surgical anatomy and physiology. This review focuses on the recognition and initial management of patients with undiagnosed congenital heart disease presenting to the ED and touches on considerations for postoperative infants and children with complex congenital heart disease.
Wohl, D A; McComsey, G; Tebas, P; Brown, T T; Glesby, M J; Reeds, D; Shikuma, C; Mulligan, K; Dube, M; Wininger, D; Huang, J; Revuelta, M; Currier, J; Swindells, S; Fichtenbaum, C; Basar, M; Tungsiripat, M; Meyer, W; Weihe, J; Wanke, C
Changes in fat distribution, dyslipidemia, disordered glucose metabolism, and lactic acidosis have emerged as significant challenges to the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Over the past decade, numerous investigations have been conducted to better define these conditions, identify risk factors associated with their development, and test potential therapeutic interventions. The lack of standardized diagnostic criteria, as well as disparate study populations and research methods, have led to conflicting data regarding the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic and body shape disorders associated with HIV infection. On the basis of a review of the medical literature published and/or data presented before April 2006, we have prepared a guide to assist the clinician in the detection and management of these complications.
Hayhoe, Sophie; Navapurkar, Vilas; Conway Morris, Andrew
A 42-year-old woman with end-stage renal failure was admitted to the intensive care unit following resuscitation from a pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest after intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam. Persistent bradycardia and hypotension, unresponsive to epinephrine and norepinephrine, were suspected to have been exacerbated by chronic labetalol therapy for resistant arterial hypertension. As an alternative, the non-adrenergic inotrope, enoximone, was started. This, combined with thrombolysis for possible pulmonary embolism, heralded significant haemodynamic improvement, allowing weaning from inotropic support. A clear CT pulmonary angiogram 2 days post-arrest and significantly raised mast cell tryptase levels confirmed anaphylaxis rather than pulmonary embolism as the precipitating cause. We believe this to be the first case report of phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor use in the management of anaphylaxis complicated by α/β-blockade, and discuss the mechanism behind this effect and comparison with the more commonly reported use of glucagon. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Giannubilo, S R; Bezzeccheri, V; Landi, B; Battistoni, G I; Stortoni, P; Vitali, P; Tranquilli, A L
Antenatal day care units have been experienced as an alternative to inpatient care for women with pregnancy complications including hypertensive disorders. To assess the outcomes of outpatient management in women with gestational hypertension and mild preeclampsia and compare them to inpatient management. Perinatal records of 294 patients (OUT group) attending the obstetric outpatient clinic were reviewed and compared with records of 398 women (IN group) attending the obstetric unit of the same tertiary referral center. The patients were divided as: GH, gestational hypertension (OUT: 194; IN: 244), GH with Intrauterine Growth Restriction (OUT: 52; IN: 78) and PE, mild preeclampsia (OUT: 48; IN: 76). The groups were comparable for age, parity, body mass index and gestational age at enrollment. When compared with patients treated in hospital, GH OUT women showed a higher gestational age at delivery (38±1.7 vs 35.5±2.3 weeks; pdelivery (62.0±4.8 vs 31.3±5.4days; pdelivery (37±1.2 vs 34.4±1.7weeks), longer time to delivery (55.4±6.9 vs 35.3±4.5days), higher birthweight (3168±363 vs 2196±685.17g), and a lower admission to NICU (15.6% vs 35.5%) (hospitalization rate: 55.6%), than the inpatient controls. In the gestational hypertension with IUGR no significant differences were observed between out- and in-patient management. Women attending day care units have better or comparable perinatal outcomes than inpatients. Ambulatory management at a day-care unit is an option for monitoring and following up women with mild gestational hypertension or preeclampsia remote from term. Hospitalization remains an absolute indication if worsening of preeclampsia is diagnosed. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bernardo Hernández; Eduardo Ortiz-Panozo; Ricardo Pérez-Cuevas
OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and management of severe maternal and newborn complications in selected health facilities in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn health, information was collected from medical records of women with deliveries and/or severe maternal complications during pregnancy or puerperium in 14 hospitals in Mexico City and the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. RESULTS: Of 13 311 women, 157 (12 per 1 000 live births) ...
Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni; Chitra P Bhusari; Divya S Sharma; Prashant Bhusari; Arpana V Bansal; Jeevanand Deshmukh
Fractures of multiple permanent anterior teeth can be a traumatic experience for children, with functional, esthetic and psychological aspects. The treatment of complicated crown-root fractures (CRFs) is more challenging when the biologic width is violated. This paper presents a case of 12-year boy with complicated CRF of teeth #12 and #21, and horizontal crown fracture of tooth #11. It was managed by endodontic treatment, mucoperiosteal surgery with osteotomy to visualize the fracture line f...
Full Text Available The purpose of this case report was to present the multidisciplinary management of a subgingival crown-root fracture of a patient undergoing apexification treatment. A 12-year-old male patient was referred to the pediatric dentistry clinic with an extensive tooth fracture of the right permanent maxillary lateral incisor. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed the presence of a complicated crown-root fracture, which had elongated to the buccal subgingival area. The dental history disclosed that the apexification procedure had been started to be performed after his first trauma experience and he had neglected his appointment. The coronal fragment was gently extracted; endodontic treatment was performed; flap surgery was performed to make the fracture line visible. The coronal fragment was reattached to the root fragment with a dual-cure luting composite. A fiber post was stabilized and the access cavity of the tooth was restored with composite resin. At the end of the 24th month, the tooth was asymptomatic, functionally, esthetically acceptable and had no periapical pathology. It is important for the patients undergoing apexification treatment to keep their appointments because of the fracture risk. Restoration of the fractured tooth by preparing retention grooves and a bonding fiber-reinforced post are effective and necessary approaches for successful management.
Martin-Smith, James D
BACKGROUND: The development of a fistula between the tracheobronchial tree and the gastric conduit post esophagectomy is a rare and often fatal complication. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68 year old man underwent radical esophagectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma. On postoperative day 14 the nasogastric drainage bag dramatically filled with air, without deterioration in respiratory function or progressive sepsis. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed which demonstrated a gastro-bronchial fistula in the posterior aspect of the left main bronchus. He was managed conservatively with antibiotics, enteral nutrition via jejunostomy, and non-invasive respiratory support. A follow- up bronchoscopy 60 days after the diagnostic bronchoscopy, confirmed spontaneous closure of the fistula CONCLUSIONS: This is the first such case where a conservative approach with no surgery or endoprosthesis resulted in a successful outcome, with fistula closure confirmed at subsequent bronchoscopy. Our experience would suggest that in very carefully selected cases where bronchopulmonary contamination from the fistula is minimal or absent, there is no associated inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree and the patient is stable from a respiratory point of view without evidence of sepsis, there may be a role for a trial of conservative management.
Martin-Smith, James D
Abstract Background The development of a fistula between the tracheobronchial tree and the gastric conduit post esophagectomy is a rare and often fatal complication. Case presentation A 68 year old man underwent radical esophagectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma. On postoperative day 14 the nasogastric drainage bag dramatically filled with air, without deterioration in respiratory function or progressive sepsis. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed which demonstrated a gastro-bronchial fistula in the posterior aspect of the left main bronchus. He was managed conservatively with antibiotics, enteral nutrition via jejunostomy, and non-invasive respiratory support. A follow- up bronchoscopy 60 days after the diagnostic bronchoscopy, confirmed spontaneous closure of the fistula Conclusions This is the first such case where a conservative approach with no surgery or endoprosthesis resulted in a successful outcome, with fistula closure confirmed at subsequent bronchoscopy. Our experience would suggest that in very carefully selected cases where bronchopulmonary contamination from the fistula is minimal or absent, there is no associated inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree and the patient is stable from a respiratory point of view without evidence of sepsis, there may be a role for a trial of conservative management.
Caribé-Gomes, Fabiana; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; López-López, Jose; Finestres-Zubeldia, Fernando; Guix-Melcior, Benjamín
The most common malignancy of the oral cavity is epidermoid or squamous cell carcinoma, which accounts for approximately 5% of all neoplasms. Unfortunately, the great majority of these tumors are diagnosed in stages which require surgery with radio- and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy constitutes an important option in the treatment of oral tumors, and can be applied either alone or in combination with surgery and chemotherapy. The latter has no precisely defined role in the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas, and is usually used as a coadjuvant therapy or for palliative purposes. Since these treatments affect not only the malignant cells but also the healthy tissues of the patient, side effects usually develop during and after treatment, in the form of oral lesions and systemic alterations. Examples include mucositis, xerostomia, immune suppression, and viral and fungal infections, among other problems. The present study offers a management protocol for the oncological patient before, during and after radio- and chemotherapy. In addition, emphasis is placed on the important role of the dental professional in the prevention and treatment of the main oral complications, proposing dental management guidelines which are applicable in the general clinical context.
Reich, Waldemar; Kriwalsky, Marcus S; Wolf, Hans H; Schubert, Johannes
PURPOSE AND RESULTS: The aim of this prospective study was to determine the incidence of postoperative bleeding after oral surgery under local anaesthesia performed in outpatients with haemostatic disorders within a 5-year period (2003-2007). One hundred twenty one (70 males, 51 females) out of 2,056 outpatients with different haemostatic disorders (acquired or hereditary) were included in this study. The following data were recorded: medical history and general condition; medications; indication for the surgical procedure; specification of local anaesthesia; applied surgical techniques, considering the kind of haemostatic disorder; and peri- or postoperative bleeding complications. Postoperative bleeding was observed in 12 patients (9.9%). In three cases, inpatient treatment became necessary. The management of two patients with a haemostatic disorder (von Willebrand s disease and haemophilia A) is presented in short case reports. In a heterogeneous group of 121 outpatients with known haemostatic disorders, a combination of a few haemostatic agents with appropriate operative technique enables an effective wound management. In cases of failed local interventions after postoperative bleeding, further diagnostic investigations are required.
Full Text Available Fibroids are very common in Afro-Caribbean women. They can cause severe complications. The treatment modalities are not without risk and should be weighed against the complications of the fibroids.
Bacon, Siobhan; Schmid, Jasmin; McCarthy, Ailbhe; Edwards, Jackie; Fleming, Aileen; Kinsley, Brendan; Firth, Richard; Byrne, Bridgette; Gavin, Claire; Byrne, Maria M
Women with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) are often first identified and diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy. Genetics and hyperglycemia play an important role in determining fetal size in MODY pregnancies. The principal objective of the current study is to determine the outcomes and clinical management of hyperglycemia in pregnancies complicated by glucokinase gene (GCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1α MODY mutations. A retrospective chart review of 37 women with a GCK/HNF-1α mutation was conducted. Data on variables such as birthweight, mode of delivery, and the treatment of hyperglycemia were available on 89 pregnancies. The birthweight in unaffected GCK offspring was significantly higher than in the affected GCK offspring (4.8 [4.1-5.2] kg vs 3.2 [3.1-3.7] kg; P = .01). Seven-point home blood glucose monitoring over a 7-day period in each trimester demonstrated higher fasting and postprandial glycemic excursions in the first trimester of GCK pregnancies when compared to HNF-1α pregnancies (fasting 104 [90-115] mg/dL vs 84 [77-88] mg/dL; P = .01 and postprandial 154 [135-196] mg/dL vs 111 [100-131] mg/dL; P = .04) despite insulin treatment. There was a higher percentage of miscarriages in the GCK group when compared to the HNF-1α MODY group (33.3% vs 14%; P = .07), which was similar to the background population. Insulin initiated at an early gestation appeared to lower the incidence of macrosomia in GCK unaffected offspring. Hyperglycemia in HNF-1α pregnancies is easily managed with current insulin protocols; in contrast, glycemic excursions are difficult to manage in GCK pregnancies. There was an increased percentage of miscarriages in GCK pregnancies highlighting the importance of a diagnosis of GCK-MODY in women prior to conception and the necessity for preconception care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cornejo-Dávila, Victor; Palmeros-Rodríguez, Mario A; Uberetagoyena-Tello de Meneses, Israel; Mayorga-Gómez, Edgar; Garza-Sáinz, Gerardo; Osornio-Sánchez, Victor; Trujillo-Ortiz, Luis; Sedano-Basilio, Jorge E; Cantellano-Orozco, Mauricio; Martínez-Arroyo, Carlos; Morales-Montor, Jorge G; Pacheco-Gahbler, Carlos
Urinary tract infections are a common problem encountered by primary care, emergency physicians and urologists. A complicated urinary tract infection (CUTI) responds less effectively to the standard treatment. E. coli is the most common pathogen (40-70 %). In Mexico, there are ciprofloxacin resistance rates of 8-73 %, to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 53-71 % and cephalosporins 5-18 %, with an ESBL E. coli prevalence of 10 %. For infections producing gas or purulent material, the percutaneous or endoscopic drainage is the standard. To describe the management of patients with CUTIs, their specifically clinical course and eventual culture results determining the most common isolated microorganisms and their resistance. The clinical records of patients hospitalized with CUTIs from January 2012 to July 2013 were reviewed. One hundred and seventy-three patients were included. Acute pyelonephritis was the most common presentation (53.2 %). The most common microorganism was E. coli (83 %), with ESBL prevalence of 71.4 % and a resistance to quinolone, cephalosporin and trimethoprim of 89.7, 64.7 and 60.3 %, respectively. The most common factors associated with development of CUTIs were recent use of antibiotics (95.3 %) and obstructive uropathy (73.4 %). A total of 41 % received carbapenems and 40.5 % received minimally invasive treatments. Overall mortality was 2.9 %. There were a greater ESBL-producing pathogen prevalence and an over 50 % resistance to classically first-choice antibiotics. The minimally invasive treatments for complicated infections are fundamental; however, nephrectomy still has a role. Wide-spectrum antimicrobial therapy and minimally invasive approaches are the most common treatments for CUTIs in our center, and a reevaluation regarding antibiotic use in Mexico needs to be done.
Full Text Available Paraschos Tranos,1 Athanasios Vakalis,1 Solon Asteriadis,1 Evaggelos Lokovitis,1 Ilias Georgalas,2 Panagiotis Stavrakas3 1Ophthalmica Eye Institute, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2First Department of Ophthalmology, 3Second Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece Abstract: The aim of this study is to report the anatomic and functional outcomes of retinectomy for the management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR, comparing them with previously reported data and determining prognostic factors. Fifty-one eyes of 51 patients with established PVR grade C in which retinectomy was performed were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Primary outcome measures were anatomic success rate and final visual acuity. Secondary outcome measures were intraoperative complications, number of re-operations, and postoperative hypotony. Prognostic factors in relation to retinal re-attachment and final visual acuity were retrospectively analyzed. The rate of complete retinal re-attachment after one operation was 80% and after two operations it was 84%. At the end of the follow-up, the macula was attached in 96% of the cases. Mean LogMAR best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved significantly from 2.45±0.66 preoperatively to 1.37±0.75 at the end of the follow-up (P<0.001. BCVA improved in 37 eyes (72%, remained the same in eleven eyes (22% and worsened in three eyes (6%. Postoperative hypotony was observed in 2% of cases. Postoperative BCVA was significantly correlated with preoperative BCVA (P<0.001, extension of PVR (P=0.013, preoperative use of gas instead of silicone oil (SO (P=0.01, and removal of SO (P=0.05. SO was left in situ in 35% of eyes. In conclusion, retinectomy is a surgical option providing good anatomical and reasonable visual outcomes in complicated retinal detachment with PVR. Better preoperative visual acuity, lesser extension of PVR, and the use of gas
MacDonald, Susan; Terlecki, Ryan; Costantini, Elisabetta; Badlani, Gopal
Mesh-related complications following transvaginal management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and/or stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have received significant attention in the last decade. We sought to identify patient, product, and technical factors associated with an increased risk of complications after mesh-based transvaginal repair of anterior POP and SUI. In this review we clarify the different pattern of complications after POP and SUI repairs. Our aim is to provide a practical evidence-based guide for physicians to prevent and, if necessary, manage product-associated complications in a stepwise manner. We conducted a comprehensive PubMed search of all English-language articles published from 2010 to June 2016, using these search terms: mesh, pelvic organ prolapse, and stress urinary incontinence. Expert opinion is also provided. Mesh-related complications are much lower after repair of SUI compared with POP, despite its more frequent use. Vaginal exposure is the most common mesh-specific complication. Patients may present with vaginal discharge, dyspareunia, pain, recurrent urinary tract infection, and/or hematuria. Conversely, patients may be asymptomatic. Small asymptomatic mesh exposures (urinary tract must be fully excised. Following excision, pain may persist in up to 50% of patients. Vaginal extrusion, persistent pain, and urethral and/or bladder erosion are the three most common product-specific complications following mesh-based repair for SUI or POP. Conservative therapies may be attempted, but most patients ultimately require partial or complete mesh excision. We reviewed the recent literature on mesh-related complications after repair of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Vaginal exposure, persistent pain, and erosion into the urinary tract are the most common. These often require surgical management, best suited to a urologist with training and experience in this area. Evidence supports mesh use for correction of
Heba G. El-Sheredy
Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In recent years, defined reconstruction principles along with numerous surgical techniques with volume replacement have been published. Autologous breast reconstruction is more natural but leaves donor site morbidity. It provides the opportunity to restore the breast mound without the need for scars. This study aims to evaluate the complications of radiotherapy after immediate breast reconstruction with implants in breast cancer patients who submitted to skin sparing mastectomy and nipple sparing mastectomy by taking into consideration the risk factors and management at our institution. Methods: The current study prospectively included patients with invasive breast cancer admitted between January and June 2012 who were scheduled for skin sparing mastectomy or nipple sparing mastectomy and axillary dissection followed by immediate breast reconstruction with implant. Patients received adjuvant chemotherapy followed by conventional fractionated radiation. Complications were classified as either minor or major. The minor complications included capsular contracture (Baker 1-2, seroma, minor skin infection and skin dehiscence without exposure of the implant. Major complications included capsular contracture (Baker 3-4, severe infection and major wound dehiscence with implant exposure. Capsular contracture was scored according to the modified Baker classification. Results: The study included 38 patients. Of these, 28 had skin sparing mastectomy while 10 underwent nipple sparing mastectomy. The overall complication rate was 71%. We observed minor complications in 18 patients while 9 patients had major complications. Complications occurred with a median time of 13 months following radiotherapy completion. All minor complications were managed conservatively whereas all major complications required repeat surgery. No loco-regional recurrences occurred during the follow up
Kanuru, R K; Bhasin, Vinny; Khatri, Amit; Dodda, K K; Singh, Era; Grover, Shekhar
Numerous appliances are present for the management of class II malocclusion. We have conducted a study to compare the clinical complications during treatment with either a removable mandibular acrylic splint (RMS) or with a cantilever Herbst (HC) appliance for the management of class II malocclusion. This study consisted of records of 114 patients (61 males, 53 females), who were divided into two groups. Group I received RMS and group II received HC for the treatment of class II, Division 1 malocclusion. They were further subdivided according to the telescopic system used [Dentaurum type I or propulsor mandibular abzil (PMA)] and fixation mode (splint with crowns or GripTite bands). Patients' clinical records were assessed to identify clinical complications. The results of the study showed that the incidence of complications during treatment in both groups was statistically nonsignificant. The complications with either crown or band were also statistically nonsignificant. The Dentaurum group showed more susceptibility to complications than the PMA group. The PMA telescopic system is more efficient as compared with Dentaurum. Complication resulting from Herbst appliance is independent type of appliance used and mode of fixation. Herbst appliance is the treatment of choice for class II malocclusion.
Full Text Available Introduction: Bilioenteric fistulas are the abnormal communication between the bile duct system and the gastrointestinal tract that occurs spontaneously and is a rare complication of an untreated gallstone in the majority of cases. These fistulas can cause diverse clinical consequences and in some cases be life-threatening to the patient. Aim: To identify the incidence of bilioenteric fistula in patients with gallstones, its clinical presentation, diagnosis through imaging study, surgical management, postoperative complications, and follow-up. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted to search for bilioenteric fistula in patients that underwent cholecystectomy at our hospital center due to cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, or cholangitis, within a 3-year time frame. Results: Four patients, 2 men and 2 women, were identified with cholecystoduodenal fistula. Their mean age was 81.5 years. Two of the patients presented with acute cholangitis and 2 presented with bowel obstruction due to gallstone ileus. All the patients underwent surgical treatment and the diagnostic and therapeutic management of each of them was analyzed. Conclusions: The incidence of cholecystoduodenal fistula was similar to that reported in the medical literature. It is a rare complication of gallstones and its diagnosis is difficult due to its nonspecific symptomatology. It should be contemplated in elderly patients that have a contracted gallbladder with numerous adhesions. Resumen: Introducción: Las fístulas bilioentéricas son la comunicación anormal entre el sistema biliar y el tracto gastrointestinal, que ocurre de manera espontánea y en la mayoría de los casos es una complicación rara de la litiasis vesicular no tratada. Pueden provocar consecuencias clínicas diversas que, en algunas situaciones, ponen en peligro la vida del paciente. Objetivo: Identificar la incidencia de fístula bilioentérica en pacientes con litiasis vesicular, su presentaci
Complicated rhinosinusitis: a title chosen for its multi-interpretable nature. In the Oxford dictionary ‘complicated’ is defined as ‘consisting of many interconnecting parts or elements’ and ‘involving many different and confusing aspects’ as well as ‘involving complications’ in medicine. It is the last definition that is applicable to chapter 2 which focuses on the medical complications of acute rhinosinusitis. Chapter 2.1 describes the incidence and management of orbital and intracranial co...
Full Text Available A left ventricular assist device (LVAD therapy is the viable option for patients with advanced heart failure as a bridge to transplantation, bridge to recovery, or destination therapy. Although application of LVAD support has become a standard option, serious complications or adverse events related with LVAD remain a concern. LVAD-related infection including driveline infection (DLI and bloodstream infection (BSI is one of the serious clinical matters for LVAD patients, and especially BSI leads to the high incidence of mortality. The LVAD-related infections negatively impact patient’s quality of life. Therefore, control of infection is one of the primary goals of management in LVAD patients. Several efforts including early and appropriate intervention including antibiotics and wound care may contribute to avert the progress into BSI from localized DLI. Particularly, there are clinical secrets in how to use antibiotics and how to treat wound care in LVAD patients. The rational way of thinking for wound care will be introduced in this review.
Meyer Ganz Oanna
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fournier’s gangrene is a bacterial infection characterized by necrotizing fasciitis, skin and soft tissue involvement, and eventually myositis of the perineal region. Aggressive debridement of devitalized tissue and overlying skin is of paramount importance, but often leaves large defects to be reconstructed. The present case reports successful extensive perineal defects coverage following Fournier’s gangrene and management of subsequent penile lymphoedema impairing sexual function in a young patient. Case presentation Following perianal abscess drainage, a healthy young man presented with scrotal pain. Fournier’s gangrene was diagnosed and treated with multiple surgical debridements. Tissue excision extended through the entire perineal area, base of the penile shaft, lower abdominal region, the inner thighs, and gluteal region, corresponding to 12% of the total body surface area. After serial debridements and negative pressure dressings, the defect was covered by two stages of skin grafting. Graft take was 90%. Healing was achieved without hypertrophic or retractile scar. However, chronic penile lymphedema remained and was first treated with compressive garments for 2 years. Upon failure of this conservative approach, we performed a circumcision, but only a “penile lift” allowed a satisfactory esthetical and functional result. Conclusion Fournier’s gangrene can be complicated by a chronic lymphedema of the penis. Conservative treatment is likely to fail in severe cases and can be treated surgically by “penile lift”.
Vladislav, Pavlov; Bernard, George; Chibbaro, Salvatore
The authors report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented to our institution with 10 days history of confusion and signs of progressive raised intracranial pressure as a result of a minor head injury occurred 4 weeks before. A brain CT-scan showed a large right hemispheric chronic subdural haematoma which was, as routinely, treated by burr-hole craniostomy and closed-drainage. Although the procedure was uneventful, the next day the patient developed a mild left hemiparesis associated to a slight global status worsening. A brain CT scan showed an intracerebral position of the drain with diffuse brain oedema and midline shift. Following drain removal the patient developed a serious neurological deterioration dropping the Glasgow coma scale to 8/15 as the result of an intracerebral and intraventricular haemorrhage along the removed drain trajectory. The clinical features of this iatrogenic complication are reported analysing also globally chronic subdural haematoma management and discussing pertinent literature. PMID:22669031
Cybulska, Paulina; Goss, Cheryl; Tew, William P; Parameswaran, Rekha; Sonoda, Yukio
Anemia, which is highly prevalent in oncology patients, is one of the most established negative prognostic factors for several gynecologic malignancies. Multiple factors can cause or contribute to the development of anemia in patients with gynecologic cancers; these factors include blood loss (during surgery or directly from the tumor), renal impairment (caused by platinum-based chemotherapy), and marrow dysfunction (from metastases, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy). Several peri- and intra-operative strategies can be used to optimize patient management and minimize blood loss related to surgery. Blood transfusions are routinely employed as corrective measures against anemia; however, blood transfusions are one of the most overused healthcare interventions. There are safe and effective evidence-based blood transfusion strategies used in other patient populations that warrant further investigation in the surgical oncology setting. Blood is a valuable healthcare resource, and clinicians can learn to use it more judiciously through knowledge of the potential risks and complications of blood interventions, as well as the ability to properly identify the patients most likely to benefit from such interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vadakedath, Sabitha; Kandi, Venkataramana
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is the most prevalent, worldwide public health problem of the elderly population. The main cause of CRF is a damaged kidney. There are five stages of CRF based on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and stage 5 (GFR Dialysis is the preferred way to treat ESRD and remove accumulated toxins from the body. The cardiovascular risk associated with dialysis is 10 to 20 times higher in patients undergoing dialysis than in normal people. The inflamed kidneys and the process of dialysis also affect endothelial function, aggravating the risk of hypertension and cardiac problems. Therefore, both physicians and patients should be aware of the consequences of undergoing dialysis. There is an urgent need to educate CRF patients regarding facts about the disease, medications, dietary habits, and various measures required to manage the condition and lead a normal life. This paper attempts to delineate the mechanisms that could result in cardiovascular and other complications among CRF patients undergoing dialysis.
markdownabstractWomen with a history of cardiometabolic complicated pregnancy are at increased risk for future disease. The experience of having had a complicated pregnancy might open up a window of opportunity to guide these women to a healthier future. The general aim of the thesis is to develop and evaluate a postpartum program appraising cardiovascular health and offering lifestyle intervention after complicated pregnancy to reduce future cardiovascular risks. An overview of the literatur...
Jenkinson, M D; Simpson, C; Nicholas, R S; Miles, J; Findlay, G F. G; Pigott, T J. D
.... Cerebrospinal fluid leak (10%) and meningitis (7%) were the commonest complications. Ninety-six percent of patients with extramedullary tumours improved or remained unchanged on the Frankel scale...
Scott, Ingrid U; Murray, Timothy G; Flynn, Harry W; Feuer, William J; Schiffman, Joyce C
To report visual acuity and anatomic outcomes, as well as complications, associated with giant retinal tear management using intraoperative perfluoro-n-octane and to investigate clinical features associated with anatomic and visual acuity outcomes. A prospective, noncomparative, observational, multicenter study. Two hundred twelve patients (212 eyes) > or =15 months of age who underwent giant retinal tear management with intraoperative perfluoro-n-octane at 24 study sites between April 1994 and February 1996. Giant retinal tear was defined as a retinal tear extending > or =90 degrees. Vitrectomy with perfluoro-n-octane intraoperative retinal tamponade. Visual acuity and rates of retinal reattachment, reoperation, retained perfluoro-n-octane, corneal edema, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP > 25 mmHg), hypotony (IOP or =20/200 was measured in 56 (27%) patients preoperatively and 67 (47%) patients at 6 months. Postoperative visual acuity improved in 107 (59%) eyes, remained stable in 44 (24%) eyes, and worsened in 29 (16%) eyes (percentages are based on the number of patients for whom the data were available at these time points). Of the 124 patients with visual acuity n-octane was noted in 8 (6%) eyes. Throughout follow-up, 64 (30%) eyes underwent reoperation for recurrent retinal detachment. At 6 months, corneal edema, elevated IOP, and hypotony were noted in 5 (4%), 4 (3%), and 12 (9%) eyes, respectively. Of the 72 phakic eyes without cataract preoperatively, 61 (85%) had a cataract or underwent cataract extraction during study follow-up. Factors significantly (P or =20/200 include male gender, no prior vitrectomy, better preoperative vision, and no need for relaxing retinotomy. After adjusting for recurrent detachment, factors significantly associated with vision > or =20/200 include no prior vitrectomy, better preoperative vision, and no need for relaxing retinotomy. Retinal reattachment and preserved visual acuity were achieved in most eyes that underwent
Background With an estimated 74% of all deaths attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in 2010, NCDs have become a major health priority in Brazil. The objective of the study was to conduct a comprehensive literature review on diabetes in Brazil; specifically: the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, the availability of national and regional sources of data (particularly in terms of direct and indirect costs) and health policies for the management of diabetes and its complications. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed to identify articles containing information on diabetes in Brazil. Official documents from the Brazilian government and the World Health Organization, as well as other grey literature and official government websites were also reviewed. Results From 2006 to 2010, an approximate 20% increase in the prevalence of self-reported diabetes was observed. In 2010, it was estimated that 6.3% of Brazilians aged 18 years or over had diabetes. Diabetes was estimated to be responsible for 278,778 years of potential life lost for every 100,000 people. In 2013, it is estimated that about 7% of patients with diabetes has had one or more of the following complications: diabetic foot ulcers, amputation, kidney disease, and fundus changes. The estimated annual direct cost of diabetes was USD $3.952 billion in 2000; the estimated annual indirect cost was USD $18.6 billion. The two main sources of data on diabetes are the information systems of the Ministry of Health and surveys. In the last few years, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has invested considerably in improving surveillance systems for NCDs as well as implementing specific programmes to improve diagnosis and access to treatment. Conclusions Brazil has the capacity to address and respond to NCDs due to the leadership of the Ministry of Health in NCD prevention activities, including an integrated programme currently in place for diabetes. Strengthening the surveillance of NCDs is a
A. E. Myazin
Full Text Available Purpose of the study. Determine the value of genetic variants of a single nucleotide polymorphic site rs3736309 of intron 3 of aquaporin5 (AQP5 gene in the course of critical illness in patients with documented pulmonary infection. Materials and methods. Patients with critical illness admitted to the intensive care units were examined during the course of treatment (n=86, age 27 to 82 years, mean age 53.20±14.34 years. Main diagnosis included malignancies (15%, peritonitis (16% and necrotizing pancreatitis (37%. Patients developed nosocomial pneumonia (55%, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS (54%, septic shock (48%, ARDS combined with septic shock (33%. Bacterial species of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and/or Proteus mirabilis alone or in association were revealed in lavage fluid. DNA genotyping DNA was carried out using tetraprimer polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Statistical processing was performed using GraphPad InStat program (GraphPad, USA.Results. The distribution of frequencies of genotypes AA, GA and GG (AQP5, rs3736309 in cohort of patients corresponded to HardyWeinberg equilibrium (P=0.923 and was similar to frequencies of same alleles determined in a conditionally healthy Caucasian individuals (literature data (P>0.05. In a subgroup of patients with septic shock and AQP5 AA (rs3736309 genotype the lower EVLWI values were found compared to patients with genotypes GG and GA with septic shock in spite of the same approach to treatment. The differences between genetically different subgroups of patients with septic shock were maintained throughout the life of the survey (P<0.05,days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Genetic variant AQP5 G+ (rs3736309 contributed to the development of pulmonary edema resistant to treatment (odds ratio, OR = 6,75; P=0.032. Only the subgroup of patients with septic shock and genotype G + (but not all patients or the subgroup of patients without septic shock of the
This systematic review aimed to summarise the best available evidence relating to the prevention and management of complications associated with established percutaneous gastrostomy tubes in adults. This review considered studies investigating the effectiveness of strategies to prevent and/or manage complications associated with established percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) tubes in adults where care was provided in the hospital, aged care or community setting. Complications included PEG stoma site infection, occlusion, site excoriation and inadvertent removal. The search strategy aimed to find published and unpublished studies and was limited to reports published in the English language. Reference lists of studies that met the inclusion criteria were searched for additional studies. Company representatives were also contacted for information about ongoing or unpublished studies. Study reports selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality prior to inclusion in the review using a critical appraisal instrument developed specifically for this review. There were 40 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this review. Thirty-five were excluded after critical appraisal. The five remaining studies contained information regarding strategies for the prevention and/or management of site infection, occlusion and inadvertent removal. There were no studies include that addressed excoriation at the stoma site. Reported strategies for the prevention of complications included regular follow-up, the provision of pre discharge instructions and programmed tube changes. Strategies reported for the management of site infection included local antibiotic therapy, skin care and intravenous antibiotic therapy. Reported interventions for the management of occlusion included the use of enzymes, guidewires, flushing, replacement and removal. The only intervention reported for the management of inadvertent removal was replacement. The research
D. Berks (Durk)
markdownabstractWomen with a history of cardiometabolic complicated pregnancy are at increased risk for future disease. The experience of having had a complicated pregnancy might open up a window of opportunity to guide these women to a healthier future. The general aim of the thesis is to develop
Full Text Available Aortic dissection is a rare but potentially fatal complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Management strategies of PCI induced dissection are not clearly identified in literature; such occurrences often mandate surgical repair of the aortic root with reimplantation of the coronary arteries. Another trend seen in case reports is the use of coronary-aortic stenting if such lesions permit. Several factors impact the management decision including the hemodynamic stability of the patient; mechanism of aortic injury; size, severity, and direction of propagation of the dissection; presence of an intimal flap; and preexisting atherosclerotic disease. We describe a case of a 65-year-old woman who underwent PCI for a chronic right coronary artery (RCA occlusion, which was complicated by aortic dissection and pericardial effusion. Our case report suggests that nonsurgical management may also be appropriate for PCI induced dissections, and potentially even those associated with new pericardial effusion.
