WorldWideScience

Sample records for variables affecting contrail

  1. Variability of the contrail radiative forcing due to crystal shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, K. M.; Witek, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    determined. Two cases are discussed here: a 1% homogeneous contrail cover and the contrail cover provided by Rädel and Shine (2008). In the second distribution case, a more realistic contrail cover is taken into account. This model combines the AERO2K flight inventory with meteorological data and normalizes it with respect to the contrail cover derived from satellite observations. Simulations performed by the Fu-Liou model show significant variability of the shortwave, longwave, and net radiative forcing with crystal shape. The nonspherical crystals have smaller net forcing in contrary to spherical particles. The differences in net radiative forcing between optical models reach up to 50%. The hexagonal column and hexagonal plate particles show the smallest net radiative forcing while the largest forcing is obtained for the spheres. The global and annual mean shortwave, longwave, and net contrail radiative forcing, average over all crystal models and assuming an optical depth of 0.3 at visible wavelengths, is -5.7, 16.8, and 11.1 mW/m2, respectively. A ratio of the radiative forcings' standard deviation to the mean value, derived using 10 different ice particle models, is about 0.2 for the shortwave, 0.14 for the longwave, and 0.23 for the net radiation.

  2. Variability of contrail formation conditions and the implications for policies to reduce the climate impacts of aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Victoria; Noland, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to balance the climate benefits of contrail reduction against the penalties incurred when cruise altitudes are restricted. Altitude restrictions are targeted by selecting, for each 6-h period, the altitude that provides the greatest reduction in contrail for the lowest increase in carbon dioxide emission. Calculations are for western Europe. This paper discusses the variability in contrail formation conditions in the region and presents contrail reductions and carbon dioxide emission increases obtained with this optimised approach, which compare favourably with fixed altitude restrictions. A new method is also developed to estimate contrail fractions within three-dimensional grids. Conclusions discuss potential operational issues associated with a varying altitude restriction policy. (Author)

  3. Importance of representing optical depth variability for estimates of global line-shaped contrail radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, Bernd; Burkhardt, Ulrike; Ponater, Michael; Frömming, Christine

    2010-11-09

    Estimates of the global radiative forcing by line-shaped contrails differ mainly due to the large uncertainty in contrail optical depth. Most contrails are optically thin so that their radiative forcing is roughly proportional to their optical depth and increases with contrail coverage. In recent assessments, the best estimate of mean contrail radiative forcing was significantly reduced, because global climate model simulations pointed at lower optical depth values than earlier studies. We revise these estimates by comparing the probability distribution of contrail optical depth diagnosed with a climate model with the distribution derived from a microphysical, cloud-scale model constrained by satellite observations over the United States. By assuming that the optical depth distribution from the cloud model is more realistic than that from the climate model, and by taking the difference between the observed and simulated optical depth over the United States as globally representative, we quantify uncertainties in the climate model's diagnostic contrail parameterization. Revising the climate model results accordingly increases the global mean radiative forcing estimate for line-shaped contrails by a factor of 3.3, from 3.5 mW/m(2) to 11.6 mW/m(2) for the year 1992. Furthermore, the satellite observations and the cloud model point at higher global mean optical depth of detectable contrails than often assumed in radiative transfer (off-line) studies. Therefore, we correct estimates of contrail radiative forcing from off-line studies as well. We suggest that the global net radiative forcing of line-shaped persistent contrails is in the range 8-20 mW/m(2) for the air traffic in the year 2000.

  4. Do supersonic aircraft avoid contrails?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stenke

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a potential future fleet of supersonic aircraft on contrail coverage and contrail radiative forcing is investigated by means of simulations with the general circulation model ECHAM4.L39(DLR including a contrail parameterization. The model simulations consider air traffic inventories of a subsonic fleet and of a combined fleet of sub- and supersonic aircraft for the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. In case of the combined fleet, part of the subsonic fleet is replaced by supersonic aircraft. The combined air traffic scenario reveals a reduction in contrail cover at subsonic cruise levels (10 to 12 km in the northern extratropics, especially over the North Atlantic and North Pacific. At supersonic flight levels (18 to 20 km, contrail formation is mainly restricted to tropical regions. Only in winter is the northern extratropical stratosphere above the 100 hPa level cold enough for the formation of contrails. Total contrail coverage is only marginally affected by the shift in flight altitude. The model simulations indicate a global annual mean contrail cover of 0.372% for the subsonic and 0.366% for the combined fleet in 2050. The simulated contrail radiative forcing is most closely correlated to the total contrail cover, although contrails in the tropical lower stratosphere are found to be optically thinner than contrails in the extratropical upper troposphere. The global annual mean contrail radiative forcing in 2050 (2025 amounts to 24.7 mW m−2 (9.4 mW m−2 for the subsonic fleet and 24.2 mW m−2 (9.3 mW m−2 for the combined fleet. A reduction of the supersonic cruise speed from Mach 2.0 to Mach 1.6 leads to a downward shift in contrail cover, but does not affect global mean total contrail cover and contrail radiative forcing. Hence the partial substitution of subsonic air traffic leads to a shift of contrail occurrence from mid to low latitudes, but the resulting change in

  5. Factors controlling contrail cirrus optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft contrails develop into contrail cirrus by depositional growth and sedimentation of ice particles and horizontal spreading due to wind shear. Factors controlling this development include temperature, ice supersaturation, thickness of ice-supersaturated layers, and vertical gradients in the horizontal wind field. An analytical microphysical cloud model is presented and validated that captures these processes. Many individual contrail cirrus are simulated that develop differently owing to the variability in the controlling factors, resulting in large samples of cloud properties that are statistically analyzed. Contrail cirrus development is studied over the first four hours past formation, similar to the ages of line-shaped contrails that were tracked in satellite imagery on regional scales. On these time scales, contrail cirrus optical depth and microphysical variables exhibit a marked variability, expressed in terms of broad and skewed probability distribution functions. Simulated mean optical depths at a wavelength of 0.55 μm range from 0.05-0.5 and a substantial fraction 20-50% of contrail cirrus stay subvisible (optical depth <0.02, depending on meteorological conditions.

    A detailed analysis based on an observational case study over the continental USA suggests that previous satellite measurements of line-shaped persistent contrails have missed about 89%, 50%, and 11% of contrails with optical depths 0-0.05, 0.05-0.1, and 0.1-0.2, respectively, amounting to 65% of contrail coverage of all optical depths. When comparing observations with simulations and when estimating the contrail cirrus climate impact, not only mean values but also the variability in optical depth and microphysical properties need to be considered.

  6. Parametric studies of contrail ice particle formation in jet regime using microphysical parcel modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Wong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Condensation trails (contrails formed from water vapor emissions behind aircraft engines are the most uncertain components of the aviation impacts on climate change. To gain improved knowledge of contrail and contrail-induced cirrus cloud formation, understanding of contrail ice particle formation immediately after aircraft engines is needed. Despite many efforts spent in modeling the microphysics of ice crystal formation in jet regime (with a plume age <5 s, systematic understanding of parametric effects of variables affecting contrail ice particle formation is still limited. In this work, we apply a microphysical parcel modeling approach to study contrail ice particle formation in near-field aircraft plumes up to 1000 m downstream of an aircraft engine in the soot-rich regime (soot number emission index >1×1015 (kg-fuel−1 at cruise. The effects of dilution history, ion-mediated nucleation, ambient relative humidity, fuel sulfur contents, and initial soot emissions were investigated. Our simulation results suggest that ice particles are mainly formed by water condensation on emitted soot particles. The growth of ice coated soot particles is driven by water vapor emissions in the first 1000 m and by ambient relative humidity afterwards. The presence of chemi-ions does not significantly contribute to the formation of ice particles in the soot-rich regime, and the effect of fuel sulfur contents is small over the range typical of standard jet fuels. The initial properties of soot emissions play the most critical role, and our calculations suggest that higher number concentration and smaller size of contrail particle nuclei may be able to effectively suppress the formation of contrail ice particles. Further modeling and experimental studies are needed to verify if our findings can provide a possible approach for contrail mitigation.

  7. Microphysical properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B; Wendling, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The radiative properties of a condensation trail (contrail) are determined by its microphysical properties. Therefore an understanding of the concentration, size distribution, and shapes of the particles is necessary for an estimation of the climatic impact of contrails. In-situ particle measurements by use of an ice replicator are presented for several contrail and cirrus events. Contrail particles aged about 2 minutes show shapes which are nearly spherical. Typical sizes are 5 to 10 {mu}m. Concentration values reach up to the order of 1000 cm{sup -3}. Aged contrail size distributions are within the variability of those found in natural cirrus clouds. (author) 2 refs.

  8. Microphysical properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B.; Wendling, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The radiative properties of a condensation trail (contrail) are determined by its microphysical properties. Therefore an understanding of the concentration, size distribution, and shapes of the particles is necessary for an estimation of the climatic impact of contrails. In-situ particle measurements by use of an ice replicator are presented for several contrail and cirrus events. Contrail particles aged about 2 minutes show shapes which are nearly spherical. Typical sizes are 5 to 10 {mu}m. Concentration values reach up to the order of 1000 cm{sup -3}. Aged contrail size distributions are within the variability of those found in natural cirrus clouds. (author) 2 refs.

  9. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  10. Impact of biofuels on contrail warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabio; Agarwal, Akshat; Speth, Raymond L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2017-11-01

    Contrails and contrail-cirrus may be the largest source of radiative forcing (RF) attributable to aviation. Biomass-derived alternative jet fuels are a potentially major way to mitigate the climate impacts of aviation by reducing lifecycle CO2 emissions. Given the up to 90% reduction in soot emissions from paraffinic biofuels, the potential for a significant impact on contrail RF due to the reduction in contrail-forming ice nuclei (IN) remains an open question. We simulate contrail formation and evolution to quantify RF over the United States under different emissions scenarios. Replacing conventional jet fuels with paraffinic biofuels generates two competing effects. First, the higher water emissions index results in an increase in contrail occurrence (~ +8%). On the other hand, these contrails are composed of larger diameter crystals (~ +58%) at lower number concentrations (~ -75%), reducing both contrail optical depth (~ -29%) and albedo (~ -32%). The net changes in contrail RF induced by switching to biofuels range from -4% to +18% among a range of assumed ice crystal habits (shapes). In comparison, cleaner burning engines (with no increase in water emissions index) result in changes to net contrail RF ranging between -13% and +5% depending on habit. Thus, we find that even 67% to 75% reductions in aircraft soot emissions are insufficient to substantially reduce warming from contrails, and that the use of biofuels may either increase or decrease contrail warming—contrary to previous expectations of a significant decrease in warming.

  11. Large-eddy simulation of contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlond, A [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    A large eddy simulation (LES) model has been used to investigate the role of various external parameters and physical processes in the life-cycle of contrails. The model is applied to conditions that are typical for those under which contrails could be observed, i.e. in an atmosphere which is supersaturated with respect to ice and at a temperature of approximately 230 K or colder. The sensitivity runs indicate that the contrail evolution is controlled primarily by humidity, temperature and static stability of the ambient air and secondarily by the baroclinicity of the atmosphere. Moreover, it turns out that the initial ice particle concentration and radiative processes are of minor importance in the evolution of contrails at least during the 30 minutes simulation period. (author) 9 refs.

  12. Large-eddy simulation of contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlond, A. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A large eddy simulation (LES) model has been used to investigate the role of various external parameters and physical processes in the life-cycle of contrails. The model is applied to conditions that are typical for those under which contrails could be observed, i.e. in an atmosphere which is supersaturated with respect to ice and at a temperature of approximately 230 K or colder. The sensitivity runs indicate that the contrail evolution is controlled primarily by humidity, temperature and static stability of the ambient air and secondarily by the baroclinicity of the atmosphere. Moreover, it turns out that the initial ice particle concentration and radiative processes are of minor importance in the evolution of contrails at least during the 30 minutes simulation period. (author) 9 refs.

  13. Numerical simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition – Part 2: Impact of initial ice crystal number, radiation, stratification, secondary nucleation and layer depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Unterstrasser

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition were performed with an LES model. In Part 1 the impact of relative humidity, temperature and vertical wind shear was explored in a detailed parametric study. Here, we study atmospheric parameters like stratification and depth of the supersaturated layer and processes which may affect the contrail evolution. We consider contrails in various radiation scenarios herein defined by the season, time of day and the presence of lower-level cloudiness which controls the radiance incident on the contrail layer. Under suitable conditions, controlled by the radiation scenario and stratification, radiative heating lifts the contrail-cirrus and prolongs its lifetime. The potential of contrail-driven secondary nucleation is investigated. We consider homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation of preactivated soot cores released from sublimated contrail ice crystals. In our model the contrail dynamics triggered by radiative heating does not suffice to force homogeneous freezing of ambient liquid aerosol particles. Furthermore, our model results suggest that heterogeneous nucleation of preactivated soot cores is unimportant. Contrail evolution is not controlled by the depth of the supersaturated layer as long as it exceeds roughly 500 m. Deep fallstreaks however need thicker layers. A variation of the initial ice crystal number is effective during the whole evolution of a contrail. A cut of the soot particle emission by two orders of magnitude can reduce the contrail timescale by one hour and the optical thickness by a factor of 5. Hence future engines with lower soot particle emissions could potentially lead to a reduction of the climate impact of aviation.

  14. A numerical simulation of a contrail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L.; Boin, M.; Meinert, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The formation of a contrail from an aircraft flying near the tropopause is simulated using a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model including a very complex scheme of parameterized cloud microphysical processes. The model predicted ice concentrations are in very good agreement with data measured during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE), 1989. Sensitivity simulations were run to determine humidity forcing on the life time of contrails. (author) 4 refs.

  15. A numerical simulation of a contrail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L; Boin, M; Meinert, D [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The formation of a contrail from an aircraft flying near the tropopause is simulated using a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model including a very complex scheme of parameterized cloud microphysical processes. The model predicted ice concentrations are in very good agreement with data measured during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE), 1989. Sensitivity simulations were run to determine humidity forcing on the life time of contrails. (author) 4 refs.

  16. Remote sensing of contrails and aircraft altered cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palikonda, R.; Nguyen, L.; Garber, D.P.; Smith, W.L. Jr [Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States); Minnis, P.; Young, D.F. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1997-12-31

    Analyses of satellite imagery are used to show that contrails can develop into fully extended cirrus cloud systems. Contrails can be advective on great distances, but would appear to observers as natural cirrus clouds. The conversion of simple contrails into cirrus may help explain the apparent increase of cloudiness over populated areas since the beginning of commercial jet air travel. Statistics describing the typical growth, advection, and lifetime of contrail cirrus is needed to evaluate their effects on climate. (author) 4 refs.

  17. Remote sensing of contrails and aircraft altered cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palikonda, R; Nguyen, L; Garber, D P; Smith, Jr, W L [Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States); Minnis, P; Young, D F [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1998-12-31

    Analyses of satellite imagery are used to show that contrails can develop into fully extended cirrus cloud systems. Contrails can be advective on great distances, but would appear to observers as natural cirrus clouds. The conversion of simple contrails into cirrus may help explain the apparent increase of cloudiness over populated areas since the beginning of commercial jet air travel. Statistics describing the typical growth, advection, and lifetime of contrail cirrus is needed to evaluate their effects on climate. (author) 4 refs.

  18. Anatomic variables affecting interdental papilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna A. Mahale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anatomic variables affecting the interdental papilla. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult patients were evaluated. Papilla score (PS, tooth form/shape, gingival thickness, crest bone height and keratinized gingiva/attached gingiva were recorded for 150 inter proximal sites. Data were analyzed using SPSS software package (version 7.0 and the significance level was set at 95% confidence interval. Pearson′s correlation was applied to correlate the relationship between the factors and the appearance of the papilla. Results: Competent papillae (complete fill interdentally were associated with: (1 Crown width (CW: length ≥0.87; (2 bone crest-contact point ≤5 mm; and (3 inter proximal gingival tissue thickness ≥1.5 mm. Gingival thickness correlated negatively with PS (r = −0.37 to −0.54 and positively with tissue height (r = 0.23-0.43. Tooth form (i.e., CW to length ratio correlated negatively with PS (r = −0.37 to −0.61. Conclusion: Gingival papilla appearance was associated significantly with tooth form/shape, crestal bone height and interproximal gingival thickness.

  19. Parametrization of contrails in a comprehensive climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponater, M; Brinkop, S; Sausen, R; Schumann, U [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    A contrail parametrization scheme for a general circulation model (GCM) is presented. Guidelines for its development were that it should be based on the thermodynamic theory of contrail formation and that it should be consistent with the cloud parametrization scheme of the GCM. Results of a six-year test integration indicate reasonable results concerning the spatial and temporal development of both contrail coverage and contrail optical properties. Hence, the scheme forms a promising basis for the quantitative estimation of the contrail climatic impact. (author) 9 refs.

  20. Parametrization of contrails in a comprehensive climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponater, M.; Brinkop, S.; Sausen, R.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    A contrail parametrization scheme for a general circulation model (GCM) is presented. Guidelines for its development were that it should be based on the thermodynamic theory of contrail formation and that it should be consistent with the cloud parametrization scheme of the GCM. Results of a six-year test integration indicate reasonable results concerning the spatial and temporal development of both contrail coverage and contrail optical properties. Hence, the scheme forms a promising basis for the quantitative estimation of the contrail climatic impact. (author) 9 refs.

  1. Basic Diagnosis and Prediction of Persistent Contrail Occurrence using High-resolution Numerical Weather Analyses/Forecasts and Logistic Regression. Part I: Effects of Random Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Minnis, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Straightforward application of the Schmidt-Appleman contrail formation criteria to diagnose persistent contrail occurrence from numerical weather prediction data is hindered by significant bias errors in the upper tropospheric humidity. Logistic models of contrail occurrence have been proposed to overcome this problem, but basic questions remain about how random measurement error may affect their accuracy. A set of 5000 synthetic contrail observations is created to study the effects of random error in these probabilistic models. The simulated observations are based on distributions of temperature, humidity, and vertical velocity derived from Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) weather analyses. The logistic models created from the simulated observations were evaluated using two common statistical measures of model accuracy, the percent correct (PC) and the Hanssen-Kuipers discriminant (HKD). To convert the probabilistic results of the logistic models into a dichotomous yes/no choice suitable for the statistical measures, two critical probability thresholds are considered. The HKD scores are higher when the climatological frequency of contrail occurrence is used as the critical threshold, while the PC scores are higher when the critical probability threshold is 0.5. For both thresholds, typical random errors in temperature, relative humidity, and vertical velocity are found to be small enough to allow for accurate logistic models of contrail occurrence. The accuracy of the models developed from synthetic data is over 85 percent for both the prediction of contrail occurrence and non-occurrence, although in practice, larger errors would be anticipated.

  2. affective variables of language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文敬

    2011-01-01

    why people enjoy different degrees of success in second language learning,given similar opportunities.in the presence of overly negative emotions such as anxiety,fear,stress,anger or depression,our optimal learning potential maybe compromised.the affective domain refers to the emotional domain that has to do with the emotional behavior of human beings.it includes such factors as self-confidence,extroversion,anxiety,attitudes and motivation.three major factors are introduced here:self-confidence,anxiety and motivation.

  3. Contrail observations from space using NOAA-AVHRR data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannstein, H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard of the weather satellites of the NOAA series allow the detection of contrails. An automated detection scheme is described and tested against computer aided visual classifications by two experts. The algorithm seems to identify contrails within the satellite data with a skill comparable to the human observers. Clusters of contrails within the satellite images are connected to outline regions where the atmospheric properties are favourable for the existence of observable contrails. Air traffic data shows that, over Middle Europe at least, in the main flight levels most of these regions should be marked by detectable contrails. The mean areal coverage of these regions is estimated to be in the range of 10% to 20%, the cloud coverage by detected contrails was 0.9% in 60 AVHRR scenes covering Central Europe. (author) 3 refs.

  4. Measurement of Contrails Using ADS-B Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Voráček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air transport contributes to climate changes not only by greenhouse gas production but also because of production of contrails. The effect of contrails is less scientifically understood compared to greenhouse gases according to IPCC [3]. In order to be able to research the effect of contrails on the atmosphere, it is necessary to identify their realistic frequency of occurrence and to define the relationship between their occurrence and other factors. The effort to identify and monitor contrails and their dependence on the type of air traffic is the objective of SGS project.

  5. Contrail Cirrus Forecasts for the ML-CIRRUS Experiment and Some Comparison Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Graf, Kaspar; Bugliaro, Luca; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Giez, Andreas; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Krämer, Martina; Minikin, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Voigt, Christiane; Wirth, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    rerun with improved ECMWF-NWP data (at one-hour time resolution). The model results are included in the HALO mission data bank, and the results are available for comparison to in-situ data. The data are useful for identifying aircraft and other sources for measured air properties. The joint analysis of observations and model result has basically just started. Preliminary results from comparisons with lidar-measured extinction profiles, in-situ measured humidity, nitrogen oxides, and aerosol and ice particle concentrations, and with meteorological observations (wind, temperature etc.) illustrate the expected gain in insight. The contrail forecasts have been checked by comparison to available data including satellite data and HALO observations. During the campaign, it became obvious that predicted contrail cirrus cover compared qualitatively mostly well with what was found when HALO reached predicted cirrus regions. From the analysis of the measured data, some examples of significant correlation between model results and observations have been found. However, the quantitative agreement is not uniform. As expected, nature is far more variable than a model can predict. The observed optical properties of cirrus and contrails vary far more in time and space than predicted. Local values were often far higher or lower than mean values. A one-to-one correlation between local observations and model results is not to be expected. This inhomogeneity may have consequences for the climate impact of aviation induced cloud changes.

  6. Detection of jet contrails from satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    In order to investigate the influence of modern technology on the world climate it is important to have automatic detection methods for man-induced parameters. In this case the influence of jet contrails on the greenhouse effect shall be investigated by means of images from polar orbiting satellites. Current methods of line recognition and amplification cannot distinguish between contrails and rather sharp edges of natural cirrus or noise. They still rely on human control. Through the combination of different methods from cloud physics, image comparison, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence we try to overcome this handicap. Here we will present the basic methods applied to each image frame, and list preliminary results derived this way.

  7. On the climatic impact of contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B; Meerkoetter, R; Wissinger, B; Wendling, P [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    The impact of contrail induced cirrus clouds on regional climate is estimated for atmospheric conditions of Southern Germany that are typical for the months of July and October. This is done by the use of a regionalized one-dimensional radiative convective model (RCM). The influence of an increased ice cloud cover is studied by comparing RCM results using averaged climatological values of cloudiness with those of a case with modified cloudiness. It turns out that a 10% increase in ice cloud cover leads to a surface temperature increase of 1.4 K and 1.2 K for the months of July and October, respectively. (author) 14 refs.

  8. On the climatic impact of contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B.; Meerkoetter, R.; Wissinger, B.; Wendling, P. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The impact of contrail induced cirrus clouds on regional climate is estimated for atmospheric conditions of Southern Germany that are typical for the months of July and October. This is done by the use of a regionalized one-dimensional radiative convective model (RCM). The influence of an increased ice cloud cover is studied by comparing RCM results using averaged climatological values of cloudiness with those of a case with modified cloudiness. It turns out that a 10% increase in ice cloud cover leads to a surface temperature increase of 1.4 K and 1.2 K for the months of July and October, respectively. (author) 14 refs.

  9. Visual variability affects early verb learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Katherine E; Lush, Lauren; Pearce, Ruth; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-09-01

    Research demonstrates that within-category visual variability facilitates noun learning; however, the effect of visual variability on verb learning is unknown. We habituated 24-month-old children to a novel verb paired with an animated star-shaped actor. Across multiple trials, children saw either a single action from an action category (identical actions condition, for example, travelling while repeatedly changing into a circle shape) or multiple actions from that action category (variable actions condition, for example, travelling while changing into a circle shape, then a square shape, then a triangle shape). Four test trials followed habituation. One paired the habituated verb with a new action from the habituated category (e.g., 'dacking' + pentagon shape) and one with a completely novel action (e.g., 'dacking' + leg movement). The others paired a new verb with a new same-category action (e.g., 'keefing' + pentagon shape), or a completely novel category action (e.g., 'keefing' + leg movement). Although all children discriminated novel verb/action pairs, children in the identical actions condition discriminated trials that included the completely novel verb, while children in the variable actions condition discriminated the out-of-category action. These data suggest that - as in noun learning - visual variability affects verb learning and children's ability to form action categories. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Aircraft clouds: from chemtrail pseudoscience to the science of contrails

    OpenAIRE

    Mazón Bueso, Jordi; Costa, Marcel; Pino González, David

    2018-01-01

    The most frequent statements and arguments found in pseudoscience websites and forums supporting the existence of so-called aircraft chemtrails can be refuted with a scientific explanation of the processes resulting in the formation of condensation or deposition trails, known as contrails. Thus, the hypothesis that chemtrails exist is disproven by the scientific literature that shows that they are the exact same entity as contrails: They are hydrological phenomena which result from a physical...

  11. Properties of Linear Contrails Detected in 2012 Northern Hemisphere MODIS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Chee, Thad; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Bedka, Sarah; Spangenberg, Doug; Minnis, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Observation of linear contrail cirrus coverage and retrieval of their optical properties are valuable data for validating atmospheric climate models that represent contrail formation explicitly. These data can reduce our uncertainty of the regional effects of contrail-generated cirrus on global radiative forcing, and thus improve our estimation of the impact of commercial aviation on climate change. We use an automated contrail detection algorithm (CDA) to determine the coverage of linear persistent contrails over the Northern Hemisphere during 2012. The contrail detection algorithm is a modified form of the Mannstein et al. (1999) method, and uses several channels from thermal infrared MODIS data to reduce the occurrence of false positive detections. A set of contrail masks of varying sensitivity is produced to define the potential range of uncertainty in contrail coverage estimated by the CDA. Global aircraft emissions waypoint data provided by FAA allow comparison of detected contrails with commercial aircraft flight tracks. A pixel-level product based on the advected flight tracks defined by the waypoint data and U-V wind component profiles from the NASA GMAO GEOS-4 reanalysis has been developed to assign a confidence of contrail detection for the contrail mask. To account for possible contrail cirrus missed by the CDA, a post-processing method based on the assumption that pixels adjacent to detected linear contrails will have radiative signatures similar to those of the detected contrails is applied to the Northern Hemisphere data. Results from several months of MODIS observations during 2012 will be presented, representing a near-global climatology of contrail coverage. Linear contrail coverage will be compared with coverage estimates determined previously from 2006 MODIS data.

