Sample records for variance stabilising generalised

  1. Improved classification accuracy in 1- and 2-dimensional NMR metabolomics data using the variance stabilising generalised logarithm transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Ulrich L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classifying nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra is a crucial step in many metabolomics experiments. Since several multivariate classification techniques depend upon the variance of the data, it is important to first minimise any contribution from unwanted technical variance arising from sample preparation and analytical measurements, and thereby maximise any contribution from wanted biological variance between different classes. The generalised logarithm (glog transform was developed to stabilise the variance in DNA microarray datasets, but has rarely been applied to metabolomics data. In particular, it has not been rigorously evaluated against other scaling techniques used in metabolomics, nor tested on all forms of NMR spectra including 1-dimensional (1D 1H, projections of 2D 1H, 1H J-resolved (pJRES, and intact 2D J-resolved (JRES. Results Here, the effects of the glog transform are compared against two commonly used variance stabilising techniques, autoscaling and Pareto scaling, as well as unscaled data. The four methods are evaluated in terms of the effects on the variance of NMR metabolomics data and on the classification accuracy following multivariate analysis, the latter achieved using principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis. For two of three datasets analysed, classification accuracies were highest following glog transformation: 100% accuracy for discriminating 1D NMR spectra of hypoxic and normoxic invertebrate muscle, and 100% accuracy for discriminating 2D JRES spectra of fish livers sampled from two rivers. For the third dataset, pJRES spectra of urine from two breeds of dog, the glog transform and autoscaling achieved equal highest accuracies. Additionally we extended the glog algorithm to effectively suppress noise, which proved critical for the analysis of 2D JRES spectra. Conclusion We have demonstrated that the glog and extended glog transforms stabilise the technical

  2. Sampling variance of flood quantiles from the generalised logistic distribution estimated using the method of L-moments (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas R.; Jones, David A.

    The method of L-moments is the recommended method for fitting the three parameters (location, scale and shape) of a Generalised Logistic (GLO) distribution when conducting flood frequency analyses in the UK. This paper examines the sampling uncertainty of quantile estimates obtained using the GLO distribution for single site analysis using the median to estimate the location parameter. Analytical expressions for the mean and variance of the quantile estimates were derived, based on asymptotic theory. This has involved deriving expressions for the covariance between the sampling median (location parameter) and the quantiles of the estimated unit-median GLO distribution (growth curve). The accuracy of the asymptotic approximations for many of these intermediate results and for the quantile estimates was investigated by comparing the approximations to the outcome of a series of Monte Carlo experiments. The approximations were found to be adequate for GLO shape parameter values between -0.35 and 0.25, which is an interval that includes the shape parameter estimates for most British catchments. An investigation into the contribution of different components to the total uncertainty showed that for large returns periods, the variance of the growth curve is larger than the contribution of the median. Therefore, statistical methods using regional information to estimate the growth curve should be considered when estimating design events at large return periods.

  3. Epilepsy (generalised). (United States)

    Maguire, Melissa; Marson, Anthony G; Ramaratnam, Sridharan


    About 3% of people will be diagnosed with epilepsy during their lifetime, but about 70% of people with epilepsy eventually go into remission. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of monotherapy in newly diagnosed generalised epilepsy (tonic clonic type)? What are the effects of additional treatments in people with drug-resistant generalised epilepsy? What are the effects of surgery in people with drug-resistant generalised epilepsy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 8 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: monotherapy using carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, sodium valproate, or topiramate; addition of second-line drugs (lamotrigine or levetiracetam) for drug-resistant epilepsy; and hemispherectomy for drug-resistant epilepsy.

  4. Moduli Stabilisation in Heterotic String Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    De Carlos, B; Gurrieri, S; Lukas, A; Carlos, Beatriz de; Gurrieri, Sebastien; Lukas, Andre; Micu, Andrei


    In this paper we analyze the structure of supersymmetric vacua in compactifications of the heterotic string on certain manifolds with SU(3) structure. We first study the effective theories obtained from compactifications on half-flat manifolds and show that solutions which stabilise the moduli at acceptable values are hard to find. We then derive the effective theories associated with compactification on generalised half-flat manifolds. It is shown that these effective theories are consistent with four-dimensional N=1 supergravity and that the superpotential can be obtained by a Gukov-Vafa-Witten type formula. Within these generalised models, we find consistent supersymmetric (AdS) vacua at weak gauge coupling, provided we allow for general internal gauge bundles. In simple cases we perform a counting of such vacua and find that a fraction of about 1/1000 leads to a gauge coupling consistent with gauge unification.

  5. Promoting and Assessing Mathematical Generalising (United States)

    Hill, Tiffany; Lannin, John; van Garderen, Delinda


    Helping students generalise mathematical ideas is an essential component of teaching and learning of mathematics (Lannin, Ellis, Elliott & Zbiek, 2011). However, it can be challenging for primary teachers to assess and promote generalisation. Because generalisation is an essential part of mathematics instruction, the authors highlight the…

  6. Generalised twisted partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, V B


    We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.

  7. Antioxidant Stabilisation of Polymers (United States)

    Shlyapnikov, Yurii A.


    Physicochemical aspects of the stabilisation of polymers are discussed. Attention is paid mainly to the aging and stabilisation of polymers under processing conditions. Topics considered are the kinetics and mechanism of the high-temperature oxidation of polymers, critical phenomena in the inhibited oxidation of polymers, the theory of synergism and antagonism among antioxidants, the reasons for differences in efficiency of antioxidants, and certain aspects of the relation between the efficiency of antioxidants and their molecular structure. A list of 132 references is included.

  8. Collaborative Generalisation: Formalisation of Generalisation Knowledge to Orchestrate Different Cartographic Generalisation Processes (United States)

    Touya, Guillaume; Duchêne, Cécile; Ruas, Anne

    Cartographic generalisation seeks to summarise geographical information from a geographic database to produce a less detailed and readable map. This paper deals with the problem of making different automatic generalisation processes collaborate to generalise a complete map. A model to orchestrate the generalisation of different areas (cities, countryside, mountains) by different adapted processes is proposed. It is based on the formalisation of cartographic knowledge and specifications into constraints and rules sets while processes are described to formalise their capabilities. The formalised knowledge relies on generalisation domain ontology. For each available generalisation process, the formalised knowledge is then translated into process parameters by an adapted translator component. The translators allow interoperable triggers and allow the choice of the proper process to apply on each part of the space. Applications with real processes illustrate the usability of the proposed model.

  9. Generalising the staircase models

    CERN Document Server

    Dorey, P; Dorey, Patrick; Ravanini, Francesco


    Systems of integral equations are proposed which generalise those previously encountered in connection with the so-called staircase models. Under the assumption that these equations describe the finite-size effects of relativistic field theories via the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz, analytical and numerical evidence is given for the existence of a variety of new roaming renormalisation group trajectories. For each positive integer $k$ and $s=0,\\dots, k-1$, there is a one-parameter family of trajectories, passing close by the coset conformal field theories $G^{(k)}\\times G^{(nk+s)}/G^{((n+1)k+s)}$ before finally flowing to a massive theory for $s=0$, or to another coset model for $s \

  10. Generalised count distributions for modelling parity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Barakat


    Full Text Available Background: Parametric count distributions customarily used in demography - the Poisson and negative binomial models - do not offer satisfactory descriptions of empirical distributions of completed cohort parity. One reason is that they cannot model variance-to-mean ratios below unity, i.e., underdispersion, which is typical of low-fertility parity distributions. Statisticians have recently revived two generalised count distributions that can model both over- and underdispersion, but they have not attracted demographers' attention to date. Objective: The objective of this paper is to assess the utility of these alternative general count distributions, namely the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson and gamma count models, for the modeling of distributions of completed parity. Methods: Simulations and maximum-likelihood estimation are used to assess their fit to empirical data from the Human Fertility Database (HFD. Results: The results show that the generalised count distributions offer a dramatically improved fit compared to customary Poisson and negative binomial models in the presence of under- dispersion, without performance loss in the case of equidispersion or overdispersion. Conclusions: This gain in accuracy suggests generalised count distributions should be used as a matter of course in studies of fertility that examine completed parity as an outcome. Contribution: This note performs a transfer of the state of the art in count data modelling and regression in the more technical statistical literature to the field of demography, allowing demographers to benefit from more accurate estimation in fertility research.

  11. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail:; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail:


    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  12. Global adaptive exponential stabilisation for nonlinear systems with multiple unknown control directions (United States)

    Sun, Xifang; Chen, Weisheng; Wu, Jian


    In this paper, we address the global generalised exponential stabilisation problem for a class of lower-triangular systems with multiple unknown directions. Instead of the well-known Nussbaum-gain adaptive rule, a Lyapunov-based adaptive logic switching rule is proposed to seek the correct control directions for such systems. The main advantage of the proposed controller is that it can guarantee the global generalised exponential stability of closed-loop systems. Simulation examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the developed control approach.

  13. The Generalised Phase Contrast Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    An analytic framework and a complete description for the design and optimisation of on-axis centred spatially filtering common path systems are presented. The Generalised Phase Contrast method is derived and introduced as the common denominator for these systems basically extending Zernike......’s original phase contrast scheme into a much wider range of operation and application. It is demonstrated that the Generalised Phase Contrast method can be successfully applied to the interpretation and subsequent optimisation of a number of different, commonly applied spatially filtering architectures...... designs and parameter settings. Finally, a number of original applications facilitated by the parallel light-beam encoding of the Generalised Phase Contrast method are briefly outlined. These include among others, wavefront sensing and generation, advanced usercontrolled optical micro...

  14. Generalised compositionality in graph transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghamarian, A.H.; Rensink, Arend; Ehrig, H; Engels, G.; Kreowski, H.J.; Rozenberg, G.

    We present a notion of composition applying both to graphs and to rules, based on graph and rule interfaces along which they are glued. The current paper generalises a previous result in two different ways. Firstly, rules do not have to form pullbacks with their interfaces; this enables graph

  15. Primary small bowel anastomosis in generalised peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGraaf, JS; van Goor, Harry; Bleichrodt, RP

    Objective: To find out if primary small bowel anastomosis of the bowel is safe in patients with generalised peritonitis who are treated by planned relaparotomies. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: University hospital, The Netherlands. Subjects. 10 Patients with generalised purulent peritonitis

  16. A generalised PID-type control scheme with simple tuning for the global regulation of robot manipulators with constrained inputs (United States)

    Mendoza, Marco; Zavala-Río, Arturo; Santibáñez, Víctor; Reyes, Fernando


    In this paper, a globally stabilising PID-type control scheme with a generalised saturating structure for robot manipulators under input constraints is proposed. It gives rise to various families of bounded PID-type controllers whose implementation is released from the exact knowledge of the system parameters and model structure. Compared to previous approaches of the kind, the proposed scheme is not only characterised by its generalised structure but also by its very simple tuning criterion, the simplest hitherto obtained in the considered analytical framework. Experimental results on a 3-degree-of-freedom direct-drive manipulator corroborate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  17. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  18. Generalised Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh


    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set and its operations and study some of their properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft sets and discuss its application in a medical diagnosis problem: fuzzy set; soft set; fuzzy soft set; generalised fuzzy soft set; generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set; interval-valued fuzzy set; interval-valued fuzzy soft set.

  19. Wagner’s theory of generalised heaps

    CERN Document Server

    Hollings, Christopher D


    The theories of V. V. Wagner (1908-1981) on abstractions of systems of binary relations are presented here within their historical and mathematical contexts. This book contains the first translation from Russian into English of a selection of Wagner’s papers, the ideas of which are connected to present-day mathematical research. Along with a translation of Wagner’s main work in this area, his 1953 paper ‘Theory of generalised heaps and generalised groups,’ the book also includes translations of three short precursor articles that provide additional context for his major work. Researchers and students interested in both algebra (in particular, heaps, semiheaps, generalised heaps, semigroups, and groups) and differential geometry will benefit from the techniques offered by these translations, owing to the natural connections between generalised heaps and generalised groups, and the role played by these concepts in differential geometry. This book gives examples from present-day mathematics where ideas r...

  20. Mycorrhizal aspects in slope stabilisation (United States)

    Graf, Frank


    In order to re-colonise and stabilise slopes affected by superficial soil failure with plants essential requirements have to be met: the plants must grow the plants must survive sustainably plant succession must start and continuously develop These requirements, however, are anything but easy given, particularly under the often hostile environmental conditions dominating on bare and steep slopes. Mycorrhizal fungi, the symbiotic partners of almost all plants used in eco-engineering, are said to improve the plants' ability to overcome periods governed by strongly (growth) limiting factors. Subsequently, results of investigations are presented of mycorrhizal effects on different plant and soil functions related to eco-engineering in general and soil and slope stabilisation in particular. Generally, inoculation yielded higher biomass of the host plants above as well as below ground. Furthermore, the survival rate was higher for mycorrhized compared to non-mycorrhized plants, particularly under extreme environmental conditions. However, the scale of the mycorrhizal impact may be species specific of both the plant host as well as the fungal partner(s) and often becomes evident only after a certain time lag. Depending on the plant-fungus combination the root length per soil volume was found to be between 0 and 2.5 times higher for inoculated compared to non-inoculated specimens. On an alpine graded ski slope the survival of inoculated compared to non-treated Salix herbacea cuttings was significant after one vegetation period only for one of the three added mycorrhizal fungus species. However, after three years all of the inoculated plantlets performed significantly better than the non-inoculated controls. The analysis of the potential for producing and stabilising soil aggregates of five different ectomycorrhizal fungi showed high variation and, for the species Inocybe lacera, no significant difference compared to untreated soil. Furthermore, inoculation of Salix

  1. Subsectors, Dynkin diagrams and new generalised geometries (United States)

    Strickland-Constable, Charles


    We examine how generalised geometries can be associated with a labelled Dynkin diagram built around a gravity line. We present a series of new generalised geometries based on the groups Spin( d, d) × ℝ + for which the generalised tangent space transforms in a spinor representation of the group. In low dimensions these all appear in subsectors of maximal supergravity theories. The case d = 8 provides a geometry for eight-dimensional backgrounds of M theory with only seven-form flux, which have not been included in any previous geometric construction. This geometry is also one of a series of "half-exceptional" geometries, which "geometrise" a six-form gauge field. In the appendix, we consider exam-ples of other algebras appearing in gravitational theories and give a method to derive the Dynkin labels for the "section condition" in general. We argue that generalised geometry can describe restrictions and subsectors of many gravitational theories.

  2. Quantum generalisation of feedforward neural networks (United States)

    Wan, Kwok Ho; Dahlsten, Oscar; Kristjánsson, Hlér; Gardner, Robert; Kim, M. S.


    We propose a quantum generalisation of a classical neural network. The classical neurons are firstly rendered reversible by adding ancillary bits. Then they are generalised to being quantum reversible, i.e., unitary (the classical networks we generalise are called feedforward, and have step-function activation functions). The quantum network can be trained efficiently using gradient descent on a cost function to perform quantum generalisations of classical tasks. We demonstrate numerically that it can: (i) compress quantum states onto a minimal number of qubits, creating a quantum autoencoder, and (ii) discover quantum communication protocols such as teleportation. Our general recipe is theoretical and implementation-independent. The quantum neuron module can naturally be implemented photonically.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guilbert


    Full Text Available On most large scale and middle scale maps, relief is represented by contours and spot heights. In order to adapt the representation to the scale, the terrain is generalised either by smoothing or filtering the terrain model or by simplifying the contours. However this approach is not applicable to nautical chart construction where terrain features are selected according to their importance for navigation. This paper presents an approach for the consideration of feature attributes in the generalisation of a set of contours with respect to nautical chart constraints. Features are defined by sets of contours and a set of generalisation operators applied to features is presented. The definitions are introduced in a multi-agent system in order to perform automatic generalisation of a contour set. Results are discussed on a case study and directions for future work are presented.

  4. Cloverleaf skull with generalised bone dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Warren, P.S.; Fisher, C.C.


    A case of cloverleaf skull with generalised bone dysplasia is reported. The authors believe that bone dysplasia associated with cloverleaf is neither identical with thanatophoric dysplasia nor achondroplasia. Until identity of thanatophoric dysplasia and cloverleaf skull with generalised bone dysplasia is proved the diseases should be looked upon as separate entities and the wording ''thanatophoric dysplasia with cloverleaf skull'' should be abolished.

  5. Generalisation of Hajek’s Stochastic Comparison Results to Stochastic Sums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kampen


    Full Text Available Hajek’s univariate stochastic comparison result is generalised to multivariate stochastic sum processes with univariate convex data functions and for univariate monotonic nondecreasing convex data functions for processes with and without drift, respectively. As a consequence strategies for a class of multivariate optimal control problems can be determined by maximizing variance. An example is passport options written on multivariate traded accounts. The argument describes a narrow path between impossibilities of generalisations to jump processes or impossibilities of more general data functions.

  6. Generalised kinematics for double field theory (United States)

    Freidel, Laurent; Rudolph, Felix J.; Svoboda, David


    We formulate a kinematical extension of Double Field Theory on a 2 d-dimensional para-Hermitian manifold (P,η, ω ) where the O( d, d) metric η is supplemented by an almost symplectic two-form ω. Together η and ω define an almost bi-Lagrangian structure K which provides a splitting of the tangent bundle TP=L\\oplus \\tilde{L} into two Lagrangian sub-spaces. In this paper a canonical connection and a corresponding generalised Lie derivative for the Leibniz algebroid on TP are constructed. We find integrability conditions under which the symmetry algebra closes for general η and ω, even if they are not flat and constant. This formalism thus provides a generalisation of the kinematical structure of Double Field Theory. We also show that this formalism allows one to reconcile and unify Double Field Theory with Generalised Geometry which is thoroughly discussed.

  7. Peer pressure and Generalised Lotka Volterra models (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Sabatelli, Lorenzo


    We develop a novel approach to peer pressure and Generalised Lotka-Volterra (GLV) models that builds on the development of a simple Langevin equation that characterises stochastic processes. We generalise the approach to stochastic equations that model interacting agents. The agent models recently advocated by Marsilli and Solomon are motivated. Using a simple change of variable, we show that the peer pressure model (similar to the one introduced by Marsilli) and the wealth dynamics model of Solomon may be (almost) mapped one into the other. This may help shed light in the (apparently) different wealth dynamics described by GLV and the Marsili-like peer pressure models.

  8. Recognition of Unipolar and Generalised Split Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin McDiarmid


    Full Text Available A graph is unipolar if it can be partitioned into a clique and a disjoint union of cliques, and a graph is a generalised split graph if it or its complement is unipolar. A unipolar partition of a graph can be used to find efficiently the clique number, the stability number, the chromatic number, and to solve other problems that are hard for general graphs. We present an O(n2-time algorithm for recognition of n-vertex generalised split graphs, improving on previous O(n3-time algorithms.

  9. Generalised phase contrast: microscopy, manipulation and more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper


    Generalised phase contrast (GPC) not only leads to more accurate phase imaging beyond thin biological samples, but serves as an enabling framework in developing tools over a wide spectrum of contemporary applications in optics and photonics, including optical trapping and micromanipulation, optic...

  10. The oculocerebral syndrome in association with generalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 14-year-old girl with generalised hypopigmentation, mental retardation, abnormal movements, and ocular anomalies is described. It is suggested that she represents a further case of oculocerebral albinism, a rare autosomal recessive condition. Reference is made to previous similar cases.

  11. Quantum mechanics of a generalised rigid body (United States)

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave


    We consider the quantum version of Arnold’s generalisation of a rigid body in classical mechanics. Thus, we quantise the motion on an arbitrary Lie group manifold of a particle whose classical trajectories correspond to the geodesics of any one-sided-invariant metric. We show how the derivation of the spectrum of energy eigenstates can be simplified by making use of automorphisms of the Lie algebra and (for groups of type I) by methods of harmonic analysis. We show how the method can be extended to cosets, generalising the linear rigid rotor. As examples, we consider all connected and simply connected Lie groups up to dimension 3. This includes the universal cover of the archetypical rigid body, along with a number of new exactly solvable models. We also discuss a possible application to the topical problem of quantising a perfect fluid.

  12. Quantum field theory in generalised Snyder spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meljanac, S.; Meljanac, D. [Rudjer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Mignemi, S., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Štrajn, R. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)


    We discuss the generalisation of the Snyder model that includes all possible deformations of the Heisenberg algebra compatible with Lorentz invariance and investigate its properties. We calculate perturbatively the law of addition of momenta and the star product in the general case. We also undertake the construction of a scalar field theory on these noncommutative spaces showing that the free theory is equivalent to the commutative one, like in other models of noncommutative QFT.

  13. Quantum field theory in generalised Snyder spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meljanac


    Full Text Available We discuss the generalisation of the Snyder model that includes all possible deformations of the Heisenberg algebra compatible with Lorentz invariance and investigate its properties. We calculate perturbatively the law of addition of momenta and the star product in the general case. We also undertake the construction of a scalar field theory on these noncommutative spaces showing that the free theory is equivalent to the commutative one, like in other models of noncommutative QFT.

  14. Quantum field theory in generalised Snyder spaces (United States)

    Meljanac, S.; Meljanac, D.; Mignemi, S.; Štrajn, R.


    We discuss the generalisation of the Snyder model that includes all possible deformations of the Heisenberg algebra compatible with Lorentz invariance and investigate its properties. We calculate perturbatively the law of addition of momenta and the star product in the general case. We also undertake the construction of a scalar field theory on these noncommutative spaces showing that the free theory is equivalent to the commutative one, like in other models of noncommutative QFT.

  15. The stabilisation of final focus system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The StaFF (stabilisation of final focus) system will use interferometers to monitor the relative positions and orientations of several key components in the beam- delivery and interaction region. Monitoring the relative positions of the ILC final focus quadrupole magnets will be the most demanding application, where ...

  16. Stabilisering – fra intention til indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov; Engen, Torben Toftgaard

    Stabiliseringsindsatser udgør kun en mindre del af forsvarets samlede ressourcer. Ikke destomindre er stabilisering et vigtigt værktøj i bestræbelserne på at imødegå udfordringer fra syd.Udfordringer, der, hvis de ikke adresseres, kan risikere at få negative konsekvenser for dansksikkerhed. Denne...

  17. Reporting explained variance (United States)

    Good, Ron; Fletcher, Harold J.

    The importance of reporting explained variance (sometimes referred to as magnitude of effects) in ANOVA designs is discussed in this paper. Explained variance is an estimate of the strength of the relationship between treatment (or other factors such as sex, grade level, etc.) and dependent variables of interest to the researcher(s). Three methods that can be used to obtain estimates of explained variance in ANOVA designs are described and applied to 16 studies that were reported in recent volumes of this journal. The results show that, while in most studies the treatment accounts for a relatively small proportion of the variance in dependent variable scores., in., some studies the magnitude of the treatment effect is respectable. The authors recommend that researchers in science education report explained variance in addition to the commonly reported tests of significance, since the latter are inadequate as the sole basis for making decisions about the practical importance of factors of interest to science education researchers.

  18. Generalised linear models for correlated pseudo-observations, with applications to multi-state models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Klein, John P.; Rosthøj, Susanne


    Generalised estimating equation; Generalised linear model; Jackknife pseudo-value; Logistic regression; Markov Model; Multi-state model......Generalised estimating equation; Generalised linear model; Jackknife pseudo-value; Logistic regression; Markov Model; Multi-state model...

  19. Generalised model for anisotropic compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Deb, Debabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)


    In the present investigation an exact generalised model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class 1 is sought with a general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model presented here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates RXJ 1856-37, SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1) and SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS2) are concerned. (orig.)

  20. Generalising the coupling between spacetime and matter (United States)

    Carloni, Sante


    We explore the idea that the coupling between matter and spacetime is more complex than the one originally envisioned by Einstein. We propose that such coupling takes the form of a new fundamental tensor in the Einstein field equations. We then show that the introduction of this tensor can account for dark phenomenology in General Relativity, maintaining a weak field limit compatible with standard Newtonian gravitation. The same paradigm can be applied any other theory of gravitation. We show, as an example, that in the context of conformal gravity a generalised coupling is able to solve compatibility issues between the matter and the gravitational sector.

  1. Generalising the coupling between spacetime and matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Carloni


    Full Text Available We explore the idea that the coupling between matter and spacetime is more complex than the one originally envisioned by Einstein. We propose that such coupling takes the form of a new fundamental tensor in the Einstein field equations. We then show that the introduction of this tensor can account for dark phenomenology in General Relativity, maintaining a weak field limit compatible with standard Newtonian gravitation. The same paradigm can be applied any other theory of gravitation. We show, as an example, that in the context of conformal gravity a generalised coupling is able to solve compatibility issues between the matter and the gravitational sector.

  2. Generalising the coupling between spacetime and matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carloni, Sante, E-mail:


    We explore the idea that the coupling between matter and spacetime is more complex than the one originally envisioned by Einstein. We propose that such coupling takes the form of a new fundamental tensor in the Einstein field equations. We then show that the introduction of this tensor can account for dark phenomenology in General Relativity, maintaining a weak field limit compatible with standard Newtonian gravitation. The same paradigm can be applied any other theory of gravitation. We show, as an example, that in the context of conformal gravity a generalised coupling is able to solve compatibility issues between the matter and the gravitational sector.

  3. A priori calculations for the rotational stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Yoritaka


    Full Text Available The synthesis of chemical elements are mostly realised by low-energy heavy-ion reactions. Synthesis of exotic and heavy nuclei as well as that of superheavy nuclei is essential not only to find out the origin and the limit of the chemical elements but also to clarify the historical/chemical evolution of our universe. Despite the life time of exotic nuclei is not so long, those indispensable roles in chemical evolution has been pointed out. Here we are interested in examining the rotational stabilisation. In this paper a priori calculation (before microscopic density functional calculations is carried out for the rotational stabilisation effect in which the balance between the nuclear force, the Coulomb force and the centrifugal force is taken into account.

  4. Environmental Group Membership, Collective Action and Generalised trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar


    This paper investigates the effect of generalised trust on environmental group membership from a collective action perspective. A cross-national analysis is conducted. It shows a robust and consistent, positive effect of generalised trust on environmental group membership. The paper draws...... on an existing model of environmental group membership, and the analysis demonstrates the usefulness of generalised trust and a collective action perspective in that they improve this model....

  5. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, André [Institut für Theoretische Physik & Center for Quantum Engineering and Spacetime Research,Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of E{sub d(d)}×ℝ{sup +} generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  6. Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag


    Ashish Kumar Pathak; Dr. V. Pandey


    Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today‟s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and this material is ob...

  7. Threshold corrections, generalised prepotentials and Eichler integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Angelantonj, Carlo; Pioline, Boris


    We continue our study of one-loop integrals associated to BPS-saturated amplitudes in $\\mathcal{N}=2$ heterotic vacua. We compute their large-volume behaviour, and express them as Fourier series in the complexified volume, with Fourier coefficients given in terms of Niebur-Poincar\\'e series in the complex structure modulus. The closure of Niebur-Poincar\\'e series under modular derivatives implies that such integrals derive from holomorphic prepotentials $f_n$, generalising the familiar prepotential of $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supergravity. These holomorphic prepotentials transform anomalously under T-duality, in a way characteristic of Eichler integrals. We use this observation to compute their quantum monodromies under the duality group. We extend the analysis to modular integrals with respect to Hecke congruence subgroups, which naturally arise in compactifications on non-factorisable tori and freely-acting orbifolds. In this case, we derive new explicit results including closed-form expressions for integrals involv...

  8. Asymptotic Behaviour of Total Generalised Variation

    KAUST Repository

    Papafitsoros, Konstantinos


    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. The recently introduced second order total generalised variation functional TGV2 β,α has been a successful regulariser for image processing purposes. Its definition involves two positive parameters α and β whose values determine the amount and the quality of the regularisation. In this paper we report on the behaviour of TGV2 β,α in the cases where the parameters α, β as well as their ratio β/α becomes very large or very small. Among others, we prove that for sufficiently symmetric two dimensional data and large ratio β/α, TGV2 β,α regularisation coincides with total variation (TV) regularization

  9. Do horses generalise between objects during habituation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tatjana; Ladevig, Jan


    Habituation to frightening stimuli plays an important role in horse training. To investigate the extent to which horses generalise between different visual objects, 2-year-old stallions were habituated to feeding from a container placed inside a test arena and assigned as TEST (n = 12) or REFERENCE...... placed under the feed container, forcing the horses to step on the mat to get food). There were no significant differences between the treatment groups, i.e. previous habituation of TEST horses to six visual objects did not reduce responses in a fear-test involving visual and tactile stimulation. Due...... horses (n = 12). In Experiment 1, TEST horses were habituated to six objects (ball, barrel, board, box, cone, cylinder) presented in sequence in a balanced order. The objects were of similar size but different colour. Each object was placed 0.5 m in front of the feed container, forcing the horses to pass...

  10. A generalised groundwater flow equation using the concept of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classical Darcy law is generalised by regarding the water flow as a function of a non-integer order derivative of the piezometric head. This generalised law and the law of conservation of mass are then used to derive a new equation for groundwater flow. Numerical solutions of this equation for various fractional orders of ...

  11. A generalised groundwater flow equation using the concept of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 1, 2006 ... The classical Darcy law is generalised by regarding the water flow as a function of a non-integer order derivative of the piezo- metric head. This generalised law and the law of conservation of mass are then used to derive a new equation for groundwater flow. Numerical solutions of this equation for various ...

  12. Stabilisation de la formule des traces tordue

    CERN Document Server

    Moeglin, Colette


    Ce travail en deux volumes donne la preuve de la stabilisation de la formule des trace tordue. Stabiliser la formule des traces tordue est la méthode la plus puissante connue actuellement pour comprendre l'action naturelle du groupe des points adéliques d'un groupe réductif, tordue par un automorphisme, sur les formes automorphes de carré intégrable de ce groupe. Cette compréhension se fait en réduisant le problème, suivant les idées de Langlands, à des groupes plus petits munis d'un certain nombre de données auxiliaires; c'est ce que l'on appelle les données endoscopiques. L'analogue non tordu a été résolu par J. Arthur et dans ce livre on suit la stratégie de celui-ci. Publier ce travail sous forme de livre permet de le rendre le plus complet possible. Les auteurs ont repris la théorie de l'endoscopie tordue développée par R. Kottwitz et D. Shelstad et par J.-P. Labesse. Ils donnent tous les arguments des démonstrations même si nombre d'entre eux se trouvent déjà dans les travaux d'Ar...

  13. Threshold corrections, generalised prepotentials and Eichler integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Angelantonj


    Full Text Available We continue our study of one-loop integrals associated to BPS-saturated amplitudes in N=2 heterotic vacua. We compute their large-volume behaviour, and express them as Fourier series in the complexified volume, with Fourier coefficients given in terms of Niebur–Poincaré series in the complex structure modulus. The closure of Niebur–Poincaré series under modular derivatives implies that such integrals derive from holomorphic prepotentials fn, generalising the familiar prepotential of N=2 supergravity. These holomorphic prepotentials transform anomalously under T-duality, in a way characteristic of Eichler integrals. We use this observation to compute their quantum monodromies under the duality group. We extend the analysis to modular integrals with respect to Hecke congruence subgroups, which naturally arise in compactifications on non-factorisable tori and freely-acting orbifolds. In this case, we derive new explicit results including closed-form expressions for integrals involving the Γ0(N Hauptmodul, a full characterisation of holomorphic prepotentials including their quantum monodromies, as well as concrete formulæ for holomorphic Yukawa couplings.

  14. Deconfinement transitions in a generalised XY model (United States)

    Serna, Pablo; Chalker, J. T.; Fendley, Paul


    We find the complete phase diagram of a generalised XY model that includes half-vortices. The model possesses superfluid, pair-superfluid and disordered phases, separated by Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transitions for both the half-vortices and ordinary vortices, as well as an Ising-type transition. There also occurs an unusual deconfining phase transition, where the disordered to superfluid transition is of Ising rather than KT type. We show by analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations that there is a point in the phase diagram where the KT transition line meets the deconfining Ising phase transition. We find that the latter extends into the disordered phase not as a phase transition, but rather solely as a deconfinement transition. It is best understood in the dual height model, where on one side of the transition height steps are bound into pairs while on the other they are unbound. We also extend the phase diagram of the dual model, finding both O(2) loop model and antiferromagnetic Ising transitions.

  15. Spectral Ambiguity of Allan Variance (United States)

    Greenhall, C. A.


    We study the extent to which knowledge of Allan variance and other finite-difference variances determines the spectrum of a random process. The variance of first differences is known to determine the spectrum. We show that, in general, the Allan variance does not. A complete description of the ambiguity is given.

  16. Internal Nano Voids in Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Barad


    Full Text Available Porous yttria-stabilised zirconia ceramics have been gaining popularity throughout the years in various fields, such as energy, environment, medicine, etc. Although yttria-stabilised zirconia is a well-studied material, voided yttria-stabilised zirconia powder particles have not been demonstrated yet, and might play an important role in future technology developments. A sol-gel synthesis accompanied by a freeze-drying process is currently being proposed as a method of obtaining sponge-like nano morphology of embedded faceted voids inside yttria-stabilised zirconia particles. The results rely on a freeze-drying stage as an effective and simple method for generating nano-voided yttria-stabilised zirconia particles without the use of template-assisted additives.

  17. Evaluating the Generalisability of Trial Results: Introducing a Centre- and Trial-Level Generalisability Index. (United States)

    Gheorghe, Adrian; Roberts, Tracy; Hemming, Karla; Calvert, Melanie


    Few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruit centres representatively, which may limit the external validity of trial results. The aim of this study was to propose a proof-of-concept method of assessing the generalisability of the clinical and cost-effectiveness findings of a given RCT. We developed a generalisability index (Gix), informed by centre-level characteristics, as a measure of centre and trial representativeness. The centre-level Gix quantifies how representative a centre is in relation to its jurisdiction, e.g. a country or health authority. The trial-level Gix quantifies how representative trial recruitment is in relation to clinical practice in the jurisdiction. Taking a real-world RCT as a case study and assuming trial-wide results to represent 'true jurisdiction values', we used simulation methods to recreate 5000 RCTs and investigate the relationship between trial representativeness, reflected by the standardised trial-Gix, and the deviation of simulated trial results from the 'true values'. The simulation study provides evidence that trial results (odds ratio for the primary outcome and incremental quality-adjusted life-years) were influenced by the representativeness of the sample of recruiting centres. Simulated RCTs with the closest results to the 'true values' were those whose recruitment closely mirrored the jurisdiction-wide context. Results appeared robust to six alternative specifications of the Gix. Our findings suggest that an unrepresentative selection of centres limits the external validity of trial results. The Gix may be a valuable tool to help facilitate rational selection of trial centres and ensure the generalisability of results at the jurisdiction level.

  18. Private sector and stabilisation in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard, Tina

    I briefet opsummerer Tina Magaard de vigtigste konklusioner fra konferencen ”Private sector and stabilisation in Afghanistan – a neglected match?”, som blandt andet gav indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Ved at kombinere perspektiver fra strategiske...... studier med forretnings- og udviklingsstudier tilbød konferencen en dybere indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Samtidig blev der åbnet en række nye perspektiver for interaktionen mellem den private sektor og stabiliseringsoperationer i en post-krigskontekst som...... Afghanistan. Selvom udgangspunktet var Afghanistan, er konferencens konklusioner i høj grad relevante for andre konflikt/post-konfliktområder. Konferencen var organiseret i et samarbejde mellem Centre for Business and Development Studies (Copenhagen Business School), Public-Private Platform (Copenhagen...

  19. An environmental generalised Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen productivity indicator and an environmental generalised Hicks-Moorsteen productivity index. (United States)

    Abad, A


    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an environmental generalised productivity indicator and its ratio-based counterpart. The innovative environmental generalised total factor productivity measures inherit the basic structure of both Hicks-Moorsteen productivity index and Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen productivity indicator. This methodological contribution shows that these new environmental generalised total factor productivity measures yield the earlier standard Hicks-Moorsteen index and Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen indicator, as well as environmental performance index, as special cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Introduction to variance estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Wolter, Kirk M


    We live in the information age. Statistical surveys are used every day to determine or evaluate public policy and to make important business decisions. Correct methods for computing the precision of the survey data and for making inferences to the target population are absolutely essential to sound decision making. Now in its second edition, Introduction to Variance Estimation has for more than twenty years provided the definitive account of the theory and methods for correct precision calculations and inference, including examples of modern, complex surveys in which the methods have been used successfully. The book provides instruction on the methods that are vital to data-driven decision making in business, government, and academe. It will appeal to survey statisticians and other scientists engaged in the planning and conduct of survey research, and to those analyzing survey data and charged with extracting compelling information from such data. It will appeal to graduate students and university faculty who...

  1. Supersymmetric backgrounds, the Killing superalgebra, and generalised special holonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, André [Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie,35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie,35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    We prove that, for M theory or type II, generic Minkowski flux backgrounds preserving N supersymmetries in dimensions D≥4 correspond precisely to integrable generalised G{sub N} structures, where G{sub N} is the generalised structure group defined by the Killing spinors. In other words, they are the analogues of special holonomy manifolds in E{sub d(d)}×ℝ{sup +} generalised geometry. In establishing this result, we introduce the Kosmann-Dorfman bracket, a generalisation of Kosmann’s Lie derivative of spinors. This allows us to write down the internal sector of the Killing superalgebra, which takes a rather simple form and whose closure is the key step in proving the main result. In addition, we find that the eleven-dimensional Killing superalgebra of these backgrounds is necessarily the supertranslational part of the N-extended super-Poincaré algebra.

  2. Reducing the generalised Sudoku problem to the Hamiltonian cycle problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haythorpe, Michael


    The generalised Sudoku problem with N symbols is known to be NP-complete, and hence is equivalent to any other NP-complete problem, even for the standard restricted version where N is a perfect square...

  3. Generalised Scherk-Schwarz reductions from gauged supergravity (United States)

    Inverso, Gianluca


    A procedure is described to construct generalised Scherk-Schwarz uplifts of gauged supergravities. The internal manifold, fluxes, and consistent truncation Ansatz are all derived from the embedding tensor of the lower-dimensional theory. We first describe the procedure to construct generalised Leibniz parallelisable spaces where the vector components of the frame are embedded in the adjoint representation of the gauge group, as specified by the embedding tensor. This allows us to recover the generalised Scherk-Schwarz reductions known in the literature and to prove a no-go result for the uplift of ω-deformed SO( p, q) gauged maximal supergravities. We then extend the construction to arbitrary generalised Leibniz parallelisable spaces, which turn out to be torus fibrations over manifolds in the class above.

  4. Kolkata Restaurant Problem as a Generalised El Farol Bar Problem (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    Generalisation of the El Farol bar problem to that of many bars here leads to the Kolkata restaurant problem, where the decision to go to any restaurant or not is much simpler (depending on the previous experience of course, as in the El Farol bar problem). This generalised problem can be exactly analysed in some limiting cases discussed here. The fluctuation in the restaurant service can be shown to have precisely an inverse cubic behavior, as widely seen in the stock market fluctuations.

  5. Stabilisation of Clay Soil with Lime and Melon Husk Ash for use in Farm Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Mohammed


    Full Text Available The rising cost of traditional stabilising agents and the need for economical utilisation of industrial and agricultural waste for beneficial engineering purposes has encouraged an investigation into the stabilization of clay soil with lime and melon husk ash. The chemical composition of the melon husk ash that was used in stabilising clay soil was determined. The clay soil was divided into two parts, one part was used to determine the index properties while the other part was treated at British Standard Light (BSL compaction energy with 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % melon husk ash by dry weight of the soil and each was admixed with 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % lime. The stabilised clay soil was cured for 7, 14 and 28 days before the unconfined compressive strength were determined while the coefficients of permeability of the stabilised clay soil were also determined at 28 days of curing. The data obtained from the experiment was subjected to analysis of variance to examine the significance at 5% level. Results showed that the natural clay soil belong to A-7-6 or CH (clay of high plasticity in the American Association of State Highway Transportation Official (AASHTO and Unified Soil Classification System (1986. The chemical composition of the ash had aluminum oxide, iron oxide and silicon dioxide values of 18.5%, 2.82% and 51.24% respectively. The unconfined compressive strength and coefficient of permeability of the natural clay soil was determined to be 285 kN/m2 and 1.45 x 10-5 cm/s, respectively. Increase in melon husk ash and lime percent increases the unconfined compressive strength (UCS of the stabilised clay soil significantly (p < 0.05 and decrease the coefficient of permeability when compared with the natural clay soil. The peak values of unconfined compressive strength for 7, 14 and 28 days of curing are 1200 kN/m2, 1598 kN/m2 and 1695 kN/m2 respectively at 6% MHA and 8% lime content while the lowest value for coefficient of permeability was 0

  6. A stabilised nonconforming finite element method for steady incompressible flows (United States)

    Huang, Pengzhan; Feng, Xinlong; Liu, Demin


    A stabilised nonconforming finite element method for the steady incompressible flow problem with damping based on local Gauss integration is considered in this article. The method combines the nonconforming finite element method with the stabilised strategy. Moreover, the stability and error estimates are analysed. Finally, numerical results are shown to support the developed theory analysis. Compared with some classical, closely related mixed finite element methods, the results of the present method show its better performance than others.

  7. Antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and risk of violent crime


    Fazel, Seena; Zetterqvist, Johan; Larsson, Henrik; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul


    Summary Background Antipsychotics and mood stabilisers are prescribed widely to patients with psychiatric disorders worldwide. Despite clear evidence for their efficacy in relapse prevention and symptom relief, their effect on some adverse outcomes, including the perpetration of violent crime, is unclear. We aimed to establish the effect of antipsychotics and mood stabilisers on the rate of violent crime committed by patients with psychiatric disorders in Sweden. Methods We used linked Swedis...

  8. Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures. (United States)

    Nolan, Sarah J; Marson, Anthony G; Pulman, Jennifer; Tudur Smith, Catrin


    This is an updated version of the previously published Cochrane review (Issue 4, 2009)Worldwide, phenytoin and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for partial onset seizures, and that valproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types. To review the best evidence comparing phenytoin and valproate when used as monotherapy in individuals with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialised Register (19 February 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 1, The Cochrane Library, January 2013), MEDLINE (1946 to 18 February 2013), SCOPUS (19 February 2013), (19 February 2013), and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ICTRP (19 February 2013). We handsearched relevant journals, contacted pharmaceutical companies, original trial investigators and experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with a comparison of valproate monotherapy versus phenytoin monotherapy. This was an individual patient data review. Outcomes were time to (a) treatment withdrawal (b) 12-month remission (c) six-month remission and (d) first seizure post randomisation. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain study-specific estimates of hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with the generic inverse variance method used to obtain the overall pooled HR and 95% CI. Individual patient data were available for 669 individuals out of 1119 eligible individuals from five out of 11 trials, 60% of the potential data. Results apply to generalised tonic-clonic seizures, but not absence or myoclonus seizure types. For remission outcomes, HR > 1 indicates an

  9. Reducing the generalised Sudoku problem to the Hamiltonian cycle problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haythorpe


    Full Text Available The generalised Sudoku problem with N symbols is known to be NP-complete, and hence is equivalent to any other NP-complete problem, even for the standard restricted version where N is a perfect square. In particular, generalised Sudoku is equivalent to the, classical, Hamiltonian cycle problem. A constructive algorithm is given that reduces generalised Sudoku to the Hamiltonian cycle problem, where the resultant instance of Hamiltonian cycle problem is sparse, and has O(N3 vertices. The Hamiltonian cycle problem instance so constructed is a directed graph, and so a (known conversion to undirected Hamiltonian cycle problem is also provided so that it can be submitted to the best heuristics. A simple algorithm for obtaining the valid Sudoku solution from the Hamiltonian cycle is provided. Techniques to reduce the size of the resultant graph are also discussed.

  10. Generalised Brown Clustering and Roll-up Feature Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean


    Brown clustering is an established technique, used in hundreds of computational linguistics papers each year, to group word types that have similar distributional information. It is unsupervised and can be used to create powerful word representations for machine learning. Despite its improbable...... success relative to more complex methods, few have investigated whether Brown clustering has really been applied optimally. In this paper, we present a subtle but profound generalisation of Brown clustering to improve the overall quality by decoupling the number of output classes from the computational...... active set size. Moreover, the generalisation permits a novel approach to feature selection from Brown clusters: We show that the standard approach of shearing the Brown clustering output tree at arbitrary bitlengths is lossy and that features should be chosen instead by rolling up Generalised Brown...

  11. Fixed effects analysis of variance

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Lloyd; Birnbaum, Z W; Lukacs, E


    Fixed Effects Analysis of Variance covers the mathematical theory of the fixed effects analysis of variance. The book discusses the theoretical ideas and some applications of the analysis of variance. The text then describes topics such as the t-test; two-sample t-test; the k-sample comparison of means (one-way analysis of variance); the balanced two-way factorial design without interaction; estimation and factorial designs; and the Latin square. Confidence sets, simultaneous confidence intervals, and multiple comparisons; orthogonal and nonorthologonal designs; and multiple regression analysi

  12. Moduli stabilisation for chiral global models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mayrhofer, Christoph [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Valandro, Roberto [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    We combine moduli stabilisation and (chiral) model building in a fully consistent global set-up in Type IIB/F-theory. We consider compactifications on Calabi-Yau orientifolds which admit an explicit description in terms of toric geometry. We build globally consistent compactifications with tadpole and Freed-Witten anomaly cancellation by choosing appropriate brane set-ups and world-volume fluxes which also give rise to SU(5)- or MSSM-like chiral models. We fix all the Kaehler moduli within the Kaehler cone and the regime of validity of the 4D effective field theory. This is achieved in a way compatible with the local presence of chirality. The hidden sector generating the non-perturbative effects is placed on a del Pezzo divisor that does not have any chiral intersections with any other brane. In general, the vanishing D-term condition implies the shrinking of the rigid divisor supporting the visible sector. However, we avoid this problem by generating r

  13. Minimally invasive spine stabilisation with long implants (United States)

    Logroscino, Carlo Ambrogio; Proietti, Luca


    Originally aimed at treating degenerative syndromes of the lumbar spine, percutaneous minimally invasive posterior fixation is nowadays even more frequently used to treat some thoracolumbar fractures. According to the modern principles of saving segment of motion, a short implant (one level above and one level below the injured vertebra) is generally used to stabilise the injured spine. Although the authors generally use a short percutaneous fixation in treating thoracolumbar fractures with good results, they observed some cases in which the high fragmentation of the vertebral body and the presence of other associated diseases (co-morbidities) did not recommend the use of a short construct. The authors identified nine cases, in which a long implant (two levels above and two levels below the injured vertebra) was performed by a percutaneous minimally invasive approach. Seven patients (five males/two females) were affected by thoracolumbar fractures. T12 vertebra was involved in three cases, L1 in two cases, T10 and L2 in one case, respectively. Two fractures were classified as type A 3.1, two as A 3.2, two as A 3.3 and one as B 2.3, according to Magerl. In the present series, there were also two patients affected by a severe osteolysis of the spine (T9 and T12) due to tumoral localisation. All patients operated on with long instrumentation had a good outcome with prompt and uneventful clinical recovery. At the 1-year follow-up, all patients except one, who died 11 months after the operation, did not show any radiologic signs of mobilisation or failure of the implant. Based on the results of the present series, the long percutaneous fixation seems to represent an effective and safe system to treat particular cases of vertebral lesions. In conclusion, the authors believe that a long implant might be an alternative surgical method compared to more aggressive or demanding procedures, which in a few patients could represent an overtreatment. PMID:19399530

  14. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven


    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Equilibrium points in the generalised photogravitational non-planar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We generalised the photogravitational non-planar restricted three body problem by considering the smaller primary as an oblate spheroid. With both the primaries radiating, we located the equilibrium points which lie outside the orbital plane, contrary to the classical case. Besides finding the equations of motion of the ...

  16. A ten-year histopathological study of generalised lymphadenopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 31, 2010 ... Original Research: A ten-year histopathological study of generalised lymphadenopathy in India. 267. Vol 53 No 3. S Afr Fam Pract 2011. Introduction. The body contains approximately 600 lymph nodes, but only those in the submandibular, axillary and inguinal regions may be palpable in healthy people.

  17. Location of collinear equilibrium points in the generalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the equations of motion in the generalised photogravitational elliptic restricted three body problem. .... For collinear equilibrium points lying on the line joining the primaries i.e. on ξ -axis, we have from equation (2) ..... On the stability of positions of equilibrium of a Hamiltonian system of ordinary differential equations in the.

  18. Enactivism and Figural Apprehension in the Context of Pattern Generalisation (United States)

    Samson, Duncan


    This paper seeks to establish a research framework for an investigation into the extent to which pupils are able to visualise figural cues in multiple ways within the context of pattern generalisation. Enactivism, along with the constructs of knowledge objectification and figural apprehension, are identified as forming an ideal theoretical…

  19. Deformation due to mechanical and thermal sources in generalised ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The displacements, stresses and temperature distribution so obtained in the physical domain are computed numerically and illustrated graphically. The numerical results of these quantities for zinc crystal-like material are illustrated to compare the results for different theories of generalised thermoelasticity for an insulated ...

  20. Adapting Metacognitive Therapy to Children with Generalised Anxiety Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Normann, Nicoline; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise


    -c) with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and create suggestions for an adapted manual. The adaptation was based on the structure and techniques used in MCT for adults with GAD. However, the developmental limitations of children were taken into account. For instance, therapy was aided with worksheets, practical...

  1. Gait analysis of adults with generalised joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Tegner, Heidi; Alkjær, Tine


    BACKGROUND: The majority of adults with Generalised Joint Hypermobility experience symptoms such as pain and joint instability, which is likely to influence their gait pattern. Accordingly, the purpose of the present project was to perform a biomechanical gait analysis on a group of patients...

  2. Page 1 Compactification of generalised Jacobians 425 Next we ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compactification of generalised Jacobians 425. Next we study the infinitesimal deformation of torsion-free sheaves. Let X be a projective integral Gorenstein curve (A curve X as in Propositicin III.1.7, above, is easily seen to be Gorenstein). Let F be a torsion-free coherent. Ox-Module and F., an infinitesimal deformation of F ...

  3. Location of collinear equilibrium points in the generalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    MultiCraft. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2011, pp. 157-162. INTERNATIONAL. JOURNAL OF. ENGINEERING,. SCIENCE AND. TECHNOLOGY ... investigated the solutions of generalised photogravitational elliptic restricted three body problem. Hence, we thought to establish ...

  4. War, Peace and Stabilisation: Critically Reconceptualising Stability in Southern Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Robert Carter


    Full Text Available This article critically treats stabilisation theory and programming through a perspective of peace and conflict, and argues for stabilisation’s reconceptualisation. Through tracking the concept’s emergence, it outlines that stabilisation is theoretically rooted in an insecurity-underdevelopment problematic and relies on the Liberal Peace thesis as a solution. When this concept was operationalised in southern Afghanistan, however, it was translated into a praxis informed by state-building and counterinsurgency imperatives. This approach ultimately produced confused, sometimes counterproductive, effects: simultaneously engendering a liberal, negative, rented and victor’s peace. The article concludes by arguing that stabilisation should be reconceptualised so that it pursues a positive and hybrid peace if it is to be a more effective source of guidance for policy and practice. The first step is to denaturalise the ‘formal’ state in conflict and fragile environments as being seen as a panacea to all ills of instability.