Zawadzki, Paweł J.; Starościak, Bohdan; Perkowski, Konrad; Baltaza, Wanda; Padzik, Marcin; Pionkowski, Krzysztof; Chomicz, Lidia
In this research, a comparative analysis of results of investigations involving different human populations, in terms of a relation between the oral cavity health and the species composition of mouth microbiota is reported. The purpose of this analysis was to identify and assess microorganisms that could cause health complications in patients with neoplasm requiring dental problem-related surgical management. The patients with the oral cancer surgically treated and those without neoplasm were assessed for their oral health: status of teeth, gingiva, periodontium, and occurrence of inflammatory processes. From each patient, microorganisms isolated of periodontium, dental plaque, and dental pocket swabs were identified in wet and stained microscopic preparations; standard microbiology in vitro techniques were also applied to determine the fungal and bacterial strains. The comparative analysis of results of direct microscopic examinations and in vitro cultures assessment indicated significant differences in prevalences of fungi, parasitic oral protozoans and bacteriae in particular patient’s groups. Yeast-like fungi belonging to Candida genus, mostly of C. albicans group, were identified in 93.75% patients with the oral cancer, while in 25% of individuals assessed without neoplasm. E. gingivalis amoebae were only found in 12.5% patients with the serious disease; no trichomonads were detected in all patients analyzed. Among bacteria species, potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae were found in the patients with oral cancer. The pronounced shift in the microbiota species composition in the patients who needed prolonged treatment due to oral cavity cancer, compared to other generally healthy persons has been showed in this analysis.
Vasukutty, N; Kumar, V; Diab, M; Moussa, W
This is a retrospective review of 80 intra-articular calcaneal fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation by a specialist team under supervision of a single surgeon in a tertiary centre between 2005 and 2014. The fractures were evaluated with plain radiography and computed tomography, and graded using the Eastwood-Atkins classification. A lateral approach was used and all fractures were fixed with calcaneal plates. All patients had clinical and radiological follow-up. Clinical assessment included foot and ankle disability index, SF-36 ® and Kerr-Atkins scores. The mean follow-up duration was 72 months (range: 12-130 months). The mean age of patients was 49 years (range: 17-73 years). There were three open fractures and eight patients had other injuries. The mean Bohler's angle improved from 6° preoperatively to 26° postoperatively. The mean foot and ankle disability index score was 78.62, the mean SF-36 ® scores were 45.5 (physical component) and 52.6 (mental component), and the mean Kerr-Atkins score was 72 (range: 36-100). Early complications included one case of screw protrusion in the subtalar joint (which warranted a repeat procedure), one sural nerve injury and one wound breakdown, which healed with non-operative measures. Twelve patients had symptomatic subtalar joint osteoarthritis. Four of these had subtalar fusion. We believe that our strict protocols of patient selection, intraoperative and postoperative management produced long-term results comparable with those in the peer reviewed literature.
Yanagawa, Bobby; Pettersson, Gosta B; Habib, Gilbert; Ruel, Marc; Saposnik, Gustavo; Latter, David A; Verma, Subodh
There has been an overall improvement in surgical mortality for patients with infective endocarditis (IE), presumably because of improved diagnosis and management, centered around a more aggressive early surgical approach. Surgery is currently performed in approximately half of all cases of IE. Improved survival in surgery-treated patients is correlated with a reduction in heart failure and the prevention of embolic sequelae. It is reported that between 20% and 40% of patients with IE present with stroke or other neurological conditions. It is for these IE patients that the timing of surgical intervention remains a point of considerable discussion and debate. Despite evidence of improved survival in IE patients with earlier surgical treatment, a significant proportion of patients with IE and preexisting neurological complications either undergo delayed surgery or do not have surgery at all, even when surgery is indicated and guideline endorsed. Physicians and surgeons are caught in a common conundrum where the urgency of the heart operation must be balanced against the real or perceived risks of neurological exacerbation. Recent data suggest that the risk of neurological exacerbation may be lower than previously believed. Current guidelines reflect a shift toward early surgery for such patients, but there continue to be important areas of clinical equipoise. Individualized clinical assessment is of major importance for decision making, and, as such, we emphasize the need for the functioning of an endocarditis team, including cardiac surgeons, cardiologists, infectious diseases specialists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and interventional neuroradiologists. Here, we present 2 illustrative cases, critically review contemporary data, and offer conceptual and practical suggestions for clinicians to address this important, common, and often fatal cardiac condition. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
To describe early complications and management of newborns during the first month of life. This systematic evidence review is based on Pubmed search, Cochrane library and experts recommendations. There is no optimal time for maternity discharge for low risk newborn in regard of the literature. It depends more on the organisation of the post-discharge follow-up (professional consensus). Extreme hyperbilirubinemia expose to neonatal mortality and severe neurodevelopmental impairment for survivors (level of evidence: 1). Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia occurs in almost all newborns and may be benign if its progression is monitored (transcutaneous bilirubinometer, capillar or venous bilirubin level) at least 24hours after any early discharge (professional consensus). Asymptomatic newborns with high risks of neonatal sepsis have to be closely monitored during the first 48hours of life (professional consensus). Clinical assessment (heart murmure and femoral pulse) at least 24hours after any early discharge and at any clinical examination almost up to 1 month after birth is recommended to detect possible congenital heart disease (professional consensus). Serial clinical examination of the hips by a trained clinician in the periodic health examination of all infants until they are walking independently is recommended (professional consensus). Neonatal screening blood tests are recommended between 60 and 84hours of life in every newborns, can be advanced between 48 and 60hours if necessary but never before 48hours of life (professional consensus). Neonatal screening of deafness is recommended in every newborns and has to be assessed before maternity discharge (professional consensus). All these data have to be reported in the newborn personal medical file (professional consensus). Early discharge has to be prepared during the prenatal period in order to ensure care continuity at home and to avoid any severe neonatal outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights
Debray, D; Mas, E; Munck, A; Gérardin, M; Clouzeau, H
In cystic fibrosis (CF), approximately 5-8% of the patients develop multilobular cirrhosis during the first decade of life. Annual screening (clinical examination, liver biochemistry, ultrasonography) is recommended in order to identify early signs of liver involvement, initiate ursodeoxycholic acid therapy and detect complications (portal hypertension and liver failure). Management should focus on nutrition and prevention of variceal bleeding. The gut may also be involved in children with CF. Gastroesophageal reflux is frequent, although often neglected and should be investigated by pH monitoring and impedancemetry, if available. Acute pancreatitis occurs in patients with persistent exocrine pancreatic activity. Intussusception, appendicular mucocele, distal intestinal occlusion syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and Clostridium difficile colitis should be considered in case of abdominal pain. Preventive nutritional support should be started as soon as possible after diagnosis of CF. Attainment of normal growth is one of the main goals and can be achieved with hypercaloric and salt supplemented food. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy should be started as soon as exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is confirmed and ingested immediately prior to meals with intake of fat-soluble vitamins. Curative nutritional interventions are more likely to be effective in the early stages of pulmonary disease. Feeding disorders, related to the physiopathology and the psychologic aspects of the disease are frequent. Repeated corporeal aggressions, associated with inappropriate medical and parental pressure, may increase the child's refusal of food. The multidisciplinary team should guide parents in order to avoid all intrusive feeding practices and promote pleasant mealtimes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni
Full Text Available Fractures of multiple permanent anterior teeth can be a traumatic experience for children, with functional, esthetic and psychological aspects. The treatment of complicated crown-root fractures (CRFs is more challenging when the biologic width is violated. This paper presents a case of 12-year boy with complicated CRF of teeth #12 and #21, and horizontal crown fracture of tooth #11. It was managed by endodontic treatment, mucoperiosteal surgery with osteotomy to visualize the fracture line for fragment reattachment, followed by fiber-post placement and restoration with polycarbonate crowns. Clinical and radiographic evaluation after 6 months was satisfactory with adequate functional and esthetic results.
Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar; Bhusari, Chitra P; Sharma, Divya S; Bhusari, Prashant; Bansal, Arpana V; Deshmukh, Jeevanand
Fractures of multiple permanent anterior teeth can be a traumatic experience for children, with functional, esthetic and psychological aspects. The treatment of complicated crown-root fractures (CRFs) is more challenging when the biologic width is violated. This paper presents a case of 12-year boy with complicated CRF of teeth #12 and #21, and horizontal crown fracture of tooth #11. It was managed by endodontic treatment, mucoperiosteal surgery with osteotomy to visualize the fracture line for fragment reattachment, followed by fiber-post placement and restoration with polycarbonate crowns. Clinical and radiographic evaluation after 6 months was satisfactory with adequate functional and esthetic results.
Tarkan, Özgür; Tuncer, Ülkü; Özdemir, Süleyman; Sürmelioğlu, Özgür; Çetik, Fikret; Kıroğlu, Mete; Kayıkçıoğlu, Erhan; Kara, Karahan
The purpose of this study is to assess complications occurring after cochlear implantation (CI) in children and to discuss revision surgeries and medical interventions occurring during follow-up. Retrospective study of 475 consecutive pediatric cochlear implantations at a tertiary referral center. The patients (n = 475) who received cochlear implants in our institution between March 2000 and March 2012 were followed up (range, 5 months-12 years). All complications were systematically reviewed, and their causes were analyzed for prevention and therapy. All children received unilateral CI. Mean age at implantation was 3 years 7 months (ranged from 10 months to 18 years). Forty-three patients (9%) experienced complications. Twenty-one patients (4.4%) had major complications, consisting of device failure (10 patients), flap necrosis (4 patients), meningitis (2 patients), electrode shifting (2 patients), hematoma (2 patients) and magnet migration (1 patient). Twenty-two (4.6%) had minor complications, consisting of acute otitis media (5 patients), skin lesion due to pressure reaction in contralateral ear during surgery (4 patients), flap swelling (3 patients), minor wound infection (3 patients), transient facial paralysis (2 patients), transient vertigo (2 patients), hematoma (1 patient), facial stimulation (1 patient), subcutaneous emphysema (1 patient). Complications led to reimplantation in 13 (30.2%) and other revision surgery in 7 (16.2%) of the 43 patients. One patient with meningitis cured with medical treatment and 22 patients with minor complications cured with either medical treatment or spontaneously. Cochlear implantation is a safe technique in experienced hands with a relatively low complication rate. Long term follow up is mandatory to minimize and control surgical complication. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Denise A Yardley1,2 1Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: There is a high risk for bone loss and skeletal-related events, including bone metastases, in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Both the disease itself and its therapeutic treatments can negatively impact bone, resulting in decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone loss. These negative effects on the bone can significantly impact morbidity and mortality. Effective management and minimization of bone-related complications in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remain essential. This review discusses the current understanding of molecular and biological mechanisms involved in bone turnover and metastases, increased risk for bone-related complications from breast cancer and breast cancer therapy, and current and emerging treatment strategies for managing bone metastases and bone turnover in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, bone metastases, hormone receptor-positive, bone-related complications, interventions, management and management strategies, estrogen receptor-positive
Abdelgawad, Mohamed; De Angelis, Francesco; Iossa, Angelo; Rizzello, Mario; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Silecchia, Gianfranco
Laparoscopic revisional bariatric surgery (RBS) is increasingly common. A tailored decision-making process is advocated. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the RBS experience of a single center, analyzing perioperative complications to provide insight into management options and midterm outcomes. Records from November 2011 to March 2015 were reviewed from prospectively maintained database. Six hundred eighteen patients underwent laparoscopic bariatric procedures; of these, 81 (13.1 %) underwent RBS. Patients with a minimum follow-up of 6 months (n = 77) were evaluated. Fifty-nine underwent revised laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and 18 underwent revised Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Indications for RBS were inadequate weight loss or weight regain in 42 cases (54.5 %) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), procedure-related complications, or technical failure in 35 cases (45.5 %). There were no deaths or conversions to open surgery. After a mean follow-up of 22 months, body mass index (BMI) decreased from 40.9 ± 6.7 to 31.9 ± 4.8 kg/m(2), mean % excess weight loss (%EWL) was 58 ± 24.3 %, and 55.3 % of patients had resolution of comorbidities. Eight major complications (10.4 %) occurred: five leaks and three intra-abdominal hematomas. Non-surgical management succeeded in 50 % of complications. This study confirms that RBS is challenging; a complication rate of 10 % is expected. Major surgery can be avoided when devoted endoscopists and radiologists are available. Intensive follow-up after complications allows early diagnosis and treatment of unfavorable sequelae. RBS induced a mean %EWL of 58 % at 2 years and resolution of comorbidities in 50 % of cases. However, the durability of these effects remains questionable.
Shamji, Mohammed F; Westwick, Harrison J; Heary, Robert F
intervention to manage, including lead migration or implant infection, although such complications do not directly threaten patient life or function.
Full Text Available Background : Damage control surgery and the open abdomen technique have been widely used in trauma. These techniques are now being utilized more often in non-trauma patients but the outcomes are not clear. We hypothesized that the use of the open abdomen technique in non-trauma patients 1 is more often due to peritonitis, 2 has a lower incidence of definitive fascial closure during the index hospitalization, and 3 has a higher fistula rate. Methods : Retrospective case series of patients treated with the open abdomen technique over a 5-year period at a level-I trauma center. Data was collected from the trauma registry, operating room (OR case log, and by chart review. The main outcome measures were number of operations, definitive fascial closure, fistula rate, complications, and length of stay. Results : One hundred and three patients were managed with an open abdomen over the 5-year period and we categorized them into three groups: elective (n = 31, urgent (n = 35, and trauma (n = 37. The majority of the patients were male (69%. Trauma patients were younger (39 vs 53 years; P < 0.05. The most common indications for the open abdomen technique were intraabdominal hypertension in the elective group (n = 18, severe intraabdominal infection in the urgent group (n=19, and damage control surgery in the trauma group (n = 28. The number of abdominal operations was similar (3.1−3.7 in the three groups, as was the duration of intensive care unit (ICU stay (average: 25−31 days. The definitive fascial closure rates during initial hospitalization were as follows: 63% in the elective group, 60% in the urgent group, and 54% in the trauma group. Intestinal fistula formation occurred in 16%, 17%, and 11%, respectively, in the three groups, with overall mortality rates of 35%, 31%, and 11%. Conclusion : Intra-abdominal infection was a common reason for use of the open abdomen technique in non-trauma patients. However, the definitive fascial closure and
Samuel A, Victor; R, Mahesh; Gupta Y, Mohit
Mesiodens being the most common type of supernumerary tooth, usually results in malocclusion, poor aesthetics and cyst formation if it is not corrected. The management protocol involves surgical removal. The situation can be complicated in young permanent dentition where there are a lot of chances of damage to the permanent dentition during surgical removal of impacted teeth. This article reports a case of impacted mesiodens which was diagnosed during management of complicated crown fracture. The case was followed up to 3years which showed a good bone formation. The article highlights the need for regular follow-up after surgical removal of impacted teeth in young children, to see any changes or damage in the developing permanent teeth.
This paper aims to review articles related to facial fillers in the periorbital area, forehead, and temple. Anatomy, anatomical changes with aging, techniques of rejuvenation and facial harmonization with fillers are reviewed. Topics for complication prevention and management including knowledge of danger zones, timing of hyaluronidase injections, aspiration, definition a small aliquot, and thoughts about particle size are discussed. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(12):1524-1531.
Many post-operative complications can be avoided with good patient selection, training and surgical planning. Obtaining explicit patient consent is also an essential component of treatment. The most significant complications from oral surgical interventions are iatrogenic trigeminal nerve injuries, which can result in permanent altered sensation and pain, causing considerable functional and psychological disability. This paper provides some useful suggestions on minimising the risks of these injuries. By understanding the risk factors and modifying the resulting intervention, more of these injuries may be prevented.
Takegahara, Kyoshiro; Usuda, Jitsuo; Inoue, Tatsuya; Ibi, Takayuki; Sato, Akira
This study aimed to investigate whether perioperative inhalations of long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) or long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) might decrease the incidence of postoperative complications in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We retrospectively analyzed 108 patients with COPD who underwent pulmonary resections for primary lung cancer at our hospital between January 2013 and January 2016 to determine the association between the incidence of postoperative complications (e.g., prolonged air leakage and pneumonia) and the use of LABAs or LAMAs. Thirty patients with COPD experienced postoperative complications (27.8%): Fourteen patients had prolonged air leakages (more than 7 days), ten patients developed pneumonia. The frequency of these postoperative pulmonary complications was significantly higher among the patients with COPD (24/108 cases, 22.2%), compared with the frequency among non-COPD patients (15/224 cases, 6.7%). Inhaled bronchodilators, such as LAMA or LABA, were prescribed for 34 of the 108 patients with COPD; the remaining 74 patients were not treated with bronchodilators. Pulmonary complications were significant lower among the LAMA or LABA users (3/34 cases, 8.8%) than among the untreated COPD patients (21/74 cases, 28.4%). For lung cancer patients with COPD, preoperative management using LABA or LAMA bronchodilators and smoking cessation can reduce the frequency of postoperative pulmonary complications after surgical lung resection. LAMA or LABA inhalation might be useful for not only perioperative care, but also for the long-term survival of COPD patients after surgery.
Vriend, Joris W. J.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.
Survival of patients with aortic coarctation has dramatically improved after surgical repair became available and the number of patients who were operated and reach adulthood is steadily increasing. However, life expectancy is still not as normal as in unaffected peers. Cardiovascular complications
THE DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE BACTERIAL MAXILLARY SINUSITIS: Is based on at least two of three major criteria: sinus pain, unilateral signs, increasingly voluminous and purulent rhinorrhea. Minor criteria can also be retained for diagnosis if they persist for three days. THE NEED FOR ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY: In this diagnostic context is undeniable, similar to the situation after failure of symptomatic treatment or complication. Likewise for unilateral maxillary sinusitis due to homolateral infection of the superior dental archade or for frontal, ethmoidal, or sphemoïdal sinusities. THE MOST FREQUENTLY CAUSAL BACTERIA: Are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. For first intention treatment generally relies on beta-lactams (amoxicilin/clavulanic acid, second or third generation cephalosporins); pristinamycin may also be useful. Fluoroquinolones active against pneumococci, e.g. levofloxacin, are reserved for cases of sinusitis with risk of complications and for second line treatment after failure in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis. COMPLICATIONS OF SINUSITIS: Can result from anatomic anomalies or from infectious mechanisms such as metastasis of a locoregional infection: peri-orbital cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, thrombophlebitis of the cavernous sinus, extradural, subdural or intracerebral abscess. Three clinical trials are under way to assess efficacy in the treatment of complicated or high risk sinusitis.
L.C.M. da Rocha
Full Text Available Obesity is a serious disorder in almost the entire world. It is an important risk factor for a series of conditions that affect and threaten health. Currently, bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity, and in addition to the resulting weight loss, it reduces morbidity in this population. There has been a significant increase in the number of obese patients operated on. Despite the success of bariatric surgery, an important group of patients still present with major postoperative complications. In order for endoscopy to effectively contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of complications deriving from obesity surgery, the gastroenterologist must be aware of the particularities involved in bariatric surgery. The present article is a review of the resulting anatomic aspects of the main surgical techniques employed, the most common postoperative symptoms, the potential complications, and the possibilities that endoscopic diagnosis and treatment offer. Endoscopy is a growing and continuously evolving method in the treatment of bariatric surgery complications. The aim of this review is to contribute to the preparation of gastroenterologists so they can offer adequate endoscopic diagnosis and treatment to this high-risk population.
van Dieren, S.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading complication of type 2 diabetes and approximately half of the patients with type 2 diabetes will die of a cardiovascular cause. To prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular disease, effective diabetes treatment is necessary. Up-titrating diabetes medication by
Abe, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Susumu; Moriya, Takuro
The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcomes and complications of volar and dorsal plating for the management of intra-articular distal radius fractures, with special regard to indications for dorsal plating. Furthermore, we examine the rationale for choosing dorsal plating and its frequency of use. Clinical assessments included range of motion measurements at the wrist; grip strength; the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score; and the Gartland and Werley score. Clinical results were compared with those achieved using a volarly placed locking plate system. According to Lutsky's plate theory, the rationale for choosing dorsal plating was based on 4 types of pathologic fractures. Of 112 patients, 38 patients were treated with open reduction internal fixation via a dorsal approach and 68 patients were treated using a volar approach. Except for wrist flexion, there were no other statistical differences in the clinical results between groups for both subjective and objective parameters. There were no statistically significant differences in the complication rates between the volar and dorsal plated groups. One serious complication occurred after volar plating. The most common reason for choosing dorsal plating was irreducible dorsal die-punch fractures. The treatment of displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures with a dorsally versus a volarly placed interlocking plate system demonstrated similar clinical results. Postoperative complications were not readily observed in the patients treated with a dorsal locking plate. Certain fracture patterns are more appropriately stabilized using a dorsal plate fixation.
Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esther; Agud Fernández, María; Villa Álvarez, María Cristina; Caurel Sastre, Zaida; Gallego Mínguez, Isabel; Carballo Cardona, César; Juan Arribas, Artur; Piñero Panadero, Raquel; Rubio Casas, Olga; Sáenz Abad, Daniel; Cuervo Pinto, Rafael
Persons with diabetes make up a large percentage of patients attended in the emergency department. Most will be discharged, but patients who remain under observation in wards managed by the emergency department or who wait are waiting to be admitted to a conventional ward must receive appropriate, protocol-guided treatment for their diabetes. Situations of hyper- or hypoglycemia must be avoided because both worsen prognosis. Emergency physicians must correctly and efficiently prevent, diagnose, and manage acute metabolic complications of diabetes such as simple hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. They must also be ready to prescribe and properly administer intravenous insulin to critically ill patients. Hyperglycemia induced by treatment with steroids deserves special mention. If this complication develops, the hyperglycemia is intense, influenced by increased insulin resistance and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Thus, it usually appears after meals and is dependent on steroid dose, duration of treatment, and individual predisposition. The recommendations in this paper elaborated by consensus of the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine (SEMES) experts, are the first to be written specifically for use in emergency departments in Spain. They give a detailed, in-depth overview of emergencies related to diabetes and diabetic complications.
Thomas, Merina; Shorter, Ellen; Joslin, Charlotte E; McMahon, Timothy J; Cortina, M Soledad
The Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (KPro) is the most commonly used artificial cornea worldwide. Long-term bandage contact lenses are the standard of care for patients with these devices. The goal of bandage contact lenses is to maintain hydration and to protect the corneal tissue that surrounds the anterior plate of the keratoprosthesis which is vulnerable to desiccation, epithelial breakdown, dellen formation, and corneal melt. Contact lenses can also improve comfort, correct refractive errors, and improve the cosmesis of patients with artificial corneas. However, the continuous use of contact lenses places these patients at risk for complications such as lens loss, lens deposits, chronic conjunctivitis, and infection. In addition, obtaining an adequate fit in a patient with a compromised ocular surface and history of multiple surgeries including glaucoma drainage devices can present a challenge. This review discusses the types of contact lenses used, special fitting considerations, and common complications in patients with previous KPro surgery.
Meisner, Søren; Lehur, Paul-Antoine; Moran, Brendan; Martins, Lina; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst
Background Peristomal skin complications (PSCs) are the most common post-operative complications following creation of a stoma. Living with a stoma is a challenge, not only for the patient and their carers, but also for society as a whole. Due to methodological problems of PSC assessment, the associated health-economic burden of medium to longterm complications has been poorly described. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a model to estimate treatment costs of PSCs using the standardized assessment Ostomy Skin Tool as a reference. The resultant model was applied to a real-life global data set of stoma patients (n = 3017) to determine the prevalence and financial burden of PSCs. Methods Eleven experienced stoma care nurses were interviewed to get a global understanding of a treatment algorithm that formed the basis of the cost analysis. The estimated costs were based on a seven week treatment period. PSC costs were estimated for five underlying diagnostic categories and three levels of severity. The estimated treatment costs of severe cases of PSCs were increased 2–5 fold for the different diagnostic categories of PSCs compared with mild cases. French unit costs were applied to the global data set. Results The estimated total average cost for a seven week treatment period (including appliances and accessories) was 263€ for those with PSCs (n = 1742) compared to 215€ for those without PSCs (n = 1172). A co-variance analysis showed that leakage level had a significant impact on PSC cost from ‘rarely/never’ to ‘always/often’ p<0.00001 and from ‘rarely/never’ to ‘sometimes’ p = 0.0115. Conclusion PSCs are common and troublesome and the consequences are substantial, both for the patient and from a health economic viewpoint. PSCs should be diagnosed and treated at an early stage to prevent long term, debilitating and expensive complications. PMID:22679479
Laia Rofes; Viridiana Arreola; Jordi Almirall; Mateu Cabré; Lluís Campins; Pilar García-Peris; Renée Speyer; Pere Clavé
Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at ris...
Barquera, Simon; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Arredondo, Armando; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan
Background Mexico has been experiencing some of the most rapid shifts ever recorded in dietary and physical activity patterns leading to obesity. Diabetes mellitus has played a crucial role causing nearly 14% of all deaths. We wanted to make a comprehensive study of the role of diabetes in terms of burden of disease, prevalence, cost of diabetes, cost of complications and health policy. Method We review the quantitative data that provides evidence of the extent to which the Mexican health eco...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peristomal skin complications (PSCs are the most common post-operative complications following creation of a stoma. Living with a stoma is a challenge, not only for the patient and their carers, but also for society as a whole. Due to methodological problems of PSC assessment, the associated health-economic burden of medium to longterm complications has been poorly described. AIM: The aim of the present study was to create a model to estimate treatment costs of PSCs using the standardized assessment Ostomy Skin Tool as a reference. The resultant model was applied to a real-life global data set of stoma patients (n = 3017 to determine the prevalence and financial burden of PSCs. METHODS: Eleven experienced stoma care nurses were interviewed to get a global understanding of a treatment algorithm that formed the basis of the cost analysis. The estimated costs were based on a seven week treatment period. PSC costs were estimated for five underlying diagnostic categories and three levels of severity. The estimated treatment costs of severe cases of PSCs were increased 2-5 fold for the different diagnostic categories of PSCs compared with mild cases. French unit costs were applied to the global data set. RESULTS: The estimated total average cost for a seven week treatment period (including appliances and accessories was 263€ for those with PSCs (n = 1742 compared to 215€ for those without PSCs (n = 1172. A co-variance analysis showed that leakage level had a significant impact on PSC cost from 'rarely/never' to 'always/often' p<0.00001 and from 'rarely/never' to 'sometimes' p = 0.0115. CONCLUSION: PSCs are common and troublesome and the consequences are substantial, both for the patient and from a health economic viewpoint. PSCs should be diagnosed and treated at an early stage to prevent long term, debilitating and expensive complications.
Bémeur, Chantal; Butterworth, Roger F
Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic liver diseases that is often associated with a poor prognosis including worsening of clinical outcome, neuropsychiatric complications as well as outcome following liver transplantation. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis is challenging owing to confounding factors related to liver failure. The objectives of nutritional intervention in cirrhotic patients are the support of liver regeneration, the prevention or correction of specific nutritional deficiencies and the prevention and/or treatment of the complications of liver disease per se and of liver transplantation. Nutritional recommendations target the optimal supply of adequate substrates related to requirements linked to energy, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Some issues relating to malnutrition in chronic liver disease remain to be addressed including the development of an appropriate well-validated nutritional assessment tool, the identification of mechanistic targets or therapy for sarcopenia, the development of nutritional recommendations for obese cirrhotic patients and liver-transplant recipients and the elucidation of the roles of vitamin A hepatotoxicity, as well as the impact of deficiencies in riboflavin and zinc on clinical outcomes. Early identification and treatment of malnutrition in chronic liver disease has the potential to lead to better disease outcome as well as prevention of the complications of chronic liver disease and improved transplant outcomes.
Full Text Available Tracheal stenosis in association with the double aortic arch (DAA is uncommon; however, it carries a high risk of morbidity, mortality, and restenosis. Although surgery is the mainstay of managing a case of the DAA with tracheal stenosis, management of tracheal restenosis requires a multidisciplinary approach. In this case report, we present our successful experience in managing a child of DAA with tracheal stenosis who developed tracheal restenosis after sliding tracheoplasty of trachea.
Kleiman, Amanda M; Sheeran, Jessica L; Tiouririne, Mohamed
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of peripartum death in the United States during pregnancy. The presence of concomitant diagnoses may complicate or conflict with the management of the primary cardiovascular diagnosis and further complicate pregnancy and delivery. We describe the management of a 29-year-old, gravida 5, para 1 woman with severe peripartum cardiomyopathy during this and a previous pregnancy complicated by multiple endocrine neoplasia type and factor V Leiden thrombophilia, limiting therapeutic options and contributing to considerable perioperative management challenges.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and management of severe maternal and newborn complications in selected health facilities in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn health, information was collected from medical records of women with deliveries and/or severe maternal complications during pregnancy or puerperium in 14 hospitals in Mexico City and the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. RESULTS: Of 13 311 women, 157 (12 per 1 000 live births had severe maternal complications including 4 maternal deaths. The most frequent complications were preeclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, and chronic hypertension. Adverse perinatal outcomes were more frequent among women with severe maternal complications. A high use of uterotonics and parenteral antibiotics was found. A small proportion of women with eclampsia received magnesium sulfate. CONCLUSION: This study provides indicators on the incidence and management of maternal and neonatal complications in Mexico, which may be useful in studying and evaluating the performance of obstetric services.OBJETIVO: Describir la incidencia y manejo de complicaciones maternas y neonatales severas en hospitales seleccionados de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el marco de la Encuesta Multipaís de la OMS sobre Salud Materna y Neonatal, se recolectó información de los expedientes médicos de las mujeres que tuvieron su parto o experimentaron complicaciones maternas severas durante el embarazo o puerperio en 14 hospitales de la Ciudad de México y el estado de Guanajuato, México. RESULTADOS: De 13 311 mujeres, 157 (12/1 000 nacidos vivos tuvieron complicaciones maternas severas, incluyendo 4 muertes maternas. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron preeclampsia, hemorragia postparto e hipertensión crónica. Los resultados perinatales adversos fueron más frecuentes en las mujeres con complicaciones severas. Hubo un uso amplio de uterotónicos y antibi
Pereira, Keith, E-mail: email@example.com [Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Carrion, Andres F., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami Hospital, Department of Hepatology (United States); Salsamendi, Jason, E-mail: JSalsamendi@med.miami.edu; Doshi, Mehul, E-mail: MDoshi@med.miami.edu; Baker, Reginald, E-mail: RBaker@med.miami.edu; Kably, Issam, E-mail: email@example.com [Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has evolved as an effective intervention for treatment of complications of portal hypertension. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents have improved the patency of the shunts and diminished the incidence of TIPS dysfunction. However, TIPS-related refractory hepatic encephalopathy (rHE) poses a significant challenge. Approximately 3–7 % of patients with TIPS develop rHE. Refractory hepatic encephalopathy is defined as a recurrent or persistent encephalopathy despite appropriate medical treatment. Hepatic encephalopathy can be an extremely debilitating complication that profoundly affects quality of life. The approach to management of patients with rHE is complex and typically requires collaboration between different specialties. Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for rHE; however, the ongoing shortage of organ donation markedly limits this treatment option. Alternative therapies such as shunt occlusion or reduction can control symptoms and serve as a ‘bridge’ therapy to liver transplantation. Therefore, interventional radiologists play a key role in the management of these patients by offering a variety of endovascular techniques. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of these endovascular techniques and to develop a therapeutic algorithm that can be applied in clinical practice for the management of rHE.
Lineberry, Kyle D; Shue, Shirley; Chepla, Kyle J
Penetrating trauma or lacerations within zone II of the flexor sheath may result in partial tendon injury. The proper management of this injury is controversial; the literature contains differing indications for surgical treatment and post-operative rehabilitation. A literature review of the Cochrane, Medline and Pubmed databases was performed using the following search criteria: partial, flexor, tendon, laceration. All English language studies that evaluated biomechanical strength, complications, and outcomes after partial tendon injury in human and animal studies were included and reviewed by two of the authors. Animal and cadaveric biomechanical studies have demonstrated that partial lacerations involving up to 95% of the tendon cross-sectional area can safely tolerate loads generated through unresisted, active finger flexion. Suture tenorraphy of partial tendon injury is associated with decreased tendon tensile strength, increased resistance, and decreased tendon gliding. Complications of non-surgical management include triggering and entrapment, which can be managed by tendon beveling or pulley release. Late rupture is extremely uncommon (one report). Partial tendon lacerations involving 90% of the cross-sectional area can be safely treated without surgical repair and immediate protected active motion. Indications for exploration and treatment include concern for complete injury, triggering of the involved digit, or entrapment of the tendon. Surgical treatment for tendon triggering or entrapment with less than 75% cross-sectional injury is beveling of the tendon edges and injuries greater than 75% should be repaired with a non-, simple epitendinous suture. All patients should be allowed to perform early protected active motion after surgery.