  12. Laboratory and modeling studies on the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on the properties of contrail ice particles in the jet regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Wong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Contrails and contrail-induced cirrus clouds are identified as the most uncertain components in determining aviation impacts on global climate change. Parameters affecting contrail ice particle formation immediately after the engine exit plane (< 5 s in plume age may be critical to ice particle properties used in large-scale models predicting contrail radiative forcing. Despite this, detailed understanding of these parametric effects is still limited. In this paper, we present results from recent laboratory and modeling studies conducted to investigate the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on near-field formation of contrail ice particles and ice particle properties. The Particle Aerosol Laboratory (PAL at the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Aerodyne microphysical parcel model for contrail ice particle formation were employed. Our studies show that exhaust water concentration has a significant impact on contrail ice particle formation and properties. When soot particles were introduced, ice particle formation was observed only when exhaust water concentration was above a critical level. When no soot or sulfuric acid was introduced, no ice particle formation was observed, suggesting that ice particle formation from homogeneous nucleation followed by homogeneous freezing of liquid water was unfavorable. Soot particles were found to compete for water vapor condensation, and higher soot concentrations emitted into the chamber resulted in smaller ice particles being formed. Chamber conditions corresponding to higher cruising altitudes were found to favor ice particle formation. The microphysical model captures trends of particle extinction measurements well, but discrepancies between the model and the optical particle counter measurements exist as the model predicts narrower ice particle size distributions and ice particle sizes nearly a factor of two larger than measured. These discrepancies are likely due to particle

  13. Experiments on contrail formation from fuels with different sulfur content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busen, R; Kuhn, M; Petzold, A; Schroeder, F; Schumann, U [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Baumgardner, D [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Borrmann, S [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Hagen, D; Whitefield, Ph [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Bureau of Mines; Stroem, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    A series of both flight tests and ground experiments has been performed to evaluate the role of the sulfur contained in kerosene in condensation trail (contrail) formation processes. The results of the first experiments are compiled briefly. The last SULFUR 4 experiment dealing with the influence of the fuel sulfur content and different appertaining conditions is described in detail. Different sulfur mass fractions lead to different particle size spectra. The number of ice particles in the contrail increases by about a factor of 2 for 3000 ppm instead of 6 ppm sulfur fuel content. (author) 10 refs.

  14. Experiments on contrail formation from fuels with different sulfur content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busen, R.; Kuhn, M.; Petzold, A.; Schroeder, F.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Baumgardner, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Borrmann, S. [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Hagen, D.; Whitefield, Ph. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Bureau of Mines; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    A series of both flight tests and ground experiments has been performed to evaluate the role of the sulfur contained in kerosene in condensation trail (contrail) formation processes. The results of the first experiments are compiled briefly. The last SULFUR 4 experiment dealing with the influence of the fuel sulfur content and different appertaining conditions is described in detail. Different sulfur mass fractions lead to different particle size spectra. The number of ice particles in the contrail increases by about a factor of 2 for 3000 ppm instead of 6 ppm sulfur fuel content. (author) 10 refs.

  15. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  16. Daily affect variability and context-specific alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Cynthia D; Arpin, Sarah; McCabe, Cameron T

    2015-11-01

    Research explored the effects of variability in negative and positive affect on alcohol consumption, specifying daily fluctuation in affect as a critical form of emotion dysregulation. Using daily process methodology allows for a more objective calculation of affect variability relative to traditional self-reports. The present study models within-person negative and positive affect variabilities as predictors of context-specific consumption (i.e. solitary vs. social drinking), controlling for mean levels of affect. A community sample of moderate-to-heavy drinkers (n = 47; 49% women) from a US metropolitan area reported on affect and alcohol consumption thrice daily for 30 days via a handheld electronic interviewer. Within-person affect variability was calculated using daily standard deviations in positive and negative affect. Within person, greater negative and positive variabilities are related to greater daily solitary and social consumption. Across study days, mean levels of negative and positive affect variabilities related to greater social consumption between persons; yet, aggregated negative affect variability was related to less solitary consumption. Results affirm affect variability as a unique predictor of alcohol consumption, independent of mean affect levels. Yet, it is important to differentiate social context of consumption, as well as type of affect variability, particularly at the between-person level. These distinctions help clarify inconsistencies in the self-medication literature regarding associations between average levels of affect and consumption. Importantly, consistent within-person relationships for both variabilities support arguments that both negative and positive affect variabilities are detrimental and reflect an inability to regulate emotional experience. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Contrails and their impact on shortwave radiation and photovoltaic power production – a regional model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gruber

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution regional-scale numerical model was extended by a parameterization that allows for both the generation and the life cycle of contrails and contrail cirrus to be calculated. The life cycle of contrails and contrail cirrus is described by a two-moment cloud microphysical scheme that was extended by a separate contrail ice class for a better representation of the high concentration of small ice crystals that occur in contrails. The basic input data set contains the spatially and temporally highly resolved flight trajectories over Central Europe derived from real-time data. The parameterization provides aircraft-dependent source terms for contrail ice mass and number. A case study was performed to investigate the influence of contrails and contrail cirrus on the shortwave radiative fluxes at the earth's surface. Accounting for contrails produced by aircraft enabled the model to simulate high clouds that were otherwise missing on this day. The effect of these extra clouds was to reduce the incoming shortwave radiation at the surface as well as the production of photovoltaic power by up to 10 %.

  18. When is affect variability bad for health? The association between affect variability and immune response to the influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Brooke N; Hunter, John F; Cross, Marie P; Acevedo, Amanda M; Pressman, Sarah D

    2018-01-01

    This study addresses methodological and theoretical questions about the association between affect and physical health. Specifically, we examine the role of affect variability and its interaction with mean levels of affect to predict antibody (Ab) levels in response to an influenza vaccination. Participants (N=83) received the vaccination and completed daily diary measures of affect four times a day for 13days. At one and four months post-vaccination, blood was collected from the participants to assess Ab levels. Findings indicate that affect variability and its interaction with mean levels of affect predict an individual's immune response. Those high in mean positive affect (PA) who had more PA variability were more likely to have a lower Ab response in comparison to those who had high mean PA and less PA variability. Although it did not interact with mean negative affect (NA), NA variability on its own was associated with Ab response, whereby those with less NA variability mounted a more robust immune response. Affect variability is related to immune response to an influenza vaccination and, in some cases, interacts with mean levels of affect. These oscillations in affective experiences are critical to consider in order to unpack the intricacies of how affect influences health. These findings suggest that future researchers should consider the important role of affect variability on physical health-relevant outcomes as well as examine the moderating effect of mean affect levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A diagnostic study of the global coverage by contrails. Pt. 1. Present day climate. Revised version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Gierens, K.; Ponater, M.; Schumann, U.

    1998-03-01

    The global distribution of the contrail formation potential and the contrail cloud coverage are estimated using meteorological analysis data for temperature and humidity (ECMWF re-analyses) and a data base on aircraft fuel consumption. Regions with humidity between ice and liquid saturation and with temperature low enough to let aircraft trigger contrail formation are identified as regions in which persistent contrails may be formed. The frequency with which a region is conditioned for such persistent contrail formation measures the contrail formation potential. The mean contrail cloud coverage is computed by multiplying this frequency with a suitable function of fuel consumption (linear or non-linear). The product is normalized such that the contrail coverage equals the observed value of 0.5% in a domain between 30 W to 30 E, 35 N to 75 N. The results show a large potential for contrail formation in the upper troposphere, in particular in the tropics but also at mid-latitudes. At northern mid-latitudes about 20% of the upper tropospheric air is conditioned to form persistent contrails. Part of this region may be covered by otherwise forming cirrus clouds. When multiplied with fuel consumption of 1992 aviation, large cover by persistent contrail clouds is computed over Europe, the North Atlantic, the continental USA, and south-east Asia. The computed contrail coverage reaches 2% over the USA, and is larger in winter than in summer. The global mean contrail coverage is about 0.11% for linear fuel dependence and the given normalization. The result is only weakly sensitive to the propulsion efficiency of aircraft, but strongly sensitive to aircraft flight altitude. (orig.)

  20. Towards a Model Climatology of Relative Humidity in the Upper Troposphere for Estimation of Contrail and Contrail-Induced Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Manyin, M.; Ott, L.; Oman, L.; Benson, C.; Pawson, S.; Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of contrails and contrail cirrus is very sensitive to the relative humidity of the upper troposphere. To reduce uncertainty in an estimate of the radiative impact of aviation-induced cirrus, a model must therefore be able to reproduce the observed background moisture fields with reasonable and quantifiable fidelity. Here we present an upper tropospheric moisture climatology from a 26-year ensemble of simulations using the GEOS CCM. We compare this free-running model's moisture fields to those obtained from the MLS and AIRS satellite instruments, our most comprehensive observational databases for upper tropospheric water vapor. Published comparisons have shown a substantial wet bias in GEOS-5 assimilated fields with respect to MLS water vapor and ice water content. This tendency is clear as well in the GEOS CCM simulations. The GEOS-5 moist physics in the GEOS CCM uses a saturation adjustment that prevents supersaturation, which is unrealistic when compared to in situ moisture observations from MOZAIC aircraft and balloon sondes as we will show. Further, the large-scale satellite datasets also consistently underestimate super-saturation when compared to the in-situ observations. We place these results in the context of estimates of contrail and contrail cirrus frequency.

  1. Quantification of variables that affect energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Facility energy consumption is the summation of a number of contributory factors, caused by equipment that uses energy in response to demands placed by the user and according to its particular design. While energy efficiency improvements usually concentrate on individual parts or systems, overall energy consumption is analyzed by examining the use of specific fuels. Because independent variables effect the consumption of these fuels, accurate comparisons of a facility's energy consumption for time-measured periods must include these effects. In many cases, it is possible to determine and quantify the effects of one or more of the independent variables through a statistically valid regression analysis of the data. The regression model can be linear, or be dependent on other functions such as powers, time lead or lag, or exponential. The most common model is linear, but other dependencies are often encountered. Regression analyses are not difficult to accomplish, and are included as one of the tools in most spreadsheet software. The analyses provide the energy manager with a means to better understand the energy consumption of his/her facility

  2. The interplay between affect and theory of planned behavior variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keer, M.; van den Putte, B.; Neijens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether affective evaluations of health behaviors moderate or mediate the influence of theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables on intention. Methods: For each of 20 health behaviors, respondents (N=300) completed questionnaire measures of affective evaluation, attitude,

  3. Cycling cadence affects heart rate variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, Heather C; Corbett, Jo; Barwood, Martin J; Tipton, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect different cycling cadences have on heart rate variability (HRV) when exercising at constant power outputs. Sixteen males had ECG and respiratory measurements recorded at rest and during 8, 10 min periods of cycling at four different cadences (40, 60, 80 and 100 revs min −1 ) and two power outputs (0 W (unloaded) and 100 W (loaded)). The cycling periods were performed following a Latin square design. Spectral analyses of R–R intervals by fast Fourier transforms were used to quantify absolute frequency domain HRV indices (ms 2 ) during the final 5 min of each bout, which were then log transformed using the natural logarithm (Ln). HRV indices of high frequency (HF) power were reduced when cadence was increased (during unloaded cycling (0 W) log transformed HF power decreased from a mean [SD] of 6.3 [1.4] Ln ms 2 at 40 revs min −1 to 3.9 [1.3] Ln ms 2 at 100 revs min −1 ). During loaded cycling (at 100 W), the low to high frequency (LF:HF) ratio formed a 'J' shaped curve as cadence increased from 40 revs min −1 (1.4 [0.4]) to 100 revs min −1 (1.9 [0.7]), but dipped below the 40 revs min −1 values during the 60 revs min −1 1.1 (0.3) and 80 revs min −1 1.2 (0.6) cadence conditions. Cardiac frequency (f C ) and ventilatory variables were strongly correlated with frequency domain HRV indices (r = −0.80 to −0.95). It is concluded that HRV indices are influenced by both cycling cadence and power output; this is mediated by the f C and ventilatory changes that occur as cadence or exercise intensity is increased. Consequently, if HRV is assessed during exercise, both power output/exercise intensity and cadence should be standardized

  4. Contrails over the U.S. and their potential impact on the radiation budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis, P [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Ayers, J K; Doelling, D R [Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A methodology for assessing the contrail impact on the radiation budget is developed to use data characterizing the frequency, areal coverage, optical depth, particle size, and altitude of contrails with observations of cloud and surface properties. The method is tested using various scenarios over the United States to estimate contrail-induced albedo changes based on current aircraft fuel usage statistics. The technique can be used for estimating infrared effects and the impact of future fuel-use rates. (author) 11 refs.

  5. Contrails over the U.S. and their potential impact on the radiation budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis, P. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Ayers, J.K.; Doelling, D.R. [Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A methodology for assessing the contrail impact on the radiation budget is developed to use data characterizing the frequency, areal coverage, optical depth, particle size, and altitude of contrails with observations of cloud and surface properties. The method is tested using various scenarios over the United States to estimate contrail-induced albedo changes based on current aircraft fuel usage statistics. The technique can be used for estimating infrared effects and the impact of future fuel-use rates. (author) 11 refs.

  6. Economic analysis of variables affecting the plantain ( Musa sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... The study examined variables affecting plantain (Musa sp) mono cropping system of production by ... land fragmentation, wrong application of fertilizer, high cost of fertilizers, lack of ...

  7. On the regional climatic impact of contrails: microphysical and radiative properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Strauss

    Full Text Available The impact of contrail-induced cirrus clouds on regional climate is estimated for mean atmospheric conditions of southern Germany in the months of July and October. This is done by use of a regionalized one-dimensional radiative convective model (RCM. The influence of an increased ice cloud cover is studied by comparing RCM results representing climatological values with a modified case. In order to study the sensitivity of this effect on the radiative characteristics of the ice cloud, two types of additional ice clouds were modelled: cirrus and contrails, the latter cloud type containing a higher number of smaller and less of the larger cloud particles. Ice cloud parameters are calculated on the basis of a particle size distribution which covers the range from 2 to 2000 µm, taking into consideration recent measurements which show a remarkable amount of particles smaller than 20 µm. It turns out that a 10% increase in ice cloud cover leads to a surface temperature increase in the order of 1K, ranging from 1.1 to 1.2K in July and from 0.8 to 0.9K in October depending on the radiative characteristics of the air-traffic-induced ice clouds. Modelling the current contrail cloud cover which is near 0.5% over Europe yields a surface temperature increase in the order of 0.05K.

  8. On the regional climatic impact of contrails: microphysical and radiative properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Strauss

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of contrail-induced cirrus clouds on regional climate is estimated for mean atmospheric conditions of southern Germany in the months of July and October. This is done by use of a regionalized one-dimensional radiative convective model (RCM. The influence of an increased ice cloud cover is studied by comparing RCM results representing climatological values with a modified case. In order to study the sensitivity of this effect on the radiative characteristics of the ice cloud, two types of additional ice clouds were modelled: cirrus and contrails, the latter cloud type containing a higher number of smaller and less of the larger cloud particles. Ice cloud parameters are calculated on the basis of a particle size distribution which covers the range from 2 to 2000 µm, taking into consideration recent measurements which show a remarkable amount of particles smaller than 20 µm. It turns out that a 10% increase in ice cloud cover leads to a surface temperature increase in the order of 1K, ranging from 1.1 to 1.2K in July and from 0.8 to 0.9K in October depending on the radiative characteristics of the air-traffic-induced ice clouds. Modelling the current contrail cloud cover which is near 0.5% over Europe yields a surface temperature increase in the order of 0.05K.

  9. Preanalytical Variables Affecting the Integrity of Human Biospecimens in Biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Vaught, Jim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most errors in a clinical chemistry laboratory are due to preanalytical errors. Preanalytical variability of biospecimens can have significant effects on downstream analyses, and controlling such variables is therefore fundamental for the future use of biospecimens in personalized...... medicine for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. CONTENT: The focus of this review is to examine the preanalytical variables that affect human biospecimen integrity in biobanking, with a special focus on blood, saliva, and urine. Cost efficiency is discussed in relation to these issues. SUMMARY: The quality...

  10. In-situ observations of young contrails – overview and selected results from the CONCERT campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Voigt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lineshaped contrails were detected with the research aircraft Falcon during the CONCERT – CONtrail and Cirrus ExpeRimenT – campaign in October/November 2008. The Falcon was equipped with a set of instruments to measure the particle size distribution, shape, extinction and chemical composition as well as trace gas mixing ratios of sulfur dioxide (SO2, reactive nitrogen and halogen species (NO, NOy, HNO3, HONO, HCl, ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO. During 12 mission flights over Europe, numerous contrails, cirrus clouds and a volcanic aerosol layer were probed at altitudes between 8.5 and 11.6 km and at temperatures above 213 K. 22 contrails from 11 different aircraft were observed near and below ice saturation. The observed NO mixing ratios, ice crystal and soot number densities are compared to a process based contrail model. On 19 November 2008 the contrail from a CRJ-2 aircraft was penetrated in 10.1 km altitude at a temperature of 221 K. The contrail had mean ice crystal number densities of 125 cm−3 with effective radii reff of 2.6 μm. The presence of particles with r>50 μm in the less than 2 min old contrail suggests that natural cirrus crystals were entrained in the contrail. Mean HONO/NO (HONO/NOy ratios of 0.037 (0.024 and the fuel sulfur conversion efficiency to H2SO4S of 2.9 % observed in the CRJ-2 contrail are in the range of previous measurements in the gaseous aircraft exhaust. On 31 October 2010 aviation NO emissions could have contributed by more than 40% to the regional scale NO levels in the mid-latitude lowest stratosphere. The CONCERT observations help to better quantify the climate impact from contrails and will be used to investigate the chemical processing of trace gases on contrails.

  11. Microphysical and optical properties of contrails and cirrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayet, J F; Febvre, G [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferand (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Physique; Brogniez, G [Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, (France). Lab. d` Optique Atmospherique; Wendling, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Larsen, H [National Inst. for Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington (New Zealand)

    1998-12-31

    Aircraft contrails have significantly different properties to natural cirrus clouds. Their local and global climate impact cannot be assessed without consideration of these differences. Microphysical data were obtained from the Merlin aircraft equipped with a PMS FSSP-100 for particle spectrum measurements over the 3 {mu}m to 45 {mu}m diameter range; a PMS 2D-C for particle size spectrum and particle shape over the size range from 25 {mu}m to 800 {mu}m and a Johnson-Williams cloud liquid-water probe. Radiative measurements were obtained from a Do228 aircraft which carried the upward looking ALEX-F Lidar operating at a wavelength of 1.06 {mu}m and a Barnes PRT-5 radiometer aligned parallel to the lidar and with a 9 to 11 {mu}m spectral range. The limitation in accuracy of cloud microphysical sensor used in contrail studies are also discussed with subsequent errors on description of cloud radiative properties. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  12. Microphysical and optical properties of contrails and cirrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayet, J.F.; Febvre, G. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferand (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Physique; Brogniez, G. [Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, (France). Lab. d`Optique Atmospherique; Wendling, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Larsen, H. [National Inst. for Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    Aircraft contrails have significantly different properties to natural cirrus clouds. Their local and global climate impact cannot be assessed without consideration of these differences. Microphysical data were obtained from the Merlin aircraft equipped with a PMS FSSP-100 for particle spectrum measurements over the 3 {mu}m to 45 {mu}m diameter range; a PMS 2D-C for particle size spectrum and particle shape over the size range from 25 {mu}m to 800 {mu}m and a Johnson-Williams cloud liquid-water probe. Radiative measurements were obtained from a Do228 aircraft which carried the upward looking ALEX-F Lidar operating at a wavelength of 1.06 {mu}m and a Barnes PRT-5 radiometer aligned parallel to the lidar and with a 9 to 11 {mu}m spectral range. The limitation in accuracy of cloud microphysical sensor used in contrail studies are also discussed with subsequent errors on description of cloud radiative properties. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  13. Brand Loyalty: Impact of Cognitive and Affective Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad TOUZANI; Azza TEMESSEK

    2009-01-01

    Studies on brand loyalty typically focus on the behavioural side of brand loyalty or on the attitudinal side. Rare are the studies that examine simultaneously both components of brand loyalty. The present study was performed to describe the conjoint contribution of cognitive and affective variables in the formation of brand loyalty. A questionnaire was administered to 400 shampoo users. A confirmatory analysis was performed to test the conceptual model presented. The results provide a better ...

  14. Sensitivity of surface temperature to radiative forcing by contrail cirrus in a radiative-mixing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schumann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earth's surface temperature sensitivity to radiative forcing (RF by contrail cirrus and the related RF efficacy relative to CO2 are investigated in a one-dimensional idealized model of the atmosphere. The model includes energy transport by shortwave (SW and longwave (LW radiation and by mixing in an otherwise fixed reference atmosphere (no other feedbacks. Mixing includes convective adjustment and turbulent diffusion, where the latter is related to the vertical component of mixing by large-scale eddies. The conceptual study shows that the surface temperature sensitivity to given contrail RF depends strongly on the timescales of energy transport by mixing and radiation. The timescales are derived for steady layered heating (ghost forcing and for a transient contrail cirrus case. The radiative timescales are shortest at the surface and shorter in the troposphere than in the mid-stratosphere. Without mixing, a large part of the energy induced into the upper troposphere by radiation due to contrails or similar disturbances gets lost to space before it can contribute to surface warming. Because of the different radiative forcing at the surface and at top of atmosphere (TOA and different radiative heating rate profiles in the troposphere, the local surface temperature sensitivity to stratosphere-adjusted RF is larger for SW than for LW contrail forcing. Without mixing, the surface energy budget is more important for surface warming than the TOA budget. Hence, surface warming by contrails is smaller than suggested by the net RF at TOA. For zero mixing, cooling by contrails cannot be excluded. This may in part explain low efficacy values for contrails found in previous global circulation model studies. Possible implications of this study are discussed. Since the results of this study are model dependent, they should be tested with a comprehensive climate model in the future.

  15. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  16. Towards a contrail climatology from NOAA-satellite images over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakan, S [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Betancor, M [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Gayler, V [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Grassl, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Contrail cloudiness over Europe and the eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean was analyzed for the two periods Sept. 1979-Dec. 1981 and Sept. 1989-Aug. 1992 by visual inspection of quicklook photographic prints of NOAA/AVHRR infrared images. The averaged contrail cover exhibits maximum values along the transatlantic flight corridor around 50 N (of almost 2%) and over western Europe resulting in 0.5% contrail cloudiness on the average. A strong yearly cycle appears with a maximum (<2%) in spring and summer over the Atlantic and a smaller maximum (<1%) in winter over southwestern Europe. Comparing the two time periods of one decade separation there is a significant decrease in contrail cloudiness over western Europe and a significant increase over the North Atlantic observable between March and July. Contrail cloud cover during daytime is about twice as high as during nighttime. Contrails are preferably found in larger fields of 1000 km diameter which last usually for more than one day. Causes, possible errors and consequences are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Towards a contrail climatology from NOAA-satellite images over Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakan, S.; Betancor, M.

    1993-01-01

    Contrail cloudiness over Europe and the eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean was analyzed for the two periods Sept. 1979-Dec. 1981 and Sept. 1989-Aug. 1992 by visual inspection of quicklook photographic prints of NOAA/AVHRR infrared images. The averaged contrail cover exhibits maximum values along the transatlantic flight corridor around 50 N (of almost 2%) and over western Europe resulting in 0.5% contrail cloudiness on the average. A strong yearly cycle appears with a maximum (<2%) in spring and summer over the Atlantic and a smaller maximum (<1%) in winter over southwestern Europe. Comparing the two time periods of one decade separation there is a significant decrease in contrail cloudiness over western Europe and a significant increase over the North Atlantic observable between March and July. Contrail cloud cover during daytime is about twice as high as during nighttime. Contrails are preferably found in larger fields of 1000 km diameter which last usually for more than one day. Causes, possible errors and consequences are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of the Variables that Affect Bookstore Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Competition, which becomes more widespread, complex, and intense, drives companies to must be able to see the various opportunities that exist and to identify strategies for creating customer satisfaction. As an example of a company must be able to produce products with good quality, reasonable price, facilities, and companies are able to create a positive image in the eyes of consumers. This strategy is quite important in facing the competitive level of competition with rival firms. This research is aimed to analysis simultaneously or partially positive effect of the facilities, prices and corporate image on customer satisfaction, as well as analyzing the most dominant variable in effecting bookstore customer satisfaction. Data used in this research are primary data from Tmbookstore customer in Cianjur city, West Java Indonesia, which were collected from respondents using valid and reliable questionnaire. A total of 100 respondents were selected from Tmbookstore visitors by accidental sampling. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results of the research indicate that product, price, location, and simultaneously affect to bookstore consumer satisfaction. Partially, only two of the three variables that affect bookstore consumer satisfaction namely price and company image. Image of the company is the most a dominant impact on bookstore customer satisfaction.

  19. Analysis of the Variables that Affect Bookstore Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Competition, which becomes more widespread, complex, and intense, drives companies to must be able to see the various opportunities that exist and to identify strategies for creating customer satisfaction. As an example of a company must be able to produce products with good quality, reasonable price, facilities, and companies are able to create a positive image in the eyes of consumers. This strategy is quite important in facing the competitive level of competition with rival firms. This research is aimed to analysis simultaneously or partially positive effect of the facilities, prices and corporate image on customer satisfaction, as well as analyzing the most dominant variable in effecting bookstore customer satisfaction.  Data used in this research are primary data from Tmbookstore customer in Cianjur city, West Java Indonesia, which were collected from respondents using valid and reliable questionnaire. A total of 100 respondents were selected from Tmbookstore visitors by accidental sampling. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results of the research indicate that product, price, location, and simultaneously affect to bookstore consumer satisfaction. Partially, only two of the three variables that affect bookstore consumer satisfaction namely price and company image. Image of the company is the most a dominant impact on bookstore customer satisfaction.

  20. The impact of diurnal variations of air traffic on contrail radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stuber

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We combined high resolution aircraft flight data from the EU Fifth Framework Programme project AERO2k with analysis data from the ECMWF's integrated forecast system to calculate diurnally resolved 3-D contrail cover. We scaled the contrail cover in order to match observational data for the Bakan area (eastern-Atlantic/western-Europe.