  5. Generalisability of an online randomised controlled trial: an empirical analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Mollan, Katie R; Hudgens, Michael G; Tucker, Joseph D; Zheng, Heping; Tang, Weiming; Ling, Li


    Investigators increasingly use online methods to recruit participants for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, the extent to which participants recruited online represent populations of interest is unknown. We evaluated how generalisable an online RCT sample is to men who have sex with men in China. Inverse probability of sampling weights (IPSW) and the G-formula were used to examine the generalisability of an online RCT using model-based approaches. Online RCT data and national cross-sectional study data from China were analysed to illustrate the process of quantitatively assessing generalisability. The RCT (identifier NCT02248558) randomly assigned participants to a crowdsourced or health marketing video for promotion of HIV testing. The primary outcome was self-reported HIV testing within 4 weeks, with a non-inferiority margin of -3%. In the original online RCT analysis, the estimated difference in proportions of HIV tested between the two arms (crowdsourcing and health marketing) was 2.1% (95% CI, -5.4% to 9.7%). The hypothesis that the crowdsourced video was not inferior to the health marketing video to promote HIV testing was not demonstrated. The IPSW and G-formula estimated differences were -2.6% (95% CI, -14.2 to 8.9) and 2.7% (95% CI, -10.7 to 16.2), with both approaches also not establishing non-inferiority. Conducting generalisability analysis of an online RCT is feasible. Examining the generalisability of online RCTs is an important step before an intervention is scaled up. NCT02248558. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures: an individual participant data review. (United States)

    Nolan, Sarah J; Marson, Anthony G; Weston, Jennifer; Tudur Smith, Catrin


    Worldwide, phenytoin and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for partial onset seizures, and that valproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). This review is one in a series of Cochrane reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons. This is the latest updated version of the review first published in 2001 and updated in 2013. To review the time to withdrawal, remission and first seizure of phenytoin compared to valproate when used as monotherapy in people with partial onset seizures or generalised tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialised Register (19 May 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library; 2015, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1946 to 19 May 2015), SCOPUS (19 February 2013), (19 May 2015), and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ICTRP (19 May 2015). We handsearched relevant journals, contacted pharmaceutical companies, original trial investigators and experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with a comparison of valproate monotherapy versus phenytoin monotherapy. This was an individual participant data (IPD) review. Outcomes were time to: (a) withdrawal of allocated treatment (retention time); (b) achieve 12-month remission (seizure-free period); (c) achieve six-month remission (seizure-free period); and (d) first seizure (post-randomisation). We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to obtain study-specific estimates of hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and the generic inverse variance method to obtain the overall pooled HR and 95% CI. IPD were available for 669 individuals out of 1119 eligible individuals

  7. Small Drinking Water System Variances (United States)

    Small system variances allow a small system to install and maintain technology that can remove a contaminant to the maximum extent that is affordable and protective of public health in lieu of technology that can achieve compliance with the regulation.

  8. Myocardial infarction and generalised anxiety disorder : 10-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Annelieke M.; Zuidersma, Marij; de Jonge, Peter

    Background Few studies have addressed the relationship between generalised anxiety disorder and cardiovascular prognosis using a diagnostic interview. Aims To assess the association between generalised anxiety disorder and adverse outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction. Method Patients with

  9. Direct and inverse theorems of approximation theory for a generalised modulus of smoothness


    Potapov, Mikhail K.; Berisha, Faton M.


    An asymmetric operator of generalised translation is introduced in this paper. Using this operator, we define a generalised modulus of smoothness and prove direct and inverse theorems of approximation theory for it.

  10. Selected heavy metals speciation in chemically stabilised sewage sludge (United States)

    Wiśniowska, Ewa; Włodarczyk-Makuła, Marła


    Selected heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd) were analysed in soil, digested sewage sludge as well as in the sludge stabilised with CaO or Fenton's reagent. The dose of Fenton's reagent was as follows: Fe2+ = 1g.L-1, Fe2+/H2O2=1:100; stabilisation lasted for 2 h. Dose of CaO was equal to 1 g CaO.g d.m.-1 Total concentration of all metals in the digested sewage sludge was higher than in the soil. Chemical stabilisation of sludge with Fenton's reagent increased total metal content in the sludge as a result of total solids removal. Opposite effect was stated when the sludge was mixed with CaO. Also chemical fractions of heavy metals were identified (exchangeable, carbonate bound, iron oxides bound, organic and residual). The results indicate that stabilisation of the sludge with Fenton's reagent increased mobility of heavy metals compared to the digested sludge. Amendment of CaO increased percent share of examined metals in residual fraction, thus immobilised them and decreased their bioavailability.

  11. Toggle rod stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation in 14 cats. (United States)

    Pratesi, A; Grierson, J; Moores, A P


    To describe the surgical technique and to report outcomes in cats with coxofemoral luxation treated with open reduction and toggle rod stabilisation. Retrospective study of cats with coxofemoral luxation stabilised via the toggle rod method. Short-term follow-up included clinical examination and radiographs. Long-term follow-up was via owner questionnaire. Fourteen cats were included. All of the cats had reported unilateral craniodorsal hip luxation. Nine cats (64·3%) had additional orthopaedic injuries. Luxations were stabilised with a 3·2-mm toggle rod (2·7-mm toggle rod in one cat) and two loops of four-metric polydioxanone (five-metric polydioxanone in one cat and three loops of four-metric polydioxanone in two cats). Success rate, in terms of maintenance of reduction, was 86%. Reluxation occurred in two cats (14%), both of which had multiple limb injuries. Eleven owner questionnaires (mean follow-up time 15·5 months) reported a functional outcome of "very good" to "excellent". Although the diameter of the pelvic canal was reduced by the presence of the toggle rod (mean narrowing 16.2%), none of the cats had defaecatory issues. Toggle rod stabilisation is an effective method for the treatment of coxofemoral luxation in cats. Injuries to multiple limbs may be a risk factor for reluxation. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Laser stabilisation for velocity-selective atomic absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Meulen, H.P. van der; Ditewig, F.; Wisman, C.J.; Morgenstern, R.


    A relatively simple method is described for stabilising a dye laser at a frequency ν = ν0 + νc in the vicinity of an atomic resonance frequency ν0. The Doppler effect is exploited by looking for atomic fluorescence when a laser beam is crossed with an atomic beam at certain angles αi. Absolute

  13. TOF-SIMS studies of yttria-stabilised zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karin Vels; Norrman, Kion; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    The surface of an as-polished and an as-sintered yttria-stabilised zirconia pellet was analysed with XPS and TOF-SIMS (depth profiling and imaging) in order to study the distribution of impurities. The polished sample was slightly contaminated with Na, K, Mg and Ca. The sintered sample showed...

  14. Pulsed laser excitation of phosphate stabilised silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser flash photolysis studies were carried out on two types of silver nanoparticles prepared by -radiolysis of Ag+ solutions in the presence of polyphosphate as the stabiliser. Type I silver nanoparticles displayed a surface plasmon band at 390 nm. Type II silver nanoparticles showed a 390 nm surface plasmon band with a ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mot clés: latérite, briques stabilisées, fibres cellulosiques, résistance à la flexion, absorption par capillarité. ABSTRACT:- In order to give added value to local raw materials, compressed laterite bricks have been stabilised with cellulose fibres of Cyperus papyrus (cyperus), long fibres and Manihot esculenta (cassava), short ...

  16. Modelling and experiments on NTM stabilisation at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urso, Laura


    In the next fusion device ITER the so-called neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) are foreseen as being extremely detrimental to plasma confinement. This type of resistive instability is related to the presence in the plasma of magnetic islands. These are experimentally controlled with local electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and the island width decay during NTM stabilisation is modelled using the so-called Modified Rutherford equation. In this thesis, a modelling of the Modified Rutherford equation is carried out and simulations of the island width decay are compared with the experimentally observed ones in order to fit the two free machine-independent parameters present in the equation. A systematic study on a database of NTM stabilisation discharges from ASDEX Upgrade and JT-60U is done within the context of a multi-machine benchmark for extrapolating the ECCD power requirements for ITER. The experimental measurements in both devices are discussed by means of consistency checks and sensitivity analysis and used to evaluate the two fitting parameters present in the Modified Rutherford equation. The influence of the asymmetry of the magnetic island on stabilisation is for the first time included in the model and the effect of ECCD on the marginal island after which the mode naturally decays is quantified. The effect of radial misalignment and over-stabilisation during the experiment are found to be the key quantities affecting the NTM stabilisation. As a main result of this thesis, the extrapolation to ITER of the NTM stabilisation results from ASDEX Upgrade and JT-60U shows that 10MW of ECCD power are enough to stabilise large NTMs as long as the O-point of the island and the ECCD beam are perfectly aligned. In fact, the high ratio between the island size at saturation and the deposition width of the ECCD beam foreseen for ITER is found to imply a maximum allowable radial misalignment of 2-3 cm and little difference in terms of gained performance between

  17. Cost-optimized climate stabilisation (OPTIKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimbach, Marian; Bauer, Nico; Baumstark, Lavinia; Edenhofer, Ottmar [Potsdam Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung, Potsdam (Germany)


    This study analyses the implications of suggestions for the design of post-2012 climate policy regimes on the basis of model simulations. The focus of the analysis, the determination of regional mitigation costs and the technological development in the energy sector, also considers the feedbacks of investment and trade decisions of the regions that are linked by different global markets for emission permits, goods and resources. The analysed policy regimes are primarily differentiated by their allocation of emission rights. Moreover, they represent alternative designs of an international cap and trade system that is geared to meet the 2 C climate target. The present study analyses ambitious climate protection scenarios that require drastic reduction policies (reductions of 60%-80% globally until 2050). Immediate and multilateral action is needed in such scenarios. Given the rather small variance of mitigation costs in major regions like UCA, Europe, MEA and China, a policy regime should be chosen that provides high incentives to join an international agreement for the remaining regions. From this perspective either the C and C scenario (incentive for Russia) is preferable or the multi-stage approach (incentive for Africa and India). (orig.)

  18. Object recognition and generalisation during habituation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tjatjana; Chovaux, Elodie


    The ability of horses to habituate to frightening stimuli greatly increases safety in the horse–human relationship. A recent experiment suggested, however, that habituation to frightening visual stimuli is relatively stimulus-specific in horses and that shape and colour are important factors...... for object generalisation (Christensen et al., 2008). In a series of experiments, we aimed to further explore the ability of horses (n = 30, 1 and 2-year-old mares) to recognise and generalise between objects during habituation. TEST horses (n = 15) were habituated to a complex object, composed of five...... simple objects of varying shape and colour, whereas CONTROL horses (n = 15) were habituated to the test arena, but not to the complex object. In the first experiment, we investigated whether TEST horses subsequently reacted less to i) simple objects that were previously part of the complex object (i...

  19. Learnability and generalisation of Arabic broken plural nouns (United States)

    Dawdy-Hesterberg, Lisa Garnand; Pierrehumbert, Janet Breckenridge


    The noun plural system in Modern Standard Arabic lies at a nexus of critical issues in morphological learnability. The suffixing “sound” plural competes with as many as 31 non-concatenative “broken” plural patterns. Our computational analysis of singular–plural pairs in the Corpus of Contemporary Arabic explores what types of linguistic information are statistically relevant to morphological generalisation for this highly complex system. We show that an analogical approach with the generalised context model is highly successful in predicting the plural form for any given singular form. This model proves to be robust to variation, as evidenced by its stability across 10 rounds of cross-validation. The predictive power is carried almost entirely by the CV template, a representation which specifies a segment's status as a consonant or vowel only, providing further support for the abstraction of prosodic templates in the Arabic morphological system as proposed by McCarthy and Prince. PMID:25346932

  20. Generalisation of geographic information cartographic modelling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mackaness, William A; Sarjakoski, L Tiina


    Theoretical and Applied Solutions in Multi Scale MappingUsers have come to expect instant access to up-to-date geographical information, with global coverage--presented at widely varying levels of detail, as digital and paper products; customisable data that can readily combined with other geographic information. These requirements present an immense challenge to those supporting the delivery of such services (National Mapping Agencies (NMA), Government Departments, and private business. Generalisation of Geographic Information: Cartographic Modelling and Applications provides detailed review

  1. A study of idiopathic generalised epilepsy in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullins, G M


    Idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) is subdivided into syndromes based on clinical and EEG features. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterise all cases of IGE with supportive EEG abnormalities in terms of gender differences, seizure types reported, IGE syndromes, family history of epilepsy and EEG findings. We also calculated the limited duration prevalence of IGE in our cohort. METHODS: Data on abnormal EEGs were collected retrospectively from two EEG databases at two tertiary referral centres for neurology. Clinical information was obtained from EEG request forms, standardised EEG questionnaires and medical notes of patients. RESULTS: two hundred twenty-three patients met our inclusion criteria, 89 (39.9%) male and 134 (60.1%) females. Tonic clonic seizures were the most common seizure type reported, 162 (72.65%) having a generalised tonic clonic seizure (GTCS) at some time. IGE with GTCS only (EGTCSA) was the most common syndrome in our cohort being present in 94 patients (34 male, 60 female), with 42 (15 male, 27 female) patients diagnosed with Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), 23 (9 male, 14 female) with Juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) and 20 (9 male, 11 female) with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). EEG studies in all patients showed generalised epileptiform activity. CONCLUSIONS: More women than men were diagnosed with generalised epilepsy. Tonic clonic seizures were the most common seizure type reported. EGTCSA was the most frequent syndrome seen. Gender differences were evident for JAE and JME as previously reported and for EGTCSA, which was not reported to date, and reached statistical significance for EGTCA and JME.

  2. Generalisation of action sequences in RNNPB networks with mirror properties


    Cuijpers, R.H.; Stuijt, F.H.A.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.


    The human mirror neuron system (MNS) is supposed to be involved in recognition of observed action sequences. However, it remains unclear how such a system could learn to recognise a large variety of action sequences. Here we investigated a neural network with mirror properties, the Recurrent Neural Network with Parametric Bias (RNNPB). We show that the network is capable of recognising noisy action sequences and that it is capable of generalising from a few learnt examples. Such a mechanism m...

  3. Effect of addition of GGBS and lime in soil stabilisation for stabilising local village roads in Thanjavur region (United States)

    Saravanan, R.; Udhayakumar, T.; Dinesh, S.; Venkatasubramanian, C.; Muthu, D.


    Construction of pavements uses various filling materials and due to the cost factor, the local soil is used for pavement construction. The strength of the soil is improved by stabilisation. This stabilisation increases the load bearing capacities of soil for heavy wheeled vehicle traffic. GGBS, silica fume, rice husk are the basic waste materials used as a waste material, which improves the quality of soil and reduces the cost of pavements. In this study, a detailed investigation is made on the Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS), activated by lime, in the stabilisation of low bearing capacity sand and clay soils collected from Thanjavur district (Budalur, Sengipatti, Vallam and Palliahgraharam villages). The tests are carried out as per Indian Standards. The test procedures separated into two phases, namely Stage-I and Stage-II. In Stage-I the soil tests include soil type, particle size distribution, soil index properties, standard proctor tests, shear tests and CBR test. In Stage-II the soil tests include shear tests and CBR test for the suitable required proportions of GGBS along with lime in the collected soil samples. The test results from stage-I and stage-II are compared and from the study, it is inferred that the application of GGBS is a useful material for soil stabilisation.

  4. Generalised pollination systems for three invasive milkweeds in Australia. (United States)

    Ward, M; Johnson, S D


    Because most plants require pollinator visits for seed production, the ability of an introduced plant species to establish pollinator relationships in a new ecosystem may have a central role in determining its success or failure as an invader. We investigated the pollination ecology of three milkweed species - Asclepias curassavica, Gomphocarpus fruticosus and G. physocarpus - in their invaded range in southeast Queensland, Australia. The complex floral morphology of milkweeds has often been interpreted as a general trend towards specialised pollination requirements. Based on this interpretation, invasion by milkweeds contradicts the expectation than plant species with specialised pollination systems are less likely to become invasive that those with more generalised pollination requirements. However, observations of flower visitors in natural populations of the three study species revealed that their pollination systems are essentially specialised at the taxonomic level of the order, but generalised at the species level. Specifically, pollinators of the two Gomphocarpus species included various species of Hymenoptera (particularly vespid wasps), while pollinators of A. curassavica were primarily Lepidoptera (particularly nymphalid butterflies). Pollinators of all three species are rewarded with copious amounts of highly concentrated nectar. It is likely that successful invasion by these three milkweed species is attributable, at least in part, to their generalised pollinator requirements. The results of this study are discussed in terms of how data from the native range may be useful in predicting pollination success of species in a new environment. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. A generalised form of Lait's modified potential vorticity (United States)

    Mueller, R.; Guenther, G.


    Ertel's potential vorticity P is in wide spread use as a diagnostic of dynamical processes in the stratosphere. For a variety of applications however, the exponential increase of P with altitude is problematic. For this reason, Lait, (JAS, 1994) proposed a modified potential vorticity Pi_L, where a physically meaningful scaling is introduced that removes much of the altitude dependence of P. % Here we propose a generalised form of Pi_L by introducing an additional degree of freedom in the scaling. Such a scaling may alternatively be derived by considering a more general form of potential vorticity, where polytropic temperature rather than potential temperature is used as a hydrodynamical invariant. This generalised form of Pi_L possesses the same conservation properties as Pi_L itself and as the classical potential vorticity P , but can be adjusted more closely to the specific situation under investigation. Comparison, over a large altitude range in the stratosphere, of fields of the generalised modified potential vorticity Pi_g with dynamical measures of the polar vortex edge and with observations of the long-lived trace gas N_2O show that Pi_g constitutes a more intuitively interpretable quantity than Pi_L.

  6. Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures. (United States)

    Nolan, Sarah J; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Pulman, Jennifer; Marson, Anthony G


    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in The Cochrane Library 2001, Issue 4.Worldwide, particularly in the developing world, phenytoin and phenobarbitone are commonly used antiepileptic drugs, primarily because they are inexpensive. The aim of this review is to summarise data from existing trials comparing phenytoin and phenobarbitone. To review the best evidence comparing phenobarbitone and phenytoin when used as monotherapy in participants with partial onset seizures or generalised tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group trials register (31 May 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 5 of 12, The Cochrane Library 2012) and MEDLINE (1946 to May week 4, 2012). We hand-searched relevant journals, contacted pharmaceutical companies, original trial investigators and experts in the field.   Randomised controlled trials in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with a comparison of phenobarbitone monotherapy with phenytoin monotherapy. This was an individual participant data (IPD) review. Outcomes were time to (a) treatment withdrawal (b) 12-month remission (c) six-month remission and (d) first seizure post randomisation. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain study-specific estimates of hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with the generic inverse variance method used to obtain the overall pooled estimate of HRs and 95% CIs. Data have been obtained for four of eight studies meeting the inclusion criteria, amounting to 599 individuals, or approximately 63% of the potential data.The main overall results (pooled HR, 95% CI) were (a) time to treatment withdrawal 1.62 (1.23 to 2.14); (b) time to 12-month remission 0.90 (0.69 to 1.18) (c) time to six-month remission 0.92 (0.73 to 1.16) and (d) time to first seizure 0.85 (0.68 to 1.05). These results

  7. Revision: Variance Inflation in Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Jensen


    the intercept; and (iv variance deflation may occur, where ill-conditioned data yield smaller variances than their orthogonal surrogates. Conventional VIFs have all regressors linked, or none, often untenable in practice. Beyond these, our models enable the unlinking of regressors that can be unlinked, while preserving dependence among those intrinsically linked. Moreover, known collinearity indices are extended to encompass angles between subspaces of regressors. To reaccess ill-conditioned data, we consider case studies ranging from elementary examples to data from the literature.

  8. Efficacy of stabilisation splint therapy combined with non-splint multimodal therapy for treating RDC/TMD axis I patients: a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Nagata, K; Maruyama, H; Mizuhashi, R; Morita, S; Hori, S; Yokoe, T; Sugawara, Y


    Stabilisation splint therapy has long been thought to be effective for the management of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, the superiority of stabilisation splint therapy compared to other TMD treatments remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of stabilisation splint therapy combined with non-splint multimodal therapy for TMD. A total of 181 TMD participants were randomly allocated to a non-splint multimodal therapy (NS) group (n = 85) or a non-splint multimodal therapy plus stabilisation splint (NS+S) group (n = 96). Non-splint multimodal therapy included self-exercise of the jaw, cognitive-behavioural therapy, self-management education and additional jaw manipulation. Three outcome measurements were used to assess treatment efficacy: mouth-opening limitation, oro-facial pain and temporomandibular joint sounds. A two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance (anova) was used to evaluate the efficacy of the two treatment modalities (NS vs. NS+S), and Scheffe's multiple comparison test was used to compare the treatment periods. Subgroup analyses were performed to disclose the splint effects for each TMD diagnostic group. All three parameters significantly decreased over time in both groups. However, there were no significant differences between the two treatment groups in the total comparison or subgroup analyses; an exception was the group with degenerative joint disease. No significant difference between the NS and NS+S treatment approaches was revealed in this study. Therefore, we conclude that the additional effects of stabilisation splint are not supported for patients with TMD during the application of multimodal therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties for ballast stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Angelo


    Full Text Available Ballasted track, while providing economical and practical advantages, is associated with high costs and material consumption due to frequent maintenance. More sustainable alternatives to conventional ballasted trackbeds should therefore aim at extending its durability, particularly considering ongoing increases in traffic speed and loads. In this regard, the authors have investigated a solution consisting of bitumen stabilised ballast (BSB, designed to be used for new trackbeds as well as in reinforcing existing ones. This study presents the idea behind the technology and then focuses on a specific part of its development: the optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties and dosage in relation to ballast field conditions. Results showed that overall bitumen stabilisation improved ballast resistance to permanent deformation by enhancing stiffness and damping properties. Scenarios with higher dosage of bitumen emulsion, higher viscosity, quicker setting behaviour, and harder base bitumen seem to represent the most desirable conditions to achieve enhanced in-field performance.

  10. Modeling and control of a gravity gradient stabilised satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aage Skullestad


    Full Text Available This paper describes attitude control, i.e., 3-axes stabilisation and pointing, of a proposed Norwegian small gravity gradient stabilized satellite to be launched into low earth orbit. Generally, a gravity gradient stabilised system has limited stability and pointing capabilities, and wheels and/or magnetic coils are added in order to improve the attitude control. The best attitude accuracy is achieved using wheels, which can give accuracies down to less than one degree, but wheels increase the complexity and cost of the satellite. Magnetic coils allow cheaper satellites, and are an attractive solution to small, inexpensive satellites in low earth orbits and may provide an attitude control accuracy of a few degrees. Scientific measurements often require accurate attitude control in one or two axes only. Combining wheel and coil control may, in these cases, provide the best solutions. The simulation results are based on a linearised mathematical model of the satellite.

  11. Small-State Special Operations in a Comprehensive Stabilisation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anton Asklund

    takeaways were: Special operations as a force multiplier: Can special operations enable other stabilisation agents, locals as well as internationals, to accomplish their missions more effectively? This includes NGOs, diplomats or other officials, other military units, etc. How can the mindset required......“Small-State Special Operations in a Comprehensive Stabilisation Context: What to Know and Where to Go?” was the headline of a conference held at the Royal Danish Defence College, facilitated by the Institute for Strategy. As a product of this conference, a report has been written which highlights...... the most important arguments, reflections and conclusion made at the conference. The conference was initiated in order to establish an academic forum, wherein relevant questions could be posed which would allow to pinpoint and guide future research on the utility of small state operations. The key...

  12. Towards a measurement of active muscle control for lumbar stabilisation. (United States)

    Jull, G; Richardson, C; Toppenberg, R; Comerford, M; Bui, B


    No measure described to date reflects the ability of muscles to stabilise the lumbar spine. A static model was developed in supine crook lying, to measure active rotatory control with trunk loading in the sagittal plane via low, unilateral leg load. The hypothesis was that excessive lumbar movement indicates an inability of the stabilising muscles to automatically co-ordinate appropriate muscle force to support the spine. A computerised sensor was developed to monitor lumbar positional change. A rotatory stability index was calculated from pressure variations on taking leg load. Preliminary trials showed that this static model identified individuals with poor active rotatory control. Further development of the measurement model is warranted. Copyright © 1993 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  13. Silicone elastomers with covalently incorporated aromatic voltage stabilisers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Skov, Anne Ladegaard


    When optimising dielectric elastomers (DEs) a conflict exists, namely that for large achievable actuationstrains softness is required, but with increased softness electrical breakdown strength decreases. Herein,soft dielectric silicone elastomers with increased electrical breakdown strength, due...... forhomogeneity. Concentrations of the voltage stabiliser were varied by changing the molecular weights ofthe PPMS in the copolymer. The developed elastomers were inherently soft with enhanced electricalbreakdown strengths, due to delocalisedp-electrons of the aromatic constituent. An optimumconcentration...... was found for the voltage stabilisation effect. The relative permittivities of thePDMS–PPMS elastomers varied from 3.4 to 3.9 and therefore were also improved from pure PDMSelastomers. The elastomers were furthermore non-conductive and possessed low dielectric losses.These properties are evaluated...

  14. Preparing Stabilisation for 21st Century Security Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Zyck


    Full Text Available Stabilisation, as a concept and set of practices, has proliferated over the past two decades and is now implicitly integrated into a range of global frameworks. However, this enthusiasm has at times risked turning this increasingly common, albeit contested, idea into a piece of jargon that discounts its unique facets: a focus on all sorts of violence, not just conflict, that create political instability and human harm and a problem-solving approach that draws selectively on various forms of intervention (e.g., statebuilding, counterinsurgency, peacekeeping, etc. without being beholden to any one toolkit. The pragmatism inherent within the concept of stabilisation will grow increasingly important as new security challenges emerge or proliferate. These include the fragmentation and regionalisation of conflict systems, transnational organised crime, large-scale migration and new, disruptive technologies. Novel approaches rooted in big data and technology will increasingly need to be applied. Most importantly, in foreign policy, military and development communities often driven by perceptions about what causes, ends or prevents violence, stabilisation must maintain its agnostic, problem-solving roots and allegiance to evidence over ideology.

  15. Variance decomposition in stochastic simulators

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maître, O. P.


    This work aims at the development of a mathematical and computational approach that enables quantification of the inherent sources of stochasticity and of the corresponding sensitivities in stochastic simulations of chemical reaction networks. The approach is based on reformulating the system dynamics as being generated by independent standardized Poisson processes. This reformulation affords a straightforward identification of individual realizations for the stochastic dynamics of each reaction channel, and consequently a quantitative characterization of the inherent sources of stochasticity in the system. By relying on the Sobol-Hoeffding decomposition, the reformulation enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the solution variance. Thus, by judiciously exploiting the inherent stochasticity of the system, one is able to quantify the variance-based sensitivities associated with individual reaction channels, as well as the importance of channel interactions. Implementation of the algorithms is illustrated in light of simulations of simplified systems, including the birth-death, Schlögl, and Michaelis-Menten models.

  16. Variance based OFDM frame synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Fedra


    Full Text Available The paper deals with a new frame synchronization scheme for OFDM systems and calculates the complexity of this scheme. The scheme is based on the computing of the detection window variance. The variance is computed in two delayed times, so a modified Early-Late loop is used for the frame position detection. The proposed algorithm deals with different variants of OFDM parameters including guard interval, cyclic prefix, and has good properties regarding the choice of the algorithm's parameters since the parameters may be chosen within a wide range without having a high influence on system performance. The verification of the proposed algorithm functionality has been performed on a development environment using universal software radio peripheral (USRP hardware.

  17. Effects of Community African Drumming on Generalised Anxiety in Teenagers


    David Akombo


    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of community music projects (CMPs), such as after-school African drumming circles, on academic performance and generalised anxiety in adolescents. Adolescents from a Junior High (7th, 8th, and 9th graders, age range from 12-14) in the State of Utah (USA) participated in the study. A one-sample t-test found a significant difference in reading scores (df(4) p=.004). A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the maths trait...

  18. The Multivariate Generalised von Mises Distribution: Inference and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarro, Alexandre Khae Wu; Frellsen, Jes; Turner, Richard


    . These models can leverage standard modelling tools (e.g. kernel functions and automatic relevance determination). Third, we show that the posterior distribution in these models is a mGvM distribution which enables development of an efficient variational free-energy scheme for performing approximate inference...... to the circular domain. First we introduce a new multivariate distribution over circular variables, called the multivariate Generalised von Mises (mGvM) distribution. This distribution can be constructed by restricting and renormalising a general multivariate Gaussian distribution to the unit hyper...

  19. Generalised extreme value statistics and sum of correlated variables


    Bertin, Eric; Clusel, Maxime


    To appear in J.Phys.A; We show that generalised extreme value statistics -the statistics of the k-th largest value among a large set of random variables- can be mapped onto a problem of random sums. This allows us to identify classes of non-identical and (generally) correlated random variables with a sum distributed according to one of the three (k-dependent) asymptotic distributions of extreme value statistics, namely the Gumbel, Frechet and Weibull distributions. These classes, as well as t...

  20. A Generalised Sweep-Line Method for Safety Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Mailund, Thomas


    notion of progress. This prevents the method from being used for many reactive systems. In this paper we generalise the sweep-line method such that it can be used for verifying safety properties of reactive systems exhibiting local progress. The basic idea is to relax the monotone notion of progress......The recently developed sweep-line method exploits progress present in many concurrent systems to explore the full state space of the system while storing only small fragments of the state space in memory at a time. A disadvantage of the sweep-line method is that it relies on a monotone and global...

  1. Generalised boundary terms for higher derivative theories of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teimouri, Ali; Talaganis, Spyridon; Edholm, James [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Lancaster University,North West Drive, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Mazumdar, Anupam [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Lancaster University,North West Drive, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen,9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)


    In this paper we wish to find the corresponding Gibbons-Hawking-York term for the most general quadratic in curvature gravity by using Coframe slicing within the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) decomposition of spacetime in four dimensions. In order to make sure that the higher derivative gravity is ghost and tachyon free at a perturbative level, one requires infinite covariant derivatives, which yields a generalised covariant infinite derivative theory of gravity. We will be exploring the boundary term for such a covariant infinite derivative theory of gravity.

  2. Monitoring structural change in variance


    Carsoule, F.; Franses, Ph.H.B.F.


    In this paper we propose a sequential testing approach for a structural change in the variance of a time series, which amounts to a procedure with a controlled asymptotic size as we repeat the test. Our approach builds on that taken in Chu, Stinchcombe and White (1996) for structural change in the parameters of a linear regression model. We provide simulation evidence to examine the empirical size and power of our procedure. We apply our approach to 14 weekly observed European exchange rates ...

  3. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance (United States)

    Greenhall, Charles


    The third-difference approach to modified Allan variance (MVAR) leads to a tractable formula for a measure of MVAR estimator confidence, the equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), in the presence of power-law phase noise. The effect of estimation stride on edf is tabulated. A simple approximation for edf is given, and its errors are tabulated. A theorem allowing conservative estimates of edf in the presence of compound noise processes is given.

  4. Antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and risk of violent crime. (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Zetterqvist, Johan; Larsson, Henrik; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul


    Antipsychotics and mood stabilisers are prescribed widely to patients with psychiatric disorders worldwide. Despite clear evidence for their efficacy in relapse prevention and symptom relief, their effect on some adverse outcomes, including the perpetration of violent crime, is unclear. We aimed to establish the effect of antipsychotics and mood stabilisers on the rate of violent crime committed by patients with psychiatric disorders in Sweden. We used linked Swedish national registers to study 82,647 patients who were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, their psychiatric diagnoses, and subsequent criminal convictions in 2006-09. We did within-individual analyses to compare the rate of violent criminality during the time that patients were prescribed these medications versus the rate for the same patients while they were not receiving the drugs to adjust for all confounders that remained constant within each participant during follow-up. The primary outcome was the occurrence of violent crime, according to Sweden's national crime register. In 2006-09, 40,937 men in Sweden were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, of whom 2657 (6·5%) were convicted of a violent crime during the study period. In the same period, 41,710 women were prescribed these drugs, of whom 604 (1·4 %) had convictions for violent crime. Compared with periods when participants were not on medication, violent crime fell by 45% in patients receiving antipsychotics (hazard ratio [HR] 0·55, 95% CI 0·47-0·64) and by 24% in patients prescribed mood stabilisers (0·76, 0·62-0·93). However, we identified potentially important differences by diagnosis-mood stabilisers were associated with a reduced rate of violent crime only in patients with bipolar disorder. The rate of violence reduction for antipsychotics remained between 22% and 29% in sensitivity analyses that used different outcomes (any crime, drug-related crime, less severe crime, and violent arrest), and was stronger in

  5. Mesonic states in the generalised Nambu-Jona-Lasinio theories (United States)

    Nefediev, A. V.; Ribeiro, J. E. F. T.


    For any Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of QCD with arbitrary nonlocal, instantaneous, quark current-current confining kernels, we use a generalised Bogoliubov technique to go beyond BCS level (in the large-NC limit) so as to explicitly build quark-antiquark compound operators for creating/annihilating mesons. In the Hamiltonian approach, the mesonic bound-state equations appear (from the generalised Bogoliubov transformation) as mass-gap-like equations which, in turn, ensure the absence, in the Hamiltonian, of mesonic Bogoliubov anomalous terms. We go further to demonstrate the one-to-one correspondence between Hamiltonian and Bethe-Salpeter approaches to non-local NJL-type models for QCD and give the corresponding "dictionary" necessary to "translate" the amplitudes built using the graphical Feynman rules to the terms of the Hamiltonian, and vice versa. We comment on the problem of multiple vacua existence in such type of models and argue that mesonic states in the theory should be prescribed to have an extra index — the index of the replica in which they are created. Then the completely diagonalised Hamiltonian should contain a sum over this new index. The method is proved to be general and valid for any instantaneous quark kernel.

  6. On the Full-Discrete Extended Generalised q-Difference Toda System (United States)

    Li, Chuanzhong; Meng, Anni


    In this paper, we construct a full-discrete integrable difference equation which is a full-discretisation of the generalised q-Toda equation. Meanwhile its soliton solutions are constructed to show its integrable property. Further the Lax pairs of an extended generalised full-discrete q-Toda hierarchy are also constructed. To show the integrability, the bi-Hamiltonian structure and tau symmetry of the extended full-discrete generalised q-Toda hierarchy are given.

  7. A diarsagermylene and a diarsastannylene stabilised by areneGe/Sn interactions. (United States)

    Izod, Keith; Evans, Peter; Waddell, Paul G


    The synthesis and structures of two new diarsatetrylenes {(Dipp) 2 As} 2 E are presented [E = Ge, Sn; Dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl]. The high barrier to planarisation of As prevents stabilisation by As-E π-interactions; however, areneGe/Sn interactions stabilise these compounds by up to 181.4 kJ mol -1 . This represents a new stabilisation mode for this class of compounds.

  8. Nordic regionalisation of a greenhouse-gas stabilisation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyser, Klaus; Rummukainen, Markku; Strandberg, Gustav


    The impact of a CO{sub 2} stabilisation on the Swedish climate is investigated with the regional climate model RCA3 driven by boundary conditions obtained from a global coupled climate system model (CCSM3). The global model has been forced with observed greenhouse gas concentrations from pre-industrial conditions until today's, and with an idealised further increase until the stabilisation level is reached. After stabilisation the model integration continues for another 150+ years in order to follow the delayed response of the climate system over a period of time. Results from the global and regional climate model are compared against observations and ECMWF reanalysis for 1961-1990. For this period, the global model is found to be too cold over Europe and with a zonal flow from the North Atlantic towards Europe that is too strong. The climate of the driving global model controls the climate of the regional model and the same deviations from one are thus inherited by the other. We therefore analyse the relative climate changes differences, or ratios, of climate variables between future's and today's climate. Compared to pre-industrial conditions, the global mean temperature changes by about 1.5 deg C as a result of the stabilisation at 450 ppmv equivalent CO{sub 2}. Averaged over Europe, the temperature change is slightly larger, and it is even larger for Sweden and Northern Europe. Annual mean precipitation for Europe is unaffected, but Sweden receives more precipitation under higher CO{sub 2} levels. The inter-annual and decadal variability of annual mean temperature and precipitation does not change with any significant degree. The changes in temperature and precipitation are not evenly distributed with the season: the largest warming and increased precipitation in Northern Europe occurs during winter months while the summer climate remains more or less unchanged. The opposite is true for the Mediterranean region where the precipitation decreases

  9. Palladium-catalysed arylation of sulfonamide stabilised enolates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zeevaart, JG


    Full Text Available -catalysed arylation of sulfonamide stabilised enolates Jacob G. Zeevaart,a Christopher J. Parkinsona,* and Charles B. de Koningb aCSIR Bio/Chemtek, Speciality and Fine Chemicals Programme, Modderfontein, South Africa bMolecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry... 11 6052601; fax: +27 11 6083200; e-mail: NHMe Cl I N SCN O O N SCN O O Ar ArI 10% Pd(PPh3)4 NaH ArI = 1 2b 2a Scheme 1. Palladiumcatalysed arylation of a b-cyanosulfonamide. Tetrahedron Letters 46 (2005) 1597?1599 Tetrahedron...

  10. A stabilised blue-violet LED for VPT photocathode evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Hobson, Peter R


    A highly stable blue-violet light source ( peak wavelength 430 nm) based on the IPL 10630PAL self-monitoring LED is described. A thermoelectric cooler has been used to stabilise the 10630PAL device and the external LED current-control electronics to +- 0.1% K. The light intensity was measured to be stable to +- 0.03% for five hours, the repeatability was +- 0.1% The output spectrum of the LED is a good match to the scintillation emission of PbWO4, and this source will be used to evaluate the spatial and angular uniformity of VPT photocathodes for the endcap calorimeter.

  11. Optimising, generalising and integrating educational practice using neuroscience (United States)

    Colvin, Robert


    Practical collaboration at the intersection of education and neuroscience research is difficult because the combined discipline encompasses both the activity of microscopic neurons and the complex social interactions of teachers and students in a classroom. Taking a pragmatic view, this paper discusses three education objectives to which neuroscience can be effectively applied: optimising, generalising and integrating instructional techniques. These objectives are characterised by: (1) being of practical importance; (2) building on existing education and cognitive research; and (3) being infeasible to address based on behavioural experiments alone. The focus of the neuroscientific aspect of collaborative research should be on the activity of the brain before, during and after learning a task, as opposed to performance of a task. The objectives are informed by literature that highlights possible pitfalls with educational neuroscience research, and are described with respect to the static and dynamic aspects of brain physiology that can be measured by current technology.

  12. Effects of the generalised uncertainty principle on quantum tunnelling (United States)

    Blado, Gardo; Prescott, Trevor; Jennings, James; Ceyanes, Joshuah; Sepulveda, Rafael


    In a previous paper (Blado et al 2014 Eur. J. Phys. 35 065011), we showed that quantum gravity effects can be discussed with only a background in non-relativistic quantum mechanics at the undergraduate level by looking at the effect of the generalised uncertainty principle (GUP) on the finite and infinite square wells. In this paper, we derive the GUP corrections to the tunnelling probability of simple quantum mechanical systems which are accessible to undergraduates (alpha decay, simple models of quantum cosmogenesis and gravitational tunnelling radiation) and which employ the WKB approximation, a topic discussed in undergraduate quantum mechanics classes. It is shown that the GUP correction increases the tunnelling probability in each of the examples discussed.

  13. Prolonged atrial fibrillation following generalised tonic-clonic seizures (United States)

    Surges, Rainer; Moskau, Susanna; Viebahn, Bettina; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Schwab, Joerg O.; Elger, Christian E.


    We describe two male patients with focal epilepsy in whom transitory episodes of atrial fibrillation (AF) lasting for up to 25 hours were detected in the context of generalised tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). In five of seven previously published cases of transitory AF associated with epileptic seizures, AF was also associated with GTCS, suggesting a pathophysiological link via GTCS-related increase in sympathetic tone and release of catecholamines. Importantly, AF increases the risk of thromboembolic cerebral ischemia, prompting the question of whether antithrombotic preventive treatment should be initiated in people with pharmacoresistant epilepsy and prolonged peri-ictal AF. Furthermore, AF can considerably impair cardiac output and may, via this mechanism, contribute to the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy following GTCS. PMID:22698381

  14. Visceral obesity and psychosocial stress: a generalised control theory model (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick


    The linking of control theory and information theory via the Data Rate Theorem and its generalisations allows for construction of necessary conditions statistical models of body mass regulation in the context of interaction with a complex dynamic environment. By focusing on the stress-related induction of central obesity via failure of HPA axis regulation, we explore implications for strategies of prevention and treatment. It rapidly becomes evident that individual-centred biomedical reductionism is an inadequate paradigm. Without mitigation of HPA axis or related dysfunctions arising from social pathologies of power imbalance, economic insecurity, and so on, it is unlikely that permanent changes in visceral obesity for individuals can be maintained without constant therapeutic effort, an expensive - and likely unsustainable - public policy.

  15. Generalised two target localisation using passive monopulse radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah


    The simultaneous lobing technique, also known as monopulse technique, has been widely used for fast target localisation and tracking purposes. Many works focused on accurately localising one or two targets lying within a narrow beam centred around the monopulse antenna boresight. In this study, a new approach is proposed, which uses the outputs of four antennas to rapidly localise two point targets present in the hemisphere. If both targets have the same elevation angle, the proposed scheme cannot detect them. To detect such targets, a second set of antennas is required. In this study, to detect two targets at generalised locations, the antenna array is divided into multiple overlapping sets each of four antennas. Two algorithms are proposed to combine the outputs from multiple sets and improve the detection performance. Simulation results show that the algorithm is able to localise both targets with <;2° mean square error in azimuth and elevation.

  16. Levetiracetam in idiopathic generalised epilepsy and porphyria cutanea tarda. (United States)

    Bilo, Leonilda; Meo, Roberta; Fulvia de Leva, Maria


    We report the case of a 50-year-old male patient with idiopathic generalised epilepsy and porphyria cutanea tarda. Valproic acid and phenobarbital monotherapy controlled seizures but exacerbated porphyric symptomatology, while clobazam, clonazepam and lamotrigine monotherapy were well tolerated as regards porphyric disturbances but did not completely control seizures. Tonic- clonic seizures were eventually controlled by a combination of clonazepam (9 mg/day) and lamotrigine (150 mg/day), but absences persisted and this treatment caused significant adverse effects consisting of sedation and memory disturbances. Levetiracetam monotherapy (3 g/day) was accompanied by complete control of seizures; memory disturbances and sedation also resolved, and no porphyrinogenetic activity of levetiracetam was observed. This is the first report of the safe use of levetiracetam in porphyria cutanea tarda.

  17. A Wavelet Perspective on the Allan Variance. (United States)

    Percival, Donald B


    The origins of the Allan variance trace back 50 years ago to two seminal papers, one by Allan (1966) and the other by Barnes (1966). Since then, the Allan variance has played a leading role in the characterization of high-performance time and frequency standards. Wavelets first arose in the early 1980s in the geophysical literature, and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) became prominent in the late 1980s in the signal processing literature. Flandrin (1992) briefly documented a connection between the Allan variance and a wavelet transform based upon the Haar wavelet. Percival and Guttorp (1994) noted that one popular estimator of the Allan variance-the maximal overlap estimator-can be interpreted in terms of a version of the DWT now widely referred to as the maximal overlap DWT (MODWT). In particular, when the MODWT is based on the Haar wavelet, the variance of the resulting wavelet coefficients-the wavelet variance-is identical to the Allan variance when the latter is multiplied by one-half. The theory behind the wavelet variance can thus deepen our understanding of the Allan variance. In this paper, we review basic wavelet variance theory with an emphasis on the Haar-based wavelet variance and its connection to the Allan variance. We then note that estimation theory for the wavelet variance offers a means of constructing asymptotically correct confidence intervals (CIs) for the Allan variance without reverting to the common practice of specifying a power-law noise type a priori. We also review recent work on specialized estimators of the wavelet variance that are of interest when some observations are missing (gappy data) or in the presence of contamination (rogue observations or outliers). It is a simple matter to adapt these estimators to become estimators of the Allan variance. Finally we note that wavelet variances based upon wavelets other than the Haar offer interesting generalizations of the Allan variance.

  18. The second critical density and anisotropic generalised condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beau


    Full Text Available In this letter we discuss the relevance of the 3D Perfect Bose gas (PBG condensation in extremely elongated vessels for the study of anisotropic condensate coherence and the "quasi-condensate". To this end we analyze the case of exponentially anisotropic (van den Berg boxes, when there are two critical densities ρc<ρm for a generalised Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC. Here ρc is the standard critical density for the PBG. We consider three examples of anisotropic geometry: slabs, squared beams and "cigars" to demonstrate that the "quasi-condensate" which exists in domain ρc<ρ<ρm is in fact the van den Berg-Lewis-Pulé generalised condensation (vdBLP-GC of the type III with no macroscopic occupation of any mode. We show that for the slab geometry the second critical density ρm is a threshold between quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D condensate and the three dimensional (3D regime when there is a coexistence of the "quasi-condensate" with the standard one-mode BEC. On the other hand, in the case of squared beams and "cigars" geometries, critical density ρm separates quasi-1D and 3D regimes. We calculate the value of the difference between ρc, ρm (and between corresponding critical temperatures Tm, Tc to show that the observed space anisotropy of the condensate coherence can be described by a critical exponent γ(T related to the anisotropic ODLRO. We compare our calculations with physical results for extremely elongated traps that manifest "quasi-condensate".

  19. Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann


    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs–Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1∕|q − 1|, with κ, q ∈ R both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel–Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs–Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs–Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the

  20. ProGolem: A System Based on Relative Minimal Generalisation (United States)

    Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José; Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Alireza

    Over the last decade Inductive Logic Programming systems have been dominated by use of top-down refinement search techniques. In this paper we re-examine the use of bottom-up approaches to the construction of logic programs. In particular, we explore variants of Plotkin's Relative Least General Generalisation (RLGG) which are based on subsumption relative to a bottom clause. With Plotkin's RLGG, clause length grows exponentially in the number of examples. By contrast, in the Golem system, the length of ij-determinate RLGG clauses were shown to be polynomially bounded for given values of i and j. However, the determinacy restrictions made Golem inapplicable in many key application areas, including the learning of chemical properties from atom and bond descriptions. In this paper we show that with Asymmetric Relative Minimal Generalisations (or ARMGs) relative to a bottom clause, clause length is bounded by the length of the initial bottom clause. ARMGs, therefore do not need the determinacy restrictions used in Golem. An algorithm is described for constructing ARMGs and this has been implemented in an ILP system called ProGolem which combines bottom-clause construction in Progol with a Golem control strategy which uses ARMG in place of determinate RLGG. ProGolem has been evaluated on several well-known ILP datasets. It is shown that ProGolem has a similar or better predictive accuracy and learning time compared to Golem on two determinate real-world applications where Golem was originally tested. Moreover, ProGolem was also tested on several non-determinate real-world applications where Golem is inapplicable. In these applications, ProGolem and Aleph have comparable times and accuracies. The experimental results also suggest that ProGolem significantly outperforms Aleph in cases where clauses in the target theory are long and complex.

  1. Comparative Assessment of Stabilised Polybutadiene Binder under Accelerated Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Cannaval Sbegue


    Full Text Available Polybutadiene elastomers are versatile materials, being employed at several applications from rocket propellant binder to adhesives and sealants. The elastomers derived from hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene are usually stabilised with antioxidants to prevent degradation. In this study, a comparative assessment among 2,2’-methylene-bis (4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol (AO2246, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT, p-phenylenediamine (pPDA, and triphenylphosphine (TPP regarding stabilisation of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder under accelerated ageing (six months at 65 °C was carried out. Evaluation of antioxidants effectiveness was examined through Oxidation Induction time, sol/gel extraction, swelling and mechanical testing, dynamic mechanical analysis, and mass variation measurement. AO2246 yielded the best performance, meanwhile BHT was poorly protective. TPP acted as prooxidant, causing a severe degradation of the binder, and pPDA was not manageable to be assessed due to the lower curing degree of the resulted polyurethane.

  2. Primary stabilisation for tail avulsion in 15 cats. (United States)

    Caraty, J; Hassoun, R; Meheust, P


    To evaluate the effects of a primary tail stabilisation technique in relieving pain and supporting nerve recovery in cats that have lost voluntary motor function and pain sensation in the tail without caudal nerve transection. Retrospective review of medical records and preoperative diagnostic tests, including clinical examination results and tail radiographs of cats suffering from tail avulsion with loss of pain perception in the tail between 2009 and 2015. Cats with open tail fracture, tail wounds that necessitated an amputation or caudal nerve root transection were excluded. Tail reconstruction was performed, after surgical exploration, with two nylon sutures. Fifteen cats were included, all of which had lost voluntary motor function in the tail and 8 of 15 were urinary incontinent. After surgery, 11 cats recovered voluntary tail function and pain sensation within 14 to 90 days (mean 39 days). Five of the eight previously incontinent cats recovered urinary continence within a month of surgery. The reported method of primary tail stabilisation is associated with recovery of lost function in the majority of cats presenting with tail avulsions, loss of pain sensation in the tail but without caudal nerve root transection. A comparison study is required to determine whether these results are superior to conservative management. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. Enactivism, Figural Apprehension and Knowledge Objectification: An Exploration of Figural Pattern Generalisation (United States)

    Samson, Duncan; Schafer, Marc


    This article explores the inter-relationship between the embodied processes of pattern generalisation and the visualisation of pictorial cues. A research framework is established for analysing pupils' multiple visualisations of figural cues in the context of pattern generalisation. The research framework centres on a novel combination of three…

  4. Abundance and generalisation in mutualistic networks: solving the chicken-and-egg dilemma. (United States)

    Fort, Hugo; Vázquez, Diego P; Lan, Boon Leong


    A frequent observation in plant-animal mutualistic networks is that abundant species tend to be more generalised, interacting with a broader range of interaction partners than rare species. Uncovering the causal relationship between abundance and generalisation has been hindered by a chicken-and-egg dilemma: is generalisation a by-product of being abundant, or does high abundance result from generalisation? Here, we analyse a database of plant-pollinator and plant-seed disperser networks, and provide strong evidence that the causal link between abundance and generalisation is uni-directional. Specifically, species appear to be generalists because they are more abundant, but the converse, that is that species become more abundant because they are generalists, is not supported by our analysis. Furthermore, null model analyses suggest that abundant species interact with many other species simply because they are more likely to encounter potential interaction partners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Time to stabilisation of the cervical spine when supported by a pillow in side lying. (United States)

    Hodkinson, Jennifer B; Gordon, Susan J; Crowther, Robert G; Buettner, Petra G


    Currently, there is little information to guide consumers, retailers and health professionals about the length of time it takes for the cervical spine to stabilise when resting on a pillow. The aim of this study was to determine the time required to achieve stabilisation of the cervical spine when supported by a polyester pillow and innerspring mattress in side lying. Twenty-four asymptomatic females rested in a standardised side lying position during the capture of 3D data from markers placed over cervical landmarks. Time to stabilisation was assessed for each axis, each landmark and globally for each participant. A large variation in global stabilisation times was identified between participants; however, 70.8% of participants had stabilised by 15 min or earlier. Fifteen minutes is the best estimate of the time to stabilisation of the cervical spine for young females in a side lying position when resting on a polyester pillow. This study aimed to determine the time required to achieve stabilisation of the cervical spine when supported by a polyester pillow and innerspring mattress in side lying. Through a laboratory study using 3D VICON® motion analysis technology, we identified that 70.8% of participants had stabilised by 15 min.