Crafts, Glenn J.; Snow, Gregory J.; Ngoc, Kim Hong
Objective Work-related upper limb disorder (WRULD) encompasses a broad array of occupational upper limb injuries, the most common being carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Carpal tunnel syndrome occasionally presents with concomitant ganglion cysts. The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of a patient with bilateral WRULD complicated by ganglion cysts. Clinical Features The patient was diagnosed previously with bilateral CTS and presented with common CTS symptoms that were nonresponsive to several previous courses of care. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral ganglion cysts, and electrodiagnostic studies found left CTS and bilateral radial neuralgia. Right limb findings appeared more consistent with nonspecific arm pain. Intervention and Outcome Chiropractic manipulative therapy, soft-tissue approaches, and physiotherapy modalities were applied to the arms and wrists over a 3-month period. Home care included exercises using elastic tubing and a gyroscopic handheld device. Chiropractic manipulative therapy and other conservative approaches resulted in subjective improvements of decreased hand paresthesias and muscle weakness and objective improvements in range of motion and neurologic deficits. Although the patient's symptoms and function improved, she remained with a level of permanent impairment. Conclusion This case demonstrates successful chiropractic management of a patient with WRULD complicated by ganglion cysts. Further larger-scale studies are recommended to determine if chiropractic management demonstrates positive outcomes for this condition. PMID:22014905
Jabeen, Alia; Dawood, Nasira Sabiha; Riaz, Shazia; Tanveer, Shamaila
To study the methods used for the termination of pregnancy and associated complications of induced abortion. This descriptive study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi. One Hundred patients were included in the study who was admitted with the history of induced abortion. The patients were assessed by detailed history and thorough clinical examination according to the study protocol. Data was collected on a specially designed Performa. Patients were interviewed in privacy and factors contributing to termination of pregnancy like age, parity, socioeconomic status and contraceptive failure were determined. Methods used for the procedure, status of abortionist were asked. Complications were determined by history, clinical examination and ultrasound examination. In view of all above data recommendations of preventing unwanted pregnancies were made. All patients were married and 57% of women belonged to age group of 31-40 years. Fifty-four 54% were grand multipara. In 63% of patients, induced abortion was carried out by Dai's. Most commonly used method was instrumentation (72%). Financial problems (46.7% ) and high parity (40%) were the most common factors contributing to termination of pregnancy. Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were accounted in 13% of women, septicaemia in 61%, peritonitis in 15% and DIC in 2%. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 2% maternal deaths. Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-compliance of contraception were strong determinants of induced abortion, instrumentation being the most commonly used procedure resulting in high morbidity and mortality.
Barquera, Simon; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Arredondo, Armando; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan
Mexico has been experiencing some of the most rapid shifts ever recorded in dietary and physical activity patterns leading to obesity. Diabetes mellitus has played a crucial role causing nearly 14% of all deaths. We wanted to make a comprehensive study of the role of diabetes in terms of burden of disease, prevalence, cost of diabetes, cost of complications and health policy. We review the quantitative data that provides evidence of the extent to which the Mexican health economy is affected by the disease and its complications. We then discuss the current situation of diabetes in Mexico with experts in the field. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes from 1994 to 2006 with rising direct costs (2006: outpatient USD$ 717,764,787, inpatient USD$ 223,581,099) and indirect costs (2005: USD$ 177,220,390), and rising costs of complications (2010: Retinopathy USD$ 10,323,421; Cardiovascular disease USD$ 12,843,134; Nephropathy USD$ 81,814,501; Neuropathy USD$ 2,760,271; Peripheral vascular disease USD$ 2,042,601). The health policy focused on screening and the creation of self-support groups across the country. The increasing diabetes mortality and lack of control among diagnosed patients make quality of treatment a major concern in Mexico. The growing prevalence of childhood and adult obesity and the metabolic syndrome suggest that the situation could be even worse in the coming years. The government has reacted strongly with national actions to address the growing burden posed by diabetes. However our research suggests that the prevalence and mortality of diabetes will continue to rise in the future.
Background Mexico has been experiencing some of the most rapid shifts ever recorded in dietary and physical activity patterns leading to obesity. Diabetes mellitus has played a crucial role causing nearly 14% of all deaths. We wanted to make a comprehensive study of the role of diabetes in terms of burden of disease, prevalence, cost of diabetes, cost of complications and health policy. Method We review the quantitative data that provides evidence of the extent to which the Mexican health economy is affected by the disease and its complications. We then discuss the current situation of diabetes in Mexico with experts in the field. Results There was a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes from 1994 to 2006 with rising direct costs (2006: outpatient USD$ 717,764,787, inpatient USD$ 223,581,099) and indirect costs (2005: USD$ 177,220,390), and rising costs of complications (2010: Retinopathy USD$ 10,323,421; Cardiovascular disease USD$ 12,843,134; Nephropathy USD$ 81,814,501; Neuropathy USD$ 2,760,271; Peripheral vascular disease USD$ 2,042,601). The health policy focused on screening and the creation of self-support groups across the country. Conclusions The increasing diabetes mortality and lack of control among diagnosed patients make quality of treatment a major concern in Mexico. The growing prevalence of childhood and adult obesity and the metabolic syndrome suggest that the situation could be even worse in the coming years. The government has reacted strongly with national actions to address the growing burden posed by diabetes. However our research suggests that the prevalence and mortality of diabetes will continue to rise in the future. PMID:23374611
Radiological management of patients with urinary obstruction following urinary diversion procedures: technical factors, complications, long-term management and outcome. Experience with 378 procedures.
Maher, M M
We aimed to assess management by interventional radiology techniques of patients with urinary diversion procedures (UD) complicated by urinary obstruction (UO). A 12-year electronic database of interventional cases was searched for urinary access in patients with UD. Patients\\' records were assessed for aetiology of obstruction, indication for procedure, types of interventional radiology, complications and outcome. Management issues included frequency of visits for catheter care, type of catheter placement and technical problems associated with catheter maintenance. Three hundred and seventy eight procedures were carried out in 25 patients (mean age 70 years; Male : Female ratio 13:12). Indications for UD were malignancy (n = 22) and neuropathic bladder (n = 3). UD included ileal conduits (n = 17), cutaneous ureterostomy (n = 3 (2 patients)) and sigmoid colon urinary conduit (n = 6). In most patients, catheters were placed antegradely through nephrostomy tract, but subsequent access was through the UD. Twenty of 25 patients had unilateral stents where as 5 had bilateral stents (8-10- Fr pigtail catheters (20-45 cm in length)). The mean number of procedures including catheter changes was 15 +\\/- 4 per patient and 331 of 378 procedures (87 %) were carried out as outpatients. Since catheter placement, 11 patients required hospital admission on 22 occasions for catheter-related complications. Ureteric strictures in patients with UD can be successfully managed by interventional radiology.
Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Nakashima, Naoki; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi
We developed a new critical pathway technique and an outbound-inbound call center system. The former is to support general physicians to care for outpatients with diabetes mellitus according to practice guidelines. We employed the "Overlay method" to develop personalized optimal critical pathways. Our overview critical pathways consist of basic sheets for regular examinations and optional sheets on which the kinds and frequencies of medical examinations are determined according to many parameters, such as methods of treatment, the severity of diabetic complications, and knowledge levels. The critical pathway is continually modified according to the change in the patient's condition. The latter is to maintain and enhance the treatment motivation of outpatients. Call center agents collect medical information, making outgoing calls using a questionnaire about the patient's health status and diabetic complications as well as receiving incoming calls. When patients do not visit on the appointment date, call center agents arrange the next consultation to prevent treatment dropout. These systems are now under evaluation in a clinical trial of outpatients with diabetes mellitus.
Dumont, Travis M; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V; Hopkins, L Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I
A rare complication of neuroendovascular procedures is acute thromboembolism. In the setting of intraprocedural or periprocedural embolism, thrombolytics present a potentially useful therapeutic strategy. A series of patients in whom eptifibatide (a platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor) was used in the treatment of iatrogenic thromboembolic events occurring during elective neuroendovascular procedures is described. Consecutive cases between May 2009 and July 2011 in which eptifibatide was administered were identified and individually reviewed for inclusion in this study (n=12). All study patients received a uniform, weight based bolus dose of 180 μg/kg of eptifibatide administered either intra-arterially through the guide catheter or intravenously. Eptifibatide infusion (2 μg/kg/min) for 24 h after bolus dose administration was continued at the discretion of the surgeon. Procedural details are described and illustrative cases presented. Three major categories of thromboembolic events were isolated in the course of review of study cases: acute focal neurological decline and no radiographic findings of flow limitation (eight patients), radiographic findings with or without symptoms (two patients) and persistent particulate debris during flow reversal as part of a carotid revascularization procedure (two patients). Following eptifibatide administration, no patient experienced hemorrhagic complications, and neurologic improvement to baseline level was noted in 10 of 12 patients. Eptifibatide may be an effective therapeutic strategy in the event of thromboembolism during elective neuroendovascular procedures.
Silva, Patrícia Rocha; Ferreira, Cristina; Bizarro, Susana; Cerveira, Nuno; Torres, Lurdes; Moreira, Ilídia; Mariz, José Mário
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by sustained neutrophilia and the absence of the Philadelphia chromosome or the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. The present study reports the case of a 59-year-old Caucasian female that was referred to The Francisco Gentil Portuguese Institute of Oncology (Porto, Portugal) with constitutional symptoms (mainly asthenia), marked leukocytosis (51.33×10(9)/l with 90% neutrophils), macrocytic anemia and splenomegaly. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy revealed hypercellular marrow with clear predominance of segmented neutrophils. The karyotype was normal and the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene was not detected. After excluding a leukemoid reaction, a diagnosis of CNL was established. The clinical follow-up was complicated by hemorrhagic brain lesions and relapsing episodes of erythematous, well-demarcated and painful subcutaneous nodular lesions, consistent with Sweet's syndrome (SS). Multiple treatment strategies were administered, including use of hydroxyurea, imatinib and intensive chemotherapy. Nevertheless, progression was documented and the patient succumbed at 28 months post-diagnosis. The clinical course of CNL varies, and can be complicated by cerebral hemorrhage, blastic transformation or infection. Dermatological manifestations such as SS have seldom been reported in association. No evidence-based treatment currently exists and the majority of our knowledge is based on results from case reports and small series.
Battaloglu, E; Porter, K
This consensus statement seeks to provide clear guidance for the management of pregnant trauma patients in the prehospital setting. Pregnant patients sustaining trauma injuries have certain clinical management priorities beyond that of the non-pregnant trauma patients and that if overlooked may be detrimental to maternal and fetal outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Patil, Shankargouda; Guvva, Sowjanya; Karthik, Sandhya; Bhandi, Shilpa
A young child being diagnosed with cancer naturally generates a pretty melancholy reaction. Each cancer can be managed with a vast array of treatment options that are available either individually or as a combination, the final goal of which is total eradication of the condition in the affected individual. Since, most of these treatments are administered during the age of tooth formation, they may affect stages of odontogenesis. Most common treatment of childhood cancers includes--chemotherapy and radiotherapy. With recent advancements in cancer therapy additional treatment options like laser therapy, radiation in the form of brachytherapy or teletherapy, cryotherapy, thermochemotherapy, etc. are available. As treatment of childhood cancers starts at a very young age coinciding with dental development, a number of dental malformations have been reported in childhood cancer survivors. The most common ocular cancer in children is retinoblastoma. This is the first such reported case and unique one where microdontia has affected all the first premolars.
Fruh, Sharon M
The aims of this article are to review the effects of obesity on health and well-being and the evidence indicating they can be ameliorated by weight loss, and consider weight-management strategies that may help patients achieve and maintain weight loss. Narrative review based on literature searches of PubMed up to May 2016 with no date limits imposed. Search included terms such as "obesity," "overweight," "weight loss," "comorbidity," "diabetes," cardiovascular," "cancer," "depression," "management," and "intervention." Over one third of U.S. adults have obesity. Obesity is associated with a range of comorbidities, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and cancer; however, modest weight loss in the 5%-10% range, and above, can significantly improve health-related outcomes. Many individuals struggle to maintain weight loss, although strategies such as realistic goal-setting and increased consultation frequency can greatly improve the success of weight-management programs. Nurse practitioners have key roles in establishing weight-loss targets, providing motivation and support, and implementing weight-loss programs. With their in-depth understanding of the research in the field of obesity and weight management, nurse practitioners are well placed to effect meaningful changes in weight-management strategies deployed in clinical practice. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Md Abdul Hannan Sheikh
Full Text Available Restoration of a fractured tooth is routinely performed in clinical practice. Many factors are considered in an effort to provide optimal mechanical properties, aesthetics, longevity as well as patient acceptance. In this type of challenging endeavour, main effort should be made to save as much of the coronal tooth structure to increase survival rate of endodontically-treated teeth. This case report presents a 35-year-old male with an oblique complicated crown fracture of maxillary left central incisor tooth. The procedure used to repair the fracture was gingivectomy followed by endodontic treatment. The root canal was filled with a root canal sealer and gutta-percha points. After root canal obturation, the tooth was restored with a glass fiber post and composite resin without additional crown coverage. The restoration made it possible to maintain the remaining tooth structure in a good occlusion and resulted in a high level of patient satisfaction.
Full Text Available Patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT experience many clinical complications despite their independence from frequent transfusions. Morbidities in NTDT stem from the interaction of multiple pathophysiological factors: ineffective erythropoiesis, iron overload (IOL, and hypercoagulability. Ineffective erythropoiesis and hemolysis are associated with chronic hypoxia and a hypercoagulable state. The latter are linked to a high prevalence of thromboembolic and cerebrovascular events, as well as leg ulcers and pulmonary hypertension. IOL in NTDT patients is a cumulative process that can lead to several iron-related morbidities in the liver (liver fibrosis, kidneys, endocrine glands (endocrinopathies, and vascular system (vascular disease. This review sheds light on the pathophysiology underlying morbidities associated with NTDT and summarizes the mainstays of treatment and some of the possible future therapeutic interventions.
Song, Mi Hyun; Choi, Eun-Seok; Park, Moon Seok; Yoo, Won Joon; Chung, Chin Youb; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon
Percutaneous epiphysiodesis using transphyseal screws (PETS) has been used to manage leg length discrepancy (LLD) in growing children. The purposes of this study were to analyze effects of PETS on LLD, its associated complications, to determine optimal operation timing, and find ways of preventing complications. The data of 59 patients obtained up to screw removal or at skeletal maturity were retrospectively analyzed. Retrospective growth calculations were done using multiplier method. The efficacy of LLD correction was calculated, and the predicted segment length with the index operation was compared with the final measured length and final LLD was measured. The screw insertion angle in 3-dimension was calculated, and it was correlated with the efficacy. Complications associated with screw design and the techniques used were analyzed. The LLD correction efficacy averaged 75.5% (5.0 to 114.0) at the distal femur and 78.9% (11.0 to 111.0) at the proximal tibia. However, mean final LLD was 3.0 mm (range, -10.0 to 16.7 mm), presumably because operations were performed on average 1.3 years earlier than estimated by growth calculation. Three-dimensional screw insertion angle was positively correlated with LLD correction efficacy. Complications were closely related to the screw design and the implantation techniques. PETS provides a minimally invasive and effective means of LLD correction. In view of its delayed effect, we recommend that PETS be performed at least 1 year earlier than estimated optimal epiphysiodesis timing. The careful selection of screw design and length and accurate screw placement are the keys to successful results. Level IV prognostic studies.
La Farina, Francesca; Raparelli, Valeria; Napoleone, Laura; Guadagni, Fiorella; Basili, Stefania; Ferroni, Patrizia
In Italy, each year 500,000 couples refer to specialized centers due to reproductive problems. Among them, recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) represents a problem of great importance, given that it affects up to 5% of women of childbearing age. Infertility, on the other hand, is a condition that currently covers 10-20% of couples of reproductive age, being idiopathic in 20% of cases. Accumulating evidence support the concept that changes of blood coagulation, generically defined as the presence of a thrombophilic state (congenital or acquired), are the basis of 40-70% of cases of multiple abortions or infertility. Several evidences support the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark of a condition of low-grade inflammation, is one of the earliest manifestations of thrombotic phenomena. To date, it's believed that, while the antiinflammatory Th2 cytokines (i.e. interleukin-10) can exert a protective role in pregnancy, the pro-inflammatory Th1 ones (i.e. interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α,) have deleterious effects on pregnancy outcome, including fertilization and implantation failure. Moreover, development of many pregnancy complications, first and foremost venous thromboembolism (VTE), recognizes similar mechanism(s). As VTE is the main preventable cause of mortality during pregnancy, thromboprophylaxis is mandatory according to individual VTE risk, influenced by the presence of thrombophilic conditions. In this review, we will analyze the relationship between thrombophilia and pregnancy complications, with particular focus on the role of inflammation. Subsequently, we will consider some issues related to the thromboembolic risk in pregnancy. Finally, the role of thromboprophylaxis in pregnancy will be discussed.
Mazloomdoost, Donna; Pauls, Rachel N; Kleeman, Steven D; Crisp, Catrina C
The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of women presenting with mesh-related complications and evaluate postoperative quality of life, sexual functioning, and patient-perceived outcomes. This institutional review board-approved study included a retrospective chart review and a cross-sectional follow-up with validated questionnaires. Demographics and medical histories were collected from charts of women treated for mesh-related complaints between 2010 and 2014. Subjects completed follow-up validated questionnaires regarding health, sexual functioning, postoperative symptom improvement/severity, satisfaction, and regret with the decision to pursue treatment. Ninety-three charts were analyzed. Mean subject age was 55 years, median body mass index was 28.7 kg/m, and median time from mesh placement to presentation was 2.7 years. Forty-nine had midurethral sling mesh only, 30 had prolapse-related mesh, and 14 had both. Forty-two subjects (48.9%) had mesh exposures, 19 involving prolapse-related mesh (52.4% transvaginal and 47.4% sacrocolpopexy). Surgical revisions were most often for exposure and pain. Seventy-five women were reached for follow-up; 71 agreed to participate, 53 (75%) returned the questionnaires. Thirty had sling revision, 22 had prolapse mesh revision, and 1 had both. Questionnaire results revealed no changes in health or sexual function after treatment. Postoperatively, subjects reported symptom improvement, low symptom severity, as well as high satisfaction and low regret with the decision to pursue surgical intervention. Women with mesh complications presented 2 years after initial placement, most often complaining of exposure or pain/dyspareunia. Although no changes in health or sexual functioning were noted postoperatively, participants reported symptom improvement after revision and satisfaction with the decision to pursue treatment.
Zhang, Yiqun; Zhou, Pinghong
Endoscopy plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of postoperative complications of gastric cancer. Endoscopic intervention can avoid the second operation and has attracted wide attention. Early gastric anastomotic bleeding after gastrectomy is the most common. With the development of technology, emergency endoscopy and endoscopic hemostasis provide a new treatment approach. According to the specific circumstances, endoscopists can choose metal clamp to stop bleeding, electrocoagulation hemostasis, local injection of epinephrine or sclerotherapy agents, and spraying specific hemostatic agents. Anastomotic fistula is a serious postoperative complication. In addition to endoscopically placing the small intestine nutrition tube for early enteral nutrition support treatment, endoscopic treatment, including stent, metal clip, OTSC, and Over-stitch suture system, can be chosen to close fistula. For anastomotic obstruction or stricture, endoscopic balloon or probe expansion and stent placement can be chosen. For esophageal anastomotic intractable obstruction after gastroesophageal surgery, radial incision of obstruction by the hook knife or IT knife, a new method named ERI, is a good choice. Bile leakage caused by bile duct injury can be treated by placing the stent or nasal bile duct. In addition, endoscopic methods are widely used as follows: abdominal abscess can be treated by the direct intervention under endoscopy; adhesive ileus can be treated by placing the catheter under the guidance of endoscopy to attract pressure; alkaline reflux gastritis can be rapidly diagnosed by endoscopy; gastric outlet obstruction mainly caused by cancer recurrence can be relieved by metal stent placement and the combination of endoscopy and X-ray can increase success rate; pyloric dysfunction and spasm caused by the vagus nerve injury during proximal gastrectomy can be treated by endoscopic pyloromyotomy, a new method named G-POEM, and the short-term outcomes are
José PEIRATS CHACÓN
Full Text Available The level of introduction of the so called software of management in the educational centers of secondary education is already very high, and consequently capable of being analyzed. On these pages, based on the first results of an investigation that we realize in the Valencian Community, we reflect on the use in some of these centers of applications and gadgetry of management, emphasizing the tensions that are perceived among its possibilities as a resource of help to the professorship, and the conditionings its use imposes as an instrument of control
Liu, Dora; Ahmet, Alexandra; Ward, Leanne; Krishnamoorthy, Preetha; Mandelcorn, Efrem D; Leigh, Richard; Brown, Jacques P; Cohen, Albert; Kim, Harold
Systemic corticosteroids play an integral role in the management of many inflammatory and immunologic conditions, but these agents are also associated with serious risks. Osteoporosis, adrenal suppression, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, Cushing's syndrome, psychiatric disturbances and immunosuppression are among the more serious side effects noted with systemic corticosteroid therapy, particularly when used at high doses for prolonged periods. This comprehensive article reviews these adverse events and provides practical recommendations for their prevention and management based on both current literature and the clinical experience of the authors.
Liu, Dora; Ahmet, Alexandra; Ward, Leanne; Krishnamoorthy, Preetha; Mandelcorn, Efrem D.; Leigh, Richard; Brown, Jacques P; Cohen, Albert; Kim, Harold
Systemic corticosteroids play an integral role in the management of many inflammatory and immunologic conditions, but these agents are also associated with serious risks. Osteoporosis, adrenal suppression, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, Cushing?s syndrome, psychiatric disturbances and immunosuppression are among the more serious side effects noted with systemic corticosteroid therapy, particularly when used at high doses for prolonged periods. This comprehensive article ...
Both pacemakers and cardiac defibrillators (ICD) have been designed to treat cardiac arrhythmias. These arrhythmias often lead to life-threatening conditions. Numerous studies have shown the benefits on survival and quality of life of these cardiac rhythm management (CRM) devices. These devices rely
Health-related quality of life and health preference of Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus managed in primary care and secondary care setting: decrements associated with individual complication and number of complications.
Jiao, Fangfang; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Gangwani, Rita; Tan, Kathryn Choon Beng; Tang, Sydney Chi Wai; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and health preference of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are essential in health economic evaluations but data on Chinese population is rare. This study aims to evaluate HRQoL and health preference of diabetic patients with different diabetic complications in Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1275 patients with DM, including 518 subjects with various DM-related complications. HRQoL and health preference were estimated using SF-12 and SF-6D questionnaires, respectively. Disease status of DM and complications were identified from documented clinical diagnosis. Multivariable regression was used to investigate the effects of specific complications on HRQoL and health preference, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical parameters. The presence of any diabetic complication was associated with lower physical component summary (-3.81 points, P diabetic complications. The health preference score for diabetic subjects without complications was 0.882 (95% CI, 0.778 to 0.989). The reductions of health preference score were significant for stroke (-0.042, 95% CI -0.072 to -0.012), ESRD (-0.055, 95% CI -0.093 to -0.017), and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) (-0.043, 95% CI -0.075 to -0.010), while heart disease had an insignificant reduction (-0.017, 95% CI -0.042 to 0.008). The presence of any of the four major diabetic complications (heart disease, stroke, ESRD and STDR) was associated with lower HRQoL and health preference scores. Findings of this study facilitated the cost-effectiveness studies of alternative management strategies for prevention of diabetic complications in Chinese population.
Park, Albert H; Tunkel, David E; Park, Erica; Barnhart, Douglas; Liu, Edward; Lee, Justin; Black, Richard
Successful removal of an airway foreign body can be very challenging. We present three patients with airway foreign body aspiration successfully treated using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Their clinical presentation and findings will be reviewed to determine when ECMO should be considered for treatment. Retrospective multi-institutional review of a case series of patients with airway foreign body who underwent successful treatment using ECMO. After institutional review board approval, the use of ECMO during airway foreign body procedures in children was reviewed from the pediatric research in otolaryngology (PRO) network. This network comprises of over 20 Children's hospitals to improve the health of and healthcare delivery to children and their families with otolaryngology conditions. Specific parameters were recorded for each patient. Three children presented with airway foreign body and required ECMO for successful removal. Mean age was 18 months. Presenting symptoms included severe and worsening respiratory distress. Indications for ECMO included an inability to perform rigid bronchoscopy due to the child's unstable respiratory status and an airway foreign body lodged in the trachea that could not be removed without potential loss of airway support. All three children underwent successful removal of their airway foreign bodies. There were no complications from ECMO or bronchoscopy. ECMO may be a useful adjunct in cases of life threatening airway foreign body aspiration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alfredo J. Lucendo
Full Text Available Background: Numerous disorders impairing or diminishing a patient's ability to swallow may benefit from a PEG tube placement. This is considered the elective feeding technique if a functional digestive system is present. Methods: A PubMed-based search restricted to the English literature from the last 20 years was conducted. References in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: PEG feeding has consistently demonstrated to be more effective and safe than nasogastric tube feeding, having also replaced surgical and radiological gastrostomy techniques for long term feeding. PEG is considered a minimally invasive procedure to ensure an adequate source for enteral nutrition in institutionalized and at home patients. Acute and chronic conditions associated with risk of malnutrition and dysphagia benefit from PEG placement: Beyond degenerative neuro-muscular disorders, an increasing body of evidence supports the advantages of PEG tubes in patients with head and neck cancer and in a wide range of situations in pediatric settings. The safety of PEG placement under antithrombotic medication is discussed. While antibiotic prophylaxis reduces peristomal wound infection rates, co-trimoxazole solutions administered through a newly inserted catheter constitutes an alternative to intravenous antibiotics. Early feeding (3-6 hours after PEG placement firmly supports on safety evidences, additionally resulting in reduced costs and hospital stays. Complications of PEG are rare and the majority prevented with appropriated nursing cares. Conclusions: PEG feeding provides the most valuable access for nutrition in patients with a functional gastrointestinal system. Its high effectiveness, safety and reduced cost underlie increasing worldwide popularity.
Full Text Available Mbiye A Mpenge,1 Alasdair P MacGowan2 1Department of Medical Microbiology, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, England; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, England Abstract: Ceftaroline is a new parenteral cephalosporin approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs including those due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Ceftaroline has broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and exerts its bactericidal effects by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs, resulting in inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It binds to PBP 2a of MRSA with high affinity and also binds to all six PBPs in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In in vitro studies, ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA and vancomycin-intermediate isolates, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multidrug resistant isolates, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and many common gram-negative pathogens, excluding extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In Phase II and Phase III clinical trials, ceftaroline was noninferior to its comparator agents and demonstrated high clinical cure rates in the treatment of cSSTIs and CAP. It demonstrated favorable outcomes in patients treated for both regulatory-approved indications and unlicensed indications in a retrospective analysis. Ceftaroline is a safe and effective option for treatment in specific patient populations in which its efficacy and safety have been proven. This article reviews the challenges in the treatment of cSSTI and CAP, ceftaroline and its microbiology, pharmacology, efficacy, and safety data which support its use in
Reddy, Jagadesh C; Basu, Sayan; Saboo, Ujwala S; Murthy, Somasheila I; Vaddavalli, Pravin K; Sangwan, Virender S
To assess the clinical outcomes and complications of shield ulcers by various treatment methods. Retrospective, interventional case series. setting: Cornea and anterior segment service of L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, India. study population: One hundred ninety-three eyes of 163 patients clinically diagnosed with vernal keratoconjunctivitis and shield ulcers. intervention: The treatment algorithm was based on the Cameron clinical grading of shield ulcers. Grade 1 ulcers received medical therapy alone. Grade 2 and grade 3 ulcers received either medical therapy alone or medical therapy combined with debridement, amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT), or both. main outcome measures: Re-epithelialization time and best-corrected visual acuity. Grade 1 ulcers were seen in 71 (37%) eyes, grade 2 ulcers were seen in 79 (41%) eyes, and grade 3 ulcers were seen in 43 (22%) eyes. In the grade 1 group, re-epithelialization was seen in 67 (94%) eyes. In the grade 2 group, re-epithelialization was seen in 36 (88%) eyes that received medical treatment, in 20 (95%) eyes that underwent debridement, and in 17 (100%) eyes that underwent AMT. In the grade 3 group, re-epithelialization was seen in only 1 (1.7%) eye that received medical treatment, whereas it was seen in all eyes that underwent debridement and AMT. The mean best-corrected visual acuity after re-epithelialization of the shield ulcer was 20/30, 20/30, and 20/40 in the grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3 groups, respectively. Recurrence and secondary bacterial keratitis were seen in 28 (14.5%) and 20 (10%) eyes, respectively. Grade 1 shield ulcers respond well to medical therapy alone, whereas grade 2 ulcers occasionally may require additional debridement or AMT. Grade 3 ulcers, however, largely are refractory to medical therapy and require debridement and AMT for rapid re-epithelialization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ciporen, Jeremy N; Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Mendez, Gustavo; Cameron, William E; McCartney, Shirley
Endoscopic surgical treatment of pituitary tumors, lateral invading tumors, or aneurysms requires surgeons to operate adjacent to the cavernous sinus. During these endoscopic endonasal procedures, the carotid artery is vulnerable to surgical injury at its genu. The objective of this simulation model was to evaluate trainees regarding management of a potentially life-threatening vascular injury. Cadaveric heads were prepared in accordance with the Oregon Health & Science University body donation program. An endoscopic endonasal approach was used, and a perfusion pump with a catheter was placed in the ipsilateral common carotid artery at its origin in the neck. Learners used a muscle graft to establish vascular control and were evaluated over 3 training sessions. Simulation assessment, blood loss during sessions, and performance metric data were collected for learners. Vascular control was obtained at a mean arterial pressure of 65 mm Hg using a muscle graft correctly positioned at the arteriotomy site. Learners improved over the course of training, with senior residents (n = 4) performing better across all simulation categories (situation awareness, decision making, communications and teamwork, and leadership); the largest mean difference was in communication and teamwork. Additionally, learner performance concerning blood loss improved between sessions (t = 3.667, P management that transcend this model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tanveer, Amna; Akram, Kashif; Farooq, Umar; Hayat, Zafar; Shafi, Afshan
Diabetes mellitus is a global disorder, and a major issue for health care systems. The current review outlooks the use of fruit flavonoids as natural remedy in the prevention of diabetes mellitus. The onset of diabetes mainly depends upon genetics and lifestyle issues. Currently used therapeutic options for the control of diabetes, like dietary amendments, oral hypoglycemic drugs, and insulin, have their own limitations. Fruit flavonoids possess various antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant potentials and act on various cellular signaling pathways in pancreas, white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver function, which in result induces antidiabetic effects. Recently, antidiabetic effect of fruit flavonoids has been studied using various animal models and clinical trials. Research studies revealed a statistically significant potential of fruit flavonoids in managing the altered glucose and oxidative metabolisms in diabetes. Unlike synthetic antidiabetic agents, fruit flavonoids manage diabetes without compromising cellular homeostasis thereby posing no side effects. Further studies are required in purification and characterization of different fruit flavonoids with respect to their beneficial effect for diabetic patients.
Raveendran, Raviraj; Wong, Jean; Singh, Mandeep; Wong, David T; Chung, Frances
The prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is increasing proportional to the prevalence of obesity. Although anesthesiologists are familiar with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) - the most common SDB, anesthesiologists may not be aware of other SDB such as obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) and overlap syndrome (combination of OSA and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The present review provides an update of information regarding the perioperative management of OHS and overlap syndrome. OHS and overlap syndrome are associated with significant comorbid conditions and more perioperative morbidity than OSA alone. Similar to OSA, most of the OHS patients are undiagnosed. An increase in serum bicarbonate level is a surrogate marker of hypercapnia. Because 90% of OHS patients have OSA, preoperative screening for OSA combined with estimation of serum bicarbonate level may detect the majority of the patients with OHS. In patients with OSA, OHS, and overlap syndrome, improvement in the perioperative outcome has been shown by initiating positive airway pressure therapy. Identification and preoperative optimization of these high-risk patients are most important. A protocol-based risk mitigation is necessary for improving the intraoperative and postoperative outcome of these patients. As a perioperative physician, anesthesiologists have a key role in the management of patients with SDB.
Full Text Available April Barbour1, Hartmut Derendorf21GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are an increasing concern due to the resulting increase in morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs associated with the administration of inadequate or delayed antimicrobial therapy. The implications of inadequate antimicrobial therapy in complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs have gained more attention recently, most likely due to the recent emergence of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and the already high prevalence of MRSA in the nosocomial setting. Due to the continuous threat of resistance arising and the limitations of currently available agents for the treatment of cSSSIs, it is necessary to develop new antimicrobials for this indication. Ceftobiprole medocaril, the prodrug of ceftobiprole, is a parental investigational cephalosporin for the treatment of cSSSIs displaying a wide-spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species, including MRSA. Ceftobiprole displays noncomplex linear pharmacokinetics, is eliminated primarily by glomerular filtration, and distributes to extracellular fluid. Additionally, it has been shown that the extent of distribution to the site of action with regard to cSSSIs, ie, the extracellular space fluid of subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, is expected to be efficacious, as free concentrations meet efficacy targets for most pathogens. Similar to other beta-lactams, it displays an excellent safety and tolerability profile with the primary adverse events being dysgeusia in healthy volunteers, resulting from the conversion of the prodrug to the active, and nausea in patients. Ceftobiprole has demonstrated noninferiority in two large-scale pivotal studies comparing it to vancomycin, clinical cure rates 93.3% vs
Tulek, Firat; Kahraman, Alper; Taskin, Salih; Sertcelik, Ayse; Ortac, Firat
Krukenberg tumor in pregnancy is very rare and management of this condition is a dilemma for physicians. Moreover, the existence of a primary Krukenberg tumor is still in debate. Herein, we present a 29-year-old woman at 29 weeks of pregnancy, admitted with premature labor and revealed to have a signet ring cell ovarian tumor with an undetermined primary origin. A primary Krukenberg tumor or a Krukenberg tumor with an undetermined origin has not been previously reported in a pregnant patient. By virtue of the controversy, we are not eager to use the term 'primary Krukenberg tumor' for this case, although the possibility of the existence of this kind of tumor cannot be totally ignored. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Wilkinson, Michael N; O'Sullivan, Orfhlaith E; O'Reilly, Barry A
Robotic surgery is proving essential in providing a minimally invasive approach to complex urogynaecological cases. This video highlights the diversity and complexity of cases performed using the robot-assisted approach. The robot-assisted approach was utilised for excellent effect in two complex urogynaecological cases. In the first case the entire left arm of an intravesically placed TVT was removed using a combined vaginal and robotic approach. The second case involved removing four paravaginal sutures, one of which breeched the bladder and was encrusted with calculus. These were placed during a laparoscopic paravaginal repair 2 years previously. She had a concomitant vaginal hysterectomy, Mc Calls culdoplasty and anterior wall repair. The robot-assisted approach allows for excellent access to the pelvis and retropubic space facilitating the surgical management of complex urogynaecology cases.