    We found that less than 40% of the global distance travelled by aircraft is due to flights during local night time. Yet, due to the cancellation of shortwave and longwave effects during daytime, night time flights contribute a disproportional 60% to the global annual mean forcing. Under clear sky conditions the night flights contribute even more disproportionally at 76%. There are pronounced regional variations in night flying and the associated radiative forcing. Over parts of the North Atlantic flight corridor 75% of air traffic and 84% of the forcing occurs during local night, whereas only 35% of flights are during local night in South-East Asia, yet these contribute 68% of the radiative forcing. In general, regions with a significant local contrail radiative forcing are also regions for which night time flights amount to less than half of the daily total of flights. Therefore, neglecting diurnal variations in air traffic/contrail cover by assuming a diurnal mean contrail cover can over-estimate the global mean radiative forcing by up to 30%.

  1. Variability and trends of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Flocas, Helena A.; Simmonds, Ian; Kouroutzoglou, John; keay, Kevin; Rudeva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated with the aid of the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm, applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim mean sea level pressures. The algorithm is employed for the first time to study anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean were checked and verified. The tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems revealed two major anticyclonic routes: over the northern (i.e. from the Iberian towards the Balkan Peninsula) and over the southern (i.e. the North Africa coast) Mediterranean barriers. A transition of the system density and anticyclogenesis maxima is evident throughout the year from solely continental environments in winter and autumn to also maritime in spring and summer. These variations can be attributed to the seasonal variability of the major anticyclonic systems that are involved in this region. The interannual variability of synoptic systems can be attributed to natural low frequency variability. The interannual variations of the system density and strength were linked to the Northern Hemisphere modes of atmospheric variability; e.g. more (less) antiyclonic tracks are observed around the Mediterranean basin during periods of positive (negative) NAO, with a consequent enhancement (decline) of the pressure field. Moreover, possible trends in the frequency and intensity of the anticyclonic systems were explored in an attempt to examine any impacts of recent global warming conditions. Positive trends of system density, genesis and intensity prevail during the cold period over the greater area around the Mediterranean basin. During summer, the general increase in system density is not followed by a corresponding tendency in the number of the generating systems and the intensity. Regarding the depth of the

  2. Ground-based mobile scanning LIDAR for remote sensing of contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Homburg

    Full Text Available Air traffic is a source of trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Contrails readily form from water vapor exhausts under favorable meteorological conditions. Since contrails are ice crystal clouds like natural cirrus clouds, they bear a greenhouse potential which has to be investigated. The IFU has built a scanning lidar system employing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the emitter and a 52-cm diameter telescope as the receiver. Signals are processed in several channels to investigate depolarization and wavelength dependencies of the light backscattered from ice crystals. These investigations are aimed at the formation and life cycles of contrails, their optical properties, and their climatological consequences in areas of dense air traffic. The experimental lidar setup is described and a sample measurement is shown.

  3. Ground-based mobile scanning LIDAR for remote sensing of contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Freudenthaler

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic is a source of trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Contrails readily form from water vapor exhausts under favorable meteorological conditions. Since contrails are ice crystal clouds like natural cirrus clouds, they bear a greenhouse potential which has to be investigated. The IFU has built a scanning lidar system employing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the emitter and a 52-cm diameter telescope as the receiver. Signals are processed in several channels to investigate depolarization and wavelength dependencies of the light backscattered from ice crystals. These investigations are aimed at the formation and life cycles of contrails, their optical properties, and their climatological consequences in areas of dense air traffic. The experimental lidar setup is described and a sample measurement is shown.

  4. Carbon balance of China constrained by CONTRAIL aircraft CO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F.; Wang, H. M.; Chen, J. M.; Machida, T.; Zhou, L. X.; Ju, W. M.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Terrestrial carbon dioxide (CO2) flux estimates in China using atmospheric inversion method are beset with considerable uncertainties because very few atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements are available. In order to improve these estimates, nested atmospheric CO2 inversion during 2002-2008 is performed in this study using passenger aircraft-based CO2 measurements over Eurasia from the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) project. The inversion system includes 43 regions with a focus on China, and is based on the Bayesian synthesis approach and the TM5 transport model. The terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux modeled by the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model and the ocean exchange simulated by the OPA-PISCES-T model are considered as the prior fluxes. The impacts of CONTRAIL CO2 data on inverted China terrestrial carbon fluxes are quantified, the improvement of the inverted fluxes after adding CONTRAIL CO2 data are rationed against climate factors and evaluated by comparing the simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations with three independent surface CO2 measurements in China. Results show that with the addition of CONTRAIL CO2 data, the inverted carbon sink in China increases while those in South and Southeast Asia decrease. Meanwhile, the posterior uncertainties over these regions are all reduced (2-12%). CONTRAIL CO2 data also have a large effect on the inter-annual variation of carbon sinks in China, leading to a better correlation between the carbon sink and the annual mean climate factors. Evaluations against the CO2 measurements at three sites in China also show that the CONTRAIL CO2 measurements may have improved the inversion results.

  5. Brain signal variability differentially affects cognitive flexibility and cognitive stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armbruster-Genç, D.J.N.; Ültzhöffer, K.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory,

  6. Playing a violent television game affects heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Malena; Anderson, Martin; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Lindblad, Frank

    2009-01-01

    To investigate how playing a violent/nonviolent television game during the evening affects sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions during and after playing as well as sleep quality during the night after playing. In total, 19 boys, 12-15 years of age, played television games on two occasions in their homes and participated once without gaming. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity were measured during gaming/participating and the night to follow using a portable combined heart rate and movement sensor. A sleep diary and questionnaires about gaming experiences and session-specific experiences were filled in. Criteria for Selection of Games: Violent game involves/rewards direct physical violence (no handguns) against another person, and nonviolent game involves/rewards no violence; same game design ('third-person game'); conducted in the same manner; no differences concerning motor activity; similar sound and light effects; no sexual content, violence against women or racial overtones. During violent (vs. nonviolent) gaming, there was significantly higher activity of the very low frequency component of the HRV and total power. During the night after playing, very low frequency, low frequency and high frequency components were significantly higher during the violent (vs. nonviolent) condition, just as total power. There were no significant differences between the three conditions (violent/nonviolent/no gaming) with respect to an index reflecting subjectively perceived sleep difficulties. Nor was there any difference between violent and nonviolent condition for any single sleep item. Violent gaming induces different autonomic responses in boys compared to nonviolent gaming--during playing and during the following night--suggesting different emotional responses. Subjectively perceived sleep quality is not influenced after a single gaming experience. Future studies should address the development of the autonomic balance after gaming over longer

  7. Brain Signal Variability Differentially Affects Cognitive Flexibility and Cognitive Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Fiebach, Christian J

    2016-04-06

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory, albeit this holds only for tasks requiring cognitive flexibility. However, cognitive stability, i.e., the ability to maintain a task goal in the face of irrelevant distractors, should suffer under high levels of brain signal variability. To directly test this prediction, we studied both behavioral and brain signal variability during cognitive flexibility (i.e., task switching) and cognitive stability (i.e., distractor inhibition) in a sample of healthy human subjects and developed an efficient and easy-to-implement analysis approach to assess BOLD-signal variability in event-related fMRI task paradigms. Results show a general positive effect of neural variability on task performance as assessed by accuracy measures. However, higher levels of BOLD-signal variability in the left inferior frontal junction area result in reduced error rate costs during task switching and thus facilitate cognitive flexibility. In contrast, variability in the same area has a detrimental effect on cognitive stability, as shown in a negative effect of variability on response time costs during distractor inhibition. This pattern was mirrored at the behavioral level, with higher behavioral variability predicting better task switching but worse distractor inhibition performance. Our data extend previous results on brain signal variability by showing a differential effect of brain signal variability that depends on task context, in line with predictions from computational theories. Recent neuroscientific research showed that the human brain signal is intrinsically variable and suggested that this variability improves performance. Computational models of prefrontal neural networks predict differential

  8. Variables That Can Affect Student Ratings of Their Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Attribution theory was applied to help predict the results of an experiment that examined the effects of three independent variables on students' ratings of their professors. The dependent variables were students' perceptions of whether the professor caused the students' grades and student satisfaction with their professor. The results suggest…

  9. A Linear Programming Approach to the Development of Contrail Reduction Strategies Satisfying Operationally Feasible Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil Yi-Nan; Sun, Dengfent

    2012-01-01

    A class of strategies has been proposed to reduce contrail formation in the United States airspace. A 3D grid based on weather data and the cruising altitude level of aircraft is adjusted to avoid the persistent contrail potential area with the consideration to fuel-efficiency. In this paper, the authors introduce a contrail avoidance strategy on 3D grid by considering additional operationally feasible constraints from an air traffic controller's aspect. First, shifting too many aircraft to the same cruising level will make the miles-in-trail at this level smaller than the safety separation threshold. Furthermore, the high density of aircraft at one cruising level may exceed the workload for the traffic controller. Therefore, in our new model we restrict the number of total aircraft at each level. Second, the aircraft count variation for successive intervals cannot be too drastic since the workload to manage climbing/descending aircraft is much larger than managing cruising aircraft. The contrail reduction is formulated as an integer-programming problem and the problem is shown to have the property of total unimodularity. Solving the corresponding relaxed linear programming with the simplex method provides an optimal and integral solution to the problem. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the methodology.

  10. Intercomparison of radiative forcing calculations of stratospheric water vapour and contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, Gunnar [Dept. of Geosciences, Univ. of Oslo (Norway); Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO), Oslo (Norway); Kvalevaag, Maria [Dept. of Geosciences, Univ. of Oslo (Norway); Raedel, Gaby; Cook, Jolene; Shine, Keith P. [Dept. of Meteorology, Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Clark, Hannah [CNRM/GAME Meteo France, Toulouse (France); Lab. d' Aerologie, Univ. de Toulouse (France); Karcher, Fernand [CNRM/GAME Meteo France, Toulouse (France); Markowicz, Krzysztof; Kardas, Aleksandra; Wolkenberg, Paulina [Inst. of Geophysics, Univ. of Warsaw (Poland); Balkanski, Yves [LSCE/IPSL, Lab. CEA-CNRS-UVSQ (France); Ponater, Michael [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR), Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Forster, Piers; Rap, Alexandru [School of Earth and Environment, Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Leon, Ruben Rodriguez de [Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Seven groups have participated in an intercomparison study of calculations of radiative forcing (RF) due to stratospheric water vapour (SWV) and contrails. a combination of detailed radiative transfer schemes and codes for global-scale calculations have been used, as well as a combination of idealized simulations and more realistic global-scale changes in stratospheric water vapour and contrails. Detailed line-by-line codes agree within about 15% for longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW) RF, except in one case where the difference is 30%. Since the LW and SW RF due to contrails and SWV changes are of opposite sign, the differences between the models seen in the individual LW and SW components can be either compensated or strengthened in the net RF. and thus in relative terms uncertainties are much larger for the net RF. Some of the models used for global-scale simulations of changes in SWV and contrails differ substantially in RF from the more detailed radiative transfer schemes. For the global-scale calculations we use a method of weighting the results to calculate a best estimate based on their performance compared to the more detailed radiative transfer schemes in the idealized simulations. (orig.)

  11. A methodology for in-situ and remote sensing of microphysical and radiative properties of contrails as they evolve into cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. M.; Haywood, J.; Marenco, F.; O'Sullivan, D.; Meyer, J.; Thorpe, R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Krämer, M.; Bower, K. N.; Rädel, G.; Rap, A.; Woolley, A.; Forster, P.; Coe, H.

    2012-09-01

    Contrails and especially their evolution into cirrus-like clouds are thought to have very important effects on local and global radiation budgets, though are generally not well represented in global climate models. Lack of contrail parameterisations is due to the limited availability of in situ contrail measurements which are difficult to obtain. Here we present a methodology for successful sampling and interpretation of contrail microphysical and radiative data using both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation on board the FAAM BAe146 UK research aircraft as part of the COntrails Spreading Into Cirrus (COSIC) study. Forecast models were utilised to determine flight regions suitable for contrail formation and sampling; regions that were both free of cloud but showed a high probability of occurrence of air mass being supersaturated with respect to ice. The FAAM research aircraft, fitted with cloud microphysics probes and remote sensing instruments, formed a distinctive spiral-shaped contrail in the predicted area by flying in an orbit over the same ground position as the wind advected the contrails to the east. Parts of these contrails were sampled during the completion of four orbits, with sampled contrail regions being between 7 and 30 min old. Lidar measurements were useful for in-flight determination of the location and spatial extent of the contrails, and also to report extinction values that agreed well with those calculated from the microphysical data. A shortwave spectrometer was also able to detect the contrails, though the signal was weak due to the dispersion and evaporation of the contrails. Post-flight the UK Met Office NAME III dispersion model was successfully used as a tool for modelling the dispersion of the persistent contrail; determining its location and age, and determining when there was interference from other measured aircraft contrails or when cirrus encroached on the area later in the flight. The persistent contrails were found to

  12. A methodology for in-situ and remote sensing of microphysical and radiative properties of contrails as they evolve into cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Jones

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrails and especially their evolution into cirrus-like clouds are thought to have very important effects on local and global radiation budgets, though are generally not well represented in global climate models. Lack of contrail parameterisations is due to the limited availability of in situ contrail measurements which are difficult to obtain. Here we present a methodology for successful sampling and interpretation of contrail microphysical and radiative data using both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation on board the FAAM BAe146 UK research aircraft as part of the COntrails Spreading Into Cirrus (COSIC study.

    Forecast models were utilised to determine flight regions suitable for contrail formation and sampling; regions that were both free of cloud but showed a high probability of occurrence of air mass being supersaturated with respect to ice. The FAAM research aircraft, fitted with cloud microphysics probes and remote sensing instruments, formed a distinctive spiral-shaped contrail in the predicted area by flying in an orbit over the same ground position as the wind advected the contrails to the east. Parts of these contrails were sampled during the completion of four orbits, with sampled contrail regions being between 7 and 30 min old. Lidar measurements were useful for in-flight determination of the location and spatial extent of the contrails, and also to report extinction values that agreed well with those calculated from the microphysical data. A shortwave spectrometer was also able to detect the contrails, though the signal was weak due to the dispersion and evaporation of the contrails. Post-flight the UK Met Office NAME III dispersion model was successfully used as a tool for modelling the dispersion of the persistent contrail; determining its location and age, and determining when there was interference from other measured aircraft contrails or when cirrus encroached on the area later in the flight.

    The

  13. How a dependent's variable non-randomness affects taper equation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to apply the least squares method in regression analysis, the values of the dependent variable Y should be random. In an example of regression analysis linear and nonlinear taper equations, which estimate the diameter of the tree dhi at any height of the tree hi, were compared. For each tree the diameter at the ...

  14. Social Process Variables Affecting Reading Performance in Delayed Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorton, Mary; Kukuk, Christopher

    1978-01-01

    Examines the relationship between 14 social process variables and the reading performances of 180 slow learners, ages 7-15. Finds that two of those factors (brith trauma and being held back in school) emerge as predictors of reading comprehension, word recognition, and spelling. (RL)

  15. Do high fetal catecholamine levels affect heart rate variability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To deternrine the relationship between Umbilical arterial catecholamine levels and fetal heart rate variability and meconium passage. Study design. A prospective descriptive study was perfonned. Umbilical artery catecholamine levels were measured in 55 newborns and correlated with fetal heart rate before ...

  16. Teacher and Student Variables Affecting Special Education Evaluation and Referral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Lorenzo Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Past research has revealed that African American/Black boys are referred for special education evaluation at disproportionately higher rates than boys of other racial/ethnic groups. This correlational study used survey methodology to examine whether student and teacher demographic variables predicted how likely a teacher would refer boy students…

  17. Variability in wheat: factors affecting its nutritional value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Villamide, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Wheat is a common raw material used to provide energy in broiler diets. Its apparent metabolisable energy and its influence on broiler performance varies between wheat samples. Reasons for that variability can be classified as intrinsic (variety, chemical composition) and extrinsic factors (growing

  18. Basic Diagnosis and Prediction of Persistent Contrail Occurrence using High-resolution Numerical Weather Analyses/Forecasts and Logistic Regression. Part II: Evaluation of Sample Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Minnis, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that probabilistic forecasting may be a useful method for predicting persistent contrail formation. A probabilistic forecast to accurately predict contrail formation over the contiguous United States (CONUS) is created by using meteorological data based on hourly meteorological analyses from the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) and from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) as well as GOES water vapor channel measurements, combined with surface and satellite observations of contrails. Two groups of logistic models were created. The first group of models (SURFACE models) is based on surface-based contrail observations supplemented with satellite observations of contrail occurrence. The second group of models (OUTBREAK models) is derived from a selected subgroup of satellite-based observations of widespread persistent contrails. The mean accuracies for both the SURFACE and OUTBREAK models typically exceeded 75 percent when based on the RUC or ARPS analysis data, but decreased when the logistic models were derived from ARPS forecast data.

  19. Variables affecting lipid oxidation in dried microencapsulated oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Dried microencapsulated oils are powdery foods or ingredients, prepared by drying natural or formulated emulsions, wherein the oil globules are dispersed in a matrix of saccharides and/or proteins. The study of lipid oxidation in microencapsulated oils is a very difficult task since, in addition to the numerous variables normally involved in lipid oxidation, mainly unsaturation degree, oxygen, light, temperature, prooxidants and antioxidants, other factors exert an important influence in these heterophasic lipid systems. In this paper, the present state of the art on lipid oxidation in dried microencapsulated oils is reviewed, focused on the variables specifically involved in oxidation of these lipid systems. Such variables include those pertaining to the preparation process (type and concentration of the matrix components and drying procedure and those related to the physicochemical properties of microencapsulated oils (particle size, oil globule size, lipid distribution, water activity, pH and interactions between matrix components.Los aceites microencapsulados son alimentos o ingredientes en polvo preparados mediante secado de emulsiones naturales o formuladas, donde los glóbulos de aceite se encuentran dispersos en una matriz de hidratos de carbono y/o proteínas. El estudio de la oxidación lipídica en aceites microencapsulados es muy difícil ya que, además de las numerosas variables implicadas normalmente en la oxidación lipídica, principalmente el grado de insaturación, oxígeno, luz, temperatura, prooxidantes y antioxidantes, en estos sistemas lipídicos heterofásicos existen otros factores que ejercen una importante influencia. En este trabajo, se revisa la situación actual del conocimiento sobre oxidación lipídica en aceites microencapsulados en relación con las variables que intervienen específicamente en la oxidación de estos sistemas lipídicos. Concretamente, dichas variables incluyen las implicadas en el proceso de

  20. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Schöberl

    Full Text Available Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100 over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, p<0.001, whereas owner Agreeableness (NEO-FFI scaled positively with owner iCV (F = 4.981, p = 0.028. Dogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT, had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016, as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003. We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context in science and in counselling.

  1. Variability, Predictability, and Race Factors Affecting Performance in Elite Biathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skattebo, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    To investigate variability, predictability, and smallest worthwhile performance enhancement in elite biathlon sprint events. In addition, the effects of race factors on performance were assessed. Data from 2005 to 2015 including >10,000 and >1000 observations for each sex for all athletes and annual top-10 athletes, respectively, were included. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed based on total race time, skiing time, shooting time, and proportions of targets hit. Within-athlete race-to-race variability was expressed as coefficient of variation of performance times and standard deviation (SD) in proportion units (%) of targets hit. The models were adjusted for random and fixed effects of subject identity, season, event identity, and race factors. The within-athlete variability was independent of sex and performance standard of athletes: 2.5-3.2% for total race time, 1.5-1.8% for skiing time, and 11-15% for shooting times. The SD of the proportion of hits was ∼10% in both shootings combined (meaning ±1 hit in 10 shots). The predictability in total race time was very high to extremely high for all athletes (ICC .78-.84) but trivial for top-10 athletes (ICC .05). Race times during World Championships and Olympics were ∼2-3% faster than in World Cups. Moreover, race time increased by ∼2% per 1000 m of altitude, by ∼5% per 1% of gradient, by 1-2% per 1 m/s of wind speed, and by ∼2-4% on soft vs hard tracks. Researchers and practitioners should focus on strategies that improve biathletes' performance by at least 0.8-0.9%, corresponding to the smallest worthwhile enhancement (0.3 × within-athlete variability).

  2. Analysis of variables affecting drug compliance in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ansari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: As compliance of the patient during management of schizophrenia is crucial, the current study was conducted to find out the factors that affected compliance. Aims: The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of noncompliance and to find out different factors affecting compliance in schizophrenic patients. Materials and Methods: Observational cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 adult schizophrenic patients. Noncompliance was assessed using the rating of medication influence (ROMI scale. Severity of illness was measured using positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS. Results: Prevalence of noncompliance was 37%. Using ROMI scale; positive relationship with psychiatrist, family pressure for taking medications, stigma, and substance abuse were found to be significant factors. Severity of illness was also found as determining factor. Conclusion: To improve the compliance in schizophrenia patients, roles of both psychiatrists and family members are crucial.

  3. Macroeconomic Variables Affecting Bist30 Index Value in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özge KORKMAZ; Eşref Savas BASCI; Süleyman Serdar KARACA

    2016-01-01

    In finance literature, main financial stock indices are important to determine country’s financial development and it’s behavior against the effect of macro-economic conditions. These conditions can listed as interest rate, inflation rate, money supply, exchange rate, industrial production index, and etc.  In changing world economy, macro economic conditions can affect to the financial stability and capital markets. Some economies have a financial vulnerability, and it is important to measure...

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF UDDER MORPHOLOGY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    OpenAIRE

    Prpić, Zoran; Mioč, Boro; Vnučec, Ivan; Pavić, Vesna; Konjačić, Miljenko

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, selection of dairy sheep breeds was focused almost exclusively on increasing the amount of milk produced and so today they produce several times more milk than breeds selected for meat and wool. However, due to the permanent striving for increasing sheep milk production udder weight becomes too great, and suspensory system can not withstand this overweight so it ruptures more often. That significantly shortens the duration of animal’s production life and adversely affects udde...

  5. High variability impairs motor learning regardless of whether it affects task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, Marco; Casadio, Maura; Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2018-01-01

    Motor variability plays an important role in motor learning, although the exact mechanisms of how variability affects learning are not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that motor variability may have different effects on learning in redundant tasks, depending on whether it is present in the task space (where it affects task performance) or in the null space (where it has no effect on task performance). We examined the effect of directly introducing null and task space variability using a manipulandum during the learning of a motor task. Participants learned a bimanual shuffleboard task for 2 days, where their goal was to slide a virtual puck as close as possible toward a target. Critically, the distance traveled by the puck was determined by the sum of the left- and right-hand velocities, which meant that there was redundancy in the task. Participants were divided into five groups, based on both the dimension in which the variability was introduced and the amount of variability that was introduced during training. Results showed that although all groups were able to reduce error with practice, learning was affected more by the amount of variability introduced rather than the dimension in which variability was introduced. Specifically, groups with higher movement variability during practice showed larger errors at the end of practice compared with groups that had low variability during learning. These results suggest that although introducing variability can increase exploration of new solutions, this may adversely affect the ability to retain the learned solution. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We examined the role of introducing variability during motor learning in a redundant task. The presence of redundancy allows variability to be introduced in different dimensions: the task space (where it affects task performance) or the null space (where it does not affect task performance). We found that introducing variability affected learning adversely, but the amount of

  6. Brand Loyalty: Impact of Cognitive and Affective Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad TOUZANI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on brand loyalty typically focus on the behavioural side ofbrand loyalty or on the attitudinal side. Rare are the studies that examinesimultaneously both components of brand loyalty. The present study wasperformed to describe the conjoint contribution of cognitive and affectivevariables in the formation of brand loyalty. A questionnaire was administered to400 shampoo users. A confirmatory analysis was performed to test theconceptual model presented. The results provide a better knowledge about therole played by each factor in brand loyalty formation and emphasises the majorrole played by affective factors.

  7. Do the Microshear Test Variables Affect the Bond Strength Values?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effect of specimen preparation and testing protocols on the micro-shear bond strength (μSBS results. To evaluate whether variations in polyethylene rod use affect (μSBS. Human dentin disks were randomly distributed into six groups (: polyethylene tube (3 levels and adhesive system (2 levels. In Group 1, polyethylene tubes filled with polymerized composite were placed on adhesive covered surfaces. Tubes were removed 24 h after water storage, leaving the rods only. In Group 2, the same procedure was performed; however, tubes were kept in place during testing. In Group 3, composite rods without tubes were placed on adhesive covered dentin. In all groups, adhesives were photoactivated after positioning filled tubes/rods on adhesive covered surfaces. Specimens were tested under shear mode and the data subjected to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Groups 1 and 2 resulted in statistically similar mean μSBS (; however, a greater number of pretest failures were observed for Group 1. Higher μSBS values were detected for Group 3, irrespective of adhesive system used (. Removing the polyethylene tube before composite rod is placed on dentin affects μSBS values.

  8. In situ observations of contrail micro-physics and implications for their radiative impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellot, M R [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States); Arnott, W P; Hallett, J [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    1998-12-31

    Increasing levels of air traffic have raised concerns about the potential effects of aircraft exhaust on the climate. Current knowledge is expanded by examining in situ data from 21 contrails sampled at altitudes of 9.3 - 12.5 km and temperatures of -47 deg C to -66 deg C. The airborne equipment allowed measurements of particles as small as 2 {mu}m in diameter, which have not previously been reported. The microphysical characteristics of the contrails, which occurred in both clear and cloudy air, are presented and compared with natural cirrus properties. Computations of the wavelength-dependent radiative properties of the sampled particle distributions are also presented and compared with laboratory measurements. Finally, implications of these findings for climatic assessment are discussed. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  9. A modelling study of the effects of different CCN on contrail formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleitsmann, G; Zellner, R [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    The formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the jet regime of a B747 airliner at cruise has been investigated by modelling calculations using the BOAT model. Both homogeneous condensation of H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-mixtures and heterogeneous deposition of H{sub 2}O on soot surfaces activated by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were taken into account. Whereas the heterogeneous condensation leads to particles with average diameters of about 1.3 {mu}m, the homogeneously condensed H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles are much smaller ({<=} 7 nm) and do not contribute to visible contrail formation. Nevertheless, they contribute to the atmospheric background aerosol. Using different SO{sub 2} emission indices, it is concluded that the contrail onset is essentially independent of this quantity and depends mainly on ambient temperature and soot activation kinetics. (author) 15 refs.

  10. A modelling study of the effects of different CCN on contrail formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleitsmann, G.; Zellner, R. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    The formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the jet regime of a B747 airliner at cruise has been investigated by modelling calculations using the BOAT model. Both homogeneous condensation of H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-mixtures and heterogeneous deposition of H{sub 2}O on soot surfaces activated by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were taken into account. Whereas the heterogeneous condensation leads to particles with average diameters of about 1.3 {mu}m, the homogeneously condensed H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles are much smaller ({<=} 7 nm) and do not contribute to visible contrail formation. Nevertheless, they contribute to the atmospheric background aerosol. Using different SO{sub 2} emission indices, it is concluded that the contrail onset is essentially independent of this quantity and depends mainly on ambient temperature and soot activation kinetics. (author) 15 refs.