  6. Generalized analysis of molecular variance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Nievergelt


    Full Text Available Many studies in the fields of genetic epidemiology and applied population genetics are predicated on, or require, an assessment of the genetic background diversity of the individuals chosen for study. A number of strategies have been developed for assessing genetic background diversity. These strategies typically focus on genotype data collected on the individuals in the study, based on a panel of DNA markers. However, many of these strategies are either rooted in cluster analysis techniques, and hence suffer from problems inherent to the assignment of the biological and statistical meaning to resulting clusters, or have formulations that do not permit easy and intuitive extensions. We describe a very general approach to the problem of assessing genetic background diversity that extends the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA strategy introduced by Excoffier and colleagues some time ago. As in the original AMOVA strategy, the proposed approach, termed generalized AMOVA (GAMOVA, requires a genetic similarity matrix constructed from the allelic profiles of individuals under study and/or allele frequency summaries of the populations from which the individuals have been sampled. The proposed strategy can be used to either estimate the fraction of genetic variation explained by grouping factors such as country of origin, race, or ethnicity, or to quantify the strength of the relationship of the observed genetic background variation to quantitative measures collected on the subjects, such as blood pressure levels or anthropometric measures. Since the formulation of our test statistic is rooted in multivariate linear models, sets of variables can be related to genetic background in multiple regression-like contexts. GAMOVA can also be used to complement graphical representations of genetic diversity such as tree diagrams (dendrograms or heatmaps. We examine features, advantages, and power of the proposed procedure and showcase its flexibility by

  7. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim


    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero, whereas...... the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the shallow ponds....

  8. Asynchrony among local communities stabilises ecosystem function of metacommunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcox, Kevin R.; Tredennick, Andrew T.; Koerner, Sally E.


    across five continents to assess mechanisms of temporal stability across spatial scales. We assessed how asynchrony (i.e. different units responding dissimilarly through time) of species and local communities stabilised metacommunity ecosystem function. Asynchrony of species increased stability of local......Temporal stability of ecosystem functioning increases the predictability and reliability of ecosystem services, and understanding the drivers of stability across spatial scales is important for land management and policy decisions. We used species-level abundance data from 62 plant communities...... communities, and asynchrony among local communities enhanced metacommunity stability by a wide range of magnitudes (1–315%); this range was positively correlated with the size of the metacommunity. Additionally, asynchronous responses among local communities were linked with species’ populations fluctuating...

  9. Stabilisation of Collagen Sponges by Glutaraldehyde Vapour Crosslinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Y. Peng


    Full Text Available Glutaraldehyde is a well-recognised reagent for crosslinking and stabilising collagens and other protein-based materials, including gelatine. In some cases, however, the use of solutions can disrupt the structure of the material, for example, by causing rapid dispersion or distortions from surface interactions. An alternative approach that has been explored in a number of individual cases is the use of glutaraldehyde vapour. In this study, the effectiveness of a range of different glutaraldehyde concentrations in the reservoir providing vapour, from 5% to 25% (w/v, has been explored at incubation times from 5 h to 48 h at room temperature. These data show the effectiveness of the glutaraldehyde vapour approach for crosslinking collagen and show that materials with defined, intermediate stability could be obtained, for example, to control resorption rates in vivo.

  10. Effects of Community African Drumming on Generalised Anxiety in Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Akombo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the effects of community music projects (CMPs, such as after-school African drumming circles, on academic performance and generalised anxiety in adolescents. Adolescents from a Junior High (7th, 8th, and 9th graders, age range from 12-14 in the State of Utah (USA participated in the study. A one-sample t-test found a significant difference in reading scores (df(4 p=.004. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the maths trait anxiety score pre-intervention and the total state anxiety score pre-test (df(4 p=.033. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the reading trait anxiety score post-intervention and the total state anxiety score post-test (df(4 p=.030. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of community music such as drumming for reducing anxiety and also for improving academic performance in adolescents. CMPs are recommended as a non-invasive intervention modality for adolescents.

  11. Interpretation of human pointing by African elephants: generalisation and rationality. (United States)

    Smet, Anna F; Byrne, Richard W


    Factors influencing the abilities of different animals to use cooperative social cues from humans are still unclear, in spite of long-standing interest in the topic. One of the few species that have been found successful at using human pointing is the African elephant (Loxodonta africana); despite few opportunities for learning about pointing, elephants follow a pointing gesture in an object-choice task, even when the pointing signal and experimenter's body position are in conflict, and when the gesture itself is visually subtle. Here, we show that the success of captive African elephants at using human pointing is not restricted to situations where the pointing signal is sustained until the time of choice: elephants followed human pointing even when the pointing gesture was withdrawn before they had responded to it. Furthermore, elephants rapidly generalised their response to a type of social cue they were unlikely to have seen before: pointing with the foot. However, unlike young children, they showed no sign of evaluating the 'rationality' of this novel pointing gesture according to its visual context: that is, whether the experimenter's hands were occupied or not.

  12. Sketching the pion's valence-quark generalised parton distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mezrag


    Full Text Available In order to learn effectively from measurements of generalised parton distributions (GPDs, it is desirable to compute them using a framework that can potentially connect empirical information with basic features of the Standard Model. We sketch an approach to such computations, based upon a rainbow-ladder (RL truncation of QCD's Dyson–Schwinger equations and exemplified via the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD, Hπv(x,ξ,t. Our analysis focuses primarily on ξ=0, although we also capitalise on the symmetry-preserving nature of the RL truncation by connecting Hπv(x,ξ=±1,t with the pion's valence-quark parton distribution amplitude. We explain that the impulse-approximation used hitherto to define the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD is generally invalid owing to omission of contributions from the gluons which bind dressed-quarks into the pion. A simple correction enables us to identify a practicable improvement to the approximation for Hπv(x,0,t, expressed as the Radon transform of a single amplitude. Therewith we obtain results for Hπv(x,0,t and the associated impact-parameter dependent distribution, qπv(x,|b→⊥|, which provide a qualitatively sound picture of the pion's dressed-quark structure at a hadronic scale. We evolve the distributions to a scale ζ=2 GeV, so as to facilitate comparisons in future with results from experiment or other nonperturbative methods.

  13. Viability of Variable Generalised Chaplygin gas - a thermodynamical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, D


    The viability of the variable generalised Chaplygin gas (VGCG) model is analysed from the standpoint of its thermodynamical stability criteria with the help of an equation of state, $P = - \\frac{B}{\\rho^{\\alpha}}$, where $B = B_{0}V^{-\\frac{n}{3}}$. Here $B_{0}$ is assumed to be a positive universal constant, $n$ is a constant parameter and $V$ is the volume of the cosmic fluid. We get the interesting result that if the well-known stability conditions of a fluid is adhered to, the values of $n$ are constrained to be negative definite to make $ \\left(\\frac{\\partial P}{\\partial V}\\right)_{S} <0$ \\& $ \\left(\\frac{\\partial P}{\\partial V}\\right)_{T} <0$ throughout the evolution. Moreover the positivity of thermal capacity at constant volume $c_{V}$ as also the validity of the third law of thermodynamics are ensured in this case. For the particular case $n = 0$ the effective equation of state reduces to $\\Lambda$CDM model in the late stage of the universe while for $n <0$ it mimics a phantom-like cosmo...

  14. Number-based visual generalisation in the honeybee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J Gross

    Full Text Available Although the numerical abilities of many vertebrate species have been investigated in the scientific literature, there are few convincing accounts of invertebrate numerical competence. Honeybees, Apis mellifera, by virtue of their other impressive cognitive feats, are a prime candidate for investigations of this nature. We therefore used the well-established delayed match-to-sample paradigm, to test the limits of honeybees' ability to match two visual patterns solely on the basis of the shared number of elements in the two patterns. Using a y-maze, we found that bees can not only differentiate between patterns containing two and three elements, but can also use this prior knowledge to differentiate three from four, without any additional training. However, bees trained on the two versus three task could not distinguish between higher numbers, such as four versus five, four versus six, or five versus six. Control experiments confirmed that the bees were not using cues such as the colour of the exact configuration of the visual elements, the combined area or edge length of the elements, or illusory contours formed by the elements. To our knowledge, this is the first report of number-based visual generalisation by an invertebrate.

  15. Revealing a brain network endophenotype in families with idiopathic generalised epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmida A Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE has a genetic basis. The mechanism of seizure expression is not fully known, but is assumed to involve large-scale brain networks. We hypothesised that abnormal brain network properties would be detected using EEG in patients with IGE, and would be manifest as a familial endophenotype in their unaffected first-degree relatives. We studied 117 participants: 35 patients with IGE, 42 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 40 normal controls, using scalp EEG. Graph theory was used to describe brain network topology in five frequency bands for each subject. Frequency bands were chosen based on a published Spectral Factor Analysis study which demonstrated these bands to be optimally robust and independent. Groups were compared, using Bonferroni correction to account for nonindependent measures and multiple groups. Degree distribution variance was greater in patients and relatives than controls in the 6-9 Hz band (p = 0.0005, p = 0.0009 respectively. Mean degree was greater in patients than healthy controls in the 6-9 Hz band (p = 0.0064. Clustering coefficient was higher in patients and relatives than controls in the 6-9 Hz band (p = 0.0025, p = 0.0013. Characteristic path length did not differ between groups. No differences were found between patients and unaffected relatives. These findings suggest brain network topology differs between patients with IGE and normal controls, and that some of these network measures show similar deviations in patients and in unaffected relatives who do not have epilepsy. This suggests brain network topology may be an inherited endophenotype of IGE, present in unaffected relatives who do not have epilepsy, as well as in affected patients. We propose that abnormal brain network topology may be an endophenotype of IGE, though not in itself sufficient to cause epilepsy.

  16. Generalised Multi-sequence Shift-Register Synthesis using Module Minimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde


    We show how to solve a generalised version of the Multi-sequence Linear Feedback Shift-Register (MLFSR) problem using minimisation of free modules over F[x]. We show how two existing algorithms for minimising such modules run particularly fast on these instances. Furthermore, we show how one...... of them can be made even faster for our use. With our modelling of the problem, classical algebraic results tremendously simplify arguing about the algorithms. For the non-generalised MLFSR, these algorithms are as fast as what is currently known. We then use our generalised MLFSR to give a new fast...

  17. The production of hydrotalcite from magnesite ore as non-toxic heat stabiliser for polyvinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van der Laan


    Full Text Available In recent years polyvinyl chloride (PVC processors had to submit to worldwide pressure to convert to environmentally friendly stabilisers such as hydrotalcite (HT, since most of the heat stabilisers currently in use contain heavy metals such as lead, cadmium or barium – these being highly toxic. The presently used HT production process is, however, very expensive as it involves the recovering of magnesium from seawater magnesia. The purpose of this study was to prove that it is indeed possible to produce cost effective and non-toxic HT from an alternative source. During this study the costing and heat stabilising ability of the hydrotalcite produced from magnesite was compared to that of commercially available heat stabilisers. The effect of the pre-mixing process, as well as the influence of particle size distribution was also investigated. A cost comparative and stabilising efficiency study indicated the cost effectiveness of HT produced from magnesite ore, in comparison with other commercially available stabilisers. The use of HT as produced from magnesite ore would indeed assist in the worldwide changeover to environmentally friendly stabilisers.

  18. Noise variance estimation for Kalman filter (United States)

    Beniak, Ryszard; Gudzenko, Oleksandr; Pyka, Tomasz


    In this paper, we propose an algorithm that evaluates noise variance with a numerical integration method. For noise variance estimation, we use Krogh method with a variable integration step. In line with common practice, we limit our study to fourth-order method. First, we perform simulation tests for randomly generated signals, related to the transition state and steady state. Next, we formulate three methodologies (research hypotheses) of noise variance estimation, and then compare their efficiency.

  19. Influence of Family Structure on Variance Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon; Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Peter

    Partitioning genetic variance by sets of randomly sampled genes for complex traits in D. melanogaster and B. taurus, has revealed that population structure can affect variance decomposition. In fruit flies, we found that a high likelihood ratio is correlated with a high proportion of explained ge...... capturing pure noise. Therefore it is necessary to use both criteria, high likelihood ratio in favor of a more complex genetic model and proportion of genetic variance explained, to identify biologically important gene groups...

  20. The Generalised Ecosystem Modelling Approach in Radiological Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, Richard


    An independent modelling capability is required by SSI in order to evaluate dose assessments carried out in Sweden by, amongst others, SKB. The main focus is the evaluation of the long-term radiological safety of radioactive waste repositories for both spent fuel and low-level radioactive waste. To meet the requirement for an independent modelling tool for use in biosphere dose assessments, SSI through its modelling team CLIMB commissioned the development of a new model in 2004, a project to produce an integrated model of radionuclides in the landscape. The generalised ecosystem modelling approach (GEMA) is the result. GEMA is a modular system of compartments representing the surface environment. It can be configured, through water and solid material fluxes, to represent local details in the range of ecosystem types found in the past, present and future Swedish landscapes. The approach is generic but fine tuning can be carried out using local details of the surface drainage system. The modular nature of the modelling approach means that GEMA modules can be linked to represent large scale surface drainage features over an extended domain in the landscape. System change can also be managed in GEMA, allowing a flexible and comprehensive model of the evolving landscape to be constructed. Environmental concentrations of radionuclides can be calculated and the GEMA dose pathway model provides a means of evaluating the radiological impact of radionuclide release to the surface environment. This document sets out the philosophy and details of GEMA and illustrates the functioning of the model with a range of examples featuring the recent CLIMB review of SKB's SR-Can assessment

  1. Generalised ballooning theory of two-dimensional tokamak modes (United States)

    Abdoul, P. A.; Dickinson, D.; Roach, C. M.; Wilson, H. R.


    In this work, using solutions from a local gyrokinetic flux-tube code combined with higher order ballooning theory, a new analytical approach is developed to reconstruct the global linear mode structure with associated global mode frequency. In addition to the isolated mode (IM), which usually peaks on the outboard mid-plane, the higher order ballooning theory has also captured other types of less unstable global modes: (a) the weakly asymmetric ballooning theory (WABT) predicts a mixed mode (MM) that undergoes a small poloidal shift away from the outboard mid-plane, (b) a relatively more stable general mode (GM) balloons on the top (or bottom) of the tokamak plasma. In this paper, an analytic approach is developed to combine these disconnected analytical limits into a single generalised ballooning theory. This is used to investigate how an IM behaves under the effect of sheared toroidal flow. For small values of flow an IM initially converts into a MM where the results of WABT are recaptured, and eventually, as the flow increases, the mode asymptotically becomes a GM on the top (or bottom) of the plasma. This may be an ingredient in models for understanding why in some experimental scenarios, instead of large edge localised modes (ELMs), small ELMs are observed. Finally, our theory can have other important consequences, especially for calculations involving Reynolds stress driven intrinsic rotation through the radial asymmetry in the global mode structures. Understanding the intrinsic rotation is significant because external torque in a plasma the size of ITER is expected to be relatively low.

  2. On matrix stabilisation of d- and f-transition metal ions in unstable oxidation states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, Yurii M [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The state-of-the-art in matrix stabilisation of d- and f-transition metal ions in unstable oxidation states is analysed. Main aspects of this problem concerning the genealogy of appropriate matrix systems are classified. Relevant examples are given and the data that contradict the scheme proposed are discussed. The thermodynamics of the matrix stabilisation effect is considered using the concept of isomorphic miscibility. The influence of defects and non-equilibrium on the matrix stabilisation effect is discussed. The problem of identification of the oxidation states in matrix systems is examined and various types of matrix systems are considered.

  3. State-feedback stabilisation for stochastic non-holonomic mobile robots with uncertain visual servoing parameters (United States)

    Zhang, Dongkai; Wang, Chaoli; Wei, Guoliang; Zhang, Hengjun; Chen, Hua


    The stabilising problem of stochastic non-holonomic mobile robots with uncertain parameters based on visual servoing is addressed in this paper. The model of non-holonomic mobile robots based on visual servoing is extended to the stochastic case, where their forward velocity and angular velocity are both subject to some stochastic disturbances. Based on backstepping technique, state-feedback stabilising controllers are designed for stochastic non-holonomic mobile robots. A switching control strategy for the original system is presented. The proposed controllers guarantee that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stabilised at the zero equilibrium point in probability.

  4. Utility of natural generalised inverse technique in the interpretation of dyke structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.M.M.; Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, P.R.; Lakshminarayana, S; Subrahmanyam, A.S; Murthy, K.S

    been performed to build Generalised Inverse Operator (GIO). This GIO is operated on the observed anomaly (with reference to the calculated) to yield improved model parameters. Data and model resolution matrices are computed to check the correctness...

  5. Emotion recognition training using composite faces generalises across identities but not all emotions. (United States)

    Dalili, Michael N; Schofield-Toloza, Lawrence; Munafò, Marcus R; Penton-Voak, Ian S


    Many cognitive bias modification (CBM) tasks use facial expressions of emotion as stimuli. Some tasks use unique facial stimuli, while others use composite stimuli, given evidence that emotion is encoded prototypically. However, CBM using composite stimuli may be identity- or emotion-specific, and may not generalise to other stimuli. We investigated the generalisability of effects using composite faces in two experiments. Healthy adults in each study were randomised to one of four training conditions: two stimulus-congruent conditions, where same faces were used during all phases of the task, and two stimulus-incongruent conditions, where faces of the opposite sex (Experiment 1) or faces depicting another emotion (Experiment 2) were used after the modification phase. Our results suggested that training effects generalised across identities. However, our results indicated only partial generalisation across emotions. These findings suggest effects obtained using composite stimuli may extend beyond the stimuli used in the task but remain emotion-specific.

  6. On Jackson's theorem for the modulus of smoothness determined by a nonsymmetric generalised shift operator


    Potapov, Mikhail K.; Berisha, Faton M.


    In this paper a class of asymmetrical operators of generalised translation is introduced, for each of them generalised moduli of smoothness are introduced, and Jackson's and its converse theorems are proved for those moduli. ----- V eto\\v{i} rabote rassmatrivaetsya klass sesimmetrichnykh operatorov obobshchenogo sdviga, dlya kazhdogo iz nikh vvoditsya obobshchennye moduli gladkosti i dlya nikh dokazybaetsya teorma Dzheksona i teorema, obratnaya e\\v{i}.

  7. 40 CFR 142.41 - Variance request. (United States)


    ... Section 1415(a) of the Act § 142.41 Variance request. A supplier of water may request the granting of a... enforcement responsibility by submitting a request for a variance in writing to the Administrator. Suppliers... and evidence of the best available treatment technology and techniques. (2) Economic and legal factors...

  8. Nonlinear Epigenetic Variance: Review and Simulations (United States)

    Kan, Kees-Jan; Ploeger, Annemie; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.; Dolan, Conor V.; van Der Maas, Han L. J.


    We present a review of empirical evidence that suggests that a substantial portion of phenotypic variance is due to nonlinear (epigenetic) processes during ontogenesis. The role of such processes as a source of phenotypic variance in human behaviour genetic studies is not fully appreciated. In addition to our review, we present simulation studies…

  9. Influence of Family Structure on Variance Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon; Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Peter

    Partitioning genetic variance by sets of randomly sampled genes for complex traits in D. melanogaster and B. taurus, has revealed that population structure can affect variance decomposition. In fruit flies, we found that a high likelihood ratio is correlated with a high proportion of explained...

  10. Variance Risk Premia on Stocks and Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Philippe; Sabtchevsky, Petar; Vedolin, Andrea

    : First, exposure to bond market volatility is strongly priced with a Sharpe ratio of -1.8, 20% higher than what is observed in the equity market. Second, while there is strong co-movement between equity and bond market variance risk, there are distinct periods when the bond variance risk premium...... is different from the equity variance risk premium. Third, the conditional correlation between stock and bond market variance risk premium switches sign often and ranges between -60% and +90%. We then show that these stylized facts pose a challenge to standard consumption-based asset pricing models.......Investors in fixed income markets are willing to pay a very large premium to be hedged against shocks in expected volatility and the size of this premium can be studied through variance swaps. Using thirty years of option and high-frequency data, we document the following novel stylized facts...

  11. Portfolio optimization with mean-variance model (United States)

    Hoe, Lam Weng; Siew, Lam Weng


    Investors wish to achieve the target rate of return at the minimum level of risk in their investment. Portfolio optimization is an investment strategy that can be used to minimize the portfolio risk and can achieve the target rate of return. The mean-variance model has been proposed in portfolio optimization. The mean-variance model is an optimization model that aims to minimize the portfolio risk which is the portfolio variance. The objective of this study is to construct the optimal portfolio using the mean-variance model. The data of this study consists of weekly returns of 20 component stocks of FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (FBMKLCI). The results of this study show that the portfolio composition of the stocks is different. Moreover, investors can get the return at minimum level of risk with the constructed optimal mean-variance portfolio.

  12. Refractory generalised convulsive status epilepticus : a guide to treatment. (United States)

    Kälviäinen, Reetta; Eriksson, Kai; Parviainen, Ilkka


    The patient with status epilepticus has continuous or rapidly repeating seizures. Generalised convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is the most common form of the disorder and is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical management. Status epilepticus that does not respond to first-line benzodiazepines (lorazepam or diazepam) or to second-line antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin/fosphenytoin, phenobarbital or valproate) is usually considered refractory and requires more aggressive treatment. The optimal treatment of refractory GCSE has not been defined, but patients should be treated in an intensive care unit, as artificial ventilation and haemodynamic support are required. Invasive haemodynamic monitoring is often necessary and EEG monitoring is essential. The drug treatment of refractory GCSE involves general anaesthesia with continuous intravenous anaesthetics given in doses that abolish all clinical and electrographic epileptic activity, often requiring sedation to the point of burst suppression on the EEG. Barbiturate anaesthetics, pentobarbital in the US and thiopental sodium in Europe and Australia, are the most frequently used agents and are highly effective for refractory GCSE both in children and adults. Indeed, they remain the only way to stop seizure activity with certainty in severely refractory cases. Other options are midazolam for adults and children and propofol for adults only.Regardless of the drug selected, intravenous fluids and vasopressors are usually required to treat hypotension. Once seizures have been controlled for 12-24 hours, continuous intravenous therapy should be gradually tapered off if the drug being administered is midazolam or propofol. Gradual tapering is probably not necessary with pentobarbital or thiopental sodium. Continuous EEG monitoring is required during high-dose treatment and while therapy is gradually withdrawn. During withdrawal of anaesthetic therapy, intravenous phenytoin/fosphenytoin or valproate should

  13. Stabiliser Fault Emergency Control using Reconfiguration to Preserve Power System Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Andreas Søndergaard; Richter, Jan H.; Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba


    Stabiliser faults in multi-machine power systems are examined in this paper where fault-masking and system reconguration of the nonlinear system is obtained using a virtual actuator approach. Phasor Measurement Units, which can be integrated in wide-area transmission grids to improve...... the performance of power system stabilisers, are utilised when reconguring remaining stabilisers after one has been inoperable by a local failure. A stabilitypreserving reconguration is designed using absolute stability results for Lure type systems: The calculation of the virtual actuator that relies...... on a solution of a linear matrix inequality (LMI) is detailed in the paper. Simulation results of a benchmark transmission system show the ability of the fault-tolerant reconguration strategy to maintain wide-area stability of a power system despite failure in a stabiliser....

  14. Dynamic quantised feedback stabilisation of discrete-time linear system with white noise input (United States)

    Ji, Mingming; He, Xing; Zhang, Weidong


    In this paper, we mainly focus on the problem of quantised feedback stabilisation of a stochastic discrete-time linear system with white noise input. The dynamic quantiser is used here. The stability of the system under state quantisation and input quantisation is analysed in detail, respectively. Both the convergence of the state's mean and the boundedness of the state's covariance matrix norm should be considered when analysing its stability. It is shown that for the two situations of the state quantisation and the input quantisation, if the system without noise input can be stabilised by a linear feedback law, it must be stabilised by the dynamic quantised feedback control policy. The sufficient conditions that the dynamic quantiser should satisfy are given. Using the results obtained in this paper, one can test whether the stochastic system is stabilisable or not. Numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the results.

  15. On Fluxed Instantons and Moduli Stabilisation in IIB Orientifolds and F-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Thomas W; Palti, Eran; Weigand, Timo


    We study the superpotential induced by Euclidean D3-brane instantons carrying instanton flux, with special emphasis on its significance for the stabilisation of Kahler moduli and Neveu-Schwarz axions in Type IIB orientifolds. Quite generally, once a chiral observable sector is included in the compactification, arising on intersecting D7-branes with world-volume flux, resulting charged instanton zero modes prevent a class of instantons from participating in moduli stabilisation. We show that instanton flux on Euclidean D3-branes can remove these extra zero modes and helps in reinstating full moduli stabilisation within a geometric regime. We comment also on the F-theoretic description of this effect of alleviating the general tension between moduli stabilisation and chirality. In addition we propose an alternative solution to this problem based on dressing the instantons with charged matter fields which is unique to F-theory and cannot be realised in the weak coupling limit.

  16. Compositional ripening of particle- and surfactant-stabilised emulsions: a comparison. (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Holt, Benjamin L; Kuc, Olivia; Beaussoubre, Pascal; Wong, Kenneth


    When beta-ionone-in-water emulsions are mixed with squalane-in-water emulsions, the slightly water-soluble, mobile beta-ionone undergoes mass transfer to the drops of highly water-insoluble, immobile oil squalane. We have investigated this compositional ripening process for emulsions stabilised either by particles or by surfactant molecules. For particle-stabilised emulsions, the swelling of the squalane-containing drops triggers droplet coalescence which causes the final swollen droplet radius to be proportional to the swelling ratio to the power of 1. Surfactant-stabilised emulsions swell without coalescence which causes the final droplet radius to be proportional to the swelling ratio to the power 1/3. Addition of excess, non-adsorbed particles to the particle-stabilised emulsions suppresses the swelling-triggered coalescence and causes a switchover from particle to surfactant behaviour.

  17. Gravel road stabilisation of Ehnsjoevaegen, Hallstavik[Using fly ash]; Skogsbilvaegsrenovering av Ehnsjoevaegen, Hallstavik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Svedberg, Bo [Ecoloop, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Fly ash in geotechnical applications has stabilising, isolating, low permeability and hardening effect. Fly ash can be used in road constructions with low bearing capacity, as well as on top cover material on landfills. The aim of the project was to build a road section with fly ash stabilised gravel, based on laboratory studies, and follow up technical and environmental aspect during the first year after stabilisation. The overall aim of this project was to evaluate fly ash from Holmen Paper, Hallstavik, from technical and environmental point of view in a gravel road construction. A gravel road, Ehnsjoevaegen, was stabilised with fly ash during autumn 2004. This road was a low priority road. The fly ash stabilised road section was 1300 m long. Gravel from the road Ehnsjoevaegen was stabilised and investigated in a laboratory study. Leachability of metals and geotechnical aspects were investigated. The laboratory study showed that fly ash stabilised gravel has high shear strength, however its thawing resistance is not fully acceptable. Additives of cement or merit are needed in order to increase its thawing resistance. The actual road section is not going to be used during thawing period and no additives were used. The test road is divided into different sections including a reference section. The road stabilisation work was conducted with gravel transported to Ehnsjoevaegen from off site and not with gravel from the site. Fly ash was tipped off on a levelled road, followed by tipping of gravel. Mixing fly ash and gravel was done on site by a road scraper. After the mixing the road was gravelled with 0,1 m graded gravel. In this project the fly ash had low water content. In order to get optimal compaction water was added from a tanker supplying water before compacted with a compactor. Results from the pilot test shows that fly ash stabilised gravel can be tipped, mixed and compacted effectively. Tipping can be optimised if fly ash and gravel is mixed in a mixer

  18. Three-electron two-centred bonds and the stabilisation of cationic sulfur radicals


    Hendon, Christopher H.; Carbery, David R.; Walsh, Aron


    Electronic communication in biological systems is fundamental to understanding protein signalling and electron hopping pathways. Frequently studied examples are cationic radical methionine and its functional derivatives. These systems are understood to be stabilised by a direct ?three-electron two-centred? bond. We demonstrate for methionine and a series of cationic radical methionine analogues that long-range multi-centred indirect stabilisation occurs, which cannot be attributed to three-el...

  19. Stabilisation of the Unstable Fractured Zygomatic Arch with a Ballooned Foley Catheter


    Lee, D. G.


    The zygomatic arch fracture is one of the most common facial bone fractures. Especially the isolated zygomatic arch fracture is usually repaired via Gillies’ approach. But in the case of unstable zygomatic arch fracture, we need an additional step for stabilising the unstable zygomatic arch segment after repositioning the fractured segment. For the stabilising method we use the ballooned Foley catheter on the medial side of the zygomatic arch in the zygomaticotemporal fossa. This method is of...

  20. Portfolio optimization using median-variance approach (United States)

    Wan Mohd, Wan Rosanisah; Mohamad, Daud; Mohamed, Zulkifli


    Optimization models have been applied in many decision-making problems particularly in portfolio selection. Since the introduction of Markowitz's theory of portfolio selection, various approaches based on mathematical programming have been introduced such as mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, mean-variance-skewness and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) mainly to maximize return and minimize risk. However most of the approaches assume that the distribution of data is normal and this is not generally true. As an alternative, in this paper, we employ the median-variance approach to improve the portfolio optimization. This approach has successfully catered both types of normal and non-normal distribution of data. With this actual representation, we analyze and compare the rate of return and risk between the mean-variance and the median-variance based portfolio which consist of 30 stocks from Bursa Malaysia. The results in this study show that the median-variance approach is capable to produce a lower risk for each return earning as compared to the mean-variance approach.

  1. Grammatical and lexical variance in English

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Randolph


    Written by one of Britain's most distinguished linguists, this book is concerned with the phenomenon of variance in English grammar and vocabulary across regional, social, stylistic and temporal space.

  2. Bias/Variance Analysis for Relational Domains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neville, Jennifer; Jensen, David


    .... To date, the impact of inference error on model performance has not been investigated. In this paper, we propose a new bias/variance framework that decomposes loss into errors due to both the learning and inference process...

  3. Importance Sampling Variance Reduction in GRESS ATMOSIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, Daniel Tyler [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This document is intended to introduce the importance sampling method of variance reduction to a Geant4 user for application to neutral particle Monte Carlo transport through the atmosphere, as implemented in GRESS ATMOSIM.

  4. The medial pterygoid muscle: a stabiliser of horizontal jaw movement. (United States)

    Chen, H; Whittle, T; Gal, J A; Murray, G M; Klineberg, I J


    There is limited information of the normal function of the human medial pterygoid muscle (MPt). The aims were to determine whether (i) the MPt is active throughout horizontal jaw movements with the teeth apart and (ii) whether single motor units (SMUs) are active during horizontal and opening-closing jaw movements. Intramuscular electrodes were placed in the right MPt of 18 participants who performed five teeth-apart tasks: (i) postural position, (ii) ipsilateral (i.e. right) jaw movement, (iii) contralateral movement, (iv) protrusive movement and (v) opening-closing movement. Movement tasks were guided by a target and were divided into BEFORE, OUT, HOLDING, RETURN and AFTER phases according to the movement trajectories recorded by a jaw tracking system. Increased EMG activity was consistently found in the OUT, HOLDING and RETURN phases of the contralateral and protrusive movement tasks. An increased RETURN phase activity in the ipsilateral task indicates an important role for the MPt in the contralateral force vector. Of the 14 SMUs active in the opening-closing task, 64% were also active in at least one horizontal task. There were tonically active SMUs at the postural jaw position in 44% of participants. These new data point to an important role for the MPt in the fine control of low forces as required for stabilisation of vertical mandibular position not only to maintain postural position, but also throughout horizontal jaw movements with the teeth apart. These findings provide baseline information for future investigations of the possible role of this muscle in oro-facial pain conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Removal of organic micropollutants in waste stabilisation ponds: A review. (United States)

    Gruchlik, Yolanta; Linge, Kathryn; Joll, Cynthia


    As climate change and water scarcity continue to be of concern, reuse of treated wastewater is an important water management strategy in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries and remote communities. Many countries, especially in remote regional areas, use waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) to treat domestic wastewater for a variety of end uses, including using the treated wastewater for irrigation of public spaces (e.g. parks and ovals) or for crop irrigation. Thus, it is vital that the resulting effluent meets the required quality for beneficial reuse. In this paper, both the performance of WSPs in the removal of organic micropollutants, and the mechanisms of removal, are reviewed. The performance of WSPs in the removal of organic micropollutants was found to be highly variable and influenced by many factors, such as the type and configuration of the ponds, the operational parameters of the treatment plant, the wastewater quality, environmental factors (e.g. sunlight, temperature, redox conditions and pH) and the characteristics of the pollutant. The removal of organic micropollutants from WSPs has been attributed to biodegradation, photodegradation and sorption processes, the majority of which occur in the initial treatment stages (e.g. in the anaerobic or facultative ponds). Out of the many hundreds of organic micropollutants identified in wastewater, only a limited number (40) have been studied in WSPs, with the majority of these pollutants being pharmaceuticals, personal care products and endocrine disrupting compounds. Thus, future research on the fate of organic micropollutants in WSPs should encompass a broader range of micropollutants and include emerging organic pollutants, such as illicit drugs and perfluorinated compounds. Further research is also needed on the formation and toxicity of transformation products from organic micropollutants in WSPs, since the transformation products of some organic micropollutants can be more toxic

  6. Deformations, moduli stabilisation and gauge couplings at one-loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honecker, Gabriele; Koltermann, Isabel [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, MITP & Institut für Physik (WA THEP),Johannes Gutenberg-Universität,Staudingerweg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Staessens, Wieland [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cantoblanco,Calle de Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cantoblanco,Calle de Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    We investigate deformations of ℤ{sub 2} orbifold singularities on the toroidal orbifold T{sup 6}/(ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 6}) with discrete torsion in the framework of Type IIA orientifold model building with intersecting D6-branes wrapping special Lagrangian cycles. To this aim, we employ the hypersurface formalism developed previously for the orbifold T{sup 6}/(ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 2}) with discrete torsion and adapt it to the (ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 6}×ΩR) point group by modding out the remaining ℤ{sub 3} subsymmetry and the orientifold projection ΩR. We first study the local behaviour of the ℤ{sub 3}×ΩR invariant deformation orbits under non-zero deformation and then develop methods to assess the deformation effects on the fractional three-cycle volumes globally. We confirm that D6-branes supporting USp(2N) or SO(2N) gauge groups do not constrain any deformation, while deformation parameters associated to cycles wrapped by D6-branes with U(N) gauge groups are constrained by D-term supersymmetry breaking. These features are exposed in global prototype MSSM, Left-Right symmetric and Pati-Salam models first constructed in (DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2015.10.009; 10.1002/prop.201400066), for which we here count the number of stabilised moduli and study flat directions changing the values of some gauge couplings. Finally, we confront the behaviour of tree-level gauge couplings under non-vanishing deformations along flat directions with the one-loop gauge threshold corrections at the orbifold point and discuss phenomenological implications, in particular on possible LARGE volume scenarios and the corresponding value of the string scale M{sub string}, for the same global D6-brane models.

  7. Wind power stabilising control. Demonstration on the Nordic grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, Katherine


    When unconventional types of generators such as doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) are used in a power system, the system behaves differently under abnormal dynamic events. For example, DFIGs cause different modes of oscillation in the power system, and respond differently to changes in voltage. In order to damp oscillations in the system, it is necessary to understand the equipment causing these oscillations, and the methods of optimally damping the oscillations. Large power oscillations can occur in a power system as a result of disturbances. Ordinarily these oscillations are slow and, in principle, it is possible to damp them with the help of wind power. This suggests the use of a power oscillation damping (POD) controller for a DFIG, similar to a power system stabiliser (PSS) for a synchronous generator. Voltage stability is another important aspect of the safe operation of a power system. It has been shown that the voltage stability of a power system is affected by induction generators and also DFIGs, and we investigate some aspects of this here. In this study we develop control strategies for large wind farms comprising DFIGs, and study the impact of the wind farms on a system which is designed to reflect the dynamics of the Nordic power system. The design of multiple PODs in a wind farm is undertaken using linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The impact of the wind turbines is investigated through the use of linear and dynamic simulations. It has been demonstrated that DFIG-based wind farms can be used for damping oscillations, even when they are not producing their rated power, and that they can also improve the critical clearing time of some faults. However, they may have an adverse impact on power systems after large voltage disturbances

  8. The Variance Composition of Firm Growth Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Artur Ledur Brito


    Full Text Available Firms exhibit a wide variability in growth rates. This can be seen as another manifestation of the fact that firms are different from one another in several respects. This study investigated this variability using the variance components technique previously used to decompose the variance of financial performance. The main source of variation in growth rates, responsible for more than 40% of total variance, corresponds to individual, idiosyncratic firm aspects and not to industry, country, or macroeconomic conditions prevailing in specific years. Firm growth, similar to financial performance, is mostly unique to specific firms and not an industry or country related phenomenon. This finding also justifies using growth as an alternative outcome of superior firm resources and as a complementary dimension of competitive advantage. This also links this research with the resource-based view of strategy. Country was the second source of variation with around 10% of total variance. The analysis was done using the Compustat Global database with 80,320 observations, comprising 13,221 companies in 47 countries, covering the years of 1994 to 2002. It also compared the variance structure of growth to the variance structure of financial performance in the same sample.

  9. The generalised anxiety stigma scale (GASS: psychometric properties in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Kathleen M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is substantial concern about negative attitudes to mental illness, little is known about the stigma associated with Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD or its measurement. The aim of this study was to develop a multi-item measure of Generalised Anxiety Disorder stigma (the GASS. Methods Stigma items were developed from a thematic analysis of web-based text about the stigma associated with GAD. Six hundred and seventeen members of the public completed a survey comprising the resulting 20 stigma items and measures designed to evaluate construct validity. Follow-up data were collected for a subset of the participants (n = 212. Results The factor structure comprised two components: Personal Stigma (views about Generalised Anxiety Disorder; and Perceived Stigma (views about the beliefs of most others in the community. There was evidence of good construct validity and reliability for each of the Generalised Anxiety Stigma Scale (GASS subscales. Conclusions The GASS is a promising brief measure of the stigma associated with Generalised Anxiety Disorder.

  10. A generalised individual-based algorithm for modelling the evolution of quantitative herbicide resistance in arable weed populations. (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Bridges, Melissa E; Kaundun, Shiv S; Glasgow, Les; Owen, Micheal Dk; Neve, Paul


    Simulation models are useful tools for predicting and comparing the risk of herbicide resistance in weed populations under different management strategies. Most existing models assume a monogenic mechanism governing herbicide resistance evolution. However, growing evidence suggests that herbicide resistance is often inherited in a polygenic or quantitative fashion. Therefore, we constructed a generalised modelling framework to simulate the evolution of quantitative herbicide resistance in summer annual weeds. Real-field management parameters based on Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer (syn. rudis) control with glyphosate and mesotrione in Midwestern US maize-soybean agroecosystems demonstrated that the model can represent evolved herbicide resistance in realistic timescales. Sensitivity analyses showed that genetic and management parameters were impactful on the rate of quantitative herbicide resistance evolution, whilst biological parameters such as emergence and seed bank mortality were less important. The simulation model provides a robust and widely applicable framework for predicting the evolution of quantitative herbicide resistance in summer annual weed populations. The sensitivity analyses identified weed characteristics that would favour herbicide resistance evolution, including high annual fecundity, large resistance phenotypic variance and pre-existing herbicide resistance. Implications for herbicide resistance management and potential use of the model are discussed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Research into cost and value in medical education: can we make findings more generalisable? Commentary. (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran


    In recent years a growing number of papers have started to appear in the literature on the subject of cost and value in medical education. However many of the articles describe tactical projects within specific areas. As a result the generalisability of such articles is often questionable. Lack of generalisability will mean that progress in research and practice in this field will be slow. Generalisability of cost-value analyses in any discipline is not always straightforward. However reports on cost and value in medical education should ideally ensure absolute clarity with regard to study centres, enrolment of learners, alternative options, perspectives of stakeholders, resources used and their costs, instruments used, variability, and any problems with the analyses (such as incomplete data).

  12. Research into cost and value in medical education: can we make findings more generalisable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Walsh


    Full Text Available In recent years a growing number of papers have started to appear in the literature on the subject of cost and value in medical education. However many of the articles describe tactical projects within specific areas. As a result the generalisability of such articles is often questionable. Lack of generalisability will mean that progress in research and practice in this field will be slow. Generalisability of cost-value analyses in any discipline is not always straightforward. However reports on cost and value in medical education should ideally ensure absolute clarity with regard to study centres, enrolment of learners, alternative options, perspectives of stakeholders, resources used and their costs, instruments used, variability, and any problems with the analyses (such as incomplete data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Sivakumar K


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Techniques for treating complex proximal humeral fractures vary and include fixations using tension bands, percutaneous pins, bone suture, T-plates, intramedullary nails, double tubular plates, hemiarthroplasty, plant tan humerus fixator plates, Polaris nails and blade plates. Complications of these techniques include cutout or back out of the screws and plates, avascular necrosis, nonunion, malunion, nail migration, rotator cuff impairment and impingement syndromes. Insufficient anchorage from conventional implants may lead to early loosening and failure, especially in osteoporotic bones. In general, nonoperative treatment of displaced three and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus leads to poor outcome due to intraarticular nature of injury and inherent instability of the fragments. Comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus are at risk of fixation failure, screw loosening and fracture displacement. Open reduction and internal fixation with conventional plate and screws has been associated with unacceptably high incidence of screw pull out. PHILOS (the proximal humeral internal locking system plate is an internal fixation system that enables angled stabilisation with multiple interlocking screws for fractures of the proximal humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 patients with proximal humerus fractures who were admitted in the Department of Orthopaedics, Government General Hospital, Kakinada, during the period November 2014 - November 2016 were taken up for study according to inclusion criteria. All patients were treated with PHILOS plate. These proximal humerus fractures were classified according to Neer’s classification. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months’ interval. Functional outcomes for pain, range of motion and muscle power and function were assessed using the Constant-Murley scoring system. Collected data analysed with independent t-test and ANNOVA test. RESULTS The outcome of the study was 1

  14. Downscaling of rainfall in Peru using Generalised Linear Models (United States)

    Bergin, E.; Buytaert, W.; Onof, C.; Wheater, H.


    The assessment of water resources in the Peruvian Andes is particularly important because the Peruvian economy relies heavily on agriculture. Much of the agricultural land is situated near to the coast and relies on large quantities of water for irrigation. The simulation of synthetic rainfall series is thus important to evaluate the reliability of water supplies for current and future scenarios of climate change. In addition to water resources concerns, there is also a need to understand extreme heavy rainfall events, as there was significant flooding in Machu Picchu in 2010. The region exhibits a reduction of rainfall in 1983, associated with El Nino Southern Oscillation (SOI). NCEP Reanalysis 1 data was used to provide weather variable data. Correlations were calculated for several weather variables using raingauge data in the Andes. These were used to evaluate teleconnections and provide suggested covariates for the downscaling model. External covariates used in the model include sea level pressure and sea surface temperature over the region of the Humboldt Current. Relative humidity and temperature data over the region are also included. The SOI teleconnection is also used. Covariates are standardised using observations for 1960-1990. The GlimClim downscaling model was used to fit a stochastic daily rainfall model to 13 sites in the Peruvian Andes. Results indicate that the model is able to reproduce rainfall statistics well, despite the large area used. Although the correlation between individual rain gauges is generally quite low, all sites are affected by similar weather patterns. This is an assumption of the GlimClim downscaling model. Climate change scenarios are considered using several GCM outputs for the A1B scenario. GCM data was corrected for bias using 1960-1990 outputs from the 20C3M scenario. Rainfall statistics for current and future scenarios are compared. The region shows an overall decrease in mean rainfall but with an increase in variance.

  15. Calculation of nuclear reactivity using the generalised Adams-Bashforth-Moulton predictor corrector method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suescun-Diaz, Daniel [Surcolombiana Univ., Neiva (Colombia). Groupo de Fisica Teorica; Narvaez-Paredes, Mauricio [Javeriana Univ., Cali (Colombia). Groupo de Matematica y Estadistica Aplicada Pontificia; Lozano-Parada, Jamie H. [Univ. del Valle, Cali (Colombia). Dept. de Ingenieria


    In this paper, the generalisation of the 4th-order Adams-Bashforth-Moulton predictor-corrector method is proposed to numerically solve the point kinetic equations of the nuclear reactivity calculations without using the nuclear power history. Due to the nature of the point kinetic equations, different predictor modifiers are used in order improve the precision of the approximations obtained. The results obtained with the prediction formulas and generalised corrections improve the precision when compared with previous methods and are valid for various forms of nuclear power and different time steps.

  16. Maximum Variance Hashing via Column Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Luo


    item search. Recently, a number of data-dependent methods have been developed, reflecting the great potential of learning for hashing. Inspired by the classic nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm—maximum variance unfolding, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing method, named maximum variance hashing, in this work. The idea is to maximize the total variance of the hash codes while preserving the local structure of the training data. To solve the derived optimization problem, we propose a column generation algorithm, which directly learns the binary-valued hash functions. We then extend it using anchor graphs to reduce the computational cost. Experiments on large-scale image datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in many cases.

  17. Integrating Variances into an Analytical Database (United States)

    Sanchez, Carlos


    For this project, I enrolled in numerous SATERN courses that taught the basics of database programming. These include: Basic Access 2007 Forms, Introduction to Database Systems, Overview of Database Design, and others. My main job was to create an analytical database that can handle many stored forms and make it easy to interpret and organize. Additionally, I helped improve an existing database and populate it with information. These databases were designed to be used with data from Safety Variances and DCR forms. The research consisted of analyzing the database and comparing the data to find out which entries were repeated the most. If an entry happened to be repeated several times in the database, that would mean that the rule or requirement targeted by that variance has been bypassed many times already and so the requirement may not really be needed, but rather should be changed to allow the variance's conditions permanently. This project did not only restrict itself to the design and development of the database system, but also worked on exporting the data from the database to a different format (e.g. Excel or Word) so it could be analyzed in a simpler fashion. Thanks to the change in format, the data was organized in a spreadsheet that made it possible to sort the data by categories or types and helped speed up searches. Once my work with the database was done, the records of variances could be arranged so that they were displayed in numerical order, or one could search for a specific document targeted by the variances and restrict the search to only include variances that modified a specific requirement. A great part that contributed to my learning was SATERN, NASA's resource for education. Thanks to the SATERN online courses I took over the summer, I was able to learn many new things about computers and databases and also go more in depth into topics I already knew about.

  18. Helping financial analysts communicate variance analysis. (United States)

    Dove, H G; Forthman, T


    Healthcare organizations often use variance analysis to explain variation between planned and actual costs and charges. This type of analysis is becoming even more common as healthcare executives work to improve efficiency, to set priorities for organizational improvement as part of strategic planning, and to explain costs and charges to interested groups such as purchasers and payers. Variance analysis produces data that must be presented in a format useful to senior executives. An effective format would express the data in a visual summary that is simple enough to be readily understood and detailed enough to provide valuable information.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kamińska


    Full Text Available The paper aimed at the determination of the California Bearing Ratio of a stabilised and unstabilised fine-grained mineral soil. A clayey-sandy silt with the addition of 3, 6 and 10% of road stabilisers Solidex and Solidex A was used for the tests. The tests were carried out in the press Tritech 50 at the loading of 22 and 44 N. The stabilised samples were subjected to 7-days treatment, whereas unstabilised 4-days treatment. Stabilization with the applied road binders brought positive effects, there occurred a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the clayey-sandy silt. The better binder, which significantly increased the value of the CBR ratio, was Solidex A. The use of hydraulic binders is of a great importance in road building, because their addition improves the mechanical properties of weaker mineral soils.

  20. Early Spin-Stabilised Rockets - the Rockets of Bergrat Heinrich Gottlob Kuhn (United States)

    Fricke, H.-D.

    19th century's war rockets were at first stabilised by sticks, but these sticks produced a very uncertain flight path and it often happened that rockets changed their direction and even flew back to their firing position. So very many early inventors in Europe, America, and British-India tried to stabilise the rocket's flight in a better way. They tried fins and even rotation but they did not succeed. It is said in history that William Hale was the first who succeeded in constructing a spin stabilised (i.e. rotating) rocket which worked. But before him, in the thirties of that century, a German amateur rocket inventor succeeded as well and secretly proved his stickless rotating rockets in trials for Prussian officers and some years later officially for Saxon artillery officers. His invention was then bought by the kingdom of Saxony, but these were never use in the field because of lack of money.

  1. Stabilisation of the unstable fractured zygomatic arch with a ballooned foley catheter. (United States)

    Lee, D G


    The zygomatic arch fracture is one of the most common facial bone fractures. Especially the isolated zygomatic arch fracture is usually repaired via Gillies' approach. But in the case of unstable zygomatic arch fracture, we need an additional step for stabilising the unstable zygomatic arch segment after repositioning the fractured segment. For the stabilising method we use the ballooned Foley catheter on the medial side of the zygomatic arch in the zygomaticotemporal fossa. This method is of assistance to the patient who has a zygomatic arch fracture with comminution or an old patient with weak and torn periosteum. In this study, we achieved a good result and we will introduce this simple method as one of alternatives of stabilising tool.

  2. Effective solidification/stabilisation of mercury-contaminated wastes using zeolites and chemically bonded phosphate ceramics. (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xinyan; Xiong, Ya; Wang, Guoping; Zheng, Na


    In this study, two kinds of zeolites materials (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) were added to the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic processes to treat mercury-contaminated wastes. Strong promotion effects of zeolites (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) on the stability of mercury in the wastes were obtained and these technologies showed promising advantages toward the traditional Portland cement process, i.e. using Portland cement as a solidification agent and natural or thiol-functionalised zeolite as a stabilisation agent. Not only is a high stabilisation efficiency (lowered the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Hg by above 10%) obtained, but also a lower dosage of solidification (for thiol-functionalised zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.5 g g(-1) and 0.7 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) and stabilisation agents (for natural zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.35 g g(-1) and 0.4 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) were used compared with the Portland cement process. Treated by thiol-functionalised zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic under optimum parameters, the waste containing 1500 mg Hg kg(-1) passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test. Moreover, stabilisation/solidification technology using natural zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic also passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test (the mercury waste containing 625 mg Hg kg(-1)). Moreover, the presence of chloride and phosphate did not have a negative effect on the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic/thiol-functionalised zeolite treatment process; thus, showing potential for future application in treatment of 'difficult-to-manage' mercury-contaminated wastes or landfill disposal with high phosphate and chloride content. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. 21 CFR 1010.4 - Variances. (United States)


    ... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 1010.4 Variances. (a) Criteria for... provisions of any performance standard under subchapter J of this chapter for an electronic product subject... purposes of Subchapter C—Electronic Product Radiation Control of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  4. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary variances. 205.290 Section 205.290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic...

  5. Expected Stock Returns and Variance Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Zhou, Hao

    We find that the difference between implied and realized variation, or the variance risk premium, is able to explain more than fifteen percent of the ex-post time series variation in quarterly excess returns on the market portfolio over the 1990 to 2005 sample period, with high (low) premia predi...... to daily, data. Our findings suggest that temporal variation in both risk-aversion and volatility-risk play an important role in determining stock market returns.......We find that the difference between implied and realized variation, or the variance risk premium, is able to explain more than fifteen percent of the ex-post time series variation in quarterly excess returns on the market portfolio over the 1990 to 2005 sample period, with high (low) premia...... predicting high (low) future returns. The magnitude of the return predictability of the variance risk premium easily dominates that afforded by standard predictor variables like the P/E ratio, the dividend yield, the default spread, and the consumption-wealth ratio (CAY). Moreover, combining the variance...

  6. Broadband Minimum Variance Beamforming for Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    A minimum variance (MV) approach for near-field beamforming of broadband data is proposed. The approach is implemented in the frequency domain, and it provides a set of adapted, complex apodization weights for each frequency subband. The performance of the proposed MV beamformer is tested on simu...

  7. Variance decomposition using an IRT measurement model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Boomsma, Dorret I.


    Large scale research projects in behaviour genetics and genetic epidemiology are often based on questionnaire or interview data. Typically, a number of items is presented to a number of subjects, the subjects’ sum scores on the items are computed, and the variance of sum scores is decomposed into a

  8. Estimating quadratic variation using realized variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.


    This paper looks at some recent work on estimating quadratic variation using realized variance (RV) - that is, sums of M squared returns. This econometrics has been motivated by the advent of the common availability of high-frequency financial return data. When the underlying process...