Full Text Available Abstract Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II (HIT II is a rare immune-mediated complication of heparin. The diagnosis of HIT is considered in patients exposed to heparin, presenting with thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. We present two cases with massive pulmonary embolism and HIT, successfully treated with the administration of fondaparinux, an alternative anticoagulant, combined with the insertion of an inferior vena cava filter for the prevention of new thromboembolic events. The two cases supplement the available data of the use of fondaparinux in patients with HIT and pulmonary embolism, before further large studies establish its efficacy and safety in this group of patients. Moreover, the management of these patients reveals the need for future evaluation of the combined therapy of alternative anticoagulant agents with the placement of vena cava filters.
Singh, Balbir; Bharadwaj, Prashant; Bajaj, Nitin; Chadha, Davinder
Spontaneous retroperitoneal haematoma (SRH) can be a life-threatening emergency presenting with hypovolaemic shock. SRH has been rarely reported with May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) where it occurs due to rupture of the iliac vein or venous collaterals. We report a case of MTS that presented with deep venous thrombosis of the left lower limb complicated by bilateral pulmonary embolism (PE) and a large pelvic haematoma. The simultaneous occurrence of a large pelvic haematoma and PE offered a therapeutic challenge. Successful endovascular management of the case is discussed in this report. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Engelbrecht, Sunelle; Wood, Erica M; Cole-Sinclair, Merrole F
Blood transfusion is not without risk. Although the risks of HIV and hepatitis transmission have diminished, haemovigilance programs highlight that other significant transfusion hazards remain. Sepsis from bacterial contamination is the most common residual infectious hazard in developed countries, and events due to clerical error are problematic. Unnecessary transfusions should be avoided. New national guidelines on patient blood management (PBM) emphasise holistic approaches, including strategies to reduce transfusion requirements. Perioperative PBM should incorporate preoperative haemoglobin and medication optimisation, intraoperative blood conservation, and consideration of restrictive postoperative transfusion and cell-salvage techniques. When massive transfusion is required, hospitals should implement massive transfusion protocols. These protocols reduce mortality, improve communication and facilitate adequate provision of blood products. They should include multidisciplinary team involvement and guidelines for use of blood components and adjunctive agents. Although fresh frozen plasma to red blood cell and platelet to red blood cell ratios of ≥ 1 : 2 appear to reduce mortality in trauma patients who receive massive transfusion, there is insufficient evidence to recommend specific ratios. Systematic reviews have found no significant benefit of recombinant activated factor VII in critical bleeding, and an increase in thromboembolic events; specialist haematology advice is therefore recommended when considering use of this agent. The National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards address use of blood and blood products, and provide important transfusion principles for adoption by all clinicians. Storage of red cells in additive solution results in changes, known as the "storage lesion", and studies to determine the clinical effect of the age of blood at transfusion are ongoing.
Simon, E-G; Laffon, M
To provide recommendations on maternal care after vaginal delivery, and management of complications in immediate post-partum period. Bibliographic research from the Pubmed database and recommendations issued by the main scientific societies, and assignment of a level of evidence and a recommendation grade. After a vaginal delivery, monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, bleeding, uterine involution, genital pain, urination, temperature, transit and signs of phlebitis is recommended (professional consensus). Post-partum Anemia is defined by a hemoglobinmagnesium sulfate are the same as in prenatal period (professional consensus). Oral NSAIDs are effective for perineal pain and uterine involution (EL2). In case of broken down perineal wounds following childbirth, there is no argument in favor of suturing or not suturing, however the suturing is to be preferred for large dehisced perineal wounds (professional consensus). Infection of perineal scar justifies an oral broad-spectrum antibiotics, in addition to local nursing (professional consensus). In case of obstetric anal sphincter injuries, an antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended (grade B). Hygiene advice should be given to all women who had an episiotomy or a perineal tear (professional consensus). The only etiological treatment of post-dural puncture headache is the blood patch (EL2). It must not be carried out before 48 hours (professional consensus). Thromboembolic risk after a vaginal birth is about 1‰ (EL2). The prescription of thromboprophylaxis with LMWH and graduated compression stockings should be based on risk factors (professional consensus). During the immediate post-partum period, complications may be unrecognized or confused with the natural post-partum evolution, which implies a strong vigilance from practitioners. This vigilance is all the more necessary that the maternal residence durations are shortened. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Babizhayev, Mark A; Lankin, Vadim Z; Savel'Yeva, Ekaterina L; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E
Patients suffering from the severe complications associated with both insulin- (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM): nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and atherosclerosis are still largely left without a prospect of an efficient treatment. Chronic hyperglycaemia, the primary clinical manifestation of diabetes, is associated with development of certain of the diabetic complications. The accelerated formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) due to elevated glycemia has repeatedly been reported as a central pathogenic factor in the development of diabetic microvascular complications. Glucose and α-dicarbonyl compounds chemically attach to proteins and nucleic acids without the aid of enzymes. Initially, chemically reversible Schiff base and Amadori product adducts form in proportion to glucose concentration. The major biological effects of excessive nonenzymatic glycosylation are leading to increased free radical production and compromised free radical inhibitory and scavenger systems, inactivation of enzymes; inhibition of regulatory molecule binding; crosslinking of glycosylated proteins and trapping of soluble proteins by glycosylated extracellular matrix (both may progress in the absence of glucose); decreased susceptibility to proteolysis; abnormalities of nucleic acid function; altered macromolecular recognition and endocytosis; and increased immunogenicity. The discovery of chemical agents that can inhibit deleterious glycation reactions is potentially of great therapeutic benefit to all diabetes-associated pathologies. This study demonstrates the progress in development of patented carnosine mimetics resistant in formulations to enzymatic hydrolysis with human carnosinases that are acting as a universal form of antioxidant, deglycating and transglycating agents that inhibit sugar-mediated protein cross-linking, chelate or inactivate a number of transition metal ions (including ferrous and copper ions), possess lipid
Ren, Zhong; Zhong, Yunshi; Zhou, Pinghong; Xu, Meidong; Cai, Mingyan; Li, Liang; Shi, Qiang; Yao, Liqing
The aim of this study was to investigate the management and treatment for complications during and after peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for patients suffering from esophageal achalasia (EA). The data of 119 cases of EA patients who underwent POEM from October 2010 to July 2011 and the complications that arose during the operation, after the operation, and during follow-up were analyzed. Complications that occurred during the operation included cutaneous emphysema (22.7 %, 27/119) and pneumothorax (2.5 %, 3/119). Postoperative complications included pneumothorax (25.2 %, 30/119), subcutaneous emphysema (55.5 %, 66/119), mediastinal emphysema (29.4 %, 35/119), delayed hemorrhage (0.8 %, 1/119), pleural effusion (48.7 %, 58/119), minor inflammation or segmental atelectasis of the lungs (49.6 %, 59/119), and gas under diaphragm or aeroperitoneum (39.5 %, 47/119). Complications that occurred during follow-up included one case of difficulty eating caused by the stricture of mucosa and one case of dehiscence at the mouth of the tunnel created during surgery, with food retention. No deaths occurred. All complications were resolved through traditional treatment. No additional surgery was needed. Complications arising during and after POEM should be treated quickly and can be resolved by using traditional treatment. POEM can be expected to become the preferred treatment for EA.
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Fujiki, Masato; Hashimoto, Koji; Palaios, Emmanouil; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Eghtesad, Bijan; Miller, Charles M
Hepatic artery thrombosis after liver transplantation is a devastating complication associated with ischemic cholangiopathy that can occur even after successful revascularization. This study explores long-term outcomes after hepatic artery thrombosis in adult liver transplantation recipients, focusing on the probability, risk factors, and resolution of ischemic cholangiopathy. A retrospective chart review of 1,783 consecutive adult liver transplantations performed between 1995 and 2014 identified 44 cases of hepatic artery thrombosis (2.6%); 10 patients underwent immediate retransplantation, and 34 patients received nontransplant treatments, involving revascularization (n = 19) or expectant nonrevascularization management (n = 15). The 1-year graft survival after nontransplant treatment was favorable (82%); however, 16 of the 34 patients who received a nontransplant treatment developed ischemic cholangiopathy and required long-term biliary intervention. A Cox regression model showed that increased serum transaminase and bilirubin levels at the time of hepatic artery thrombosis diagnosis, but not nonrevascularization treatment versus revascularization, were risk factors for the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. Ischemic cholangiopathy in revascularized grafts was less extensive with a greater likelihood of resolution within 5-years than that in nonrevascularized grafts (100% vs 17%). Most liver abscesses without signs of liver failure also were reversible. Salvage retransplantation after a nontransplant treatment was performed in 8 patients with a 1-year survival rate equivalent to immediate retransplantation (88% vs 80%). Selective nontransplant treatments for hepatic artery thrombosis resulted in favorable graft survival. Biliary intervention can resolve liver abscess and ischemic cholangiopathy that developed in revascularized grafts in the long-term; salvage retransplantation should be considered for ischemic cholangiopathy in nonrevascularized grafts
Malamed, S F
Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.
van den Akker, H.P.; Baart, J.A.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.
Local anaesthesia is frequently used in dentistry and seldom leads to serious local complications. Nevertheless, it is of great importance to be aware of the causes of each local complication and – if necessary – implement correct treatment. The patient must be informed extensively and, if
Carneiro-Neto, J-N; de-Menezes, J-D-S; Moura, L-B; Massucato, E-M-S; de-Andrade, C-R
Considering the high possibility of dentist consult a patient with oral complications of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for oral cancer because of the advances in this area, this study aims to systematically review the literature to identify and suggest effective and safe protocols for the managements of oral complications in oncology patients. The systematic review was designed by PICO and PRISMA including eligibility and exclusion criteria; the source of information and search strategy in PubMed according MeSH: "Mouth Neoplasms and Radiotherapy" and "Mouth Neoplasms and Drug Therapy" the period from 2010 to 2015; selection and data collection of study was carried form blind and independently by two researchers; risk of bias and methodological quality: ensured by the PEDro scale; synthesis of data: of oral complications were evaluated by adapted version of associative direction classification proposed by Costigan and collaborators; and data analysis was performed by the meta-analysis of BioEstat program (5.0) in the included studies. 2,700 articles found, 2,371 were selected after removal of duplicate and elected 40 full-text articles. Of these, only 06 articles were included in the systematic review with exclusion of others, per obtain punctuation ≥ 7 with high methodological quality for synthesis of the managements of oral complications. Since 05 articles were associated with low risk of bias composing the protocols suggestive for managements and the meta-analysis in odds ratio (0.916) to cure and relative risk (1.049) for the development of oral mucositis and pain. The protocols suggestive for managements of oral mucositis and pain with MuGard - mucoadhesive hydrogel; PerioAid Tratamiento® antiseptic mouthrinse with chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride; Episil® plus benzydamine - bioadhesive oromucosal gel; 0,03% of Triclosan mouthwash Colgate Plax; and Diode Laser Therapy of low-level are safe for oncology patients applied according to adopted
Nigel P. Murray
Full Text Available Patients with inherited bleeding disorders are rare in obstetric practice but present with prolonged bleeding even after minor invasive procedures. They require a combined approach with obstetric and hematological management of each case, including the neonatal management of a possibly affected fetus. We present the case of a pregnancy in a patient with combined Factor VII deficiency and Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia, the successful obstetric and hematological management of the case, and a review of the literature.
Homozygous ALOXE3 Nonsense Variant Identified in a Patient with Non-Bullous Congenital Ichthyosiform Erythroderma Complicated by Superimposed Bullous Majocchi’s Granuloma: The Consequences of Skin Barrier Dysfunction
Full Text Available Non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NBCIE is a hereditary disorder of keratinization caused by pathogenic variants in genes encoding enzymes important to lipid processing and terminal keratinocyte differentiation. Impaired function of these enzymes can cause pathologic epidermal scaling, significantly reduced skin barrier function. In this study, we have performed a focused, genetic analysis of a probrand affected by NBCIE and extended this to his consanguineous parents. Targeted capture and next-generation sequencing was performed on NBCIE associated genes in the proband and his unaffected consanguineous parents. We identified a homozygous nonsense variant c.814C>T (p.Arg272* in ALOXE3 (NM_001165960.1 in the proband and discovered that his parents are both heterozygous carriers of the variant. The clinical manifestations of the proband’s skin were consistent with NBCIE, and detailed histopathological assessment revealed epidermal bulla formation and Majocchi’s granuloma. Infection with Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed by culture. The patient responded to oral terbinafine antifungal treatment. Decreased skin barrier function, such as that caused by hereditary disorders of keratinization, can increase the risk of severe cutaneous fungal infections and the formation of Majocchi’s granuloma and associated alopecia. Patients with NBCIE should be alerted to the possible predisposition for developing dermatophytoses and warrant close clinical follow-up.
Kammann, Steven; Menias, Christine; Hara, Amy; Moshiri, Mariam; Siegel, Cary; Safar, Bashar; Brandes, Steven; Shaaban, Akram; Sandrasegaran, Kumar
A relatively large proportion of patients with Crohn disease (CD) develop complications including abscess formation, stricture, and penetrating disease. A subset of patients will have genital and reproductive organ involvement of CD, resulting in significant morbidity. These special circumstances create unique management challenges that must be tailored to the activity, location, and extent of disease. Familiarity with the epidemiology, pathogenesis, imaging features, and treatment strategies for patients with genital CD can aid imaging diagnoses and guide appropriate patient management. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the spectrum of CD in the genital tract and reproductive organs and discuss the complex management strategies in these patients as it relates to imaging. Given the impact on patient outcome and treatment planning, familiarity with the epidemiology, pathogenesis, imaging features, and treatment of patients with genital Crohn disease can aid radiologic diagnoses and guide appropriate patient management.
Jiao, F; Fung, C S C; Wan, Y F; McGhee, S M; Wong, C K H; Dai, D; Kwok, R; Lam, C L K
To evaluate the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) in reducing the risks of microvascular complications. This prospective cohort study was conducted with 29,670 propensity-score-matched RAMP-DM participants and diabetes patients under the usual primary care (14,835 in each group). Study endpoints were the first occurrence of any diabetic microvascular complications, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy/preproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR/prePDR), sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) or blindness, nephropathy, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), neuropathy and lower-limb ulcers or amputation. Log-rank tests and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regressions were employed to estimate between-group differences in incidences of study endpoints. After a median follow-up of 36 months with>41,000 person-years in each group, RAMP-DM participants had a lower incidence of microvascular complications (760 vs 935; adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66-0.81; PDM vs control group for ESRD, STDR or blindness, and lower-limb ulcers or amputation were 0.40 (95% CI: 0.24-0.69; PDM intervention was associated with lower incidences of all microvascular complications except neuropathy over a 3-year follow-up. These encouraging results constitute evidence that structured risk assessment and risk-stratified management provided by a multidisciplinary team is effective for reducing microvascular complications in diabetes patients. NCT02034695, www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
de-Menezes, Juliana-Dreyer-da-Silva; Moura, Lucas-Borin; Massucato, Elaine-Maria-Sgavioli; de-Andrade, Cleverton-Roberto
Background and Objectives Considering the high possibility of dentist consult a patient with oral complications of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for oral cancer because of the advances in this area, this study aims to systematically review the literature to identify and suggest effective and safe protocols for the managements of oral complications in oncology patients. Material and Methods TThe systematic review was designed by PICO and PRISMA including eligibility and exclusion criteria; the source of information and search strategy in PubMed according MeSH: “Mouth Neoplasms and Radiotherapy” and “Mouth Neoplasms and Drug Therapy” the period from 2010 to 2015; selection and data collection of study was carried form blind and independently by two researchers; risk of bias and methodological quality: ensured by the PEDro scale; synthesis of data: of oral complications were evaluated by adapted version of associative direction classification proposed by Costigan and collaborators; and data analysis was performed by the meta-analysis of BioEstat program (5.0) in the included studies. Results 2,700 articles found, 2,371 were selected after removal of duplicate and elected 40 full-text articles. Of these, only 06 articles were included in the systematic review with exclusion of others, per obtain punctuation ≥ 7 with high methodological quality for synthesis of the managements of oral complications. Since 05 articles were associated with low risk of bias composing the protocols suggestive for managements and the meta-analysis in odds ratio (0.916) to cure and relative risk (1.049) for the development of oral mucositis and pain. Conclusions The protocols suggestive for managements of oral mucositis and pain with MuGard - mucoadhesive hydrogel; PerioAid Tratamiento® antiseptic mouthrinse with chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride; Episil® plus benzydamine - bioadhesive oromucosal gel; 0,03% of Triclosan mouthwash Colgate Plax; and Diode Laser Therapy
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate postoperatively bowel symptoms of antegrade colon enema through appendicostomies in preschool children with anorectal malformation (ARM. Method. 164 children with ARM operated on with posterior sagittal anorectal plasty were included. The malformations were classified according to Krickenbeck classification. Seventeen children in preschool age had an appendicostomy. The bowel symptoms according to the Krickenbeck follow-up were analysed pre- and postoperatively. All complications were registered. A questionnaire on the use of the appendicostomy was answered. Results. The median age (range at the time of the appendicostomy was 4 (1–6 years. The observation time was 5 (0.5–14 years. The main indications for appendicostomy were incontinence and noncompliance to rectal enemas. Postoperatively there was a significant decrease in soiling and constipation (P<0.001. The total complication rate was 43% with infections (29%, stenosis (12%, and retrograde leakage (0. The median time required for giving enema in the appendicostomy was 45 minutes (range: 15–120 once a day varying from 2 times/week to 3 times/day. And: complications are less frequent than in older children. Conclusion. Appendicostomy in preschool children with ARM is a way to achieve fecal cleanness before school start. The infection rate was high, but other complications are less frequent than in older children.
In cyclosporine-treated cardiac allograft recipients, rejection and infection are two principal early complications. The following report describes our approach to the diagnosis and management of rejection. Infectious complications are discussed elsewhere in this journal. Lymphoproliferative disorders have not been reported in our series of transplant recipients. Other early complications particularly related to cyclosporine immuno-suppressive therapy include systemic hypertension, renal insu...
Zhou, Li; Lui, George K.; Shenoy, Rajesh; Taub, Cynthia C.
This article reports a rare case of coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy–Walker variant in a 17-year-old girl. Differential diagnoses of coarctation of the aorta and Dandy–Walker variant are extensively discussed. In addition, standard surgical treatment of coarctation as well as new approaches such as endovascular stenting are described in detail to provide therapeutic insights into her management. Although surgical or endovascular repair of coarctation results in significant improvement of systemic hypertension and is associated with better survival, cardiovascular complications are still very common. Thus, long-term follow-up after repair is required, and high-quality imaging studies such as echocardiography, CT and MRI are warranted. PMID:24396258
Zhou, Li; Lui, George K; Shenoy, Rajesh; Taub, Cynthia C
This article reports a rare case of coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy-Walker variant in a 17-year-old girl. Differential diagnoses of coarctation of the aorta and Dandy-Walker variant are extensively discussed. In addition, standard surgical treatment of coarctation as well as new approaches such as endovascular stenting are described in detail to provide therapeutic insights into her management. Although surgical or endovascular repair of coarctation results in significant improvement of systemic hypertension and is associated with better survival, cardiovascular complications are still very common. Thus, long-term follow-up after repair is required, and high-quality imaging studies such as echocardiography, CT and MRI are warranted.
Research questions addressed in this thesis: What is the accuracy of serum blood urea nitrogen as early predictor of complicated pancreatitis? ; What is difference in clinical outcome between patients with pancreatic parenchymal necrosis and patients with extrapancreatic necrosis without necrosis
Full Text Available The present trial investigated the efficacy of immunotherapy with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ in the treatment of sulfur mustard (SM-induced chronic skin complications. Forty subjects who were suffering from chronic skin complications of SM and were diagnosed to have severe atopic dermatitis, were assigned to IFN-γ (50 μg/m2 subcutaneously three times per week (n=20 or betamethasone valerate topical cream 0.1% (n=20 every night for 30 days. Extent and intensity of cutaneous complications was evaluated using scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD index, and quality of life using dermatology life quality index (DLQI at baseline and at the end of trial. SCORAD-A and SCORAD-B scores were significantly decreased in both IFN-γ and betamethasone. However, SCORAD-C score was decreased only in the IFN-γ group. There were significant reductions in overall as well as objective SCORAD scores in both groups. As for the magnitude of changes, treatment with IFN-γ was associated with greater reductions in overall, objective and segmented SCORAD scores compared to betamethasone. DLQI reduction was found to be significantly greater in the IFN-γ group. Promising improvements in quality life and clinical symptoms that was observed in the present study suggest the application of IFN-γ as an effective therapy for the management of SM-induced chronic skin complications.
Liew, Steven; Sundaram, Hema; De Boulle, Koenraad L.; Goodman, Greg J.; Monheit, Gary; Wu, Yan; Trindade de Almeida, Ada R.; Swift, Arthur; Vieira Braz, André
Background: Although the safety profile of hyaluronic acid fillers is favorable, adverse reactions can occur. Clinicians and patients can benefit from ongoing guidance on adverse reactions to hyaluronic acid fillers and their management. Methods: A multinational, multidisciplinary group of experts in cosmetic medicine convened the Global Aesthetics Consensus Group to review the properties and clinical uses of Hylacross and Vycross hyaluronic acid products and develop updated consensus recommendations for early and late complications associated with hyaluronic acid fillers. Results: The consensus panel provided specific recommendations focusing on early and late complications of hyaluronic acid fillers and their management. The impact of patient-, product-, and technique-related factors on such reactions was described. Most of these were noted to be mild and transient. Serious adverse events are rare. Early adverse reactions to hyaluronic acid fillers include vascular infarction and compromise; inflammatory reactions; injection-related events; and inappropriate placement of filler material. Among late reactions are nodules, granulomas, and skin discoloration. Most adverse events can be avoided with proper planning and technique. Detailed understanding of facial anatomy, proper patient and product selection, and appropriate technique can further reduce the risks. Should adverse reactions occur, the clinician must be prepared and have tools available for effective treatment. Conclusions: Adverse reactions with hyaluronic acid fillers are uncommon. Clinicians should take steps to further reduce the risk and be prepared to treat any complications that arise. PMID:27219265
Signorini, Massimo; Liew, Steven; Sundaram, Hema; De Boulle, Koenraad L; Goodman, Greg J; Monheit, Gary; Wu, Yan; Trindade de Almeida, Ada R; Swift, Arthur; Vieira Braz, André
Although the safety profile of hyaluronic acid fillers is favorable, adverse reactions can occur. Clinicians and patients can benefit from ongoing guidance on adverse reactions to hyaluronic acid fillers and their management. A multinational, multidisciplinary group of experts in cosmetic medicine convened the Global Aesthetics Consensus Group to review the properties and clinical uses of Hylacross and Vycross hyaluronic acid products and develop updated consensus recommendations for early and late complications associated with hyaluronic acid fillers. The consensus panel provided specific recommendations focusing on early and late complications of hyaluronic acid fillers and their management. The impact of patient-, product-, and technique-related factors on such reactions was described. Most of these were noted to be mild and transient. Serious adverse events are rare. Early adverse reactions to hyaluronic acid fillers include vascular infarction and compromise; inflammatory reactions; injection-related events; and inappropriate placement of filler material. Among late reactions are nodules, granulomas, and skin discoloration. Most adverse events can be avoided with proper planning and technique. Detailed understanding of facial anatomy, proper patient and product selection, and appropriate technique can further reduce the risks. Should adverse reactions occur, the clinician must be prepared and have tools available for effective treatment. Adverse reactions with hyaluronic acid fillers are uncommon. Clinicians should take steps to further reduce the risk and be prepared to treat any complications that arise.
Iwuagwu, F C; Frame, J D
Silicone breast implants have been used for augmentation mammoplasty for cosmetic purposes as well as for breast reconstruction following mastectomy for more than three decades. Though the use of the silicone gel filled variety has been banned in the USA except for special cases, they continue to be available elsewhere in the world including the UK. Despite the immense benefit they provide, their usage is associated with some complications. Most of these are related to the surgery and can be reduced by good surgical management. The major complications associated with their use is adverse capsular contracture, an outcome which can be very frustrating to manage. This article reviews the commonly reported complications and suggested management alternatives.
Hill, D J
Most laparoscopic complications occur as a result of creating and maintaining a pneumoperitoneum and the blind insertion of the first trocar. Thus, it is the complications of the laparoscopic approach rather than the complications of the laparoscopic technique for a specific condition which should be considered. The hazards and the incidences, causes, prevention and management of these complications are discussed using the experience of the author and reported data.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant placental chorioangiomas have been associated with a number of severe fetal complications and high perinatal mortality. Case presentation We report a case of giant chorioangioma with fetal hydrops, additionally complicated by severe anemia, mild cardiomegaly with hyperdinamic heart circulation and maternal mirror syndrome. Intrauterine blood transfusion and amniodrainage was performed at 29 weeks. Worsening of the fetal and maternal condition prompted us to proceed with delivery at 29 + 5 weeks. The newborn died 3 hours later due to pulmonary hypoplasia and hemodynamic failure. Maternal course was favourable, mirror syndrome resolved in the second day and the patient was discharged four days following delivery. Conclusions In the case described here, fetal condition got worse despite of the anemia correction and amniodrainage. Our outcome raises the issue whether additional intrauterine clinical intervention, as intersticial laser, should have been performed to stop further deterioration of the fetal condition when progressive severe hydrops develops.
Danesh-Yazdi, Mohammad; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Karwan, Diana L.; Botter, Gianluca
Climatic trends and anthropogenic changes in land cover and land use are impacting the hydrology and water quality of streams at the field, watershed, and regional scales in complex ways. In poorly drained agricultural landscapes, subsurface drainage systems have been successful in increasing crop productivity by removing excess soil moisture. However, their hydroecological consequences are still debated in view of the observed increased concentrations of nitrate, phosphorus, and pesticides in many streams, as well as altered runoff volumes and timing. In this study, we employ the recently developed theory of time-variant travel time distributions within the StorAge Selection function framework to quantify changes in water cycle dynamics resulting from the combined climate and land use changes. Our results from analysis of a subbasin in the Minnesota River Basin indicate a significant decrease in the mean travel time of water in the shallow subsurface layer during the growing season under current conditions compared to the pre-1970s conditions. We also find highly damped year-to-year fluctuations in the mean travel time, which we attribute to the "homogenization" of the hydrologic response due to artificial drainage. The dependence of the mean travel time on the spatial heterogeneity of some soil characteristics as well as on the basin scale is further explored via numerical experiments. Simulations indicate that the mean travel time is independent of scale for spatial scales larger than approximately 200 km2, suggesting that hydrologic data from larger basins may be used to infer the average of smaller-scale-driven changes in water cycle dynamics.
Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is the most common autosomal recessive lethal hereditary disorder among whites. Survival of patients with CF has progressively improved over the last four decades.As life expectancy has been greatly extended, complications like osteopenia and CF-related diabetes mellitus (CFRDM occur. In our article, a new management of these two complications is described.Gastrointestinal tract, exocrine pancreas and liver are also affected in CF.Maintaining good nutrition while treating pancreatic insufficiency, treating gastroesophageal reflux disease and treating liver disease are very important issues in the treatment gastrointestinal tract disease in CF.As the CF patient population median survival increases, a growing number of adolescents require care in the adult health care system which must be capable of responding appropriately to their needs.We present a model of transition from paediatric to adult medical care in our CF center.
Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Montag, Eduardo; Arruda, Eduardo Gustavo; Sturtz, Gustavo; Gemperli, Rolf
INTRODUCTION Lumbar triangle hernia after breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap (LDMF) is a very rare complication and few cases were previously described. Muscle mobilization and iatrogenic fascia defect are related etiologic factors. PRESENTATION OF CASE The authors describe a rare case of lumbar hernia in a 58-year-old woman who underwent delayed left breast reconstruction with LDMF. Two months after surgery, a progressive symptomatic lower left lumbar bulge was observed. The CT scan confirmed the diagnosis and delineated an 18 cm lumbar defect filled with lower and large bowel. At operation, the defect was exposed and the hernia sac reduced. In order to obtain stability, the remained local muscle and fascia flaps were mobilized into the defect. Additional strength was achieved with a two-layer closure of prosthetic mesh (intra/extra peritoneal). The patient is currently in the 10th postoperative year of hernia repair and satisfactory lumbar wall contour was achieved. Neither the recurrence of lumbar hernia nor symptoms compliance was noted. DISCUSSION Lumbar hernia is an uncommon complication of LDMF harvest. Although it is a rare disease, general and plastic surgeons must be on alert to avoid complications and misdiagnosis. Seroma differential diagnosis is important in order to avoid bowel perforation due to aspiration. Defect reconstruction is necessary with a muscular and fascia flaps mobilization and synthetic mesh in order to obtain a stable repair. CONCLUSION The knowledge of this rare post-operative complication following delayed breast reconstruction is crucial to its surgical management. Early surgical intervention is warranted in order to avoid severe complications. PMID:24794025
Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Montag, Eduardo; Arruda, Eduardo Gustavo; Sturtz, Gustavo; Gemperli, Rolf
Lumbar triangle hernia after breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap (LDMF) is a very rare complication and few cases were previously described. Muscle mobilization and iatrogenic fascia defect are related etiologic factors. The authors describe a rare case of lumbar hernia in a 58-year-old woman who underwent delayed left breast reconstruction with LDMF. Two months after surgery, a progressive symptomatic lower left lumbar bulge was observed. The CT scan confirmed the diagnosis and delineated an 18cm lumbar defect filled with lower and large bowel. At operation, the defect was exposed and the hernia sac reduced. In order to obtain stability, the remained local muscle and fascia flaps were mobilized into the defect. Additional strength was achieved with a two-layer closure of prosthetic mesh (intra/extra peritoneal). The patient is currently in the 10th postoperative year of hernia repair and satisfactory lumbar wall contour was achieved. Neither the recurrence of lumbar hernia nor symptoms compliance was noted. Lumbar hernia is an uncommon complication of LDMF harvest. Although it is a rare disease, general and plastic surgeons must be on alert to avoid complications and misdiagnosis. Seroma differential diagnosis is important in order to avoid bowel perforation due to aspiration. Defect reconstruction is necessary with a muscular and fascia flaps mobilization and synthetic mesh in order to obtain a stable repair. The knowledge of this rare post-operative complication following delayed breast reconstruction is crucial to its surgical management. Early surgical intervention is warranted in order to avoid severe complications. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Pandey, Vaibhav; Gangopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad
Congenital pouch colon (CPC) in the female patient presents with highly variable and anomalous anatomy. We herein report the first case of CPC with uterus didelphys having normal anal opening, H-type vestibular fistula, two other fistulous communications between pouch colon and two vagina managed in a single stage with excellent postoperative outcome.
Background Diabetes has become an increasingly prevalent and severe public health issue in Algeria. This article investigates the prevalence, the cost and the management of this disease. Its first objective is to better understand the burden (both from an epidemiological and economic perspective) and management of diabetes. The second objective is to understand the health policy strategy adopted by Algeria in order to respond to the disease. Methods We conducted a literature review of prevalence, costs, management and outcomes of diabetes and its complications. This was complemented by data compilations and results of expert consultations. Results The epidemiology of diabetes is continually evolving and is becoming more problematic. The national evidence suggests that the prevalence of diabetes in Algeria has increased from 6.8% in 1990 to 12.29% in 2005, but is quite higher among certain groups and areas of the country. This disease affects all population groups, especially 35–70 year olds, who constitute a large segment of the working population. There are very few estimates of the cost of diabetes. These include a 1998 study on the total cost of type 1 diabetes (USD 11.6 million, which, inflated to 2013 value, totals to USD 16.6 million), a study on the cost of complications in 2010 (at 2013 value, ranging from USD 141 for first-year treatment of peripheral vascular disease to USD 30,441 for first-year cost of renal transplantation) and the 2013 IDF estimates of total cost of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (USD 513 million). Conclusions As the prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, the financial burden will increasingly weigh heavily on social security resources and the government budget. Future priorities must focus on empowering general practitioners in treating type 2 diabetes, improving screening of diabetes and its complications, tackling the growing obesity epidemic, strengthening health information systems and implementing the national diabetes
... that may increase the risk of developing complicated grief include: An unexpected or violent death, such as death from a car accident, or the murder or suicide of a loved one Death of a child Close or dependent relationship to the deceased person Social isolation or loss ...