  11. In situ observations of contrail micro-physics and implications for their radiative impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellot, M.R. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States); Arnott, W.P.; Hallett, J. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    1997-12-31

    Increasing levels of air traffic have raised concerns about the potential effects of aircraft exhaust on the climate. Current knowledge is expanded by examining in situ data from 21 contrails sampled at altitudes of 9.3 - 12.5 km and temperatures of -47 deg C to -66 deg C. The airborne equipment allowed measurements of particles as small as 2 {mu}m in diameter, which have not previously been reported. The microphysical characteristics of the contrails, which occurred in both clear and cloudy air, are presented and compared with natural cirrus properties. Computations of the wavelength-dependent radiative properties of the sampled particle distributions are also presented and compared with laboratory measurements. Finally, implications of these findings for climatic assessment are discussed. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  12. Intrinsic and extrinsic variables affecting sensitivity to radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhas, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical models relating observed yield of cancers vs administered radiation dose have become popular in recent years, especially as means of predicting hazards associated with exposure conditions which are beyond the realm of practical experimentation. While the validity of these predictions remains a controversy, these models, especially the αD + βD 2 model, have more recently been used to infer the mechanism(s) underlying the carcinogenic process. Through the analysis of simple experimental systems, we demonstrate in this report that aD + bD 2 kinetics can result from injury to the cells which eventually develop into the cancer (target cells) or from injury to those cells which affect target cell survival. Further, these kinetics can fail to predict the consequences of dose protraction, largely due to the fact that transformation increases with dose, while survival decreases. The role of these models in helping to develop an understanding of mechanisms should be restricted, therefore, to the formulation of basic hypotheses which are subject to direct testing in the laboratory

  13. Contrails and Climate Change: An Investigation of the Role of Aviation-Induced-Cloudiness on the Ireland Climate Using AATSR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Gillian M.; Cawkwell, Fiona; Mannstein, Hermann; Minnis, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    Contrails, or 'condensation trails', produced in the wake of jet aircraft have been found to have a small but significant global net climate-warming effect [1]. When atmospheric conditions are favorable (i.e. when ambient atmospheric humidity is high and temperature is below a threshold value of typically less than -40oC), contrails can persist for several hours, grow to become several kilometers long and can also trigger additional cirrus- cloud formation as they spread - which can further impact climate! Due to Ireland's proximity to the North Atlantic Flight Corridor, large volumes of high-altitude overflights cross Ireland daily. Contrails are essentially artificial-linear-ice-clouds at a lower temperature than the surrounding atmosphere and so are visible in 1 Km satellite imagery at the 11 and 12 μm wavelengths; but are better detected in the temperature difference image between these two thermal channels. An automated Contrail Detection Algorithm (CDA) is applied to AATSR thermal imagery over Ireland, and the percentage contrail-coverage of each scene determined. Preliminary results, based on 2008 morning and evening AATSR overpasses show a similar annual average contrail-coverage when present of 0.25% and 0.19% respectively, even though air-traffic density is typically several times higher during the morning overpasses. Cases of excessive contrail-coverage, of up to 2.06% have been observed in combination with extensive cirrus-coverage over Ireland. Results from meteorological data indicate more highly favorable atmospheric conditions for contrail formation and persistence in 00h00 and 06h00 radiosonde ascents; which corresponds to a night-time peak in high-altitude flights over Ireland. Furthermore, exceptionally thick contrail-susceptible-atmospheric layers are found in conjunction with cases of excessive satellite-derived- contrail-coverage.

  14. Heritability of Intraindividual Mean and Variability of Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; von Stumm, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    Positive affect (e.g., attentiveness) and negative affect (e.g., upset) fluctuate over time. We examined genetic influences on interindividual differences in the day-to-day variability of affect (i.e., ups and downs) and in average affect over the duration of a month. Once a day, 17-year-old twins in the United Kingdom ( N = 447) rated their positive and negative affect online. The mean and standard deviation of each individual's daily ratings across the month were used as the measures of that individual's average affect and variability of affect. Analyses revealed that the average of negative affect was significantly heritable (.53), but the average of positive affect was not; instead, the latter showed significant shared environmental influences (.42). Fluctuations across the month were significantly heritable for both negative affect (.54) and positive affect (.34). The findings support the two-factor theory of affect, which posits that positive affect is more situational and negative affect is more dispositional.

  15. Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS-2) Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the emission performance of gas-turbine engines burning renewable aviation fuels have been thoroughly documented in recent ground-based studies, there is still great uncertainty regarding how the fuels effect aircraft exhaust composition and contrail formation at cruise altitudes. To fill this information gap, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate sponsored the ACCESS flight series to make detailed measurements of trace gases, aerosols and ice particles in the near-field behind the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it burned either standard petroleum-based fuel of varying sulfur content or a 50:50 blend of standard fuel and a hydro-treated esters and fatty acid (HEFA) jet fuel produced from camelina plant oil. ACCESS 1, conducted in spring 2013 near Palmdale CA, focused on refining flight plans and sampling techniques and used the instrumented NASA Langley HU-25 aircraft to document DC-8 emissions and contrails on five separate flights of approx.2 hour duration. ACCESS 2, conducted from Palmdale in May 2014, engaged partners from the Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and National Research Council-Canada to provide additional scientific expertise and sampling aircraft (Falcon 20 and CT-133, respectively) with more extensive trace gas, particle, or air motion measurement capability. Eight, muliti-aircraft research flights of 2 to 4 hour duration were conducted to document the emissions and contrail properties of the DC-8 as it 1) burned low sulfur Jet A, high sulfur Jet A or low sulfur Jet A/HEFA blend, 2) flew at altitudes between 6 and 11 km, and 3) operated its engines at three different fuel flow rates. This presentation further describes the ACCESS flight experiments, examines fuel type and thrust setting impacts on engine emissions, and compares cruise-altitude observations with similar data acquired in ground tests.

  16. Kinetics of contrail particles formation and heterogeneous reactions on such particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, M.N.; Butkovsky, A.V.; Erofeev, A.I.; Freedlender, O.G.; Makashev, N.K. [Central Aerohydrodynamic Inst., Zhukovsky (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The research of impact of aircraft emissions upon the atmosphere is very complex and difficult problem. More than two decades of intensive investigations of the problem of ozone decay do not permit to make definite conclusions. Many important problems still remain unsolved in the aircraft/atmosphere interaction: engine, nozzle, jet, jet/vortex system interaction, vortex breakdown, contrail formation, meso-scale and global processes, their effects on climate. The particles formation and heterogeneous reactions play an important role in some of these processes. These problems are discussed. (author) 11 refs.

  17. Kinetics of contrail particles formation and heterogeneous reactions on such particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, M N; Butkovsky, A V; Erofeev, A I; Freedlender, O G; Makashev, N K [Central Aerohydrodynamic Inst., Zhukovsky (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The research of impact of aircraft emissions upon the atmosphere is very complex and difficult problem. More than two decades of intensive investigations of the problem of ozone decay do not permit to make definite conclusions. Many important problems still remain unsolved in the aircraft/atmosphere interaction: engine, nozzle, jet, jet/vortex system interaction, vortex breakdown, contrail formation, meso-scale and global processes, their effects on climate. The particles formation and heterogeneous reactions play an important role in some of these processes. These problems are discussed. (author) 11 refs.

  18. Spatial and optical parameters of contrails in the vortex and dispersion regime determined by means of a ground-based scanning lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenthaler, V; Homburg, F; Jaeger, H [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The spatial growth of individual condensation trails (contrails) of commercial aircrafts in the time range from 15 s to 60 min behind the aircraft is investigated by means of a ground-based scanning backscatter lidar. The growth in width is mainly governed by wind shear and varies between 18 m/min and 140 m/min. The growth of the cross-section varies between 3500 m{sup 2}/min and 25000 m{sup 2}/min. These values are in agreement with results of model calculations and former field measurements. The vertical growth is often limited by boundaries of the humid layer at flight level, but values up to 18 m/min were observed. Optical parameters like depolarization, optical depth and lidar ratio, i.e. the extinction-to-backscatter ratio, have been retrieved from the measurements at a wavelength of 532 nm. The linear depolarization rises from values as low as 0.06 for a young contrail (10 s old) to values around 0.5, typical for aged contrails. The latter indicates the transition from non-crystalline to crystalline particles in persistent contrails within a few minutes. The scatter of depolarization values measured in individual contrails is narrow, independent of the contrails age, and suggests a rather uniform growth of the particles inside a contrail. (author) 18 refs.

  19. Spatial and optical parameters of contrails in the vortex and dispersion regime determined by means of a ground-based scanning lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenthaler, V.; Homburg, F.; Jaeger, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The spatial growth of individual condensation trails (contrails) of commercial aircrafts in the time range from 15 s to 60 min behind the aircraft is investigated by means of a ground-based scanning backscatter lidar. The growth in width is mainly governed by wind shear and varies between 18 m/min and 140 m/min. The growth of the cross-section varies between 3500 m{sup 2}/min and 25000 m{sup 2}/min. These values are in agreement with results of model calculations and former field measurements. The vertical growth is often limited by boundaries of the humid layer at flight level, but values up to 18 m/min were observed. Optical parameters like depolarization, optical depth and lidar ratio, i.e. the extinction-to-backscatter ratio, have been retrieved from the measurements at a wavelength of 532 nm. The linear depolarization rises from values as low as 0.06 for a young contrail (10 s old) to values around 0.5, typical for aged contrails. The latter indicates the transition from non-crystalline to crystalline particles in persistent contrails within a few minutes. The scatter of depolarization values measured in individual contrails is narrow, independent of the contrails age, and suggests a rather uniform growth of the particles inside a contrail. (author) 18 refs.

  20. PISA 2012 Analysis of School Variables Affecting Problem-Solving Competency: Turkey-Serbia Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine YAVUZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the OECD's PISA 2012 Turkey problem-solving report, Turkey and Serbia are at the same mathematical literacy level. However, Serbia's average of problem-solving competency is said to be higher than Turkey's. In this study, school variables that affect problem-solving competency of the two countries were examined and compared. The method of the study was causal comparison method, and HLM analysis was performed on data of 4494 students from 147 schools in Turkey sample and 4059 students from 132 schools in Serbia sample separately. As a result of HLM analysis, "obstacle and family donation" variable for Serbia and "abandon, teacher morale and mathematics competition" variable for Turkey were statistically significant. Although it was found that for each countries different variables influence the problem-solving competency, it was quite remarkable that these variables are in common in that they are components of the school climate concept.

  1. Analysis on Variables Affecting the Creation of Tourist Destination Image: Case Study on Domestic Tourists Visiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the variables that affect the image creation of tourism destinations. This research is a case study on domestic tourists visiting Yogyakarta from 2007 to 2009. This research uses an exploratory and descriptive design, conducted once in one period (cross-sectional. A number of 105 domestic tourists were selected as samples by means of non-probability sampling method and snowball sampling technique. The data were analyzed using reliability and validity tests, frequency distributions, and regression analyses. Results showed that overall image was significantly constructed and affected by cognitive and affective evaluations. Cognitive evaluation was significantly affected by the types of information source from books and movies, while affective evaluation was affected significantly by social-psychological motivations. The research also proves that Yogyakarta has fulfilled the requirements to become a tourist destination; respondents showed positive feelings towards the town and also perceived the town positively.

  2. Elementary Students' Affective Variables in a Networked Learning Environment Supported by a Blog: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Stéphane; Thériault, Pascale; Gagnon, Vincent; Lalancette, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    This study documents to what extent writing on a blog in a networked learning environment could influence the affective variables of elementary-school students' writing. The framework is grounded more specifically in theory of self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985), relationship to writing (Chartrand & Prince, 2009) and the transactional…

  3. Seasonal variability in irradiance affects herbicide toxicity to the marine flagellate Dunaliella tertiolecta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, S.B.; Vavourakis, C.D.; van der Geest, H.G.; Vethaak, A.D.; Admiraal, W.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) and Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) of the solar spectrum affect microalgae directly and modify the toxicity of phytotoxic compounds present in water. As a consequence seasonal variable PAR and UVR levels are likely to modulate the toxic pressure of contaminants

  4. Effects of Situational Variables on Affective Self-Disclosure with Acquaintances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highlen, Pamela S.; Johnston, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Studied 72 college students to determine effects of subject sex and situational factors on affective self-disclosure with acquaintances. Feeling, role, and sex of subject were contextual variables influencing expression of feelings. Responding with positive feelings is the optimal situational context for expression of feelings to acquaintances.…

  5. Attitudinal Variables Affecting Education Reforms and Quality of Primary Education in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, Aida; Nkata, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes the extent to which attitudinal variables affect the education reforms and subsequently the quality of primary education in Uganda. The paper is based on the views of a wide spectrum of different education stakeholders including: policy analysts, Members of Parliament (MPs), education officers, Headteachers, teaching staff,…

  6. Literacy in the Southern Sudan: A Case Study of Variables Affecting Literacy Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J. Ronayne

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Local Languages Literacy Project in the Southern Sudan; delineates the most important educational, socioeconomic, and linguistic variables affecting the success of large-scale literacy programs in Africa; and questions the widely held assumption that indigenous language literacy is essential to subsequent literacy in the prestige…

  7. A simple framework for assessing the trade-off between the climate impact of aviation carbon dioxide emissions and contrails for a single flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Irvine, E; J Hoskins, B; P Shine, K

    2014-01-01

    Persistent contrails are an important climate impact of aviation which could potentially be reduced by re-routing aircraft to avoid contrailing; however this generally increases both the flight length and its corresponding CO 2 emissions. Here, we provide a simple framework to assess the trade-off between the climate impact of CO 2 emissions and contrails for a single flight, in terms of the absolute global warming potential and absolute global temperature potential metrics for time horizons of 20, 50 and 100 years. We use the framework to illustrate the maximum extra distance (with no altitude changes) that can be added to a flight and still reduce its overall climate impact. Small aircraft can fly up to four times further to avoid contrailing than large aircraft. The results have a strong dependence on the applied metric and time horizon. Applying a conservative estimate of the uncertainty in the contrail radiative forcing and climate efficacy leads to a factor of 20 difference in the maximum extra distance that could be flown to avoid a contrail. The impact of re-routing on other climatically-important aviation emissions could also be considered in this framework. (letters)

  8. A Quantitative Approach to Variables Affecting Production of Short Films in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Akman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the influence of various variables affecting the production of migration themed short films in Turkey. We proceeded to our analysis using descriptive statistics to describe the main futures of the sample data quantitatively. Due to non-uniformity of the data available, we were unable to use inductive statistics. Our basic sample statistical results indicated that short film producers prefered to produce short films on domestic migration theme rather than international. Gender and university seemed on surface as significant determinants to the production of migration themed short films in Turkey. We also looked at the demografic variables to provide more insights into our quantitative approach.

  9. Daily variability in working memory is coupled with negative affect: the role of attention and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Annette; Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-06-01

    Across days, individuals experience varying levels of negative affect, control of attention, and motivation. We investigated whether this intraindividual variability was coupled with daily fluctuations in working memory (WM) performance. In 100 days, 101 younger individuals worked on a spatial N-back task and rated negative affect, control of attention, and motivation. Results showed that individuals differed in how reliably WM performance fluctuated across days, and that subjective experiences were primarily linked to performance accuracy. WM performance was lower on days with higher levels of negative affect, reduced control of attention, and reduced task-related motivation. Thus, variables that were found to predict WM in between-subjects designs showed important relationships to WM at the within-person level. In addition, there was shared predictive variance among predictors of WM. Days with increased negative affect and reduced performance were also days with reduced control of attention and reduced motivation to work on tasks. These findings are in line with proposed mechanisms linking negative affect and cognitive performance.

  10. Brand Loyalty Factors Affecting the Hotel Elections of Tourists investigation with Respect to the Demographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tayfun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting hotel guests’s brand loyalty and these factors is to determine whether there is a difference or not according to the demographic variables. Within this purpose, a survey research was conducted on the guests staying in the five star hotels of Ankara, Turkey. The research was carried out in two stages, namely the pilot study and the main study. As a result of study, while the factors affecting brand loyalty differs based on the gender and the age of the participants (p0,05

  11. Weather variability affects the Peregrine Falcon (F. p. tundrius) breeding success in South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlzon, Linnéa; Karlsson, Amanda; Falk, Knud

    Global warming is affecting the Arctic at a much higher rate than the rest of the globe, causing a rapidly changing environment for Arctic biota. Climate change is already causing increased variability and extremes in precipitation. Although the peregrine falcon is a well-studied top predator...... in the Arctic only a few studies have identified how the changing weather patterns affect the breeding populations. Therefore, in order to understand the effects of climate change on the peregrine’s future prospects, we investigated the relationship between weather variability (“extreme weather”) and breeding......’ and total days with ‘extreme weather’ during the pre-laying and incubation period also had significant negative correlation with breeding success. Contrary to expectations (and other studies), we found no significant effect of precipitation during the nesting period. Results also indicate that other factors...

  12. Endogenous Pain Modulation: Association with Resting Heart Rate Variability and Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Houte, Maaike; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Bogaerts, Katleen; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2017-07-21

    Several chronic pain syndromes are characterized by deficient endogenous pain modulation as well as elevated negative affectivity and reduced resting heart rate variability. In order to elucidate the relationships between these characteristics, we investigated whether negative affectivity and heart rate variability are associated with endogenous pain modulation in a healthy population. An offset analgesia paradigm with noxious thermal stimulation calibrated to the individual's pain threshold was used to measure endogenous pain modulation magnitude in 63 healthy individuals. Pain ratings during constant noxious heat stimulation to the arm (15 seconds) were compared with ratings during noxious stimulation comprising a 1 °C rise and return of temperature to the initial level (offset trials, 15 seconds). Offset analgesia was defined as the reduction in pain following the 1 °C decrease relative to pain at the same time point during continuous heat stimulation. Evidence for an offset analgesia effect could only be found when noxious stimulation intensity (and, hence, the individual's pain threshold) was intermediate (46 °C or 47 °C). Offset analgesia magnitude was also moderated by resting heart rate variability: a small but significant offset effect was found in participants with high but not low heart rate variability. Negative affectivity was not related to offset analgesia magnitude. These results indicate that resting heart rate variability (HRV) is related to endogenous pain modulation (EPM) in a healthy population. Future research should focus on clarifying the causal relationship between HRV and EPM and chronic pain by using longitudinal study designs. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Do Affective Variables Make a Difference in Consumers Behavior Toward Mobile Advertising?

    OpenAIRE

    Mart?nez-Ruiz, Mar?a Pilar; Izquierdo-Yusta, Alicia; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Reinares-Lara, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Research into permission-based mobile marketing is increasingly common due to the widespread adoption of mobile technology and its use as a communication channel. Yet few studies have attempted to analyze the factors that determine attitudes toward mobile advertising while simultaneously considering: the links among them and consumers' intentions, behavior, and/or cognitive and affective variables simultaneously. The present research therefore sought to deepen understanding of the antecedents...

  14. Depressed mood, positive affect, and heart rate variability in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mimi R; Whitehead, Daisy L; Rakhit, Roby; Steptoe, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    To test associations between heart rate variability (HRV), depressed mood, and positive affect in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Depression is associated with impaired HRV post acute cardiac events, but evidence in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is inconsistent. Seventy-six patients (52 men, 24 women; mean age = 61.1 years) being investigated for suspected CAD on the basis of symptomatology and positive noninvasive tests, completed 24-hour electrocardiograms. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered, and positive and depressed affect was measured over the study period with the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). A total of 46 (60.5%) patients were later found to have definite CAD. HRV was analyzed, using spectral analysis. Typical diurnal profiles of HRV were observed, with greater normalized high frequency (HF) and lower normalized low frequency (LF) power in the night compared with the day. BDI depression scores were not consistently associated with HRV. But positive affect was associated with greater normalized HF power (p = .039) and reduced normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of age, gender, medication with beta blockers, CAD status, body mass index, smoking, and habitual physical activity level. In patients with definite CAD, depressed affect assessed using the DRM was associated with reduced normalized HF power and heightened normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of covariates. Relationships between depression and HRV in patients with CAD may depend on affective experience over the monitoring period. Enhanced parasympathetic cardiac control may be a process through which positive affect protects against cardiovascular disease.

  15. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  16. Testing of variables which affect stablity of cement solidified low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the test program undertaken to investigate variables which could affect the stability of cement solidified low-level waste and to evaluate the effect of these variables on certain tests prescribed in the Technical Position on Waste Form. The majority of the testing was performed on solidified undepleted bead resin, however, six additional waste types, suggested by the NRC, were tested. The tested variables included waste loading, immersion duration, depletion level, ambient cure duration, curing environment, immersion medium and waste type. Of these, lower waste loadings, longer ambient cures prior to testing and immersion in demineralized water versus simulated sea water and potable water resulted in higher compressive strengths for bead resin samples. Immersion times longer than 90 days did not affect the resin samples. Compressive strengths for other waste types varied depending upon the waste. The strengths of all waste types exceeded the minimum criterion by at least a factor of four, up to a factor of forty. The higher waste loadings exhibit strengths less than the lower waste loadings

  17. Sensitivity analysis on uncertainty variables affecting the NPP's LUEC with probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuryanti; Akhmad Hidayatno; Erlinda Muslim

    2013-01-01

    One thing that is quite crucial to be reviewed prior to any investment decision on the nuclear power plant (NPP) project is the calculation of project economic, including calculation of Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC). Infrastructure projects such as NPP’s project are vulnerable to a number of uncertainty variables. Information on the uncertainty variables which makes LUEC’s value quite sensitive due to the changes of them is necessary in order the cost overrun can be avoided. Therefore this study aimed to do the sensitivity analysis on variables that affect LUEC with probabilistic approaches. This analysis was done by using Monte Carlo technique that simulate the relationship between the uncertainty variables and visible impact on LUEC. The sensitivity analysis result shows the significant changes on LUEC value of AP1000 and OPR due to the sensitivity of investment cost and capacity factors. While LUEC changes due to sensitivity of U 3 O 8 ’s price looks not quite significant. (author)

  18. Comparison of environmental forcings affecting suspended sediments variability in two macrotidal, highly-turbid estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalón-Rojas, Isabel; Schmidt, Sabine; Sottolichio, Aldo

    2017-11-01

    The relative contribution of environmental forcing frequencies on turbidity variability is, for the first time, quantified at seasonal and multiannual time scales in tidal estuarine systems. With a decade of high-frequency, multi-site turbidity monitoring, the two nearby, macrotidal and highly-turbid Gironde and Loire estuaries (west France) are excellent natural laboratories for this purpose. Singular Spectrum Analyses, combined with Lomb-Scargle periodograms and Wavelet Transforms, were applied to the continuous multiannual turbidity time series. Frequencies of the main environmental factors affecting turbidity were identified: hydrological regime (high versus low river discharges), river flow variability, tidal range, tidal cycles, and turbulence. Their relative influences show similar patterns in both estuaries and depend on the estuarine region (lower or upper estuary) and the time scale (multiannual or seasonal). On the multiannual time scale, the relative contribution of tidal frequencies (tidal cycles and range) to turbidity variability decreases up-estuary from 68% to 47%, while the influence of river flow frequencies increases from 3% to 42%. On the seasonal time scale, the relative influence of forcings frequencies remains almost constant in the lower estuary, dominated by tidal frequencies (60% and 30% for tidal cycles and tidal range, respectively); in the upper reaches, it is variable depending on hydrological regime, even if tidal frequencies are responsible for up 50% of turbidity variance. These quantifications show the potential of combined spectral analyses to compare the behavior of suspended sediment in tidal estuaries throughout the world and to evaluate long-term changes in environmental forcings, especially in a context of global change. The relevance of this approach to compare nearby and overseas systems and to support management strategies is discussed (e.g., selection of effective operation frequencies/regions, prediction of the most

  19. Variables affecting resolution of lung phospholipids in one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J

    1987-01-01

    Resolution of the confusion in the literature about the separation of lung phospholipids in thin-layer chromatographic systems has awaited a systematic study of the variables that potentially affect this separation. In this study I show that: incorporation of ammonium sulfate into silica gel "GHL" has a dramatic effect on separation of lung phospholipids; this effect is equally dramatic but different in activated and nonactivated gels; when it picks up moisture, ammonium sulfate-activated gel very rapidly loses its ability to resolve lecithin from phosphatidylinositol; in gel containing ammonium sulfate, small amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine are hydrolyzed to lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine.

  20. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Ben CH; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors’ knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as pr...

  1. Aquatic pathway variables affecting the estimation of dose commitment from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lush, D.L.; Snodgrass, W.J.; McKee, P.

    1982-01-01

    As one of a series of studies being carried out for the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada, the environmental variables affecting population dose commitment and critical group dose rates from aquatic pathways were investigated. A model was developed to follow uranium and natural thorium decay series radionuclides through aquatic pathways leading both to long-term sediment sinks and to man. Pathways leading to man result in both a population dose commitment and a critical group dose rate. The key variables affecting population dose commitment are suspended particulate concentrations in the receiving aquatic systems, the settling velocities of these particulates and the solid-aqueous phase distribution coefficient associated with each radionuclide. Of secondary importance to population dose commitment are the rate at which radionuclides enter the receiving waters and the value of the water to food transfer coefficients that are used in the model. For the critical group dose rate, the rate at which the radionuclides leave the tailings, the water to food transfer coefficients, the rate of water and fish consumption and the dose conversion factors for 210 Pb and 210 Po are of secondary importance (author)

  2. Determination of social variables affected the health belief model in adopting preventive behaviors of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH BaghianiMoghadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is one of the most common musculoskeletal problem and a metabolic bone disorder that normally is without sign and is shown with fragile bone in the absence of prevention and treatment. This study was aimed to determine social variables affected the health belief model in adopting preventive behaviors of osteoporosis. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 278 women referring to 6 health Centers of Yazd city with random sampling. Data collection was using a self-reported questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software including Kruskall Wallis, Dunn Tests, Mann Whitney, Spearman correlation coefficient and regression. Results: Among the osteoporosis preventive behaviors, the most frequency was related to non smoking actions or exposure to cigarette and the lowest frequency was related to regular physical activity during every weeks. According to spearman's correlation coefficient, it was occurred a direct significant correlation between knowledge, perceived benefits, practical guide, self efficacy and preventive behaviors of women. In addition, a reverse significant correlation was occurred between perceived barrier and women's behavior (P<0.001. Overall, variables of the model predicted 0.36 of preventive behavior's variables and finally self-efficacy was the strongest prediction of behavior (P=0.000. Conclusion: according to the results, the presentation of suitable educational program with emphasize on promotion of knowledge and upgrade of HBM's level in addition increasing barriers in the context of diseases such as osteoporosis by staff of health centers is suggested.