  9. Data Sparseness and Variance in Accounting Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stavropoulos (Spyridon); M.J. Burger (Martijn); D. Skuras (Dimitris)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ A central question in strategic management is why some firms perform better than others. One approach to addressing this question empirically is to decompose the variance in firm-level profitability into firm, industry, location, and year components. Although it is

  10. Decomposition of variance for spatial Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalilian, Abdollah; Guan, Yongtao; Waagepetersen, Rasmus


    Spatial Cox point processes is a natural framework for quantifying the various sources of variation governing the spatial distribution of rain forest trees. We introduce a general criterion for variance decomposition for spatial Cox processes and apply it to specific Cox process models with addit...

  11. (co)variances for growth and efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    42, 295. CANTET, R.J.C., KRESS, D.D., ANDERSON, D.C., DOORNBOS, D.E., BURFENING, P.J. &. BLACKWELL, R.L., 1988. Direct and maternal variances and covariances and maternal phenotypic effects on preweaning growth of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 66, 648. CUNNINGHAM. E.P., MOON, R.A. & GJEDREN, T., 1970.

  12. Biological Variance in Agricultural Products. Theoretical Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Konopacki, P.


    The food that we eat is uniform neither in shape or appearance nor in internal composition or content. Since technology became increasingly important, the presence of biological variance in our food became more and more of a nuisance. Techniques and procedures (statistical, technical) were



    Peschka, W.; Sänger, G.; Hietkamp, G.


    Following an earlier research programme, an experiment has now been made to stabilise hydrogen in its atomic state. Where in 1970 the stabilisation of small particle densities was achieved (1015/cm-3), the work now done has shown it to be possible to store about 2. milligrams of atomic hydrogen at 1 K in an effective volume of about 0.5 litres for a period of some hours. A magnetic field of up to 8 Tesla was applied by means of a superconducting magnet. Propagation of sound at 1 K was noted i...

  14. Novel use of hand fracture fixation plates in the surgical stabilisation of flail chest.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunlop, Rebecca L E


    Plastic surgeons specialize in working closely with other surgical colleagues to help solve clinical problems. In this case, we performed surgical stabilisation of a large flail chest fragment in conjunction with the cardiothoracic surgical team, using the mini-plating set more commonly used for hand fracture fixation. The use of this fixation system for flail chest has not previously been described, but offers advantages over other reported methods, primarily by dispensing with the need for an extensive thoracotomy incision and by providing robust stabilisation without the presence of prominent hardware.

  15. Vertebral stabilisation and selective decompression for the management of triple thoracolumbar disc protrusions. (United States)

    McKee, W M; Downes, C J


    Triple adjacent thoracolumbar disc protrusions causing moderate to severe spinal cord compression were diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging in two German shepherd dogs with marked paraparesis and pelvic limb ataxia. Both cases were managed by selective hemilaminectomy, partial annulectomy and bilateral quadruple vertebral body stabilisation using novel canine locking fixation plates (SOP). The stabilisation of multiple vertebrae in the thoracolumbar spine was possible because the plates could be contoured with six degrees of freedom. Spinal pain resolved and neurological function improved in both dogs. Screw breakage was evident in one dog five months following surgery.

  16. Formulation, stabilisation and encapsulation of bacteriophage for phage therapy. (United States)

    Malik, Danish J; Sokolov, Ilya J; Vinner, Gurinder K; Mancuso, Francesco; Cinquerrui, Salvatore; Vladisavljevic, Goran T; Clokie, Martha R J; Garton, Natalie J; Stapley, Andrew G F; Kirpichnikova, Anna


    for formulation and encapsulation is shelf life and storage of phage to ensure reproducible dosages. Other drivers include formulation of phage for encapsulation in micro- and nanoparticles for effective delivery, encapsulation in stimuli responsive systems for triggered controlled or sustained release at the targeted site of infection. Encapsulation of phage (e.g. in liposomes) may also be used to increase the circulation time of phage for treating systemic infections, for prophylactic treatment or to treat intracellular infections. We then proceed to document approaches used in the published literature on the formulation and stabilisation of phage for storage and encapsulation of bacteriophage in micro- and nanostructured materials using freeze drying (lyophilization), spray drying, in emulsions e.g. ointments, polymeric microparticles, nanoparticles and liposomes. As phage therapy moves forward towards Phase III clinical trials, the review concludes by looking at promising new approaches for micro- and nanoencapsulation of phages and how these may address gaps in the field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogels, S.M.; Snieder, N.; Kindt, M.


    The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their

  18. Role of cranial computed tomography in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with generalised seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Zyl


    Full Text Available Background: Emergency neuroimaging of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients with generalised new onset seizures (NOS and a normal post-ictal neurological examination remains controversial, with the general impression being that emergency imaging is necessary because immunosuppression may blur clinical indicators of acute intracranial pathology. The objectives of our study were to establish whether cranial computed tomography (CT affects the emergency management of HIV-positive patients with generalised NOS and a normal post-ictal neurological examination.Method: We conducted a prospective descriptive observational study. Consecutive HIVpositive patients of 18 years and older, who presented to the Kimberley Hospital Complex’s Emergency Department within 24 hours of their first generalised seizures and who had undergone normal post-ictal neurological examinations, were included. Emergency CT results as well as CD4-count levels were evaluated.Results: A total of 25 HIV-positive patients were included in the study. The results of cranial CT brought about a change in emergency care management in 12% of patients, all of them with CD4 counts below 200 cells/mm3 .Conclusion: We suggest that emergency cranial CT be performed on all HIV-positive patients presenting with generalised NOS and a normal post-ictal neurological examination, particularly if the CD4 count is below 200 cells/mm3.Keywords: HIV; Seizures; CT Brain

  19. Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Generalised Aggressive Periodontitis. (United States)

    Anand, Pradeep S; Sagar, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Supriya; Narang, Sumit; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    To compare the total and differential leukocyte counts in the peripheral blood of generalised aggressive periodontitis patients with that of periodontally healthy subjects in a central Indian population. Seventy-five patients with generalised aggressive periodontitis and 63 periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled for the purpose of the study. All participants received a full-mouth periodontal examination in which probing depth and clinical attachment level were recorded. The haematological variables analysed included total leukocyte count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, neutrophil percentage, lymphocyte percentage, monocyte percentage and platelet count. The patient group showed a significantly higher total leukocyte count (7.62 ± 1.70 x 109 cells/l, p = 0.008), neutrophil count (5.06 ± 1.47x109 cells/l, p aggressive periodontitis and elevated total leukocyte (p = 0.012) and neutrophil counts (p = 0.001). The findings of the present study suggest that patients with generalised aggressive periodontitis might also demonstrate a systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by increased leukocyte counts. This systemic inflammatory response observed in patients with generalised aggressive periodontitis may be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Modelling Problem-Solving Situations into Number Theory Tasks: The Route towards Generalisation (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Iatridou, Maria


    This paper examines the way two 10th graders cope with a non-standard generalisation problem that involves elementary concepts of number theory (more specifically linear Diophantine equations) in the geometrical context of a rectangle's area. Emphasis is given on how the students' past experience of problem solving (expressed through interplay…

  1. Concordance of primary generalised epilepsy and carbamazepine hypersensitivity in monozygotic twins


    Edwards, S.; Hubbard, V; Aylett, S.; Wren, D


    In this paper we describe the previously unreported phenomenon of a carbamazepine-induced mucocutaneous syndrome in identical twins. These twins had developed primary generalised epilepsy within 2 months of each other.

Keywords: carbamazepine; hypersensitivity; twins; epilepsy

  2. A retrospective study of carbamazepine therapy in the treatment of idiopathic generalised epilepsy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, G


    Objective: The exacerbation of idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) by some anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) such as carbamazepine (CBZ) has been well documented. However, it is unclear whether IGE is always worsened by the use of CBZ, or whether some patients with IGE benefit from its use. \\r\

  3. Multi-Trial Guruswami–Sudan Decoding for Generalised Reed–Solomon Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde; Zeh, Alexander


    An iterated refinement procedure for the Guruswami–Sudan list decoding algorithm for Generalised Reed–Solomon codes based on Alekhnovich’s module minimisation is proposed. The method is parametrisable and allows variants of the usual list decoding approach. In particular, finding the list...

  4. Processing bias in children with separation anxiety disorder, social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Bögels, S.M.; Morren, M.


    The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal

  5. Modelling dairy supply for Hungary and Poland by generalised maximum entropy using prior information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonini, A.; Jongeneel, R.


    This paper presents an innovative quantitative approach to modelling milk and beef supply, which is then applied to Hungary and Poland. Utilising generalised maximum entropy estimation, we provide an empirical basis for treating ill-posed and -conditioned problems by reconciling sample and

  6. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis induced by Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis with dapsone. (United States)

    Vas, A; Laws, P; Marsland, Am; McQuillan, O


    We describe the case of HIV-1 infected patient presenting to hospital with a severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction shortly after commencing dapsone therapy as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis. To the best of our knowledge, acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis has not been reported as a reaction to dapsone in the setting of HIV.

  7. Brief Report: Generalisation of Word-Picture Relations in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children (United States)

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L.


    We investigated whether low-functioning children with autism generalise labels from colour photographs based on sameness of shape, colour, or both. Children with autism and language-matched controls were taught novel words paired with photographs of unfamiliar objects, and then sorted pictures and objects into two buckets according to whether or…

  8. An Early Algebra Approach to Pattern Generalisation: Actualising the Virtual through Words, Gestures and Toilet Paper (United States)

    Ferrara, Francesca; Sinclair, Nathalie


    This paper focuses on pattern generalisation as a way to introduce young students to early algebra. We build on research on patterning activities that feature, in their work with algebraic thinking, both looking for sameness recursively in a pattern (especially figural patterns, but also numerical ones) and conjecturing about function-based…

  9. Inverse Probability Weighted Generalised Empirical Likelihood Estimators : Firm Size and R&D Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inkmann, J.


    The inverse probability weighted Generalised Empirical Likelihood (IPW-GEL) estimator is proposed for the estimation of the parameters of a vector of possibly non-linear unconditional moment functions in the presence of conditionally independent sample selection or attrition.The estimator is applied

  10. Generalised Partially Linear Regression with Misclassified Data and an Application to Labour Market Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dlugosz, Stephan; Mammen, Enno; Wilke, Ralf

    We consider the semiparametric generalised linear regression model which has mainstream empirical models such as the (partially) linear mean regression, logistic and multinomial regression as special cases. As an extension to related literature we allow a misclassified covariate to be interacted ...... misclassification in the educational status on estimated transition probabilities and marginal effects....

  11. Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in generalised anxiety disorder : A critical review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldwin, David S.; den Boer, Johan A.; Lyndon, Gavin; Emir, Birol; Schweizer, Edward; Haswell, Hannah


    The aim of this review is to summarise the literature on the efficacy and safety of pregabalin for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Of 241 literature citations, 13 clinical trials were identified that were specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in

  12. Situational and Generalised Conduct Problems and Later Life Outcomes: Evidence from a New Zealand Birth Cohort (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John


    Background: There is considerable evidence suggesting that many children show conduct problems that are specific to a given context (home; school). What is less well understood is the extent to which children with situation-specific conduct problems show similar outcomes to those with generalised conduct problems. Methods: Data were gathered as…

  13. Fly ash stabilisation of gravel roads; Flygaska som foerstaerkningslager i grusvaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef


    Majority of the existing gravel roads have low bearing capacity during spring and autumn, due to thaw and/or rain. Low bearing capacity leads often to bad road conditions. This situation results in higher costs for the lumber industry and the public. Management of gravel roads all the year around would traditionally require excavation of frost susceptible soils and replacement with natural materials. Fly ash (from bio fuels) has good technical properties as bearing layer in road constructions. Fly ash stabilised gravel roads have better function and longer life span with less maintenance than traditional gravel roads. The aim of this project is to show how fly ash stabilisation of gravel roads can increase bearing capacity and what its environmental impact is. The overall aim is to make it easier for entrepreneurs and consulting companies to use fly ash during gravel road renovation and/or constructing new gravel roads. This report targets fly ash producers and road constructors as well as environmental agencies. Two different pilot tests were investigated in this study, Norberg with fly ash from Stora Enso Fors AB, and Boerje (Uppsala) with fly ash from Vattenfall Uppsala AB. Both road sections with related reference section were investigated during a two year period. Only fly ash was used in the bearing layer at Norberg and fly ash gravel was used at Boerje. Bearing capacity was investigated twice, for both locations, November 2003 one month after the road renovation and during thawing, April 2004. Water samples from lysimeters, ground water and surface water were only collected and analysed from Norberg. Experience from the fly ash stabilised road sections show that curing and traffic load can with time compensate for less compaction. The same is noticed at Boerje, although deflection measurements show that there are small differences. Stabilisation of gravel roads increases the roads bearing capacity. Two years after stabilisation 90 timber loads were

  14. Source Characterization by the Allan Variance (United States)

    Gattano, C.; Lambert, S.


    Until now, the main criteria for selecting geodetic sources were based on astrometric stability and structure at 8 GHz te{Fey2015}. But with more observations and the increase of accuracy, the statistical tools used to determine this stability become inappropriate with regards to sudden motions of the radiocenter. In this work, we propose to replace these tools by the Allan Variance te{Allan1966}, first used on VLBI sources by M. Feissel-Vernier te{Feissel2003}, leading to a new classification of sources into three groups according to the shape of the Allan Variance. In parallel, we combine two catalogs, the Large Quasar Astrometric Catalogue te{Souchay2015} and the Optical Characteristics of Astrometric Radio Sources te{Malkin2013}, in order to gather most physical characteristics known about these VLBI targets. By doing so, we may reveal physical criteria that may be useful in the selection of new targets for future VLBI observations.

  15. Fundamentals of exploratory analysis of variance

    CERN Document Server

    Hoaglin, David C; Tukey, John W


    The analysis of variance is presented as an exploratory component of data analysis, while retaining the customary least squares fitting methods. Balanced data layouts are used to reveal key ideas and techniques for exploration. The approach emphasizes both the individual observations and the separate parts that the analysis produces. Most chapters include exercises and the appendices give selected percentage points of the Gaussian, t, F chi-squared and studentized range distributions.

  16. The value of travel time variance


    Fosgerau, Mogens; Engelson, Leonid


    This paper considers the value of travel time variability under scheduling preferences that are de�fined in terms of linearly time-varying utility rates associated with being at the origin and at the destination. The main result is a simple expression for the value of travel time variability that does not depend on the shape of the travel time distribution. The related measure of travel time variability is the variance of travel time. These conclusions apply equally to travellers ...

  17. Decentralised stabilising controllers for a class of large-scale linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A simple method for computing decentralised stabilising con- trollers for a class of large-scale (interconnected) linear systems has been developed. Decentralised controls are optimal controls at subsystem level and are generated from the solution of algebraic Riccati equations for decoupled subsystems resulting ...

  18. An assessment of current methods for stabilising steep cut slopes by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stabilising of cut slopes in civil engineering projects has been the major problem since the commencement of early construction procedures. This problem has been made more acute where erodable soils exist and rainfall intensities result in excessive run-off. Engineers have over a period of time independently devised ...

  19. Design of a wind turbine pitch angle controller for power system stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens; Islam, S.M.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar


    of the North European power system. A short circuit fault on a busbar close to the wind turbine generator is simulated, and the dynamic responses of the system with and without the power system stabilisation of the wind turbines are presented. Simulations show that in most operating points the pitch controller...

  20. Rhodium(I) complexes of αα-keto-stabilised 1,2-bis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Rh(I) complexes; ylide-phosphine; ambidentate coordination; crystal structure; NMR. 1. Introduction. The coordination and organometallic chemistry of α-keto stabilised phosphorus ylides has been investigated extensively and their ambidenticity explained in terms of a delicate balance between electronic and steric factors.1 ...

  1. Reconstructing the doctrine of stare decisis as a stabiliser in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International law in contemporary times has expanded in range, substance, depth and technique. This is a fallout of the burgeoning and equally expanding albeit complex inter-state relations of the modern era. Given the role of law as a stabilising index of man's quest for order and peace in his interaction both as a person ...

  2. Stabilisation of the grain market by the flexible use of grain for bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Pronk, A.; Woltjer, I.


    This report reviews whether the grain market and grain price can be stabilised by the variation of the use of grain in the EU-27's production of bioethanol. The time horizon of this study is 2020, whereby account is taken of the minimum 10% obligation for biofuel use in the EU-27. An economic

  3. Magnetron sputtering system stabilisation for high rate desposition of AlN films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomin, A; Akhmatov, Vladislav; Selishchev, S


    The stabilisation of a planar magnetron sputtering system for reactive sputtering of AlN in a gaseous mixture of Ar and highly active NH3 was examined. The helical instability in the cathode plasma sheath was observed and methods for its damping were proposed. It was found that the deposition of c...

  4. stabilisation of niger delta fat clay with blend of binders for subgrade

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1, CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE NIGERIA. 2, ENGINEERING ... Construction of roads on fine-grained soils without any form of stabilisation is a major problem all over the world. In this study ...... Regional Development Master Plan Chapter 1:.

  5. Arsenic and copper stabilisation in a contaminated soil by coal fly ash and green waste compost. (United States)

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A


    In situ metal stabilisation by amendments has been demonstrated as an appealing low-cost remediation strategy for contaminated soil. This study investigated the short-term leaching behaviour and long-term stability of As and Cu in soil amended with coal fly ash and/or green waste compost. Locally abundant inorganic (limestone and bentonite) and carbonaceous (lignite) resources were also studied for comparison. Column leaching experiments revealed that coal fly ash outperformed limestone and bentonite amendments for As stabilisation. It also maintained the As stability under continuous leaching of acidic solution, which was potentially attributed to high-affinity adsorption, co-precipitation, and pozzolanic reaction of coal fly ash. However, Cu leaching in the column experiments could not be mitigated by any of these inorganic amendments, suggesting the need for co-addition of carbonaceous materials that provides strong chelation with oxygen-containing functional groups for Cu stabilisation. Green waste compost suppressed the Cu leaching more effectively than lignite due to the difference in chemical composition and dissolved organic matter. After 9-month soil incubation, coal fly ash was able to minimise the concentrations of As and Cu in the soil solution without the addition of carbonaceous materials. Nevertheless, leachability tests suggested that the provision of green waste compost and lignite augmented the simultaneous reduction of As and Cu leachability in a fairly aggressive leaching environment. These results highlight the importance of assessing stability and remobilisation of sequestered metals under varying environmental conditions for ensuring a plausible and enduring soil stabilisation.

  6. Food-grade Pickering stabilisation of foams by in situ hydrophobisation of calcium carbonate particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binks, Bernard P.; Muijlwijk, K.; Koman, Henriëtte; Poortinga, A.T.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of stabilising foam bubbles in water by adsorption of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles. Because CaCO3 is hydrophilic and not surface-active, particles were hydrophobised in situ with several emulsifiers. The used emulsifiers were food-grade

  7. Nitrogen Transformations and Removal Mechanisms in Algal and Duckweed Waste Stabilisation Ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmo, O.


    Effective treatment of nitrogen containing wastewater is required to prevent eutrophication and groundwater pollution. This thesis shows that effective treatment may be combined with substantial nitrogen recovery in duckweed-based waste stabilisation ponds. In these ponds nitrogen is absorbed by

  8. Structural and electrical characterisation of silica-containing yttria-stabilised zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Charlotte Clausen; Bonanos, Nikolaos


    Zirconia stabilised by yttria has a high oxide ion conductivity at high temperature and therefore, is currently used as electrolyte in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Silica is normally avoided in this material because formation of amorphous silica phases along the grain boundaries causes an increased...

  9. Modelling, characterisation and uncertainties of stabilised pseudoelastic shape memory alloy helical springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar; Savi, M. A.


    The thermo-mechanical behaviour of pseudoelastic shape memory alloy helical springs is of concern discussing stabilised and cyclic responses. Constitutive description of the shape memory alloy is based on the framework developed by Lagoudas and co-workers incorporating two modifications related...

  10. Oral N-acetylcysteine administration does not stabilise the process of established severe preeclampsia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roes, E.M.; Raijmakers, M.; Boo, T.M. de; Zusterzeel, P.L.M.; Merkus, H.M.; Peters, W.H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.


    OBJECTIVE: To stabilise the disease process in women with early onset severe preeclampsia and/or HELLP syndrome by enhancing maternal antioxidants effects of glutathione. STUDY DESIGN: In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, women with severe preeclampsia and/or HELLP syndrome

  11. Stabilisation of amorphous furosemide increases the oral drug bioavailability in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette


    A glass solution of the amorphous sodium salt of furosemide (ASSF) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (80: 20 w/w%) was prepared by spray drying. It was investigated if PVP was able to stabilise ASSF during storage and dissolution and whether this influenced the in vivo performance of the glass...

  12. Time course of the acute effects of core stabilisation exercise on seated postural control. (United States)

    Lee, Jordan B; Brown, Stephen H M


    Core stabilisation exercises are often promoted for purposes ranging from general fitness to high-performance athletics, and the prevention and rehabilitation of back troubles. These exercises, when performed properly, may have the potential to enhance torso postural awareness and control, yet the potential for achieving immediate gains has not been completely studied. Fourteen healthy young participants performed a single bout of non-fatiguing core stabilisation exercise that consisted of repeated sets of 2 isometric exercises, the side bridge and the four-point contralateral arm-and-leg extension. Seated postural control, using an unstable balance platform on top of a force plate, was assessed before and after exercise, including multiple time points within a 20-minute follow-up period. Nine standard postural control variables were calculated at each time point, including sway displacement and velocity ranges, root mean squares and cumulative path length. Statistical analysis showed that none of the postural control variables were significantly different at any time point following completion of core stabilisation exercise. Thus, we conclude that a single bout of acute core stabilisation exercise is insufficient to immediately improve seated trunk postural control in young healthy individuals.

  13. A covalently stabilised glucose responsive gel formulation with a Carbopol carrier. (United States)

    Tanna, S; Sahota, T; Clark, J; Taylor, M J


    A novel glucose-responsive gel formulation was stabilised via covalent coupling to a carbomer resin. The gel formed between the plant lectin, concanavalin A and specific polysaccharides was stabilised to minimise leaching of gel components into the surroundings. This was required to prevent toxicity and to preserve the working mechanism of the formulation. Increased gel stability was introduced by covalently bonding amine groups present on the lysine residues of concanavalin A to carboxylic moieties on Carbopol 974P NF using carbodiimide chemistry. The introduction of dextran then produced a glucose-responsive formulation that transformed from gel to sol in the presence of free glucose. The rheological properties and in vitro component and insulin release of the carbomer-stabilised gel were evaluated. A decrease in viscosity over a chosen glucose concentration range was exhibited by the carbomer-based gel. The testing of such a formulation in in vitro diffusion experiments revealed that the leaching of concanavalin A from the covalently coupled gels was restricted significantly with respect to a non-coupled gel. Insulin delivery in response to glucose in the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range was demonstrated using the carbomer-stabilised gel at 37 degrees C. The performance of this novel self-regulating drug delivery system has been improved in terms of increased gel stability with reduced component leaching.

  14. Decentralised stabilising controllers for a class of large-scale linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple method for computing decentralised stabilising controllers for a class of large-scale (interconnected) linear systems has been developed. Decentralised controls are optimal controls at subsystem level and are generated from the solution of algebraic Riccati equations for decoupled subsystems resulting from a new ...

  15. Autoignition and flame stabilisation processes in turbulent non-premixed hot coflow flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenhof, E.


    This dissertation examines stabilisation processes in turbulent non-premixed jet flames, created by injecting gaseous fuel into a co-flowing stream of hot, low-oxygen combustion products. Being able to predict whether and how a flame achieves stable and reliable combustion is a matter of great

  16. Use of salts of superacids as stabiliser in vinyl halide polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, van D.S.; Huisman, H.W.; Haveren, van J.; Kolk, van der J.C.; Klaess, P.


    The present invention pertains to the use of at least one Brönsted superacid or metal salt of said Brönsted superacid with a DeltaGacid value of 316 kcal/mol or less, as a heat and/or colour stabiliser for polyvinyl halide resin compositions. The superacid is not a perchlorate or a trifluoromethane

  17. A pilot study to determine whether external stabilisation of the chest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This was a pilot study to determine whether external stabilisation of the chest wall with a splint reduces the need for mechanical ventilation in preterm infants, within the first 7 days after study entry. Design. This was a non-blinded prospective randomised controlled study. After consent was obtained, babies were ...

  18. The Genealogical Consequences of Fecundity Variance Polymorphism (United States)

    Taylor, Jesse E.


    The genealogical consequences of within-generation fecundity variance polymorphism are studied using coalescent processes structured by genetic backgrounds. I show that these processes have three distinctive features. The first is that the coalescent rates within backgrounds are not jointly proportional to the infinitesimal variance, but instead depend only on the frequencies and traits of genotypes containing each allele. Second, the coalescent processes at unlinked loci are correlated with the genealogy at the selected locus; i.e., fecundity variance polymorphism has a genomewide impact on genealogies. Third, in diploid models, there are infinitely many combinations of fecundity distributions that have the same diffusion approximation but distinct coalescent processes; i.e., in this class of models, ancestral processes and allele frequency dynamics are not in one-to-one correspondence. Similar properties are expected to hold in models that allow for heritable variation in other traits that affect the coalescent effective population size, such as sex ratio or fecundity and survival schedules. PMID:19433628

  19. Directional variance analysis of annual rings (United States)

    Kumpulainen, P.; Marjanen, K.


    The wood quality measurement methods are of increasing importance in the wood industry. The goal is to produce more high quality products with higher marketing value than is produced today. One of the key factors for increasing the market value is to provide better measurements for increased information to support the decisions made later in the product chain. Strength and stiffness are important properties of the wood. They are related to mean annual ring width and its deviation. These indicators can be estimated from images taken from the log ends by two-dimensional power spectrum analysis. The spectrum analysis has been used successfully for images of pine. However, the annual rings in birch, for example are less distinguishable and the basic spectrum analysis method does not give reliable results. A novel method for local log end variance analysis based on Radon-transform is proposed. The directions and the positions of the annual rings can be estimated from local minimum and maximum variance estimates. Applying the spectrum analysis on the maximum local variance estimate instead of the original image produces more reliable estimate of the annual ring width. The proposed method is not limited to log end analysis only. It is usable in other two-dimensional random signal and texture analysis tasks.

  20. Discussion on variance reduction technique for shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    As the task of the engineering design activity of the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor (ITER), on 316 type stainless steel (SS316) and the compound system of SS316 and water, the shielding experiment using the D-T neutron source of FNS in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been carried out. However, in these analyses, enormous working time and computing time were required for determining the Weight Window parameter. Limitation or complication was felt when the variance reduction by Weight Window method of MCNP code was carried out. For the purpose of avoiding this difficulty, investigation was performed on the effectiveness of the variance reduction by cell importance method. The conditions of calculation in all cases are shown. As the results, the distribution of fractional standard deviation (FSD) related to neutrons and gamma-ray flux in the direction of shield depth is reported. There is the optimal importance change, and when importance was increased at the same rate as that of the attenuation of neutron or gamma-ray flux, the optimal variance reduction can be done. (K.I.)

  1. [Treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis of the lumbosacral spine by decompression and dynamic transpedicular stabilisation]. (United States)

    Hrabálek, L; Wanek, T; Adamus, M


    The aim of the study was to present the effect and advantages of surgical decompression and dynamic transpedicular stabilisation in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis of the lumbosacral spine. This prospective study involved patients undergoing dynamic transpedicular stabilisation using Isolock or Isobar TTL (Scient X, France) systems. Between June 2003 and June 2009, 65 patients were treated and followed-up. They were aged 35 to 75 years (average, 57.17 years), and there were 32 men and 33 women. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years. Based on indications for surgery they fell into two groups. Group 1 included 52 patients with grade I or II degenerative spondylolisthesis or retrolisthesis. Group 2 (control) consisted of 13 patients with degenerative disc disease or failed back surgery syndrome. The disorder had always been manifested by combined axial and radicular symptoms. Treatment included posterior decompression of nerve structures by laminectomy in conjunction with semi-rigid stabilisation, without fusion. Followup clinical (VAS, ODI), neurological and radiographic examinations were carried out at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 to 6 years after surgery. The VAS and ODI results of both groups were statistically analysed and compared. During follow-up the ODI values decreased by 54 % (from 58.4 % to 26.8 %) and VAS values by 62 % (from 7.9 to 3.0) as compared with the pre-operative values, and this was statistically significant. When both groups were compared, the VAS values decreased significantly (by 5.61) in Group 1, as compared with Group 2 (decrease by 3.54). In the treatment of pseudospondylolisthesis, the semi-rigid stabilisation with spinal decompression, as presented here, is a convenient alternative to simple decompression without fixation or to various forms of instrumented or non-instrumented arthrodesis. A disadvantage associated with arthrodesis is a higher risk of ASD development; dynamic systems do not allow for reduction of spondylolisthesis

  2. Towards 12% stabilised efficiency in single junction polymorphous silicon solar cells: experimental developments and model predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolmasov Sergey


    Full Text Available We have combined recent experimental developments in our laboratory with modelling to devise ways of maximising the stabilised efficiency of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H PIN solar cells. The cells were fabricated using the conventional plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD technique at various temperatures, pressures and gas flow ratios. A detailed electrical-optical simulator was used to examine the effect of using wide band gap P-and N-doped μc-SiOx:H layers, as well as a MgF2 anti-reflection coating (ARC on cell performance. We find that with the best quality a-Si:H so far produced in our laboratory and optimised deposition parameters for the corresponding solar cell, we could not attain a 10% stabilised efficiency due to the high stabilised defect density of a-Si:H, although this landmark has been achieved in some laboratories. On the other hand, a close cousin of a-Si:H, hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H, a nano-structured silicon thin film produced by PECVD under conditions close to powder formation, has been developed in our laboratory. This material has been shown to have a lower initial and stabilised defect density as well as higher hole mobility than a-Si:H. Modelling indicates that it is possible to attain stabilised efficiencies of 12% when pm-Si:H is incorporated in a solar cell, deposited in a NIP configuration to reduce the P/I interface defects and combined with P- and N-doped μc-SiOx:H layers and a MgF2 ARC.

  3. Towards 12% stabilised efficiency in single junction polymorphous silicon solar cells: experimental developments and model predictions (United States)

    Abolmasov, Sergey; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i.; Chatterjee, Parsathi


    We have combined recent experimental developments in our laboratory with modelling to devise ways of maximising the stabilised efficiency of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) PIN solar cells. The cells were fabricated using the conventional plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique at various temperatures, pressures and gas flow ratios. A detailed electrical-optical simulator was used to examine the effect of using wide band gap P-and N-doped μc-SiOx:H layers, as well as a MgF2 anti-reflection coating (ARC) on cell performance. We find that with the best quality a-Si:H so far produced in our laboratory and optimised deposition parameters for the corresponding solar cell, we could not attain a 10% stabilised efficiency due to the high stabilised defect density of a-Si:H, although this landmark has been achieved in some laboratories. On the other hand, a close cousin of a-Si:H, hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H), a nano-structured silicon thin film produced by PECVD under conditions close to powder formation, has been developed in our laboratory. This material has been shown to have a lower initial and stabilised defect density as well as higher hole mobility than a-Si:H. Modelling indicates that it is possible to attain stabilised efficiencies of 12% when pm-Si:H is incorporated in a solar cell, deposited in a NIP configuration to reduce the P/I interface defects and combined with P- and N-doped μc-SiOx:H layers and a MgF2 ARC.

  4. Chronic oral carbamazepine treatment elicits mood-stabilising effects in mice. (United States)

    Kara, Nirit Z; Karpel, Orit; Toker, Lilach; Agam, Galila; Belmaker, Robert H; Einat, Haim


    The underlying biology of bipolar disorder and the mechanisms by which effective medications induce their therapeutic effects are not clear. Appropriate use of animal models are essential to further understand biological mechanisms of disease and treatment, and further understanding the therapeutic mechanism of mood stabilisers requires that clinically relevant administration will be effective in animal models. The clinical regimens for mood-stabilising drugs include chronic oral administration; however, much of the work with animal models includes acute administration via injection. An effective chronic and oral administration of the prototypic mood stabiliser lithium was already established and the present study was designed to do the same for the mood stabiliser carbamazepine. Mice were treated for 3 weeks with carbamazepine in food. ICR mice were treated with 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%, and C57bl/6 mice with 0.5% and 0.75%, carbamazepine in food (w/w, namely, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 g/kg food). Mice were then tested for spontaneous activity, forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Oral carbamazepine administration resulted in dose-dependent blood levels reaching 3.65 μg/ml at the highest dose. In ICR mice, carbamazepine at the 0.5% dose had no effect on spontaneous activity, but significantly reduced immobility in the TST by 27% and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity by 28%. In C57bl/6 mice, carbamazepine at the 0.75% dose reduced immobility time in the FST by 26%. These results demonstrate a behaviourally effective oral and chronic regimen for carbamazepine with mood stabilising-like activity in a standard model for mania-like behaviour and two standard models for depression-like behaviour.

  5. Genetic heterogeneity of residual variance - estimation of variance components using double hierarchical generalized linear models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikse Freddy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sensitivity to microenvironmental changes varies among animals and may be under genetic control. It is essential to take this element into account when aiming at breeding robust farm animals. Here, linear mixed models with genetic effects in the residual variance part of the model can be used. Such models have previously been fitted using EM and MCMC algorithms. Results We propose the use of double hierarchical generalized linear models (DHGLM, where the squared residuals are assumed to be gamma distributed and the residual variance is fitted using a generalized linear model. The algorithm iterates between two sets of mixed model equations, one on the level of observations and one on the level of variances. The method was validated using simulations and also by re-analyzing a data set on pig litter size that was previously analyzed using a Bayesian approach. The pig litter size data contained 10,060 records from 4,149 sows. The DHGLM was implemented using the ASReml software and the algorithm converged within three minutes on a Linux server. The estimates were similar to those previously obtained using Bayesian methodology, especially the variance components in the residual variance part of the model. Conclusions We have shown that variance components in the residual variance part of a linear mixed model can be estimated using a DHGLM approach. The method enables analyses of animal models with large numbers of observations. An important future development of the DHGLM methodology is to include the genetic correlation between the random effects in the mean and residual variance parts of the model as a parameter of the DHGLM.

  6. Evaluation of a direct 4D reconstruction method using generalised linear least squares for estimating nonlinear micro-parametric maps. (United States)

    Angelis, Georgios I; Matthews, Julian C; Kotasidis, Fotis A; Markiewicz, Pawel J; Lionheart, William R; Reader, Andrew J


    Estimation of nonlinear micro-parameters is a computationally demanding and fairly challenging process, since it involves the use of rather slow iterative nonlinear fitting algorithms and it often results in very noisy voxel-wise parametric maps. Direct reconstruction algorithms can provide parametric maps with reduced variance, but usually the overall reconstruction is impractically time consuming with common nonlinear fitting algorithms. In this work we employed a recently proposed direct parametric image reconstruction algorithm to estimate the parametric maps of all micro-parameters of a two-tissue compartment model, used to describe the kinetics of [[Formula: see text]F]FDG. The algorithm decouples the tomographic and the kinetic modelling problems, allowing the use of previously developed post-reconstruction methods, such as the generalised linear least squares (GLLS) algorithm. Results on both clinical and simulated data showed that the proposed direct reconstruction method provides considerable quantitative and qualitative improvements for all micro-parameters compared to the conventional post-reconstruction fitting method. Additionally, region-wise comparison of all parametric maps against the well-established filtered back projection followed by post-reconstruction non-linear fitting, as well as the direct Patlak method, showed substantial quantitative agreement in all regions. The proposed direct parametric reconstruction algorithm is a promising approach towards the estimation of all individual microparameters of any compartment model. In addition, due to the linearised nature of the GLLS algorithm, the fitting step can be very efficiently implemented and, therefore, it does not considerably affect the overall reconstruction time.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    admission. Postoperatively, 4 patients remained in grade A, 5 patients had grade C, 6 patients had grade D and 10 had grade E. All the patients had neurogenic bladder at the time of admission, nine remained neurogenic post-operatively and 16 patients attained normal bladder status. Pain showed an average of 4.73 pre-operative value and an average post-operative value of 1.13 on VAS scale. Radiologically, the mean pre-operative Cobb’s angle was 14.26 degrees and post- operative mean was 3.63 degrees. The mean improvement in Cobb’s angle was 10.63 degrees. The mean vertebral body compression (height ratio was 60.83 and mean post-operative ratio was 81.66. Improvement was a mean 20.83 in VBHR post operatively justifying the procedure. The mean preoperative sagittal index was 20.43 degrees and mean postoperative sagittal index was 14.6 degrees. Functional outcome was assessed by Spinal Cord Independence Measure score. The mean pre and post-operative scores were 32.26 and 81.53 respectively. Mean improvement in SCIM score was 49.27. This was done at three weekly intervals up to 31 weeks from admission. Bed sores occurred in 5 patients, 8 patients developed UTI, two patients developed upper respiratory infection and two suffered fever in the post-operative period. CONCLUSION Incidence of thoracolumbar spine fractures has a single peak in young adult age group irrespective of the sex of the patient. Incidence is higher in males with almost equal distribution in rural and urban areas. Unlike western hemisphere, the major cause of thoracolumbar spine fracture is fall from height (not the road traffic accidents. Incidence of thoracolumbar spine has got significant relation to the patient’s occupation, especially people working as tree climbers, construction workers. Most common level of fracture of thoracolumbar spine is thoracolumbar junction (T12-L1. Surgical stabilisation of unstable thoracolumbar spine fractures with short segment posterior spinal instrumentation with

  8. The use of oral fluralaner for the treatment of feline generalised demodicosis: a case report. (United States)

    Matricoti, I; Maina, E


    There is little agreement on the most effective and safest treatment for feline demodicosis. Protocols generally consist of long-lasting therapy courses based on rinses, subcutaneous injections, oral drug administration or repeated spot-on formulation and the efficacy of most of these is poorly documented. Many of these products have also been associated with adverse effects and may be difficult to administer in cats, leading to poor owner compliance and treatment failure. This case report describes the successful use of fluralaner in treating a generalised form of demodicosis caused by Demodex cati in an adult cat that was probably triggered by chronic glucocorticoid administration. After a single oral dose of 28 mg/kg fluralaner, negative skin scrapings were obtained within one month and clinical cure within two months. No side effects were observed. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of fluralaner in treating feline generalised demodicosis. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Occupational generalised urticaria and allergic airborne asthma due to anisakis simplex. (United States)

    Scala, E; Giani, M; Pirrotta, L; Guerra, E C; Cadoni, S; Girardelli, C R; De Pità, O; Puddu, P


    Anisakis simplex (AS), a fish and cephalopodes parasite, may cause allergic reactions in humans on eating and/or handling contaminated fish. We present a case of occupational hypersensitivity to AS in a woman employed in a frozen-fish factory. She showed both generalised urticarial rash and asthmatic symptoms after work place exposure. All these symptoms immediately disappeared after work place exposure was ceased. The presence of a positive skin prick test and high specific IgE values confirmed a hypersensitivity to anisakis. This is the first case reported of both occupational generalised urticaria and allergic airborne asthma due to AS in the same patient. We suggest that AS could be an important cause of occupational asthma and/or urticaria in the fish industry.

  10. Generalisation benefits of output gating in a model of prefrontal cortex (United States)

    Kriete, Trent; Noelle, David C.


    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a central role in flexible cognitive control, including the suppression of habitual responding in favour of situation-appropriate behaviours that can be quite novel. PFC provides a kind of working memory, maintaining the rules, goals, and/or actions that are to control behaviour in the current context. For flexible control, these PFC representations must be sufficiently componential to support systematic generalisation to novel situations. The anatomical structure of PFC can be seen as implementing a componential 'slot-filler' structure, with different components encoded over isolated pools of neurons. Previous PFC models have highlighted the importance of a dynamic gating mechanism to selectively update individual 'slot' contents. In this article, we present simulation results that suggest that systematic generalisation also requires an 'output gating' mechanism that limits the influence of PFC on more posterior brain areas to reflect a small number of representational components at any one time.

  11. A comparison of parameter estimations of the Poisson-generalised Lindley distribution (United States)

    Denthet, Sunthree


    In this paper, the Poisson-generalised Lindley distribution is presented. It is obtained by mixing the Poisson distribution with a generalised Lindley distribution. This distribution is an alternative distribution for count data with over-distribution. We apply two methods of parameter estimation, maximum likelihood estimation and method of moment, to estimate the parameters. The Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted for efficiency comparison between two methods of estimation based on root of mean squared error. The study exposes that method of moment is highly efficient with maximum likelihood estimation when the model is decreasing or bimodal model. Finally, the proposed distribution is applied to real data sets,but the result based on p-value of the discrete Anderson-Daring test show that maximum likelihood estimation can be hight efficiency for fitting data set.

  12. [Epileptic seizures during childbirth in a patient with idiopathic generalised epilepsy]. (United States)

    Voermans, N C; Zwarts, M J; Renier, W O; Bloem, B R


    During her first pregnancy, a 37-year-old woman with idiopathic generalised epilepsy that was adequately controlled with lamotrigine experienced a series of epileptic seizures following an elective caesarean section. The attacks were terminated with diazepam. The following day, she developed EEG-confirmed status epilepticus, for which midazolam was administered intravenously. No further attacks were observed and the patient was later discharged in good condition with a healthy newborn son. She remained on lamotrigine therapy. At the end of her second pregnancy, the patient again experienced tonic-clonic seizures. The dosage of lamotrigine was increased and the patient received clonazepam intravenously, but a new seizure quickly occurred. Following an emergency caesarean section with midazolam treatment, a healthy daughter was born. No further attacks were observed. This case history illustrates the occurrence of adult idiopathic generalised epilepsy and highlights the problems that can arise late in pregnancy and during childbirth.

  13. Visual SLAM Using Variance Grid Maps (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Marks, Tim K.


    An algorithm denoted Gamma-SLAM performs further processing, in real time, of preprocessed digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras aboard an off-road robotic ground vehicle to build accurate maps of the terrain and determine the location of the vehicle with respect to the maps. Part of the name of the algorithm reflects the fact that the process of building the maps and determining the location with respect to them is denoted simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Most prior real-time SLAM algorithms have been limited in applicability to (1) systems equipped with scanning laser range finders as the primary sensors in (2) indoor environments (or relatively simply structured outdoor environments). The few prior vision-based SLAM algorithms have been feature-based and not suitable for real-time applications and, hence, not suitable for autonomous navigation on irregularly structured terrain. The Gamma-SLAM algorithm incorporates two key innovations: Visual odometry (in contradistinction to wheel odometry) is used to estimate the motion of the vehicle. An elevation variance map (in contradistinction to an occupancy or an elevation map) is used to represent the terrain. The Gamma-SLAM algorithm makes use of a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) from Bayesian estimation theory for maintaining a distribution over poses and maps. The core idea of the RBPF approach is that the SLAM problem can be factored into two parts: (1) finding the distribution over robot trajectories, and (2) finding the map conditioned on any given trajectory. The factorization involves the use of a particle filter in which each particle encodes both a possible trajectory and a map conditioned on that trajectory. The base estimate of the trajectory is derived from visual odometry, and the map conditioned on that trajectory is a Cartesian grid of elevation variances. In comparison with traditional occupancy or elevation grid maps, the grid elevation variance

  14. Realized Variance and Market Microstructure Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter R.; Lunde, Asger


    estimation based on high-frequency data. Finally, we apply cointegration techniques to decompose transaction prices and bid-ask quotes into an estimate of the efficient price and noise. This framework enables us to study the dynamic effects on transaction prices and quotes caused by changes in the efficient......We study market microstructure noise in high-frequency data and analyze its implications for the realized variance (RV) under a general specification for the noise. We show that kernel-based estimators can unearth important characteristics of market microstructure noise and that a simple kernel...

  15. Amplitude equations for the generalised Swift-Hohenberg equation with noise


    Klepel, Konrad


    For the generalised Swift-Hohenberg equation with added noise acting uniformly on the system, amplitude equations for a bounded 1D domain and the whole real line are derived. Because of the inherent separation of timescales a dominant sine-like pattern evolves that is governed by a stochastic differential equation called the amplitude equation of the system. The dominant frequencies are not directly forced by the noise but through the nonlinearity composed of a stable cubic and an unstable qu...

  16. Aspects of string theory compactifications. D-brane statistics and generalised geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmeiner, F.


    In this thesis we investigate two different aspects of string theory compactifications. The first part deals with the issue of the huge amount of possible string vacua, known as the landscape. Concretely we investigate a specific well defined subset of type II orientifold compactifications. We develop the necessary tools to construct a very large set of consistent models and investigate their gauge sector on a statistical basis. In particular we analyse the frequency distributions of gauge groups and the possible amount of chiral matter for compactifications to six and four dimensions. In the phenomenologically relevant case of four-dimensional compactifications, special attention is paid to solutions with gauge groups that include those of the standard model, as well as Pati-Salam, SU(5) and flipped SU(5) models. Additionally we investigate the frequency distribution of coupling constants and correlations between the observables in the gauge sector. These results are compared with a recent study of Gepner models. Moreover, we elaborate on questions concerning the finiteness of the number of solutions and the computational complexity of the algorithm. In the second part of this thesis we consider a new mathematical framework, called generalised geometry, to describe the six-manifolds used in string theory compactifications. In particular, the formulation of T-duality and mirror symmetry for nonlinear topological sigma models is investigated. Therefore we provide a reformulation and extension of the known topological A- and B-models to the generalised framework. The action of mirror symmetry on topological D-branes in this setup is presented and the transformation of the boundary conditions is analysed. To extend the considerations to D-branes in type II string theory, we introduce the notion of generalised calibrations. We show that the known calibration conditions of supersymmetric branes in type IIA and IIB can be obtained as special cases. Finally we investigate

  17. A Baecklund transformation and the inverse scattering transform method for the generalised Vakhnenko equation

    CERN Document Server

    Vakhnenko, V O; Morrison, A J


    A Baecklund transformation both in bilinear and in ordinary form for the transformed generalised Vakhnenko equation (GVE) is derived. It is shown that the equation has an infinite sequence of conservation laws. An inverse scattering problem is formulated; it has a third-order eigenvalue problem. A procedure for finding the exact N-soliton solution to the GVE via the inverse scattering method is described. The procedure is illustrated by considering the cases N=1 and 2.

  18. A study of the one dimensional total generalised variation regularisation problem

    KAUST Repository

    Papafitsoros, Konstantinos


    © 2015 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences. In this paper we study the one dimensional second order total generalised variation regularisation (TGV) problem with L2 data fitting term. We examine the properties of this model and we calculate exact solutions using simple piecewise affine functions as data terms. We investigate how these solutions behave with respect to the TGV parameters and we verify our results using numerical experiments.

  19. Effect of lamotrigine on cerebral blood flow in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy. (United States)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong; Tae, Woo Suk; Han, Sun Jung; Seo, Dae Won; Lee, Kyung-Han; Lee, Mann Hyung


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the new anti-epileptic drug, lamotrigine, on cerebral blood flow by performing (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and after medication in patients with drug-naive idiopathic generalised epilepsy. Interictal (99m)Tc-ECD brain SPECT was performed before drug treatment started and then repeated after lamotrigine medication for 4-5 months in 30 patients with generalised epilepsy (M/F=14/16, 19.3+/-3.4 years). Seizure types were generalised tonic-clonic seizure in 23 patients and myoclonic seizures in seven. The mean lamotrigine dose used was 214.1+/-29.1 mg/day. For SPM analysis, all SPECT images were spatially normalised to the standard SPECT template and then smoothed using a 12-mm full-width at half-maximum Gaussian kernel. The paired t test was used to compare pre- and post-lamotrigine SPECT images. SPM analysis of pre- and post-lamotrigine brain SPECT images showed decreased perfusion in bilateral dorsomedial nuclei of thalami, bilateral uncus, right amygdala, left subcallosal gyrus, right superior and inferior frontal gyri, right precentral gyrus, bilateral superior and inferior temporal gyri and brainstem (pons, medulla) after lamotrigine medication at a false discovery rate-corrected plamotrigine administration. Our study demonstrates for the first time the effect of lamotrigine on interictal cerebral perfusion in drug-naive idiopathic generalised epilepsy patients. In summary, lamotrigine medication was found to reduce perfusion in cortico-thalamo-limbic areas, the orbitofrontal cortex, and brainstem.

  20. Effect of lamotrigine on cerebral blood flow in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Eun Yeon [Ewha Womans University, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Hong, Seung Bong; Tae, Woo Suk; Han, Sun Jung; Seo, Dae Won [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center and Center for Clinical Medicine, SBRI, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Kyung-Han [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center and Center for Clinical Medicine, SBRI, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Mann Hyung [Catholic University of Daegu, College of Pharmacy, Gyeongbuk (Korea)


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the new anti-epileptic drug, lamotrigine, on cerebral blood flow by performing {sup 99m}Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and after medication in patients with drug-naive idiopathic generalised epilepsy. Interictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT was performed before drug treatment started and then repeated after lamotrigine medication for 4-5 months in 30 patients with generalised epilepsy (M/F=14/16, 19.3{+-}3.4 years). Seizure types were generalised tonic-clonic seizure in 23 patients and myoclonic seizures in seven. The mean lamotrigine dose used was 214.1{+-}29.1 mg/day. For SPM analysis, all SPECT images were spatially normalised to the standard SPECT template and then smoothed using a 12-mm full-width at half-maximum Gaussian kernel. The paired t test was used to compare pre- and post-lamotrigine SPECT images. SPM analysis of pre- and post-lamotrigine brain SPECT images showed decreased perfusion in bilateral dorsomedial nuclei of thalami, bilateral uncus, right amygdala, left subcallosal gyrus, right superior and inferior frontal gyri, right precentral gyrus, bilateral superior and inferior temporal gyri and brainstem (pons, medulla) after lamotrigine medication at a false discovery rate-corrected p<0.05. No brain region showed increased perfusion after lamotrigine administration. (orig.)

  1. Recent Fuzzy Generalisations of Rough Sets Theory: A Systematic Review and Methodological Critique of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mardani


    Full Text Available Rough set theory has been used extensively in fields of complexity, cognitive sciences, and artificial intelligence, especially in numerous fields such as expert systems, knowledge discovery, information system, inductive reasoning, intelligent systems, data mining, pattern recognition, decision-making, and machine learning. Rough sets models, which have been recently proposed, are developed applying the different fuzzy generalisations. Currently, there is not a systematic literature review and classification of these new generalisations about rough set models. Therefore, in this review study, the attempt is made to provide a comprehensive systematic review of methodologies and applications of recent generalisations discussed in the area of fuzzy-rough set theory. On this subject, the Web of Science database has been chosen to select the relevant papers. Accordingly, the systematic and meta-analysis approach, which is called “PRISMA,” has been proposed and the selected articles were classified based on the author and year of publication, author nationalities, application field, type of study, study category, study contribution, and journal in which the articles have appeared. Based on the results of this review, we found that there are many challenging issues related to the different application area of fuzzy-rough set theory which can motivate future research studies.

  2. Variance-based Salt Body Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Ovcharenko, Oleg


    Seismic inversions of salt bodies are challenging when updating velocity models based on Born approximation- inspired gradient methods. We propose a variance-based method for velocity model reconstruction in regions complicated by massive salt bodies. The novel idea lies in retrieving useful information from simultaneous updates corresponding to different single frequencies. Instead of the commonly used averaging of single-iteration monofrequency gradients, our algorithm iteratively reconstructs salt bodies in an outer loop based on updates from a set of multiple frequencies after a few iterations of full-waveform inversion. The variance among these updates is used to identify areas where considerable cycle-skipping occurs. In such areas, we update velocities by interpolating maximum velocities within a certain region. The result of several recursive interpolations is later used as a new starting model to improve results of conventional full-waveform inversion. An application on part of the BP 2004 model highlights the evolution of the proposed approach and demonstrates its effectiveness.