Complicated rhinosinusitis: a title chosen for its multi-interpretable nature. In the Oxford dictionary ‘complicated’ is defined as ‘consisting of many interconnecting parts or elements’ and ‘involving many different and confusing aspects’ as well as ‘involving complications’ in medicine. It is the
Aaron J. Krill
Full Text Available In the United States, circumcision is a commonly performed procedure. It is a relatively safe procedure with a low overall complication rate. Most complications are minor and can be managed easily. Though uncommon, complications of circumcision do represent a significant percentage of cases seen by pediatric urologists. Often they require surgical correction that results in a significant cost to the health care system. Severe complications are quite rare, but death has been reported as a result in some cases. A thorough and complete preoperative evaluation, focusing on bleeding history and birth history, is imperative. Proper selection of patients based on age and anatomic considerations as well as proper sterile surgical technique are critical to prevent future circumcision-related adverse events.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the in-hospital complication rate in women suffering from non-ST elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI compared to men. Methods The files of 479 consecutive patients (133 women and 346 men suffering from a Non STEMI (Non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction between the January 1st 2006 and March 21st 2009 were retrospectively analyzed with special attention to every single complication occurring during hospital stay. Data were analyzed using nonparametric tests and are reported as median unless otherwise specified. A p value Results As compared to men, women were significantly older (75.8 vs. 65.2 years; p vs. 26% - p = NS, no single event was significantly gender related. The logistic regression identified age and CRP concentration as the only predictive variables in the whole group. After splitting for genders, these parameters were still predictive of events in men. In women however, CRP was the only one with a borderline p value. Conclusions Our study does not support any gender difference for in-hospital adverse events in patients treated invasively for an acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and elevated troponin.
Annacontini, Luigi; Ciancio, Francesco; Parisi, Domenico; Innocenti, Alessandro; Portincasa, Aurelio
Venous congestion of the NAC (Nipple-Areola Complex) is not an uncommon complication of Skin-Reducing Mastectomy (SRM). The correct and prompt evaluation of the NAC's vitality in the first hours after surgery is important for the survival of the same, in fact the possibility of early intervention allows avoiding the use of invasive and radicals techniques to the advantage of simpler rapid procedures. DM, 57yr, multiple invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast, underwent a SRM and immediate reconstruction with implant in August 2014 In the immediate post-operative appeared a venous stasis of the NAC. Treatment started with Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NWPT) through VAC-Systems to 75 mmHg. The use of the VAC-Therapy was in total 12 days and allowed the partial rescue of the NAC (85%). the vacuum pump is put into a portable bag so the patient's mobility is not limited. NWPT permitted a rapid resolution of NAC's complication in SRM in order to guarantee an optimal timing for the start of adjuvant chemotherapy. The VAC-Therapy is a cost effective and simple to use in cases of suffering venous NAC in patients undergoing breast surgery. NAC, NWPT, Skin-Reducing Mastectomy, VAC-Therapy.
Lui, George K; Saidi, Arwa; Bhatt, Ami B; Burchill, Luke J; Deen, Jason F; Earing, Michael G; Gewitz, Michael; Ginns, Jonathan; Kay, Joseph D; Kim, Yuli Y; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Krieger, Eric V; Wu, Fred M; Yoo, Shi-Joon
Life expectancy and quality of life for those born with congenital heart disease (CHD) have greatly improved over the past 3 decades. While representing a great advance for these patients, who have been able to move from childhood to successful adult lives in increasing numbers, this development has resulted in an epidemiological shift and a generation of patients who are at risk of developing chronic multisystem disease in adulthood. Noncardiac complications significantly contribute to the morbidity and mortality of adults with CHD. Reduced survival has been documented in patients with CHD with renal dysfunction, restrictive lung disease, anemia, and cirrhosis. Furthermore, as this population ages, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its risk factors are becoming increasingly prevalent. Disorders of psychosocial and cognitive development are key factors affecting the quality of life of these individuals. It is incumbent on physicians who care for patients with CHD to be mindful of the effects that disease of organs other than the heart may have on the well-being of adults with CHD. Further research is needed to understand how these noncardiac complications may affect the long-term outcome in these patients and what modifiable factors can be targeted for preventive intervention. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K; Futane, Sameer; Deepak, A N; Khandelwal, N K
The commonly described congenital atlanto-axial dislocation and Basilar-Invagination is antero-posterior or rotational or vertical plane. However, congenital dislocation in lateral plane has received scant attention. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe this unusual entity and discuss its management. The clinic-radiological feature of seven patients with congenital lateral angular AAD (CLAAAD) were studied and managed. The unilateral C1 facet had subluxed lateral to C2-3 complex. The C1 and C2 facets were drilled comprehensively and repositioned with distraction, placement of metallic spacers and facet manipulation after insertion of screws. The post operative outcome was studied. The presentation is usually with neck tilt (progressive in 3) and/or progressive spastic quadriparesis. The mean C1-2 tilt was 25.2°. C1 was bifid in six patients. C1 lateral mass was assimilated with occipital condyle on dislocated side in and the other side was normal (6 patients). The dislocated C1-2 joint was abnormally oblique as compared to contralateral side. The relationship of occiput and C1 was normal. Correction of dislocation and lateral tilt was achieved in all patients with subsequent correction of neck tilt and deficits. One patient required reoperation. The acute angulation of joint on one side and near normal on other side leads to differential vertical movement, further accentuated by splaying of bifid C1. The entity is seen in young patients and often present with neck tilt and spastic quadriparesis. Management requires reshaping the joints and facet manipulation. If the reshaping is inappropriate, the joint is likely to redislocate before fusion occurs.
Lee, Jun Seok; Song, Geun Sung; Son, Dong Wuk
Syringomyelia associated with tuberculous meningitis is an extremely rare condition. Only a few studies have reported clinical experience with syringomyelia as a late complication of tuberculous meningitis. Twenty-six years after a tuberculous meningitis episode, a 44-year-old man presented with progressively worsening spastic paresis of the lower limbs and impaired urinary function for 2 years. Radiological examination revealed syringomyelia extending from the level of C2 to T9 and arachnoiditis with atrophy of the spinal cord between C2 and T3. We performed laminectomy from C7 to T1, dissected the arachnoid adhesion and placed a syringo-pleural shunt via keyhole myelotomy. One year after the operation, his neurological condition improved. The postoperative control magnetic resonance imaging revealed the correctly located shunt and significantly diminished syringomyelia cavities. We aim to discuss the mechanism of syrinx formation following tuberculous meningitis and to share our surgical therapeutic experience with this rare disease entity.
Lee, Jun Seok; Son, Dong Wuk
Syringomyelia associated with tuberculous meningitis is an extremely rare condition. Only a few studies have reported clinical experience with syringomyelia as a late complication of tuberculous meningitis. Twenty-six years after a tuberculous meningitis episode, a 44-year-old man presented with progressively worsening spastic paresis of the lower limbs and impaired urinary function for 2 years. Radiological examination revealed syringomyelia extending from the level of C2 to T9 and arachnoiditis with atrophy of the spinal cord between C2 and T3. We performed laminectomy from C7 to T1, dissected the arachnoid adhesion and placed a syringo-pleural shunt via keyhole myelotomy. One year after the operation, his neurological condition improved. The postoperative control magnetic resonance imaging revealed the correctly located shunt and significantly diminished syringomyelia cavities. We aim to discuss the mechanism of syrinx formation following tuberculous meningitis and to share our surgical therapeutic experience with this rare disease entity. PMID:28512616
Turner, Lauren; Poole, Karen; Faithfull, Sara; Griffin, Bruce A
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is used widely as part of a combined modality for the treatment of prostate cancer. However, ADT has also been associated with the development of cardiometabolic complications that can increase mortality from cardiovascular events. There is emerging evidence to suggest that ADT-related cardiometabolic risk can be mitigated by diet and lifestyle modification. While the clinical focus for a nutritional approach for achieving this effect is unclear, it may depend upon the timely assessment and targeting of dietary changes to the specific risk phenotype of the patient. The present review aims to address the metabolic origins of ADT-related cardiometabolic risk, existing evidence for the effects of dietary intervention in modifying this risk, and the priorities for future dietary strategies.
Ferretti, G; Brichon, Py; Jankowski, A; Coulomb, M
Postoperative complications after pneumonectomy, lobectomy, or wedge resection are relatively frequent and potentially significant. Chest radiographs and CT have a crucial role in the early detection and prompt management of these complications. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the most frequent or severe complications, based on the timing of occurrence. Early complications include bronchopleural fistula, empyema, atelectasis, pneumonia, hemothorax, chylothorax, pulmonary edema, lobar torsion, cardiac hernia, gossypiboma and esophagopleural fistula. Late complications include bronchopleural fistula, esophagopleural fistula, postpneumonectomy syndrome, chest wall arteriovenous fistula and local tumor recurrence.
López-Pisa, Rosa María; Prats-Guardiola, Marta
This is a continuation of the article published in this journal (Enfermeria Clinica), entitled "Integral approach by the case manager and the community nurse to a complex case of diabetes mellitus in the home". We present the case of a 76 year- old patient with long-term and clinically complex Diabetes Mellitus. The patient was taking part in the Primary Care home care program. This article describes the follow-up of the case in which new complications appeared in the right limb, which led to the amputation of the second limb. A new evaluation following Virginia's Henderson model was performed six months after the initial care plan. Nursing diagnoses were made following the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA). These diagnoses led to changes in objectives and performance criteria using, nursing outcomes classification (NOC) and nursing interventions classification (NIC). One of the results obtained was the improvement of her well-being by enabling the patient to interact and integrate socially within her environment after mobilising the corresponding social and family resources.Involvement in clinical practice is important in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot complications. Difficult and complex situations are sometimes beyond the ability of the community nurse. It can be beneficial to take advantage of the clinical support offered by the case management model and the integrated approach of a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Baba, Kazuyoshi; Aridome, Kumiko; Pallegama, Ranjith Wasantha
In patients with a limited number of remaining teeth, bruxism force can be destructive for both the remaining teeth and periodontal structures. This paper reports the successful management of four such patients with severe sleep bruxism, using conventional removable partial dentures and specially designed, splint-like removable partial dentures called a night denture. The night denture was fabricated in two different designs, which depended upon the pattern of the remaining tooth contacts. The patients were followed up for 2-6 years using a night denture in either of the two designs. Within the limitations of these four reports of clinical cases, the night denture appeared to be effective in managing the problems related to sleep bruxism.
Full Text Available Objectives: DiabCare India 2011 was a cross-sectional study in patients with diabetes mellitus, undertaken to investigate the relationship between diabetes control, management and complications in a subset of urban Indian diabetes patients treated at referral diabetes care centres in India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicentre (330 centres survey in 6168 diabetes patients treated at general hospitals, diabetes clinics and referral clinics across India. Patient data, including medical and clinical examination reports during the past year were collected during their routine visit. The patients′ and physicians′ perceptions about diabetes management were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: A total of 6168 subjects with diabetes (95.8% type 2, mean age 51.9 ± 12.4 years and mean duration of diabetes, 6.9 ± 6.4 years were included. Mean HbA1c was 8.9 ± 2.1% and the mean fasting (FPG, post prandial (PPG and random (RBG plasma glucose levels were 148 ± 50 mg/dl 205 ± 66 mg/dl and 193 ± 68mg/dl respectively. Neuropathy was the most common complication (41.4%; other complications were: Foot (32.7%, eye (19.7%, cardiovascular (6.8% and nephropathy (6.2%. The number of diabetic complications increased with mean duration of diabetes. Most (93.2% of the patients were on oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs and 35.2% were on insulin (±OADs. More than 15% physicians felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from patient′s perspective were pain and fear of using injectable modality; 5.2% felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from physician′s perspective was the treatment cost; 4.8% felt that the major barriers to achieve optimum diabetic care in practice was loss to follow-up followed by lack of counselling (3.9% and treatment compliance (3.6%. Conclusion: DiabCare India 2011 has shown that type 2 diabetes sets in early in Indians and glycaemic control is often sub-optimal in these patients. These
Yarboro, Douglas D; Smith, Robert
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is used to alleviate muscle pain, and there is some evidence it may affect healing in chronic wounds. An 80-year-old male patient with a chronic left lower extremity wound and a history of peripheral arterial disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer presented for treatment. Previous protocols of care, mainly consisting of sharp debridement and daily dressing changes, had not resulted in a decrease in wound size. The patient had right and left iliac artery stenosis - not amenable to surgical intervention - and an ankle brachial index (ABI) of 0.63 on the left and 0.59 on the right lower extremities. On presentation, the wound measured 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm with a depth of 0.3 cm and a 0.5-cm tract at the 5 o'clock position. Treatment was changed to application of an ionic silver-containing Hydrofiber™ dressing and low-frequency TENS. Electrodes were applied 2 cm superior and inferior to the wound margin at a frequency of 2 Hz with a pulse width of 250 microseconds and amplitude of 33 mA. Treatment time was 45 minutes, twice daily, for 3 months, performed at home by the patient and his caregiver. After 4 weeks, wound dimensions decreased by 1.51% per day, and the wound was completely healed (100% epithelialized) after 12 weeks. At that time, the ABI of the left (treated) leg had increased to 0.71. Research is needed to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of low-frequency TENS to help clinicians provide evidenced-based treatment for wounds complicated by decreased blood flow.
Full Text Available Ursa Brown-Glaberman, Alison T StopeckUniversity of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Skeletal-related events (SREs including pain, fractures, and hypercalcemia are a major source of morbidity for cancer patients with bone metastases. The receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL is a key mediator of osteoclast formation and activity in normal bone physiology as well as cancer-induced bone resorption. The first commercially available drug that specifically targets and inhibits the RANKL pathway is denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds and neutralizes RANKL, thereby inhibiting osteoclast function. In this review, we summarize the major studies leading to the US Food and Drug Administration-approval of denosumab for the prevention of SREs in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors. Further, we discuss the role of denosumab in the prevention and treatment of SREs and bone loss in cancer patients. As a monoclonal antibody, denosumab has several advantages over bisphosphonates, including improved efficacy, better tolerability, and the convenience of administration by subcutaneous injection. In addition, as denosumab has no known renal toxicity, it may be the preferred choice over bisphosphonates in patients with baseline renal insufficiency or receiving nephrotoxic therapies. However, other toxicities, including osteonecrosis of the jaw and hypocalcemia, appear to be class effects of agents that potently inhibit osteoclast activity and are associated with both denosumab and bisphosphonate use. The data presented highlight the differences associated with intravenous bisphosphonate and denosumab use as well as confirm the essential role bone-modifying agents play in maintaining the quality of life for patients with bone metastases.Keywords: denosumab, bone metastases, solid tumor, breast cancer, prostate cancer, skeletal related events, skeletal complications
Full Text Available Electrosurgery is widely used in laparoscopic surgeries. It is essential to understand the principles of using appropriate electric currents and techniques to achieve the desired tissue effect and avoid complications. We reviewed the literature concerning the incidence of electrosurgical injuries, the mechanisms of injury, and recognition and management of electrosurgical complications. Alertness to postoperative warning signs, patient education prior to discharge, and the detection of delayed manifestations with salvage maneuvers may minimize catastrophic complications.
Full Text Available As global competition heats up, in order to improve the productivity, simulation-based methods are becoming increasingly dominant in shipyards. The advancement of the CAD-based production management process even allows verification of installability and functionality before beginning the actual construction. However, whether the ship has been exactly constructed as designed can still and only be manually verified for a limited area. Therefore, significant interblock and intermodule errors are inevitably present in assembly, resulting in costly, time-consuming inspections and modifications. If the construction errors and defects can be investigated and controlled in each shop before assembly of modules, the productivity will be considerably improved. In the installation simulation of large structures, early detection and correction of the errors in junction allow fast and efficient assembly and provide better quality product development even with distributed construction yards. This technique can promote interindustrial collaboration among companies of different sizes, resulting in a significant improvement in overall productivity. In this paper, 3D point cloud data basis shape management framework has been studied with several case studies in a shipyard.
N. Abrol; Devasia, A.
Watering-can perineum is a known complication of inflammatory urethral stricture disease. We report a case of disintegrating perineal disease, a fulminant variant of watering-can perineum, in an immunocompetent patient.
Maya L Ponte
Full Text Available Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD is a human prion disease caused by infection with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. After the recognition of vCJD in the UK in 1996, many nations implemented policies intended to reduce the hypothetical risk of transfusion transmission of vCJD. This was despite the fact that no cases of transfusion transmission had yet been identified. In December 2003, however, the first case of vCJD in a recipient of blood from a vCJD-infected donor was announced. The aim of this study is to ascertain and compare the factors that influenced the motivation for and the design of regulations to prevent transfusion transmission of vCJD in the UK and US prior to the recognition of this case.A document search was conducted to identify US and UK governmental policy statements and guidance, transcripts (or minutes when transcripts were not available of scientific advisory committee meetings, research articles, and editorials published in medical and scientific journals on the topic of vCJD and blood transfusion transmission between March 1996 and December 2003. In addition, 40 interviews were conducted with individuals familiar with the decision-making process and/or the science involved. All documents and transcripts were coded and analyzed according to the methods and principles of grounded theory. Data showed that while resulting policies were based on the available science, social and historical factors played a major role in the motivation for and the design of regulations to protect against transfusion transmission of vCJD. First, recent experience with and collective guilt resulting from the transfusion-transmitted epidemics of HIV/AIDS in both countries served as a major, historically specific impetus for such policies. This history was brought to bear both by hemophilia activists and those charged with regulating blood products in the US and UK. Second, local specificities, such as the recall of blood
Ishiyama, Gentaro; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Ishiyama, Yuji; Nishio, Akihiko; Tarumi, Ken; Kawamura, Maiko; Okita, Kenji; Mizuguchi, Toru; Fujimiya, Mineko; Hirata, Koichi
To describe the anal cushion lifting (ACL) method with preliminary clinical results. Between January to September 2007, 127 patients who received ACL method for hemorrhoid was investigated with informed consent. In this study, three surgeons who specialized in anorectal surgery performed the procedures. Patients with grade two or more severe hemorrhoids according to Goligher's classification were considered to be indicated for surgery. The patients were given the choice to undergo either the ACL method or the ligation and excision method. ACL method is an original technique for managing hemorrhoids without excision. After dissecting the anal cushion from the internal sphincter muscle, the anal cushion was lifted to oral side and ligated at the proper position. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients were recorded including complications after surgery. A total of 127 patients were enrolled. Their median age was 42 (19-84) years, and 74.8% were female. In addition, more than 99% of the patients had grade 3 or worse hemorrhoids. The median follow-up period was 26 (0-88) mo, and the median operative time was 15 (4-30) min. After surgery, analgesics were used for a median period of three days (0-21). Pain control was achieved using extra-oral analgesic drugs, although some patients required intravenous injections of analgesic drugs. The median duration of the patients' postoperative hospital stay was 7 (2-13) d. A total of 10 complications (7.9%) occurred. Bleeding was observed in one patient and was successfully controlled with manual compression. Urinary retention occurred in 6 patients, but it disappeared spontaneously in all cases. Recurrent hemorrhoids developed in 3 patients after 36, 47, and 61 mo, respectively. No anal stenosis or persistent anal pain occurred. We consider that the ACL method might be better than all other current methods for managing hemorrhoids.
Gary, Tiffany L; Bone, Lee R; Hill, Martha N; Levine, David M; McGuire, Maura; Saudek, Christopher; Brancati, Frederick L
African Americans suffer disproportionately from diabetes complications, but little research has focused on how to improve diabetic control in this population. There are also few or no data on a combined primary care and community-based intervention approach. We randomly assigned 186 urban African Americans with type 2 diabetes (76% female, mean A SD age 59 A 9 years) to 1 of 4 parallel arms: (1) usual care only; (2) usual care + nurse case manager (NCM); (3) usual care + community health worker (CHW); (4) usual care + nurse case manager/community health worker team. Using the framework of the Precede-Proceed behavioral model, interventions included patient counseling regarding self-care practices and physician reminders. The 2-year follow-up visit was completed by 149 individuals (84%). Compared to the Usual care group, the NCM group and the CHW group had modest declines in HbA(1c) over 2 years (0.3 and 0.3%, respectively), and the combined NCM/CHW group had a greater decline in HbA(1c) (0.8%. P = 0.137). After adjustment for baseline differences and/or follow-up time, the combined NCM/CHW group showed improvements in triglycerides (-35.5 mg/dl; P = 0.041) and diastolic blood pressure, compared to the usual care group (-5.6 mmHg; P = 0.042). Combined NCM/CHW interventions may improve diabetic control in urban African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Although results were clinically important, they did not reach statistical significance. This approach deserves further attention as a means to reduce the excess risk of diabetic complications in African Americans.
Horváth, O P; Lukács, L; Cseke, L
Chronologically, complications can be classified as intraoperative, early, and late. The authors analyze complications according to this classification on the basis of more than 400 esophageal operations and related literary data. As regards intraoperative complications, they deal only with those occurring at transhiatal esophagectomy (e.g., tracheal tear, bleeding, pneumothorax, laryngeal nerve injury). Among the early complications, they survey the incidence of transplant necrosis and related mortality, further sequelae ensuing from subacute ischemia of the replaced organ and analyze in detail the questions which arise regarding anastomotic leakage. Firstly, they deal with those causative factors that influence the frequency of anastomotic insufficiency, such as the technical "know-how" of anastomosis making (e.g., one layer vs two layers; stapling or manual suture; interrupted or running suture), the way of replacement using whole stomach or tube-stomach and the consequences originating from the route of replacement (e.g., anterior or posterior mediastinal route). Incidence and management of chylothorax are also dealt with. While dealing with late complications, the authors give a detailed comment on anastomotic strictures and also other factors facilitating the development of late dysphagia, such as peptic stricture and tumor of the organ remnant. Finally, some cases successfully treated by surgery are presented (skin-tube formation in cases following transplant necrosis; abolition of a pharyngogastric anastomosis stricture using a free jejunal transplant and surgical solution of an anastomotic stricture from median sternotomy approach).
Hulka, J F
This monograph documents in detail the complications of laparoscopy that have been reported in the literature with the intent of forming a background for recommendations as to prevention. It reviews the history of US surveys of physicians regarding laparoscopic complications and results of survey reports. Discussion of the prevention of complications covers: physician training, patient selection (absolute contraindications, the high risk patient, informing the patient, and suitability for local anesthesia), equipment (electrocautery, selection of laparoscope size, uterine manipulator, and maintenance of instruments), the operating room team, anesthesia, abdominal entry, trocar entry, the hazards of diagnostic procedures, minimizing complications of laparoscopic sterilization (electrocoagulation, exicsion of tubal segment, spring clip, pain during and after surgery, and selection of sterilization method), and infections. The final focus of the monograph is on the management of major complications (bowel burns -- unipolar; bowel burns -- bipolar; other injuries to the bowel; large vessel injuries; and other bleeding) and late complications (reversibility of sterilization, subsequent pregnancies -- intrauterine and ectopic, and "post-tubal syndrome"). The survey performed in the US in 1979 by the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists (AAGL) reported that the unipolar technique, which had been the only technique in the early 1970s, was used by only 30% of the membership. The vast majority of the membership had converted to bipolar coagulation (43%), with a smaller number having switched to the ring (24%) and the spring clip (3%). For the 1st time, a meaningful number of both intratuerine and ectopic pregnancies was reported for all methods, allowing a relatively valid comparison of the risk of ectopic pregnancies as a function of different sterilization techniques. It appeared that the more destructive techniques (coagulation, unipolar or bipolar including
Mwiti Kibiti, Cromwell; Jide Afolayan, Anthony
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic physiological glucose metabolic disorder. Its high prevalence globally has a significant impact on the quality of life. The management of diabetes includes non-pharmacological and glucose lowering agents. Although these methods are effective, they have drawbacks. This has led to a search for alternative therapy in macro and micro-minerals from dietary foods and plants. There is therefore a need to review, identify and classify their modes of action in diabetes mellitus therapy. This review was carried out using comprehensive literature reports on the use of mineral elements in the management of diabetes. Empirical online searches were conducted for different elements that have been studied for their anti-diabetic potentials both in vivo and in vitro. The University of Fort Hare's online database was also used. The results indicate that magnesium, molybdenum, zinc, vanadium and manganese facilitate glucose catabolism. Chromium, vanadium, zinc, molybdenum and magnesium can enhance insulin activity while molybdenum, manganese and zinc stimulate lipogenesis. Zinc and iron can modulate glucose, metabolizing enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract and limit oxidative stress, respectively. These agents have similar mechanisms to conventional drugs in ameliorating diabetic status and other associated complications. The mechanisms of these elements are well known, however, the synergetic effects of their combinations are still obscure. Literature on their safe dose(s) is still scanty. Evaluation of other useful macro and micro-minerals should also be undertaken. It is envisaged that the use of mineral supplements will promote good health in diabetics.
Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Kang, Kyungmin; Fan, Ji
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disorders from simple steatosis to inflammation leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. With the progressive epidemics of obesity and diabetes, major risk factors in the development and pathogenesis of NAFLD, the prevalence of NAFLD and its associated complications including liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma is expected to increase by 2030 with an enormous health and economic impact. We present a patient who developed Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis. Due to morbid obesity, she was not an optimal transplant candidate and was not initially listed. After attempts for lifestyle modifications failed to lead to weight reduction, a transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery was performed. This is the sixth such procedure in humans in literature. Subsequently she had a meaningful drop in BMI from 42 to 36 over the following 6 months ultimately leading to her being listed for transplant. During this time, the left hepatic HCC was treated with chemoembolization without evidence of recurrence. In this article, we wish to highlight the use of minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the comprehensive management of the NAFLD spectrum and percutaneous transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA), a novel method, for the management of obesity.
Rajiah, Kingston; Mathew, Elizabeth M; Veettil, Sajesh K; Kumar, Suresh
Background: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a type of feeding disorder that starts in adolescence and presents a variety of symptoms, recurrent vomiting in the oral cavity that may reach down to the larynx – similarly to gastro-esophageal reflux, causing laryngeal and voice disorder alterations. Objective: These studies aimed at surveying the literature and investigate the studies that considered BN a risk factor for voice disorders and its epidemiology, complications, diagnostic criteria, and management. Materials and Methods: A review of the literature was done based on a survey of BIOMED CENTRAL and COCHRANE @ OVID databases, which are linked to the IMU ezproxy virtual library (http://ezp.imu.edu.my/menu). The keywords “bulimia nervosa”, “teenage complications” and “voice changes” were used. Citations with summaries were chosen to limit the topic, for the period between 2000 and 2010, in English. Results: Of the ninety three papers we found, twenty three were used as a basis for this review. Among them, only three discuss BN as an etiology factor associated with voice changes in adult women, and we did not find any paper associating this with bulimic teenagers. Conclusion: It is necessary to observe laryngeal and vocal signs and symptoms associated with BN, especially in teenagers whose voices are going through a period of change. The contribution of this type of investigation, which should begin with a clinical history, is essential for minimizing the complications of bulimia nervosa. Thus, adolescents and adults with voice disorders should be investigated in greater detail. PMID:23798933
Conclusion: This study found relatively low rates of complications in patients undergoing CRMD implantation, initial or replacement, in our center, compared with other studies. The additional hospitalization days and costs attributable to these complications depend on the nature of the complication.
Buzelé, R; Barbier, L; Sauvanet, A; Fantin, B
Splenectomy is attended by medical complications, principally infectious and thromboembolic; the frequency of complications varies with the conditions that led to splenectomy (hematologic splenectomy, trauma, presence of portal hypertension). Most infectious complications are caused by encapsulated bacteria (Meningococcus, Pneumococcus, Hemophilus). These occur mainly in children and somewhat less commonly in adults within the first two years following splenectomy. Post-splenectomy infections are potentially severe with overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) and this justifies preventive measures (prophylactic antibiotics, appropriate immunizations, patient education) and demands prompt antibiotic management with third-generation cephalosporins for any post-splenectomy fever. Thromboembolic complications can involve both the caval system (deep-vein thrombophlebitis, pulmonary embolism) and the portal system. Portal vein thrombosis occurs more commonly in patients with myeloproliferative disease and cirrhosis. No thromboembolic prophylaxis is recommended apart from perioperative low molecular weight heparin. However, some authors choose to prescribe a short course of anti-platelet medication if the post-splenectomy patient develops significant thrombocytosis. Thrombosis of the portal or caval venous system requires prolonged warfarin anticoagulation for 3 to 6 months. Finally, some studies have suggested an increase in the long-term incidence of cancer in splenectomized patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Šuchaň, M; Horňák, M; Kaliarik, L; Krempaská, S; Koštialová, T; Kovaľ, J
Orbital complications categorised by Chandler are emergency. They need early diagnosis and agresive treatment. Stage and origin of orbital complications are identified by rhinoendoscopy, ophtalmologic examination and CT of orbite and paranasal sinuses. Periorbital cellulitis and early stage of orbital cellulitis can be treated conservatively with i. v. antibiotics. Monitoring of laboratory parameters and ophtalmologic symptoms is mandatory. Lack of improvement or worsening of symptoms within 24-48 hours and advanced stages of orbital complications are indicated for surgery. The purpose of the study is to evaluate epidemiology, clinical features and management of sinogenic orbital complications. Retrospective data of 8 patients with suspicion of orbital complication admited to hospital from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Patients were analyzed in terms of gender, age, CT findings, microbiology, clinical features, stage and treatment. Male and female were afected in rate 1,66:1. Most of patients were young adult in 3rd. and 4th. decade of life (62,5 %). Acute and chronic sinusitis were cause of orbital complication in the same rate. The most common origin of orbital complication was ethmoiditis (62,5 %), than maxillary (25 %) and frontal (12,5 %) sinusitis. Polysinusitis with affection of ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinuses (75 %) was usual CT finding. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were etiological agens in half of cases. Periorbital oedema (100 %), proptosis, chemosis (50 %), diplopia and glaucoma (12,5 %) were observed. Based on examinations, diagnosis of periorbital oedema/preseptal cellulitis was made in 3 (37,5 %), orbital cellulitis in 3 (37,5 %) and subperiosteal abscess in 2 cases (25 %). All patients underwent combined therapy - i. v. antibiotics and surgery within 24 hours. Eradication of disease from ostiomeatal complex (OMC), drainage of affected sinuses and drainage of subperiosteal abscess were done via fuctional endonasal
... baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care ... Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy ...
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The most common environmental contributors include diabetes, diet, alcohol and medications (including oestrogen, steroids, retinoids and protease inhibitors). Severe hypertriglyceridaemia can trigger acute pancreatitis while mild to moderate hypertriglyceridaemia is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Treatment ...
Effectiveness and complications of SIGN intramedullary interlocking nailing in the management of femoral and tibial fractures at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret- Kenya: A retrospective study.
Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres
Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. PMID:28192107
Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres
Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shin, Jung Hee [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Ultrasonography (US) is routinely used to evaluate thyroid nodules. The US features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid malignancy, include hypoechogenicity, spiculated/microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and a nonparallel orientation. However, many PTC variants have been identified, some of which differ from the classic type of PTC in terms of biological behavior and clinical outcomes. This review describes the US features and clinical implications of the variants of PTC. With the introduction of active surveillance replacing immediate biopsy or surgical treatment of indolent, small PTCs, an understanding of the US characteristics of PTC variants will facilitate the individualized management of patients with PTC.
Bryony A. Thompson
Full Text Available Inherited mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes (MMR can cause MMR deficiency and increased susceptibility to colorectal and endometrial cancer. Microsatellite instability (MSI is the defining molecular signature of MMR deficiency. The clinical classification of identified MMR gene sequence variants has a direct impact on the management of patients and their families. For a significant proportion of cases sequence variants of uncertain clinical significance (also known as unclassified variants are identified, constituting a challenge for genetic counselling and clinical management of families. The effect on protein function of these variants is difficult to interpret. The presence or absence of MSI in tumours can aid in determining the pathogenicity of associated unclassified MMR gene variants. However, there are some considerations that need to be taken into account when using MSI for variant interpretation. The use of MSI and other tumour characteristics in MMR gene sequence variant classification will be explored in this review.
Hough, Rachael; Vora, Ajay
The improvement in overall survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) over the last 5 decades has been considerable, with around 90% now surviving long term. The risk of relapse has been reduced to such an extent that the risk of treatment-related mortality is now approaching that of mortality caused by relapse. Toxicities may also lead to the suboptimal delivery of chemotherapy (treatment delays, dose reductions, dose omissions), potentially increasing relapse risk, and short- and long-term morbidity, adding to the "burden of therapy" in an increasing number of survivors. Thus, the need to reduce toxicity in pediatric ALL is becoming increasingly important. This work focuses on the risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical features, and emergency management of the life-threatening complications of ALL at presentation and during subsequent chemotherapy, including leucostasis, tumor lysis syndrome, infection, methotrexate encephalopathy, thrombosis, and pancreatitis. Potential strategies to abrogate these toxicities in the future are also discussed. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Condom catheters are indicated in spinal cord injury patients in whom intravesical pressures during storage and voiding are safe. Unmonitored use of penile sheath drainage can lead to serious complications. Case report A 32-year old, male person, sustained complete paraplegia at T-11 level in 1985. He had been using condom catheter. Eleven years after sustaining spinal injury, intravenous urography showed no radio-opaque calculus, normal appearances of kidneys, ureters and bladder. Blood urea and Creatinine were within reference range. A year later, urodynamics revealed detrusor pressure of 100 cm water when detrusor contraction was initiated by suprapubic tapping. This patient was advised intermittent catheterisation and take anti-cholinergic drug orally; but, he wished to continue penile sheath drainage. Nine years later, this patient developed bilateral hydronephrosis and renal failure. Indwelling urethral catheter drainage was established. Five months later, ultrasound examination of urinary tract revealed normal kidneys with no evidence of hydronephrosis. Conclusion Spinal cord injury patients with high intravesical pressure should not have penile sheath drainage as these patients are at risk for developing hydronephrosis and renal failure. Intermittent catheterisation along with antimuscarinic drug should be the preferred option for managing neuropathic bladder.