  3. High-intensity pulsed electric field variables affecting Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino-López, A; Raybaudi-Massilia, R; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important milk-related pathogen that is inactivated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF). In this study, inactivation of Staph. aureus suspended in milk by HIPEF was studied using a response surface methodology, in which electric field intensity, pulse number, pulse width, pulse polarity, and the fat content of milk were the controlled variables. It was found that the fat content of milk did not significantly affect the microbial inactivation of Staph. aureus. A maximum value of 4.5 log reductions was obtained by applying 150 bipolar pulses of 8 mus each at 35 kV/cm. Bipolar pulses were more effective than those applied in the monopolar mode. An increase in electric field intensity, pulse number, or pulse width resulted in a drop in the survival fraction of Staph. aureus. Pulse widths close to 6.7 micros lead to greater microbial death with a minimum number of applied pulses. At a constant treatment time, a greater number of shorter pulses achieved better inactivation than those treatments performed at a lower number of longer pulses. The combined action of pulse number and electric field intensity followed a similar pattern, indicating that the same fraction of microbial death can be reached with different combinations of the variables. The behavior and relationship among the electrical variables suggest that the energy input of HIPEF processing might be optimized without decreasing the microbial death.

  4. Affective variables, parental involvement and competence among South Korean high school learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Morris

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between various affective variables and two measures of competence in English, for 190 South Korean high school students. A 55-item questionnaire was used to measure attitudes (Attitudes toward English Speakers and their Communities and Attitudes toward the English-speaking Culture, motivation (Motivational Intensity, Desire to Learn and Attitudes toward the Learning of English, amotivation, parental involvement (Active Parental Encouragement, Passive Parental Encouragement and Parental Pressure, parental disinterest and students’ competence in L2 (English- EXAM and English-SELF. Pearson product-moment coefficients indicate that active and passive forms of parental encouragement correlate with motivationto learn, as conceptualized by Gardner (1985, 2010, as well as with parental pressure, which suggests that South Korean students report undergoing forms of pressure when their parents actively or passively encourage them. Furthermore, the obtained correlations of the active and passive forms of encouragement with different variables suggest that the two forms represent two distinct concepts. While parental disinterest correlated negatively with motivational variables, parental pressure correlated only with motivational intensity, and only weakly. Therefore, parental pressure seems not to interact significantly with participants’ attitudes, motivation and competence. Multiple linear regression analyses confirm the importance of motivation to learn for students' L2 competence.

  5. Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2013-10-01

    Pork meat is generally recognised as a food with relevant nutritional properties because of its content in high biological value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals especially heme iron, trace elements and other bioactive compounds. But pork meat also contributes to the intake of fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and other substances that, in inappropriate amounts, may result in negative physiologically effects. However, there are relevant factors affecting the content of many of these substances and somehow such variability should be taken into consideration. So, genetics, age and even type of muscle have a relevant influence on the amount of fat and the contents in heme iron. Also the composition in fatty acids of triacylglycerols is very sensitive to the contents of cereals in the feed; for instance, polyunsaturated fatty acids may range from 10% to 22% in pork meat. The content of other nutrients, like vitamins E and A, are also depending on the type of feed. Some bioactive substances like coenzyme Q10, taurine, glutamine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine and anserine show a large dependence on the type of muscle. This manuscript describes the main factors affecting the composition of pork meat nutrients and how these changes may affect the general food composition databases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  7. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R; Ramakrishnan, V; Siebers, J V; Chung, T D; Keall, P J

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) identify significant characteristics affecting residual motion, (2) investigate time trends of residual motion over a period of days (inter-session) and (3) investigate time trends of residual motion within the same day (intra-session). Twenty-four lung cancer patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. For approximately five sessions, 331 four-minute, respiratory motion traces were acquired with free breathing, audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback for each patient. The residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the displacement within the gating window. The generalized linear model was used to obtain coefficients for each variable within the model and to evaluate the clinical and statistical significance. The statistical significance was determined by a p-value <0.05, while effect sizes of ≥0.1 cm (one standard deviation) were considered clinically significant. This data analysis was applied to patient, tumour and treatment variables. Inter- and intra-session variations were also investigated. The only variable that was significant for both inhale- and exhale-based gating was disease type. In addition, visual-training displacement, breathing type and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) values were significant for inhale-based gating, and dose-per-fraction was significant for exhale-based gating. Temporal respiratory variations within and between sessions were observed for individual patients. However inter- and intra-session analyses did

  8. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Ramakrishnan, V [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Siebers, J V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Chung, T D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Keall, P J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2006-10-21

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) identify significant characteristics affecting residual motion, (2) investigate time trends of residual motion over a period of days (inter-session) and (3) investigate time trends of residual motion within the same day (intra-session). Twenty-four lung cancer patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. For approximately five sessions, 331 four-minute, respiratory motion traces were acquired with free breathing, audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback for each patient. The residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the displacement within the gating window. The generalized linear model was used to obtain coefficients for each variable within the model and to evaluate the clinical and statistical significance. The statistical significance was determined by a p-value <0.05, while effect sizes of {>=}0.1 cm (one standard deviation) were considered clinically significant. This data analysis was applied to patient, tumour and treatment variables. Inter- and intra-session variations were also investigated. The only variable that was significant for both inhale- and exhale-based gating was disease type. In addition, visual-training displacement, breathing type and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) values were significant for inhale-based gating, and dose-per-fraction was significant for exhale-based gating. Temporal respiratory variations within and between sessions were observed for individual patients. However inter- and intra-session analyses did

  9. Variables Affecting a Level of Practice and Quality of Educational Quality Assurance in Basic Education Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkapong Prongprommarat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to study the Level of Practice and Quality of Educational Quality Assurance in Basic Education Schools of the Office of the Basic Education Commission. The sample consisted of 60 secondnary schools in Office of the basic Education Commission in the provinces of Chaiyaphum, Nakhon Ratchasima, Burirum, Surin and Khon Kaen were drawn by using proportionally with the number of teachers in each school. The data were collected by using (1 the questionnaire on the acting of educational quality assurance in basic education schools. (2 the record form the external assessment of the office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment, (3 the questionnaire on the director leadership, (2 test of the directors and teachers attitudes towards educational quality assurance, (5 test of the directors and teachers inquirying motive, (6 test of the directors and teachers working responsibility, and (7 the questionnaire on the directors and teachers cooperative. The statistical methods used to analysis the data were mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and path analysis. The findings revealed that: 1. The level of acting of educational quality assurance in basic education schools was at a high level. There was just a fairly difference in acting of educational quality assurance in basic education schools. 2. The level of external quality assessment in basic education schools was at a good level. There was just a little difference in external quality assessment in basic education schools. 3. The variables affecting level of acting of educational quality assurance in basic education schools were the level of the school directors attitudes towards educational quality assurance (β = 0.10, the level of the school directors working responsibility (β = 0.13, the level of the teacher attitudes towards educational quality assurance (β = 0.23 and the level of the teachers inquirying motive (β = 0.49 These four

  10. In-situ observations of interstitial aerosol particles and cloud residues found in contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    In spring 1994 a series of flights were conducted in cirrus clouds and contrails over southern Germany. One of the aims of this campaign was to study the phase partitioning of aerosols and water in these clouds. To achieve this separation of particles two complementary sampling probes were mounted on the research aircraft Falcon. These are the Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) or super-micrometer inlet, and the interstitial inlet or submicrometer inlet. The CVI is a device that inertially separates cloud elements larger than a certain aerodynamic size from the surrounding atmosphere into a warm, dry and particle free air. Assuming that each cloud element leaves behind only one residue particle, these measurements yield an equivalent number concentration for cloud particles having an aerodynamic diameter larger than the lower cut size of the CVI. The size distribution of the sampled aerosol and residual particles between 0.1 to 3.5 {mu}m diameter was measured by a PMS PCASP (Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer) working alternatively on both inlets. The gas-phase water vapor content was measured by a cryogenic frost point mirror. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  11. In-situ observations of interstitial aerosol particles and cloud residues found in contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1998-12-31

    In spring 1994 a series of flights were conducted in cirrus clouds and contrails over southern Germany. One of the aims of this campaign was to study the phase partitioning of aerosols and water in these clouds. To achieve this separation of particles two complementary sampling probes were mounted on the research aircraft Falcon. These are the Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) or super-micrometer inlet, and the interstitial inlet or submicrometer inlet. The CVI is a device that inertially separates cloud elements larger than a certain aerodynamic size from the surrounding atmosphere into a warm, dry and particle free air. Assuming that each cloud element leaves behind only one residue particle, these measurements yield an equivalent number concentration for cloud particles having an aerodynamic diameter larger than the lower cut size of the CVI. The size distribution of the sampled aerosol and residual particles between 0.1 to 3.5 {mu}m diameter was measured by a PMS PCASP (Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer) working alternatively on both inlets. The gas-phase water vapor content was measured by a cryogenic frost point mirror. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  12. Summer Drivers of Atmospheric Variability Affecting Ice Shelf Thinning in the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Pranab; Orr, Andrew; Bromwich, David H.; Nicolas, Julien P.; Turner, John; Hosking, J. Scott

    2018-05-01

    Satellite data and a 35-year hindcast of the Amundsen Sea Embayment summer climate using the Weather Research and Forecasting model are used to understand how regional and large-scale atmospheric variability affects thinning of ice shelves in this sector of West Antarctica by melting from above and below (linked to intrusions of warm water caused by anomalous westerlies over the continental shelf edge). El Niño episodes are associated with an increase in surface melt but do not have a statistically significant impact on westerly winds over the continental shelf edge. The location of the Amundsen Sea Low and the polarity of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) have negligible impact on surface melting, although a positive SAM and eastward shift of the Amundsen Sea Low cause anomalous westerlies over the continental shelf edge. The projected future increase in El Niño episodes and positive SAM could therefore increase the risk of disintegration of West Antarctic ice shelves.

  13. Monitoring variables affecting positron emission tomography measurements of cerebral blood flow in anaesthetized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Simonsen, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Background Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetized pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the distribution of several radiotracers. However, the effect of physiological factors regulating...... and the monitoring parameters. Results No significant statistical correlations were found between CBF and the nine monitoring variables. However, we found that arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and body temperature were important predictors of CBF that should be observed and kept constant. In addition, we...... found that long-duration anaesthesia was significantly correlated with high heart rate, low arterial oxygen tension, and high body temperature, but not with CBF. Conclusions The findings indicate that PaCO2 and body temperature are crucial for maintaining stable levels of CBF and thus optimizing PET...

  14. Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L Emilio; Griffith, Garry; Wright, Victor; Fleming, Euan; Umberger, Wendy; Hoang, Nam

    2013-06-01

    Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers' uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Amino acid composition of soybean seeds as affected by climatic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Soledad Carrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to perform a quantitative analysis of the amino acid composition of soybean seeds as affected by climatic variables during seed filling. Amino acids were determined from seed samples taken at harvest in 31 multi-environment field trials carried out in Argentina. Total amino acids ranged from 31.69 to 49.14%, and total essential and nonessential amino acids varied from 12.83 to 19.02% and from 18.86 to 31.15%, respectively. Variance components expressed as the percentage of total variation showed that the environment was the most important source of variation for all traits, followed by the genotype x environment interaction. Significant explanatory linear regressions were detected for amino acid content regarding: average daily mean air temperature and cumulative solar radiation, during seed filling; precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration, during the whole reproductive period; and the combinations of these climatic variables. Each amino acid behaves differently according to environmental conditions, indicating compensatory effects among them.

  16. Lesch-Nyhan variant syndrome: variable presentation in 3 affected family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Grosse-Redlinger, Krista; Boys, Christopher J; Charnas, Laurence; Otten, Noelle; Broock, Robyn; Nyhan, William L

    2010-06-01

    Lesch-Nyhan disease is an inborn error of purine metabolism that results from deficiency of the activity of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). The heterogeneity of clinical phenotypes seen in HPRT deficiency corresponds to an inverse relationship between HPRT enzyme activity and clinical severity. With rare exception, each mutation produces a stereotypical pattern of clinical disease; onset of neurologic symptoms occurs during infancy and is thought to be nonprogressive. To document a family in which a single HPRT gene mutation has led to 3 different clinical and enzymatic phenotypes. Case report. Settings A university-based outpatient metabolic clinic and a biochemical genetics laboratory. Patients Three males (2 infants and their grandfather) from the same family with Lesch-Nyhan variant, including one of the oldest patients with Lesch-Nyhan variant at diagnosis (65 years). Clinical and biochemical observations. Sequencing of 5 family members revealed a novel mutation c.550G>T in exon 7 of the HPRT gene. The considerably variable clinical phenotype corresponded with the variable enzymatic activity in the 3 males, with the grandfather being the most severely affected. The different phenotypes encountered in the enzymatic analysis of cultured fibroblasts from a single mutation in the same family is unprecedented. The significant decrease in the grandfather's HPRT enzymatic activity compared with that of his grandchildren could be a function of the Hayflick Limit Theory of cell senescence.

  17. Do Affective Variables Make a Difference in Consumers Behavior Toward Mobile Advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruiz, María Pilar; Izquierdo-Yusta, Alicia; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Reinares-Lara, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Research into permission-based mobile marketing is increasingly common due to the widespread adoption of mobile technology and its use as a communication channel. Yet few studies have attempted to analyze the factors that determine attitudes toward mobile advertising while simultaneously considering: the links among them and consumers' intentions, behavior, and/or cognitive and affective variables simultaneously. The present research therefore sought to deepen understanding of the antecedents and consequences of attitudes toward permission-based mobile advertising. More specifically, it sought to identify the antecedents of attitudes toward mobile advertising and the bridges between these attitudes and consumers' intentions upon receiving advertising on their mobile devices. To this end, a causal model was proposed and tested with a sample of 612 mobile phone users that was collected from a panel of Spanish adults who receive advertising on their mobile phones in the form of SMS text messages. The structural model used was validated using the partial least squares (PLS) regression technique. The results show that the greatest influence was that exerted by positive emotions on feelings, suggesting that positive emotions have an indirect effect on attitude toward mobile advertising. This influence was even greater than their direct effect. Another important, though less powerful, effect was the influence of attitude on behavioral intentions to receive mobile advertising. In contrast, the influence of cognitive variables on attitude was less relevant.

  18. Comprehensive assessment of variables affecting metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qteishat, Rola Reyad; Ghananim, Abdel Rahman Al

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify variables affecting metabolic control among diabetic patients treated at diabetes and endocrine clinic in Jordan. A total of 200 patients were studied by using a cross sectional study design. Data were collected from patients' medical records, glycemic control tests and prestructured questionnaires about variables that were potentially important based on previous researches and clinical judgment: Adherence evaluation, Patients' knowledge about drug therapy and non-pharmacological therapy, Anxiety and depression, Beliefs about diabetes treatment (benefits and barriers of treatment), Knowledge about treatment goals, Knowledge about diabetes, Self efficacy, and Social support. The mean (±SD) age was 53.5 (±10.38) years and mean HbA1c was 8.4 (±1.95). In the multivariate analysis, education level, and self efficacy found to have significantly independent association with metabolic control (Pknowledge and high self efficacy was significant in patients with good metabolic control. Emphasizing the importance of continuous educational programs and improving the self efficacy as well, could warrant achieving good metabolic control. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Statistical evaluation of variables affecting occurrence of hydrocarbons in aquifers used for public supply, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Burton, Carmen A.; Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2014-01-01

    The variables affecting the occurrence of hydrocarbons in aquifers used for public supply in California were assessed based on statistical evaluation of three large statewide datasets; gasoline oxygenates also were analyzed for comparison with hydrocarbons. Benzene is the most frequently detected (1.7%) compound among 17 hydrocarbons analyzed at generally low concentrations (median detected concentration 0.024 μg/l) in groundwater used for public supply in California; methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most frequently detected (5.8%) compound among seven oxygenates analyzed (median detected concentration 0.1 μg/l). At aquifer depths used for public supply, hydrocarbons and MTBE rarely co-occur and are generally related to different variables; in shallower groundwater, co-occurrence is more frequent and there are similar relations to the density or proximity of potential sources. Benzene concentrations are most strongly correlated with reducing conditions, regardless of groundwater age and depth. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that benzene and other hydrocarbons detected in old, deep, and/or brackish groundwater result from geogenic sources of oil and gas. However, in recently recharged (since ~1950), generally shallower groundwater, higher concentrations and detection frequencies of benzene and hydrocarbons were associated with a greater proportion of commercial land use surrounding the well, likely reflecting effects of anthropogenic sources, particularly in combination with reducing conditions.

  20. Seasonal variability in irradiance affects herbicide toxicity to the marine flagellate Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eSjollema

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR and Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR of the solar spectrum affect microalgae directly and modify the toxicity of phytotoxic compounds present in water. As a consequence seasonal variable PAR and UVR levels are likely to modulate the toxic pressure of contaminants in the field. Therefore the present study aimed to determine the toxicity of two model contaminants, the herbicides diuron and Irgarol®1051, under simulated irradiance conditions mimicking different seasons. Irradiance conditions of spring and autumn were simulated with a set of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs. Toxicity of both herbicides was measured individually and in a mixture by determining the inhibition of photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII of the marine flagellate Dunaliella teriolecta using Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM fluorometry. Toxicity of the single herbicides was higher under simulated spring irradiance than under autumn irradiance and this effect was also observed for mixtures of the herbicides. This irradiance dependent toxicity indicates that herbicide toxicity in the field is seasonally variable. Consequently toxicity tests under standard light conditions may overestimate or underestimate the toxic effect of phytotoxic compounds.

  1. Do Affective Variables Make a Difference in Consumers Behavior Toward Mobile Advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruiz, María Pilar; Izquierdo-Yusta, Alicia; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Reinares-Lara, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Research into permission-based mobile marketing is increasingly common due to the widespread adoption of mobile technology and its use as a communication channel. Yet few studies have attempted to analyze the factors that determine attitudes toward mobile advertising while simultaneously considering: the links among them and consumers' intentions, behavior, and/or cognitive and affective variables simultaneously. The present research therefore sought to deepen understanding of the antecedents and consequences of attitudes toward permission-based mobile advertising. More specifically, it sought to identify the antecedents of attitudes toward mobile advertising and the bridges between these attitudes and consumers' intentions upon receiving advertising on their mobile devices. To this end, a causal model was proposed and tested with a sample of 612 mobile phone users that was collected from a panel of Spanish adults who receive advertising on their mobile phones in the form of SMS text messages. The structural model used was validated using the partial least squares (PLS) regression technique. The results show that the greatest influence was that exerted by positive emotions on feelings, suggesting that positive emotions have an indirect effect on attitude toward mobile advertising. This influence was even greater than their direct effect. Another important, though less powerful, effect was the influence of attitude on behavioral intentions to receive mobile advertising. In contrast, the influence of cognitive variables on attitude was less relevant. PMID:28096797

  2. Influence diagram of physiological and environmental factors affecting heart rate variability: an extended literature overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fatisson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV corresponds to the adaptation of the heart to any stimulus. In fact, among the pathologies affecting HRV the most, there are the cardiovascular diseases and depressive disorders, which are associated with high medical cost in Western societies. Consequently, HRV is now widely used as an index of health.In order to better understand how this adaptation takes place, it is necessary to examine which factors directly influence HRV, whether they have a physiological or environmental origin. The primary objective of this research is therefore to conduct a literature review in order to get a comprehensive overview of the subject.The system of these factors affecting HRV can be divided into the following five categories: physiological and pathological factors, environmental factors, lifestyle factors, non-modifiable factors and effects. The direct interrelationships between these factors and HRV can be regrouped into an influence diagram. This diagram can therefore serve as a basis to improve daily clinical practice as well as help design even more precise research protocols.

  3. Measuring myokines with cardiovascular functions: pre-analytical variables affecting the analytical output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Sansoni, Veronica; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    In the last few years, a growing number of molecules have been associated to an endocrine function of the skeletal muscle. Circulating myokine levels, in turn, have been associated with several pathophysiological conditions including the cardiovascular ones. However, data from different studies are often not completely comparable or even discordant. This would be due, at least in part, to the whole set of situations related to the preparation of the patient prior to blood sampling, blood sampling procedure, processing and/or store. This entire process constitutes the pre-analytical phase. The importance of the pre-analytical phase is often not considered. However, in routine diagnostics, the 70% of the errors are in this phase. Moreover, errors during the pre-analytical phase are carried over in the analytical phase and affects the final output. In research, for example, when samples are collected over a long time and by different laboratories, a standardized procedure for sample collecting and the correct procedure for sample storage are acknowledged. In this review, we discuss the pre-analytical variables potentially affecting the measurement of myokines with cardiovascular functions.

  4. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  5. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Moriya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet. Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  6. Extrapolation of contrail investigations by LIDAR to larger scale measurements. Analysis and calibration of CCD camera and satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, R.; Homburg, F.; Freudenthaler, V.; Jaeger, H. [Frauenhofer Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The CCD image of a persistent contrail and the coincident LIDAR measurement are presented. To extrapolate the LIDAR derived optical thickness to the video field of view an anisotropy correction and calibration has to be performed. Observed bright halo components result from highly regular oriented hexagonal crystals with sizes of 200 {mu}m-2 mm. This explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation threshold of natural cirrus. Optical thickness from LIDAR shows significant discrepancies to the result from coincident NOAA-14 data. Errors result from anisotropy correction and parameterized relations between AVHRR channels and optical properties. (author) 28 refs.

  7. Variability in coronary artery anatomy affects consistency of cardiac damage after myocardial infarction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiqiu; Ceholski, Delaine K; Liang, Lifan; Fish, Kenneth; Hajjar, Roger J

    2017-08-01

    Low reliability and reproducibility in heart failure models are well established. The purpose of the present study is to explore factors that affect model consistency of myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. MI was induced by left coronary artery (LCA) ligation. The coronary artery was casted with resin and visualized with fluorescent imaging ex vivo. LCA characteristics and MI size were analyzed individually in each animal, and MI size was correlated with left ventricular (LV) function by echocardiography. Coronary anatomy varies widely in mice, posing challenges for surgical ligation and resulting in inconsistent MI size postligation. The length of coronary arterial trunk, level of bifurcation, number of branches, and territory supplied by these branches are unique in each animal. When the main LCA trunk is ligated, this results in a large MI, but when a single branch is ligated, MI size is variable due to differing levels of LCA ligation and area supplied by the branches. During the ligation procedure, nearly 40% of LCAs are not grossly visible to the surgeon. In these situations, the surgeon blindly sutures a wider and deeper area of tissue in an attempt to catch the LCA. Paradoxically, these situations have greater odds of resulting in smaller MIs. In conclusion, variation in MI size and LV function after LCA ligation in mice is difficult to avoid. Anatomic diversity of the LCA in mice leads to inconsistency in MI size and functional parameters, and this is independent of potential technical modifications made by the operator. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In the present study, we demonstrate that left coronary artery diversity in mice is one of the primary causes of variable myocardial infarction size and cardiac functional parameters in the left coronary artery ligation model. Recognition of anatomic diversity is essential to improve reliability and reproducibility in heart failure research. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Study of variables affecting critical value notification in a laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rachna; Chhillar, Neelam; Tripathi, Chandra B

    2015-01-01

    During post-analytical phase, critical value notification to responsible caregiver in a timely manner has potential to improve patient safety which requires cooperative efforts between laboratory personnel and caregivers. It is widely accepted by hospital accreditors that ineffective notification can lead to diagnostic errors that potentially harm patients and are preventable. The objective of the study was to assess the variables affecting critical value notification, their role in affecting it's quality and approaches to improve it. In the present study 1,187 critical values were analysed in the Clinical Chemistry Laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital for neuropsychiatric diseases. During 25 months of study period, we evaluated critical value notification with respect to clinical care area, caregiver to whom it was notified and timeliness of notification. During the study period (25 months), the laboratory obtained 1,279 critical values in clinical chemistry. The analytes most commonly notified were sodium and potassium (20.97 & 20.8 % of total critical results). Analysis of critical value notification versus area of care showed that critical value notification was high in ICU and emergency area followed by inpatients and 64.61 % critical values were notified between 30 and 120 min after receiving the samples. It was found that failure to notify the responsible caregiver in timely manner represent an important patient safety issue and may lead to diagnostic errors. The major area of concern are notification of critical value for outpatient samples, incompleteness of test requisition forms regarding illegible writing, lack of information of treating physician and location of test ordering and difficulty in contacting the responsible caregiver.

  9. Brief psycho-education affects circadian variability in nicotine craving during cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Woody, Sheila R

    2013-09-01

    Nicotine cravings are a key target of smoking cessation interventions. Cravings demonstrate circadian variation during abstinence, often peaking during the morning and evening hours. Although some research has also shown diurnal variation in the efficacy of nicotine replacement medications, little research has examined how brief psychosocial interventions affect temporal patterns of craving during abstinence. The present study examined the impact of two brief psycho-education interventions on circadian variations in cravings during a 24-h period. 176 adult smokers interested in quitting participated in two lab sessions. During the first session, participants received (a) mindfulness psycho-education that encouraged acceptance of cravings as a normal, tolerable part of quitting that people should not expect to perfectly control, (b) standard cessation psycho-education, or (c) no psycho-education. Half the sample initiated a cessation attempt the following day. Dependent variables were assessed using ecological momentary assessment (24-h of monitoring, immediately after first lab session) and questionnaires four days later. Partially consistent with hypotheses, both forms of psycho-education were associated with differential diurnal variation in cravings during cessation. Relative to those receiving no psycho-education, standard smoking cessation psycho-education decreased morning cravings. Psycho-education encouraging acceptance of cravings was associated with lower craving in both the morning and evening, albeit only among successfully abstinent smokers. Results demonstrate that brief non-pharmacological interventions can affect circadian craving patterns during smoking cessation. Further investigation of mechanisms of change and of the impact of psycho-education on cessation outcomes is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Teacher self-efficacy and its relationship with students’ affective and motivational variables in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, researchers have proposed that teacher self-efficacy influences student achievement and motivation. The main aim of this work is to identify possible teacher self-efficacy profiles and to determine possible differences in some affective-motivational variables of students. 95 teachers and 1924 students from five Spanish public Universities took part in this study. Using cluster analysis, three distinctive profiles of teachers were generated: high self-efficacy, medium self-efficacy, and low self-efficacy. ANOVA results suggest that teachers with intermediate self-efficacy perception have more learning-oriented students than teachers with high self-efficacy. Students of teachers who are overconfident of their teaching capacity seem to engage less in studying to learn, they are more indifferent to the subjects, and they value the contents of the subject less. These students could also be less confident about the results of their efforts, showing a low perception of self-efficacy, greater academic work avoidance, and more anxiety than students of teachers with a moderate perception of self-efficacy. The results are discussed in light of the hypothesis of overconfidence.