  3. EMDR versus stabilisation in traumatised asylum seekers and refugees: results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf J. Kleber


    Full Text Available Traumatised asylum seekers and refugees are clinically considered a complex population. Discussion exists on whether with this population treatment guidelines for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD should be followed and Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT or Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR should be applied, or whether a phased model starting with stabilisation is preferable. Some clinicians fear that trauma-focused interventions may lead to unmanageable distress or may be ineffective. While cognitive-behavioural interventions have been found to be effective with traumatised refugees, no studies concerning the efficacy of EMDR with this population have been conducted as yet.In preparation for a randomised trial comparing EMDR and stabilisation with traumatised refugees, a pilot study with 20 participants was conducted. The objective was to examine feasibility of participation in a randomised trial for this complex population and to examine acceptability and preliminary efficacy of EMDR.Participants were randomly allocated to 11 sessions of either EMDR or stabilisation. Symptoms of PTSD (SCID-I, HTQ, depression and anxiety (HSCL-25, and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF were assessed at pre- and post-treatment and 3-month follow-up.Participation of traumatised refugees in the study was found feasible, although issues associated with complex traumatisation led to a high pre-treatment attrition and challenges in assessments. Acceptability of EMDR was found equal to that of stabilisation with a high drop-out for both conditions. No participants dropped out of the EMDR condition because of unmanageable distress. While improvement for EMDR participants was small, EMDR was found to be no less efficacious than stabilisation. Different symptom courses between the two conditions, with EMDR showing some improvement and stabilisation showing some deterioration between pre-treatment and post-treatment, justify the conduct

  4. Disturbances of grip force behaviour in focal hand dystonia: evidence for a generalised impairment of sensory-motor integration?


    Nowak, D.; Rosenkranz, K; Topka, H.; Rothwell, J


    Background: Focal task specific dystonia occurs preferentially during performance of a specific task. There may be an inefficiently high grip force when doing manipulative tasks other than the trigger task, possibly reflecting a generalised impairment of sensory-motor integration.

  5. P-Stereogenic Phosphines for the Stabilisation of Metal Nanoparticles. A Surface State Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Raluy


    Full Text Available Palladium and ruthenium nanoparticles have been prepared following the organometallic precursor decomposition methodology, under dihydrogen pressure and in the presence of borane protected P-stereogenic phosphines. NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance monitoring of the corresponding syntheses has permitted to determine the optimal metal/ligand ratio for leading to small and well-dispersed nanoparticles. Exchange ligand reactions of the as-prepared materials have proven the strong interaction of the phosphines with the metal surface; only oxidative treatment using hydrogen peroxide could release the phosphine-based stabiliser from the metal surface. Pd and Ru nanoparticles have been evaluated in hydrogenation reactions, confirming the robustness of the stabilisers, which selectively permitted the hydrogenation of exocyclic C=C bonds, preventing the coordination of the aromatic rings and as a result, their hydrogenation.

  6. Green synthesis of highly concentrated aqueous colloidal solutions of large starch-stabilised silver nanoplatelets. (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Betts, Jonathan W; Kelly, Stephen M; Hector, Andrew L


    A simple, environmentally friendly and cost-effective method has been developed to prepare a range of aqueous silver colloidal solutions, using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent, water-soluble starch as a combined crystallising, stabilising and solubilising agent, and water as the solvent. The diameter of silver nanoplatelets increases with higher concentrations of AgNO3 and starch. The silver nanoparticles are also more uniform in shape the greater the diameter of the nanoparticles. Colloidal solutions with a very high concentration of large, flat, hexagonal silver nanoplatelets (~230 nm in breadth) have been used to deposit and fix an antibacterial coating of these large starch-stabilised silver nanoplates on commercial cotton fibres, using a simple dip-coating process using water as the solvent, in order to study the dependence of the antibacterial properties of these nanoplatelets on their size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Power Estimation in Multivariate Analysis of Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean François Allaire


    Full Text Available Power is often overlooked in designing multivariate studies for the simple reason that it is believed to be too complicated. In this paper, it is shown that power estimation in multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA can be approximated using a F distribution for the three popular statistics (Hotelling-Lawley trace, Pillai-Bartlett trace, Wilk`s likelihood ratio. Consequently, the same procedure, as in any statistical test, can be used: computation of the critical F value, computation of the noncentral parameter (as a function of the effect size and finally estimation of power using a noncentral F distribution. Various numerical examples are provided which help to understand and to apply the method. Problems related to post hoc power estimation are discussed.

  8. Variance in faking across noncognitive measures. (United States)

    McFarland, L A; Ryan, A M


    There are discrepant findings in the literature regarding the effects of applicant faking on the validity of noncognitive measures. One explanation for these mixed results may be the failure of some studies to consider individual differences in faking. This study demonstrates that there is considerable variance across individuals in the extent of faking 3 types of noncognitive measures (i.e., personality test, biodata inventory, and integrity test). Participants completed measures honestly and with instructions to fake. Results indicated some measures were more difficult to fake than others. The authors found that integrity, conscientiousness, and neuroticism were related to faking. In addition, individuals faked fairly consistently across the measures. Implications of these results and a model of faking that includes factors that may influence faking behavior are provided.

  9. Further results on variances of local stereological estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlas, Zbynek; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel


    in the particle population. It turns out that these two variance components can be estimated separately, from sectional data. We present further results on the variances that can be used to determine the variance by numerical integration for particular choices of particle shapes.......In the present paper the statistical properties of local stereological estimators of particle volume are studied. It is shown that the variance of the estimators can be decomposed into the variance due to the local stereological estimation procedure and the variance due to the variability...

  10. Dynamics of Variance Risk Premia, Investors' Sentiment and Return Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jerome V.K.; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    We develop a joint framework linking the physical variance and its risk neutral expectation implying variance risk premia that are persistent, appropriately reacting to changes in level and variability of the variance and naturally satisfying the sign constraint. Using option market data and real......We develop a joint framework linking the physical variance and its risk neutral expectation implying variance risk premia that are persistent, appropriately reacting to changes in level and variability of the variance and naturally satisfying the sign constraint. Using option market data...

  11. A Monte Carlo Study of Seven Homogeneity of Variance Tests


    Howard B. Lee; Gary S. Katz; Alberto F. Restori


    Problem statement: The decision by SPSS (now PASW) to use the unmodified Levene test to test homogeneity of variance was questioned. It was compared to six other tests. In total, seven homogeneity of variance tests used in Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) were compared on robustness and power using Monte Carlo studies. The homogeneity of variance tests were (1) Levene, (2) modified Levene, (3) Z-variance, (4) Overall-Woodward Modified Z-variance, (5) OBrien, (6) Samiuddin Cube Root and (7) F-Max....

  12. Birch Bark Dry Extract by Supercritical Fluid Technology: Extract Characterisation and Use for Stabilisation of Semisolid Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Markus Armbruster; Mathias Mönckedieck; Regina Scherließ; Rolf Daniels; Martin A Wahl


    .... Employing supercritical fluid technology, our aim was to develop a birch bark dry extract suitable for stabilisation of lipophilic gels with improved properties while avoiding the use of toxic solvents...

  13. Double interface formulation for improved α-tocopherol stabilisation in dehydration of emulsions. (United States)

    Zhou, Yankun; Roos, Yrjö H


    Encapsulation of hydrophobic nutrients can be achieved by freezing and freeze-drying of oil-in-water emulsions containing glass-forming materials. The addition of a polyelectrolyte layer on the protein-stabilised oil droplets may provide better protection to the oil phase against external stresses. Soy protein-trehalose and whey protein-trehalose emulsions with (layer-by-layer, LBL) and without (single-layer, SL) ι-carrageenan were used as the delivery systems for olive oil with dissolved α-tocopherol. Emulsions containing 0.125 g kg(-1) protein, 0.42 g kg(-1) oil and 150 g kg(-1) trehalose with (LBL) or without (SL) 0.25 g kg(-1) ι-carrageenan at pH 3 were frozen and freeze-dried and their state transitions were studied. The stability of α-tocopherol in freeze-dried systems at 0 and 0.33 water activity (aw ) during storage at 55 °C was followed. Loss of α-tocopherol was found in soy protein-stabilised SL systems at 0.33 aw , and this loss coincided with trehalose crystallisation. The stability of α-tocopherol was retained in soy protein-stabilised LBL and whey protein-stabilised LBL and SL systems at all conditions. Trehalose crystallisation-induced loss of structure was confirmed from changes in emulsion properties and visual appearance. Component sugar crystallisation contributed to the loss of sensitive compounds, but the stability of these compounds can be improved by the use of LBL formulations. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Dynamic transpedicular stabilisation and decompression in single-level degenerative anterolisthesis and stenosis. (United States)

    Payer, Michael; Smoll, Nicolas R; Nicolas, Smoll; Oezkan, Neriman; Tessitore, Enrico


    Different treatment options exist for symptomatic single-level degenerative anterolisthesis and stenosis. While simple micro-decompression has been advocated lately, most authors recommend posterior decompression with fusion. In recent years, decompression and dynamic transpedicular stabilisation has been introduced for this indication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of decompression and dynamic transpedicular stabilisation with the Dynesys® system in single-level degenerative anterolisthesis and stenosis. Thirty consecutive patients with symptomatic single-level degenerative anterolisthesis and stenosis without scoliosis underwent decompression and single-level Dynesys stabilisation at the level of degenerative anterolisthesis. Patients were followed prospectively for 24 months with radiographs, Oswestry Disability Index scores, visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, and estimated pain-free walking distance. At the 2-year follow-up, back pain was reduced from 6.5 preoperatively to 2.5, leg pain from 5.4 to 0.6. The pain-free walking distance was estimated at 500 m preoperatively and at over 2 km after 2 years, while the ODI decreased from 54 % to 18 %. Screw loosening was found in 2/30 cases. Symptomatic adjacent segment disease was found in 3/30 patients between 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Single-level Dynesys stabilisation combined with single- or multi-level decompression seems to be a safe and efficient treatment option in single-level degenerative anterolisthesis and stenosis over an observation period of 2 years, avoiding iliac crest or local bone grafting required by fusion procedures. However, it does not seem to avoid adjacent segment disease.

  15. Formulation, characterisation and topical application of oil powders from whey protein stabilised emulsions / Magdalena Kotze


    Kotze, Magdalena


    The available literature indicates that to date, few research has been performed on oil powders for topical delivery. The aim of this project was to investigate the release characteristics of oil powder formulations, as well as their dermal and transdermal delivery properties. Whey protein-stabilised emulsions were used to develop oil powders. Whey protein was used alone, or in combination with chitosan or carrageenan. Nine oil powders, with salicylic acid as the active ingredient, were fo...

  16. Synthesis, stabilisation and characterisation of rhamnolipid-capped ZnS nanoparticles in aqueous medium. (United States)

    Narayanan, J; Ramji, R; Sahu, H; Gautam, P


    Capping agents stabilise the size of the nanoparticles in the range of 1-10 nm. Microbial surfactants as capping agents are beneficial replacements for chemically synthesised ones because of lower toxicity. Rhamnolipids are surfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, having high affinity for metal ions. In this study, the authors used rhamnolipids for capping ZnS nanoparticles. The capped particles were stabilised in aqueous environment and its characteristics were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and ultraviolet-visible spectra, fluorescence spectra. The particle Bohr radius was found to be 4.5 nm both by SAXS and HRTEM, thus proving rhamnolipid to be an effective capping agent for the synthesis of uniform nanoparticles. SAXS study not only reveals the particle size and distribution but also its self-affined agglomeration behaviour. This work is a novel method for stabilising nanoparticles in aqueous condition using biosurfactant.

  17. Topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers for treating seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. (United States)

    Castillo, Mayret; Scott, Neil W; Mustafa, Mohammad Z; Mustafa, Mohammed S; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto


    Seasonal/perennial allergic conjunctivitis is the most common allergic conjunctivitis, usually with acute manifestations when a person is exposed to allergens and with typical signs and symptoms including itching, redness, and tearing. The clinical signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis are mediated by the release of histamine by mast cells. Histamine antagonists (also called antihistamines) inhibit the action of histamine by blocking histamine H1 receptors, antagonising the vasoconstrictor, and to a lesser extent, the vasodilator effects of histamine. Mast cell stabilisers inhibit degranulation and consequently the release of histamine by interrupting the normal chain of intracellular signals. Topical treatments include eye drops with antihistamines, mast cell stabilisers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, combinations of the previous treatments, and corticosteroids. Standard treatment is based on topical antihistamines alone or topical mast cell stabilisers alone or a combination of treatments. There is clinical uncertainty about the relative efficacy and safety of topical treatment. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers, alone or in combination, for use in treating seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2014, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (, ( and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) ( We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 17 July 2014. We also searched the

  18. Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarel, V.; Nouaille, F.; Rooses, A.; Lambertin, D., E-mail:; Poulesquen, A.; Frizon, F.


    Highlights: • Formulation with 20 vol.% of oil in a geopolymer have been successful tested. • Oil waste is encapsulated as oil droplets in metakaolin-based geopolymer. • Oil/geopolymer composite present good mechanical performance. • Carbon lixiviation of oil/geopolymer composite is very low. - Abstract: The solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin based geopolymer was studied in the present work. The process consists of obtaining a stabilised emulsion of oil in a water-glass solution and then adding metakaolin to engage the setting of a geopolymer block with an oil emulsion stabilised in the material. Geopolymer/oil composites have been made with various oil fraction (7, 14 and 20 vol.%). The rigidity and the good mechanical properties have been demonstrated with compressive strength tests. Leaching tests evidenced the release of oil from the composite material is very limited whereas the constitutive components of the geopolymer (Na, Si and OH{sup −}) are involved into diffusion process.

  19. Stabilisation of periarticular fractures and osteotomies with a notched head locking T-plate. (United States)

    Tan, C J; Johnson, K A


    To report the clinical outcomes and complications of small animals that had articular or periarticular fractures or osteotomies stabilised with a notched head locking T-plate. Medical records were searched retrospectively to identify animals that had a notched head locking T-plate used to stabilise a small articular or periarticular bone fragment. Nine dogs and two cats had an articular or periarticular bone fragment stabilised with a 2.0- or 2.4-mm notched head locking T-plate (12 procedures). The median body weight was 4.7 kg. The plate was modified by removing holes in 10/12 procedures and a combination of locking and non-locking screws were used in 7/12 procedures. All fractures or osteotomies progressed to clinical union. There were two intraoperative complications (intra-articular screw placement and overlong screw) and two postoperative complications (skin necrosis and stress protection) This study reports the successful use of a 2.0- or 2.4-mm notched head locking T-plate for articular or periarticular fractures or osteotomies in a variety of small-breed dogs and cats. Care must be taken to prevent inadvertent penetration of the articular surface, particularly in regions such as the proximal tibia. The ability to modify the plate dimensions intraoperatively proved beneficial in most cases. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Stabilisation of Na,K-ATPase structure by the cardiotonic steroid ouabain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, Andrew J. [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Fedosova, Natalya U. [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Hoffmann, Søren V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Wallace, B.A. [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Esmann, Mikael, E-mail: [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)


    Highlights: •Ouabain binding to pig and shark Na,K-ATPase enhances thermal stability. •Ouabain stabilises both membrane-bound and solubilised Na,K-ATPase. •Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism is used for structure determination. •Secondary structure in general is not affected by ouabain binding. •Stabilisation is due to re-arrangement of tertiary structure. -- Abstract: Cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain bind with high affinity to the membrane-bound cation-transporting P-type Na,K-ATPase, leading to complete inhibition of the enzyme. Using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy we show that the enzyme-ouabain complex is less susceptible to thermal denaturation (unfolding) than the ouabain-free enzyme, and this protection is observed with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney as well as from shark rectal glands. It is also shown that detergent-solubilised preparations of Na,K-ATPase are stabilised by ouabain, which could account for the successful crystallisation of Na,K-ATPase in the ouabain-bound form. The secondary structure is not significantly affected by the binding of ouabain. Ouabain appears however, to induce a reorganization of the tertiary structure towards a more compact protein structure which is less prone to unfolding; recent crystal structures of the two enzymes are consistent with this interpretation. These circular dichroism spectroscopic studies in solution therefore provide complementary information to that provided by crystallography.

  1. HIV-1 Tat potently stabilises Mdm2 and enhances viral replication. (United States)

    Raja, Rameez; Ronsard, Larance; Lata, Sneh; Trivedi, Shubhendu; Banerjea, Akhil C


    Murine double minute 2 (Mdm2) is known to enhance the transactivation potential of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Tat protein by causing its ubiquitination. However, the regulation of Mdm2 during HIV-1 infection and its implications for viral replication have not been well studied. Here, we show that the Mdm2 protein level increases during HIV-1 infection and this effect is mediated by HIV-1 Tat protein. Tat appears to stabilise Mdm2 at the post-translational level by inducing its phosphorylation at serine-166 position through AKT. Although p53 is one of the key players for Mdm2 induction, Tat-mediated stabilisation of Mdm2 appears to be independent of p53. Moreover, the non-phosphorylatable mutant of Mdm2 (S166A) fails to interact with Tat and shows decreased half-life in the presence of Tat compared with wild-type Mdm2. Furthermore, the non-phosphorylatable mutant of Mdm2 (S166A) is unable to support HIV-1 replication. Thus, HIV-1 Tat appears to stabilise Mdm2, which in turn enhances Tat-mediated viral replication. This study highlights the importance of post-translational modifications of host cellular factors in HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Quinoa starch granules: a candidate for stabilising food-grade Pickering emulsions. (United States)

    Rayner, Marilyn; Timgren, Anna; Sjöö, Malin; Dejmek, Petr


    Particle-stabilised emulsions, so-called Pickering emulsions, are known to possess many beneficial properties, including being extremely stable. Starch granules isolated from quinoa have been used as emulsion stabilising particles. The granules were intact, 1-3 µm in diameter and modified with octenyl succinic anhydride to increase their hydrophobicity. Starch granules, as opposed to most other particles used to generate Pickering emulsions, are edible, abundant and derived from natural sources. Emulsions produced by high shear homogenisation had droplet sizes of 9-70 µm depending on the starch-to-oil ratio. Droplet size decreased with increasing starch-to-oil ratio, but was unaffected by the oil phase volume over a range of 5-33% oil (v/v). Although the drops were large and subject to creaming, their size remained unchanged over a period of 7 days. By adjusting the starch-to-oil ratio drops could be made to be buoyancy neutral to prevent creaming. Rheological characterisation indicated a gel structure with an elastic modulus in the range 200-2000 Pa depending on droplet size. This work has demonstrated the successful use of starch granules to stabilise emulsions which may find applications beyond that of food, for example in cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Geotechnical properties of peat soil stabilised with shredded waste tyre chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahgozar


    Full Text Available To accommodate major civil engineering projects in or in the vicinity of peatlands, it is essential to stabilise peat deposits. On the other hand, the accumulation of waste tyres in recent decades has caused environmental problems around the world. An effective remedy for both issues is to use scrap tyre material to stabilise problematic peat soils. This article reports an experimental investigation of the effects of adding shredded tyre chips on the stability and bearing capacity of peat soil. Peat soil samples from the Chaghakhor Wetland (Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran were mixed with sand at a constant dosage of 400 kg m-3 and different percentages (0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % by weight of shredded tyre chips. The unconfined compressive strength, effective cohesion, angle of internal friction and coefficient of permeability were measured for all of these mixtures. The results showed that adding shredded tyre chips significantly improved the geotechnical properties of the peat soil. The mixture with 10 % shredded tyre chips showed the highest unconfined compressive strength; the one with 15 % tyre chips exhibited the highest ductility; and adding 20 % shredded tyre chips provided the highest values for angle of internal friction, effective cohesion and coefficient of permeability. Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM showed that the pore spaces in the stabilised peat were mostly filled with sand.

  4. The Parabolic Variance (PVAR): A Wavelet Variance Based on the Least-Square Fit. (United States)

    Vernotte, Francois; Lenczner, Michel; Bourgeois, Pierre-Yves; Rubiola, Enrico


    This paper introduces the parabolic variance (PVAR), a wavelet variance similar to the Allan variance (AVAR), based on the linear regression (LR) of phase data. The companion article arXiv:1506.05009 [physics.ins-det] details the Ω frequency counter, which implements the LR estimate. The PVAR combines the advantages of AVAR and modified AVAR (MVAR). PVAR is good for long-term analysis because the wavelet spans over 2τ, the same as the AVAR wavelet, and good for short-term analysis because the response to white and flicker PM is 1/τ(3) and 1/τ(2), the same as the MVAR. After setting the theoretical framework, we study the degrees of freedom and the confidence interval for the most common noise types. Then, we focus on the detection of a weak noise process at the transition-or corner-where a faster process rolls off. This new perspective raises the question of which variance detects the weak process with the shortest data record. Our simulations show that PVAR is a fortunate tradeoff. PVAR is superior to MVAR in all cases, exhibits the best ability to divide between fast noise phenomena (up to flicker FM), and is almost as good as AVAR for the detection of random walk and drift.

  5. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the property behaviour of poly(ether-block-amide) blended with various stabilisers (United States)

    Murray, Kieran A.; Kennedy, James E.; Barron, Valerie; McEvoy, Brian; Vrain, Olivier; Ryan, Damien; Cowman, Richard; Higginbotham, Clement L.


    Radiosterilisation can induce modifications and/or degradation to transpire in poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBA) following irradiation. The current investigation utilises combined synergistic mixtures of stabilisers to minimise these effects, by melt blending them with the PEBA material. Hindered amine stabilisers (HAS), primary antioxidants and secondary antioxidants were the stabilisers incorporate to reduce/eliminate the effects of 50 kGy electron beam irradiation dose on the material. Results were discussed by comparing the stabilising efficiency of mixtures on the PEBA material in contrast to the control sample. Dynamic frequency sweeps demonstrated the formation of crosslinks, where the degree of crosslinking was dependent on the combination of stabilisers mixed in the base material (PEBA). The storage modulus displayed that PEBA blended with Irganox 565 had very slight changes in contrast to all other samples following irradiation. However, since this sample is a phenol containing system, severe discolouration was observed in comparison to other samples due to the oxidation of the hindered phenol. Overall, this study provides compelling evidence that a combined synergistic mixture of Irganox 565 (multifunctional phenolic antioxidant) and Tinuvin 783 (hindered amide light stabiliser) with PEBA, resulted in the best radiation stability.

  6. Heterogeneity of variance and its implications on dairy cattle breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and evaluated for within herd variation using univariate animal model procedures. Variance components were estimated by derivative free REML algorithm, and significance tests done using the Fmax procedure. Phenotypic, additive genetic and residual variances were heterogeneous across production environments.

  7. Adjustment for heterogeneous variances due to days in milk and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    models for national genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in South Africa ... Test-Day Model (FRTDM), which assumes equal variances of the response variable at different .... adjusted for heterogeneous variances, BLUEs are the best linear unbiased .... This makes sense as part of the residual variance has already been taken ...

  8. Hidden Item Variance in Multiple Mini-Interview Scores (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki L.; Swoboda, Christopher M.; Kelcey, Benjamin M.; Manuel, R. Stephen


    The extant literature has largely ignored a potentially significant source of variance in multiple mini-interview (MMI) scores by "hiding" the variance attributable to the sample of attributes used on an evaluation form. This potential source of hidden variance can be defined as rating items, which typically comprise an MMI evaluation…

  9. A New Nonparametric Levene Test for Equal Variances (United States)

    Nordstokke, David W.; Zumbo, Bruno D.


    Tests of the equality of variances are sometimes used on their own to compare variability across groups of experimental or non-experimental conditions but they are most often used alongside other methods to support assumptions made about variances. A new nonparametric test of equality of variances is described and compared to current "gold…

  10. On generalisations of Losev-Manin moduli spaces for classical root systems


    Batyrev, Victor; Blume, Mark


    Losev and Manin introduced fine moduli spaces $\\bar{L}_n$ of stable $n$-pointed chains of projective lines. The moduli space $\\bar{L}_{n+1}$ is isomorphic to the toric variety $X(A_n)$ associated with the root system $A_n$, which is part of a general construction to associate with a root system $R$ of rank $n$ an $n$-dimensional smooth projective toric variety $X(R)$. In this paper we investigate generalisations of the Losev-Manin moduli spaces for the other families of classical root systems.

  11. Severe generalised hypersensitivity reaction to topical neomycin after cataract surgery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Imran A


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Systemic hypersensitivity reactions to topical ophthalmic treatment occur rarely, but when they do they can be severe as highlighted by this case. Case presentation A post-operative cataract surgery patient developed a severe and generalised hypersensitivity reaction following topical treatment with Maxitrol (Dexamethasone and Neomycin eye drops. The patient reported a previous allergic reaction to Neomycin. Conclusion This case report emphasises the importance of a thorough drug and allergy history when patients are seen at pre-assessment or clerked in for surgery.

  12. Generalised universality of gauge thresholds in heterotic vacua with and without supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Angelantonj, Carlo; Tsulaia, Mirian


    We study one-loop quantum corrections to gauge couplings in heterotic vacua with spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. Although in non-supersymmetric constructions these corrections are not protected and are typically model dependent, we show how a universal behaviour of threshold differences, typical of supersymmetric vacua, may still persist. We formulate specific conditions on the way supersymmetry should be broken for this to occur. Our analysis implies a generalised notion of threshold universality even in the case of unbroken supersymmetry, whenever extra charged massless states appear at enhancement points in the bulk of moduli space. Several examples with universality, including non-supersymmetric chiral models in four dimensions, are presented.

  13. An ordered generalised extreme value model with application to alcohol consumption in Australia. (United States)

    Harris, Mark N; Ramful, Preety; Zhao, Xueyan


    An Ordered Generalised Extreme Value (OGEV) model by Small (1987) is proposed for application to ordered discrete choice data. Relative to conventional Ordered Probit/Logit (OP/OL) and Multinomial Logit (MNL) models, the OGEV model is flexible, is defined by random utility maximization, and allows for correlation across choices via unobservable individual characteristics according to locations of the choices in the ordering. The OGEV model is applied to unit record data from Australia to study the impacts of prices, income and demographic characteristics on levels of alcohol consumption. Model selection analysis suggests that OGEV is preferred to both OP and MNL for the application.

  14. Modelled temperature-dependent excitability behaviour of a generalised human peripheral sensory nerve fibre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Smit_d2_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 90473 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Smit_d2_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9...-DEPENDENT EXCITABILITY BEHAVIOUR OF A GENERALISED HUMAN PERIPHERAL SENSORY NERVE FIBRE Jacoba E. Smit1, Tania Hanekom and Johan J. Hanekom Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Pretoria, 0002, South...

  15. Generalised Interaction Mining: Probabilistic, Statistical and Vectorised Methods in High Dimensional or Uncertain Databases


    Verhein, Florian


    Knowledge Discovery in Datenbanken (KDD) ist der nicht-triviale Prozess, gültiges, neues, potentiell nützliches und letztendlich verständliches Wissen aus großen Datensätzen zu extrahieren. Der wichtigste Schritt im KDD Prozess ist die Anwendung effizienter Data Mining (DM) Algorithmen um interessante Muster ("Patterns") in Datensätzen zu finden. Diese Dissertation beschäftigt sich mit drei verwandten Themen: Generalised Interaction und Rule Mining, die Einbindung von statistischen Methoden ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sinuvasan


    Full Text Available The Kummer–Schwarz Equation, 2y'y'''− 3(y''2 = 0, has a generalisation, (n − 1y(n−2y(n − ny(n−12 = 0, which shares many properties with the parent form in terms of symmetry and singularity. All equations of the class are integrable in closed form. Here we introduce a new class, (n+q−2y(n−2y(n −(n+q−1y(n−12 = 0, which has different integrability and singularity properties.

  17. Fly ashes as binders for the stabilisation of gravel. Laboratory tests and preparations for a field test; Flygaskor som bindemedel foer stabilisering av grusmaterial. Laboratorieundersoekningar samt foerberedelser infoer provbyggandet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Pentti; Jyraevae, Harri; Maijala, Aino; Macsik, Josef


    The project is based on the results of a significant research project FACE (Fly Ash in Civil Engineering). The project aims at the development of binder recipes based on a chosen fly ash from Holmen Paper's Hallsta Pappersbruk for the renovation of a road. The development will benefit from the Finnish research and experience on this type of binders for geotechnical applications. The stabilisation should result in improving bearing capacity and better long-term durability and service life of the gravel roads. The environmentally friendly stabilisation system comprises also the possibility to reuse and recycle the material that already exists in the road to be renovated. The test materials for the development project were the gravel from a chosen test road and the fly ash of Holmen Paper AB. The fly ash was used as the binder material. The geotechnical tests included characterisation tests of the test materials, tests on the stabilised mixes and control tests for the stabilisation recipe. Also, there were tests for the assessment of the environmental impact of the stabilisation. Side by side with those tests there has been a full-scale test, a separate project in Hallstavik, to test the stabilisation process with respect to the technical, environmental and economical aspects of construction. The full-scale test will be reported separately. The project results imply that fly ash can be beneficially used as a binder for the stabilisation of gravel materials and similar materials. Fly ash can be used also with small amounts of other binder materials like cement or blast-furnace slag in order to have a frost resistant material. The project gives also basis for the development of binders for other types of applications, both for the renovation purposes and for the improvement of spoils for construction purposes.

  18. Meta-analysis of SNPs involved in variance heterogeneity using Levene's test for equal variances


    Deng, Wei Q; Asma, Senay; Paré, Guillaume


    Meta-analysis is a commonly used approach to increase the sample size for genome-wide association searches when individual studies are otherwise underpowered. Here, we present a meta-analysis procedure to estimate the heterogeneity of the quantitative trait variance attributable to genetic variants using Levene's test without needing to exchange individual-level data. The meta-analysis of Levene's test offers the opportunity to combine the considerable sample size of a genome-wide meta-analys...

  19. The impact of manual in-line stabilisation on ventilation and visualisation of the glottis with the LMA CTrach: a randomised crossover trial. (United States)

    Ng, B S W; Goy, R W L; Bain, J A; Chen, F G; Liu, E H C


    The LMA CTrach (CTrach) enables ventilation, glottis visualisation and tracheal intubation via a laryngeal mask conduit. The CTrach has been successfully used in patients with cervical spine pathology, but it is unclear if cervical spine immobilisation affects its ease of use. In this randomised crossover trial, the CTrach was used once with and once without manual in-line stabilisation of the cervical spine in every patient. With manual in-line stabilisation, the median [IQR] time to achieve ventilation was 22 [16-32] s, compared with 19 [13-30] s without stabilisation (p = 0.065). With manual in-line stabilisation, the time to achieving a glottic views was 42 [30-63] s compared with 39 [25-53] s without stabilisation (p = 0.019). There was no difference in the success rates of achieving ventilation and glottic views. These results suggest that manual in-line stabilisation does not affect use of the CTrach.

  20. Lepton mixing predictions including Majorana phases from Δ(6n2 flavour symmetry and generalised CP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F. King


    Full Text Available Generalised CP transformations are the only known framework which allows to predict Majorana phases in a flavour model purely from symmetry. For the first time generalised CP transformations are investigated for an infinite series of finite groups, Δ(6n2=(Zn×Zn⋊S3. In direct models the mixing angles and Dirac CP phase are solely predicted from symmetry. The Δ(6n2 flavour symmetry provides many examples of viable predictions for mixing angles. For all groups the mixing matrix has a trimaximal middle column and the Dirac CP phase is 0 or π. The Majorana phases are predicted from residual flavour and CP symmetries where α21 can take several discrete values for each n and the Majorana phase α31 is a multiple of π. We discuss constraints on the groups and CP transformations from measurements of the neutrino mixing angles and from neutrinoless double-beta decay and find that predictions for mixing angles and all phases are accessible to experiments in the near future.

  1. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner for the treatment of canine generalised demodicosis (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; de Vos, Christa


    The efficacy of oral treatment with a chewable tablet containing afoxolaner 2.27% w/w (NexGard®, Merial) administered orally was assessed in eight dogs diagnosed with generalised demodicosis and compared with efficacy in eight dogs under treatment with a topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate®, Bayer). Afoxolaner was administered at the recommended dose (at least 2.5 mg/kg) on Days 0, 14, 28 and 56. The topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin was given at the same intervals at the recommended concentration. Clinical examinations and deep skin scrapings were performed every month in order to evaluate the effect on mite numbers and the resolution of clinical signs. The percentage reductions of mite counts were 99.2%, 99.9% and 100% on Days 28, 56 and 84, respectively, in the afoxolaner-treated group, compared to 89.8%, 85.2% and 86.6% on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. Skin condition of the dogs also improved significantly from Day 28 to Day 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group. Mite reductions were significantly higher on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group compared to the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. The results of this study demonstrated that afoxolaner, given orally, was effective in treating dogs with generalised demodicosis within a two-month period. PMID:27012161

  2. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner for the treatment of canine generalised demodicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet Frédéric


    Full Text Available The efficacy of oral treatment with a chewable tablet containing afoxolaner 2.27% w/w (NexGard®, Merial administered orally was assessed in eight dogs diagnosed with generalised demodicosis and compared with efficacy in eight dogs under treatment with a topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate®, Bayer. Afoxolaner was administered at the recommended dose (at least 2.5 mg/kg on Days 0, 14, 28 and 56. The topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin was given at the same intervals at the recommended concentration. Clinical examinations and deep skin scrapings were performed every month in order to evaluate the effect on mite numbers and the resolution of clinical signs. The percentage reductions of mite counts were 99.2%, 99.9% and 100% on Days 28, 56 and 84, respectively, in the afoxolaner-treated group, compared to 89.8%, 85.2% and 86.6% on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. Skin condition of the dogs also improved significantly from Day 28 to Day 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group. Mite reductions were significantly higher on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group compared to the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. The results of this study demonstrated that afoxolaner, given orally, was effective in treating dogs with generalised demodicosis within a two-month period.

  3. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner for the treatment of canine generalised demodicosis. (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; de Vos, Christa


    The efficacy of oral treatment with a chewable tablet containing afoxolaner 2.27% w/w (NexGard(®), Merial) administered orally was assessed in eight dogs diagnosed with generalised demodicosis and compared with efficacy in eight dogs under treatment with a topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate(®), Bayer). Afoxolaner was administered at the recommended dose (at least 2.5 mg/kg) on Days 0, 14, 28 and 56. The topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin was given at the same intervals at the recommended concentration. Clinical examinations and deep skin scrapings were performed every month in order to evaluate the effect on mite numbers and the resolution of clinical signs. The percentage reductions of mite counts were 99.2%, 99.9% and 100% on Days 28, 56 and 84, respectively, in the afoxolaner-treated group, compared to 89.8%, 85.2% and 86.6% on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. Skin condition of the dogs also improved significantly from Day 28 to Day 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group. Mite reductions were significantly higher on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group compared to the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. The results of this study demonstrated that afoxolaner, given orally, was effective in treating dogs with generalised demodicosis within a two-month period. © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  4. Time to 12-month remission and treatment failure for generalised and unclassified epilepsy (United States)

    Bonnett, Laura J; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Smith, David; Williamson, Paula R; Chadwick, David; Marson, Anthony G


    Objectives To develop prognostic models for time to 12-month remission and time to treatment failure after initiating antiepileptic drug monotherapy for generalised and unclassified epilepsy. Methods We analysed data from the Standard and New Antiepileptic Drug (arm B) study, a randomised trial that compared initiating treatment with lamotrigine, topiramate and valproate in patients diagnosed with generalised or unclassified epilepsy. Multivariable regression modelling was used to investigate how clinical factors affect the probability of achieving 12-month remission and treatment failure. Results Significant factors in the multivariable model for time to 12-month remission were having a relative with epilepsy, neurological insult, total number of tonic-clonic seizures before randomisation, seizure type and treatment. Significant factors in the multivariable model for time to treatment failure were treatment history (antiepileptic drug treatment prior to randomisation), EEG result, seizure type and treatment. Conclusions The models described within this paper can be used to identify patients most likely to achieve 12-month remission and most likely to have treatment failure, aiding individual patient risk stratification and the design and analysis of future epilepsy trials. PMID:24292995

  5. Total Generalised Variation: An improved regulariser for Electrical Resistivity Tomography inversion. (United States)

    Sibbett, Luke; Chambers, Jonathan; Li, Bai; Wilkinson, Paul


    The regularisation terms used in the inversion of geophysical data affects the structure visible in the solution. The commonly used Tikhonov and Total Variation (TV) regularisers favour smooth and piecewise constant solutions respectively, however unrepresentative solutions arise when the structure of the underlying parameter distribution is not reflected in the regulariser. The Total Generalised Variation (TGV) is a convex higher order generalisation of the TV functional, favouring piecewise smooth solutions. This has particular importance in hydrogeology, where smooth contaminant plumes or wetting fronts can be present alongside the sharp contrasts of engineered structures and geological faults. This behaviour may also show advantages in the time domain, where both gradual and sudden changes may be present. We use a second order TGV regulariser to solve the Electrical Resistivity Tomography inverse problem. Our algorithm decouples the minimisation problem into two components, each equivalent to a TV minimisation problem, which can then be solved alternately using the iteratively reweighted least squares method until a solution is found. We will present our initial synthetic results demonstrating the relative performance of TGV relative to TV and L2 regularisers. The computational cost is comparable to a conventional TV or L2 inversion.

  6. Hybrid Generalised Additive Type-2 Fuzzy-Wavelet-Neural Network in Dynamic Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodyanskiy Yevgeniy


    Full Text Available In the paper, a new hybrid system of computational intelligence is proposed. This system combines the advantages of neuro-fuzzy system of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang, type-2 fuzzy logic, wavelet neural networks and generalised additive models of Hastie-Tibshirani. The proposed system has universal approximation properties and learning capability based on the experimental data sets which pertain to the neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems; interpretability and transparency of the obtained results due to the soft computing systems and, first of all, due to type-2 fuzzy systems; possibility of effective description of local signal and process features due to the application of systems based on wavelet transform; simplicity and speed of learning process due to generalised additive models. The proposed system can be used for solving a wide class of dynamic data mining tasks, which are connected with non-stationary, nonlinear stochastic and chaotic signals. Such a system is sufficiently simple in numerical implementation and is characterised by a high speed of learning and information processing.

  7. Navigation towards a goal position: from reactive to generalised learned control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire da Silva, Valdinei [Laboratorio de Tecnicas Inteligentes - LTI, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.158, Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo (Brazil); Selvatici, Antonio Henrique [Universidade Nove de Julho, Rua Vergueiro, 235, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Reali Costa, Anna Helena, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Laboratorio de Tecnicas Inteligentes - LTI, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.158, Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    The task of navigating to a target position in space is a fairly common task for a mobile robot. It is desirable that this task is performed even in previously unknown environments. One reactive architecture explored before addresses this challenge by denning a hand-coded coordination of primitive behaviours, encoded by the Potential Fields method. Our first approach to improve the performance of this architecture adds a learning step to autonomously find the best way to coordinate primitive behaviours with respect to an arbitrary performance criterion. Because of the limitations presented by the Potential Fields method, especially in relation to non-convex obstacles, we are investigating the use of Relational Reinforcement Learning as a method to not only learn to act in the current environment, but also to generalise prior knowledge to the current environment in order to achieve the goal more quickly in a non-convex structured environment. We show the results of our previous efforts in reaching goal positions along with our current research on generalised approaches.

  8. A Generalised Fault Protection Structure Proposed for Uni-grounded Low-Voltage AC Microgrids (United States)

    Bui, Duong Minh; Chen, Shi-Lin; Lien, Keng-Yu; Jiang, Jheng-Lun


    This paper presents three main configurations of uni-grounded low-voltage AC microgrids. Transient situations of a uni-grounded low-voltage (LV) AC microgrid (MG) are simulated through various fault tests and operation transition tests between grid-connected and islanded modes. Based on transient simulation results, available fault protection methods are proposed for main and back-up protection of a uni-grounded AC microgrid. In addition, concept of a generalised fault protection structure of uni-grounded LVAC MGs is mentioned in the paper. As a result, main contributions of the paper are: (i) definition of different uni-grounded LVAC MG configurations; (ii) analysing transient responses of a uni-grounded LVAC microgrid through line-to-line faults, line-to-ground faults, three-phase faults and a microgrid operation transition test, (iii) proposing available fault protection methods for uni-grounded microgrids, such as: non-directional or directional overcurrent protection, under/over voltage protection, differential current protection, voltage-restrained overcurrent protection, and other fault protection principles not based on phase currents and voltages (e.g. total harmonic distortion detection of currents and voltages, using sequence components of current and voltage, 3I0 or 3V0 components), and (iv) developing a generalised fault protection structure with six individual protection zones to be suitable for different uni-grounded AC MG configurations.

  9. Time to 12-month remission and treatment failure for generalised and unclassified epilepsy. (United States)

    Bonnett, Laura J; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Smith, David; Williamson, Paula R; Chadwick, David; Marson, Anthony G


    To develop prognostic models for time to 12-month remission and time to treatment failure after initiating antiepileptic drug monotherapy for generalised and unclassified epilepsy. We analysed data from the Standard and New Antiepileptic Drug (arm B) study, a randomised trial that compared initiating treatment with lamotrigine, topiramate and valproate in patients diagnosed with generalised or unclassified epilepsy. Multivariable regression modelling was used to investigate how clinical factors affect the probability of achieving 12-month remission and treatment failure. Significant factors in the multivariable model for time to 12-month remission were having a relative with epilepsy, neurological insult, total number of tonic-clonic seizures before randomisation, seizure type and treatment. Significant factors in the multivariable model for time to treatment failure were treatment history (antiepileptic drug treatment prior to randomisation), EEG result, seizure type and treatment. The models described within this paper can be used to identify patients most likely to achieve 12-month remission and most likely to have treatment failure, aiding individual patient risk stratification and the design and analysis of future epilepsy trials.

  10. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of lamotrigine in treatment-resistant generalised epilepsy. (United States)

    Beran, R G; Berkovic, S F; Dunagan, F M; Vajda, F J; Danta, G; Black, A B; Mackenzie, R


    Lamotrigine (LTG) is recognised as effective add-on therapy for focal epilepsies, but this is the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in treatment-resistant generalised epilepsy. The study consisted of 2 x 8-week treatment periods followed by a 4-week washout period. Patients received doses of either 75 or 150 mg daily, depending on their concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Long-term continuation was offered at the end of the study with open-label LTG. Five centres in Australia recruited 26 patients who were having absence, myoclonic, or generalized tonic-clonic seizures or a combination of these. Twenty-two patients completed the study. There was a significant reduction in frequency of both tonic-clonic and absence seizure types with LTG. A 350% decrease in seizures was observed for tonic-clonic seizures in 50% of cases and for absence seizures in 33% of evaluable cases. Rash was the only adverse effect causing discontinuation. Twenty-three of 26 opted for open-label LTG, with 20 still receiving LTG for a mean of 26 months. In these 20, 80% had > or =50% seizure reduction and five (25%) were seizure free. This study shows that LTG is effective add-on therapy in patients with refractory generalised epilepsies. Statistically significant reduction in seizures in both absence and tonic-clonic seizure types was seen even with low doses of LTG.

  11. A generalised Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) for Real Time Control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Grum, Morten


    An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored in the drai......An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored...... in the drainage network, (ii) the expected runoff volume (calculated by radar-based nowcast models) and – most important – (iii) the estimated uncertainty of the runoff forecasts. The inclusion of uncertainty allows for a more confident use of Real Time Control (RTC). Overflow risk is calculated by a flexible...... periods, using a simple conceptual model, is presented. Compared to a traditional local control approach, DORA contributed to reduce CSO volumes from the most sensitive points while reducing total CSO volumes discharged from the catchment. Additionally, the results show that the inclusion of forecasts...

  12. The use of generalised audit software by internal audit functions in a developing country: The purpose of the use of generalised audit software as a data analytics tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. van der Nest


    Full Text Available This article explores the purpose of the use of generalised audit software as a data analytics tool by internal audit functions in the locally controlled banking industry of South Africa. The evolution of the traditional internal audit methodology of collecting audit evidence through the conduct of interviews, the completion of questionnaires, and by testing controls on a sample basis, is long overdue, and such practice in the present technological, data-driven era will soon render such an internal audit function obsolete. The research results indicate that respondents are utilising GAS for a variety of purposes but that its frequency of use is not yet optimal and that there is still much room for improvement for tests of controls purposes. The top five purposes for which the respondents make use of GAS often to always during separate internal audit engagements are: (1 to identify transactions with specific characteristics or control criteria for tests of control purposes; (2 for conducting full population analysis; (3 to identify account balances over a certain amount; (4 to identify and report on the frequency of occurrence of risks or frequency of occurrence of specific events; and (5 to obtain audit evidence about control effectiveness

  13. An interior penalty stabilised incompressible discontinuous Galerkin-Fourier solver for implicit large eddy simulations (United States)

    Ferrer, Esteban


    We present an implicit Large Eddy Simulation (iLES) h / p high order (≥2) unstructured Discontinuous Galerkin-Fourier solver with sliding meshes. The solver extends the laminar version of Ferrer and Willden, 2012 [34], to enable the simulation of turbulent flows at moderately high Reynolds numbers in the incompressible regime. This solver allows accurate flow solutions of the laminar and turbulent 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on moving and static regions coupled through a high order sliding interface. The spatial discretisation is provided by the Symmetric Interior Penalty Discontinuous Galerkin (IP-DG) method in the x-y plane coupled with a purely spectral method that uses Fourier series and allows efficient computation of spanwise periodic three-dimensional flows. Since high order methods (e.g. discontinuous Galerkin and Fourier) are unable to provide enough numerical dissipation to enable under-resolved high Reynolds computations (i.e. as necessary in the iLES approach), we adapt the laminar version of the solver to increase (controllably) the dissipation and enhance the stability in under-resolved simulations. The novel stabilisation relies on increasing the penalty parameter included in the DG interior penalty (IP) formulation. The latter penalty term is included when discretising the linear viscous terms in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These viscous penalty fluxes substitute the stabilising effect of non-linear fluxes, which has been the main trend in implicit LES discontinuous Galerkin approaches. The IP-DG penalty term provides energy dissipation, which is controlled by the numerical jumps at element interfaces (e.g. large in under-resolved regions) such as to stabilise under-resolved high Reynolds number flows. This dissipative term has minimal impact in well resolved regions and its implicit treatment does not restrict the use of large time steps, thus providing an efficient stabilization mechanism for iLES. The IP

  14. Volitional control of anticipatory ocular pursuit responses under stabilised image conditions in humans. (United States)

    Barnes, G; Goodbody, S; Collins, S


    Ocular pursuit responses have been examined in humans in three experiments in which the pursuit target image has been fully or partially stabilised on the fovea by feeding a recorded eye movement signal back to drive the target motion. The objective was to establish whether subjects could volitionally control smooth eye movement to reproduce trajectories of target motion in the absence of a concurrent target motion stimulus. In experiment 1 subjects were presented with a target moving with a triangular waveform in the horizontal axis with a frequency of 0.325 Hz and velocities of +/- 10-50 degrees/s. The target was illuminated twice per cycle for pulse durations (PD) of 160-640 ms as it passed through the centre position; otherwise subjects were in darkness. Subjects initially tracked the target motion in a conventional closed-loop mode for four cycles. Prior to the next target presentation the target image was stabilised on the fovea, so that any target motion generated resulted solely from volitional eye movement. Subjects continued to make anticipatory smooth eye movements both to the left and the right with a velocity trajectory similar to that observed in the closed-loop phase. Peak velocity in the stabilised-image mode was highly correlated with that in the prior closed-loop phase, but was slightly less (84% on average). In experiment 2 subjects were presented with a continuously illuminated target that was oscillated sinusoidally at frequencies of 0.2-1.34 Hz and amplitudes of +/- 5-20 degrees. After four cycles of closed-loop stimulation the image was stabilised on the fovea at the time of peak target displacement. Subjects continued to generate an oscillatory smooth eye velocity pattern that mimicked the sinusoidal motion of the previous closed-loop phase for at least three further cycles. The peak eye velocity generated ranged from 57-95% of that in the closed-loop phase at frequencies up to 0.8 Hz but decreased significantly at 1.34 Hz. In experiment 3

  15. Broadband minimum variance beamforming for ultrasound imaging. (United States)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    A minimum variance (MV) approach for near-field beamforming of broadband data is proposed. The approach is implemented in the frequency domain, and it provides a set of adapted, complex apodization weights for each frequency subband. The performance of the proposed MV beamformer is tested on simulated data obtained using Field II. The method is validated using synthetic aperture data and data obtained from a plane wave emission. Data for 13 point targets and a circular cyst with a radius of 5 mm are simulated. The performance of the MV beamformer is compared with delay-and-sum (DS) using boxcar weights and Hanning weights and is quantified by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the peak-side-lobe level (PSL). Single emission {DS boxcar, DS Hanning, MV} provide a PSL of {-16, -36, -49} dB and a FWHM of {0.79, 1.33, 0.08} mm. Using all 128 emissions, {DS boxcar, DS Hanning, MV} provides a PSL of {-32, -49, -65} dB, and a FWHM of {0.63, 0.97, 0.08} mm. The contrast of the beamformed single emission responses of the circular cyst was calculated as {-18, -37, -40} dB. The simulations have shown that the frequency subband MV beamformer provides a significant increase in lateral resolution compared with DS, even when using considerably fewer emissions. An increase in resolution is seen when using only one single emission. Furthermore, the effect of steering vector errors is investigated. The steering vector errors are investigated by applying an error of the sound speed estimate to the ultrasound data. As the error increases, it is seen that the MV beamformer is not as robust compared with the DS beamformer with boxcar and Hanning weights. Nevertheless, it is noted that the DS does not outperform the MV beamformer. For errors of 2% and 4% of the correct value, the FWHM are {0.81, 1.25, 0.34} mm and {0.89, 1.44, 0.46} mm, respectively.

  16. Stabilisation of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) anthocyanins by different pectins. (United States)

    Buchweitz, M; Speth, M; Kammerer, D R; Carle, R


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different pectins on strawberry anthocyanins in viscous model solutions at pH 3.0. For this purpose, low esterified amidated, low and high methyl esterified citrus and apple pectins, and a sugar beet pectin (SBP), respectively, were added to strawberry extracts. The latter were predominantly composed of pelargonidin-glycosides, containing either reduced (E-1) or original amounts of non-anthocyanin phenolics (E-2). Model systems were stored for 18 weeks at 20±0.5 °C protected from light, and anthocyanins were quantitated in regular intervals by HPLC-DAD analyses. Half-life (t1/2) and destruction (D) values were calculated based on first-order kinetics. Generally, significant differences in pigment retention could be ascribed to differing pectin sources, while variation in the degree of esterification and amidation, respectively, had negligible effects. Compared to systems without added pectin, apple pectins and SPB enhanced anthocyanin stability moderately, while stabilising effects of citrus pectins were poor or even imperceptible. Generally, the amount of non-anthocyanin phenolics and the addition of citrate did not markedly affect anthocyanin stability. However, pectins had no influence on total phenolic contents (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) and antioxidant capacities (FRAP and TEAC assay) of strawberry phenolics over time. For pelargonidin-3-glucoside and -rutinoside largely consistent stabilities were found in all model systems. In contrast, pelargonidin-3-malonylglucoside was less stable in the blank, and stabilisation by pectins was always negligible. The findings of the present study are contrary to results reported previously for the stabilisation of cyanidin- and delphinidin-glycosides in similar model systems prepared with black currant extracts, indicating a high impact of the number of hydroxyl groups in the anthocyanin B-ring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ANOVA and the variance homogeneity assumption: Exploring a better gatekeeper. (United States)

    Kim, Yoosun Jamie; Cribbie, Robert A


    Valid use of the traditional independent samples ANOVA procedure requires that the population variances are equal. Previous research has investigated whether variance homogeneity tests, such as Levene's test, are satisfactory as gatekeepers for identifying when to use or not to use the ANOVA procedure. This research focuses on a novel homogeneity of variance test that incorporates an equivalence testing approach. Instead of testing the null hypothesis that the variances are equal against an alternative hypothesis that the variances are not equal, the equivalence-based test evaluates the null hypothesis that the difference in the variances falls outside or on the border of a predetermined interval against an alternative hypothesis that the difference in the variances falls within the predetermined interval. Thus, with the equivalence-based procedure, the alternative hypothesis is aligned with the research hypothesis (variance equality). A simulation study demonstrated that the equivalence-based test of population variance homogeneity is a better gatekeeper for the ANOVA than traditional homogeneity of variance tests. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Dicondylar humeral fracture stabilisation in a dog using a transilial rod and external fixation. (United States)

    Au, K; Mattern, K L; Lewis, D D


    Repair of a Salter-Harris type IV dicondylar humeral fracture was performed on a 15-week-old pitbull terrier. Interfragmentary compression of the intracondylar component of the fracture was achieved with a transilial rod and locking nuts (Trans-ilial Rod; IMEX Veterinary, Inc.). The transilial rod was articulated with a modified type I external fixator which functioned as adjunctive stabilisation for the supracondylar component of the fracture. Fracture healing was confirmed radiographically five weeks following surgery. The dog had no appreciable lameness when examined 12 months after fracture repair.