Sijuwola, Oo; Adeyemo, Aa; Adeosun, Aa
Suppurative extension of rhinosinusitis to the orbit is a complication that often results from delay in diagnosis and, or inadequate treatment. These complications may range from preseptal cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, orbital abscesses, and subperiosteal abscesses to intracranial extension with a threat to both vision and life. This study aims to review the clinical profile, treatment modalities and outcome of orbital complications of rhinosinusitis in Ibadan, Nigeria. A retrospective review of the charts of patients with orbital complications of rhinosinusitis managed in the departments of Otorhinolaryngology and Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan over a five year period (Feb 2002- Jan 2007) was carried out .The diagnosis of rhinosinusitis was based on history, physical examination, plain x ray and CT scan findings and antral puncture. Demographic data, clinical presentation and treatment were evaluated. A total of 24 patients were reviewed in the study. There were 13males and 11females (M/F, 1:1). The age range was 8months to 75years, 14 (58.3%) patients were children and while 10 (41.7%) patients were adults. 75% of the patients were seen during the dry season (November to February). The duration of symptoms ranged from one day to three weeks. Involvement of one eye occurred in 14 patients (58.3%); right eye (4), left eye (10). Both eyes were involved in 10 patients (41.7%). Non-axial proptosis was seen in 8 patients (33.3%). It was infero-lateral in 6 patients (25%) and infero-nasal in two (8.3%) patients. Orbital cellulitis was seen in 10 (41.7%) patients, 6 (25%) patients had preseptal cellulitis while 8 (33%) patients had orbital abscess. Cavernous sinus thrombosis was seen in 3 (12.5%) patients. The cases with preseptal and orbital cellulitis were effectively managed by intravenous antibiotics. Orbital abscesses were drained surgically with complete resolution. Sinus surgical procedures were done in 10(41.7%) patients. This group of
Gupta, Ashish; Delaney, Ruth; Petkin, Kalojan; Lafosse, Laurent
The Latarjet procedure is an operation performed either arthroscopically or open for recurrent anterior shoulder instability, in the setting of glenoid bone loss; with good to excellent functional results. Despite excellent clinical results, the complication rates are reported between 15 and 30 %. Intraoperative complications such as graft malpositioning, neurovascular injury, and graft fracture can all be mitigated with meticulous surgical technique and understanding of the local anatomy. Nonunion and screw breakage are intermediate-term complications that occur in less than 5 % of patients. The long-term complications such as graft osteolysis are still an unsolved problem, and future research is required to understand the etiology and best treatment option. Recurrent instability after the Latarjet procedure can be managed with iliac crest bone graft reconstruction of the anterior glenoid. Shoulder arthritis is another complication reported after the Latarjet procedure, which poses additional challenges to both the surgeon and patient.
Goodman, Jerry Clay
Obesity has attained pandemic proportions, and bariatric surgery is increasingly being employed resulting in turn to more neurological complications which must be recognized and managed. Neurological complications may result from mechanical or inflammatory mechanisms but primarily result from micro-nutritional deficiencies. Vitamin B12, thiamine, and copper constitute the most frequent deficiencies. Neurological complications may occur at reasonably predictable times after bariatric surgery and are associated with the type of surgery used. During the early post-operative period, compressive or stretch peripheral nerve injury, rhabdomyolysis, Wernicke's encephalopathy, and inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy may occur. Late complications ensue after months to years and include combined system degeneration (vitamin B12 deficiency) and hypocupric myelopathy. Bariatric surgery patients require careful nutritional follow-up with routine monitoring of micronutrients at 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months post-operatively and then annually after surgery and multivitamin supplementation for life. Sustained vigilance for common and rare neurological complications is essential.
Introduction: Prediction of complications is an essential part of risk management in surgery. Knowing which patient to operate and those at high risk of developing complications contributes significantly to the quality of surgical care and cost reduction. The postoperative complications of patients who underwent Laparotomy ...
Ganzevoort, Wessel; Rep, Annelies; de Vries, Johanna I. P.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Wolf, Hans
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association between clinical parameters at admission and the subsequent development of major maternal complications or adverse infant outcome in women with hypertensive complications of pregnancy remote from term. STUDY DESIGN: We drew data from a randomized trial of
Full Text Available Aim: To assess the neurological complications of chickenpox with prognosis. Background: The neurological complications occur in 0.03% of persons who get chickenpox. There is no universal vaccination against chicken pox in India. Most patients prefer alternate modalities of treatment. Hence these complications of chickenpox are likely to continue to occur. Study Design: A prospective study was conducted for 2 years (from March 2002 on the admitted cases with neurological complications after chickenpox (with rash or scar. Patients were investigated with CT/MRI, CSF study, EEG and nerve conduction studies and hematological workup. They were followed-up for 1 year and outcome assessed using modified Rankin scale. Results: The latency for the neurological complications was 4-32 days (mean: 16.32 days. There were 18 cases: 10 adults (64% and 8 children (36%. Cerebellar ataxia (normal CT/MRI was observed in 7 cases (32% (mean age: 6.85 years. One patient (6 years had acute right hemiparesis in the fifth week due to left capsular infarct. All these cases spontaneously recovered by 4 weeks. The age range of the adult patients was 13-47 years (mean: 27 years. The manifestations included cerebellar and pyramidal signs (n-4 with features of demyelination in MRI who recovered spontaneously or with methylprednisolone by 8 weeks. Patient with encephalitis recovered in 2 weeks with acyclovir. Guillain Barre syndrome of the demyelinating type (n-2 was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and they had a slow recovery by a modified Rankin scale (mRs score of 3 and 2 at 6 months and 1 year, respectively. One case died after hemorrhage into the occipital infarct. There were two cases of asymmetrical neuropathy, one each of the seventh cranial and brachial neuritis. Conclusion: Spontaneous recovery occurs in post-chickenpox cerebellar ataxia. Rarely, serious complications can occur in adults. The demyelinating disorders, either of the central or peripheral
Straatman, Jennifer; Cuesta, Miguel A; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Van der Peet, Donald L
Postoperative complications frequently follow major abdominal surgery and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment of complications is associated with improved patient outcome. In this study we assessed the value of a step-up diagnosis plan by C-reactive protein and CT-scan (computed tomography-scan) imaging for detection of postoperative complications following major abdominal surgery.An observational cohort study was conducted of 399 consecutivepatients undergoing major abdominal surgery between January 2009 and January 2011. Indication for operation, type of surgery, postoperative morbidity, complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and mortality were recorded. Clinical parameters were recorded until 14 days postoperatively or until discharge. Regular C-reactive protein (CPR) measurements in peripheral blood and on indication -enhanced CT-scans were performed.Eighty-three out of 399 (20.6 %) patients developed a major complication in the postoperative course after a median of seven days (IQR 4-9 days). One hundred and thirty two patients received additional examination consisting of enhanced CT-scan imaging, and treatment by surgical reintervention or intensive care observation. CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with postoperative complications. On the second postoperative dayCRP levels were on average 197.4 mg/L in the uncomplicated group, 220.9 mg/L in patients with a minor complication and 280.1 mg/L in patients with major complications (p CT-scan imaging showed a sensitivity of 91.7 % and specificity of 100 % in diagnosis of major complications. Based on clinical deterioration and the increase of CRP, an additional enhanced CT-scan offered clear discrimination between patients with major abdominal complications and uncomplicated patients. Adequate treatment could then be accomplished.
Full Text Available Postoperative complications frequently follow major abdominal surgery and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment of complications is associated with improved patient outcome. In this study we assessed the value of a step-up diagnosis plan by C-reactive protein and CT-scan (computed tomography-scan imaging for detection of postoperative complications following major abdominal surgery. An observational cohort study was conducted of 399 consecutive patients undergoing major abdominal surgery between January 2009 and January 2011. Indication for operation, type of surgery, postoperative morbidity, complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and mortality were recorded. Clinical parameters were recorded until 14 days postoperatively or until discharge. Regular C-reactive protein (CPR measurements in peripheral blood and on indication -enhanced CT-scans were performed. Eighty-three out of 399 (20.6 % patients developed a major complication in the postoperative course after a median of seven days (IQR 4-9 days. One hundred and thirty two patients received additional examination consisting of enhanced CT-scan imaging, and treatment by surgical reintervention or intensive care observation. CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with postoperative complications. On the second postoperative day CRP levels were on average 197.4 mg/L in the uncomplicated group, 220.9 mg/L in patients with a minor complication and 280.1 mg/L in patients with major complications (p < 0,001. CT-scan imaging showed a sensitivity of 91.7 % and specificity of 100 % in diagnosis of major complications. Based on clinical deterioration and the increase of CRP, an additional enhanced CT-scan offered clear discrimination between patients with major abdominal complications and uncomplicated patients. Adequate treatment could then be accomplished.
Bock, Matthias; Johansson, Tim; Fritsch, Gerhard; Flamm, Maria; Hansbauer, Bernhard; Mann, Eva; Sönnichsen, Andreas
The risks associated with surgery are elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. For this reason, preoperative diagnostics frequently include the measurement of blood glucose and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), but it is unclear whether these tests contribute to improved perioperative or postoperative outcomes. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the evidence that preoperative testing for blood glucose and HbA1c might influence the following outcome parameters: changes in clinical management; mortality; and the incidence of perioperative and postoperative complications in patients undergoing elective, noncardiac surgery. We performed a systematic search of the literature from January 2001 to March 2013, thus updating a review carried out by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) up to the year 2001. Controlled studies including cohort and case-control studies with a population of at least 60 patients were eligible. The search retrieved 1346 records (including hand-search). Twenty-two studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Fifteen cohort and two case-control studies evaluated the effectiveness of preoperative blood glucose testing and nine studies the effectiveness of testing HbA1c. Four of the included studies evaluated both tests. There were no data derived from high-quality studies supporting routine preoperative testing for blood glucose or HbA1c in otherwise healthy adult patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery. Only in vascular and orthopaedic surgery may screening identify patients at an increased risk. Preoperative blood glucose testing and testing for HbA1c is not required in nondiabetic patients unless there are clinical sings arousing suspicion. Patients scheduled for vascular and orthopaedic surgery carry an elevated risk justifying preoperative testing for blood glucose or HbA1c as a screening tool.
Full Text Available Diagnosis and management of myocardial infarction complications are discussed in this article. These complications are associated with high level of mortality and surgery is a main treatment method. High level of suspicion and early diagnosis are essential for appropriate treatment and improvement of prognosis. Echocardiography is a main diagnostic method. Analysis of literature about contemporary management of mechanical complications of myocardial infarction has been performed, case reports are presented.
... online community Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Gonorrhea Gonorrhea E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... gonorrhea each year in the United States. Can gonorrhea cause complications during pregnancy and for your baby? ...
logique, avec dans l'ordre de fréquence : Proteus mirabi- lis(40%), Staphylococcus aureus (15%), et Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15%). 3-5- Répartition des complications : La répartition des complications est donnée tableaux III et IV.Dix-neuf (19) (33%) patients présentaient plus d'une complication, soit au total 76 cas de ...
Imam, Mohamed A; Holton, James; Ernstbrunner, Lukas; Pepke, Wojciech; Grubhofer, Florian; Narvani, Ali; Snow, Martyn
Fracture healing encompasses a succession of dynamic multifactorial metabolic events, which ultimately re-establishes the integrity of the biomechanical properties of the bone. Up to 10% of the fractures occurring annually will need additional surgical procedures because of impaired healing. The aim of this article is to review the current literature regarding the use of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) and its effectiveness in the management of bone defects. We have included all published clinical literature investigating the development, techniques and applications of BMAC. Language, design and risk of bias did not deter the initial inclusion of any study. Our search was exclusively limited to studies involving human subjects. A PRISMA compliant search was carried out as published in 2009. This included the online databases: PubMed, EMBASE, clinical trial.gov and the Cochrane library from 1960 to the end of May 2015. MeSH terms used included: "Bone" AND "Marrow" AND "Aspirate" AND "Concentrate" AND "Bone Defects" AND "NONUNION". Eligible studies were independently appraised by two authors using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program checklist. For the purpose of narrative review, relevant studies were included irrespective of methodology or level of evidence. Thirty-four of the 103 (48 PubMed and 55 EMBASE) results yielded by the preliminary search were included. Exclusions included three duplicate records, six letters, 17 non-orthopaedics related studies and four records irrelevant to our search topic. The CASP appraisal confirmed a satisfactory standard of 31 studies. They all had clearly defined objectives, were well designed and conducted appropriately to meet them. The published studies reported the use of BMAC in non-union and fracture healing (15 studies), bone defects (nine studies), spine fusion (two studies), distraction osteogensis (two studies) and complications related to the use of BMAC (seven studies). Stem cells found in BMAC have the
Talbert, Paul B; Ahmad, Kami; Almouzni, Geneviève; Ausió, Juan; Berger, Frederic; Bhalla, Prem L; Bonner, William M; Cande, W Zacheus; Chadwick, Brian P; Chan, Simon W L; Cross, George A M; Cui, Liwang; Dimitrov, Stefan I; Doenecke, Detlef; Eirin-López, José M; Gorovsky, Martin A; Hake, Sandra B; Hamkalo, Barbara A; Holec, Sarah; Jacobsen, Steven E; Kamieniarz, Kinga; Khochbin, Saadi; Ladurner, Andreas G; Landsman, David; Latham, John A; Loppin, Benjamin; Malik, Harmit S; Marzluff, William F; Pehrson, John R; Postberg, Jan; Schneider, Robert; Singh, Mohan B; Smith, M Mitchell; Thompson, Eric; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena; Tremethick, David John; Turner, Bryan M; Waterborg, Jakob Harm; Wollmann, Heike; Yelagandula, Ramesh; Zhu, Bing; Henikoff, Steven
Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate database searches. We propose here a unified nomenclature for variants of all five classes of histones that uses consistent but flexible naming conventions to produce names that are informative and readily searchable. The nomenclature builds on historical usage and incorporates phylogenetic relationships, which are strong predictors of structure and function. A key feature is the consistent use of punctuation to represent phylogenetic divergence, making explicit the relationships among variant subtypes that have previously been implicit or unclear. We recommend that by default new histone variants be named with organism-specific paralog-number suffixes that lack phylogenetic implication, while letter suffixes be reserved for structurally distinct clades of variants. For clarity and searchability, we encourage the use of descriptors that are separate from the phylogeny-based variant name to indicate developmental and other properties of variants that may be independent of structure.
Talbert Paul B
Full Text Available Abstract Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate database searches. We propose here a unified nomenclature for variants of all five classes of histones that uses consistent but flexible naming conventions to produce names that are informative and readily searchable. The nomenclature builds on historical usage and incorporates phylogenetic relationships, which are strong predictors of structure and function. A key feature is the consistent use of punctuation to represent phylogenetic divergence, making explicit the relationships among variant subtypes that have previously been implicit or unclear. We recommend that by default new histone variants be named with organism-specific paralog-number suffixes that lack phylogenetic implication, while letter suffixes be reserved for structurally distinct clades of variants. For clarity and searchability, we encourage the use of descriptors that are separate from the phylogeny-based variant name to indicate developmental and other properties of variants that may be independent of structure.
Sohn, Jeong Ick; Kim, Dong Youn; Choi, Karp Shik [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
Desmoplastic variant of ameloblastoma is new and unusual variant of ameloblastoma with extensive stromal desmoplastic proliferation. The authors experienced a case of desmoplastic variant of amleloblastoma with moderate-defined radiolucency on the right maxillary anterior area in 62-year-old female. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological examinations, we diagnosed it as desmoplastic variant of ameloblastoma. The following results were obtained; 1. Main clinical symptoms were nontender bony swelling with normal intact overlying mucosa on the right maxillary anterior area. 2. Radiographically, moderate-defined, multilocular radioluceney on the right maxillary anterior area were shown, and severe cortical bony thinning and expansion to labial and palatal sides were also observed. And this lesion was shown to be extended to the right nasal cavity. 3. Histopathologically, follicle-like epithelial islands with densely abundant collagenous stroma were morphologically compressed.
Complicated diverticular disease: Position statement on outpatient management, Hartmann's procedure, laparoscopic peritoneal lavage and laparoscopic approach. Consensus document of the Spanish Association of Coloproctology and the Coloproctology Section of the Spanish Association of Surgeons.
Rosado-Cobián, Rafael; Blasco-Segura, Teresa; Ferrer-Márquez, Manuel; Marín-Ortega, Héctor; Pérez-Domínguez, Lucinda; Biondo, Sebastiano; Roig-Vila, José Vicente
The Spanish Association of Coloproctology (AECP) and the Coloproctology Section of the Spanish Association of Surgeons (AEC), propose this consensus document about complicated diverticular disease that could be used for decision-making. Outpatient management, Hartmann's procedure, laparoscopic peritoneal lavage, and the role of a laparoscopic approach in colonic resection are exposed. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ballas, Efstathios; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Karamanis, Eirineos; Mimidis, George; Tolis, Konstantinos; Soultanis, Konstantinos; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J
Spinal instrumentation constructs are frequently necessary for the surgical management of patients with variable spinal pathology. However, surgical complications may appear. These should be detected early and managed to achieve recovery and good functional outcome for the patient. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the most common instrumentation-related complications of spine surgery as well as a diagnostic plan and treatment options for the management of these challenging entities once they occur.
Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a severe bilateral chronic allergic inflammatory disease of the ocular surface. In most of the cases, the disease is limited to the tarsal conjunctiva and to the limbus. However, in the more severe cases, the cornea may be involved, leading to potentially sight threatening complications. Prompt recognition of these complications is crucial in the management of VKC, which is one of the most severe ocular allergic diseases. A vicious cycle of inflammation occurs as a result of a set of reciprocal interactions between the conjunctiva and the cornea, which results in damage to the corneal epithelium and corneal stoma, and to the formation of shield ulcers and plaques, infectious keratitis, keratoconus, scarring, and limbal stem cell deficiency. These corneal complications can cause permanent decrease or loss of vision in children suffering from VKC. Corneal complications in VKC are the result of an on-going process of uncontrolled inflammation. Proper recognition of the corneal complications in VKC is crucial, as most of these can be managed or prevented by a combination of medical and surgical measures.
Kunkel, Martin; Morbach, Thomas; Kleis, Wilfried; Wagner, Wilfried
The aim of this study was to describe demographic and clinical patterns of subjects hospitalized with complications associated with third molars (M3). The investigation was designed as a prospective cohort study composed of subjects admitted to hospital for management of M3-associated complications. The predictor variable was "clinical status of the M3" defined as (A) prophylactic M3 removal, (B) nonelective M3 removal, or (C) M3 present at the time of admission. Outcome variables were infection parameters, treatment costs, length of hospital stay, and days of disability. Postoperative complications (A and B) were compared to complications based on pericoronitis (C). Complications due to prophylactic removal (A) were compared to those arising from pericoronitis or from the removal of symptomatic teeth (B and C). From January 2003 to December 2004, 45 deep space infections, 6 mandibular fractures, 2 lingual nerve injuries, 1 parapharyngeal tooth luxation, and 1 osteomyelitis were noticed. Fifteen complications resulted from prophylactic surgery (A), 25 from nonelective removal (B), and 15 from pericoronitis (C). Direct treatment costs were 147,000 euro (A: 42,000 euro; B: 74,000 euro; C: 31,000 euro). In 10 of the 15 patients of group C, deep space involvement resulted immediately from the first episode of pericoronitis. Neither clinical markers of infection nor economic parameters showed significant differences between the groups. Within the catchment area of our institution, the majority of third molar-related hospitalizations resulted from diseased third molars or their removal.
Conclusion: Child-bearing in solid organ transplantation recipients has become more promising nowadays, even for a difficult case of pancreas-alone transplant recipient complicated with chronic renal insufficiency and superimposed pre-eclampsia. Thorough antepartum counseling and cautious monitoring of maternal, fetal and graft conditions by multidisciplinary specialties are key to favorable pregnancy outcomes.
Ismaeel, M. Maged [Suez Canal University (Egypt); Abdel-Hamid, Azza, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Suez Canal University (Egypt)
Introduction: Transplant renal artery (RA) stenosis (TRAS) is the most frequent posttransplantation vascular complication. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance (CeMRA) angiography has been established as the preferred imaging technique for the evaluation of TRAS because it does not require the use of iodinated contrast material and does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the gold standard in the evaluation of arterial tree of the renal allograft. Aim of the work: This study was carried out to assess the accuracy of CeMRA in the detection of arterial complications after renal transplantation. Patients and methods: Thirty renal transplant patients with suspected arterial complications in which both CeMRA and DSA were performed were included in the study. The HR CeMRA shows 93.7% sensitivity, 80% specificity, 88.2% positive predictive value, 88.9% negative predictive value and 88.5% accuracy. Conclusion: HR CeMRA is an accurate reliable tool in the assessment of arterial complications after renal transplantation. It may replace DSA as a diagnostic modality with reservation of interventional techniques for endovascular treatment of suitable cases.
Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri; Delblond, William; Poignard, Alexandre; Allain, Jérôme
After a first anterior approach to the lumbar spine, formation of adhesions of soft tissues to the spine increases the surgical difficulties and potential for iatrogenic injury during the revision exposure. The objective of this study was to identify the intraoperative difficulties and postoperative complications associated with revision anterior lumbar spine procedures in a single institution. This is a retrospective review of 25 consecutive anterior revision lumbar surgeries in 22 patients (7 men and 15 women) operated on between 1998 and 2011. Patients with trauma or malignancies were excluded. The mean age of the patients at the time of revision surgery was 56 years (range 20-80 years). The complications were analyzed depending on the operative level and the time between the index surgery and the revision. Six major complications (five intraoperatively and one postoperatively) occurred in five patients (20 %): three vein lacerations (12 %) and two ureteral injuries (8 %), despite the presence of a double-J ureteral stent. The three vein damages were repaired or ligated by a vascular surgeon. One of the two ureteral injuries led to a secondary nephrectomy after end-to-end anastomosis failure; the other necessitated secondary laparotomy for small bowel obstruction. Anterior revision of the lumbar spine is technically challenging and is associated with a high rate of vascular or urologic complications. Therefore, the potential complications of the procedure must be weighted against its benefits. When iterative anterior lumbar approach is mandatory, exposure should be performed by an access surgeon in specialized centers that have ready access to vascular and urologic surgeons.
Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)
A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.
Popp, Raymond A.
Variability among mammalian hemoglobins was observed many years ago (35). The chemical basis for differences among hemoglobins from different species of mammals has been studied by several investigators (5, 11, 18, 48). As well as interspecies differences, hemoglobin variants are frequently found within a species of mammals (2, 3, 7, 16) The inheritance of these intraspecies variants can be studied, and pedigrees indicate that the type of hemoglobin synthesized in an individual is genetically controlled (20). Several of the variant human hemoglobins are f'unctionally deficient (7, 16). Such hemoglobin anomalies are of basic interest to man because of the vital role of hemoglobin for transporting oxygen to all tissues of the body.
... online community Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Anemia Anemia E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... anemia at a prenatal care visit . What causes anemia? Usually, a woman becomes anemic (has anemia) because ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - national data. This data set includes national-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the Agency for Healthcare Research and...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - state data. This data set includes state-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - provider data. This data set includes provider data for the hip/knee complication measure, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...
... online community Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Preeclampsia Preeclampsia E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... even if you’re feeling fine. What is preeclampsia? Preeclampsia is a serious blood pressure condition that ...
Forbes, Josephine M; Cooper, Mark E
.... These complications occur in the majority of individuals with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Among the most prevalent microvascular complications are kidney disease, blindness, and amputations, with current therapies only slowing disease progression...
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare disorder that presents with urological complications. We present a 6-year-old boy admitted with urological symptoms that revealed an inherited EB misdiagnosed. We also review the literature on this disorder and management of the common urological complications.
Alipour, Fateme; Khaheshi, Saeed; Soleimanzadeh, Mahya; Heidarzadeh, Somayeh; Heydarzadeh, Sepideh
Contact lens-related problems are common and can result in severe sight-threatening complications or contact lens drop out if not addressed properly. We systematically reviewed the most important and the most common contact lens-related complications and their diagnosis, epidemiology, and management according to the literature published in the last 20 years.
Full Text Available Contact lens-related problems are common and can result in severe sight-threatening complications or contact lens drop out if not addressed properly. We systematically reviewed the most important and the most common contact lens-related complications and their diagnosis, epidemiology, and management according to the literature published in the last 20 years.
Alipour, Fateme; Khaheshi, Saeed; Soleimanzadeh, Mahya; Heidarzadeh, Somayeh; Heydarzadeh, Sepideh
Contact lens-related problems are common and can result in severe sight-threatening complications or contact lens drop out if not addressed properly. We systematically reviewed the most important and the most common contact lens-related complications and their diagnosis, epidemiology, and management according to the literature published in the last 20 years. PMID:28540012
Mandibular fracture sometimes is associated with complications which influence its prognosis. Aspects of the complications of mandibular fracture investigated are those emanating from the methods of treatment employed in its management. Such methods of treatment include conservative, closed reduction with ...
O'Sullivan, Robert; Baltes, Emily C; Reid, Duncan; Shi, Veronica; Marcus, Peter
Cornual ectopic pregnancies are rarely encountered in clinical practice. A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, complications include hemorrhage and the presence of persistently elevated serum beta-hCG requiring administration of methotrexate. In this case, we present a patient whose postoperative course was complicated by an infected hematoma that responded to conservative management.
Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Montag, Eduardo; Arruda, Eduardo Gustavo; Sturtz, Gustavo; Gemperli, Rolf
INTRODUCTION Lumbar triangle hernia after breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap (LDMF) is a very rare complication and few cases were previously described. Muscle mobilization and iatrogenic fascia defect are related etiologic factors. PRESENTATION OF CASE The authors describe a rare case of lumbar hernia in a 58-year-old woman who underwent delayed left breast reconstruction with LDMF. Two months after surgery, a progressive symptomatic lower left lumbar bulge was observed. The CT...
Dong, Chenhui; Wang, Yunjiao; Wang, Ziming; Wang, Yu; Wu, Siyu; Du, Quanyin; Wang, Aimin
Background Chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes to hip fractures in elderly patients, with high subsequent mortality. Selection and timing of the surgical procedure of such patients is a serious challenge. Many clinicians believe in earlier surgery as preferable and providing better outcomes. Damage control orthopedics (DCO) aids to adjust and optimize the overall condition of patients. Methods In 32 patients with femoral neck fractures complicated with CRF, we evaluated how the timing of the surgery determines the mortality rates if the DCO approach is applied. Preoperative ASA grading, POSSUM score, P-POSSUM score and DCO were carried out. Based on the assessment, timing of the surgery was ascertained. Results Of a total of 32 patients, twenty-nine patients were accepted for either early (< 48 hours; n = 18) or delayed (3–10 days; n = 10) surgery. Hip arthroplasty (total hip arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty) was the principal surgery option. All patients survived operation and were followed up postoperatively with the average time of 30 days. Postoperative complications tended to occur at higher rates in the early vs. delayed surgery group (7/18 vs. 5/10). During follow up, a total of 3 patients died in both groups (2/18 in the early surgery and 1/10 in the delayed surgery group), mostly from multi-organ failures and acute respiratory distress syndrome. There was no significant difference in complication rates and Harris hip score between both groups. Conclusion In patients with femoral neck fracture complicated with CRF, delaying the surgery for several days does not increase the incidence of postoperative adverse events. PMID:27149117
Kische, Stephan; D'Ancona, Giuseppe; Belu, Ioan Christian; Stoeckicht, Yannik; Agma, Umut; Ortak, Jasmin; Ince, Hüseyin
To present results of endovascular treatment of complicated type B aortic dissection. Patients with acutely complicated type B aortic dissection extending from the left sub-clavian artery to the abdominal aorta were treated. The strategy involved the placement of a covered endoprosthesis to seal the primary entry tear and, in cases where malperfusion persisted, distal extension with uncovered stents, to enhance true lumen (TL) expansion and reperfusion of the ischaemic arterial branches originating from the TL. Thirty-five patients were included. Mean age was 63.1 (37-79) years and malperfusion syndrome occurred in 71.4%. Average aortic coverage with endoprostheses was 220.6 mm (136-355 mm). In 17 cases (48.5%), distal extension with uncovered stents was necessary. Thirty-day major morbidity was 28.5%, and mortality 2.8%. At follow-up (25.6 ± 19.5 months; 4-73 months), overall mortality was 15.2%, and aortic mortality 12.1%. Additional aortic intervention was necessary in 18.2%. Although patients undergoing distal extension with bare metal stents suffered most often from preoperative malperfusion, no significant differences were noted in the 30-day and follow-up clinical results. Follow-up angio-computed tomography showed complete thrombosis of the false lumen in the proximal half of the thoracic aorta in 76.4%. Patients treated with bare stents had significantly larger aortic TL sizes, at the different abdominal aorta levels. In patients with complicated type B aortic dissection, tailored elongation with uncovered stents is a safe treatment of persistent malperfusion. Although the results presented are encouraging, randomized data and a longer follow-up are required to confirm benefits and complications of this strategy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Chronic renal failure (CRF predisposes to hip fractures in elderly patients, with high subsequent mortality. Selection and timing of the surgical procedure of such patients is a serious challenge. Many clinicians believe in earlier surgery as preferable and providing better outcomes. Damage control orthopedics (DCO aids to adjust and optimize the overall condition of patients.In 32 patients with femoral neck fractures complicated with CRF, we evaluated how the timing of the surgery determines the mortality rates if the DCO approach is applied. Preoperative ASA grading, POSSUM score, P-POSSUM score and DCO were carried out. Based on the assessment, timing of the surgery was ascertained.Of a total of 32 patients, twenty-nine patients were accepted for either early (< 48 hours; n = 18 or delayed (3-10 days; n = 10 surgery. Hip arthroplasty (total hip arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty was the principal surgery option. All patients survived operation and were followed up postoperatively with the average time of 30 days. Postoperative complications tended to occur at higher rates in the early vs. delayed surgery group (7/18 vs. 5/10. During follow up, a total of 3 patients died in both groups (2/18 in the early surgery and 1/10 in the delayed surgery group, mostly from multi-organ failures and acute respiratory distress syndrome. There was no significant difference in complication rates and Harris hip score between both groups.In patients with femoral neck fracture complicated with CRF, delaying the surgery for several days does not increase the incidence of postoperative adverse events.
Frizzell, Norma; Baynes, John W
In a recent article, we presented the hypothesis that decompartmentalized metal ions are a major contributor to the development of diabetic complications and supported the use of chelation therapy for the treatment of diabetic complications [Nagai R, Murray DB, Metz TO, Baynes JW. Chelation: a fundamental mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors, AGE breakers, and other inhibitors of diabetes complications. Diabetes 2012;61:549-59]. Evidence in support of this hypothesis included the observation that many drugs used in the treatment of diabetes are chelators, that advanced glycation end product (AGE) inhibitors and AGE breakers lack carbonyl-trapping or AGE-breaker activity but are potent chelators, and that simple copper chelators inhibit vascular pathology in diabetes and aging. In the present article, we extend this hypothesis, proposing the interplay between copper and iron in the development of pathology in diabetes and other chronic age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. We also discuss the need and provide a framework for the development of a clinical laboratory test to assess plasma autoxidative catalytic activity and transition metal homeostasis in vivo.
Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Zapała, Lukasz; Cordeiro, Ernesto; Antoniewicz, Artur; Dimitriadis, Georgios; de Reijke, Theo
Biopsy of the prostate is a common procedure with minor complications that are usually self-limited. However, if one considers that millions of men undergo biopsy worldwide, one realizes that although complication rate is low, the number of patients suffering from biopsy complications should not be
Value of a step-up diagnosis plan: CRP and CT-scan to diagnose and manage postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery Value of a step-up diagnosis plan: CRP and CT-scan to diagnose and manage postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery
Straatman, Jennifer; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Gisbertz, Suzanne S.; van der Peet, Donald L.
Postoperative complications frequently follow major abdominal surgery and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment of complications is associated with improved patient outcome. In this study we assessed the value of a step-up diagnosis plan by C-reactive
Wu, Nan; Gui, Jian-Fang
Histones, as the basic components of nucleosome, are essential to chromatin structure and function. To adapt to various states of chromatin, corresponding histone variants are incorporated in nucleosome, and certain modifications also occur on the variants' tails. These variants change the conformation and stability of nucleosome to facilitate transcriptional activation or deactivation, DNA repairing, heterochromatin formation, and others. During histone exchange, chromatin remodeling complex facilitates histone variant deposition into nucleosome, and different variants have diverse deposition pathways. Recently, research on histone variants is not only a new hotspot in epigenetics, but also a new annotation of "histone code". In addition, histone exchange reveals new changing mechanism of DNA-histone interaction.