  11. A conceptual investigation of variables affecting the success and acceptance of SMS Marketing in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, A; Rabiee, A; Adhami, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper's aim was to develop a conceptual overview of SMS marketing and delineate factors of new communications technologies on business practice. This study, which was a descriptive survey, was built on primary and secondary data source including a literature review of SMS marketing and a Questionnaire were used as the primary means of collecting secondary data. The sample size of 300 patients was determined according to the Cochran formula. Moreover, data analysis was done in SPSS by using linear regression, chi-square, t-test and Binomial test. According to the research, sex, age, education, relevance, timeliness, reliability to sender, sense of control were variables affecting the SMS marketing acceptance. This paper was qualitative and provided a solid conceptual foundation for the future empirical research on e- marketing. The potential limitation was related to the broad user of computer and mobile. In this research, we considered SMS marketing, Mobile marketing, SMS advertising as the same subject. This research will be a useful resource with important insight into the factors that may encourage or determine consumer acceptance of this new form of direct marketing. This paper addressed an important timely issue, and added to the body of literature and knowledge focusing on e-marketing.

  12. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. It is useful to distinguish profiles on the basis of various activity patterns. In contrast to profiles characterized by avoidance, profiles characterized by high persistence and low avoidance were associated with adaptive results. Patients with this profile also showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Heart rate variability analysis in sheep affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konold Timm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The function of the autonomic nervous system can be assessed by determining heart rate variability (HRV, which is impaired in some brainstem diseases in humans. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs in sheep are diseases characterised by accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in the brainstem, including nuclei of the parasympathetic nervous system. This study was undertaken to assess whether analysis of HRV can be used as an aid in the diagnosis of TSEs in clinically affected, naturally or experimentally infected sheep. Findings When HRV indices were compared between 41 clinical TSE cases (18 sheep infected with scrapie and 23 sheep infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, 11 control sheep and six sheep reported as scrapie suspects or dosed with BSE brain homogenate, which were not confirmed as TSE cases by postmortem tests, no significant differences were found between the groups. Median heart rate was significantly different but only when sheep were grouped by gender: it was higher in female TSE cases than in control sheep and higher in female than castrated male ovine classical BSE cases. Conclusions HRV analysis was not useful as a diagnostic aid for TSEs of sheep.

  14. Feeling old today? Daily health, stressors, and affect explain day-to-day variability in subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Neupert, Shevaun D; Stephan, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age is an important correlate of health, well-being, and longevity. So far, little is known about short-term variability in subjective age and the circumstances under which individuals feel younger/older in daily life. This study examined whether (a) older adults' felt age fluctuates on a day-to-day basis, (b) daily changes in health, stressors, and affect explain fluctuations in felt age, and (c) the daily associations between felt age and health, stressors, or affect are time-ordered. Using an eight-day daily diary approach, N = 43 adults (60-96 years, M = 74.65, SD = 8.19) filled out daily questionnaires assessing subjective age, health, daily stressors, and affect. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Subjective age, health, daily stressors, affect. Intra-individual variability in felt age was not explained by time but by short-term variability in other variables. Specifically, on days when participants experienced more than average health problems, stress, or negative affect they felt older than on days with average health, stress, or negative affect. No time-ordered effects were found. Bad health, many stressors, and negative affective experiences constitute circumstances under which older adults feel older than they typically do. Thus, daily measures of subjective age could be markers of health and well-being.

  15. Do bells affect behaviour and heart rate variability in grazing dairy cows?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Johns

    Full Text Available In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control, with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell or with a functional bell (functional bell. The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare.

  16. Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  17. Reduced heart rate variability in pet dogs affected by anxiety-related behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, Dennis; Lawrence, Andrew J; Carter, Gabrielle; Fisher, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    We present here the first evidence of correlation between canine anxiety-related behavioural problems and heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is known to be related to a range of mental disorders in humans; however this has not been explored in dogs. Behavioural problems in dogs can result in suffering, property destruction and human injury. Dog behaviour problems were assessed by owner questionnaire and the extreme high and low scoring dogs were recruited into either affected (n=10) or unaffected (n=20) groups. HRV was assessed in dogs at their homes, while being held in lateral recumbency for 5min using manual restraint. Salivary cortisol samples were taken before and after HRV testing. Dogs were assessed as either being reactive to the procedure (barking, growling, struggling or shaking) or unreactive. There was no effect of reactivity or behaviour problems on salivary cortisol levels at baseline or in response to the treatment. There was a significant effect of reactivity on HR (F 1,26 =5.54; P=0.026), and no effect of behaviour problems (F 1,26 =1.07; P=0.311). There was no effect of reactivity on any of the HRV measures. The presence of behaviour problems had a significant effect on a range of measures of HRV, with unaffected dogs having higher standard deviation of RR intervals (F 1,26 =6.39; P=0.018), higher high frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =5.23; P=0.031) and higher low frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =9.25; P=0.005) power. There was no effect of behaviour problems on very low frequency spectrum power (F 1,26 =1.40; P=0.248). Together these results provide evidence for a fundamental physiological difference between dogs affected or unaffected with behaviour problems. This study provides evidence for further investigation into the role of HRV in the pathophysiology of canine anxiety-related behaviour problems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J

    2013-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  19. Heart rate variability affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic field in adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misek, Jakub; Belyaev, Igor; Jakusova, Viera; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Barabas, Jan; Jakus, Jan

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the possible effect of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The effect of RF EMF on ANS activity was studied by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) during ortho-clinostatic test (i.e., transition from lying to standing and back) in 46 healthy grammar school students. A 1788 MHz pulsed wave with intensity of 54 ± 1.6 V/m was applied intermittently for 18 min in each trial. Maximum specific absorption rate (SAR 10 ) value was determined to 0.405 W/kg. We also measured the respiration rate and estimated a subjective perception of EMF exposure. RF exposure decreased heart rate of subjects in a lying position, while no such change was seen in standing students. After exposure while lying, a rise in high frequency band of HRV and root Mean Square of the Successive Differences was observed, which indicated an increase in parasympathetic nerve activity. Tympanic temperature and skin temperature were measured showing no heating under RF exposure. No RF effect on respiration rate was observed. None of the tested subjects were able to distinguish real exposure from sham exposure when queried at the end of the trial. In conclusion, short-term RF EMF exposure of students in a lying position during the ortho-clinostatic test affected ANS with significant increase in parasympathetic nerve activity compared to sham exposed group. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:277-288, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  1. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ben Ch; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors' knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as predictors with any sample populations. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to test the predictive power of perceived stress, social support, bidirectional acculturation (i.e., Canadian acculturation and heritage acculturation), religious coping and cultural coping (i.e., collective, avoidance, and engagement coping) in explaining positive and negative affect in a multiethnic sample of 301 undergraduate students in Canada. Two hierarchal multiple regressions were conducted, one for each affect as the dependent variable, with the above described predictors. The results supported the hypotheses and showed the two overall models to be significant in predicting affect of both kinds. Specifically, a higher level of positive affect was predicted by a lower level of perceived stress, less use of religious coping, and more use of engagement coping in dealing with stress by the participants. Higher level of negative affect, however, was predicted by a higher level of perceived stress and more use of avoidance coping in responding to stress. The current findings highlight the value and relevance of empirically examining the stress-coping-adaptation experiences of diverse populations from an affective conceptual framework, particularly with the inclusion of positive affect. Implications and recommendations for advancing future research and theoretical works in this area are considered and presented.

  2. Capturing the Initiation and Spatial Variability of Runoff on Soils Affected by Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. A.; Wickert, A. D.; Moody, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Rainfall after wildfire often leads to intense runoff and erosion, since fire removes ground cover that impedes overland flow and water is unable to efficiently infiltrate into the fire-affected soils. In order to understand the relation between rainfall, infiltration, and runoff, we modified a camera to be triggered by a rain gage to take time-lapse photographs of the ground surface every 10 seconds until the rain stops. This camera allows us to observe directly the patterns of ground surface ponding, the initiation of overland flow, and erosion/deposition during single rainfall events. The camera was deployed on a hillslope (average slope = 23 degrees) that was severely burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire near Boulder, Colorado. The camera's field of view is approximately 3 m2. We integrate the photographs with rainfall and overland flow measurements to determine thresholds for the initiation of overland flow and erosion. We have recorded the spatial variability of wetted patches of ground and the connection of these patches together to initiate overland flow. To date we have recorded images for rain storms with 30-minute maximum intensities ranging from 5 mm/h (our threshold to trigger continuous photographs) to 32 mm/h. In the near future we will update the camera's control system to 1) include a clock to enable time-lapse photographs at a lower frequency in addition to the event-triggered images, and 2) to add a radio to allow the camera to be triggered remotely. Radio communication will provide a means of starting the camera in response to non-local events, allowing us to capture images or video of flash flood surge fronts and debris flows, and to synchronize the operations of multiple cameras in the field. Schematics and instructions to build this camera station, which can be used to take either photos or video, are open-source licensed and are available online at http://instaar.colorado.edu/~wickert/atvis. It is our hope that this tool can be used by

  3. Factors that affect the variability in heart rate during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Merete; Reinert, Rebekka; Rasmussen, Verner

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find out if drugs, position, and endoscopic manipulation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) influence the changes in the variability of heart rate. DESIGN: Single-blind randomised trial. SUBJECTS: 10 volunteers given butyscopolamine, glucagon, or saline...

  4. Regional coverage of contrails from satellite data and their radiative forcing; Regionale Kondensstreifen-Bedeckung aus Satellitendaten und ihr Einfluss auf den Strahlungshaushalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.

    2000-07-01

    An operational contrail detection algorithm is applied to day and night overpasses of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). From the classification results the daytime and nighttime coverage by linear shaped contrails over Western Europa is derived. The annual daytime average for the analyzed region of 0.75% shows a strong annual cycle with 1.0% coverage during winter and 0.4% during summer. The day/night ratio reaches the factor 3. Using the radiance contrasts in the 11 {mu}m channel for contrail and adjacent pixels an average visible optical depth for the observed contrails of 0.1 is derived. This leads to an annual mean top of atmosphere radiative forcing by contrails over Central Europe in the range of 0.03 W/m{sup 2} to 0.08 W/m{sup 2}, which is about one magnitude smaller than prior studies suggest. The highest annual mean contrail forcing exceeds 0.12 W/m{sup 2} over Northeastern France, Belgium, Great Britain and Hungary. (orig.) [German] Ein operationelles Kondensstreifen-Erkennungsverfahren wird auf Tag- und Nacht-Ueberfluege des Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) angewandt. Aus den Klassifizierungsergebnissen wird die mittaegliche und naechtliche Bedeckung durch linienhafte Kondensstreifen ueber Westeuropa abgeleitet. Das Jahresmittel der Bedeckung am Tag betraegt 0,75% und zeigt einen ausgepraegten Jahresgang mit 1% im Winter und 0,4% im Sommer, sowie einen starken Tag/Nacht-Unterschied mit einer Amplitude von 3. Mit Hilfe von Strahldichtekontrasten im 11 {mu}m Kanal zwischen Kondensstreifen und benachbarten Pixeln wird fuer die erkannten Kondensstreifen eine durchschnittliche optische Dicke im sichtbaren Spektralbereich von 0,1 abgeschaetzt. Daraus ergibt sich am Oberrand der Atmosphaere ein mittlerer auf Kondensstreifen zurueckzufuehrender Strahlungsantrieb zwischen 0,03 W/m{sup 2} und 0,08 W/m{sup 2}, was eine Groessenordnung unter den Ergebnissen bisheriger Studien liegt. Die hoechsten Jahresmittel mit mehr als 0,12 W

  5. Variables Affecting Secondary School Students' Willingness to Eat Genetically Modified Food Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Jasmien; Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Gheysen, Godelieve; Valcke, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A large-scale cross-sectional study (N = 4002) was set up to determine Flemish secondary school students' willingness to eat genetically modified food (WTE) and to link students' WTE to previously identified key variables from research on the acceptance of genetic modification (GM). These variables include subjective and objective knowledge about genetics and biotechnology, perceived risks and benefits of GM food crops, trust in information from different sources about GM, and food neophobia. Differences between WTE-related variables based on students' grade level, educational track, and gender were analyzed. The students displayed a rather indecisive position toward GM food and scored weakly on a genetics and biotechnology knowledge test. WTE correlated most strongly with perceived benefits and subjective and objective knowledge. The results have clear implications for education, as they reiterate the need to strengthen students' scientific knowledge base and to introduce a GM-related debate at a much earlier stage in their school career.

  6. Stability of Intercellular Exchange of Biochemical Substances Affected by Variability of Environmental Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Budinčević, Mirko; Balaž, Igor; Mihailović, Anja

    Communication between cells is realized by exchange of biochemical substances. Due to internal organization of living systems and variability of external parameters, the exchange is heavily influenced by perturbations of various parameters at almost all stages of the process. Since communication is one of essential processes for functioning of living systems it is of interest to investigate conditions for its stability. Using previously developed simplified model of bacterial communication in a form of coupled difference logistic equations we investigate stability of exchange of signaling molecules under variability of internal and external parameters.

  7. Effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual variables and performance of self-selected walking pace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Flávia Angélica Martins; Nunes, Renan Felipe Hartmann; Ferreira, Sandro Dos Santos; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklin; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual responses as well as the performance of self-selected walking pace. [Subjects] The study included 28 adult women between 29 and 51 years old. [Methods] The subjects were divided into three groups: no musical stimulation group (control), and 90 and 140 beats per minute musical tempo groups. Each subject underwent three experimental sessions: involved familiarization with the equipment, an incremental test to exhaustion, and a 30-min walk on a treadmill at a self-selected pace, respectively. During the self-selected walking session, physiological, perceptual, and affective variables were evaluated, and walking performance was evaluated at the end. [Results] There were no significant differences in physiological variables or affective response among groups. However, there were significant differences in perceptual response and walking performance among groups. [Conclusion] Fast music (140 beats per minute) promotes a higher rating of perceived exertion and greater performance in self-selected walking pace without significantly altering physiological variables or affective response.

  8. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  9. Tensile properties of cotton yarn as affected by different yarn singeing machine variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausief, M.Q.; Mahmood, N.; Iqbal, W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study endeavours to optimise the yam quality in respect of its tensile properties by choosing the best combination of the yam singeing machine variables for excellent manufacture results. This research study revealed that different values of winding speed, gas pressure and air pressure of yam singeing machine put significant effect upon the tensile properties of cotton yam after singeing. (author)

  10. Does ownership affect the variability of the production process? Evidence from international courier services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsieh, C.; Lazzarini, S.G.; Nickerson, J.A.; Laurini, M.

    2010-01-01

    A firm often must ensure that products or services it produces match customer expectations. We define variability as any deviation in a production process yielding products or services whose attributes differ from the firm's stated target specifications. Firms pursuing products marked by low

  11. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic variables affecting the diverse degrees of consanguineous marriages in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Colantonio, S E

    2004-02-01

    In a population the inbreeding coefficient alpha is determined by the relative incidence of the various degrees of consanguineous marriages--uncle-niece or aunt-nephew (C12), first cousin (C22), first cousin once removed (C23), second cousin (C33)--which may be related to temporal, geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Using published information from Spain corresponding to urban and rural areas, in this article we seek to establish how each specific relationship behaves with respect to geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors, to determine differential urban-rural patterns, and to study whether the diverse types of consanguineous matings relate homogeneously to these factors. For this purpose we performed multiple regressions in which the dependent variables were the different degrees of consanguinity previously selected and the independent variables were geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Our results indicate that the various types of consanguineous marriages in Spain are more conditioned by geographic, demographic, and economic variables than by the inbreeding level alpha (the coefficient of determination was between 0.22 and 0.72; the maximum for alpha was 0.35). A regional pattern exists in Spain and corresponds to close and to remote kinship, which may be mainly related to economic and family factors. Close relationships appear to be more associated with economic variables, whereas second-cousin marriages correspond largely to rural areas of the Spanish Central Plateau.

  12. How Do Self-Efficacy, Contextual Variables and Stressors Affect Teacher Burnout in an EFL Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Reza; Mirzaee, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This study was an attempt to investigate the relationships among stressors, contextual variables, self-efficacy and teacher burnout in Iran as an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) context. A battery of questionnaires was administered to 216 English language teachers of private language institutes. Using Amos version 20, structural equation…

  13. Variables affecting viral plaque formation in microculture plaque assays using homologous antibody in a liquid overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, A S; Stanton, G J; Green, J A; Baron, S

    1977-05-01

    A liquid antibody microculture plaque assay and the variables that govern its effectiveness are described. The assay is based on the principle that low concentrations of homologous antibody can inhibit secondary plaque formation without inhibiting formation of primary plaques. Thus, clear plaques that followed a linear dose response were produced. The assay was found to be more rapid, less cumbersome, and less expensive than assays using agar overlays and larger tissue culture plates. It was reproducible, quantitative, and had about the same sensitivity as the agar overlay technique in measuring infectious coxsackievirus type B-3. It was more sensitive in assaying adenovirus type 3 and Western equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, Semliki forest, Sendai, Sindbis, and Newcastle disease viruses than were liquid, carboxymethylcellulose, and methylcellulose microculture plaque assays. The variables influencing sensitivity and accuracy, as determined by using coxsackievirus type B-3, were: (i) the inoculum volume of virus; (ii) the incubation period of virus; and (iii) the incubation temperature.

  14. Changes in canopy structure and ant assemblages affect soil ecosystem variables as a foundation species declines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kendrick, Joseph A.; Ribbons, Relena Rose; Classen, Aimee Taylor

    2015-01-01

    in ant species composition would interact to alter soil ecosystem variables. In the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment (HF-HeRE), established in 2003, T. canadensis in large plots were killed in place or logged and removed to mimic adelgid infestation or salvage harvesting, respectively. In 2006...... (richness and abundance) of ants increases rapidly as T. canadensis is lost from the stands. Because ants live and forage at the litter-soil interface, we hypothesized that environmental changes caused by hemlock loss (e.g., increased light and warmth at the forest floor, increased soil pH) and shifts......, we built ant exclosure subplots within all of the canopy manipulation plots to examine direct and interactive effects of canopy change and ant assemblage composition on soil and litter variables. Throughout HF-HeRE, T. canadensis was colonized by the adelgid in 2009, and the infested trees are now...

  15. Evaluation of socio-demographic variables affecting the periodontal health of pregnant women in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagjit Singh Dhaliwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature is replete with reports that pregnant women have an increased level of periodontal disease as compared with non-pregnant women of the same age. There are many studies correlating the effect of periodontal disease on the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The development of periodontal diseases during pregnancy can be influenced by factors such as preexisting oral conditions, general health, and socio-cultural background. There is very little data studying the effect of socio-demographic factors on the periodontal health of pregnant women. This study evaluated the periodontal status of a sample of pregnant women of Chandigarh and adjoining areas. The study also investigated the relationship between these variables and a series of demographic and clinical variables. Materials and Methods: The participants were 190 pregnant women attending Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient department of Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. The participants were examined for their periodontal health and various socio-demographic variables were recorded on performas designed for the purpose of study. Statistical analysis was done. Results: The results revealed that the mean bleeding index scores and probing depth increased with statistical significance when the socio-economic status was lower ( P0.1. The plaque index was not significantly associated with the socio-economic status, profession, place of residence, and trimester of pregnancy ( P>0.1. Conclusion: In the population of pregnant women investigated under this study, the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics showed non-significant correlation except socio-economic status which showed statistically significant correlation with bleeding on probing and pocket depth. Further studies may be required in Indian population to determine the association of periodontal diseases in pregnant women with socio-demographic variables.

  16. Evaluation of variables which affect the hardness of nickel plate deposited from watts-type baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, G.S.; Wright, R.R.; Neff, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    In the course of the Cascade Improvement Program, many component equipment parts will be electroplated with nickel for corrosion protection. The maximum hardness which will be acceptable in the electroplated deposit is specified in Union Carbide's Job Specification JS-1396, Revision 3, entitled Electroplated Nickel Coatings on Steel Parts. The hardness specification is intended primarily as a control over both organic and inorganic impurities in the deposit. This report covers a study evaluating several of the numerous controllable variables which influence the hardness of the nickel plate deposited from a Watts-type bath. The variables tested were: 1) bath composition, 2) pH, 3) current density, 4) anode-cathode area ratio, and 5) bath temperature. Within the tested ranges of the variables studied, the pH and current density had the most influence on the plate hardness. The softest deposit was obtained with a bath pH of 1.5, a current density of 30 to 40 amperes/square foot, and with the anode-cathode area ratio in the range of 3:1 to 1:1

  17. Monitoring variables affecting positron emission tomography measurements of cerebral blood flow in anaesthetized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Simonsen, Mette

    Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetised pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the kinetics of several radiotracers. However, the impact of physiological factors regulating CBF...

  18. Meta-analysis of variables affecting mouse protection efficacy of whole organism Brucella vaccines and vaccine candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccine protection investigation includes three processes: vaccination, pathogen challenge, and vaccine protection efficacy assessment. Many variables can affect the results of vaccine protection. Brucella, a genus of facultative intracellular bacteria, is the etiologic agent of brucellosis in humans and multiple animal species. Extensive research has been conducted in developing effective live attenuated Brucella vaccines. We hypothesized that some variables play a more important role than others in determining vaccine protective efficacy. Using Brucella vaccines and vaccine candidates as study models, this hypothesis was tested by meta-analysis of Brucella vaccine studies reported in the literature. Results Nineteen variables related to vaccine-induced protection of mice against infection with virulent brucellae were selected based on modeling investigation of the vaccine protection processes. The variable "vaccine protection efficacy" was set as a dependent variable while the other eighteen were set as independent variables. Discrete or continuous values were collected from papers for each variable of each data set. In total, 401 experimental groups were manually annotated from 74 peer-reviewed publications containing mouse protection data for live attenuated Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates. Our ANOVA analysis indicated that nine variables contributed significantly (P-value Brucella vaccine protection efficacy: vaccine strain, vaccination host (mouse) strain, vaccination dose, vaccination route, challenge pathogen strain, challenge route, challenge-killing interval, colony forming units (CFUs) in mouse spleen, and CFU reduction compared to control group. The other 10 variables (e.g., mouse age, vaccination-challenge interval, and challenge dose) were not found to be statistically significant (P-value > 0.05). The protection level of RB51 was sacrificed when the values of several variables (e.g., vaccination route, vaccine viability, and

  19. How urban environment affects travel behavior? Integrated Choice and Latent Variable Model for Travel Schedules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Paix, Lissy; Bierlaire, Michel; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between urban environment and travel behaviour is not a new problem. Neighbourhood characteristics may affect mobility of dwellers in different ways, such as frequency of trips, mode used, structure of the tours, and so on. At the same time, qualitative issues related...... to the individual attitude towards specific behaviour have recently become important in transport modelling contributing to a better understanding of travel demand. Following this research line, in this paper we study the effect of neighbourhood characteristics in the choice of the type of tours performed, but we...... assume that neighbourhood characteristics can also affect the individual propensity to travel and hence the choice of the tours throughout the propensity to travel. Since the propensity to travel is not observed, we employ hybrid choice models to estimate jointly the discrete choice of tours...

  20. A Study on Variables that Affect Class Scores of Primary Education Students in Placement Test

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the variables that predict class scores which are obtained by adding 70 % of the Placement Test (PT) scores of the primary education sixth and seventh grade students who took it for the first time in the 2007-2008 academic year within the framework of the system of passing to secondary education reorganized by the MNE, 25 % of their end-of-the-year passing grades. The study is of general survey model. The study group consists of students who took the PT in the 200...

  1. Fabrication variables affecting the structure and properties of supported carbon molecular sieve membranes for hydrogen separation

    KAUST Repository

    Briceñ o, Kelly; Montané , Daniel; Garcia-Valls, Ricard; Iulianelli, Adolfo; Basile, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    A high molecular weight polyimide (Matrimid) was used as a precursor for fabricating supported carbon molecular sieve membranes without crack formation at 550-700°C pyrolysis temperature. A one-step polymer (polyimide) coating method as precursor of carbon layer was used without needing a prior modification of a TiO 2 macroporous support. The following fabrication variables were optimized and studied to determine their effect on the carbon structure: polymeric solution concentration, solvent extraction, heating rate and pyrolysis temperature. Two techniques (Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy) were used to determine these effects on final carbon structure. Likewise, the effect of the support was also reported as an additional and important variable in the design of supported carbon membranes. Atomic force microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry quantified the degree of influence. Pure gas permeation tests were performed using CH 4, CO, CO 2 and H 2. The presence of a molecular sieving mechanism was confirmed after defects were plugged with PDMS solution at 12wt%. Gas selectivities higher than Knudsen theoretical values were reached with membranes obtained over 650°C, showing as best values 4.46, 4.70 and 10.62 for H 2/N 2, H 2/CO and H 2/CH 4 ratio, respectively. Permeance values were over 9.82×10 -9mol/(m 2Pas)during pure hydrogen permeation tests. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Fabrication variables affecting the structure and properties of supported carbon molecular sieve membranes for hydrogen separation

    KAUST Repository

    Briceño, Kelly

    2012-10-01

    A high molecular weight polyimide (Matrimid) was used as a precursor for fabricating supported carbon molecular sieve membranes without crack formation at 550-700°C pyrolysis temperature. A one-step polymer (polyimide) coating method as precursor of carbon layer was used without needing a prior modification of a TiO 2 macroporous support. The following fabrication variables were optimized and studied to determine their effect on the carbon structure: polymeric solution concentration, solvent extraction, heating rate and pyrolysis temperature. Two techniques (Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy) were used to determine these effects on final carbon structure. Likewise, the effect of the support was also reported as an additional and important variable in the design of supported carbon membranes. Atomic force microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry quantified the degree of influence. Pure gas permeation tests were performed using CH 4, CO, CO 2 and H 2. The presence of a molecular sieving mechanism was confirmed after defects were plugged with PDMS solution at 12wt%. Gas selectivities higher than Knudsen theoretical values were reached with membranes obtained over 650°C, showing as best values 4.46, 4.70 and 10.62 for H 2/N 2, H 2/CO and H 2/CH 4 ratio, respectively. Permeance values were over 9.82×10 -9mol/(m 2Pas)during pure hydrogen permeation tests. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  3. INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL VARIABLES AFFECTING THE USE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUNÇ DEMİRBİLEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Management’s safety approach and commitment are related to occupational health and safety applications in workplaces. However, personal characteristics and attitudes on their health of employees are very influential factors on occupational health and safety applications. For examine of interaction between behaviors and the health and safety applications it is required that determine of employee’s perceptions. For this reason this paper’s purpose is to establish of safety needs, attitudes and behaviors of employees and their perceptions regarding management’s safety approach and applications. The study’s focal point is use of personal protective equipment as an indicator “safety behavior”. In empirical study, assumption variables regarding the use of personal protective equipment are safety effectively, safety need, management attitudes and protective equipment conditions. The fundamental hypothesis of this paper is use of personal protective equipment is related to individual and organizational variables. Implications of research findings are to indicate impelling the workers to safety behaviour or using the personal protective equipment by their feeling of the safety behaviour and availability of personal protective equipment.