  19. An update of stabilisation exercises for low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis. (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Littlewood, Chris; May, Stephen


    Non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) is a large and costly problem. It has a lifetime prevalence of 80% and results in high levels of healthcare cost. It is a major cause for long term sickness amongst the workforce and is associated with high levels of fear avoidance and kinesiophobia. Stabilisation (or 'core stability') exercises have been suggested to reduce symptoms of pain and disability and form an effective treatment. Despite it being the most commonly used form of physiotherapy treatment within the UK there is a lack of positive evidence to support its use. The aims of this systematic review update is to investigate the effectiveness of stabilisation exercises for the treatment of NSLBP, and compare any effectiveness to other forms of exercise. A systematic review published in 2008 was updated with a search of PubMed, CINAHL, AMED, Pedro and The Cochrane Library, October 2006 to October 2013. Two authors independently selected studies, and two authors independently extracted the data. Methodological quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Meta-analysis was carried out when appropriate. 29 studies were included: 22 studies (n = 2,258) provided post treatment effect on pain and 24 studies (n = 2,359) provided post treatment effect on disability. Pain and disability scores were transformed to a 0 to 100 scale. Meta-analysis showed significant benefit for stabilisation exercises versus any alternative treatment or control for long term pain and disability with mean difference of -6.39 (95% CI -10.14 to -2.65) and -3.92 (95% CI -7.25 to -0.59) respectively. The difference between groups was clinically insignificant. When compared with alternative forms of exercise, there was no statistical or clinically significant difference. Mean difference for pain was -3.06 (95% CI -6.74 to 0.63) and disability -1.89 (95% CI -5.10 to 1.33). There is strong evidence stabilisation exercises are not more effective than any other form of active exercise in the long

  20. Using a Gyro as a Tool for Continuously Variable Lateral Stabilisation of Dynamic Bipeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Mayer


    Full Text Available We present simulations of different types of biped walking machines that are stabilized in the lateral direction by adding a gyro. The simulations show that, in principle, it is indeed possible to stabilise biped walking machines. Examples presented in this work include a three-dimensional version of the simplest walking model, which is based on earlier investigations, and an actuated biped robot. Here, the gyro is used as a reaction wheel. Finally, a rotor–brake combination is outlined that was used in an artistic biped robot at the Aichi World Exhibition.

  1. Experimental Investigations of Decentralised Control Design for The Stabilisation of Rotor-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Niemann, Hans Henrik


    directions. Hardening and softening P-lead controllers are designed based on the models experimentally identified, and salient features of both controllers are discussed. Both controllers are implemented and validated on the physical test rig. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed......-Box identification for the design of stabilising controllers, capable of enabling the active lubrication of the journal. The root locus analysis shows that two different control solutions are feasible for the dampening of the first two eigenfrequencies of the rotor-gas bearing in the horizontal and vertical...

  2. Optimal Operation and Stabilising Control of the Concentric Heat-Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Skogestad, Sigurd; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted


    A systematic control structure design method is applied on the concentric heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) separating benzene and toluene. A degrees of freedom analysis is provided for identifying potential manipulated and controlled variables. Optimal operation is mapped and active...... constraints are identified for constructing the supervisory control layer. The fundamental problem of obtaining a stabilising control structure is addressed resulting in the regulatory control layer design. A supervisory control layer is devised and combined with the regulatory control layer. The control...



    Moir, Brian; Piggott, Roley R.


    In this paper a preliminary analysis is presented of a combined buffer-fund and buffer-stock as an alternative to a pure buffer-fund or a pure buffer stock for stabilising wool prices. The alternatives analysed are designed so that each provides the same prices to producers as did the Reserve Price Scheme over the period of analysis. Least-cost combinations of policy instruments are derived. The results show that there is considerable potential for cost savings to be made by combining buffer-...

  4. The purification, characterisation and stabilisation of a soluble pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase from bovine brain


    McKeon, Ultan


    Cytosolic bovine brain pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase was purified from whole brain by chromatography with DEAE sepharose, G100 gel filtration and ATS 4B affinity chromatography. An overall recovery of 14.4% and a purifiaction factor of 247 was achieved. The relative molecular mass of PAP-I, determined by SDS PAGE, was found to be 24,680 Da. The partially purified and purified enzyme was found to be relatively unstable under assay conditions. Of all the additives tested as stabilisers only B...

  5. Production, stabilisation and characterisation of silver nanoparticles coated with bioactive polymers pluronic F68, PVP and PVA. (United States)

    Santos, Carolina A; Balcão, Victor M; Chaud, Marco V; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Rai, Mahendra; Vila, Marta M D C


    The increasing and alarming panorama of bacterial infections and associated morbidities that occur during medical and hospital procedures makes the development of technologies that aid in controlling such bacterial infections of utmost importance. Recent studies have shown that formulations with metal nanoparticles exhibit good antibacterial properties against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Moreover, it was demonstrated that some biologically active polymeric materials, when applied in combination with chemical antimicrobial agents, enhance the therapeutic action of the latter. The research effort entertained herein aimed at the physico-chemical characterisation of silver nanoparticles obtained by chemical reduction, stabilised by bioactive polymers polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinylpyrrolidone, and further co-stabilised by pluronic F68. Scanning electron microscopy images of the nanoparticles produced, coated with different stabilisers, have shown that the chemical nature of the stabilisation effect promoted incorporation of pluronic in the nanoparticles and was closely related to an increase in the silver concentration in the nanoparticle samples obtained via energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The study described herein also shows that the nature of the stabiliser favours the interaction of pluronic F68 with samples containing silver nanoparticles.

  6. Response diversity to land use occurs but does not consistently stabilise ecosystem services provided by native pollinators. (United States)

    Cariveau, Daniel P; Williams, Neal M; Benjamin, Faye E; Winfree, Rachael


    More diverse biological communities may provide ecosystem services that are less variable over space or time. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are rarely investigated empirically in real-world ecosystems. Here, we investigate how a potentially important stabilising mechanism, response diversity, the differential response to environmental change among species, stabilises pollination services against land-use change. We measured crop pollination services provided by native bees across land-use gradients in three crop systems. We found that bee species responded differentially to increasing agricultural land cover in all three systems, demonstrating that response diversity occurs. Similarly, we found response diversity in pollination services in two of the systems. However, there was no evidence that response diversity, in general, stabilised ecosystem services. Our results suggest that either response diversity is not the primary stabilising mechanism in our system, or that new measures of response diversity are needed that better capture the stabilising effects it provides. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Methods for calculating confidence and credible intervals for the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regression models (United States)


    Background Meta-regression is becoming increasingly used to model study level covariate effects. However this type of statistical analysis presents many difficulties and challenges. Here two methods for calculating confidence intervals for the magnitude of the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regression models are developed. A further suggestion for calculating credible intervals using informative prior distributions for the residual between-study variance is presented. Methods Two recently proposed and, under the assumptions of the random effects model, exact methods for constructing confidence intervals for the between-study variance in random effects meta-analyses are extended to the meta-regression setting. The use of Generalised Cochran heterogeneity statistics is extended to the meta-regression setting and a Newton-Raphson procedure is developed to implement the Q profile method for meta-analysis and meta-regression. WinBUGS is used to implement informative priors for the residual between-study variance in the context of Bayesian meta-regressions. Results Results are obtained for two contrasting examples, where the first example involves a binary covariate and the second involves a continuous covariate. Intervals for the residual between-study variance are wide for both examples. Conclusions Statistical methods, and R computer software, are available to compute exact confidence intervals for the residual between-study variance under the random effects model for meta-regression. These frequentist methods are almost as easily implemented as their established counterparts for meta-analysis. Bayesian meta-regressions are also easily performed by analysts who are comfortable using WinBUGS. Estimates of the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regressions should be routinely reported and accompanied by some measure of their uncertainty. Confidence and/or credible intervals are well-suited to this purpose. PMID:25196829

  8. First-order variance of travel time in nonstationary formations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olaf A. Cirpka; Wolfgang Nowak


    ... is the variance of travel time, i.e., the time it takes for a solute particle to be transported from the release point to an observation plane [ Shapiro and Cvetkovic , 1988 ; Dagan et al. , 1992 ]. The travel time is also given by the first temporal moment of a concentration breakthrough curve normalized by its zeroth moment [ Harvey and Gorelick , 1995 ]. Together with the variance of lateral displacement, the travel time variance has been used in solute‐flux approaches to macrod...

  9. A New Nonparametric Levene Test for Equal Variances


    Bruno D. Zumbo; David W. Nordstokke


    Tests of the equality of variances are sometimes used on their own to compare variability across groups of experimental or non-experimental conditions but they are most often used alongside other methods to support assumptions made about variances. A new nonparametric test of equality of variances is described and compared to current 'gold standard' method, the median-based Levene test, in a computer simulation study. The simulation results show that when sampling from either symmetric or ske...

  10. Network Structure and Biased Variance Estimation in Respondent Driven Sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton M Verdery

    Full Text Available This paper explores bias in the estimation of sampling variance in Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS. Prior methodological work on RDS has focused on its problematic assumptions and the biases and inefficiencies of its estimators of the population mean. Nonetheless, researchers have given only slight attention to the topic of estimating sampling variance in RDS, despite the importance of variance estimation for the construction of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. In this paper, we show that the estimators of RDS sampling variance rely on a critical assumption that the network is First Order Markov (FOM with respect to the dependent variable of interest. We demonstrate, through intuitive examples, mathematical generalizations, and computational experiments that current RDS variance estimators will always underestimate the population sampling variance of RDS in empirical networks that do not conform to the FOM assumption. Analysis of 215 observed university and school networks from Facebook and Add Health indicates that the FOM assumption is violated in every empirical network we analyze, and that these violations lead to substantially biased RDS estimators of sampling variance. We propose and test two alternative variance estimators that show some promise for reducing biases, but which also illustrate the limits of estimating sampling variance with only partial information on the underlying population social network.

  11. Network Structure and Biased Variance Estimation in Respondent Driven Sampling. (United States)

    Verdery, Ashton M; Mouw, Ted; Bauldry, Shawn; Mucha, Peter J


    This paper explores bias in the estimation of sampling variance in Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Prior methodological work on RDS has focused on its problematic assumptions and the biases and inefficiencies of its estimators of the population mean. Nonetheless, researchers have given only slight attention to the topic of estimating sampling variance in RDS, despite the importance of variance estimation for the construction of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. In this paper, we show that the estimators of RDS sampling variance rely on a critical assumption that the network is First Order Markov (FOM) with respect to the dependent variable of interest. We demonstrate, through intuitive examples, mathematical generalizations, and computational experiments that current RDS variance estimators will always underestimate the population sampling variance of RDS in empirical networks that do not conform to the FOM assumption. Analysis of 215 observed university and school networks from Facebook and Add Health indicates that the FOM assumption is violated in every empirical network we analyze, and that these violations lead to substantially biased RDS estimators of sampling variance. We propose and test two alternative variance estimators that show some promise for reducing biases, but which also illustrate the limits of estimating sampling variance with only partial information on the underlying population social network.

  12. RR-Interval variance of electrocardiogram for atrial fibrillation detection (United States)

    Nuryani, N.; Solikhah, M.; Nugoho, A. S.; Afdala, A.; Anzihory, E.


    Atrial fibrillation is a serious heart problem originated from the upper chamber of the heart. The common indication of atrial fibrillation is irregularity of R peak-to-R-peak time interval, which is shortly called RR interval. The irregularity could be represented using variance or spread of RR interval. This article presents a system to detect atrial fibrillation using variances. Using clinical data of patients with atrial fibrillation attack, it is shown that the variance of electrocardiographic RR interval are higher during atrial fibrillation, compared to the normal one. Utilizing a simple detection technique and variances of RR intervals, we find a good performance of atrial fibrillation detection.

  13. Study of the electronics architecture for the mechanical stabilisation of the quadrupoles of the CLIC linear accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Fernandez Carmona, P; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C; Janssens, S; Kuzmin, A; Slaathaug, A


    To reach a sufficient luminosity, the transverse beam sizes and emittances in future linear particle accelerators should be reduced to the nanometer level. Mechanical stabilisation of the quadrupole magnets is of the utmost importance for this. The piezo actuators used for this purpose can also be used to make fast incremental orientation adjustments with a nanometer resolution. The main requirements for the CLIC stabilisation electronics is a robust, low noise, low delay, high accuracy and resolution, low band and radiation resistant feedback control loop. Due to the high number of controllers (about 4000) a cost optimization should also be made. Different architectures are evaluated for a magnet stabilisation prototype, including the sensors type and configuration, partition between software and hardware for control algorithms, and optimization of the ADC/DAC converters. The controllers will be distributed along the 50 km long accelerator and a communication bus should allow external control. Furthermore, o...

  14. Carbon nanoparticle stabilised liquid|liquid micro-interfaces for electrochemically driven ion-transfer processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Stuart M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Fletcher, Paul D.I.; Cui Zhenggang [Department of Physical Sciences, Chemistry and Physics, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Opallo, Marcin [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Chen Jingyuan [Department of Applied Physics, University of Fukui, 3-9-1, Bunkyo, Fukui-shi 910-8507 (Japan); Marken, Frank [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    Stabilised liquid|liquid interfaces between an organic 4-(3-phenylpropyl)-pyridine (PPP) phase and an aqueous electrolyte phase are obtained in the presence of suitable nanoparticles. The use of nanoparticulate stabilisers (ca. 30 nm diameter laponite or 9-18 nm diameter carbon) in 'Pickering' emulsion systems allows stable organic microdroplets to be formed and these are readily deposited onto conventional tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) electrodes. In contrast to the electrically insulating laponite nanoparticles, conducting carbon nanoparticles are shown to effectively catalyse the simultaneous electron transfer and ion transfer process at triple phase boundary junctions. Anion transfer processes between the aqueous and organic phase are driven electrochemically at the extensive triple phase junction carbon nanoparticle|4-(3-phenylpropyl)-pyridine|aqueous electrolyte. The organic phase consists of a redox active reagent 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinato manganese(III) (MnTPP{sup +}), 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinato iron(III) (FeTPP{sup +}), or proto-porphyrinato-IX iron(III) (hemin) dissolved in 4-(3-phenylpropyl)-pyridine (PPP). The composition of the aqueous electrolyte phase determines the reversible potential for the Nernstian anion transfer process. The methodology is shown to be versatile and, in future, could be applied more generally in liquid|liquid electroanalysis.

  15. Lipid oxidation in minced beef meat with added Krebs cycle substrates to stabilise colour. (United States)

    Yi, G; Grabež, V; Bjelanovic, M; Slinde, E; Olsen, K; Langsrud, O; Phung, V T; Haug, A; Oostindjer, M; Egelandsdal, B


    Krebs cycle substrates (KCS) can stabilise the colour of packaged meat by oxygen reduction. This study tested whether this reduction releases reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid oxidation in minced meat under two different storage conditions. KCS combinations of succinate and glutamate increased peroxide forming potential (PFP, 1.18-1.32 mmol peroxides/kg mince) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, 0.30-0.38 mg malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents/kg mince) under low oxygen storage conditions. Both succinate and glutamate were metabolised. Moreover, under high oxygen (75%) storage conditions, KCS combinations of glutamate, citrate and malate increased PFP (from 1.22 to 1.29 mmol peroxides/kg) and TBARS (from 0.37 to 0.40 mg MDA equivalents/kg mince). Only glutamate was metabolised. The KCS combinations that were added to stabilise colour were metabolised during storage, and acted as pro-oxidants that promoted lipid oxidation in both high and low oxygen conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Combined intra-extra-articular technique for stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation. Preliminary results in two dogs. (United States)

    Venturini, A; Pinna, S; Tamburro, R


    To report a new technique for repairing traumatic cranio-dorsal coxofemoral luxation in dogs. Stabilisation of hip luxation was carried out in two dogs: a one-year-old male Border Collie and an eight-year-old female American Staffordshire Bull Terrier. A caudal approach was performed to expose the hip joint. Following this, a 2.5 mm hole was drilled through the acetabular wall at the original attachment of the round ligament, followed by a tunnel between the fovea capitis and the proximal third of the femur. Nylon tape was tied in a clove hitch knot around the femoral neck. The tape was placed as a bridge over the ischial spine to create an acetabular roof in order to increase articular stabilisation. Follow-up examinations were performed at 10, 40 and 90 days after surgery.The dogs did not show any signs of lameness, pain or reoccurrence of the luxation during any of the follow-up examinations. This tape-technique enabled reinforcement of the acetabular roof which in turn increased the stability of the joint.

  17. Long-term results of transarticular pinning for surgical stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation in 20 cats. (United States)

    Sissener, T R; Whitelock, R G; Langley-Hobbs, S J


    The objective of this study was to describe initial and long-term results of open reduction and transarticular pinning for treatment of coxofemoral luxations in cats. Cats were treated by open reduction and transarticular pinning for coxofemoral luxation over a five year period at two institutions. Follow-up assessment included orthopaedic examination, radiography and owner questionnaires. Twenty cats were included in the study (14 males and six females). One cat was affected bilaterally. Mean time to follow-up was 21 months. Seventeen joints were stabilised with a 1.6 mm pin, three with 2.0 mm pins and a 1.2 mm pin was used in the remaining joint. An Ehmer sling was not utilised in any case. All transarticular pins except one were removed (mean 3.5 weeks), with all hips still in reduction The overall success rate was 77 per cent, with two reluxations and one resorbed femoral head noted on radiographs of 13 joints followed long term. All 20 owners reported good to excellent long-term functional outcome for their cats. Results from this study indicate that transarticular pinning for stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation in cats can provide a good long-term outcome without sacrificing the integrity of the coxofemoral joint.

  18. Exponential stabilisation for time-varying delay system with actuator faults: an average dwell time method (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Shao, Cheng


    The issue of exponential stabilisation for a class of special time-varying delay switched systems resulting from actuator faults is considered in this article. The time-varying delay is assumed to belong to an interval and can be a slow or fast time-varying function. A hybrid state feedback strategy is redesigned to guarantee the system stable since the original controller is unavailable for some actuators failures. A class of switching laws incorporating the average dwell time method is proposed so that the special switched system with interval time-varying delay is exponentially stable. New delay-range-dependent stabilisation conditions using state feedback controllers are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) by choosing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional without neglecting some useful knowledge on system states. Parameterised characterisations of the controllers are given in terms of the feasibility solutions to the LMIs. Two numeral examples are given to demonstrate the applicability and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Physiological bicarbonate buffers: stabilisation and use as dissolution media for modified release systems. (United States)

    Fadda, Hala M; Merchant, Hamid A; Arafat, Basel T; Basit, Abdul W


    Bicarbonate media are reflective of the ionic composition and buffer capacity of small intestinal luminal fluids. Here we investigate methods to stabilise bicarbonate buffers which can be readily applied to USP-II dissolution apparatus. The in vitro drug release behaviour of three enteric coated mesalazine (mesalamine) products is investigated. Asacol 400 mg and Asacol 800 mg (Asacol HD) and the new generation, high dose (1200 mg) delayed and sustained release formulation, Mezavant (Lialda), are compared in pH 7.4 Krebs bicarbonate and phosphate buffers. Bicarbonate stabilisation was achieved by: continuous sparging of the medium with 5% CO(2)(g), application of a layer of liquid paraffin above the medium, or a specially designed in-house seal device that prevents CO(2)(g) loss. Each of the products displayed a delayed onset of drug release in physiological bicarbonate media compared to phosphate buffer. Moreover, Mezavant displayed a zero-order, sustained release profile in phosphate buffer; in bicarbonate media, however, this slow drug release was no longer apparent and a profile similar to that of Asacol 400 mg was observed. These similar release patterns of Asacol 400 mg and Mezavant displayed in bicarbonate media are in agreement with their pharmacokinetic profiles in humans. Bicarbonate media provide a better prediction of the in vivo behaviour of the mesalazine preparations investigated.

  20. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy v. stabilisation as usual for refugees: randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Ter Heide, F Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M; van de Schoot, Rens; de Jongh, Ad; Kleber, Rolf J


    Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a first-line treatment for adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Some clinicians argue that with refugees, directly targeting traumatic memories through EMDR may be harmful or ineffective. To determine the safety and efficacy of EMDR in adult refugees with PTSD (trial registration: ISRCTN20310201). In total, 72 refugees referred for specialised treatment were randomly assigned to 12 h of EMDR (3×60 min planning/preparation followed by 6×90 min desensitisation/reprocessing) or 12 h (12×60 min) of stabilisation. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) were primary outcome measures. Intention-to-treat analyses found no differences in safety (one severe adverse event in the stabilisation condition only) or efficacy (effect sizes: CAPS -0.04 and HTQ 0.20) between the two conditions. Directly targeting traumatic memories through 12 h of EMDR in refugee patients needing specialised treatment is safe, but is only of limited efficacy. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  1. En route vers la nano stabilisation de CLIC faisceau principale et focalisation finale

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, Claude; Lackner, F; CERN. Geneva. TS Department


    Pour atteindre la luminosité voulue de CLIC, la taille transversale du faisceau doit être de l?ordre du nanomètre. Ceci nécessite une stabilité vibratoire des quadripôles du faisceau principal de 1 nm et même 0.1 nm pour les doublets de la focalisation finale. La nano technologie et la nano stabilisation sont des activités qui évoluent rapidement dans l?industrie et centres de recherche pour des applications très variées comme l?électronique, l?optique, la chimie voire la médecine. Cette présentation décrit les avancées techniques nécessaires pour atteindre l?objectif de CLIC et les projets et collaborations R&D prévus pour démontrer la faisabilité de la nano stabilisation de CLIC en 2010.

  2. Effects of agrochemicals, ultra violet stabilisers and solar radiation on the radiometric properties of greenhouse films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Vox


    Full Text Available Agrochemicals, based on iron, sulphur and chlorine, generate by products that lead to a degradation of greenhouse films together with a decrease in their mechanical and physical properties. The degradation due to agrochemicals depends on their active principles, method and frequency of application, and greenhouse ventilation. The aim of the research was to evaluate how agrochemical contamination and solar radiation influence the radiometric properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer greenhouse films by means of laboratory and field tests. The films, manufactured on purpose with the addition of different light stabiliser systems, were exposed to natural outdoor weathering at the experimental farm of the University of Bari (Italy; 41° 05’ N in the period from 2006 to 2008. Each film was tested for two low tunnels: one low tunnel was sprayed from inside with the agrochemicals containing iron, chlorine and sulphur while the other one was not sprayed and served as control. Radiometric laboratory tests were carried out on the new films and on samples taken at the end of the trials. The experimental tests showed that both the natural weathering together with the agrochemicals did not modify significantly the radiometric properties of the films in the solar and in the photosynthetically active radiation wavelength range. Within six months of experimental field tests the variations in these radiometric characteristics were at most 10%. Significant variations, up to 70% of the initial value, were recorded for the stabilised films in the long-wave infrared radiation wavelength range.

  3. Hydraulic retention time on vinasse stabilisation with limestone in the acidogenic phase of anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Plácido Tomielis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main problem in anaerobic digestion of low-protein residues is the instability caused acidity. The use of limestone at the same time as a neutralizing agent and support material is innovative because stones wear allows the slow release of the calcium carbonate thereby eliminating dispersers. Free calcium content in the system was measured in two plug flow reactors filled with vinasse at initial pH of 4.50. The proportion of 1.8 tonnes of limestone per m³ of vinasse was evaluated at the Hydraulic Retention Times (HRT of 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours, allowing stabilisation at 96 hours. The ratio of Volatile Acids/Total Alkalinity (VA/TA ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 and the pH reached 7.0, at the HRT of 120 hours. Increasing the HRT also increased the volatile total solids (VTS and fixed total solids (TFS in a similar profile to the measured free calcium content, but calcium remained at the appropriate level of 100 to 250mg l-1. The proportion of limestone/vinasse was adequate to ensure stabilisation, but it is not recommended to reduce the HRT below 96 hours due to the risk of compromising the stability of the anaerobic system.

  4. Characterisation of Physicochemical Properties of Propionylated Corn Starch and Its Application as Stabiliser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Fen Hong


    Full Text Available A series of propionylated starches with diff erent degrees of substitution (DS was synthesised and their physicochemical properties and application as a stabiliser were investigated. Starch propionates with moderate DS were prepared by esterifi cation of native corn starch with propionic anhydride. By varying the reaction times of the esterification process, twelve starch propionates with DS of 0.47 to 0.94 were prepared. FTIR and NMR confirmed the introduction of propionyl groups to the starch. X-ray diffraction pattern showed reduced crystallinity in the starch propionates. The contact angle was found to increase proportionately with the increase in DS. Swelling power results showed that starch propionates were able to swell more than native corn starch at low temperature (40°C. Oil-in-water (O/W emulsions prepared using starch propionates (DS of 0.64 to 0.86 showed exceptional stability when challenged by centrifugation stress test. These stable O/W emulsions had viscosities in the range of 1236.7–3330.0 mPa·s. In conclusion, moderately substituted short-chain (propionylated starches could be a promising cold swelling starch, thickener and O/W emulsion stabiliser in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  5. A Scott bench with ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad improves body posture during preacher arm curl exercise. (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Busti, Daniele; Zanuso, Silvano


    We assessed whether the use of an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad, during the preacher arm curl exercise, could significantly reduce the excessive shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis induced by the standard flat pad built into the existing preacher arm curl equipment. A 3D motion capture system and inclinometers were used to measure shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis in 15 subjects performing preacher arm curl with a plate-loaded machine provided with the standard flat pad. The same measures were repeated after replacing the flat pad with a new ergonomic pad, specifically designed to accommodate the thorax profile and improve body posture. Pad replacement significantly (p ergonomic pad may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort and reduce the risk of injury. Practitioner summary: We have designed an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad for the preacher arm curl exercise. The new ergonomic pad improves the poor posture conditions induced by the standard flat pad and may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort, improve the breathing function and reduce the risk of injury.

  6. Darwin without borders? Looking at 'generalised Darwinism' through the prism of the 'hourglass model'. (United States)

    Levit, Georgy S; Hossfeld, Uwe


    This article critically analyzes the arguments of the 'generalized Darwinism' recently proposed for the analysis of social-economical systems. We argue that 'generalized Darwinism' is both restrictive and empty. It is restrictive because it excludes alternative (non-selectionist) evolutionary mechanisms such as orthogenesis, saltationism and mutationism without any examination of their suitability for modeling socio-economic processes and ignoring their important roles in the development of contemporary evolutionary theory. It is empty, because it reduces Darwinism to an abstract triple-principle scheme (variation, selection and inheritance) thus ignoring the actual structure of Darwinism as a complex and dynamic theoretical structure inseparable from a very detailed system of theoretical constraints. Arguing against 'generalised Darwinism' we present our vision of the history of evolutionary biology with the help of the 'hourglass model' reflecting the internal dynamic of competing theories of evolution.

  7. Neutrino mixing and leptonic CP violation from S 4 flavour and generalised CP symmetries (United States)

    Penedo, J. T.; Petcov, S. T.; Titov, A. V.


    We consider a class of models of neutrino mixing with S 4 lepton flavour symmetry combined with a generalised CP symmetry, which are broken to residual Z 2 and Z 2 × H CP ν symmetries in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors, respectively, H CP ν being a remnant CP symmetry of the neutrino Majorana mass term. In this set-up the neutrino mixing angles and CP violation (CPV) phases of the neutrino mixing matrix depend on three real parameters — two angles and a phase. We classify all phenomenologically viable mixing patterns and derive predictions for the Dirac and Majorana CPV phases. Further, we use the results obtained on the neutrino mixing angles and leptonic CPV phases to derive predictions for the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double beta decay.

  8. Generalised spheroidal spacetimes in 5-D Einstein--Maxwell--Gauss--Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hansraj, Sudan


    We develop the field equations governing the behaviour of static charged perfect fluid spheres in the Einstein--Maxwell--Gauss--Bonnet (EMGB) theory of gravitation. The field equations are transformed to an equivalent from through a coordinate redefinition. It is necessary to prescribe two of the geometrical or dynamical variables at the outset to close the system. We select a form for one of the metric potentials that generalises the spheroidal ansatz of Vaidya--Tikekar superdense stars and additionally we prescribe the electric field intensity. We consider some special cases of the general solution. In particular the Finch--Skea ansatz is examined in detail and found to satisfy the elementary physical requirements. These include positivity of pressure and density, the existence of a pressure free hypersurface marking the boundary, continuity with the exterior metric, a subluminal sound speed as well as the energy conditions. Moreover, the solution possesses no coordinate singularities. The case of a constan...

  9. The Langevin and generalised Langevin approach to the dynamics of atomic, polymeric and colloidal systems

    CERN Document Server

    Snook, Ian


    The Langevin and Generalised Langevin Approach To The Dynamics Of Atomic, Polymeric And Colloidal Systems is concerned with the description of aspects of the theory and use of so-called random processes to describe the properties of atomic, polymeric and colloidal systems in terms of the dynamics of the particles in the system. It provides derivations of the basic equations, the development of numerical schemes to solve them on computers and gives illustrations of application to typical systems.Extensive appendices are given to enable the reader to carry out computations to illustrate many of the points made in the main body of the book.* Starts from fundamental equations* Gives up-to-date illustration of the application of these techniques to typical systems of interest* Contains extensive appendices including derivations, equations to be used in practice and elementary computer codes

  10. Geometric Generalisation of Surrogate Model-Based Optimisation to Combinatorial and Program Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyuk Kim


    Full Text Available Surrogate models (SMs can profitably be employed, often in conjunction with evolutionary algorithms, in optimisation in which it is expensive to test candidate solutions. The spatial intuition behind SMs makes them naturally suited to continuous problems, and the only combinatorial problems that have been previously addressed are those with solutions that can be encoded as integer vectors. We show how radial basis functions can provide a generalised SM for combinatorial problems which have a geometric solution representation, through the conversion of that representation to a different metric space. This approach allows an SM to be cast in a natural way for the problem at hand, without ad hoc adaptation to a specific representation. We test this adaptation process on problems involving binary strings, permutations, and tree-based genetic programs.

  11. QCD amplitudes with 2 initial spacelike legs via generalised BCFW recursion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutak, Krzysztof; Hameren, Andreas van; Serino, Mirko [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342, Cracow (Poland)


    We complete the generalisation of the BCFW recursion relation to the off-shell case, allowing for the computation of tree level scattering amplitudes for full High Energy Factorisation (HEF), i.e. with both incoming partons having a non-vanishing transverse momentum. We provide explicit results for color-ordered amplitudes with two off-shell legs in massless QCD up to 4 point, continuing the program begun in two previous papers. For the 4-fermion amplitudes, which are not BCFW-recursible, we perform a diagrammatic computation, so as to offer a complete set of expressions. We explicitly show and discuss some plots of the squared 2→2 matrix elements as functions of the differences in rapidity and azimuthal angle of the final state particles.

  12. Generalised solutions for fully nonlinear PDE systems and existence-uniqueness theorems (United States)

    Katzourakis, Nikos


    We introduce a new theory of generalised solutions which applies to fully nonlinear PDE systems of any order and allows for merely measurable maps as solutions. This approach bypasses the standard problems arising by the application of Distributions to PDEs and is not based on either integration by parts or on the maximum principle. Instead, our starting point builds on the probabilistic representation of derivatives via limits of difference quotients in the Young measures over a toric compactification of the space of jets. After developing some basic theory, as a first application we consider the Dirichlet problem and we prove existence-uniqueness-partial regularity of solutions to fully nonlinear degenerate elliptic 2nd order systems and also existence of solutions to the ∞-Laplace system of vectorial Calculus of Variations in L∞.

  13. Generalised tetanus in a 2-week-old foal: use of physiotherapy to aid recovery. (United States)

    Mykkänen, A K; Hyytiäinen, H K; McGowan, C M


    A 2-week-old Estonian Draft foal presented with signs of severe generalised tetanus, recumbency and inability to drink. The suspected source of infection was the umbilicus. Medical treatment was administered, including tetanus antitoxin, antimicrobial therapy and phenobarbital to control tetanic spasms. In addition, an intensive physiotherapy program was carried out during the recovery period. Techniques designed for syndromes involving upper motor neuron spasticity in humans were applied. Exercises aimed at weight-bearing and mobility were executed with the help of a walking-frame. The foal made a complete recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of physiotherapy in the treatment of tetanus in horses. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Psychosocial work factors, major depressive and generalised anxiety disorders: results from the French national SIP study. (United States)

    Murcia, Marie; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle


    Anxiety and depression are prevalent mental disorders in working populations. The risk factors of these disorders are not completely well known. Developing knowledge on occupational risk factors for mental disorders appears crucial. This study investigates the association between various classical and emergent psychosocial work factors and major depressive and generalised anxiety disorders in the French working population. The study was based on a national random sample of 3765 men and 3944 women of the French working population (SIP 2006 survey). Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) were measured using a standardised diagnostic interview (MINI). Occupational factors included psychosocial work factors as well as biomechanical, physical, and chemical exposures. Adjustment variables included age, occupation, marital status, social support, and life events. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis. Low decision latitude, overcommitment, and emotional demands were found to be risk factors for both MDD-GAD among both genders. Other risk factors were observed: high psychological demands, low reward, ethical conflict, and job insecurity, but differences were found according to gender and outcome. Significant interaction terms were observed suggesting that low decision latitude, high psychological demands, and job insecurity had stronger effects on mental disorders for men than for women. Given the cross-sectional study design, no causal conclusion could be drawn. This study showed significant associations between classical and emergent psychosocial work factors and MDD-GAD. Preventive actions targeting various psychosocial work factors, including emergent factors, may help to reduce mental disorders at the workplace. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Issues of validity and generalisability in the Grade 12 English Home Language examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Plessis, Colleen Lynne


    Full Text Available Very little research has been devoted to evaluating the national English Home Language (HL curriculum and assessment system. Not only is there a lack of clarity on whether the language subject is being offered at an adequately high level to meet the declared objectives of the curriculum, but the reliability of the results obtained by Grade 12 learners in the exit-level examination has been placed under suspicion. To shed some light on the issue, this study takes a close look at the language component of the school-leaving examination covering the period 2008-2012, to see whether evidence of high language ability can be generated through the current selection of task types and whether the inferred ability can be generalised to non-examination contexts. Of primary interest here are the validity of the construct on which the examination is built and the sub-abilities that are being measured, as well as the validity of the scoring. One of the key findings of the study is that the language papers cannot be considered indicators of advanced and differential language ability, only of basic and general proficiency. The lack of specifications in the design of the examination items and construction of the marking memoranda undermine the validity and reliability of the assessment. As a consequence hereof, the inferences made on the basis of the scores obtained by examinees are highly subjective and cannot be generalised to other domains of language use. The study hopes to draw attention to the importance of the format and design of the examination papers in maintaining educational standards.

  16. Metabolic syndrome and quality of life (QOL) using generalised and obesity-specific QOL scales. (United States)

    Han, J H; Park, H S; Shin, C I; Chang, H M; Yun, K E; Cho, S H; Choi, E Y; Lee, S Y; Kim, J H; Sung, H N; Kim, J H; Choi, S I; Yoon, Y S; Lee, E S; Song, H R; Bae, S C


    We investigated the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessed using generalised and obesity-specific QOL instruments. We recruited 456 outpatients [age: 19-81 years, body mass index (BMI): 16.3-36.7 kg/m2] in the primary care division from 12 general hospitals in Korea. HRQOL was measured using EuroQol comprising the health states descriptive system (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) as a general instrument. The Korean Obesity-related QOL scale (KOQOL) composed of six domains was used as a disease-specific QOL instrument. MS was defined on the basis of International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria with Korean-specific waist circumference cutoffs (men: 90 cm, women: 85 cm). Subjects with MS displayed significantly higher impairment of EQ-5D and KOQOL. Binary logistic regression analysis of MS patients with controls for age, gender, smoking, alcohol, exercise, education, income, marital status and medication history disclosed odds ratio (OR) values of 2.13 (1.33-3.41) for impaired total KOQOL, 2.07 (1.31-3.27) for impaired physical health, 1.63 (1.03-2.60) for impaired work-related health, 2.42 (1.45-4.04) for impaired routine life, 2.08 (1.27-3.40) for impaired sexual life and 2.56 (1.59-4.11) for diet distress. Among the EQ-5D dimensions, only pain/discomfort displayed a significantly increased OR of 1.60 (1.01-2.56) in MS group. Subjects with MS displayed a significantly impaired HRQOL compared with those without MS. MS and HRQOL were more strongly associated in obesity-specific QOL than in generalised QOL.

  17. A generalised model for traffic induced road dust emissions. Model description and evaluation (United States)

    Berger, Janne; Denby, Bruce


    This paper concerns the development and evaluation of a new and generalised road dust emission model. Most of today's road dust emission models are based on local measurements and/or contain empirical emission factors that are specific for a given road environment. In this study, a more generalised road dust emission model is presented and evaluated. We have based the emissions on road, tyre and brake wear rates and used the mass balance concept to describe the build-up of road dust on the road surface and road shoulder. The model separates the emissions into a direct part and a resuspension part, and treats the road surface and road shoulder as two different sources. We tested the model under idealized conditions as well as on two datasets in and just outside of Oslo in Norway during the studded tyre season. We found that the model reproduced the observed increase in road dust emissions directly after drying of the road surface. The time scale for the build-up of road dust on the road surface is less than an hour for medium to heavy traffic density. The model performs well for temperatures above 0 °C and less well during colder periods. Since the model does not yet include salting as an additional mass source, underestimations are evident under dry periods with temperatures around 0 °C, under which salting occurs. The model overestimates the measured PM 10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter) concentrations under heavy precipitation events since the model does not take the amount of precipitation into account. There is a strong sensitivity of the modelled emissions to the road surface conditions and the current parameterisations of the effect of precipitation, runoff and evaporation seem inadequate.

  18. Effect of generalised sympathetic activation by cold pressor test on cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans. (United States)

    Roatta, S; Micieli, G; Bosone, D; Losano, G; Bini, R; Cavallini, A; Passatore, M


    There is no general agreement regarding several aspects of the role of the sympathetic system on cerebral haemodynamics such as extent of effectiveness, operational range and site of action. This study was planned to identify the effect of a generalised sympathetic activation on the cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans before it is masked by secondary corrections, metabolic or myogenic in nature. A total of 35 healthy volunteers aged 20-35 underwent a 5 min lasting cold pressor test (CPT) performed on their left hand. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in the middle cerebral arteries and arterial blood pressure were recorded with transcranial Doppler sonography and with a non-invasive finger-cuff method, respectively. The ratio of arterial blood pressure to mean blood velocity (ABP/Vm) and Pulsatility Index (PI) were calculated throughout each trial. CPT induced an increase in mean ABP (range 2-54 mmHg depending on the subject) and only a slight, though significant, increase in blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (+2.4 and +4.4% on ipsi- and contralateral side, respectively). During CPT, the ratio ABP/Vm increased and PI decreased in all subjects on both sides. These changes began simultaneously with the increase in blood pressure. The increase in ABP/Vm ratio is attributed to an increase in the cerebrovascular resistance, while the concomitant reduction in PI is interpreted as due to the reduction in the compliance of the middle cerebral artery. The results suggest that generalised increases in the sympathetic discharge, causing increases in ABP, can prevent concomitant increases in CBF by acting on both small resistance and large compliant vessels. This effect is also present when a slight increase in blood pressure occurs, which suggests a moderate increase in the sympathetic discharge, i.e. when ABP remains far below the upper limit of CBF autoregulation.

  19. The use of biogas plant fermentation residue for the stabilisation of toxic metals in agricultural soils (United States)

    Geršl, Milan; Šotnar, Martin; Mareček, Jan; Vítěz, Tomáš; Koutný, Tomáš; Kleinová, Jana


    Our department has been paying attention to different methods of soil decontamination, including the in situ stabilisation. Possible reagents to control the toxic metals mobility in soils include a fermentation residue (FR) from a biogas plant. Referred to as digestate, it is a product of anaerobic decomposition taking place in such facilities. The fermentation residue is applied to soils as a fertiliser. A new way of its use is the in situ stabilisation of toxic metals in soils. Testing the stabilisation of toxic metals made use of real soil samples sourced from five agriculturally used areas of the Czech Republic with 3 soil samples taken from sites contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn and 2 samples collected at sites of natural occurrence of Cu, Pb and Zn ores. All the samples were analysed using the sequential extraction procedure (BCR) (determine the type of Cu, Pb and Zn bonds). Stabilisation of toxic metals was tested in five soil samples by adding reagents as follows: dolomite, slaked lime, goethite, compost and fermentation residue. A single reagent was added at three different concentrations. In the wet state with the added reagents, the samples were left for seven days, shaken twice per day. After seven days, metal extraction was carried out: samples of 10 g soil were shaken for 2 h in a solution of 0.1M NH4NO3 at a 1:2.5 (, centrifuged for 15 min at 5,000 rpm and then filtered through PTFE 0.45 μm mesh filters. The extracts were analysed by ICP-OES. Copper The best reduction of Cu concentration in the extract was obtained at each of the tested sites by adding dolomite (10 g soil + 0.3 g dolomite). The concentration of Cu in the leachate decreased to 2.1-18.4% compare with the leachate without addition. Similar results were also shown for the addition of fermentation residue (10 g soil + 1 g FR). The Cu concentration in the leachate decreased to 16.7-26.8% compared with the leachate without addition. Lead The best results were achieved by adding

  20. The effect of environmental conditions and soil physicochemistry on phosphate stabilisation of Pb in shooting range soils. (United States)

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi


    The stabilisation of Pb in the soil by phosphate is influenced by environmental conditions and physicochemical properties of the soils to which it is applied. Stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined in four soils under different environmental conditions. The effect of soil moisture and temperature on stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined by measurement of water extractable and bioaccessible Pb, sequential fractionation and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The addition of humic acid, ammonium nitrate and chloride was also examined for inhibition or improvement of Pb stability with phosphate treatment. The effect of moisture level varied between soils. In soil MB and DA a soil moisture level of 50% water holding capacity was sufficient to maximise stabilisation of Pb, but in soil TV and PE reduction in bioaccessible Pb was inhibited at this moisture level. Providing moisture at twice the soil water holding capacity did not enhance the effect of phosphate on Pb stabilisation. The difference of Pb stability as a result of incubating phosphate treated soils at 18 °C and 37 °C was relatively small. However wet-dry cycles decreased the effectiveness of phosphate treatment. The reduction in bioaccessible Pb obtained was between 20 and 40% with the most optimal treatment conditions. The reduction in water extractable Pb by phosphate was substantial regardless of incubation conditions and the effect of different temperature and soil moisture regimes was not significant. Selective sequential extraction showed phosphate treatment converted Pb in fraction 1 (exchangeable, acid and water soluble) to fraction 2 (reducible). There were small difference in fraction 4 (residual) Pb and fraction 1 as a result of treatment conditions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of stabilised PE soil revealed small differences in Pb speciation under varying soil moisture and temperature treatments. The addition of humic acid and chloride produced the greatest effect on Pb speciation in

  1. Implementation of the Lucas-Kanade image registration algorithm on a GPU for 3D computational platform stabilisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B


    Full Text Available the wide-angle image to remove the undulatory motion of the plat- form. Removing the effects of the platform motion in this way com- putationally stabilises the surveillance system for effective fore- ground/background separation and tracking... and parallel implementation that: Can flexibly balance the load between the CPU and GPU to optimally make use of the available resources, and would be efficient enough to enable 3D computational plat- form stabilisation in real-time. Execution at 20...

  2. Novel solid – solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose used for temperature stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojda Marta


    Full Text Available Thermal management is one of crucial issues in the development of modern electronic devices. In the recent years interest in phase change materials (PCMs as alternative cooling possibility has increased significantly. Preliminary results concerning the research into possibility of the use of solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs for stabilisation temperature of electronic devices has been presented in the paper. Novel solid-solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose has been synthesized. Attempt to improve its thermal conductivity has been taken. Material has been synthesized for the purpose of stabilisation of temperature of electronic devices.

  3. Bounds for the variance of an inverse binomial estimator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sahai; J.M. Buhrman


    textabstractSummary  Best [1] found the variance of the minimum variance unbiased estimator of the parameter p of the negative binomial distribution. Mikulski and Sm [2] gave an upper bound to it, easier to calculate than Best's expression and a good approximation for small values of p and large

  4. Variation of the ulnar variance with powerful grip. (United States)

    Sönmez, M; Turaçlar, U T; Taş, F; Sabancioğullari, V


    Causal relationships between ulnar variance and wrist disorders are known. Gripping and pronation cause proximal translation of the radius with respect to the ulna, leading to a statistically significant increase in ulnar variance. The purpose of this study was to investigate variation of the ulnar variance with powerful grip. A total of 41 male volunteers aged between 19 and 25 years (mean, 21.2+/-1.7 years) were studied. Posteroanterior X-ray films of all wrists were taken in the standardized position. After neutral posteroanterior X-ray films had been taken, subjects were asked to grip a Takei hand dynamometer with maximum force while repeated standardized posteroanterior X-ray films were obtained. Ulnar variance values were measured using the perpendicular method. Mean maximum grip force was 38.1 kg (range, 26.6-47.9 kg). Mean values of force-free (neutral) and forced ulnar variances were 0.06+/-0.21 mm and 1.87+/-0.23 mm, respectively. The difference in ulnar variance between the two groups was statistically significant ( P<0.001). The increase in ulnar variance with grip observed varied between 0.00 mm (minimum) and 3.97 mm (maximum), with a mean of 1.81 mm. Gaining an understanding of normal limits of ulnar variance modification with grip may be helpful in planning surgical treatment.

  5. Direct and maternal variance component estimates for clean fleece ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... -3.17o en -2.47o vir LG, SVG en GVD, respektiewelik. Daar word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die maternale komponent weens die relatiewe klein effek op hierdie eienskappe, geigno- reer kan word. Keywords: Merino sheep, maternal variance, variance components. *To whom correspondence should be addressed.

  6. Capturing option anomalies with a variance-dependent pricing kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffersen, P.; Heston, S.; Jacobs, K.


    We develop a GARCH option model with a variance premium by combining the Heston-Nandi (2000) dynamic with a new pricing kernel that nests Rubinstein (1976) and Brennan (1979). While the pricing kernel is monotonic in the stock return and in variance, its projection onto the stock return is

  7. Gender Variance and Educational Psychology: Implications for Practice (United States)

    Yavuz, Carrie


    The area of gender variance appears to be more visible in both the media and everyday life. Within educational psychology literature gender variance remains underrepresented. The positioning of educational psychologists working across the three levels of child and family, school or establishment and education authority/council, means that they are…

  8. Determining Sample Sizes for Precise Contrast Analysis with Heterogeneous Variances (United States)

    Jan, Show-Li; Shieh, Gwowen


    The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is one of the most frequently used statistical analyses in practical applications. Accordingly, the single and multiple comparison procedures are frequently applied to assess the differences among mean effects. However, the underlying assumption of homogeneous variances may not always be tenable. This study…

  9. Evidence of Heterogeneity of Variance in Milk Yield among Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three thousand, nine hundred and seventy five lactation records of Holstein- Friesian cows between 1968 and 1984 were used to investigate the existence of heterogeneity of variance in milk yield in Kenya. Coefficient of variation and standard deviations across herds were used to test heterogeneity of variance. Average ...

  10. Using transformation algorithms to estimate (co)variance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to multiple traits by the use of canonical transformations. A computing strategy is developed for use on large data sets employing two different REML algorithms for the estimation of (co)variance components. Results from a simulation study indicate that (co)variance components can be estimated efficiently at a low cost on ...

  11. Conceptual Complexity and the Bias/Variance Tradeoff (United States)

    Briscoe, Erica; Feldman, Jacob


    In this paper we propose that the conventional dichotomy between exemplar-based and prototype-based models of concept learning is helpfully viewed as an instance of what is known in the statistical learning literature as the "bias/variance tradeoff". The bias/variance tradeoff can be thought of as a sliding scale that modulates how closely any…

  12. A Cautionary Tale about Levene's Tests for Equal Variances (United States)

    Nordstokke, David W.; Zumbo, Bruno D.


    The central messages of this paper are that (a) unequal variances may be more prevalent than typically imagined in educational and policy research, and (b) when considering tests of equal variances one needs to be cautious about what is being referred to as "Levene's test" because Levene's test is actually a family of techniques. Depending on…

  13. Generalisation of the Clark and Wells Cognitive Model of Social Anxiety to Children's Athletic and Sporting Situations (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Moberly, Nicholas J.; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Tziouma, Olga


    Research has shown that social anxiety generalises to sporting and athletic situations. The present study explored the applicability of the Clark and Wells model of social anxiety--and its metacognitive extension--to sport anxiety. Participants were 290 students aged 11-13 years, who completed measures of sport anxiety, social anxiety, depression…

  14. Arthropathy in long-term cured acromegaly is characterised by osteophytes without joint space narrowing: a comparison with generalised osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, M. J. E.; Biermasz, N. R.; Bijsterbosch, J.; Pereira, A. M.; Meulenbelt, I.; Smit, J. W. A.; Roelfsema, F.; Kroon, H. M.; Romijn, J. A.; Kloppenburg, M.


    To compare the distribution of osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN) between patients with acromegaly and primary generalised osteoarthritis to gain insight into the pathophysiological process of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I)-mediated osteoarthritis. We

  15. Soil type mapping using the generalised linear geostatistical model: A case study in a Dutch cultivated peatland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, B.; Brus, D.J.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.


    We present the generalised linear geostatistical model (GLGM) for soil type mapping and investigate if spatial prediction with this model results in a soil map of greater accuracy than a map obtained using a non-spatial model, i.e. a model that ignores spatial dependence in the soil type variable.

  16. Approximating classes of functions defined by operators of differentiation or operators of generalised translation by means of algebraic polynomials


    Berisha, Nimete Sh.; Berisha, Faton M.


    In this paper, approximation by means of algebraic polynomials of classes of functions defined by a generalised modulus of smoothness of operators of differentiation of these functions is considered. We give structural characteristics of classes of functions defined by the order of best approximation by algebraic polynomials.

  17. On coincidence of classes of functions defined by a generalised modulus of smoothness and the appropriate inverse theorem


    Berisha, Faton M.


    We give the theorem of coincidence of a class of functions defined by a generalised modulus of smoothness with a class of functions defined by the order of the best approximation by algebraic polynomials. We also prove the appropriate inverse theorem in approximation theory.