Chervu, A; Quinones-Baldrich, W J
Vascular complications may be seen secondary to trauma or in the perioperative period following elective surgery. Prompt recognition and correction of these problems are of utmost importance to assure functional viability of the affected extremity. Evaluation may be complicated by the presence of preexisting atherosclerotic occlusive disease in the elderly patient. Relevant points in the history and physical examination include mechanism of injury, preexisting disease, evaluation of motor and sensory function, and presence and character of pulses. Noninvasive vascular studies should be obtained in all patients. Absolute indications for angiography include absent pulses, signs and symptoms of ischemia, a bruit, and a posterior knee dislocation; decreased pulses, a significant hematoma, and proximity of the fracture fragment are relative indications. Controversial issues in the management of combined orthopedic and vascular injuries include the use of internal versus external fixation, the use of prosthetic versus autogenous material, and the need for venous reconstruction. Popliteal artery trauma is still associated with a high limb loss rate, and careful evaluation of knee injuries is necessary. Vascular compromise may also complicate joint replacement surgery. These complications are preventable, and management is greatly simplified by a detailed preoperative evaluation.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tracheostomy is a lifesaving procedure that has stood the test of time. Reports of surgically securing the airway dates back to ancient times. However, Chevalier Jackson is credited with the first clear open surgical description in 1909. Only during the last three decades has this operation assumed its rightful place as a simple and safe procedure. During recent years, the complications and deaths due to tracheostomy have markedly decreased. But, complications do occur and there is not much published data, especially in the recent years on complications of tracheostomy. Hence, this study was conducted at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, to assess the incidence of immediate, intermediate and late complications of tracheostomy and to study the steps taken to manage these complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on 205 patients who underwent tracheostomy, both emergency and elective between June 2013 and December 2014 at Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. RESULTS The incidence of complications was found to be 28.3%. The most common immediate complications were bleeding and cardiopulmonary arrest. The most common intermediate complication was infection and difficult decannulation was the most common late complication. CONCLUSION Knowledge of probable complications and their causative factors is necessary to tackle and prevent them. Majority of the complications can be avoided by using non-metallic tracheostomy tubes, patients seeking early treatment, the expertise of the surgeon, adequate tracheostomy care and regular follow up.
Full Text Available Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP and cesarean scar dehiscence (CSD are the most dreaded complications of cesarean scar (CS. As the incidence of CS is increasing worldwide, so is the incidence of CSP, especially in cases with assisted reproduction techniques. It is of utmost importance to diagnose CSP in the early first trimester, as it can lead to myometrial rupture with fatal outcome. On the other hand, CSD may be encountered during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. CSD in the postpartum period is very rare and can cause secondary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH leading to increased maternal morbidity or even death if not diagnosed and managed promptly. Both complications can be diagnosed on ultrasonography (USG and confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. These two conditions carry high morbidity and mortality. In this article, we highlight the role of imaging in the early diagnosis and management of these conditions.
Øhlenschlaeger, Tommy; Garred, Peter; Madsen, Hans O
Cardiovascular disease is an important complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin gene are associated with SLE as well as with severe atherosclerosis. We determined whether mannose-binding lectin variant alleles were associated...
Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Lagana, Domenico; Mangini, Monica; Cafaro, Tamara; Recaldini, Chiara; Genovese, Eugenio; Fugazzola, Carlo [Insubria Univ., Varese (Italy). Cattedra di radiologia; Cuffari, Salvatore [Ospedale di circolo, Varese (Italy). Servizio di anestesia e rianimazione
Purpose. To evaluate the role and the effectiveness of interventional radiology in the treatment of renal transplant complications. Materials and methods. From 1996 to 2004 a total of 288 kidney transplants from cadavers were performed in our Institute. The kidney was always collocated in iliac fossa by creating a vascular anastomosis with the external iliac artery and vein; in all cases the ureter was implanted into the recipient bladder. During the follow-up, 34 complications were observed. Twenty-seven complications in 25 patients (20 males and 5 females; age 35-65 years) were treated by a radiologic procedure: 9 renal artery stenosis and 1 native external iliac artery stenosis (by PTA), 5 ureteral obstructions (by nephrostomy and ureteral stenting), 8 ureteral leaks (by nephrostomy, in 2 cases associated to ureteral stenting) and 4 limphoceles (by percutaneous ultrasound-guided catheter drainage). Results. Primary technical success was obtained in 20/27 cases (74%). Success was obtained with a second interventional procedure in 3/27 cases, 2 limphoceles and 1 ureteral fistula (secondary technical success: 85.2%), with a clinical final success in 23/27 cases (85.2%). We observed a peri-procedural complication rate of 3.7% (1 renal artery post-PTA dissection during a restenosis treatment). Four cases (1 renal arterial post-PTA dissection, 1 ureteral obstructions, 1 ureteral leak and llimphocele) needed a surgical correction (14.8%). Conclusions. Interventional radiology is the first therapeutic approach to treat renal transplant complications. It shows good technical and clinical results and a low complication rate. Surgery had to be considered only if minimally invasive procedures are infeasible or ineffective. [Italian] Scopo. Valutare l'efficacia delle procedure di radiologia interventistica nel trattamento delle complicanze del trapianto renale. Materiale e metodi. Dal 1996 al 2004 sono stati eseguiti, presso il nostro centro 288 trapianti renali da
Obralić, N; Tahmiscija, H; Kobaslija, S; Beslija, S
Function and integrity disorders of the oral cavity fall into the most frequent complication of the chemotherapy of leucemias, malignant lymphomas and solid tumors. Complications associated with cancer chemotherapy can be direct ones, resulting from the toxic action of antineoplastic agents on the proliferative lining of the mouth, or indirect, as a result of myelosuppression and immunosuppression. The most frequent oral complications associated with cancer chemotherapy are mucositis, infection and bleeding. The principles of prevention and management of oral complications during cancer chemotherapy are considered in this paper.
Borghesan, Michela; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Oben, Jude; Pazienza, Valerio; Vinciguerra, Manlio
Within nucleosomes, canonical histones package the genome, but they can be opportunely replaced with histone variants. The incorporation of histone variants into the nucleosome is a chief cellular strategy to regulate transcription and cellular metabolism. In pathological terms, cellular steatosis
Tesfalul, Martha; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Antwi, Cynthia; Ndlovu, Siphiwo; Motsepe, Didintle; Phuthego, Motsholathebe; Tau, Boitumelo; Mohutsiwa-Dibe, Neo; Kovarik, Carrie
Mobile telemedicine, which involves the use of cellular phone telecommunications to facilitate exchange of information between parties in different locations to assist in the management of patients, has become increasingly popular, particularly in resource-limited settings. In Botswana, small studies of mobile telemedicine programs suggest access to these services positively affect patients, but these programs' impact is difficult to capture given limitations of baseline and comparative data. Our observational study uses each patient receiving mobile oral telemedicine services in Botswana as his/her own control to assess the impact of these services on his/her diagnosis and management plan. At month 5 of 12 total, preliminary analysis of eligible cases (n = 27) reveals management plan discordance between clinicians submitting cases and the specialist was 68.0% (17/25), suggesting that telemedicine can result in significant changes in management of patients.
Hosam S. Al-Qudah
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An extensive study of complications following urethroplasty has never been published. We present 60 urethroplasty patients who were specifically questioned to determine every possible early and late complication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review of urethroplasty patients between August 2000 and March 2004. An "open format" questioning style allowed maximal patient reporting of all complications, no matter how minor. RESULTS: 60 patients underwent 62 urethroplasties (24 anterior anastomotic, 19 buccal mucosal and 10 fasciocutaneous, 9 posterior anastomotic with mean follow-up of 29 months. Early complications occurred in 40%, but only 3% were major (rectal injury and urosepsis. Early minor complications included scrotal swelling, scrotal ecchymosis and urinary urgency. Late complications occurred in 48%, but only 18% were significant (erectile dysfunction, chordee and fistula. Late minor complications included a feeling of wound tightness, scrotal numbness and urine spraying. Fasciocutaneous urethroplasty caused the most significant complications, and buccal mucus urethroplasty the least, while also resulting in the lowest recurrence rate (0%. CONCLUSIONS: Serious complications after urethroplasty (3% early and 18% late appear similar to those reported elsewhere, but minor bothersome complications appear to occur in much higher numbers than previously published (39% early and 40% late. While all the early complications were resolved and most (97% were minor, less than half of the late complications were resolved, although most (82% were minor. These complication rates should be considered when counseling urethroplasty patients, and generally tend to support the use of buccal mucosal onlay urethroplasty as it had the lowest rate of serious side effects.
Gokul Parameswar Venkateshwar
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of various complications following routine exodontia performed using fixed protocols. Materials and Methods: A total of 22,330 extractions carried out in 14,975 patients, aged between 14 and 82 years, who reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, were evaluated for various complications. Results: The most common complications encountered were tooth fracture, trismus, fracture of cortical plates and dry socket. Wound dehiscence, postoperative pain and hemorrhage were encountered less frequently. Luxation of adjacent teeth, fracture of maxillary tuberosity, and displacement of tooth into adjacent tissue spaces were rare complications. Conclusion: The practice of exodontia inevitably results in complications from time to time. It is imperative for the clinician to recognize impending complications and manage them accordingly.
Calò, Valentina; Bruno, Loredana; Paglia, Laura La; Perez, Marco; Margarese, Naomi [Department of Surgery and Oncology, Regional Reference Center for the Biomolecular Characterization and Genetic Screening of Hereditary Tumors, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Gaudio, Francesca Di [Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Legal Medicine, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Russo, Antonio, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Surgery and Oncology, Regional Reference Center for the Biomolecular Characterization and Genetic Screening of Hereditary Tumors, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy)
Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 genes are responsible for a large proportion of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers. Many highly penetrant predisposition alleles have been identified and include frameshift or nonsense mutations that lead to the translation of a truncated protein. Other alleles contain missense mutations, which result in amino acid substitution and intronic variants with splicing effect. The discovery of variants of uncertain/unclassified significance (VUS) is a result that can complicate rather than improve the risk assessment process. VUSs are mainly missense mutations, but also include a number of intronic variants and in-frame deletions and insertions. Over 2,000 unique BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense variants have been identified, located throughout the whole gene (Breast Cancer Information Core Database (BIC database)). Up to 10–20% of the BRCA tests report the identification of a variant of uncertain significance. There are many methods to discriminate deleterious/high-risk from neutral/low-risk unclassified variants (i.e., analysis of the cosegregation in families of the VUS, measure of the influence of the VUSs on the wild-type protein activity, comparison of sequence conservation across multiple species), but only an integrated analysis of these methods can contribute to a real interpretation of the functional and clinical role of the discussed variants. The aim of our manuscript is to review the studies on BRCA VUS in order to clarify their clinical relevance.
Se Jin Park; Jae Il Shin
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is one of the most common glomerular diseases that affect children. Renal histology reveals the presence of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in more than 80% of these patients. Most patients with MCNS have favorable outcomes without complications. However, a few of these children have lesions of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, suffer from severe and prolonged proteinuria, and are at high risk for complications. Complications of NS are divided into two c...
Korepanov, V.; Negoda, O.; Alleyne, H.; Balikhin, M.; Fedorov, A.; Juchniewicz, J.; Klimov, S.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lefeuvre, F.; Lizunov, G.
VARIANT is a joint international space experiment which will be performed onboard the Ukrainian remote sensing satellite SICH-1M, that will be launched in 2003 at the polar circular orbit with the altitude 670s30 km. The scientific payload includes three instruments for registration of space current density: split Langmuir probe, Rogovski coil and Faraday cup. The equipment also includes sensors for measurements of electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range from DC to 40 kHz. Main objectives of the VARIANT mission are as follows: u direct comparison of the spectral characteristics of the electric and magnetic fields with the characteristics of the field aligned currents in the polar regions; mapping of the field aligned current distribution; u comparative study of the field aligned current structures with the characteristics of the ionospheric convection observed by the system of radars SuperDARN; u comparative study of technological problems associated with different techniques of current density measurements; and the secondary objectives are: u active experiments with the onboard radar; registration of the signatures of the seismo-active and volcanic phenomena; investigation of the man-made impact upon the ionosphere (anthropogenichazards, pollution, etc). Recent space experiments tendency U smaller and cheaper U stimulated the new approach to the functions division between scientific instruments and DPU. The peculiarities of such approach and the practical example of onboard DPU for VARIANT experiment to be launched next year are reported. Flight model of the VARIANT instrument is already installed onboard the satellite and successfully tested. The methodological questions of the spatial current density direct measurement in space plasma are constantly studied and recent advances in this branch, as well as the experimental tests results are discussed. This work was partially supported by NSAU contract 1221 and INTAS grant 2000-465.
Park, Se Jin; Shin, Jae Il
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is one of the most common glomerular diseases that affect children. Renal histology reveals the presence of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in more than 80% of these patients. Most patients with MCNS have favorable outcomes without complications. However, a few of these children have lesions of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, suffer from severe and prolonged proteinuria, and are at high risk for complications. Complications of NS are divided into two categories: disease-associated and drug-related complications. Disease-associated complications include infections (e.g., peritonitis, sepsis, cellulitis, and chicken pox), thromboembolism (e.g., venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism), hypovolemic crisis (e.g., abdominal pain, tachycardia, and hypotension), cardiovascular problems (e.g., hyperlipidemia), acute renal failure, anemia, and others (e.g., hypothyroidism, hypocalcemia, bone disease, and intussusception). The main pathomechanism of disease-associated complications originates from the large loss of plasma proteins in the urine of nephrotic children. The majority of children with MCNS who respond to treatment with corticosteroids or cytotoxic agents have smaller and milder complications than those with steroid-resistant NS. Corticosteroids, alkylating agents, cyclosporin A, and mycophenolate mofetil have often been used to treat NS, and these drugs have treatment-related complications. Early detection and appropriate treatment of these complications will improve outcomes for patients with NS.
Se Jin Park
Full Text Available Nephrotic syndrome (NS is one of the most common glomerular diseases that affect children. Renal histology reveals the presence of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS in more than 80% of these patients. Most patients with MCNS have favorable outcomes without complications. However, a few of these children have lesions of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, suffer from severe and prolonged proteinuria, and are at high risk for complications. Complications of NS are divided into two categories: disease-associated and drug-related complications. Disease-associated complications include infections (e.g., peritonitis, sepsis, cellulitis, and chicken pox, thromboembolism (e.g., venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism, hypovolemic crisis (e.g., abdominal pain, tachycardia, and hypotension, cardiovascular problems (e.g., hyperlipidemia, acute renal failure, anemia, and others (e.g., hypothyroidism, hypocalcemia, bone disease, and intussusception. The main pathomechanism of disease-associated complications originates from the large loss of plasma proteins in the urine of nephrotic children. The majority of children with MCNS who respond to treatment with corticosteroids or cytotoxic agents have smaller and milder complications than those with steroid-resistant NS. Corticosteroids, alkylating agents, cyclosporin A, and mycophenolate mofetil have often been used to treat NS, and these drugs have treatment-related complications. Early detection and appropriate treatment of these complications will improve outcomes for patients with NS.
Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation of the lungs, as an important therapeutic measure, cannot be avoided in critically ill patients. However, when machines take over some of vital functions there is always a risk of complications and accidents. Complications associated with mechanical ventilation can be divided into: 1 airway-associated complications; 2 complications in the response of patients to mechanical ventilation; and 3 complications related to the patient’s response to the device for mechanical ventilation. Complications of artificial airway may be related to intubation and extubation or the endotracheal tube. Complications of mechanical ventilation, which arise because of the patient’s response to mechanical ventilation, may primarily cause significant side effects to the lungs. During the last two decades it was concluded that mechanical ventilation can worsen or cause acute lung injury. Mechanical ventilation may increase the alveolar/capillary permeability by overdistension of the lungs (volutrauma, it can exacerbate lung damage due to the recruitment/derecruitment of collapsed alveoli (atelectrauma and may cause subtle damages due to the activation of inflammatory processes (biotrauma. Complications caused by mechanical ventilation, beside those involving the lungs, can also have significant effects on other organs and organic systems, and can be a significant factor contributing to the increase of morbidity and mortality in critically ill of mechanically ventilated patients. Complications are fortunately rare and do not occur in every patient, but due to their seriousness and severity they require extensive knowledge, experience and responsibility by health-care workers.
Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik
Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysi......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed. ...
Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl
Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysi......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....
Cuero, Mauricio Ruiz; Varelas, Panayiotis N
Pregnant women are subject to the same complications as the general population, as well to specific neurologic complications associated with pregnancy, such as preeclampsia or eclampsia. The hormonal and physiologic changes during pregnancy lead to altered incidences of these complications, which usually present during the late period of pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium. In addition, the treatment of these conditions is different from that of nonpregnant women, because special attention is paid to avoid any abnormalities or death of the fetus. This article discusses the most common of these neurologic complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung
The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.
Soumya Sankar Nath
Full Text Available Anaesthesia related complications in plastic surgeries are fortunately rare, but potentially catastrophic. Maintaining patient safety in the operating room is a major concern of anaesthesiologists, surgeons, hospitals and surgical facilities. Circumventing preventable complications is essential and pressure to avoid these complications in cosmetic surgery is increasing. Key aspects of patient safety in the operating room are outlined, including patient positioning, airway management and issues related to some specific conditions, essential for minimizing post-operative morbidity. Risks associated with extremes of age in the plastic surgery population, may be minimised by a better understanding of the physiologic changes as well as the pre-operative and post-operative considerations in caring for this special group of patients. An understanding of the anaesthesiologist′s concerns during paediatric plastic surgical procedures can facilitate the coordination of efforts between the multiple services involved in the care of these children. Finally, the reader will have a better understanding of the perioperative care of unique populations including the morbidly obese and the elderly. Attention to detail in these aspects of patient safety can help avoid unnecessary complication and significantly improve the patients′ experience and surgical outcome.
Bagchi, Kaushik; Mohaideen, Ahamed [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Services, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Thomson, Jeffrey D. [Connecticut Children' s Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Hartford, CT (United States); Foley, Christopher L. [Department of Radiology, Connecticut Children' s Medical Center, Hartford, Connecticut (United States)
Background: Scoliosis surgery has undergone a dramatic evolution over the past 20 years with the advent of new surgical techniques and sophisticated instrumentation. Surgeons have realized scoliosis is a complex multiplanar deformity that requires thorough knowledge of spinal anatomy and pathophysiology in order to manage patients afflicted by it. Nonoperative modalities such as bracing and casting still play roles in the treatment of scoliosis; however, it is the operative treatment that has revolutionized the treatment of this deformity that affects millions worldwide. As part of the evolution of scoliosis surgery, newer implants have resulted in improved outcomes with respect to deformity correction, reliability of fixation, and paucity of complications. Each technique and implant has its own set of unique complications, and the surgeon must appreciate these when planning surgery. Materials and methods: Various surgical techniques and types of instrumentation typically used in scoliosis surgery are briefly discussed. Though scoliosis surgery is associated with a wide variety of complications, only those that directly involve the hardware are discussed. The current literature is reviewed and several illustrative cases of patients treated for scoliosis at the Connecticut Children's Medical Center and the Newington Children's Hospital in Connecticut are briefly presented. Conclusion: Spine surgeons and radiologists should be familiar with the different types of instrumentation in the treatment of scoliosis. Furthermore, they should recognize the clinical and roentgenographic signs of hardware failure as part of prompt and effective treatment of such complications. (orig.)
Serup, Jørgen; Carlsen, Katrina Hutton; Sepehri, Mitra
are papulo-nodular and non-allergic and associated with the agglomeration of nanoparticulate carbon black. Tattoo complications include effects on general health conditions and complications in the psycho-social sphere. Tattoo infections with bacteria, especially staphylococci, which may be resistant...
Conclusion: Mucocele is a rare complication of stapled hemorrhoidopexy that may remain asymptomatic for a long period. In case of perineal discomfort after stapled procedure the physical examination combined with 3D 360° transanal ultrasound is necessary to reach the diagnosis. The knowledge of the possible rare complications is at the base of a correct treatment.
VanDette, J M; Cornish, L A
The chemistry, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics of cocaine are described, and the medical complications of illicit cocaine use are reviewed. Cocaine is readily absorbed from mucous membranes, the gastrointestinal tract, and the vascular beds of the lungs. Thus there are a number of routes for illicit cocaine administration, with the most popular one being intranasal. The most prevalent problems associated with the use of cocaine appear to be route and dose independent and are cardiovascular in nature; they include myocardial infarction and ischemia, sudden death, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension. Seizures, cerebrovascular accidents, hepatotoxicity, rhabdomyolysis, pulmonary complications, and obstetrical complications have also been reported. Gastrointestinal complications and acute toxicity may occur in cocaine smugglers who ingest cocaine-filled packets. Route-dependent complications of cocaine use are also of concern. The mechanism underlying the medical complications has not been fully elucidated but appears to be an extension of the drug's pharmacological properties. The treatment of cocaine-related toxicities is supportive and is based on the organ system affected. Drugs such as propranolol, labetalol, and nitrendipine have been advocated for treating the cardiovascular complications, and measures such as maintaining arterial blood pH, monitoring core body temperature, and diazepam therapy have been used to manage seizures. As the number of case reports of cocaine toxicity increases and the underlying mechanism is conclusively defined, management of the medical complications will improve.
Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to analyze complications of vestibular schwannoma (VS microsurgery. Material and Methods. A retrospective study was performed in 333 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma indicated for surgical treatment between January 1997 and December 2012. Postoperative complications were assessed immediately after VS surgery as well as during outpatient followup. Results. In all 333 patients microsurgical vestibular schwannoma (Koos grade 1: 12, grade 2: 34, grade 3: 62, and grade 4: 225 removal was performed. The main neurological complication was facial nerve dysfunction. The intermediate and poor function (HB III–VI was observed in 124 cases (45% immediately after surgery and in 104 cases (33% on the last followup. We encountered disordered vestibular compensation in 13%, permanent trigeminal nerve dysfunction in 1%, and transient lower cranial nerves (IX–XI deficit in 6%. Nonneurological complications included CSF leakage in 63% (lateral/medial variant: 99/1%, headache in 9%, and intracerebral hemorrhage in 5%. We did not encounter any case of meningitis. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that despite the benefits of advanced high-tech equipment, refined microsurgical instruments, and highly developed neuroimaging technologies, there are still various and significant complications associated with vestibular schwannomas microsurgery.
Mehler, Philip S; Rylander, Melanie
As with anorexia nervosa, there are many medical complications associated with bulimia nervosa. In bulimia nervosa, these complications are a direct result of both the mode and the frequency of purging behaviours. For the purposes of this article, we will review in detail the many complications of the two major modes of purging, namely, self-induced vomiting and laxative abuse; these two account for more than 90% of purging behaviours in bulimia nervosa. Some of these complications are potentially extremely dangerous and need to be well understood to effectively treat patients with bulimia nervosa. Other methods of purging, such as diuretic abuse, are much less frequently utilized and will only be mentioned briefly. In a subsequent article, the treatments of these medical complications will be presented.
Kakavand Hamidi, Armita; Radfar, Mania; Amoli, Mahsa M
Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variant may play an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications due to its influence on plasma homocysteine levels and also its effect on scavenging peroxynitrite radicals. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and MTHFR gene C677T and 1298A ⁄C polymorphisms. Patients with type 2 diabetes N=248 were enrolled in the study, consisting of patients with neuropathy (N=141) and patients without neuropathy (N=107). MTHFR C677T polymorphism was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of genomic DNA for genotyping of samples. 1298A/C polymorphism was evaluated using ARMS-PCR. There was a significant difference in MTHFR polymorphism between the groups with and without neuropathy. Our results suggest that MTHFR 677 variant confer risk for diabetic neuropathy among Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Amir, Alexander; Lash, Vynka; Moore, Albert; Rao, Pramod; Torres, Carlos; Kaufman, Ian
Intravascular, subdural, intrathecal, and subcutaneous placement of epidural catheters are known complications and common causes of anesthesia and analgesia failure. Because the epidural space is located near the retroperitoneum and catheters are placed blindly, it is possible that misplacement could involve other structures, including the inferior vena cava, the aorta, and the lumbar plexus. We report a case of an obese laterally positioned parturient who presented with an epidural catheter lodged in the retroperitoneum. The catheter provided inadequate analgesia for labor, and postpartum computed tomography revealed it to be located in the retroperitoneal space just adjacent to the inferior vena cava. Conventional removal techniques were unsuccessful, and the catheter was finally removed after insertion of a guide wire under fluoroscopy. We conclude that obesity and lateral positioning are factors that increase the risk of epidural catheter misplacement, and a large distance from skin to loss of resistance is a potential sign of misplacement. We recommend ultrasound imaging to aid in the insertion of epidural catheters in high-risk patients.
Domingo, Fernando; Dale, Elizabeth; Gao, Cuilan; Groves, Cynthia; Stanley, Daniel; Maxwell, Robert A; Waldrop, Jimmy L
Mandibular fractures are common facial injuries and treatment may be complicated by post-operative infection. Risk of infection from contamination with oral flora is well established but no consensus exists regarding antibiotic prophylaxis. The purpose of this study is to assess risk factors and perioperative antibiotics on surgical site infection (SSI) rates following mandibular fracture surgery. Retrospective medical record review was completed for trauma patients of any age surgically treated for mandibular fractures at a Level I Trauma Center from September 2006 to June 2012. Outcomes analysis was performed to determine SSI rates related to perioperative antibiotic use and other risk factors that may contribute to SSI. 359 patients met inclusion criteria for analysis. 76% were male. Mean age was 30.5 years. Thirty-eight patients developed SSI (10.6%). SSI rate was lower in closed versus open surgery (3.2% vs. 16.3%, p=0.0001), and in closed versus open fractures (1% vs. 14%, p=0.0005). SSI rate increased in patients with tobacco, alcohol, and drug use (14.6%, 13.2%, 53.6%, psurgery did not effect SSI rate. Findings suggest that following surgical treatment of mandible fractures, open surgery, open fractures, and risk factors including substance abuse, traumatic dental injury, and mechanism of injury significantly increase SSI rates, while post-operative antibiotics do not appear to provide additional benefit compared to pre-operative antibiotics alone. Therapeutic study, level IV.
Halanski, Matthew; Noonan, Kenneth J
During the past three decades, internal fixation has become increasingly popular for fracture management and limb reconstruction. As a result, during their training, orthopaedic surgeons receive less formal instruction in the art of extremity immobilization and cast application and removal. Casting is not without risks and complications (eg, stiffness, pressure sores, compartment syndrome); the risk of morbidity is higher when casts are applied by less experienced practitioners. Certain materials and methods of ideal cast and splint application are recommended to prevent morbidity in the patient who is at high risk for complications with casting and splinting. Those at high risk include the obtunded or comatose multitrauma patient, the patient under anesthesia, the very young patient, the developmentally delayed patient, and the patient with spasticity.
Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are frequently afflicted with neurological complications. These complications can potentially affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common neurological complications in CKD include stroke, cognitive dysfunction, encephalopathy, peripheral and autonomic neuropathies. These conditions have significant impact not only on patient morbidity but also on mortality risk through a variety of mechanisms. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of these conditions can provide insights into effective management strategies for neurological complications. This review describes clinical management of neurological complications in CKD with reference to the contributing physiological and pathological derangements. Stroke, cognitive dysfunction and dementia share several pathological mechanisms that may contribute to vascular impairment and neurodegeneration. Cognitive dysfunction and dementia may be differentiated from encephalopathy which has similar contributing factors but presents in an acute and rapidly progressive manner and may be accompanied by tremor and asterixis. Recent evidence suggests that dietary potassium restriction may be a useful preventative measure for peripheral neuropathy. Management of painful neuropathic symptoms can be achieved by pharmacological means with careful dosing and side effect considerations for reduced renal function. Patients with autonomic neuropathy may respond to sildenafil for impotence. Neurological complications often become clinically apparent at end-stage disease, however early detection and management of these conditions in mild CKD may reduce their impact at later stages.
Murthy, Sudish C; Okereke, Ikenna; Mason, David P; Rice, Thomas W
Complicated pleural effusions are difficult to manage with conventional strategies. In this study, we review the safety, efficacy, and durability of PleurX catheters (Denver Biomedical, Golden, CO) for managing complicated pleural effusions and describe a patient population who might benefit. From July 1999 to February 2003, 63 PleurX catheters were placed in 58 symptomatic patients (an additional five had bilateral catheters) to manage complicated pleural effusions. Patients selected for catheter placement tended to have poor performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group < or =2) or had failed standard therapies. Of the 63 catheters, 52 (83%) were placed because of malignant complicated pleural effusions. A registry of patients was constructed, and data were obtained from review of medical records. Nonparametric estimates of freedom from reintervention and overall survival were obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method. Catheter-related complications were noted in four of 58 patients (7%) and included one each of pneumothorax, seroma, empyema, and pain syndrome. Freedom from reintervention for effusion management was 95%. Of the patients, 86% (50 of 58) experienced dyspnea relief. There were no procedure-related mortalities. Catheters remained functional up to 330 days, and four of 63 (6%) required one-time thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator. PleurX catheters are safe, effective, and durable solutions for complicated pleural effusions and seem to provide an attractive alternative for patients who have few other palliative options. We consider the catheters as first-line therapy for these patients.
S Z Inamdar
to 0.6m m ol/l. There w as a positive im pact of pharm acist‟s intervention on health, m edication adherence, the cost of the treatment, and diabetes-related patient‟s quality of life. The concept of pharmaceutical care w as effective in improving disease state management in diabetics by optimizing and resolving pharmaceutical care issues and reducing the econ omic burden of treatment on the patient.
Heda C; Heda A; Kulkarni S.
A 13-year-old boy had fractured his maxillary right central incisor. The fracture line involved 2/3rd of the crown, compromising the pulp and extended subgingivally on the palatal aspect invading the biologic width. The procedure used to manage this case included endodontic treatment of residual tooth orthodontic extrusion to move the fracture line above the alveolar bone. Finally the tooth was restored prosthodontically.
Full Text Available A 13-year-old boy had fractured his maxillary right central incisor. The fracture line involved 2/3rd of the crown, compromising the pulp and extended subgingivally on the palatal aspect invading the biologic width. The procedure used to manage this case included endodontic treatment of residual tooth orthodontic extrusion to move the fracture line above the alveolar bone. Finally the tooth was restored prosthodontically.
Baddour, Larry M; Wilson, Walter R; Bayer, Arnold S; Fowler, Vance G; Tleyjeh, Imad M; Rybak, Michael J; Barsic, Bruno; Lockhart, Peter B; Gewitz, Michael H; Levison, Matthew E; Bolger, Ann F; Steckelberg, James M; Baltimore, Robert S; Fink, Anne M; O'Gara, Patrick; Taubert, Kathryn A
Infective endocarditis is a potentially lethal disease that has undergone major changes in both host and pathogen. The epidemiology of infective endocarditis has become more complex with today's myriad healthcare-associated factors that predispose to infection. Moreover, changes in pathogen prevalence, in particular a more common staphylococcal origin, have affected outcomes, which have not improved despite medical and surgical advances. This statement updates the 2005 iteration, both of which were developed by the American Heart Association under the auspices of the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease of the Young. It includes an evidence-based system for diagnostic and treatment recommendations used by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association for treatment recommendations. Infective endocarditis is a complex disease, and patients with this disease generally require management by a team of physicians and allied health providers with a variety of areas of expertise. The recommendations provided in this document are intended to assist in the management of this uncommon but potentially deadly infection. The clinical variability and complexity in infective endocarditis, however, dictate that these recommendations be used to support and not supplant decisions in individual patient management. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
To ascertain the urological complications of coitus, as the proximity of the lower urinary tract to the organs of coitus exposes the tract to coital trauma. Medline was searched from 1966 to 2000 to identify reports on coital injuries. Publications and relevant references were retrieved. Those reporting urological complications were selected for analysis. In all, 1454 cases of reported coital injuries were reviewed; 790 occurred in men while 664 occurred in women, mainly in the genital area. Physical urological complications were more common in men than in women. The injuries were often sustained during voluntary coitus, but one penile fracture was sustained during an attempted rape. The presentations included penile swellings and deviations, haemorrhage, erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence. Complications included vesicovaginal fistulae, bladder and cavernosal ruptures, and urinary tract infections. Rare complications included isolated rupture of the penile vasculature. Major risk factors included penovaginal disproportion, excessive force at coitus, urethral coitus, fellatio and anal intercourse. Urethral injuries were the commonest complications; in men these were associated with 10-38% of penile fractures. The treatments included cold compress and anti-inflammatory agents in contusions, repairs of lacerations, closure of fistulae and urethral and vaginal reconstruction. The results of treatment were essentially good. Recurrent penile fractures were reported. Coitus, although pleasurable, may be risky. The complications have been termed 'faux pas' implying that they are preventable. While the ultimate prevention is abstinence, this is an unrealistic prescription. Therefore, efforts are necessary to identify risk factors to enable preventive strategies.