  4. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  5. Factors affecting temporal variability of arsenic in groundwater used for drinking water supply in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D; Belaval, Marcel; Olson, Scott A; Burow, Karen R; Flanagan, Sarah M; Hinkle, Stephen R; Lindsey, Bruce D

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of arsenic in groundwater is a recognized environmental hazard with worldwide importance and much effort has been focused on surveying and predicting where arsenic occurs. Temporal variability is one aspect of this environmental hazard that has until recently received less attention than other aspects. For this study, we analyzed 1245 wells with two samples per well. We suggest that temporal variability, often reported as affecting very few wells, is perhaps a larger issue than it appears and has been overshadowed by datasets with large numbers of non-detect data. Although there was only a slight difference in arsenic concentration variability among samples from public and private wells (p=0.0452), the range of variability was larger for public than for private wells. Further, we relate the variability we see to geochemical factors-primarily variability in redox-but also variability in major-ion chemistry. We also show that in New England there is a weak but statistically significant indication that seasonality may have an effect on concentrations, whereby concentrations in the first two quarters of the year (January-June) are significantly lower than in the second two quarters (July-December) (pgroundwater levels. It is possible that this difference in arsenic concentrations is related to groundwater level changes, pumping stresses, evapotranspiration effects, or perhaps mixing of more oxidizing, lower pH recharge water in wetter months. Focusing on the understanding the geochemical conditions in aquifers where arsenic concentrations are concerns and causes of geochemical changes in the groundwater environment may lead to a better understanding of where and by how much arsenic will vary over time. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Host outdoor exposure variability affects the transmission and spread of Zika virus: Insights for epidemic control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ajelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus transmission dynamics in urban environments follow a complex spatiotemporal pattern that appears unpredictable and barely related to high mosquito density areas. In this context, human activity patterns likely have a major role in Zika transmission dynamics. This paper examines the effect of host variability in the amount of time spent outdoors on Zika epidemiology in an urban environment.First, we performed a survey on time spent outdoors by residents of Miami-Dade County, Florida. Second, we analyzed both the survey and previously published national data on outdoors time in the U.S. to provide estimates of the distribution of the time spent outdoors. Third, we performed a computational modeling evaluation of Zika transmission dynamics, based on the time spent outdoors by each person. Our analysis reveals a strong heterogeneity of the host population in terms of time spent outdoors-data are well captured by skewed gamma distributions. Our model-based evaluation shows that in a heterogeneous population, Zika would cause a lower number of infections than in a more homogenous host population (up to 4-fold differences, but, at the same time, the epidemic would spread much faster. We estimated that in highly heterogeneous host populations the timing of the implementation of vector control measures is the major factor for limiting the number of Zika infections.Our findings highlight the need of considering host variability in exposure time for managing mosquito-borne infections and call for the revision of the triggers for vector control strategies, which should integrate mosquito density data and human outdoor activity patterns in specific areas.

  7. Variables affecting the risk of pneumothorax and intrapulmonal hemorrhage in CT-guided transthoracic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.F.; Straub, R.; Moghaddam, S.R.; Maataoui, A.; Gurung, J.; Thalhammer, A.; Vogl, T.J.; Jacobi, V.; Wagner, T.O.F.; Ackermann, H.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of various variables on the rate of pneumothorax and intrapulmonal hemorrhage associated with computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic needle biopsy of the lung were evaluated retrospectivly. One hundred and thirty-three patients underwent CT guided biopsy of a pulmonary lesion. Two patients were biopsied twice. Variables analyzed were lesion size, lesion location, number of pleural needle passes, lesion margin, length of intrapulmonal biopsy path and puncture time. Eighteen-gauge (18G) cutting needles (Trucut, Somatex, Teltow, Germany) were used for biopsy. Pneumothorax occured in 23 of 135 biopsies (17%). Chest tube placement was required in three out of 23 cases of pneumothorax (2% of all biopsies). Pneumothorax rate was significantly higher when the lesions were located in the lung parenchyma compared with locations at the pleura or chest wall (P < 0.05), but all pneumothorax cases which required chest tube treatment occured in lesions located less than 2 cm from the pleura. Longer puncture time led to an increase in pneumothorax rate (P < 0.05). Thirty-seven (27%) out of 135 biopsies showed perifocal hemorrhage. Intrapulmonal biopsy paths longer than 4 cm showed significantly higher numbers of perifocal hemorrhage and pneumothorax (P < 0.05). Significantly more hemorrhage occured when the pleura was penetrated twice during the puncture (P < 0.05). Lesion size <4 cm is strongly correlated with higher occurence of perifocal hemorrhage (P < 0.05). Lesion margination showed no significant effect on complication rate. CT-guided biopsy of smaller lesions correlates with a higher bleeding rate. Puncture time should be minimized to reduce pneumothorax rate. Passing the pleura twice significantly increases the risk of hemorrhage. Intrapulmonal biopsy paths longer than 4 cm showed significantly higher numbers of perifocal hemorrhage as well as pneumothorax. (orig.)

  8. How do task characteristics affect learning and performance? The roles of variably mapped and dynamic tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Brooke N; Frank, David J

    2018-05-01

    For well over a century, scientists have investigated individual differences in performance. The majority of studies have focused on either differences in practice, or differences in cognitive resources. However, the predictive ability of either practice or cognitive resources varies considerably across tasks. We are the first to examine task characteristics' impact on learning and performance in a complex task while controlling for other task characteristics. In 2 experiments we test key theoretical task characteristic thought to moderate the relationship between practice, cognitive resources, and performance. We devised a task where each of several key task characteristics can be manipulated independently. Participants played 5 rounds of a game similar to the popular tower defense videogame Plants vs. Zombies where both cognitive load and game characteristics were manipulated. In Experiment 1, participants either played a consistently mapped version-the stimuli and the associated meaning of their properties were constant across the 5 rounds-or played a variably mapped version-the stimuli and the associated meaning of their properties changed every few minutes. In Experiment 2, participants either played a static version-that is, turn taking with no time pressure-or played a dynamic version-that is, the stimuli moved regardless of participants' response rates. In Experiment 1, participants' accuracy and efficiency were substantially hindered in the variably mapped conditions. In Experiment 2, learning and performance accuracy were hindered in the dynamic conditions, especially when under cognitive load. Our results suggest that task characteristics impact the relative importance of cognitive resources and practice on predicting learning and performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Radiation dose exposure in patients affected by lymphoma undergoing repeat CT examinations: how to manage the radiation dose variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolicchi, Fabio; Bastiani, Luca; Guido, Davide; Dore, Antonio; Aringhieri, Giacomo; Caramella, Davide

    2018-03-01

    To assess the variability of radiation dose exposure in patients affected by lymphoma undergoing repeat CT (computed tomography) examinations and to evaluate the influence of different scan parameters on the overall radiation dose. A series of 34 patients (12 men and 22 women with a median age of 34.4 years) with lymphoma, after the initial staging CT underwent repeat follow-up CT examinations. For each patient and each repeat examination, age, sex, use of AEC system (Automated Exposure Control, i.e. current modulation), scan length, kV value, number of acquired scans (i.e. number of phases), abdominal size diameter and dose length product (DLP) were recorded. The radiation dose of just one venous phase was singled out from the DLP of the entire examination. All scan data were retrieved by our PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) by means of a dose monitoring software. Among the variables we considered, no significant difference of radiation dose was observed among patients of different ages nor concerning tube voltage. On the contrary the dose delivered to the patients varied depending on sex, scan length and usage of AEC. No significant difference was observed depending on the behaviour of technologists, while radiologists' choices had indirectly an impact on the radiation dose due to the different number of scans requested by each of them. Our results demonstrate that patients affected by lymphoma who undergo repeat whole body CT scanning may receive unnecessary overexposure. We quantified and analyzed the most relevant variables in order to provide a useful tool to manage properly CT dose variability, estimating the amount of additional radiation dose for every single significant variable. Additional scans, incorrect scan length and incorrect usage of AEC system are the most relevant cause of patient radiation exposure.

  10. Clinical variables affecting survival in patients with decompensated diastolic versus systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, Oleg; Almoznino-Sarafian, Dorit; Shteinshnaider, Miriam; Alon, Irena; Tzur, Irma; Sokolsky, Ilya; Efrati, Shai; Babakin, Zoanna; Modai, David; Cohen, Natan

    2009-04-01

    The impact of various clinical variables on long-term survival of patients with acutely decompensated diastolic heart failure (DHF) compared to systolic heart failure (SHF) has not been sufficiently investigated. Clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic data were collected and analyzed for all-cause mortality in 473 furosemide-treated patients aged >or=60 years, hospitalized for acutely decompensated HF. Diastolic heart failure patients (n = 183) were more likely to be older, female, hypertensive, obese, with shorter preexisting HF duration, atrial fibrillation, lower New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, lower maintenance furosemide dosages, and to receive calcium antagonists. The SHF group (290 patients) demonstrated prevailing coronary artery disease, nitrate or digoxin treatment, and electrocardiographic conduction disturbances (P variables. This observation might carry practical implications.

  11. Factors affecting the inter-annual to centennial timescale variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abdul; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    The Modes of Ocean Variability (MOV) namely Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can have significant impacts on Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) on different timescales. The timescales at which these MOV interacts with ISMR and the factors which may perturb their relationship with ISMR need to be investigated. We employ De-trended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and De-trended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis (DPCCA) to study the timescales of interaction of ISMR with AMO, PDO, and ENSO using observational dataset (AD 1854-1999), and atmosphere-ocean-chemistry climate model simulations with SOCOL-MPIOM (AD 1600-1999). Further, this study uses De-trended Semi-Partial Cross-Correlation Analysis (DSPCCA) to address the relation between solar variability and the ISMR. We find statistically significant evidence of intrinsic correlations of ISMR with AMO, PDO, and ENSO on different timescales, consistent between model simulations and observations. However, the model fails to capture modulation in intrinsic relationship between ISRM and MOV due to external signals. Our analysis indicates that AMO is a potential source of non-stationary relationship between ISMR and ENSO. Furthermore, the pattern of correlation between ISMR and Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) is inconsistent between observations and model simulations. The observational dataset indicates statistically insignificant negative intrinsic correlation between ISMR and TSI on decadal-to-centennial timescales. This statistically insignificant negative intrinsic correlation is transformed to statistically significant positive extrinsic by AMO on 61-86-year timescale. We propose a new mechanism for Sun-monsoon connection which operates through AMO by changes in summer (June-September; JJAS) meridional gradient of tropospheric temperatures (ΔTTJJAS). There is a negative (positive) intrinsic correlation between ΔTTJJAS (AMO) and

  12. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence Attachment, Affect and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents. PMID:27468997

  13. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence: Attachment, Affect and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents.

  14. Study of variables that affect hydrogen solubility in α + β Zr-alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parodi, Santiago A. [Instituto Sabato, UNSAM–CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ponzoni, Lucio M.E.; De Las Heras, M. Evangelina [División Hidrógeno en Materiales, Gerencia Materiales, GAEN, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mieza, J. Ignacio [Instituto Sabato, UNSAM–CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); División Hidrógeno en Materiales, Gerencia Materiales, GAEN, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Domizzi, Gladys, E-mail: domizzi@cnea.gov.ar [Instituto Sabato, UNSAM–CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); División Hidrógeno en Materiales, Gerencia Materiales, GAEN, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-08-15

    Zr–2.5Nb and Excel pressure tubes, both containing α and β phases were submitted to different heat treatments. Then, hydrogen Terminal Solid Solubility for Dissolution (TSSD) and Precipitation (TSSP) curves were measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The solvus of Excel heat treated at 380 °C–24 h or 750 °C–0.5 h exceeds the solvus of Zr–2.5Nb in standard conditions of CANDU pressure tubes. Aging at 500 °C–168 h decreases the limit of solubility. The lowest solubility was obtained in Excel aged at 500°C–168 h. In DSC measurements the effect of maximum temperature and hold time at such temperature on solubility curves were studied. The TSSD decreases when thermal cycle causes decomposition of the β phase, and is recuperated when α → α + β transformation temperature is exceeded. The TSSP is affected not only by βZr phase decomposition but also by the relief of defects produced during hydride precipitation. - Highlights: • We heat treated Zr-2.5Nb and Excel to change α and β-phase fraction and composition. • We measured Hydrogen solvus after each heat treatment with different thermal cycles. • We found that dissolution and precipitation solvus depend on the β phase state. • Precipitation is also affected by the relief of memory effect during the thermal cycle. • Excel treated at 750 °C 0.5 h or 380 °C 24 h showed highest solubility.

  15. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamini Kashimshetty

    Full Text Available Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG, which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively, with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene

  16. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  17. Reprocessing WFC3/IR Exposures Affected by Time-Variable Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, G.

    2016-11-01

    The background seen in WFC3/IR observations frequently shows strong time-dependent behavior above the constant flux expected for zodiacal continuum light. This is often caused by an emission line of helium at 1.083 μm excited in the sun-illuminated upper atmosphere, when seen in the filters (F105W, F110W) and grisms (G102, G141) sensitive to the feature. The default behavior of the calwf3 pipeline assumes constant source-plus-background fluxes when it performs up-the-ramp fitting to identify cosmic rays and determine the average count rate within a MULTIACCUM IR exposure. calwf3 provides undesirable results in the presence of strongly variable backgrounds, primarily in the form of elevated and non-Gaussian noise in the FLT products. Here we describe methods to improve the noise properties of the reduced products. In the first, we simply turn off the calwf3 crcorr step, treating the IR detector as if it were a CCD, i.e., accumulating flux and reading it out at the end of the exposure. Next, we artificially flatten the ramps in the IMA products and then allow calwf3 to proceed as normal fitting the ramp and identifying CRs. Either of these procedures enable recovery of datasets otherwise corrupted beyond repair and have no discernible effects on photometry of sources in deep combined images.

  18. Material and operating variables affecting the physical quality of biomass briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.; Xin, M. [Shenyang Agricultural Univ., Shenyang (China). College of Engineering; Tumuluru, J.S.; Iroba, K.L.; Tabil, L.G.; Meda, V. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Although biomass is an environmentally sound substitute for fossil fuels, its low bulk density makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. This challenge can be addressed by densifying the biomass to a high density product like briquettes. Briquetting is influenced by several material properties such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. This paper reported on a study in which briquettes were produced with barley straw, canola straw, oat straw, and wheat straw. The chopped samples were densified using a laboratory hydraulic press briquetting machine at pressure levels of 7.5, 10, and 12.5 MPa and at temperatures of 90, 110 and 130 degrees C. Three moisture content levels and 3 levels of particle size were used. Ten briquettes were manufactured for each treatment combination. The dimensions of all the samples were measured after compression. The samples were then stored in sealed plastic bags in a controlled environment. Durability, dimensional stability, and moisture content tests were conducted after 2 weeks of storage. The study showed that moisture content plays a key role in briquetting.

  19. Locomotor Sensory Organization Test: How Sensory Conflict Affects the Temporal Structure of Sway Variability During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Mukherjee, Mukul; Siu, Ka-Chun; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    When maintaining postural stability temporally under increased sensory conflict, a more rigid response is used where the available degrees of freedom are essentially frozen. The current study investigated if such a strategy is also utilized during more dynamic situations of postural control as is the case with walking. This study attempted to answer this question by using the Locomotor Sensory Organization Test (LSOT). This apparatus incorporates SOT inspired perturbations of the visual and the somatosensory system. Ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT and the corresponding six conditions on the LSOT. The temporal structure of sway variability was evaluated from all conditions. The results showed that in the anterior posterior direction somatosensory input is crucial for postural control for both walking and standing; visual input also had an effect but was not as prominent as the somatosensory input. In the medial lateral direction and with respect to walking, visual input has a much larger effect than somatosensory input. This is possibly due to the added contributions by peripheral vision during walking; in standing such contributions may not be as significant for postural control. In sum, as sensory conflict increases more rigid and regular sway patterns are found during standing confirming the previous results presented in the literature, however the opposite was the case with walking where more exploratory and adaptive movement patterns are present.

  20. Quality of extra virgin olive oil affected by several packaging variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guil-Guerrero, J. L.; Urda-Romacho, J.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of the quality index of three extra-virgin olive oil varieties (EVOO), stored according to different packaging variables for one year. The selected quality parameters were: acidity index, peroxide value (PV), K270 coefficient, fatty acid (FA) profile, carotenoids and chlorophylls. This study was carried out by monthly analyzing several bottled EVOO varieties - Picual, Hojiblanca and Arbequina- obtained during the present harvesting season. In addition, other Picual EVOO stored in a mill deposit, as well as bottled Picual EVOO from the previous harvesting season were analyzed monthly. The oils were packaged in dark and transparent glass bottles. The results showed that the acidity and K270 parameters increased slightly in all cases, while PV value changes were significant in EVOOs stored in transparent glass bottles. FA profiles were slightly modified throughout the storage period, although oleic acid slightly increased at the end of the analytical period, especially in the EVOO stored in deposits. Regarding pigment, chlorophylls losses were more noticeable than those related to carotenoid. According to the present results, the best packaging conditions for EVOO were deposits, followed by dark glass bottles. In addition, this study demonstrated that EVOO collected from the previous harvesting season and stored under nitrogen atmosphere could be packaged in glass bottles without appreciable quality changes, as compared with EVOO packaged in the same bottles and obtained during the current harvesting season. (Author) 28 refs.

  1. The variable charge of andisols as affected by nanoparticles of rock phosphate and phosphate solubilizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, M.; Nurlaeny, N.; Devnita, R.; Fitriatin, B. N.; Sandrawati, A.; Supriatna, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Andisols has a great potential as agriculture land, however, it has a high phosphorus retention, variable charge characteristics and high value of zero net charge or pH0. The research is aimed to study the effects of nanoparticles of rock phosphate (NPRP) and biofertilizer (phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB) on soil pH, pHo (zero point of charge, ZPC) and organic-C in one subgroup of Andisols, namely Acrudoxic Durudands, Ciater Region West Java. The research was conducted from October 2016 to February 2017 in Soil Physics Laboratory and Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Fertility, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran. This experiment used a completely randomized factorial design, consisting of two factors and three replications. The first factor was nanoparticles of rock phosphate consist of 4 doses 0; 25; 50 and 75 g/1 kg soil and the second factor was biofertilizer dose consist of g/1 kg soil and without biofertilizer. Total treatment combinations were 8 with 3 replications, so there were 24 experimental plots. The results showed that in general NPRR and biofertilizer will decrease the value of soil pH throughout the incubation periods. There is an interaction between nanoparticles of rock phosphate and biofertilizer in decreasing pHo in the first month of incubation, but after 4-month incubation period, NPRP increased. Interaction between 75 g nanoparticles of rock phosphate with 1 g biofertilizer/1 kg soil in fourth months of incubation decreased soil organic-C to 3.35%.

  2. Persistent fatigue in young athletes: measuring the clinical course and identifying variables affecting clinical recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S; Osborne, M; O'Rourke, P

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to measure the clinical course (months) in young athletes with persistent fatigue and to identify any covariates affecting the duration of recovery. This was a prospective longitudinal study of 68 athletes; 87% were elite (42 males, 26 females), aged 20.5±3.74 years (SD), who presented with the symptom of persistent fatigue. The collective duration to full clinical recovery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier product-limit curves, and covariates associated with prolonging recovery were identified from Cox proportional hazard models. The median recovery was 5 months (range 1-60 months). The range of presenting symptom duration was 0.5-36 months. The covariates identified were an increased duration of presenting symptoms [hazard ratio (HR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.12; P=0.005] and the response of serum cortisol concentration to a standard exercise challenge (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.09-3.38; P=0.03). Delay in recovery was not associated with categories of fatigue that included medical, training-related diagnoses, or other causes. In conclusion, the fatigued athlete represents a significant clinical problem with a median recovery of 5 months, whose collective clinical course to recovery can be estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves and appears to be a continuum. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Variables affecting energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, Sari; Tuomaala, Mari; Ahtila, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Specific energy consumption (SEC) is an energy efficiency indicator widely used in industry for measuring the energy efficiency of different processes. In this paper, the development of energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions of steelmaking is studied by analysing the energy data from a case mill. First, the specific energy consumption figures were calculated using different system boundaries, such as the process level, mill level and mill site level. Then, an energy efficiency index was developed to evaluate the development of the energy efficiency at the mill site. The effects of different production conditions on specific energy consumption and specific CO 2 emissions were studied by PLS analysis. As theory expects, the production rate of crude steel and the utilisation of recycled steel were shown to affect the development of energy efficiency at the mill site. This study shows that clearly defined system boundaries help to clarify the role of on-site energy conversion and make a difference between the final energy consumption and primary energy consumption of an industrial plant with its own energy production.

  4. [Development and validation of a questionnaire about the main variables affecting the individual investor's behavior in the Stock Exchange].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Ezama, David; San Martín Castellanos, Rafael; Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Scandroglio, Bárbara

    2010-11-01

    Development and validation of a questionnaire about the main variables affecting the individual investor's behavior in the Stock Exchange. There is a considerable lack of information about the methodology usually used in most of the studies about individual investor's behavior. The studies reviewed do not show the method used in the selection of the items or the psychometric properties of the questionnaires. Because of the importance of investment in the Stock Exchange nowadays, it seems relevant to obtain a reliable instrument to understand individual investor's behavior in the Stock Exchange. Therefore, the goal of the present work is to validate a questionnaire about the main variables involved in individual investors' behavior in the Stock Exchange. Based on previous studies, we elaborated a questionnaire using the Delphi methodology with a group of experts. The internal consistency (Cronbach alpha=.934) and validity evidence of the questionnaire show that it may be an effective instrument and can be applied with some assurance.

  5. High Altitude Affects Nocturnal Non-linear Heart Rate Variability: PATCH-HA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Boos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: High altitude (HA exposure can lead to changes in resting heart rate variability (HRV, which may be linked to acute mountain sickness (AMS development. Compared with traditional HRV measures, non-linear HRV appears to offer incremental and prognostic data, yet its utility and relationship to AMS have been barely examined at HA. This study sought to examine this relationship at terrestrial HA.Methods: Sixteen healthy British military servicemen were studied at baseline (800 m, first night and over eight consecutive nights, at a sleeping altitude of up to 3600 m. A disposable cardiac patch monitor was used, to record the nocturnal cardiac inter-beat interval data, over 1 h (0200–0300 h, for offline HRV assessment. Non-linear HRV measures included Sample entropy (SampEn, the short (α1, 4–12 beats and long-term (α2, 13–64 beats detrend fluctuation analysis slope and the correlation dimension (D2. The maximal rating of perceived exertion (RPE, during daily exercise, was assessed using the Borg 6–20 RPE scale.Results: All subjects completed the HA exposure. The average age of included subjects was 31.4 ± 8.1 years. HA led to a significant fall in SpO2 and increase in heart rate, LLS and RPE. There were no significant changes in the ECG-derived respiratory rate or in any of the time domain measures of HRV during sleep. The only notable changes in frequency domain measures of HRV were an increase in LF and fall in HFnu power at the highest altitude. Conversely, SampEn, SD1/SD2 and D2 all fell, whereas α1 and α2 increased (p < 0.05. RPE inversely correlated with SD1/SD2 (r = -0.31; p = 0.002, SampEn (r = -0.22; p = 0.03, HFnu (r = -0.27; p = 0.007 and positively correlated with LF (r = 0.24; p = 0.02, LF/HF (r = 0.24; p = 0.02, α1 (r = 0.32; p = 0.002 and α2 (r = 0.21; p = 0.04. AMS occurred in 7/16 subjects (43.8% and was very mild in 85.7% of cases. HRV failed to predict AMS.Conclusion: Non-linear HRV is more sensitive to the

  6. Variable abattoir conditions affect Salmonella enterica prevalence and meat quality in swine and pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, H S; Gailey, J K; McKean, J D; Griffith, R W

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that abattoir holding pens pose significant Salmonella enterica risk to swine immediately preharvest. The goal of this study was to evaluate those factors related to holding that increased the prevalence of S. enterica in swine at slaughter. To accomplish this goal, we focused on holding time and flooring. Our objectives were to (1) compare Salmonella enterica prevalence among pigs held for short (15-45 min) versus long (up to 4 h) periods before slaughter; and (2) determine the impact of flooring (slatted vs. concrete) as it relates to the prevalence of S. enterica. The study consisted of seven repetitions at a large volume (11,000 head/day) Midwest abattoir. Each repetition consisted of one truck load of pigs (n = 170) sorted into one of three groups: (1) animals held for a short time (15-45 min) on solid floors (short-hold); (2) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on slatted floors; and (3) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on solid concrete floors. At slaughter, samples were collected from 30 pigs in each group. Cecal contents (20 mL), feces (20 g), and the ileocecal lymph node were cultured for S. enterica. Additionally, the effect of holding time on meat quality parameters (loin pH at 35 min and 6 h, color, drip loss) was evaluated for the first four replicates. The proportion of S. enterica-positive samples was highest (p Meat quality, as measured by multiple parameters, was adversely affected by lack of a rest period. The mean 24-h pH was significantly lower for the short-hold group compared to the other two groups. The mean Minolta L and the drip loss were significantly higher in the short-hold group. From this and other studies, it appears that elimination of the holding process is not feasible S. enterica control option, given current U.S. harvesting systems.