  18. Minimum Variance Portfolios in the Brazilian Equity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rubesam


    Full Text Available We investigate minimum variance portfolios in the Brazilian equity market using different methods to estimate the covariance matrix, from the simple model of using the sample covariance to multivariate GARCH models. We compare the performance of the minimum variance portfolios to those of the following benchmarks: (i the IBOVESPA equity index, (ii an equally-weighted portfolio, (iii the maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio and (iv the maximum growth portfolio. Our results show that the minimum variance portfolio has higher returns with lower risk compared to the benchmarks. We also consider long-short 130/30 minimum variance portfolios and obtain similar results. The minimum variance portfolio invests in relatively few stocks with low βs measured with respect to the IBOVESPA index, being easily replicable by individual and institutional investors alike.

  19. Prediction error variance and expected response to selection, when selection is based on the best predictor – for Gaussian and threshold characters, traits following a Poisson mixed model and survival traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Just


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider selection based on the best predictor of animal additive genetic values in Gaussian linear mixed models, threshold models, Poisson mixed models, and log normal frailty models for survival data (including models with time-dependent covariates with associated fixed or random effects. In the different models, expressions are given (when these can be found – otherwise unbiased estimates are given for prediction error variance, accuracy of selection and expected response to selection on the additive genetic scale and on the observed scale. The expressions given for non Gaussian traits are generalisations of the well-known formulas for Gaussian traits – and reflect, for Poisson mixed models and frailty models for survival data, the hierarchal structure of the models. In general the ratio of the additive genetic variance to the total variance in the Gaussian part of the model (heritability on the normally distributed level of the model or a generalised version of heritability plays a central role in these formulas.

  20. Organomineral interactions as an important mechanism for stabilisation of bacterial residues in soil (United States)

    Miltner, Anja; Achtenhagen, Jan; Kästner, Matthias


    Although plant material is the original input of organic matter to soils, microbial residues have been identified to contribute to a large extent to soil organic matter. However, until now it is unclear how microbial residues are stabilised in soil and protected from degradation. We hypothesised that organomineral interactions, in particular encrustation by oxides, may play an important role, which might vary depending on environmental conditions, e.g. redox potential. Therefore we produced 14C-labelled Escherichia coli cells and cell envelope fragments and coprecipitated these materials with Fe oxide or Al oxide. Mineral-free (control) and mineral-encrusted bacterial residues were incubated for 345 days at 20˚ C under either oxic or oxygen-limited conditions, and mineralisation was quantified by scintillation counting of the CO2 produced during incubation. Oxygen limitation was achieved by first exchanging the atmosphere in the incubation vessels with dinitrogen gas. After 100 days of incubation, the anoxic treatments were waterlogged to further decrease the redox potential, and after 290 days, glucose and nutrients were supplied to all treatments in order to foster microbial activity and consumption of electron acceptors. The mineralisation curves were fitted by double-exponential (0-100 days), first-order kinetic (100-290 days) and linear (290-345 days) models. The model parameters were tested for significant differences between the treatments by three-way ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni t-test. We found that encrustation by the oxides significantly reduced mineralisation of the bacterial residues. This effect was inversed by reductive dissolution of Fe oxides after substrate and nutrient addition to the oxygen-limited treatments, suggesting a significant role of the encrustation in stabilisation of the bacterial residues. We also observed that bacterial cell envelope fragments were generally slightly more resistant to mineralisation than whole cells. The

  1. Stabilisation de poussieres de four a arc electrique dans les matrices cimentaires (United States)

    Laforest, Guylaine

    L'etude de la stabilisation des poussieres de four a arc electrique (EAFD) par le laitier de haut-fourneau (GGBFS) et le ciment Portland (OPC) a ete realisee en trois parties. D'abord, la problematique de fixation du Cr dans les matrices cimentaires a ete etudiee en soumettant differents liants a des solutions de Cr lors d'essais de lixiviation en vrac et d'essais d'isothermes d'absorption. Ensuite, la caracterisation des EAFD a ete effectuee. Finalement, la stabilisation des EAFD dans les matrices cimentaires a ete etudiee en soumettant differents melanges liant-EAFD a des essais de lixiviation en vrac, de competition ionique, de solubilisation a differents pH et de lixiviation sur monolithes. Les resultats ont demontre que le OPC et le GGBFS sont efficaces pour la fixation du Cr. Les silicates de calcium hydrates, la chromatite et l'hydrocalumite ont ete identifiees comme etant des phases jouant un role dans la fixation du Cr. Les EAFD ont montre une mineralogie complexe, heterogene, riche en spinelles et oxydes metalliques. Un important pourcentage des metaux lourds (Cr, Zn, Ni et Pb) des EAFD a ete identifie lixiviable. Les EAFD etablissent un controle de solubilite sur ces metaux, mais ce controle n'est pas suffisant pour diminuer les concentrations en metaux du lixiviat sous les limites permises. Ainsi, les resulats des essais sur la stabilisation des EAFD ont demontre qu'il etait possible, avec le OPC et le GGBFS, de diminuer les concentrations en metaux lourds des lixiviats sous les limites acceptees. Les phases incorporant les metaux, ((Ni,Zn)Fe2O4, (Zn,Mo)O, Ni(OH)2 et Pb(OH) 2), ont ete determinees par SEM, XRD et par modelisation geochimique. L'hydrocalumite et le Cr(VI)-ettringite ont ete etablies comme etant des phases potentiellement capables de fixer le Cr. L'etude de la competition ionique a montre que la fixation du Cr par le GGBFS diminue legerement en presence du Pb. L'etude des monolithes, composes de EAFD et de OPC ou GGBFS et soumis a une

  2. Do lumbar stabilising exercises reduce pain and disability in patients with recurrent low back pain? (United States)

    Smeets, Rob J E M


    Does a graded exercise program emphasising lumbar stabilising exercises reduce pain and disability at 12 months, compared with a walking program, for patients with recurrent low back pain? Randomised controlled trial. A single private physiotherapy clinic in Sweden. 71 patients with recurrent mechanical low back pain (>8 weeks duration, with at least 1 pain-free period during the past year) and without leg pain were allocated to one of two groups, using a concealed allocation process. The groups were comparable at baseline with respect to age, sex, proportion of participants who had sought care for back pain, and pain duration (approximately 10 years). The graded exercise program and the walking program were both 8 weeks' duration. The exercise program was individually supervised by a physiotherapist weekly for 45 minutes. In the walking program, patients met with a physiotherapist for 45 minutes in week 1 and again in week 8. The exercise program consisted primarily of stabilising exercises for the lumbar spine, commencing with re-learning activation of the transversus abdominis and multifidus muscles, with assistance of a pressure biofeedback cuff. Exercises were progressed according to clinical judgement, pain levels, and movement control and quality. Progression entailed incorporation of muscle activation in upright positions and during functional activities. Continued implementation of the exercises in daily life was encouraged. The reference group were instructed to walk for 30 minutes daily at the fastest pace that did not aggravate pain. Walking compliance was monitored with a self-completed daily diary. The primary outcomes were perceived pain and disability at 12 months, measured by self-completed questionnaires returned by post. Disability was measured with the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (scale 0-100, where 100 = maximum disability). Pain was measured with 100-mm visual analogue scale (where 100 = worst pain imaginable). At 12 months 86% of

  3. Anisotropic modulus stabilisation. Strings at LHC scales with micron-sized extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Burgess, C.P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo (Canada); Quevedo, F. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP/CMS; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)


    We construct flux-stabilised Type IIB string compactifications whose extra dimensions have very different sizes, and use these to describe several types of vacua with a TeV string scale. Because we can access regimes where two dimensions are hierarchically larger than the other four, we find examples where two dimensions are micron-sized while the other four are at the weak scale in addition to more standard examples with all six extra dimensions equally large. Besides providing ultraviolet completeness, the phenomenology of these models is richer than vanilla large-dimensional models in several generic ways: (i) they are supersymmetric, with supersymmetry broken at sub-eV scales in the bulk but only nonlinearly realised in the Standard Model sector, leading to no MSSM superpartners for ordinary particles and many more bulk missing-energy channels, as in supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLED); (ii) small cycles in the more complicated extra-dimensional geometry allow some KK states to reside at TeV scales even if all six extra dimensions are nominally much larger; (iii) a rich spectrum of string and KK states at TeV scales; and (iv) an equally rich spectrum of very light moduli exist having unusually small (but technically natural) masses, with potentially interesting implications for cosmology and astrophysics that nonetheless evade new-force constraints. The hierarchy problem is solved in these models because the extra-dimensional volume is naturally stabilised at exponentially large values: the extra dimensions are Calabi-Yau geometries with a 4D K3-fibration over a 2D base, with moduli stabilised within the well-established LARGE-Volume scenario. The new technical step is the use of poly-instanton corrections to the superpotential (which, unlike for simpler models, are present on K3-fibered Calabi-Yau compactifications) to obtain a large hierarchy between the sizes of different dimensions. For several scenarios we identify the low-energy spectrum and

  4. Stabilisation of spent mushroom substrate for application as a plant growth-promoting organic amendment. (United States)

    Paula, Fabiana S; Tatti, Enrico; Abram, Florence; Wilson, Jude; O'Flaherty, Vincent


    Over three million tonnes of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are produced in Europe every year as a by-product of the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. The management of SMS has become an increasing challenge for the mushroom production industry, and finding environmentally and economically sustainable solutions for this organic residue is, therefore, highly desirable. Due to its physical properties and nutrient content, SMS has great potential to be employed in agricultural and horticultural sectors, and further contribute to reduce the use of non-renewable resources, such as peat. However, SMS is often regarded as not being stable and/or mature, which hampers its wide use for crop production. Here, we demonstrate the stabilisation of SMS and its subsequent use as organic fertiliser and partial peat replacement in horticulture. The stabilisation was performed in a laboratory-scale composting system, with controlled temperature and aeration. Physical and chemical parameters were monitored during composting and provided information on the progress of the process. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content was found to be the most reliable parameter to predict SMS stability. In situ oxygen consumption indicated the main composting phases, reflecting major changes in microbial activity. The structure of the bacterial community was also found to be a potential predictor of stability, as the compositional changes followed the composting progress. By contrast, the fungal community did not present clear successional process along the experiment. Maturity and quality of the stabilised SMS were assessed in a horticultural growing trial. When used as the sole fertiliser source, SMS was able to support Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) growth and significantly improved grass yield with a concentration-dependent response, increasing grass biomass up to 300%, when compared to the untreated control. In summary, the results indicated that the method employed was efficient in

  5. The mast cell stabiliser ketotifen decreases visceral hypersensitivity and improves intestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooker, T.K.; Braak, B.; Koopman, K.E.; Welting, O.; Wouters, M.M.; van der Heide, S.; Schemann, M.; Bischoff, S.C.; van den Wijngaard, R.M.; Boeckxstaens, G.E.


    Background Mast cell activation is thought to be involved in visceral hypersensitivity, one of the main characteristics of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effect of the mast cell stabiliser ketotifen on rectal sensitivity and symptoms in

  6. Exploitation of hazelnut, maize germ and sesame seed aqueous extraction residues in the stabilisation of sesame seed paste (tahini). (United States)

    Evlogimenou, Anthi; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Kiosseoglou, Vassilios


    Sesame seed paste is a highly nutritious food product which, upon long-term storage, tends to exhibit undesirable phenomena of oiling-off and particle sedimentation. The ability of rich-in-fibre aqueous extraction powders originating from oleaginous raw materials to enhance the physical stability of sesame paste is investigated in this study. The extraction residues remaining after treating hazelnut, sesame seed or maize germ with aqueous media in order to extract and exploit their oil bodies, were collected, dehydrated and milled into fine powders. The powders were then incorporated at various levels into a commercially available sesame paste product to assess their potential as paste stabilisers against oil separation. The solids from maize germ exhibited the highest stabilising ability followed by the solids from hazelnut. In contrast, the solids originating from the sesame seed were less effective in stabilising the sesame paste. Shear stress-rate of shear measurements of sesame paste incorporating the extraction residue solids were conducted in an attempt to explain the different stabilising behaviour of the three powders. The intensity of interactions between the incorporated solids within the sesame paste structure may determine the rheological properties of the blend and hence its stability against oiling-off upon long-term storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Long-term heat stabilisation by (natural) polyols in heavy metal- and zinc-free poly(vinyl chloride)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenwijk, van J.; Langerock, R.; Es, van D.S.; Haveren, van J.; Geus, J.W.; Jenneskens, L.W.


    The long-term heat stabilisation efficiency of (natural) polyol additives in heavy metal- and zinc-free poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) has been investigated. It is shown that polyols, such as sorbitol and xylitol, markedly reduce the dehydrochlorination rate and improve Congo Red values. Extraction

  8. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filter in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration....

  9. A stabilised nodal spectral element method for fully nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, C.; Bigoni, Daniele


    the numerical implementation differs greatly. Features of the proposed spectral element method include: nodal Lagrange basis functions, a general quadrature-free approach and gradient recovery using global L2 projections. The quartic nonlinear terms present in the Zakharov form of the free surface conditions......We present an arbitrary-order spectral element method for general-purpose simulation of non-overturning water waves, described by fully nonlinear potential theory. The method can be viewed as a high-order extension of the classical finite element method proposed by Cai et al. (1998) [5], although...... can cause severe aliasing problems and consequently numerical instability for marginally resolved or very steep waves. We show how the scheme can be stabilised through a combination of over-integration of the Galerkin projections and a mild spectral filtering on a per element basis. This effectively...

  10. Accessible Mannitol-Based Amphiphiles (MNAs) for Membrane Protein Solubilisation and Stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Hazrat; Du, Yang; Scull, Nicola J.


    -solubilised membrane proteins often denature and aggregate, resulting in loss of both structure and function. In this study, a novel class of agents, designated mannitol-based amphiphiles (MNAs), were prepared and characterised for their ability to solubilise and stabilise membrane proteins. Some of MNAs conferred......Integral membrane proteins are amphipathic molecules crucial for all cellular life. The structural study of these macromolecules starts with protein extraction from the native membranes, followed by purification and crystallisation. Detergents are essential tools for these processes, but detergent...... enhanced stability to four membrane proteins including a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), compared to both n-dodecyl-d-maltoside (DDM) and the other MNAs. These agents were also better than DDM for electron microscopy analysis of the β2AR. The ease of preparation...

  11. Le facteur XII de la coagulation: bien plus qu’un stabilisant de la fibrine (United States)

    Messaoudi, N.; Lamaalmi, F.; Chakour, M.; Belmekki, A.; Naji, M.


    Summary Les Auteurs considèrent le rôle du facteur XIII de la coagulation dans la cicatrisation. Identifié depuis 1923, le rôle du facteur XIII ou le facteur stabilisant de la fibrine dans la coagulation a été bien élucidé. Son rôle dans la cicatrisation suggéré dès 1960 est méconnu par les hématologistes et les médecins prenant en charge les brûlés. Les Auteurs se proposent de mettre la lumière sur ce rôle, qui reste encore mystérieux et mérite d’être élucidé. PMID:21991236

  12. Investigation of 4-year-old stabilised/solidified and accelerated carbonated contaminated soil. (United States)

    Antemir, A; Hills, C D; Carey, P J; Magnié, M-C; Polettini, A


    The investigation of the pilot-scale application of two different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) techniques was carried out at a former fireworks and low explosives manufacturing site in SE England. Cores and granular samples were recovered from uncovered accelerated carbonated (ACT) and cement-treated soils (S/S) after 4 years to evaluate field-performance with time. Samples were prepared for microstructural examination and leaching testing. The results indicated that the cement-treated soil was progressively carbonated over time, whereas the mineralogy of the carbonated soil remained essentially unchanged. Distinct microstructures were developed in the two soils. Although Pb, Zn and Cu leached less from the carbonated soil, these metals were adequately immobilised by both treatments. Geochemical modeling of pH-dependent leaching data suggested that the retention of trace metals resulted from different immobilisation mechanisms operating in the two soils examined. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Both plant and animal LEA proteins act as kinetic stabilisers of polyglutamine-dependent protein aggregation. (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Chakrabortee, Sohini; Li, Ranhui; Zheng, Yizhi; Tunnacliffe, Alan


    LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins that contribute to stress tolerance in plants and invertebrates. Here we show that, when both plant and animal LEA proteins are co-expressed in mammalian cells with self-aggregating polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins, they reduce aggregation in a time-dependent fashion, showing more protection at early time points. A similar effect was also observed in vitro, where recombinant LEA proteins were able to slow the rate of polyQ aggregation, but not abolish it altogether. Thus, LEA proteins act as kinetic stabilisers of aggregating proteins, a novel function in protein homeostasis consistent with a proposed role as molecular shields. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term olfactory memories are stabilised via protein synthesis in Camponotus fellah ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Fernando Javier; D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Deveaud, J-M.


    to conditioning. Cycloheximide did not impair acquisition of either short-term memory (10¿min) or early and late mid-term memories (1 or 12¿h). These results show that, upon olfactory learning, ants form different memories with variable molecular bases. While short- and mid-term memories do not require protein......-chain hydrocarbons, one paired with sucrose and the other with quinine solution. Differential conditioning leads to the formation of a long-term memory retrievable at least 72¿h after training. Long-term memory consolidation was impaired by the ingestion of cycloheximide, a protein synthesis blocker, prior...... synthesis, long-term memories are stabilised via protein synthesis. Our behavioural protocol opens interesting research avenues to explore the cellular and molecular bases of olfactory learning and memory in ants....

  15. Laser Frequency Noise Stabilisation and Interferometer Path Length Differences on LISA Pathfinder (United States)

    Paczkowski, Sarah; LPF Collaboration


    The LISA Pathfinder mission is a technology demonstrator for a LISA-like gravitational wave observatory in space. Its first results already exceed the expectations. This is also true for the optical metrology system which measures the distance in between the two free-floating test masses with unpreceded precision. One noise source that can possibly affect the measurement is the laser frequency noise. It is measured with a dedicated interferometer and suppressed with a control loop. We measured the laser frequency noise and characterised the control loop in flight. The coupling of laser frequency noise into the measured phase is directly proportional to the path length difference in the respective interferometer. Dedicated experiments have been performed to estimate the path length difference in flight. In addition, this frequency stabilisation scheme is also a possible solution for the LISA mission.

  16. One pot synthesis of bi-linker stabilised CdSe quantum dots (United States)

    Concina, I.; Natile, M. M.; Braga, A.; Vomiero, A.; Morandi, V.; Ortolani, L.; Ferroni, M.; Sberveglieri, G.


    In this study we exploited the classic Murray's synthesis for generating a hydrophilic CdSe quantum dot system in a single step procedure, with the aim of directly obtaining a material responding to the characteristic of polarity required in many end applications. 6-phosphonohexanoic acid was used as both ligand for generating the active monomer during the synthesis of the quantum dots and final stabiliser. Diffraction measurements identified the cubic phase of cadmium selenide. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed non-stoichiometric quantum dots, being the Cd/Se ratio 60/40. This feature suggests a configuration in which Cd2+ ions are present on the nanocrystal surface. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform analysis was applied in order to investigate the structure of the quantum dot system: the results indicate a configuration in which the carboxylic function of 6-phosphonohexanoic acid establishes only a partial interaction with the quantum dot surface, being set in a pseudo-ester configuration.

  17. Remediation by in-situ solidification/stabilisation of Ardeer landfill, Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyllie, M. [ICI Explosives, Ayrshire (United Kingdom); Esnault, A. [Bachy, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Barker, P. [Bachy, Surrey (United Kingdom)


    The Ardeer Landfill site at ICI Explosives factory on the west coast of Scotland had been a repository for waste from the site for 40 years. In order to safeguard the local environment ICI Explosives, with approval of Local Authorities and the Clyde River Purification Board put into action a programme of investigation and planning which culminated in the in-situ treatment of 10,000 m3 of waste within the landfill by a deep mixing method using the {open_quotes}Colmix{close_quotes} system. The paper describes in varying degrees of detail the remediation from investigation to the execution of the in-situ stabilisation and presents the post construction monitoring results.

  18. Interfacing living unicellular algae cells with biocompatible polyelectrolyte-stabilised magnetic nanoparticles. (United States)

    Fakhrullin, Rawil F; Shlykova, Lubov V; Zamaleeva, Alsu I; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Osin, Yuri N; García-Alonso, Javier; Paunov, Vesselin N


    Green algae are a promising platform for the development of biosensors and bioelectronic devices. Here we report a reliable single-step technique for the functionalisation of living unicellular green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa with biocompatible 15 nm superparamagnetic nanoparticles stabilised with poly(allylamine hydrochloride). The magnetised algae cells can be manipulated and immobilised using external permanent magnets. The distribution of the nanoparticles on the cell walls of C. pyrenoidosa was studied by optical and fluorescence microscopy, TEM, SEM and EDX spectroscopy. The viability and the magnetic properties of the magnetised algae are studied in comparison with the native cells. The technique may find a number of potential applications in biotechnology and bioelectronics.

  19. Oil bodies as a potential microencapsulation carrier for astaxanthin stabilisation and safe delivery. (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Rubilar, Mónica; Jofré, Ignacio; Villarroel, Mario; Navarrete, Patricia; Esparza, Magdalena; Romero, Fernando; Vilches, Elías Alberto; Acevedo, Valentina; Shene, Carolina


    Astaxanthin (AST) is a valued molecule because of its high antioxidant properties. However, AST is extremely sensitive to oxidation, causing the loss of its bioactive properties. The purposes of this study were to define conditions for microencapsulating AST in oil bodies (OB) from Brassica napus to enhance its oxidative stability, and to test the bioactivity of the microencapsulated AST (AST-M) in cells. Conditions for maximising microencapsulation efficiency (ME) were determined using the Response Surface Methodology, obtaining a high ME (>99%). OB loaded with AST showed a strong electrostatic repulsion in a wide range of pH and ionic strengths. It was found that AST-M exposed to air and light was more stable than free AST. In addition, the protective effect of AST against intracellular ROS production was positively influenced by microencapsulation in OB. These results suggest that OB offer a novel option for stabilising and delivering AST.

  20. Stabilisation and humanitarian access in a collapsed state: the Somali case. (United States)

    Menkhaus, Ken


    Somalia today is the site of three major threats: the world's worst humanitarian crisis; the longest-running instance of complete state collapse; and a robust jihadist movement with links to Al-Qa'ida. External state-building, counter-terrorism and humanitarian policies responding to these threats have worked at cross-purposes. State-building efforts that insist humanitarian relief be channelled through the nascent state in order to build its legitimacy and capacity undermine humanitarian neutrality when the state is a party to a civil war. Counter-terrorism policies that seek to ensure that no aid benefits terrorist groups have the net effect of criminalising relief operations in countries where poor security precludes effective accountability. This paper argues that tensions between stabilisation and humanitarian goals in contemporary Somalia reflect a long history of politicisation of humanitarian operations in the country. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  1. A Stabilised Nodal Spectral Element Method for Fully Nonlinear Water Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bigoni, Daniele


    We present an arbitrary-order spectral element method for general-purpose simulation of non-overturning water waves, described by fully nonlinear potential theory. The method can be viewed as a high-order extension of the classical finite element method proposed by Cai et al (1998) \\cite{CaiEtAl1998}, although the numerical implementation differs greatly. Features of the proposed spectral element method include: nodal Lagrange basis functions, a general quadrature-free approach and gradient recovery using global $L^2$ projections. The quartic nonlinear terms present in the Zakharov form of the free surface conditions can cause severe aliasing problems and consequently numerical instability for marginally resolved or very steep waves. We show how the scheme can be stabilised through a combination of over-integration of the Galerkin projections and a mild spectral filtering on a per element basis. This effectively removes any aliasing driven instabilities while retaining the high-order accuracy of the numerical...

  2. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by cellulose ethers: stability, structure and in vitro digestion. (United States)

    Borreani, Jennifer; Espert, María; Salvador, Ana; Sanz, Teresa; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel


    The effect of cellulose ethers in oil-in-water emulsions on stability during storage and on texture, microstructure and lipid digestibility during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was investigated. All the cellulose ether emulsions showed good physical and oxidative stability during storage. In particular, the methylcellulose with high methoxyl substituents (HMC) made it possible to obtain emulsions with high consistency which remained almost unchanged during gastric digestion, and thus could enhance fullness and satiety perceptions at gastric level. Moreover, the HMC emulsion slowed down lipid digestion to a greater extent than a conventional protein emulsion or the emulsions stabilised by the other cellulose ethers. Therefore, HMC emulsions could be used in weight management to increase satiation capacity and decrease lipid digestion.

  3. Minimally invasive technique for coxofemoral luxation stabilisation using transarticular toggle system: a cadaveric study. (United States)

    Segal, U; Shani, J; Joseph, R


    To present a novel, semi-closed, surgical technique for coxofemoral luxation stabilisation using a transarticular toggle rod. Cadaveric study. Craniodorsal luxation was generated by transecting the ligamentum teres in 12 coxofemoral joints and was then reduced using a closed technique. Anteversion and inclination angles were measured using fluoroscopic projections. An arthroscope was inserted through a bone tunnel drilled from the third trochanter through the femoral neck. Following retraction of the arthroscope, a hole was drilled through the acetabular fossa via the femoral bone tunnel. A standard Arthrex® TightRope toggle button was pushed through the femoral bone tunnel into the acetabular fossa hole and tied over the oval metallic button above the third trochanter site. The exit point of the drill hole over the femoral head and that in the acetabular fossa were evaluated by surgical exposure of the coxofemoral articular surfaces. The TightRope entrance point into the acetabular fossa was accurate in all joints, with a mean distance from the acetabular fossa centre of 0·06 ±0·1 mm. The measured distance of the TightRope exit point from the femoral head to the fovea capitis was 2·04 ±1·7 mm. Femoral head cartilage damage was detected in nine of 12 joints. Closed reduction and stabilisation of coxofemoral luxations can be achieved using this minimally invasive technique. Refinements to the technique may be needed for its application in clinical cases due to relative high incidence of femoral head cartilage damage. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Molecular signatures of mood stabilisers highlight the role of the transcription factor REST/NRSF. (United States)

    Warburton, Alix; Savage, Abigail L; Myers, Paul; Peeney, David; Bubb, Vivien J; Quinn, John P


    The purpose of this study was to address the affects of mood modifying drugs on the transcriptome, in a tissue culture model, using qPCR arrays as a cost effective approach to identifying regulatory networks and pathways that might coordinate the cell response to a specific drug. We addressed the gene expression profile of 90 plus genes associated with human mood disorders using the StellARray™ qPCR gene expression system in the human derived SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. Global Pattern Recognition (GPR) analysis identified a total of 9 genes (DRD3(⁎), FOS(†), JUN(⁎), GAD1(⁎†), NRG1(⁎), PAFAH1B3(⁎), PER3(⁎), RELN(⁎) and RGS4(⁎)) to be significantly regulated in response to cellular challenge with the mood stabilisers sodium valproate ((⁎)) and lithium ((†)). Modulation of FOS and JUN highlights the importance of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor pathway in the cell response. Enrichment analysis of transcriptional networks relating to this gene set also identified the transcription factor neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF) and the oestrogen receptor as an important regulatory mechanism. Cell line models offer a window of what might happen in vivo but have the benefit of being human derived and homogenous with regard to cell type. This data highlights transcription factor pathways, acting synergistically or separately, in the modulation of specific neuronal gene networks in response to mood stabilising drugs. This model can be utilised in the comparison of the action of multiple drug regimes or for initial screening purposes to inform optimal drug design. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Amelogenesis imperfecta associated with dental follicular-like hamartomas and generalised gingival enlargement. (United States)

    O'Connell, S; Davies, J; Smallridge, J; Vaidyanathan, M


    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is an inherited disorder characterised by generalised defects of dental enamel, but has been associated with other dental and medical conditions. It affects the appearance and structure of teeth, both in the primary and secondary dentition. AI in the presence of dental follicular hamartomas and gingival hyperplasia is rare and the management presents several challenges to the clinician. This article describes a case of a girl who presented to the paediatric department at the age of 7 years complaining of discomfort when eating and that she was unhappy with the appearance of her anterior teeth. The patient was born in the UK but she and her family were African and of Kenyan origin. She was otherwise fit and well. Investigations included clinical, radiographic and pathological examination as well as cone beam computed tomography imaging and X-ray Microtomography of extracted primary teeth. A diagnosis of AI in the presence of dental follicular hamartomas and generalised gingival hyperplasia was made, which had resulted in the delayed eruption of permanent teeth and an associated anterior open bite. There was no family history of dental defects. Initial treatment included preventative advice and the application of preformed metal crowns on all primary molars. Extraction of all remaining primary incisors was carried out followed by gingivectomy around the maxillary permanent incisors, mandibular central incisors and maxillary left second primary molar. Composite resin reconstruction of all permanent incisors and mandibular primary canines was complicated by the poor quality of enamel. Orthodontic extrusion of the anterior incisors was carried out to improve surface area for bonding with some success. A multidisciplinary team managed this case and decided that no surgical intervention of the dental follicular hamartomas was warranted. The patient coped well with treatment and attended for regular review over an 8-year period. She was

  6. Obesity and its association with generalised epilepsy, idiopathic syndrome, and family history of epilepsy. (United States)

    Ladino, Lady D; Hernández-Ronquillo, Lizbeth; Téllez-Zenteno, José F


    Aim. Previous studies support the concept that obesity is a common comorbid condition in patients with epilepsy (PWE). In this study, we present the body mass index (BMI) and data from a survey to assess physical activity in a sample of PWE from an epilepsy clinic. Methods. Between June of 2011 and January of 2013, 100 PWE from an adult epilepsy clinic were included. We obtained BMI, waist circumference, and information regarding physical activity using a standardised questionnaire. Clinical, demographic, electrographic, and imaging parameters were collected from charts. Results. Mean age of patients was 40 ± 14 (18-77) years. The BMI distribution was as follows: 2 patients (2%) underweight, 26 (26%) normal weight, 34 (34%) overweight, 25 (25%) obese, and 13 (13%) with morbid obesity. In our study, obesity was defined as having a BMI ≥ 30. We found 38 (38%) patients in this range. There was no difference in the rate of drug-resistant epilepsy between obese and non-obese patients (55 vs. 55%; p=0.05). Leisure time habit was reported in 82% of obese patients and 79% of patients without obesity. Overall, the most frequent activity was walking (70%). Factors associated with obesity were generalised epilepsy (OR: 2.7, 1.1-6.6; p=0.012), idiopathic syndrome (OR: 2.7, 1.04-7; p=0.018), and family history of epilepsy (OR: 6.1, 1.5-24.2; p=0.002). Conclusion. Our study suggests an association between obesity, idiopathic generalised epilepsy, and family history of epilepsy. Our study shows that PWE are physically active and there is no clear relation between exercise and obesity. We could not identify any association between drug-resistant epilepsy and obesity. Absence of direct comparison with a control non-epileptic population; a cross-sectional design not allowing evaluation of a causal association among variables; and reliance on self-reported physical activity are to be considered as limitations of the present study.

  7. Verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The influence of semantic class and argument structure properties on generalisation. (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra L; Thompson, Cynthia K


    BACKGROUND: Some individuals with agrammatic aphasia have difficulty producing verbs when naming and generating sentences (Miceli, Silveri, Villa, & Caramazza, 1984; Saffran, Schwartz, & Marin, 1980; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). And when verbs are produced there is an over-reliance on verbs requiring simple argument structure arrangements (Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997; Thompson, Shapiro, Schneider, & Tait, 1994). Verbs, as argument-taking elements, show especially complex semantic and argument structure properties. This study investigated the role these properties have on verb production in individuals with agrammatic aphasia. AIM: This treatment study examined the extent to which semantic class and argument structure properties of verbs influenced the ability of seven individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia to retrieve verbs and then use them in correct sentence production. Verbs from two semantic classes and two argument structure categories were trained using either a semantic or an argument structure verb retrieval treatment. Specifically, acquisition and generalisation to trained and untrained verbs within and across semantic and argument structure categories was examined. In addition, the influence of verb production on each participant's sentence production was also examined. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Utilising a single-subject crossover design in combination with a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviours, seven individuals with agrammatic aphasia were trained to retrieve verbs with specific argument structures from two semantic classes under two treatment conditions-semantic verb retrieval treatment and verb argument structure retrieval treatment. Treatment was provided on two-place and three-place motion or change of state verbs, counterbalanced across subjects and behaviours. A total of 102 verbs, depicted in black and white drawings, were utilised in the study, divided equally into motion and change of state

  8. Variance inflation in high dimensional Support Vector Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai


    is not the full input space. Hence, when applying the model to future data the model is effectively blind to the missed orthogonal subspace. This can lead to an inflated variance of hidden variables estimated in the training set and when the model is applied to test data we may find that the hidden variables...... follow a different probability law with less variance. While the problem and basic means to reconstruct and deflate are well understood in unsupervised learning, the case of supervised learning is less well understood. We here investigate the effect of variance inflation in supervised learning including...

  9. On the relationship between epistasis and genetic variance heterogeneity. (United States)

    Forsberg, Simon K G; Carlborg, Örjan


    Epistasis and genetic variance heterogeneity are two non-additive genetic inheritance patterns that are often, but not always, related. Here we use theoretical examples and empirical results from earlier analyses of experimental data to illustrate the connection between the two. This includes an introduction to the relationship between epistatic gene action, statistical epistasis, and genetic variance heterogeneity, and a brief discussion about how genetic processes other than epistasis can also give rise to genetic variance heterogeneity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  10. Meta-analysis of SNPs involved in variance heterogeneity using Levene's test for equal variances. (United States)

    Deng, Wei Q; Asma, Senay; Paré, Guillaume


    Meta-analysis is a commonly used approach to increase the sample size for genome-wide association searches when individual studies are otherwise underpowered. Here, we present a meta-analysis procedure to estimate the heterogeneity of the quantitative trait variance attributable to genetic variants using Levene's test without needing to exchange individual-level data. The meta-analysis of Levene's test offers the opportunity to combine the considerable sample size of a genome-wide meta-analysis to identify the genetic basis of phenotypic variability and to prioritize single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The use of Levene's test has several advantages, including robustness to departure from the normality assumption, freedom from the influence of the main effects of SNPs, and no assumption of an additive genetic model. We conducted a meta-analysis of the log-transformed body mass index of 5892 individuals and identified a variant with a highly suggestive Levene's test P-value of 4.28E-06 near the NEGR1 locus known to be associated with extreme obesity.


    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression are common statistical techniques used to analyze agronomic experimental data and determine significant differences among yields due to treatments or other experimental factors. Risk analysis provides an alternate and complimentary examination of the same...

  12. Weighted Quantile Regression for AR model with Infinite Variance Errors. (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Li, Runze; Wu, Yaohua


    Autoregressive (AR) models with finite variance errors have been well studied. This paper is concerned with AR models with heavy-tailed errors, which is useful in various scientific research areas. Statistical estimation for AR models with infinite variance errors is very different from those for AR models with finite variance errors. In this paper, we consider a weighted quantile regression for AR models to deal with infinite variance errors. We further propose an induced smoothing method to deal with computational challenges in weighted quantile regression. We show that the difference between weighted quantile regression estimate and its smoothed version is negligible. We further propose a test for linear hypothesis on the regression coefficients. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation study to assess the finite sample performance of the proposed procedures. We illustrate the proposed methodology by an empirical analysis of a real-life data set.

  13. Capturing Option Anomalies with a Variance-Dependent Pricing Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Heston, Steven; Jacobs, Kris


    We develop a GARCH option model with a new pricing kernel allowing for a variance premium. While the pricing kernel is monotonic in the stock return and in variance, its projection onto the stock return is nonmonotonic. A negative variance premium makes it U shaped. We present new semiparametric...... evidence to confirm this U-shaped relationship between the risk-neutral and physical probability densities. The new pricing kernel substantially improves our ability to reconcile the time-series properties of stock returns with the cross-section of option prices. It provides a unified explanation...... for the implied volatility puzzle, the overreaction of long-term options to changes in short-term variance, and the fat tails of the risk-neutral return distribution relative to the physical distribution....

  14. Some variance reduction methods for numerical stochastic homogenization. (United States)

    Blanc, X; Le Bris, C; Legoll, F


    We give an overview of a series of recent studies devoted to variance reduction techniques for numerical stochastic homogenization. Numerical homogenization requires that a set of problems is solved at the microscale, the so-called corrector problems. In a random environment, these problems are stochastic and therefore need to be repeatedly solved, for several configurations of the medium considered. An empirical average over all configurations is then performed using the Monte Carlo approach, so as to approximate the effective coefficients necessary to determine the macroscopic behaviour. Variance severely affects the accuracy and the cost of such computations. Variance reduction approaches, borrowed from other contexts in the engineering sciences, can be useful. Some of these variance reduction techniques are presented, studied and tested here. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. On-Line Estimation of Allan Variance Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, J


    ... (Inertial Measurement Unit) gyros and accelerometers. The on-line method proposes a state space model and proposes parameter estimators for quantities previously measured from off-line data techniques such as the Allan variance graph...

  16. Comparison of variance estimators for metaanalysis of instrumental variable estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A. F.; Hingorani, A. D.; Jefferis, B. J.; White, J.; Groenwold, R. H H; Dudbridge, F.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Chaturvedi, N.; Engmann, J.; Hughes, A.; Humphries, S.; Hypponen, E.; Kivimaki, M.; Kuh, D.; Kumari, M.; Menon, U.; Morris, R.; Power, C.; Price, J.; Wannamethee, G.; Whincup, P.


    Background: Mendelian randomization studies perform instrumental variable (IV) analysis using genetic IVs. Results of individual Mendelian randomization studies can be pooled through meta-analysis. We explored how different variance estimators influence the meta-analysed IV estimate. Methods: Two

  17. Effect of short-term SSRI treatment on cognitive bias in generalised anxiety disorder. (United States)

    Mogg, Karin; Baldwin, David S; Brodrick, Paul; Bradley, Brendan P


    There is considerable evidence showing that individuals with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) selectively process threat-related information, e.g. they have a bias to interpret ambiguous information in a threat-related manner. Cognitive theories of anxiety, which provide the basis of cognitive-behaviour therapy, propose that such processing biases play an important role in causing and maintaining anxiety. Given that treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) appears to be effective for GAD, we examined whether it is successful in removing cognitive bias. The clinical group included 19 patients with a diagnosis of GAD, and the control group consisted of a non-clinical sample of volunteers, matched for age, gender and years in education. The patients were assessed on measures of interpretative bias (homophone task), anxiety and depression before being prescribed an SSRI (paroxetine or citalopram). After 4 weeks, the cognitive task and mood measures were repeated in the patient group. Prior to treatment, the GAD group showed a significantly greater level of threat-related interpretive bias than controls. Following SSRI treatment, there were significant reductions in both interpretive bias and in anxiety levels in the GAD group. Furthermore, individuals who showed greater clinical improvement (e.g. reflected by reduced anxiety scores) showed a correspondingly greater reduction in their cognitive bias. The results suggest that SSRIs are effective in modifying both subjective anxiety levels and threat-related interpretive bias.

  18. Extending the Generalised Pareto Distribution for Novelty Detection in High-Dimensional Spaces. (United States)

    Clifton, David A; Clifton, Lei; Hugueny, Samuel; Tarassenko, Lionel


    Novelty detection involves the construction of a "model of normality", and then classifies test data as being either "normal" or "abnormal" with respect to that model. For this reason, it is often termed one-class classification. The approach is suitable for cases in which examples of "normal" behaviour are commonly available, but in which cases of "abnormal" data are comparatively rare. When performing novelty detection, we are typically most interested in the tails of the normal model, because it is in these tails that a decision boundary between "normal" and "abnormal" areas of data space usually lies. Extreme value statistics provides an appropriate theoretical framework for modelling the tails of univariate (or low-dimensional) distributions, using the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD), which can be demonstrated to be the limiting distribution for data occurring within the tails of most practically-encountered probability distributions. This paper provides an extension of the GPD, allowing the modelling of probability distributions of arbitrarily high dimension, such as occurs when using complex, multimodel, multivariate distributions for performing novelty detection in most real-life cases. We demonstrate our extension to the GPD using examples from patient physiological monitoring, in which we have acquired data from hospital patients in large clinical studies of high-acuity wards, and in which we wish to determine "abnormal" patient data, such that early warning of patient physiological deterioration may be provided.

  19. Sleep onset uncovers thalamic abnormalities in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Bagshaw


    Full Text Available The thalamus is crucial for sleep regulation and the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE, and may serve as the underlying basis for the links between the two. We investigated this using EEG-fMRI and a specific emphasis on the role and functional connectivity (FC of the thalamus. We defined three types of thalamic FC: thalamocortical, inter-hemispheric thalamic, and intra-hemispheric thalamic. Patients and controls differed in all three measures, and during wakefulness and sleep, indicating disorder-dependent and state-dependent modification of thalamic FC. Inter-hemispheric thalamic FC differed between patients and controls in somatosensory regions during wakefulness, and occipital regions during sleep. Intra-hemispheric thalamic FC was significantly higher in patients than controls following sleep onset, and disorder-dependent alterations to FC were seen in several thalamic regions always involving somatomotor and occipital regions. As interactions between thalamic sub-regions are indirect and mediated by the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN, the results suggest abnormal TRN function in patients with IGE, with a regional distribution which could suggest a link with the thalamocortical networks involved in the generation of alpha rhythms. Intra-thalamic FC could be a more widely applicable marker beyond patients with IGE.

  20. Singular perturbation margin and generalised gain margin for linear time-invariant systems (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Zhu, J. Jim; Scottedward Hodel, A.


    In this paper, we propose a singular perturbation margin (SPM) and a generalised gain margin (GGM) as stability metrics for single input-single output (SISO) linear time-invariant (LTI) systems from the view of singular perturbations and regular perturbations, which have bijective correspondences with the classical phase margin (PM) and the gain margin (GM), respectively. Both of the numerical and analytical time-domain SPM and GGM assessment methods are provided, and relationships between the singular perturbation parameter, PM of the perturbed system, PM and SPM of the nominal system, and the (monotonically increasing) phase of the fast system are also revealed. These results make it possible to assess the PM of the nominal system in the time domain for SISO LTI systems using the SPM with a standardised testing system called 'PM-gauge,' as demonstrated by examples. The concepts of SPM and GGM can be used as metrics of stability margins for linear time-varying systems and nonlinear systems.

  1. BGLS: A Bayesian formalism for the generalised Lomb-Scargle periodogram (United States)

    Mortier, A.; Faria, J. P.; Correia, C. M.; Santerne, A.; Santos, N. C.


    Context. Frequency analyses are very important in astronomy today, not least in the ever-growing field of exoplanets, where short-period signals in stellar radial velocity data are investigated. Periodograms are the main (and powerful) tools for this purpose. However, recovering the correct frequencies and assessing the probability of each frequency is not straightforward. Aims: We provide a formalism that is easy to implement in a code, to describe a Bayesian periodogram that includes weights and a constant offset in the data. The relative probability between peaks can be easily calculated with this formalism. We discuss the differences and agreements between the various periodogram formalisms with simulated examples. Methods: We used the Bayesian probability theory to describe the probability that a full sine function (including weights derived from the errors on the data values and a constant offset) with a specific frequency is present in the data. Results: From the expression for our Baysian generalised Lomb-Scargle periodogram (BGLS), we can easily recover the expression for the non-Bayesian version. In the simulated examples we show that this new formalism recovers the underlying periods better than previous versions. A Python-based code is available for the community. http:// A copy of the code is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  2. Generalised extreme value distributions provide a natural hypothesis for the shape of seed mass distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Edwards

    Full Text Available Among co-occurring species, values for functionally important plant traits span orders of magnitude, are uni-modal, and generally positively skewed. Such data are usually log-transformed "for normality" but no convincing mechanistic explanation for a log-normal expectation exists. Here we propose a hypothesis for the distribution of seed masses based on generalised extreme value distributions (GEVs, a class of probability distributions used in climatology to characterise the impact of event magnitudes and frequencies; events that impose strong directional selection on biological traits. In tests involving datasets from 34 locations across the globe, GEVs described log10 seed mass distributions as well or better than conventional normalising statistics in 79% of cases, and revealed a systematic tendency for an overabundance of small seed sizes associated with low latitudes. GEVs characterise disturbance events experienced in a location to which individual species' life histories could respond, providing a natural, biological explanation for trait expression that is lacking from all previous hypotheses attempting to describe trait distributions in multispecies assemblages. We suggest that GEVs could provide a mechanistic explanation for plant trait distributions and potentially link biology and climatology under a single paradigm.

  3. Heightened sensitivity to emotional expressions in generalised anxiety disorder, compared to social anxiety disorder, and controls. (United States)

    Bui, Eric; Anderson, Eric; Goetter, Elizabeth M; Campbell, Allison A; Fischer, Laura E; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simon, Naomi M


    Few studies have examined potential differences between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) in the sensitivity to detect emotional expressions. The present study aims to compare the detection of emotional expressions in SAD and GAD. Participants with a primary diagnosis of GAD (n = 46), SAD (n = 70), and controls (n = 118) completed a morph movies task. The task presented faces expressing increasing degrees of emotional intensity, slowly changing from a neutral to a full-intensity happy, sad, or angry expressions. Participants used a slide bar to view the movie frames from left to right, and to stop at the first frame where they perceived an emotion. The frame selected thus indicated the intensity of emotion required to identify the facial expression. Participants with GAD detected the onset of facial emotions at lower intensity of emotion than participants with SAD (p = 0.002) and controls (p = 0.039). In a multiple regression analysis controlling for age, race, and depressive symptom severity, lower frame at which the emotion was detected was independently associated and GAD diagnosis (B = -5.73, SE = 1.74, p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that individuals with GAD exhibit enhanced detection of facial emotions compared to those with SAD or controls.

  4. Generalised joint hypermobility and neurodevelopmental traits in a non-clinical adult population. (United States)

    Glans, Martin; Bejerot, Susanne; Humble, Mats B


    Generalised joint hypermobility (GJH) is reportedly overrepresented among clinical cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). It is unknown if these associations are dimensional and, therefore, also relevant among non-clinical populations. To investigate if GJH correlates with sub-syndromal neurodevelopmental symptoms in a normal population. Hakim-Grahame's 5-part questionnaire (5PQ) on GJH, neuropsychiatric screening scales measuring ADHD and ASD traits, and a DCD-related question concerning clumsiness were distributed to a non-clinical, adult, Swedish population ( n =1039). In total, 887 individuals met our entry criteria. We found no associations between GJH and sub-syndromal symptoms of ADHD, ASD or DCD. Although GJH is overrepresented in clinical cases with neurodevelopmental disorders, such an association seems absent in a normal population. Thus, if GJH serves as a biomarker cutting across diagnostic boundaries, this association is presumably limited to clinical populations. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  5. Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in generalised anxiety disorder: A critical review of the literature. (United States)

    Baldwin, David S; den Boer, Johan A; Lyndon, Gavin; Emir, Birol; Schweizer, Edward; Haswell, Hannah


    The aim of this review is to summarise the literature on the efficacy and safety of pregabalin for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Of 241 literature citations, 13 clinical trials were identified that were specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in GAD, including 11 randomised double-blind trials and two open-label studies. Pregabalin efficacy has been consistently demonstrated across the licensed dose range of 150-600 mg/day. Efficacy has been reported for pregabalin monotherapy in elderly patients with GAD, patients with severe anxiety, and for adjunctive therapy when added to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor in patients who have failed to respond to an initial course of antidepressant therapy. The two most common adverse events with pregabalin are somnolence and dizziness, both of which appear to be dose-related. Pregabalin appears to have a low potential for causing withdrawal symptoms when long-term therapy is discontinued; however, tapering over the course of at least one week is recommended. A review of available evidence indicates that pregabalin is a well-tolerated and consistently effective treatment for GAD, with a unique mechanism of action that makes it a useful addition to the therapeutic armamentarium. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Method for modelling cerebral blood vessels and their bifurcations using circular, homogeneous, generalised cylinders. (United States)

    Flaaris, J J; Volden, M; Haase, J; Ostergaard, L R


    A method for automatic modelling of blood vessels and their bifurcations from 3D scans of the brain is presented. The method is a three-step procedure. First, a skeleton of the cerebral blood vessels is developed, and then the surfaces of the blood vessels are located using an active contour approach. The active contour approach uses circular homogeneous generalised cylinders (CHGCs) to model the thin, elongated blood vessels. Finally, a novel method for modelling the surfaces of the bifurcations in a vessel tree is presented. The method was tested on simulated data: a computed tomography angiography (CTA) and four magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) volumes. Furthermore, the method was tested on ten magnetic resonance images (MRIs) to demonstrate its robustness. The test on the simulated data indicated that the approach for the surface modelling of vessels had a mean radius error of less than 0.1 mm and a mean localisation error of 0.1 mm. Surface models evaluated by an expert in vascular neurosurgery were found to have a smooth appearance and generally agreed with the image data. The test on the MRI scans indicated that the method performed well in noisy environments.

  7. Ambulatory wireless sensor network power management using constrained explicit generalised predictive control (United States)

    Witheephanich, K.; Escaño, J. M.; Hayes, M. J.


    This work considers the problem of controlling transmit power within a wireless sensor network (WSN), where the practical constraints typically posed by an ambulatory healthcare setting are explicitly taken into account, as a constrained received signal strength indicator (RSSI) tracking control problem. The problem is formulated using an explicit generalised predictive control (GPC) strategy for dynamic transmission power control that ensures a balance between energy consumption and quality of service (QoS) through the creation of a stable floor on information throughput. Optimal power assignment is achieved by an explicit solution of the constrained GPC problem that is computed off-line using a multi-parametric quadratic program (mpQP). The solution is shown to be a piecewise-affine function. The new design is demonstrated to be practically feasible via a resource-constrained, fully IEEE 802.15.4 compliant, Moteiv's Tmote Sky sensor node platform. Design utility is benchmarked experimentally using a representative selection of scaled ambulatory scenarios.

  8. Potential Coefficient and Anomaly Degree Variance Modelling Revisited, (United States)


    using least squares collocation . Moritz (1977) suggested an Improved model for the anomaly degree variances that was investigated by Jekeli (1978...KEY WORDOS (Continue ont , aide it ne’-entev and identify by block nool.ber) Geodesy, gray itY, collocation , cova rialncts. 20. AS 4-&CT (Continue...provided one Is willing to accept a high gradient variance. Excellent fit to all data types is obtained with the two com- ponent model suggested by Moritz

  9. Bias-variance tradeoff of soft decision trees


    Olaru, Cristina; Wehenkel, Louis


    This paper focuses on the study of the error composition of a fuzzy decision tree induction method recently proposed by the authors, called soft decision trees. This error may be expressed as a sum of three types of error: residual error, bias and variance. The paper studies empirically the tradeoff between bias and variance in a soft decision tree method and compares it with the tradeoff of classical crisp regression and classification trees. The m...

  10. Global Variance Risk Premium and Forex Return Predictability


    Aloosh, Arash


    In a long-run risk model with stochastic volatility and frictionless markets, I express expected forex returns as a function of consumption growth variances and stock variance risk premiums (VRPs)—the difference between the risk-neutral and statistical expectations of market return variation. This provides a motivation for using the forward-looking information available in stock market volatility indices to predict forex returns. Empirically, I find that stock VRPs predict forex returns at a ...

  11. The Durbin-Watson Ratio Under Infinite Variance Errors


    Phillips, Peter C.B.; Mico Loretan


    This paper studies the properties of the von Neumann ratio for time series with infinite variance. The asymptotic theory is developed using recent results on the weak convergence of partial sums of time series with infinite variance to stable processes and of sample serial correlations to functions of stable variables. Our asymptotics cover the null of iid variates and general moving average (MA) alternatives. Regression residuals are also considered. In the static regression model the Durbin...

  12. Estimation of the additive and dominance variances in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimates of additive genetic variance were 0.669, 43.46 d2 and 9.02 kg2 for NBA, FI and LWT21, respectively. Corresponding estimates of dominance variance were 0.439, 123.68 d2 and 2.52 kg2, respectively. Dominance effects were important for NBA and FI. Permanent environmental effects were significant for FI and ...