Wolff, Erin F; Hughes, Marybeth; Merino, Maria J; Reynolds, James C; Davis, Jeremy L; Cochran, Craig S; Celi, Francesco S
The most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor is the teratoma. Thyroid tissue, both benign and malignant, may be a component of an ovarian teratoma. Here we review this topic and illustrate major features by presenting multimodal management of a patient with BRAF-positive disseminated follicular thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma. Malignant thyroid tissue is often difficult to distinguish from benign thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas. Preoperatively, an elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) level, laboratory or clinical evidence of hyperthyroidism, or ultrasonography appearance of "struma pearl" should prompt referral to oncologist for surgical management of a possibly malignant ovarian teratoma. Postoperatively, tumor tissue should be referred to pathologists experienced with differentiating benign from malignant struma ovarii. Once diagnosed, treatment of this rare condition should be handled by a team of specialists with combined treatment modalities. We cared for woman with disseminated thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma whose history illustrates the complexity of managing ovarian teratomas with malignant thyroid tissue. At age 33 she had an intraoperative rupture of an ovarian cyst, thought to be struma ovarii. During her next pregnancy, pelvic masses were noted; biopsies revealed well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant. She was euthyroid, but had elevated serum Tg levels. Surgical staging demonstrated widely metastatic intraabdominal dissemination. A thyroidectomy revealed no malignancy. A post-(131)I treatment scan revealed diffuse uptake throughout the abdomen. She then developed abdominal pain and, on computed tomography, was found to have multiple intraabdominal foci of disease. Serum Tg was 264 ng/mL while on L-thyroxine for hypothyroidism and to obtain thyrotropin suppression. A 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan showed no pathological uptake. The tumor was found to be BRAF
D'Souza, Jill N; Levi, Jessica R; Park, David; Shah, Udayan K
Pediatric tracheotomy is a complex procedure with significant postoperative complications. Wound-related complications are increasingly reported and can have considerable impact on clinical course and health care costs to tracheotomy-dependent children. The primary objective of this study was to identify the type and rate of complications arising from pediatric tracheotomy. A retrospective review of medical records of 302 children who underwent tracheotomy between December 1, 2000, and February 28, 2014, at a tertiary care pediatric referral center. Records were reviewed for preoperative diagnoses, gestational age, age at tracheotomy, tracheotomy technique, and incidence of complication. Main outcome measures included incidence, type, and timing of complications. Secondary measures included medical diagnoses and surgical technique. Of the 302 children who underwent tracheotomy, the median (SD) age at time of tracheotomy was 5 months (64 months) and the range was birth to 21 years. The most frequent diagnosis associated with performance of a tracheotomy was ventilator-associated respiratory failure (61.9%), followed by airway anomaly or underdevelopment (25.2%), such as subglottic or tracheal stenosis, laryngotracheomalacia, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The remaining indications for tracheotomy included airway obstruction (11.6% [35 of 302]) and vocal fold dysfunction (1.3% [4 of 302]). No statistical significance was found associated with diagnosis and incidence of complications. Sixty children (19.9%) had a tracheotomy-related complication. Major complications, such as accidental decannulation (1.0% [3 of 302]). There were no deaths associated with tracheotomy. Minor complications, such as peristomal wound breakdown or granuloma (12.9% [39 of 302]) and bleeding from stoma (1.7% [5 of 302]), were more common. Of all complications, 70% (42 of 60) occurred early (≤7 days postoperatively) and 20% (12 of 60) were late (>7 days postoperatively). Pediatric
Cason, John; Bible, Jon; Mant, Christine
The vast majority of anogenital carcinomas are caused by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), and among Western nations HPV-16 is usually the most predominant cancer-associated type. As a DNA virus, HPV type 16 has a relatively stable genome that is believed to have co-evolved with its host over the millennia. Nevertheless, among the "wild" populations of HPV-16 that are circulating, a large number of variants have been identified, and these may have considerably different pathogenic potentials. In this chapter, methods for screening and characterizing HPV-16 sequence variants are described. In particular, we describe methods for the identification of variation within the HPV-16 E5 open reading frame and for the detection of the nt 131 A-->G mutation of the E6 ORF, using restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. In addition, we describe approaches for DNA sequencing and analysis. Such methods are likely to be of particular interest to those involved in epidemiological investigations of virus transmission and pathogenicity studies.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Profiles, Diseases Control and Complications at Four Public Health Facilities- A Cross-sectional Study based on the Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM) Registry 2009.
Chew, B H; Shariff-Ghazali, S; Lee, P Y; Cheong, A T; Mastura, I; Haniff, J; Bujang, M A; Taher, S W; Mustapha, F I
Diabetes care at different healthcare facilities varied from significantly better at one setting to no difference amongst them. We examined type 2 diabetes patient profiles, disease control and complication rates at four public health facilities in Malaysia. This study analyzed data from diabetes registry database, the Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM). The four public health facilities were hospital with specialist (HS), hospital without specialist (HNS), health clinics with family physicians (CS) and health clinic without doctor (CND). Independent risk factors were identified using multivariate regression analyses. The means age and duration of diabetes in years were significantly older and longer in HS (ANOVA, p< 0.0001). There were significantly more patients on insulin (31.2%), anti-hypertensives (80.1%), statins (68.1%) and antiplatelets (51.2%) in HS. Patients at HS had significantly lower means BMI, HbA1c, LDL-C and higher mean HDL-C. A significant larger proportion of type 2 diabetes patients at HS had diabetes-related complications (2-5 times). Compared to the HS, the CS was more likely to achieve HbA1c ≤ 6.5% (adjusted OR 1.2) and BP target < 130/80 mmHg (adjusted OR 1.4), the HNS was 3.4 times more likely not achieving LDL-C target < 2.6 mmol/L. Public hospitals with specialists in Malaysia were treating older male Chinese type 2 diabetes patients with more complications, and prescribed more medications. Patients attending these hospitals achieved better LDL-C target but poorer in attaining BP and lower HbA1c targets as compared to public health clinics with doctors and family physicians.
BACKGROUND: Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in individuals with functional or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract.OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge relevant to complicated urinary tract infection, and to provide evidence-based recommendations for management.METHODS: The literature was reviewed through a PubMed search, and additional articles were identified by journal reference review. A draft guideline was prepared and critically reviewed by members of the Ass...
... IBD Learn about IBD treatments, diet, complications, and quality of life through videos, interactive quizzes, and more on the ... disease and ulcerative colitis, and to improve the quality of life of those affected. Get Involved Attend an Event ...
... Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult Sinusitis Pediatric Sinusitis Fungal Sinusitis Sinusitis & Asthma Empty Nose Syndrome Cystic Fibrosis Sinusitis Q&A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of ...
... Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult Sinusitis Pediatric Sinusitis Fungal Sinusitis Sinusitis & Asthma Empty Nose Syndrome Cystic Fibrosis Sinusitis Q&A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of ...
Karila, Laurent; Lowenstein, William; Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by repetitive and compulsive drug-seeking behavior and drug abuse despite negative health or social consequences. Cocaine addiction is a significant worldwide public health problem, which has somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and judicial complications. Some of the most frequent complications are cardiovascular effects (acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias, increased blood pressure); respiratory effects (fibrosis, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension, alveolar haemorrhage, asthma exacerbation; emphysema), neurological effects (strokes, aneurysms, seizures, headaches); risk for contracting HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, sexual transmitted disease and otolaryngologic effects. Other complications are not discussed here. The vast majority of studies indicate that there are cognitive deficits induced by cocaine addiction. Attention, visual and working memories, executive functioning are affected in cocaine users. Psychiatric complications found in clinical practice are major depressive disorders, cocaine-induced paranoia, cocaine-induced compulsive foraging and panic attacks.
... Top of Page Long-term Complications Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a very rare, but fatal disease ... of age. For more information, see Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia . References Barrero PR, Grippo ...
Women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia are thought to be at increased risk for pregnancy complications, including recurrent pregnancy loss and, depending on the type of thrombophilia, severe preeclampsia...
... percent) women in the United States has genital herpes. Can genital herpes cause complications during pregnancy? Yes. Genital herpes ... sex Having your period Stress How does genital herpes spread? Genital herpes is caused by two viruses called herpes ...
... you go. [PDF – 261 KB] Pain “Episode” or “Crisis” Pain is the most common complication of SCD, ... have: Tiredness Irritability Dizziness and lightheadedness A fast heart rate Difficulty breathing Pale skin color Jaundice (yellow ...
Weston, Gillian; Payette, Michael
Lichen planus (LP) is an inflammatory skin condition with characteristic clinical and histopathological findings. Classic LP typically presents as pruritic, polygonal, violaceous flat-topped papules and plaques; many variants in morphology and location also exist, including oral, nail, linear, annular, atrophic, hypertrophic, inverse, eruptive, bullous, ulcerative, lichen planus pigmentosus, lichen planopilaris, vulvovaginal, actinic, lichen planus-lupus erythematosus overlap syndrome, and lichen planus pemphigoides. Clinical presentation of the rarer variant lesions may be largely dissimilar to classic LP and therefore difficult to diagnose based solely on clinical examination. However, histopathological examination of LP and LP-variant lesions reveal similar features, aiding in the proper diagnosis of the disease. Management of LP and LP variants aims to control symptoms and to decrease time from onset to resolution; it often involves topical corticosteroids, but varies depending on the severity and location of the lesion. The literature contains an array of reports on the variations in presentation and successful management of LP and its variants. A familiarity with LP and its variants is important in achieving timely recognition and management of the disease.
Karl, John W; Gancarczyk, Stephanie M; Strauch, Robert J
Carpal tunnel release for compression of the median nerve at the wrist is one of the most common and successful procedures in hand surgery. Complications, though rare, are potentially devastating and may include intraoperative technical errors, postoperative infection and pain, and persistent or recurrent symptoms. Patients with continued complaints after carpal tunnel release should be carefully evaluated with detailed history and physical examination in addition to electrodiagnostic testing. For those with persistent or recurrent symptoms, a course of nonoperative management including splinting, injections, occupational therapy, and desensitization should be considered prior to revision surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fenster, Howard N.; Scarrow, Gayle D.
Unlike the general public, quadriplegics are prone to various urological complications as a direct/indirect result of spinal cord lesions. These complications include neurogenic bladder, urinary tract infections, renal and bladder calculi, obstructive uropathy, renal failure, and bladder neoplasms. A significant portion of upper urinary tract disease, including pyelonephritis, hypernephrosis, and calculi are usually secondary to neurogenic bladder related to detrusor sphincter dysfunction. Th...
Background and Objectives: In the discussion of apparent similarities between symptoms of grief and depression, research and theory have often confounded these two constructs because, as a construct, grief is distinct from depression and because these two constructs may have distinct trajectories. This study examines the trajectories of complicated grief and associated risks and the relationship between trajectories of complicated grief and depression. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Intervent...
Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri
This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kline, A David
The received account of whistleblowing, developed over the last quarter century, is identified with the work of Norman Bowie and Richard DeGeorge. Michael Davis has detailed three anomalies for the received view: the paradoxes of burden, missing harm and failure. In addition, he has proposed an alternative account of whistleblowing, viz., the Complicity Theory. This paper examines the Complicity Theory. The supposed anomalies rest on misunderstandings of the received view or misreadings of model cases of whistleblowing, for example, the Challenger disaster and the Ford Pinto. Nevertheless, the Complicity Theory is important for as in science the contrast with alternative competing accounts often helps us better understand the received view. Several aspects of the received view are reviewed and strengthened through comparison with Complicity Theory, including why whistleblowing needs moral justification. Complicity Theory is also critiqued. The fundamental failure of Complicity Theory is its failure to explain why government and the public encourage and protect whistleblowers despite the possibility of considerable harm to the relevant company in reputation, lost jobs, and lost shareholder value.
Choi, Kwang-Dong; Shin, Hae Kyung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Zee, David S
Windmill nystagmus is characterized by a clock-like rotation of the beating direction of a jerk nystagmus suggesting separate horizontal and vertical oscillators, usually 90° out of phase. We report oculographic characteristics in three patients with variants of windmill nystagmus in whom the common denominator was profound visual loss due to retinal diseases. Two patients showed a clock-like pattern, while in the third, the nystagmus was largely diagonal (in phase or 180° out of phase) but also periodically changed direction by 180°. We hypothesize that windmill nystagmus is a unique manifestation of "eye movements of the blind." It emerges when the central structures, including the cerebellum, that normally keep eye movements calibrated and gaze steady can no longer perform their task, because they are deprived of the retinal image motion that signals a need for adaptive recalibration.
Febrile neutropenia and related complications in breast cancer patients receiving pegfilgrastim primary prophylaxis versus current practice neutropaenia management: results from an integrated analysis.
von Minckwitz, G; Schwenkglenks, M; Skacel, T; Lyman, G H; Pousa, A Lopez; Bacon, P; Easton, V; Aapro, M S
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) reduce febrile neutropaenia (FN) incidence but may be used inconsistently in current practice (CP). This study compared the efficacy of pegfilgrastim primary prophylaxis (PPP) with CP neutropaenia management in breast cancer. Individual patient data (N=2282) from 11 clinical trials and observational studies using chemotherapy regimens with > or =15% FN risk and PPP (6 mg, all cycles) or CP (no G-CSF or any cycle G-CSF/pegfilgrastim) were included in an integrated analysis. Most patients received docetaxel-containing regimens. A generalised linear mixed model was fitted (N=2210). Neutropaenia prophylaxis (PPP versus CP), age and disease stage influenced the incidence of FN. Overall, FN was less frequent with PPP than with CP (odds ratio [OR]: 0.124; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08, 0.194; P or =15% and FN-related hospitalisation were also significantly lower with PPP. These data support PPP in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with moderately high/high FN risk.
Chinedum Ogbonnaya Eleazu
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the biochemical basis of the anti-diabetic action of cocoyam [Colocassia esculenta (C. esculenta] in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Methods: Blood glucose of the rats was measured with a glucometer. The relative heart weight, relative pancreatic weight, serum proteins, urea, creatinine, albumin, amylase, lipase, serum and hepatic aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and chemical analysis of the test feed were determined using standard techniques. Results: The diabetic rats fed with cocoyam had significant elevation (P0.05 in the relative heart weights of all the rats in the three groups. The test feed contained considerable amounts of phenolics, crude fiber, Ca, Fe, K, Na but low amounts of oxalate and phytate. Conclusions: C. esculenta may exert its anti-diabetic action by delaying/regulating the rate at which dietary starch is hydrolyzed to glucose or possibly through inhibition of acute pancreatitis. Finally, the study also shows the potentials of C. esculenta in the dietary management of obesity.
Manske, Robert C.; Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Giangarra, Charles E.
Non-operative and operative complications are common following multiple ligament knee injuries. This article will describe common complications seen by the surgeon and physical therapist following this complex injury. Complications include fractures, infections, vascular and neurologic complications following injury and surgery, compartment syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, deep venous thrombosis, loss of motion and persistent laxity issues. A brief description of these complications ...
Stojanović, J; Ilić, N; Belić, B; Zivić, L; Stanković, P; Erdevicki, L; Jovanović, S
Orbital complications were observed in 53 patients (1.35%, n=53/3912 of all treated patients; 11.04%, n= 53/480 of hospitalized patients). Complications in the orbit can occur in 3-5% of adults with the inflammatory condition of sinuses, while the percentage in children ranges from 0.5-8%. The objective of our work was to determine the frequency of the occurence of orbital complications of the rhinosinal inflammatory origin in a group of adults and children. The retrospective analysis of patients treated of rhinosinusitis in the period 1992 to 2007, in the Clinical Center in Kragujevac. In the period of 15 years, a total number of 3912 patients were treated for inflamatory conditions of paranasal cavities. Orbital complications were found in 53 patients (1.35%, n=53/3912 of all treated patients). The number of children showing orbital complications caused by rhinosinusitis was 0.79%, while the number of adults was 1,88%. Acute rhinosinusitis in children was manifested as orbital complication in 14 patients (n=14/15, 93.33%), while 33 adults (n=33/38, 86.84%) had the exarcerbation of the chronic rhinosinusitis at the time of diagnosis of orbital complication. 80% of examined children had the maxillary and ethmoid sinus infected (n=12/15), while the adults most often had polysinusitis (n=22/38, 57.89%). In the juvenile age the most frequent complication was the cellulitis of the orbite (n=7/15, 46.66%), while in the adults it was the subperiostal absces (n=14/38, 36.84%). The adults were mostly treated surgically (n=31/38, 81.58%), while the children were treated by using conservative treatment (n=13/15, 86.67%). There were no cases of mortality. The prevention of complications is based on the adequate and timely treatment of acute sinusitis in children, as well as the curative treatment of chronical processes in adults.
Women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia are thought to be at increased risk for pregnancy complications, including recurrent pregnancy loss and, depending on the type of thrombophilia, severe preeclampsia. This review discusses the associations between the types of thrombophilia and types of complications, as well as the currently available clinical trial evidence regarding the use of aspirin and heparin to prevent these pregnancy complications. In women with antiphospholipid syndrome, guidelines recommend prescribing aspirin and heparin to women with recurrent miscarriage. The same regimen is suggested for late pregnancy complications by some, but not all, experts. Aspirin or low-molecular-weight heparin to improve pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage has no benefit and should not be prescribed. Whether anticoagulant therapy prevents recurrent miscarriage in women with inherited thrombophilia or in women with severe pregnancy complications remains controversial because of inconsistent results from trials. Aspirin modestly decreases the risk of severe preeclampsia in women at high risk. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is a minimally invasive procedure for patients with large renal and upper ureteric stones. Although it is less invasive than open surgery, infection is still the most common complication arising from this procedure and some patients develop septicemia and septic shock, resulting in increase in mortality and morbidity. The incidence of septic shock following PCNL is 1%; however, its mortality rate is as high as 66–80%. Endourologists who perform this procedure need to know how to prevent and manage this common complication. Large calculi, staghorn calculi, positive pelvic urine and stone culture, prolonged operative time, and diabetes are factors that increase the incidence of postoperative infection. Recently, several studies suggested the importance of intraoperative microbiologic evaluation of factors such as intraoperative pelvic urine and stone cultures for selection of suitable postoperative antibiotics. The selection of prophylactic antibiotics, postoperative antibiotics, and specific PCNL techniques play an important role in preventing infection following PCNL. We reviewed the general background, the factors, and role of intraoperative microbiologic evaluation in the management of post-PCNL infection.
Yael Baumfeld; Reli Herskovitz; Zehavi Bar Niv; Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia; Adi Y. Weintraub
Objectives: The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that pregnancies complicated with placenta previa have an increased risk of placental insufficiency associated pregnancy complications...
Alosi, Daniela; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Hemmingsen, Sophie Nowak
(IHC); 3) Assessment of the variant’s impact on protein structure and function, using multiple databases, in silico algorithms, and reports of functional studies. Results: Only one family member had clinical signs of vHL with early-onset RCC. IHC analysis showed no VHL protein expressed in the tumor...
Even though considered safe, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is among the endoscopic procedures associated with the highest rate of complications. Post ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) is the most common complication of ERCP. Several independent risk factors have been associated with PEP. Prophylactic PD stenting has been shown to be highly effective in preventing PEP. More recent studies have suggested that NSAIDs, especially rectal indomethacin, could by itself be effective in preventing PEP. However, head to head RCTs comparing PD stents with NSAIDs would be required to confirm this. Other complications include ERCP induced bleeding, perforation, and cholangitis. Bleeding is related to morphological, procedural, and patient related factors. Early identification and correction of the risk factors are of paramount importance in preventing bleeding. Risk of infection is particularly high during ERCP. It is important to ensure complete drainage of obstructed biliary system in order to reduce the risk of post-ERCP cholangitis. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prabhakaran, S; Doraiswamy, V A; Nagaraja, V; Cipolla, J; Ofurum, U; Evans, D C; Lindsey, D E; Seamon, M J; Kavuturu, S; Gerlach, A T; Jaik, N P; Eiferman, D S; Papadimos, T J; Adolph, M D; Cook, C H; Stawicki, S P A
The use of nasoenteric tubes (NETs) is ubiquitous, and clinicians often take their placement, function, and maintenance for granted. NETs are used for gastrointestinal decompression, enteral feeding, medication administration, naso-biliary drainage, and specialized indications such as upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Morbidity associated with NETs is common, but frequently subtle, mandating high index of suspicion, clinical vigilance, and patient safety protocols. Common complications include sinusitis, sore throat and epistaxis. More serious complications include luminal perforation, pulmonary injury, aspiration, and intracranial placement. Frequent monitoring and continual re-review of the indications for continued use of any NET is prudent, including consideration of changing goals of care. This manuscript reviews NET-related complications and associated topics.
Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars
INTRODUCTION: Intraosseous access (IO) is indicated if vascular access cannot be quickly established during resuscitation. Complication rates are estimated to be low, based on small patient series, model or cadaver studies, and case reports. However, user experience with IO use in real...... physicians, anesthesiologists and pediatricians. RESULTS: 1,802 clinical cases of IO use was reported by n=386 responders. Commonly reported complications with establishing IO access were patient discomfort/pain (7.1%), difficulties with penetration of periosteum with IO needle (10.3%), difficulties...... with aspiration of bone marrow (12.3%), and bended/broken needle (4.0%). When using an established IO access the reported complications were difficulties with injection fluid and drugs after IO insertion (7.4%), slow infusion (despite use of pressure bag) (8.8%), displacement after insertion (8...
When risks generate anger rather than fear, there is at least someone who regards the imposition of those risks as wrongdoing; and it then makes sense to speak of the involvement in producing those risks as complicity. It is particularly relevant to examine the complicity of risk bearers, because this is likely to have a strong influence on how far other actors should go in providing them with protection. This article makes a case for analyzing complicity explicitly, in parallel with normal processes of risk assessment, and proposes a framework for this analysis. It shows how it can be applied in a case study of maritime transportation, and examines the practical and theoretical difficulties of this kind of analysis. The conclusion is that the analysis has to be formative rather than summative, but that it could provide a useful way of exposing differences in the assumptions of different actors about agency and responsibility.
De Cuyper, Christa
Cosmetic tattoos, which are better known as permanent make-up, have become popular in the last decades. This same procedure can be used to camouflage pathological skin conditions, to mask scars and to complete the aesthetic results of plastic and reconstructive surgeries. The risks and complications of tattooing procedures include infections and allergic reactions. Scarring can occur. Fanning and fading of the colorants and dissatisfaction with colour and shape are not unusual. Different lasers can offer solutions for the removal of unwanted cosmetic tattoos, but complications due to the laser treatment, such as paradoxical darkening and scarring, can arise. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kofoed, Mikkel Seremet; Fisker, Niels; Christensen, Anne Estmann
and subcortical abscesses in combination with sinusitis. She was treated with endoscopic sinus surgery and intravenous antibiotics. Both patients had developed psoriasis and episodes of infection during treatment. They were non-septic and had low fever on presentation. None of the patients suffered any long......We present two 11-year-old girls with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, treated with adalimumab. Both developed severe intracranial complications to sinusitis. Patient 1 had been treated with adalimumab for 15 months when she developed acute sinusitis complicated by an orbital abscess...
Hoefnagel, Amie; Yu, Albert; Kaminski, Anna
Anesthesia complications in the parturient can be divided into 2 categories: those related to airway manipulation and those related to neuraxial anesthesia. Physiologic changes of pregnancy can lead to challenging intubating conditions in a patient at risk of aspiration. Neuraxial techniques are used to provide analgesia for labor and anesthesia for surgical delivery. Therefore, complications associated with neuraxial techniques are often seen in this population. In the event of maternal cardiac arrest, modification to advanced cardiac life support algorithms must be made to accommodate the gravid uterus and to deliver the fetus if return of maternal circulation is not prompt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pedersen, Brent S; Quinlan, Aaron R
Variant call format (VCF) files document the genetic variation observed after DNA sequencing, alignment and variant calling of a sample cohort. Given the complexity of the VCF format as well as the diverse variant annotations and genotype metadata, there is a need for fast, flexible methods enabling intuitive analysis of the variant data within VCF and BCF files. We introduce cyvcf2 , a Python library and software package for fast parsing and querying of VCF and BCF files and illustrate its speed, simplicity and utility. firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. cyvcf2 is available from https://github.com/brentp/cyvcf2 under the MIT license and from common python package managers. Detailed documentation is available at http://brentp.github.io/cyvcf2/.
cles : Catheterisme veineux femoral, Complications thromboemboliques. Thromboembolic complications after femoral veinous cathterrization for hemodialysis. Our work consisted in determing the frequency of occurred venous thrombosis among ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in individuals with functional or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract.OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge relevant to complicated urinary tract infection, and to provide evidence-based recommendations for management.METHODS: The literature was reviewed through a PubMed search, and additional articles were identified by journal reference review. A draft guideline was prepared and critically reviewed by members of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada Guidelines Committee, with modifications incorporated following the review.RESULTS: Many urological abnormalities may be associated with complicated urinary infection. There is a wide spectrum of potential infecting organisms, and isolated bacteria tend to be more resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Morbidity and infection outcomes in subjects with complicated urinary infection are principally determined by the underlying abnormality rather than the infection. Principles of management include uniform collection of a urine specimen for culture before antimicrobial therapy, characterization of the underlying genitourinary abnormality, and nontreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria except before an invasive genitourinary procedure. The antimicrobial regimen is determined by clinical presentation, patient tolerance, renal function and known or anticipated infecting organisms. If the underlying abnormality contributing to the urinary infection cannot be corrected, then early post-treatment recurrence of infection is anticipated.CONCLUSIONS: The management of complicated urinary infection is individualized depending on patient variables and the infecting organism. Further clinical investigations are necessary to assist in determining optimal antimicrobial regimens.
1 janv. 2004 ... The aim of this study was to describe the complications of clandestine abortions and their surgical treatment. It is a retrospective .... In Paul. M, Lichtenberg ES, Borgata l, Grimes DA,. Stubblefield PG. A clinical guide to Medical and. Surgical Abortion. New York: Churchill Livingtone,. 1999, pp. 197-216. 4.
complications are more frequent after transverse colostomy than loop ileostomy: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Br J Surg 2001; 88: 360-363. Law WL, Chu KW, Choi HK. Randomized clinical trial comparing loop ileostomy and transverse colostomy for faecal diversion following total mesorectal excision. Br J Surg.
Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K.
Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up. PMID:26473833
Full Text Available Following the death of a loved one, a small group of grievers develop an abnormal grieving style, termed complicated or prolonged grief. In the effort to establish complicated grief as a disorder in DSM and ICD, several attempts have been made over the past two decades to establish symptom criteria for this form of grieving. Complicated grief is different from depression and PTSD yet often comorbid with other psychological disorders. Meta-analyses of grief interventions show small to medium effect sizes, with only few studies yielding large effect sizes. In this article, an integrative cognitive behavioral treatment manual for complicated grief disorder (CG-CBT of 25 individual sessions is described. Three treatment phases, each entailing several treatment strategies, allow patients to stabilize, explore, and confront the most painful aspects of the loss, and finally to integrate and transform their grief. Core aspects are cognitive restructuring and confrontation. Special attention is given to practical exercises. This article includes the case report of a woman whose daughter committed suicide.
Noble, James M; Weimer, Louis H
This review serves as an overview of neurologic conditions associated with alcohol abuse or withdrawal, including epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnostic approach, and treatment. Frequent alcohol abuse and frank alcoholism are very common among adults in the United States. Although rates decline with each decade, as many as 10% of the elderly drink excessively. Given the ubiquitous nature of alcoholism in society, its complications have been clinically recognized for generations, with recent advances focusing on improved understanding of ethanol's biochemical targets and the pathophysiology of its complications. The chronic effects of alcohol abuse are myriad and include neurologic complications through both direct and indirect effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems. These disorders include several encephalopathic states related to alcohol intoxication, withdrawal, and related nutritional deficiencies; acute and chronic toxic and nutritional peripheral neuropathies; and myopathy. Although prevention of alcoholism and its neurologic complications is the optimal strategy, this article reviews the specific treatment algorithms for alcohol withdrawal and its related nutritional deficiency states.
Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K
Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman's physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up.
Maria Carolina Gongora
Full Text Available Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up.
Smoliar, A N; Radchenko, Iu A; Nefedova, G A; Abakumov, M M
The aim of the study was to analyze esophageal stenting complications in case of cancer and benign diseases. It was investigated complications in 8 patients in terms from 7 days to 1 year after intervention. In 4 patients esophageal stenting was performed for constrictive esophageal cancer and compression with pulmonary cancer metastases into mediastinal lymphatic nodes. 2 patients had esophageal stenting for post-tracheostomy tracheo-esophageal fistula, 1 patient - for spontaneous esophageal rupture, 1 patient - for post-burn scar narrowing of esophagus and output part of the stomach. Severe patients' condition with tumor was determined by intensive esophageal bleeding in 2 cases, bilateral abscessed aspiration pneumonia, tumor bleeding, blood aspiration (1 case), posterior mediastinitis (1 case). Severe patients' condition with benign disease was associated with decompensated esophageal narrowing about proximal part of stent (1 case), increase of tracheo-esophageal fistula size complicated by aspiration pneumonia (1 case), stent migration into stomach with recurrence of esophago-mediastino-pleural fistula and pleural empyema (1 case), decompensated narrowing of esophagus and output part of the stomach (1 case). Patients with cancer died. And patients with benign diseases underwent multi-stage surgical treatment and recovered. Stenting is palliative method for patients with esophageal cancer. Patients after stenting should be under outpatient observation for early diagnosis of possible complications. Esophageal stenting in patients with benign diseases should be performed only by life-saving indications, in case of inability of other treatment and for the minimum necessary period.
... gov . Chickenpox Home About Chickenpox Signs & Symptoms Complications Transmission Prevention & Treatment Photos Fact Sheet for Kids Vaccination ... medications; for example, People with HIV/AIDS or cancer Patients who ... bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissues in children including Group A ...
Women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia are thought to be at increased risk for pregnancy complications, including recurrent pregnancy loss and, depending on the type of thrombophilia, severe preeclampsia. This review discusses the associations between the types of thrombophilia and types of
Akcay, Arzu; Karakas, Zeynep; Saribeyoglu, Ebru Tugrul; Unuvar, Aysegul; Baykal, Can; Garipardic, Mesut; Anak, Sema; Agaoglu, Leyla; Ozturk, Gulyuz; Devecioglu, Omer
To study the risk factors for hemangioma-related complications, treatment indications and analyze the outcome of patients with infantile hemangioma. Retrospective. University hospital. Fifty-five patients (1-69 months; median: 12 months) with infantile hemangioma with mean follow-up 19 months. The eligibility was based on the criteria of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). The surgical treatment included total excision whereas medical treatment was carried out by interferon and /or corticosteroids. Data was collected including sex, age, prematurity, age at onset, number, anatomic location and size of hemangioma, age at treatment, cause of treatment decision, family history, presence of extra malformations, involvement of internal organs, presence of life altering or life threatening complications, response to treatment, dose and duration of medications, complications associated with treatment, follow-up period, and final outcome. Thirty-four (62%) patients were followed-up without treatment, whereas 21 others underwent treatment including steroids, interferon, and surgery. The size of hemangioma was a major factor that predicted hemangioma-related complications (P=0.002). Patients with hemangioma related complications had bigger lesions (size >40 cm² or the longest size on a single plane >5 cm). Nineteen patients (34%) had complications, but only 8 (14.5%) out of them had life or function-threatening complications. Although dosing and treatment protocol is still debatable, steroids and interferon are good options for hemangioma treatment. The management strategy should be individualized for each case.
Kastner, Jan; Taudy, Milos; Lisy, Jiri; Grabec, Paul; Betka, Jan
Nowadays, intracranial abscess is a rare complication of acute rhinosinusitis. The consequent orbital and intracranial complications of acute rhinosinusitis are rare but must be mutually excluded in complicated rhinosinusitis even when proper surgical and medical treatment tend to efficiently heal the orbital complication. We report a case of a patient who primarily revealed symptoms of orbitocellulitis as a complication of odontogenous rhinosinusitis. Proper diagnostic and therapeutical measures were undertaken to manage the disease immediately after stationary admission. Two weeks after an inconspicuous healing period, hemiparesis due to formation of an intracranial abscess developed. An emergent situation reveals which was unusual to the clinical situation. The possible role of underlying mechanisms of intracranial abscess formation is discussed and review of literature concerning orbital and intracranial rhinosinusitis complications is performed. The correct indication of imaging methods and accurate evaluation of diminutive symptoms are essential. We assume that performance of a complementary CT of the brain or MRI even when previous CT scan of the orbit/paranasal sinuses reveals no cerebral pathology should be done to avoid or minimize future patients with consecutive orbital and intracranial complications of acute rhinosinusitis.
Aronow, Wilbert S
This article addresses issues related to acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by heart failure, particularly in elderly patients. Findings have shown that acute MI complicated by congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with a high mortality, and that women with acute MI are more likely to be older and to develop CHF than men with acute MI. In general, management of CHF complicating acute MI is similar in older and younger patients. Actions discussed include hemodynamic monitoring; the administration of oxygen; and the use of morphine, diuretics, nitroglycerin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, spironolactone, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, magnesium, digoxin, and positive inotropic drugs. The article also discusses measures for treating arrhythmias and for diagnosing mechanical complications.
Aronow, Wilbert S
This article addresses issues related to acute myocardial infarction(MI) complicated by heart failure, particularly in elderly patients. Findings have shown that acute MI complicated by congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with a high mortality, and that women with acute MI are more likely to be older and to develop CHF than men with acute MI. In general, management of CHF-complicating acute MI is similar in older and younger patients. Actions discussed include hemodynamic monitoring; the administration of oxygen; and the use of morphine, diuretics, nitroglycerin,angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, spironolactone, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, magnesium, digoxin, and positive inotropic drugs. The article also discusses measures for treating arrhythmias and for diagnosing mechanical complications.
Lopez, E; de Courtivron, B; Saliba, E
To describe neonatal complications related to shoulder dystocia. This systematic evidence review is based on PubMed search, Cochrane library and experts' recommendations. The risks of brachial plexus birth injury, clavicle and humeral fracture, perinatal asphyxia, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and perinatal mortality are increased after shoulder dystocia. The medical team should be able to provide neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room in case of perinatal asphyxia following shoulder dystocia, according to national and international guidelines. The initial clinical examination should search for complications such as brachial plexus birth injury or clavicle fracture. The risk of perinatal complications is increased in newborn after shoulder dystocia. The medical team should be able to manage these complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation . AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the