  13. Variance and covariance estimates for weaning weight of Senepol cattle. (United States)

    Wright, D W; Johnson, Z B; Brown, C J; Wildeus, S


    Variance and covariance components were estimated for weaning weight from Senepol field data for use in the reduced animal model for a maternally influenced trait. The 4,634 weaning records were used to evaluate 113 sires and 1,406 dams on the island of St. Croix. Estimates of direct additive genetic variance (sigma 2A), maternal additive genetic variance (sigma 2M), covariance between direct and maternal additive genetic effects (sigma AM), permanent maternal environmental variance (sigma 2PE), and residual variance (sigma 2 epsilon) were calculated by equating variances estimated from a sire-dam model and a sire-maternal grandsire model, with and without the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix (A-1), to their expectations. Estimates were sigma 2A, 139.05 and 138.14 kg2; sigma 2M, 307.04 and 288.90 kg2; sigma AM, -117.57 and -103.76 kg2; sigma 2PE, -258.35 and -243.40 kg2; and sigma 2 epsilon, 588.18 and 577.72 kg2 with and without A-1, respectively. Heritability estimates for direct additive (h2A) were .211 and .210 with and without A-1, respectively. Heritability estimates for maternal additive (h2M) were .47 and .44 with and without A-1, respectively. Correlations between direct and maternal (IAM) effects were -.57 and -.52 with and without A-1, respectively.

  14. Variance estimation in the analysis of microarray data

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuedong


    Microarrays are one of the most widely used high throughput technologies. One of the main problems in the area is that conventional estimates of the variances that are required in the t-statistic and other statistics are unreliable owing to the small number of replications. Various methods have been proposed in the literature to overcome this lack of degrees of freedom problem. In this context, it is commonly observed that the variance increases proportionally with the intensity level, which has led many researchers to assume that the variance is a function of the mean. Here we concentrate on estimation of the variance as a function of an unknown mean in two models: the constant coefficient of variation model and the quadratic variance-mean model. Because the means are unknown and estimated with few degrees of freedom, naive methods that use the sample mean in place of the true mean are generally biased because of the errors-in-variables phenomenon. We propose three methods for overcoming this bias. The first two are variations on the theme of the so-called heteroscedastic simulation-extrapolation estimator, modified to estimate the variance function consistently. The third class of estimators is entirely different, being based on semiparametric information calculations. Simulations show the power of our methods and their lack of bias compared with the naive method that ignores the measurement error. The methodology is illustrated by using microarray data from leukaemia patients.

  15. Genetic heterogeneity of residual variance in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill William G


    Full Text Available Abstract Aims were to estimate the extent of genetic heterogeneity in environmental variance. Data comprised 99 535 records of 35-day body weights from broiler chickens reared in a controlled environment. Residual variance within dam families was estimated using ASREML, after fitting fixed effects such as genetic groups and hatches, for each of 377 genetically contemporary sires with a large number of progeny (> 100 males or females each. Residual variance was computed separately for male and female offspring, and after correction for sampling, strong evidence for heterogeneity was found, the standard deviation between sires in within variance amounting to 15–18% of its mean. Reanalysis using log-transformed data gave similar results, and elimination of 2–3% of outlier data reduced the heterogeneity but it was still over 10%. The correlation between estimates for males and females was low, however. The correlation between sire effects on progeny mean and residual variance for body weight was small and negative (-0.1. Using a data set bigger than any yet presented and on a trait measurable in both sexes, this study has shown evidence for heterogeneity in the residual variance, which could not be explained by segregation of major genes unless very few determined the trait.

  16. Generalising via the Case Studies and Adapting the Oil and Gas Industry's Project Execution Concepts to the Construction Industry


    Mejlænder-Larsen, Øystein


    The aim of this paper is to explore whether it is possible to generalise findings on project execution in the oil and gas industryrelated to the use of project execution models and a 3D design environment, based on case study research. Besides, sufficientsimilarities between the two industries were assessed and the applicability of the findings from the cases in the oil and gasindustry was assessed. The selected cases (the ongoing ...

  17. CMB-S4 and the hemispherical variance anomaly (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Márcio; Copi, Craig J.; Knox, Lloyd; Starkman, Glenn D.


    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) full-sky temperature data show a hemispherical asymmetry in power nearly aligned with the Ecliptic. In real space, this anomaly can be quantified by the temperature variance in the Northern and Southern Ecliptic hemispheres, with the Northern hemisphere displaying an anomalously low variance while the Southern hemisphere appears unremarkable [consistent with expectations from the best-fitting theory, Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM)]. While this is a well-established result in temperature, the low signal-to-noise ratio in current polarization data prevents a similar comparison. This will change with a proposed ground-based CMB experiment, CMB-S4. With that in mind, we generate realizations of polarization maps constrained by the temperature data and predict the distribution of the hemispherical variance in polarization considering two different sky coverage scenarios possible in CMB-S4: full Ecliptic north coverage and just the portion of the North that can be observed from a ground-based telescope at the high Chilean Atacama plateau. We find that even in the set of realizations constrained by the temperature data, the low Northern hemisphere variance observed in temperature is not expected in polarization. Therefore, observing an anomalously low variance in polarization would make the hypothesis that the temperature anomaly is simply a statistical fluke more unlikely and thus increase the motivation for physical explanations. We show, within ΛCDM, how variance measurements in both sky coverage scenarios are related. We find that the variance makes for a good statistic in cases where the sky coverage is limited, however, full northern coverage is still preferable.

  18. Au nanoparticles stabilised by PEGylated low generation PAMAM dendrimers: design, characterisation and properties. (United States)

    Dietrich, Sascha; Schulze, Steffen; Hietschold, Michael; Lang, Heinrich


    The preparation and characterisation of a series of well-defined low generation (poly)amidoamine (PAMAM)-based dendrimers with end-grafted ethylene glycol ether moieties of type N(CH(2)CH(2)C(O)NHCH(2)CH(2)NR(2))(3) (3a, R=CH(2)CH(2)C(O)OCH(2)CH(2)OCH(3); 3b, R=CH(2)CH(2)C(O)O(CH(2)CH(2)O)(2)C(2)H(5); 3c, R=CH(2)CH(2)C(O)O(CH(2)CH(2)O)(9)CH(3)), [CH(2)N(CH(2)CH(2)C(O)NHCH(2)CH(2)NR(2))(2)](2) (4, R=CH(2)CH(2)C(O)O(CH(2)CH(2)O)(2)C(2)H(5)) and (R(2)NCH(2)CH(2)NHC(O)CH(2)CH(2))N[CH(2)CH(2)N(CH(2)CH(2)C(O)NHCH(2)CH(2)NR(2))(2)](2) (5a, R=CH(2)CH(2)C(O)OCH(2)CH(2)OCH(3); 5b, R=CH(2)CH(2)C(O)O(CH(2)CH(2)O)(2)C(2)H(5); 5c, R=CH(2)CH(2)C(O)O(CH(2)CH(2)O)(9)CH(3)) and their application for the stabilisation of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is described. These dendrimers were prepared by a consecutive divergent synthesis methodology including Michael addition and amidation cycles. For comparison, amidoamine related model compounds N(C(3)H(7))R(2) (1, R=CH(2)CH(2)C(O)O(CH(2)CH(2)O)(2)C(2)H(5)) and [CH(2)NR(2)](2) (2, R=CH(2)CH(2)C(O)O(CH(2)CH(2)O)(2)C(2)H(5)) were also synthesised to estimate the minimum required donating capabilities of the stabiliser. Loading the appropriate dendritic templates with H[AuCl(4)] (12) and subsequent reduction of the respective metallodendrimers with Na[BH(4)] produced dendrimer encapsulated gold colloids. The dendrimeric scaffold, the length of the ethylene glycols, the adjusted stabilizer:gold ratio and the duration of reaction time affects the average Au particle diameter in a range of 4.0 (±0.9) to 58.5 (±14.5) nm. Furthermore, depending on the nature of the stabiliser, nanoparticles were formed having spherical or multiple morphologies. Characterisation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV/vis, and IR spectroscopy revealed that Au NPs are formed and protected inside the dendrimer scaffold. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Percutaneous dynamic interspinous stabilisation for the treatment of juxtafacet cysts of the lumbar spine: prospective study]. (United States)

    Hrabálek, L; Wanek, T; Adamus, M


    To present the authors' philosophy on the surgical treatment of juxtafacet cysts of the lumbosacral (LS) spine, with its primary aim of dynamic lumbar stabilisation with an interspinous implant, inserted by a minimally invasive approach, without concurrent exploration of the spinal canal and cyst removal. During a 20-month period, ten patients aged between 25 and 70 years (average age, 53.2 years) were indicated for surgical treatment of a juxtafacet cyst by percutaneous insertion of an In-Space interspinous spacer without surgical exploration of the spinal canal. The group comprised six men and four women. At a follow-up of 6 weeks to 18 months, each patient underwent MRI examination of the LS spine and the degree of cyst resorption was assessed. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and range of motion (ROM) values, and a sagittal angle (SA) of the segment treated obtained for the whole group at 3 to 18 months after surgery were compared with the pre-operative va - lues. The surgeon evaluated the effect of surgery on radicular and axial pain. Complete resorption of the cyst was found in seven patients (70%) and three (30%) showed partial resorption. Complete resolution of radicular symptoms was reported by five patients (50%); five experienced partial relief (50%). Lumbago was relieved completely in three (30%) and partially in seven (70%) patients. The average VAS score was 6.7 points (range, 4-10) pre-operatively and 3.5 (0-8) post-operatively, i.e. it decreased by 3.2 points, which meant an improvement by 48%. The average ODI value was 58.4% (range, 32-80) pre-operatively and 23.9% (0-70) post-operatively, i.e., it decreased by 34.5 percentage points and was an improvement by 59%. The average ROM measures were 5.65 degrees (range, 2°-10°) pre-operatively and 5.55 degrees (0°-19°) post-operatively. The average pre- and post-operative sagittal angles in normal lumbar lordosis were 7.1 degrees (1°-13°) and 6.2 degrees (1

  20. Strengthen forensic entomology in court--the need for data exploration and the validation of a generalised additive mixed model. (United States)

    Baqué, Michèle; Amendt, Jens


    Developmental data of juvenile blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically used to calculate the age of immature stages found on or around a corpse and thus to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (PMI(min)). However, many of those data sets don't take into account that immature blow flies grow in a non-linear fashion. Linear models do not supply a sufficient reliability on age estimates and may even lead to an erroneous determination of the PMI(min). According to the Daubert standard and the need for improvements in forensic science, new statistic tools like smoothing methods and mixed models allow the modelling of non-linear relationships and expand the field of statistical analyses. The present study introduces into the background and application of these statistical techniques by analysing a model which describes the development of the forensically important blow fly Calliphora vicina at different temperatures. The comparison of three statistical methods (linear regression, generalised additive modelling and generalised additive mixed modelling) clearly demonstrates that only the latter provided regression parameters that reflect the data adequately. We focus explicitly on both the exploration of the data--to assure their quality and to show the importance of checking it carefully prior to conducting the statistical tests--and the validation of the resulting models. Hence, we present a common method for evaluating and testing forensic entomological data sets by using for the first time generalised additive mixed models.

  1. Modelling of extreme minimum rainfall using generalised extreme value distribution for Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delson Chikobvu


    Full Text Available We modelled the mean annual rainfall for data recorded in Zimbabwe from 1901 to 2009. Extreme value theory was used to estimate the probabilities of meteorological droughts. Droughts can be viewed as extreme events which go beyond and/or below normal rainfall occurrences, such as exceptionally low mean annual rainfall. The duality between the distribution of the minima and maxima was exploited and used to fit the generalised extreme value distribution (GEVD to the data and hence find probabilities of extreme low levels of mean annual rainfall. The augmented Dickey Fuller test confirmed that rainfall data were stationary, while the normal quantile-quantile plot indicated that rainfall data deviated from the normality assumption at both ends of the tails of the distribution. The maximum likelihood estimation method and the Bayesian approach were used to find the parameters of the GEVD. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling goodnessof- fit tests showed that the Weibull class of distributions was a good fit to the minima mean annual rainfall using the maximum likelihood estimation method. The mean return period estimate of a meteorological drought using the threshold value of mean annual rainfall of 473 mm was 8 years. This implies that if in the year there is a meteorological drought then another drought of the same intensity or greater is expected after 8 years. It is expected that the use of Bayesian inference may better quantify the level of uncertainty associated with the GEVD parameter estimates than with the maximum likelihood estimation method. The Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for the GEVD was applied to construct the model parameter estimates using the Bayesian approach. These findings are significant because results based on non-informative priors (Bayesian method and the maximum likelihood method approach are expected to be similar.

  2. Generalised Einstein mass-variation formulae: II Superluminal relative frame velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Hill

    Full Text Available In part I of this paper we have deduced generalised Einstein mass variation formulae assuming relative frame velocities vc. We again use the notion of the residual mass m0(v which for v>c is defined by the equation m(v=m0(v[(v/c2-1]-1/2 for the actual mass m(v. The residual mass is essentially the actual mass with the Einstein factor removed, and we emphasise that we make no restrictions on m0(v. Using this formal device we deduce corresponding new mass variation formulae applicable to superluminal relative frame velocities, assuming only the extended Lorentz transformations and their consequences, and two invariants that are known to apply in special relativity. The present authors have previously speculated a dual framework such that both the rest mass m0∗ and the residual mass at infinite velocity m∞∗ (by which we mean p∞∗/c, assuming finite momentum at infinity are equally important parameters in the specification of mass as a function of its velocity, and the two arbitrary constants can be so determined. The new formulae involving two arbitrary constants may also be exploited so that the mass remains finite at the speed of light, and two distinct mass profiles are determined as functions of their velocity with the rest mass assumed to be alternatively prescribed at the origin of either frame. The two profiles so obtained (M(U,m(u and (M∗(U,m∗(u although distinct have a common ratio M(U/M∗(U=m(u/m∗(u that is a function of v>c, indicating that observable mass depends upon the frame in which the rest mass is prescribed. Keywords: Special relativity, Einstein mass variation, New formulae

  3. Generalised Einstein mass-variation formulae: II Superluminal relative frame velocities (United States)

    Hill, James M.; Cox, Barry J.

    In part I of this paper we have deduced generalised Einstein mass variation formulae assuming relative frame velocities v c . We again use the notion of the residual mass m0 (v) which for v > c is defined by the equation m (v) =m0 (v)[(v / c)2 - 1 ]1/2 for the actual mass m (v) . The residual mass is essentially the actual mass with the Einstein factor removed, and we emphasise that we make no restrictions on m0 (v) . Using this formal device we deduce corresponding new mass variation formulae applicable to superluminal relative frame velocities, assuming only the extended Lorentz transformations and their consequences, and two invariants that are known to apply in special relativity. The present authors have previously speculated a dual framework such that both the rest mass m0∗ and the residual mass at infinite velocity m∞∗ (by which we mean p∞∗ / c , assuming finite momentum at infinity) are equally important parameters in the specification of mass as a function of its velocity, and the two arbitrary constants can be so determined. The new formulae involving two arbitrary constants may also be exploited so that the mass remains finite at the speed of light, and two distinct mass profiles are determined as functions of their velocity with the rest mass assumed to be alternatively prescribed at the origin of either frame. The two profiles so obtained (M (U), m (u)) and (M∗ (U),m∗ (u)) although distinct have a common ratio M (U) /M∗ (U) = m (u) /m∗ (u) that is a function of v > c , indicating that observable mass depends upon the frame in which the rest mass is prescribed.

  4. Demographic and psychosocial predictors of major depression and generalised anxiety disorder in Australian university students. (United States)

    Farrer, Louise M; Gulliver, Amelia; Bennett, Kylie; Fassnacht, Daniel B; Griffiths, Kathleen M


    Few studies have examined modifiable psychosocial risk factors for mental disorders among university students, and of these, none have employed measures that correspond to clinical diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was to examine psychosocial and demographic risk factors for major depression and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of Australian university students. An anonymous web-based survey was distributed to undergraduate and postgraduate students at a mid-sized Australian university. A range of psychosocial and demographic risk factors were measured, and logistic regression models were used to examine significant predictors of major depression and GAD. A total of 611 students completed the survey. The prevalence of major depression and GAD in the sample was 7.9 and 17.5 %, respectively. In terms of demographic factors, the risk of depression was higher for students in their first year of undergraduate study, and the risk of GAD was higher for female students, those who moved to attend university, and students experiencing financial stress. In terms of psychosocial factors, students with experience of body image issues and lack of confidence were at significantly greater risk of major depression, and feeling too much pressure to succeed, lack of confidence, and difficulty coping with study was significantly associated with risk of GAD. University students experience a range of unique psychosocial stressors that increase their risk of major depression and GAD, in addition to sociodemographic risk factors. It is important to examine psychosocial factors, as these are potentially modifiable and could be the focus of university-specific mental health interventions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOB Apriandanu


    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Nanopartikel perak merupakan produk berbasis nanoteknologi yang sedang berkembang saat ini dan dapat diaplikasikan sebagai katalis dan detektor sensor optik. Faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi ukuran nanopartikel adalah konsentrasi garam dan agen pereduksi. Nanopartikel perak bersifat tidak stabil. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya penambahan polivinil alkohol sebagai agen stabilisator dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh rasio mol reduktor EG/Ag+ dan % PVA (b/v dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak terhadap karakteristik produk yang dihasilkan. Nanopartikel perak disintesis dengan metode poliol yaitu melarutkan AgNO3 ke dalam etilen glikol sebagai reduktor dan polivinilalkohol (PVA sebagai stabilisator. Karakterisasi dilakukan menggunakan Spek-trofotometer UV-Vis dan TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope. Analisis terhadap spektra UV-Vis menunjukkan bahwa nanopartikel yang relatif stabil pada pengukuran panjang gelombang maksimum 417 hingga 418 nm adalah nanopartikel yang disintesis menggunakan PVA 3%. Karakterisasi dengan TEM menunjukkan nanopartikel perak yang disintesis berdasarkan rasio mol etilen glikol terhadap Ag+ 50:1 memiliki ukuran terkecil dengan kisaran 10,15–27,56 nm dengan struktur kristal face centered cubic (FCC. Semakin tinggi rasio mol EG /Ag+ dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak, semakin tinggi pula peningkatan absorbansinya.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ Silver nanoparticles are nanotechnology based product which can be applied as a catalyst and optic sensor detector. The factors that can effect on nanoparticle size are salt concentration and reductor agent. Silver nanoparticles are unstable material, so polyvinylalcohol needs to be added  as a stabilizer agent in their synthesis. The aims of this research are to

  6. Genetic Variance in Homophobia: Evidence from Self- and Peer Reports. (United States)

    Zapko-Willmes, Alexandra; Kandler, Christian


    The present twin study combined self- and peer assessments of twins' general homophobia targeting gay men in order to replicate previous behavior genetic findings across different rater perspectives and to disentangle self-rater-specific variance from common variance in self- and peer-reported homophobia (i.e., rater-consistent variance). We hypothesized rater-consistent variance in homophobia to be attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental effects, and self-rater-specific variance to be partially accounted for by genetic influences. A sample of 869 twins and 1329 peer raters completed a seven item scale containing cognitive, affective, and discriminatory homophobic tendencies. After correction for age and sex differences, we found most of the genetic contributions (62%) and significant nonshared environmental contributions (16%) to individual differences in self-reports on homophobia to be also reflected in peer-reported homophobia. A significant genetic component, however, was self-report-specific (38%), suggesting that self-assessments alone produce inflated heritability estimates to some degree. Different explanations are discussed.

  7. Extinction risk, coloured noise and the scaling of variance. (United States)

    Wichmann, Matthias C; Johst, Karin; Schwager, Monika; Blasius, Bernd; Jeltsch, Florian


    The impact of temporally correlated fluctuating environments (coloured noise) on the extinction risk of populations has become a main focus in theoretical population ecology. In this study we particularly focus on the extinction risk in strongly correlated environments. Here, we found that, in contrast to moderate auto-correlation, the extinction risk was highly dependent on the process of noise generation, in particular on the method of variance scaling. Such scaling is commonly applied to avoid variance-driven biases when comparing the extinction risk under white and coloured noise. We show that for strong auto-correlation often-used scaling techniques lead to a high variability in the variances of the resulting time series and thus to deviations in the subsequent extinction risk. Therefore, we present an alternative scaling method that always delivers the target variance, even in the case of strong auto-correlation. In contrast to earlier techniques, our very intuitive method is not bound to auto-regressive processes but can be applied to all types of coloured noises. We strongly recommend our method to generate time series when the target of interest is the effect of noise colour on extinction risk not obscured by any variance effects.

  8. Application of variance components estimation to calibrate geoid error models. (United States)

    Guo, Dong-Mei; Xu, Hou-Ze


    The method of using Global Positioning System-leveling data to obtain orthometric heights has been well studied. A simple formulation for the weighted least squares problem has been presented in an earlier work. This formulation allows one directly employing the errors-in-variables models which completely descript the covariance matrices of the observables. However, an important question that what accuracy level can be achieved has not yet to be satisfactorily solved by this traditional formulation. One of the main reasons for this is the incorrectness of the stochastic models in the adjustment, which in turn allows improving the stochastic models of measurement noises. Therefore the issue of determining the stochastic modeling of observables in the combined adjustment with heterogeneous height types will be a main focus point in this paper. Firstly, the well-known method of variance component estimation is employed to calibrate the errors of heterogeneous height data in a combined least square adjustment of ellipsoidal, orthometric and gravimetric geoid. Specifically, the iterative algorithms of minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimation are used to estimate the variance components for each of heterogeneous observations. Secondly, two different statistical models are presented to illustrate the theory. The first method directly uses the errors-in-variables as a priori covariance matrices and the second method analyzes the biases of variance components and then proposes bias-corrected variance component estimators. Several numerical test results show the capability and effectiveness of the variance components estimation procedure in combined adjustment for calibrating geoid error model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García-Fiñana


    Full Text Available Cavalieri sampling is often used to estimate the volume of an object with systematic sections a constant distance T apart. The variance of the corresponding estimator can be expressed as the sum of the extension term (which gives the overall trend of the variance and is used to estimate it, the 'Zitterbewegung' (which oscillates about zero and higher order terms. The extension term is of order T2m+2 for small T, where m is the order of the first non-continuous derivative of the measurement function f, (namely of the area function if the target is the volume. A key condition is that the jumps of the mth derivative f (m of f are finite. When this is not the case, then the variance exhibits a fractional trend, and the current theory fails. Indeed, in practice the mentioned trend is often of order T2q+2, typically with 0 variance, and thereby of the extension term, by means of a new Euler-MacLaurin formula involving fractional derivatives of f. We also present a new and general estimator of the variance, see Eq. 26a, b, and apply it to real data (white matter of a human brain.

  10. Influence of stabilising agents and pH on the size of SnO2 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rac


    Full Text Available According to recent research, the use of nanoparticles as a gas-sensitive material increases the selectivity and sensitivity and shortens the response time of a sensor. However, the synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles presents many difficulties. The following article presents a simple and inexpensive method for the synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles. The influence of the surfactant and polymer choice on the size of the resulting nanoparticles was investigated and a mechanism describing their interaction was proposed. It was found that stable colloids of SnO2 nanoparticles are formed in the presence of both PEI and Triton X-100 surfactants as stabilising agents. However, an additional factor essential for good stabilisation of the nanoparticles was an appropriate acidity level of the solution. Under optimal conditions, nanoparticles having an average diameter of about 10 nm are reproducibly formed.

  11. Selection of natural treatment processes for algae removal from stabilisation ponds effluents in Brasilia, using multicriterion methods. (United States)

    Neder, K D; Carneiro, G A; Queiroz, T R; de Souza, M A A


    A multicriterion methodology is used in the evaluation and selection of the most appropriate alternative(s) for removing algae from stabilisation ponds effluents in a case study in Brasilia. For this purpose, five different natural treatment processes are tested at pilot scale: rock filter, sand filter, floating aquatic plants, constructed wetlands, and overland flow. These pilot units were constructed in Brasilia and set in parallel, each one receiving a portion of the effluent that comes from an existing wastewater treatment plant composed of preliminary treatment, UASB reactors, and high-rate stabilisation ponds. Several evaluation criteria are used in order to relate the capabilities of the post-treatment processes to the multiple objectives in this case. Two multicriterion decision-aid methods--compromise programming and ELECTRE-III--are used to select the most satisfying processes. The top ranking alternatives are indicated for subsequent studies, considering the possible implementation of these technologies to existing plants.

  12. Neutron and X-ray diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement modelling of magnesium stabilised amorphous calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cobourne, G.; Mountjoy, G.; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego


    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) plays a key role in biomineralisation processes in sea organisms. Neutron and X-ray diffraction have been performed for a sample of magnesium-stabilised ACC, which was prepared with a Mg:Ca ratio of 0.05:1 and 0.25 H2O molecules per molecule of CO3. The empirical...... potential structure refinement method has been used to make a model of magnesium-stabilised ACC and the results revealed a fair agreement with the experimental diffraction data. The model has well-defined CO3 and H2O molecules. The average coordination number of Ca is 7.4 and is composed of 6.8 oxygen atoms...

  13. Variance swap payoffs, risk premia and extreme market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    This paper estimates the Variance Risk Premium (VRP) directly from synthetic variance swap payoffs. Since variance swap payoffs are highly volatile, we extract the VRP by using signal extraction techniques based on a state-space representation of our model in combination with a simple economic...... constraint. Our approach, only requiring option implied volatilities and daily returns for the underlying, provides measurement error free estimates of the part of the VRP related to normal market conditions, and allows constructing variables indicating agents' expectations under extreme market conditions....... The latter variables and the VRP generate different return predictability on the major US indices. A factor model is proposed to extract a market VRP which turns out to be priced when considering Fama and French portfolios....

  14. A New Nonparametric Levene Test for Equal Variances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno D. Zumbo


    Full Text Available Tests of the equality of variances are sometimes used on their own to compare variability across groups of experimental or non-experimental conditions but they are most often used alongside other methods to support assumptions made about variances. A new nonparametric test of equality of variances is described and compared to current 'gold standard' method, the median-based Levene test, in a computer simulation study. The simulation results show that when sampling from either symmetric or skewed population distributions both the median based and nonparametric Levene tests maintain their nominal Type I error rate; however, when one is sampling from skewed population distributions the nonparametric test has more statistical power.

  15. Assessment of heterogeneity of residual variances using changepoint techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Miguel A


    Full Text Available Abstract Several studies using test-day models show clear heterogeneity of residual variance along lactation. A changepoint technique to account for this heterogeneity is proposed. The data set included 100 744 test-day records of 10 869 Holstein-Friesian cows from northern Spain. A three-stage hierarchical model using the Wood lactation function was employed. Two unknown changepoints at times T1 and T2, (0 T1 T2 tmax, with continuity of residual variance at these points, were assumed. Also, a nonlinear relationship between residual variance and the number of days of milking t was postulated. The residual variance at a time t( in the lactation phase i was modeled as: for (i = 1, 2, 3, where λι is a phase-specific parameter. A Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm for marginalization was implemented. After a burn-in of 20 000 iterations, 40 000 samples were drawn to estimate posterior features. The posterior modes of T1, T2, λ1, λ2, λ3, , , were 53.2 and 248.2 days; 0.575, -0.406, 0.797 and 0.702, 34.63 and 0.0455 kg2, respectively. The residual variance predicted using these point estimates were 2.64, 6.88, 3.59 and 4.35 kg2 at days of milking 10, 53, 248 and 305, respectively. This technique requires less restrictive assumptions and the model has fewer parameters than other methods proposed to account for the heterogeneity of residual variance during lactation.

  16. The active disturbance rejection control approach to stabilisation of coupled heat and ODE system subject to boundary control matched disturbance (United States)

    Guo, Bao-Zhu; Liu, Jun-Jun; AL-Fhaid, A. S.; Younas, Arshad Mahmood M.; Asiri, Asim


    We consider stabilisation for a linear ordinary differential equation system with input dynamics governed by a heat equation, subject to boundary control matched disturbance. The active disturbance rejection control approach is applied to estimate, in real time, the disturbance with both constant high gain and time-varying high gain. The disturbance is cancelled in the feedback loop. The closed-loop systems with constant high gain and time-varying high gain are shown, respectively, to be practically stable and asymptotically stable.

  17. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements. (United States)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe L; Christensen, Thomas H; Bager, Dirch H


    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filler in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration. Two types of FGA were treated by the Ferrox-process, which removes the majority of the easily soluble salts in the FGA and provides binding sites for heavy metals in terms of ferrihydrite. Cubes of cement treated base layer materials containing 5% stabilised FGA were cast, sealed and cured for two weeks. Cylinders (diameter 100 mm, length 150 mm) were drilled from these cubes for tank leaching experiments. Duplicate specimens were subject to compression strength testing and to tank leaching experiments. The compressive strength of the CTB fulfilled the Danish requirements for CTB, i.e. strength more than 5 MPa after 7 days. The tank leaching tests revealed that leaching of heavy metals was not significantly affected by the use of chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. Assuming that diffusion controls the leaching process it was calculated that less than 1% of the metals would leach during a 100-year period from a 0.5 m thick concrete slab exposed to water on one side. Leaching of the common ions Ca, Cl, Na and SO4 was increased 3-20 times from the specimens with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. However, the quantities leached were still modest. These experiments suggest that FGA from waste incineration after Ferrox-treatment could be re-used in CTB without compromising the strength and leaching from the base layer.

  18. Geotechnical properties of peat soil stabilised with shredded waste tyre chips in combination with gypsum, lime or cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saberian


    Full Text Available Peat has a high content of water and organic substances. These weak components can cause low bearing capacity and high consolidation settlement under load, which means that peat deposits must usually be stabilised if they are to bear constructions such as buildings or roads. In this study we investigated the performance of waste tyre chips (10 % by weight and sand (400 kg m-3 supplemented with a pozzolanic binder (gypsum, lime or cement at a range of dosages (5 %, 10 % or 15 % by weight as a stabiliser for peat soil. Peat samples were taken from a fen peatland at Chaghakhor Wetland in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. In total, 162 test specimens were prepared and subjected to laboratory strength testing (unconfined compression test and direct shear test. Additionally, the pH of each admixture was recorded immediately after mixing, elemental compositions were determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF, and structures were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. It was observed that: (1 the total percentage of pozzolanic compounds in the peat soil was well below the minimum of 70 % set by the standard ASTM C 618 (ASTM 2000, so an additive such as cement, lime or gypsum would certainly be required; (2 specimens stabilised with gypsum or lime showed improvements in unconfined compressive strength (UCS, but those stabilised with ordinary Portland cement exhibited the greatest improvement in UCS (up to 12,200 % as well as improvements in the direct shear parameters c and φ; (3 according to the XRF tests, additives such as cement, lime and gypsum introduced considerable amounts of Si, Al, Ca and O, which are important for pozzolanic reactions in peat soils; and (4 on the basis of the results of UCS and direct shear tests, the optimum percentage of the additives tested would be 5 %.

  19. Spekkens’ toy model in all dimensions and its relationship with stabiliser quantum mechanics (United States)

    Catani, Lorenzo; E Browne, Dan


    Spekkens’ toy model is a non-contextual hidden variable model with an epistemic restriction, a constraint on what an observer can know about reality. The aim of the model, developed for continuous and discrete prime degrees of freedom, is to advocate the epistemic view of quantum theory, where quantum states are states of incomplete knowledge about a deeper underlying reality. Many aspects of quantum mechanics and protocols from quantum information can be reproduced in the model. In spite of its significance, a number of aspects of Spekkens’ model remained incomplete. Formal rules for the update of states after measurement had not been written down, and the theory had only been constructed for prime-dimensional and infinite dimensional systems. In this work, we remedy this, by deriving measurement update rules and extending the framework to derive models in all dimensions, both prime and non-prime. Stabiliser quantum mechanics (SQM) is a sub-theory of quantum mechanics with restricted states, transformations and measurements. First derived for the purpose of constructing error correcting codes, it now plays a role in many areas of quantum information theory. Previously, it had been shown that Spekkens’ model was operationally equivalent to SQM in the case of odd prime dimensions. Here, exploiting known results on Wigner functions, we extend this to show that Spekkens’ model is equivalent to SQM in all odd dimensions, prime and non-prime. This equivalence provides new technical tools for the study of technically difficult compound-dimensional SQM.

  20. Synthesis of dense yttrium-stabilised hafnia pellets for nuclear applications by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrpekl, Vaclav, E-mail: [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Holzhäuser, Michael; Hein, Herwin; Vigier, Jean-Francois; Somers, Joseph [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Svora, Petr [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i, Husinec-Rez 1001, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)


    Graphical abstract: Densification of HfO{sub 2}–Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} micro-beads by Spark Plasma Sintering High density pellets with homogenous distribution of Hf and Y serve as neutron absorbers. - Abstract: Dense yttrium–stabilised hafnia pellets (91.35 wt.% HfO{sub 2} and 8.65 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were prepared by spark plasma sintering consolidation of micro-beads synthesised by the “external gelation” sol–gel technique. This technique allows a preparation of HfO{sub 2}–Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} beads with homogenous yttria–hafnia solid solution. A sintering time of 5 min at 1600 °C was sufficient to produce high density pellets (over 90% of the theoretical density) with significant reproducibility. The pellets have been machined in a lathe to the correct dimensions for use as neutron absorbers in an experimental test irradiation in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, Holland, in order to investigate the safety of americium based nuclear fuels.

  1. Shape stabilised phase change materials (SSPCMs): High density polyethylene and hydrocarbon waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Mulan, E-mail:, E-mail:; Basheer, P. A. M., E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Bai, Yun, E-mail: [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); McNally, Tony, E-mail: [WMG, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    Shape stabilised phase change materials (SSPCMs) based on high density polyethylene (HDPE) with high (HPW, T{sub m}=56-58 °C) and low (L-PW, T{sub m}=18-23 °C) melting point waxes were prepared by melt-mixing in a twin-screw extruder and their potential in latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications for housing assessed. The structure and morphology of these blends were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both H-PW and L-PW were uniformly distributed throughout the HDPE matrix. The melting point and latent heat of the SSPCMs were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results demonstrated that both H-PW and L-PW have a plasticisation effect on the HDPE matrix. The tensile and flexural properties of the samples were measured at room temperature (RT, 20±2 °C) and 70 °C, respectively. All mechanical properties of HDPE/H-PW and HDPE/L-PW blends decreased from RT to 70 °C. In all instances at RT, modulus and stress, irrespective of the mode of deformation was greater for the HDPE/H-PW blends. However, at 70 °C, there was no significant difference in mechanical properties between the HDPE/H-PW and HDPE/L-PW blends.

  2. Stabilisation and precision pointing quadrupole magnets in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC)

    CERN Document Server

    Janssens, Stef; Linde, Frank; van den Brand, Jo; Bertolini, Alessandro; Artoos, Kurt

    This thesis describes the research done to provide stabilisation and precision positioning for the main beam quadrupole magnets of the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. The introduction describes why new particle accelerators are needed to further the knowledge of our universe and why they are linear. A proposed future accelerator is the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) which consists of a novel two beam accelerator concept. Due to its linearity and subsequent single pass at the interaction point, this new accelerator requires a very small beam size at the interaction point, in order to increase collision effectiveness. One of the technological challenges, to obtain these small beam sizes at the interaction point, is to keep the quadrupole magnets aligned and stable to 1.5 nm integrated r.m.s. in vertical and 5 nm integrated root mean square (r.m.s.) in lateral direction. Additionally there is a proposal to create an intentional offset (max. 50 nm every 20 ms with a precision of +/- 1 nm), for several quadrupole ma...

  3. Modelling waste stabilisation ponds with an extended version of ASM3. (United States)

    Gehring, T; Silva, J D; Kehl, O; Castilhos, A B; Costa, R H R; Uhlenhut, F; Alex, J; Horn, H; Wichern, M


    In this paper an extended version of IWA's Activated Sludge Model No 3 (ASM3) was developed to simulate processes in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). The model modifications included the integration of algae biomass and gas transfer processes for oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia depending on wind velocity and a simple ionic equilibrium. The model was applied to a pilot-scale WSP system operated in the city of Florianópolis (Brazil). The system was used to treat leachate from a municipal waste landfill. Mean influent concentrations to the facultative pond of 1,456 g(COD)/m(3) and 505 g(NH4-N)/m(3) were measured. Experimental results indicated an ammonia nitrogen removal of 89.5% with negligible rates of nitrification but intensive ammonia stripping to the atmosphere. Measured data was used in the simulations to consider the impact of wind velocity on oxygen input of 11.1 to 14.4 g(O2)/(m(2) d) and sun radiation on photosynthesis. Good results for pH and ammonia removal were achieved with mean stripping rates of 18.2 and 4.5 g(N)/(m(2) d) for the facultative and maturation pond respectively. Based on measured chlorophyll a concentrations and depending on light intensity and TSS concentration it was possible to model algae concentrations.

  4. Void-swelling and precipitation in a neutron-irradiated, niobium-stabilised austenitic stainless steel (United States)

    Williams, T. M.; Titchmarsh, J. M.; Arkell, D. R.


    Unstressed specimens of FV548 niobium-stabilised austenitic steel in three heat-treatment conditions (1150°C solutiontreated, 20% cold-worked, and 850°C aged) have been neutron-irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor in the temperature range 380°-738°C and to displacement doses of up to 30 dpa. The irradiated specimens have been examined using transmission electron microscopy and EDX techniques to establish the void-swelling and precipitation behaviour under neutron irradiation. Where possible, the observations are compared with results obtained on type 316 steel. The similarities and differences in the behaviour of the two steels are used in an attempt to understand the factors affecting the precipitation under irradiation and the void-swelling behaviour of FV548 and type 316 steels. Irradiation is shown to enhance the formation of some precipitate phases (e.g. G-phase and carbides of the M 6C type) while having no effect on others (e.g. Sigma phase and M 23C 6). It is concluded that fine intragranular dispersions of niobium carbide particles play a major role in suppressing void-swelling in neutron-irradiated FV548 steel at relatively high irradiation temperatures.

  5. Characteristics of Oxidative Storage Stability of Canola Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Stabilised with Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirto Prakoso


    Full Text Available The storage effects on the oxidation characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester of canola oil (CME were investigated in this study. CME stabilised with two antioxidants, i.e. 2,6-di-tert-bytyl-p-cresol (BHT and 6,6-di-tert-butyl-2, 2’-methylendi-p-cresol (BPH, was stored at 20, 40 and 60°C. The oxidation stability data were measured by the Rancimat test method and it was found that both BHT and BPH addition increased the oxidation resistance of the CME. The results showed that when BPH or BHT was added at a concentration of 100 ppm, the oxidation induction period of the neat CME samples increased from 5.53 h to 6.93 h and 6.14 h, respectively. Comparing both antioxidants, BPH proved to be more effective in increasing the oxidation resistance when both antioxidants were added at the same concentration. Furthermore, the oxidation induction time decreased linearly with the storage time. It was shown that the oxidation occurred rapidly in the first 8 weeks of storage. Later, a kinetic study was undertaken and first-order kinetics were applied to explain the oxidation characteristics of the CME added with antioxidants. This kinetic study focused on exploiting the activation energy values obtained from the Arrhenius equations. Also, the oxidation effects on other quality parameters, including acid value, peroxide value, kinematic viscosity, and water content, were examined.

  6. UV-Enhanced Sacrificial Layer Stabilised Graphene Oxide Hollow Fibre Membranes for Nanofiltration (United States)

    Chong, J. Y.; Aba, N. F. D.; Wang, B.; Mattevi, C.; Li, K.


    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes have demonstrated great potential in gas separation and liquid filtration. For upscale applications, GO membranes in a hollow fibre geometry are of particular interest due to the high-efficiency and easy-assembly features at module level. However, GO membranes were found unstable in dry state on ceramic hollow fibre substrates, mainly due to the drying-related shrinkage, which has limited the applications and post-treatments of GO membranes. We demonstrate here that GO hollow fibre membranes can be stabilised by using a porous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sacrificial layer, which creates a space between the hollow fibre substrate and the GO membrane thus allowing stress-free shrinkage. Defect-free GO hollow fibre membrane was successfully determined and the membrane was stable in a long term (1200 hours) gas-tight stability test. Post-treatment of the GO membranes with UV light was also successfully accomplished in air, which induced the creation of controlled microstructural defects in the membrane and increased the roughness factor of the membrane surface. The permeability of the UV-treated GO membranes was greatly enhanced from 0.07 to 2.8 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 for water, and 0.14 to 7.5 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 for acetone, with an unchanged low molecular weight cut off (~250 Da).

  7. Anaerobic stabilisation of sludge produced during municipal wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation. (United States)

    Hutnan, M; Drtil, M; Kalina, A


    Anaerobic digestion of sludge from small electrocoagulation wastewater treatment plant (SEWWTP) is described. The sludge for digestion (SEWWTP sludge) was taken from pilot-scale SEWWTP with the capacity of about 200-population equivalent (25 m3 of municipal wastewater per day). Due to the technology of wastewater treatment, the characteristics of SEWWTP sludge was different from sludge produced in conventional mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plant. Therefore, experiments were focused on possibilities of anaerobic sludge digestion and determination of conditions and parameters (amount and quality of the sludge, biogas production, etc.). Average COD removal efficiency in the pilot-scale SEWWTP exceeded 80%. Organic content of excess sludge (volatile suspended solids (VSS)) was in the range of 52.1-59.2% (these values are much lower compared to VSS content in raw sludge from conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant, where VSS is about 75%). Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of SEWWTP sludge was approximately three times lower compared to standard production in conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant. Low pH (6.5-6.7), high concentration of iron (up to 1400 mg/L) and aluminium (up to 1300 mg/L) and very low (almost zero) concentration of dissolved phosphorus in sludge water were the main factors limiting the rate of anaerobic processes. Based on these results, anaerobic digestion of SEWWTP sludge was not recommended as an appropriate stabilisation method.

  8. The results of arthroscopic anterior stabilisation of the shoulder using the bioknotless anchor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Stephen J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder instability is a common condition, particularly affecting a young, active population. Open capsulolabral repair is effective in the majority of cases, however arthroscopic techniques, particularly using suture anchors, are being used with increasing success. Methods 15 patients with shoulder instability were operated on by a single surgeon (VK using BioKnotless anchors (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA. The average length of follow-up was 21 months (17 to 31 with none lost to follow-up. Constant scores in both arms, patient satisfaction, activity levels and recurrence of instability was recorded. Results 80% of patients were satisfied with their surgery. 1 patient suffered a further dislocation and another had recurrent symptomatic instability. The average constant score returned to 84% of that measured in the opposite (unaffected shoulder. There were no specific post-operative complications encountered. Conclusion In terms of recurrence of symptoms, our results show success rates comparable to other methods of shoulder stabilisation. This technique is safe and surgeons familiar with shoulder arthroscopy will not encounter a steep learning curve. Shoulder function at approximately 2 years post repair was good or excellent in the majority of patients and it was observed that patient satisfaction was correlated more with return to usual activities than recurrence of symptoms.

  9. Computational laser intensity stabilisation for organic molecule concentration estimation in low-resource settings (United States)

    Haider, Shahid A.; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander


    An ideal laser is a useful tool for the analysis of biological systems. In particular, the polarization property of lasers can allow for the concentration of important organic molecules in the human body, such as proteins, amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, to be estimated. However, lasers do not always work as intended and there can be effects such as mode hopping and thermal drift that can cause time-varying intensity fluctuations. The causes of these effects can be from the surrounding environment, where either an unstable current source is used or the temperature of the surrounding environment is not temporally stable. This intensity fluctuation can cause bias and error in typical organic molecule concentration estimation techniques. In a low-resource setting where cost must be limited and where environmental factors, like unregulated power supplies and temperature, cannot be controlled, the hardware required to correct for these intensity fluctuations can be prohibitive. We propose a method for computational laser intensity stabilisation that uses Bayesian state estimation to correct for the time-varying intensity fluctuations from electrical and thermal instabilities without the use of additional hardware. This method will allow for consistent intensities across all polarization measurements for accurate estimates of organic molecule concentrations.

  10. Optimal operation and stabilising control of the concentric heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Skogestad, Sigurd; Abildskov, Jens


    This paper presents the application of a systematic control configuration design procedure on the HIDiC with a reboiler. The application is illustrated through two case studies of industrial relevance, namely the separation of benzene/toluene and a multicomponent mixture of aromatic compounds. Re...... by controlling both column section pressures and the temperature profile in one of the sections, while the economic variables are controlled by cascade control loops. Guidelines for the design of both the regulatory control layer and the supervisory control layer are provided.......This paper presents the application of a systematic control configuration design procedure on the HIDiC with a reboiler. The application is illustrated through two case studies of industrial relevance, namely the separation of benzene/toluene and a multicomponent mixture of aromatic compounds....... Results of static optimisations and dynamic simulations are presented based on a realistic column model, which accounts for dynamic pressure drops and liquid holdups, dynamic energy balances and more. Using a decentralised control scheme, good stabilising and economic performance are achieved...

  11. Aqueous stabilisation of carbon-encapsulated superparamagnetic α-iron nanoparticles for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Noemí; Maurizi, Lionel; Galmarini, Sandra; Ollivier-Beuzelin, Marie Gabrielle; Coullerez, Géraldine; Bertran, Enric; Hofmann, Heinrich


    Carbon-based nanomaterials, such as carbon-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles (CEMNP, core@shell), show a wide range of desirable properties for applications in the biomedical field (clinical MRI, hyperthermia), for energy production and storage (hydrogen storage), for the improvement of electronic components and for environmental applications (water-treatment). However, this kind of nanoparticle tends to aggregate in water suspensions. This often hampers the processability of the suspensions and presents an obstacle to their application in many fields. Here the stabilisation of core-shell Fe-C nanoparticles by surface adsorbed polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) is presented. Different PVA/CEMNP mass ratios (9, 36, 144 and 576 w/w) were studied. Several characterisation techniques were used in order to determine the size distribution of the particles and to optimize the PVA/CEMNP ratio. A good colloidal stability was obtained for spherical nanoparticles about 50 nm in diameter containing several superparamagnetic Fe cores. The nanoparticles were found to be isolated and well dispersed in solution. The use of PVA for coating carbon-encapsulated Fe nanoparticles does not only result in a good colloidal stability in aqueous suspensions, but the resulting particles also show low cytotoxicity and an interesting cell internalization behaviour. The simple stabilization method developed here can likely be extended to other core@shell nanoparticle systems as well as other carbon-based nanomaterials in the future.

  12. High dose benzodiazepine dependence: description of 29 patients treated with flumazenil infusion and stabilised with clonazepam. (United States)

    Quaglio, Gianluca; Pattaro, Cristian; Gerra, Gilberto; Mathewson, Sophie; Verbanck, Paul; Des Jarlais, Don C; Lugoboni, Fabio


    The withdrawal syndrome from benzodiazepine (BZD) can be severe and in some cases may impede cessation of the use of the drug. We present here a case series of benzodiazepine detoxification by flumazenil infusion, stabilised with clonazepam. Patients were treated with flumazenil 1.35 mg/day for a median of 7 days. Self-reported physical withdrawal symptoms were recorded daily. In addition to flumazenil, antidepressants were given before treatment commenced and clonazepam was administered nightly with both being continued after discharge. Twenty-nine patients were treated. No patients dropped out from the treatment programme. Nine patients (31%) required a temporary reduction/cessation of the infusion. The linear trend in the reduction of the daily withdrawal scores in the overall study population was significant. The linear trends were also significant in the group of patients for whom a temporary reduction/suspension of the flumazenil was required. Six months after treatment, 15 patients (53%) were abstinent from clonazepam and other BZDs. For five (21%) the BZD dependence were reinstated. More than two-thirds of the subjects tolerated the procedure well and about half had a good long term response. Slow flumazenil infusion appears to merit consideration as a possible future treatment. Suggestions for future research are examined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stable limits for sums of dependent infinite variance random variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkiewicz, Katarzyna; Jakubowski, Adam; Mikosch, Thomas


    The aim of this paper is to provide conditions which ensure that the affinely transformed partial sums of a strictly stationary process converge in distribution to an infinite variance stable distribution. Conditions for this convergence to hold are known in the literature. However, most of these......The aim of this paper is to provide conditions which ensure that the affinely transformed partial sums of a strictly stationary process converge in distribution to an infinite variance stable distribution. Conditions for this convergence to hold are known in the literature. However, most...

  14. Asymptotic variance of grey-scale surface area estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Anne Marie

    Grey-scale local algorithms have been suggested as a fast way of estimating surface area from grey-scale digital images. Their asymptotic mean has already been described. In this paper, the asymptotic behaviour of the variance is studied in isotropic and sufficiently smooth settings, resulting...... in a general asymptotic bound. For compact convex sets with nowhere vanishing Gaussian curvature, the asymptotics can be described more explicitly. As in the case of volume estimators, the variance is decomposed into a lattice sum and an oscillating term of at most the same magnitude....

  15. A Broadband Beamformer Using Controllable Constraints and Minimum Variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper Rindom


    The minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) and the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) beamformers are two optimal approaches in the sense of noise reduction. The LCMV beamformer can also reject interferers using linear constraints at the expense of reducing the degree of freedom...... in a limited number of microphones. However, it may magnify noise that causes a lower output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than the MVDR beamformer. Contrarily, the MVDR beamformer suffers from interference in output. In this paper, we propose a controllable LCMV (C-LCMV) beamformer based on the principles...

  16. Why analysis of variance is inappropriate for multiclinic trials. (United States)

    Salsburg, D


    Violations of the assumptions behind analysis of variance (ANOVA) models do not tend to affect the alpha-level but can greatly decrease the power of a clinical trial to detect treatment effects. The very nature of multiclinic studies guarantees the violation of some of these assumptions. In this article, I explore the reduction in power that results from two of these violations--heterogeneity of variance across sites and the existence of "floor" and "ceiling" effects. I propose other methods of statistical analysis that avoid this loss of power.

  17. Multivariate Variance Targeting in the BEKK-GARCH Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Søndergaard; Rahbek, Anders

    This paper considers asymptotic inference in the multivariate BEKK model based on (co-)variance targeting (VT). By de…nition the VT estimator is a two-step estimator and the theory presented is based on expansions of the modi…ed likelihood function, or estimating function, corresponding to these ......This paper considers asymptotic inference in the multivariate BEKK model based on (co-)variance targeting (VT). By de…nition the VT estimator is a two-step estimator and the theory presented is based on expansions of the modi…ed likelihood function, or estimating function, corresponding...

  18. A multi-variance analysis in the time domain (United States)

    Walter, Todd


    Recently a new technique for characterizing the noise processes affecting oscillators was introduced. This technique minimizes the difference between the estimates of several different variances and their values as predicted by the standard power law model of noise. The method outlined makes two significant advancements: it uses exclusively time domain variances so that deterministic parameters such as linear frequency drift may be estimated, and it correctly fits the estimates using the chi-square distribution. These changes permit a more accurate fitting at long time intervals where there is the least information. This technique was applied to both simulated and real data with excellent results.

  19. Bias-Variance Tradeoffs in Recombination Rate Estimation. (United States)

    Stone, Eric A; Singh, Nadia D


    In 2013, we and coauthors published a paper characterizing rates of recombination within the 2.1-megabase garnet-scalloped (g-sd) region of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome. To extract the signal of recombination in our high-throughput sequence data, we adopted a nonparametric smoothing procedure, reducing variance at the cost of biasing individual recombination rates. In doing so, we sacrificed accuracy to gain precision-precision that allowed us to detect recombination rate heterogeneity. Negotiating the bias-variance tradeoff enabled us to resolve significant variation in the frequency of crossing over across the garnet-scalloped region. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Variance components for body weight in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RO Resende


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.