  7. Quality of extra virgin olive oil affected by several packaging variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of the quality index of three extra-virgin olive oil varieties (EVOO, stored according to different packaging variables for one year. The selected quality parameters were: acidity index, peroxide value (PV, K270 coefficient, fatty acid (FA profile, carotenoids and chlorophylls. This study was carried out by monthly analyzing several bottled EVOO varieties -Picual, Hojiblanca and Arbequina- obtained during the present harvesting season. In addition, other Picual EVOO stored in a mill deposit, as well as bottled Picual EVOO from the previous harvesting season were analyzed monthly. The oils were packaged in dark and transparent glass bottles. The results showed that the acidity and K270 parameters increased slightly in all cases, while PV value changes were significant in EVOOs stored in transparent glass bottles. FA profiles were slightly modified throughout the storage period, although oleic acid slightly increased at the end of the analytical period, especially in the EVOO stored in deposits. Regarding pigment, chlorophylls losses were more noticeable than those related to carotenoid. According to the present results, the best packaging conditions for EVOO were deposits, followed by dark glass bottles. In addition, this study demonstrated that EVOO collected from the previous harvesting season and stored under nitrogen atmosphere could be packaged in glass bottles without appreciable quality changes, as compared with EVOO packaged in the same bottles and obtained during the current harvesting season.

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la evolución de los índices de calidad de tres variedades de aceite de oliva virgen extra (EVOO, almacenado según diferentes condiciones durante un año. Los parámetros de calidad seleccionados fueron: índice de acidez, valor de peróxidos (PV, coeficiente K270, perfil de ácidos grasos (FAs, carotenoides y clorofila. El estudio fue realizado

  8. Analysis of variables affecting unemployment rate and detecting for cluster in West Java, Central Java, and East Java in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Putra A.; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Lestari, Dian

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is modeling the Unemployment Rate (UR) in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, with rate of disease, infant mortality rate, educational level, population size, proportion of married people, and GDRP as the explanatory variables. Spatial factors are also considered in the modeling since the closer the distance, the higher the correlation. This study uses the secondary data from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). The data will be analyzed using Moran I test, to obtain the information about spatial dependence, and using Spatial Autoregressive modeling to obtain the information, which variables are significant affecting UR and how great the influence of the spatial factors. The result is, variables proportion of married people, rate of disease, and population size are related significantly to UR. In all three regions, the Hotspot of unemployed will also be detected districts/cities using Spatial Scan Statistics Method. The results are 22 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed (Most likely cluster) in the study area; 2 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in West Java; 1 district/city as a regional groups with the highest unemployed in Central Java; 15 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in East Java.

  9. The economics of wind and solar variability. How the variability of wind and solar power affects their marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, Lion

    2014-11-14

    homogenous and heterogeneous along three dimensions - time, space, and lead-time. Electricity's heterogeneity is rooted in its physics, notably the fact it cannot be stored. (Only) because of heterogeneity, the economics of wind and solar power are affected by their variability. The impact of variability, expressed in terms of marginal value, can be quite significant: for example, at 30% wind market share, electricity from wind power is worth 30-50% less than electricity from a constant source, as this study estimates. This value drop stems mainly from the fact that the capital embodied in thermal plants is utilized less in power systems with high VRE shares. Any welfare analysis of VRE needs to take electricity's heterogeneity into account. The impact of variability on VRE cannot only be expressed in terms of marginal value, but also in terms of costs, or in terms of optimal deployment. The mentioned value drop corresponds to an increase of costs by 30-50%, or a reduction of the optimal share by two thirds. These findings lead to seven policy conclusions: 1. Wind power will play a significant role (compared to today). 2. Wind power will play a limited role (compared to some political ambitions). 3. There are many effective options to integrate wind power into power systems, including transmission investments, flexibilizing thermal generators, and advancing wind turbine design. Electricity storage, in contrast, plays a limited role (however, it can play a larger role for integrating solar). 4. For these integration measures to materialize, it is important to get both prices and policies right. Prices need to reflect marginal costs, entry barriers should be tiered down, and policy must not shield agents from incentives. 5. VRE capacity should be brought to the system at a moderate pace. 6. VRE do not go well together with nuclear power or carbon capture and storage - these technologies are too capital intensive. 7. Large-scale VRE deployment is not only an

  10. The economics of wind and solar variability. How the variability of wind and solar power affects their marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, Lion

    2014-01-01

    homogenous and heterogeneous along three dimensions - time, space, and lead-time. Electricity's heterogeneity is rooted in its physics, notably the fact it cannot be stored. (Only) because of heterogeneity, the economics of wind and solar power are affected by their variability. The impact of variability, expressed in terms of marginal value, can be quite significant: for example, at 30% wind market share, electricity from wind power is worth 30-50% less than electricity from a constant source, as this study estimates. This value drop stems mainly from the fact that the capital embodied in thermal plants is utilized less in power systems with high VRE shares. Any welfare analysis of VRE needs to take electricity's heterogeneity into account. The impact of variability on VRE cannot only be expressed in terms of marginal value, but also in terms of costs, or in terms of optimal deployment. The mentioned value drop corresponds to an increase of costs by 30-50%, or a reduction of the optimal share by two thirds. These findings lead to seven policy conclusions: 1. Wind power will play a significant role (compared to today). 2. Wind power will play a limited role (compared to some political ambitions). 3. There are many effective options to integrate wind power into power systems, including transmission investments, flexibilizing thermal generators, and advancing wind turbine design. Electricity storage, in contrast, plays a limited role (however, it can play a larger role for integrating solar). 4. For these integration measures to materialize, it is important to get both prices and policies right. Prices need to reflect marginal costs, entry barriers should be tiered down, and policy must not shield agents from incentives. 5. VRE capacity should be brought to the system at a moderate pace. 6. VRE do not go well together with nuclear power or carbon capture and storage - these technologies are too capital intensive. 7. Large-scale VRE deployment is not only an

  11. Landscape controls and vertical variability of soil organic carbon storage in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siewert, Matthias Benjamin; Hugelius, Gustaf; Heim, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    To project the future development of the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in permafrost environments, the spatial and vertical distribution of key soil properties and their landscape controls needs to be understood. This article reports findings from the Arctic Lena River Delta where we sampled 50...... in the permafrost. The major geomorphological units of a subregion of the Lena River Delta were mapped with a land form classification using a data-fusion approach of optical satellite imagery and digital elevation data to upscale SOC storage. Landscape mean SOC storage is estimated to 19.2 ± 2.0 kg C m− 2. Our...... results show that the geomorphological setting explains more soil variability than soil taxonomy classes or vegetation cover. The soils from the oldest, Pleistocene aged, unit of the delta store the highest amount of SOC per m2 followed by the Holocene river terrace. The Pleistocene terrace affected...

  12. Adult Chinese as a Second Language Learners' Willingness to Communicate in Chinese: Effects of Cultural, Affective, and Linguistic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meihua

    2017-06-01

    The present research explored the effects of cultural, affective, and linguistic variables on adult Chinese as a second language learners' willingness to communicate in Chinese. One hundred and sixty-two Chinese as a second language learners from a Chinese university answered the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scale, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, Use of Chinese Profile, as well as the Background Questionnaire. The major findings were as follows: (1) the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales were significantly negatively correlated with Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale but positively correlated with length of stay in China and (2) Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale was a powerful negative predictor for the overall willingness to communicate in Chinese and the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales, followed by length of stay in China, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, interaction attentiveness, and Chinese proficiency level. Apparently, students' willingness to communicate in Chinese is largely determined by their Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale level and length of stay in China, mediated by other variables such as Chinese proficiency level and intercultural communication sensitivity level.

  13. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team . Volume 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage (horizontal and vertical tail). This report contains the Appendices to Volume I.

  14. Temporal variability in Cu speciation, phytotoxicity, and soil microbial activity of Cu-polluted soils as affected by elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Long; Weng, Nanyan; Fujii, Manabu; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Global warming has obtained increasing attentions due to its multiple impacts on agro-ecosystem. However, limited efforts had been devoted to reveal the temporal variability of metal speciation and phytotoxicity of heavy metal-polluted soils affected by elevated temperature under the global warming scenario. In this study, effects of elevated temperature (15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C) on the physicochemical properties, microbial metabolic activities, and phytotoxicity of three Cu-polluted soils were investigated by a laboratory incubation study. Soil physicochemical properties were observed to be significantly altered by elevated temperature with the degree of temperature effect varying in soil types and incubation time. The Biolog and enzymatic tests demonstrated that soil microbial activities were mainly controlled and decreased with increasing incubation temperature. Moreover, plant assays confirmed that the phytotoxicity and Cu uptake by wheat roots were highly dependent on soil types but less affected by incubation temperature. Overall, the findings in this study have highlighted the importance of soil types to better understand the temperature-dependent alternation of soil properties, Cu speciation and bioavailability, as well as phytotoxicity of Cu-polluted soils under global warming scenario. The present study also suggests the necessary of investigating effects of soil types on the transport and accumulation of toxic elements in soil-crop systems under global warming scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social variables affecting mate preferences, copulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cafazzo

    Full Text Available Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves.

  16. XO-2b: A HOT JUPITER WITH A VARIABLE HOST STAR THAT POTENTIALLY AFFECTS ITS MEASURED TRANSIT DEPTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellem, Robert T.; Griffith, Caitlin A. [Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pearson, Kyle A.; Fitzpatrick, M. Ryleigh; Teske, Johanna K.; Biddle, Lauren I. [Department of Astronomy, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Turner, Jake D. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael H., E-mail: rzellem@lpl.arizona.edu, E-mail: griffith@lpl.arizona.edu [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., P.O. Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The transiting hot Jupiter XO-2b is an ideal target for multi-object photometry and spectroscopy as it has a relatively bright (V-mag = 11.25) K0V host star (XO-2N) and a large planet-to-star contrast ratio (R{sub p}/R{sub s} ≈ 0.015). It also has a nearby (31.″21) binary stellar companion (XO-2S) of nearly the same brightness (V-mag = 11.20) and spectral type (G9V), allowing for the characterization and removal of shared systematic errors (e.g., airmass brightness variations). We have therefore conducted a multiyear (2012–2015) study of XO-2b with the University of Arizona’s 61″ (1.55 m) Kuiper Telescope and Mont4k CCD in the Bessel U and Harris B photometric passbands to measure its Rayleigh scattering slope to place upper limits on the pressure-dependent radius at, e.g., 10 bar. Such measurements are needed to constrain its derived molecular abundances from primary transit observations. We have also been monitoring XO-2N since the 2013–2014 winter season with Tennessee State University’s Celestron-14 (0.36 m) automated imaging telescope to investigate stellar variability, which could affect XO-2b’s transit depth. Our observations indicate that XO-2N is variable, potentially due to cool star spots, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.0049 ± 0.0007 R-mag and a period of 29.89 ± 0.16 days for the 2013–2014 observing season and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.0035 ± 0.0007 R-mag and 27.34 ± 0.21 day period for the 2014–2015 observing season. Because of the likely influence of XO-2N’s variability on the derivation of XO-2b’s transit depth, we cannot bin multiple nights of data to decrease our uncertainties, preventing us from constraining its gas abundances. This study demonstrates that long-term monitoring programs of exoplanet host stars are crucial for understanding host star variability.

  17. XO-2b: A HOT JUPITER WITH A VARIABLE HOST STAR THAT POTENTIALLY AFFECTS ITS MEASURED TRANSIT DEPTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zellem, Robert T.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Pearson, Kyle A.; Fitzpatrick, M. Ryleigh; Teske, Johanna K.; Biddle, Lauren I.; Turner, Jake D.; Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    The transiting hot Jupiter XO-2b is an ideal target for multi-object photometry and spectroscopy as it has a relatively bright (V-mag = 11.25) K0V host star (XO-2N) and a large planet-to-star contrast ratio (R p /R s ≈ 0.015). It also has a nearby (31.″21) binary stellar companion (XO-2S) of nearly the same brightness (V-mag = 11.20) and spectral type (G9V), allowing for the characterization and removal of shared systematic errors (e.g., airmass brightness variations). We have therefore conducted a multiyear (2012–2015) study of XO-2b with the University of Arizona’s 61″ (1.55 m) Kuiper Telescope and Mont4k CCD in the Bessel U and Harris B photometric passbands to measure its Rayleigh scattering slope to place upper limits on the pressure-dependent radius at, e.g., 10 bar. Such measurements are needed to constrain its derived molecular abundances from primary transit observations. We have also been monitoring XO-2N since the 2013–2014 winter season with Tennessee State University’s Celestron-14 (0.36 m) automated imaging telescope to investigate stellar variability, which could affect XO-2b’s transit depth. Our observations indicate that XO-2N is variable, potentially due to cool star spots, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.0049 ± 0.0007 R-mag and a period of 29.89 ± 0.16 days for the 2013–2014 observing season and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.0035 ± 0.0007 R-mag and 27.34 ± 0.21 day period for the 2014–2015 observing season. Because of the likely influence of XO-2N’s variability on the derivation of XO-2b’s transit depth, we cannot bin multiple nights of data to decrease our uncertainties, preventing us from constraining its gas abundances. This study demonstrates that long-term monitoring programs of exoplanet host stars are crucial for understanding host star variability

  18. Hierarchy of treatment variables affecting outcome of 131I therapy in thyroid cancer patients with lung metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Oksana V; Sukach, Georgiy G; Korchinskaya, Oksana I; Trembach, Alexander M; Turicina, Viktoria L; Voit, Natalia U

    2005-06-01

    To assess the correlations between the first 131I activity value, time interval between the courses of radioiodine treatment and the overall number of courses required for total destruction of lung metastases in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with metastatic lesions in lungs. 27 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with metastases in lungs have been treated with radioiodine after surgical intervention. Activities administered amounted from 1600 to 7980 MBq. The number of radioiodine courses before total ablation of all metastatic lesions amounted from 1 to 10. Time interval between the 1st and the 2nd courses amounted from 3.5 to 11.5 months (6 months in average). The regression analysis of the data has been made. The exponential model fits the actual number of courses as a function of the first-second activity value and time interval between the courses. The first activity has a decisive influence on the number of courses required for total metastases ablation. The greater was the first activity value, the lesser was the overall number of courses. Increasing time interval between 1st and 2nd courses to 10 months seems to result in reducing the number of courses. Nevertheless even in the case of high activities the probability to undergone less then 3 courses is low. According to the proposed model in thyroid cancer patients with metastases in lungs the first activity should be not lesser than 6000 MBq, time interval between treatments--approximately 10 months. The results of our study suggest that individual factors such as histology, the number and the size of metastases in lymph nodes could not contribute more to the final outcome than the treatment variables, namely the first-second activity and time interval, nor could they affect the hierarchy of the effects revealed for the treatment variables.

  19. Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Linda S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the recent international vigilance regarding disease assessment, accurate measurement of body temperature has become increasingly important. Yet, trusted low-tech, portable mercury glass thermometers are no longer available. Thus, comparing accuracy of mercury-free thermometers with mercury devices is essential. Study purposes were 1 to examine age, race, site as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults, and 2 to compare clinical accuracy of low-tech Galinstan-in-glass device to mercury-in-glass at oral, axillary, groin, and rectal sites in adults. Methods Setting 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest US Participants Convenience sample (N = 120 of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old. Instruments Temperatures (°F measured at oral, skin (simultaneous, immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm thermometers; 10 minute dwell times. Results Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9, 188 pounds (SD 55.3; 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and ≅ 1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F: oral (0.142 – 0.265, axilla (0.167 – 0.339, groin (0.037 – 0.321, and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111. Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device. Conclusion Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered

  20. Kidney adysplasia and variable hydronephrosis, a new mutation affecting the odd-skipped related 1 gene in the mouse, causes variable defects in kidney development and hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davisson, Muriel T; Cook, Susan A; Akeson, Ellen C; Liu, Don; Heffner, Caleb; Gudis, Polyxeni; Fairfield, Heather; Murray, Stephen A

    2015-06-15

    Many genes, including odd-skipped related 1 (Osr1), are involved in regulation of mammalian kidney development. We describe here a new recessive mutation (kidney adysplasia and variable hydronephrosis, kavh) in the mouse that leads to downregulation of Osr1 transcript, causing several kidney defects: agenesis, hypoplasia, and hydronephrosis with variable age of onset. The mutation is closely associated with a reciprocal translocation, T(12;17)4Rk, whose Chromosome 12 breakpoint is upstream from Osr1. The kavh/kavh mutant provides a model to study kidney development and test therapies for hydronephrosis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Evaluation of factors that affect analytic variability of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio determination in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giori, Luca; Campagnola, Simona; Zatelli, Andrea; Zini, Eric; Paltrinieri, Saverio

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether preanalytic and analytic factors affect evaluation of the urinary protein-to-creatinine (UPC) ratio in dogs. 50 canine urine samples. The UPC ratio was measured to assess the intra-assay imprecision (20 measurements within a single session), the influence of predilution (1:10, 1:20, and 1:100) for urine creatinine concentration measurement, and the effect of storage at room temperature (approx 20°C), 4°C, and -20°C. The coefficient of variation at room temperature determined with the 1:20 predilution was samples with a low protein concentration or low urine specific gravity. This variability could result in misclassification of samples with UPC ratios close to the thresholds defined by the International Renal Interest Society to classify dogs as nonproteinuric (0.2), borderline proteinuric (0.21 to 0.50), or proteinuric (> 0.51). A proportional bias was found in samples prediluted 1:10, compared with samples prediluted 1:20 or 1:100. At room temperature, the UPC ratio did not significantly increase after 2 and 4 hours. After 12 hours at room temperature and at 4°C, the UPC ratio significantly increased. The UPC ratio did not significantly change during 3 months of storage at -20°C. The intra-assay precision of the UPC ratio was sufficiently low to avoid misclassification of samples, except for values close to 0.2 or 0.5. The optimal predilution ratio for urine creatinine concentration measurement was 1:20. A 1:100 predilution is recommended in samples with a urine specific gravity > 1.030. The UPC ratio must be measured as soon as samples are collected. Alternatively, samples should be immediately frozen to increase their stability and minimize the risk of misclassification of proteinuria.

  2. Perceived Teacher Affective Support in Relation to Emotional and Motivational Variables in Elementary School Science Classrooms in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiz, Gonul

    2017-01-01

    Background: In recent research, affective learning environments and affective support have been receiving increasing attention for their roles in stimulating students' learning outcomes. Despite its raising importance, little is known about affective support in educational contexts in developing countries. Moreover, international student…

  3. Negative Affectivity, Depression, and Resting Heart Rate Variability (HRV as Possible Moderators of Endogenous Pain Modulation in Functional Somatic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Van Den Houte

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have shown that patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS have, on average, deficient endogenous pain modulation (EPM, as well as elevated levels of negative affectivity (NA and high comorbidity with depression and reduced resting heart rate variability (HRV compared to healthy controls (HC. The goals of this study were (1 to replicate these findings and (2 to investigate the moderating role of NA, depression, and resting HRV in EPM efficiency within a patient group with fibromyalgia and/or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Resting HRV was quantified as the root mean square of successive differences between inter-beat intervals (RMSSD in rest, a vagally mediated time domain measure of HRV.Methods: Seventy-eight patients with fibromyalgia and/or CFS and 33 HC completed a counter-irritation paradigm as a measure of EPM efficiency. Participants rated the painfulness of electrocutaneous stimuli (of individually calibrated intensity on the ankle before (baseline phase, during (counter-irritation phase and after (recovery phase the application of a cold pain stimulus on the forearm. A larger reduction in pain in the counter-irritation phase compared to the baseline phase reflects a more efficient EPM.Results: In contrast to our expectations, there was no difference between pain ratings in the baseline compared to counter-irritation phase for both patients and HC. Therefore, reliable conclusions on the moderating effect of NA, depression, and RMSSD could not be made. Surprisingly, patients reported more pain in the recovery compared to the counter-irritation and baseline phase, while HC did not. This latter effect was more pronounced in patients with comorbid depression, patients who rated the painfulness of the counter-irritation stimulus as high and patients who rated the painfulness of the electrocutaneous stimuli as low. We did not manage to successfully replicate the counter-irritation effect in HC or FSS patients

  4. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ ma...

  5. Perceived teacher affective support in relation to emotional and motivational variables in elementary school science classrooms in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiz, Gonul

    2017-01-01

    Background: In recent research, affective learning environments and affective support have been receiving increasing attention for their roles in stimulating students' learning outcomes. Despite its raising importance, little is known about affective support in educational contexts in developing countries. Moreover, international student assessment programmes (e.g. PISA and TIMSS) reveal poor science proficiency of students in most of those countries, which provokes the question of how to make positive changes in students' perspectives and attitudes in science.

  6. How the variance of some extraction variables may affect the quality of espresso coffees served in coffee shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severini, Carla; Derossi, Antonio; Fiore, Anna G; De Pilli, Teresa; Alessandrino, Ofelia; Del Mastro, Arcangela

    2016-07-01

    To improve the quality of espresso coffee, the variables under the control of the barista, such as grinding grade, coffee quantity and pressure applied to the coffee cake, as well as their variance, are of great importance. A nonlinear mixed effect modeling was used to obtain information on the changes in chemical attributes of espresso coffee (EC) as a function of the variability of extraction conditions. During extraction, the changes in volume were well described by a logistic model, whereas the chemical attributes were better fit by a first-order kinetic. The major source of information was contained in the grinding grade, which accounted for 87-96% of the variance of the experimental data. The variability of the grinding produced changes in caffeine content in the range of 80.03 mg and 130.36 mg when using a constant grinding grade of 6.5. The variability in volume and chemical attributes of EC is large. Grinding had the most important effect as the variability in particle size distribution observed for each grinding level had a profound effect on the quality of EC. Standardization of grinding would be of crucial importance for obtaining all espresso coffees with a high quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Fermentation of melon seeds for “Ogiri egusi” as affected by fermentation variables using Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueke, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Manipulation of fermentation variables during ‘Ogiri egusi’ production using Bacillus subtilis was studied with the view to improving the fermentation process and quality of product. The variables studied were relative humidity (RH, temperature and pore size of wrapping material. Methodology and results: Effect of variables on amino nitrogen, pH and peroxide value was determined on 24 h basis for 96 h. Attempt on optimization of process using response surface method was made. Amino nitrogen increased with fermentation time, the highest value (6.25 mg N/g being obtained from sample fermented at 75% RH, temperature 35 °C and 90 µm pore size of wrapping material. Fermentation attained its peak at 48 h fermentation time. pH increased into the alkaline range within the period, the highest value (7.81 being from sample that gave the highest amount of amino nitrogen. Peroxide values obtained in all samples were far below the recommended value of 30 Meq/kg. However, the highest value (4.16 Keq/kg was obtained in sample fermented at 85% RH, temperature 30 °C and 70 µm pore size of wrapper. Statistical analysis and response surface plots associated with analysis showed that the quadratic effect of variables was significant (p = 0.05. Effects of relative humidity and pore size of wrapping material were also significant and accounted for 99.56% of the amino nitrogen variation. Conclusion, significance and impact study: Manipulation of the fermentation variables significantly improved the process. Thus use of response surface method optimized the fermentation process especially the effects of relative humidity and pore size of wrapping materials. The suggested combination of variables for optimum fermentation is 75% RH, temperature 35 °C and 70 µm pore size of wrapper. This ultimately will improve product quality and reduce fermentation time.

  8. Physiologic variability at the verge of systemic inflammation: multiscale entropy of heart rate variability is affected by very low doses of endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Georg N; Arlow, Renee L; Cheung, Nora H; Coyle, Susette M; Griffel, Benjamin; Macor, Marie A; Lowry, Stephen F; Calvano, Steve E; Gale, Stephen C

    2015-02-01

    Human injury or infection induces systemic inflammation with characteristic neuroendocrine responses. Fluctuations in autonomic function during inflammation are reflected by beat-to-beat variation in heart rate, termed heart rate variability (HRV). In the present study, we determine threshold doses of endotoxin needed to induce observable changes in markers of systemic inflammation, investigate whether metrics of HRV exhibit a differing threshold dose from other inflammatory markers, and investigate the size of data sets required for meaningful use of multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis of HRV. Healthy human volunteers (n = 25) were randomized to receive placebo (normal saline) or endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS): 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 ng/kg administered intravenously. Vital signs were recorded every 30 min for 6 h and then at 9, 12, and 24 h after LPS. Blood samples were drawn at specific time points for cytokine measurements. Heart rate variability analysis was performed using electrocardiogram epochs of 5 min. Multiscale entropy for HRV was calculated for all dose groups to scale factor 40. The lowest significant threshold dose was noted in core temperature at 0.25 ng/kg. Endogenous tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 were significantly responsive at the next dosage level (0.5 ng/kg) along with elevations in circulating leukocytes and heart rate. Responses were exaggerated at higher doses (1 and 2 ng/kg). Time domain and frequency domain HRV metrics similarly suggested a threshold dose, differing from placebo at 1.0 and 2.0 ng/kg, below which no clear pattern in response was evident. By applying repeated-measures analysis of variance across scale factors, a significant decrease in MSE was seen at 1.0 and 2.0 ng/kg by 2 h after exposure to LPS. Although not statistically significant below 1.0 ng/kg, MSE unexpectedly decreased across all groups in an orderly dose-response pattern not seen in the other outcomes. By using repeated-measures analysis of

  9. Factors Affecting Temporal Variability of Arsenic in Groundwater Used for Drinking Water Supply in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of arsenic in groundwater is a recognized environmental hazard with worldwide importance and much effort has been focused on surveying and predicting where arsenic occurs. Temporal variability is one aspect of this environmental hazard that has until recently recei...

  10. Physiologic variability at the verge of systemic inflammation: multi-scale entropy of heart rate variability is affected by very low doses of endotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Georg N.; Sanders, Renee L.; Cheung, Nora H.; Coyle, Susette M.; Griffel, Benjamin; Macor, Marie A.; Lowry, Stephen F.; Calvano, Steve E.; Gale, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human injury or infection induces systemic inflammation with characteristic neuro-endocrine responses. Fluctuations in autonomic function during inflammation are reflected by beat-to-beat variation in heart rate, termed heart rate variability (HRV). In the present study, we determine threshold doses of endotoxin needed to induce observable changes in markers of systemic inflammation, we investigate whether metrics of HRV exhibit a differing threshold dose from other inflammatory markers, and we investigate the size of data sets required for meaningful use of multi-scale entropy (MSE) analysis of HRV. Methods Healthy human volunteers (n=25) were randomized to receive placebo (normal saline) or endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS): 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 ng/kg administered intravenously. Vital signs were recorded every 30 minutes for 6 hours and then at 9, 12, and 24 hours after LPS. Blood samples were drawn at specific time points for cytokine measurements. HRV analysis was performed using EKG epochs of 5 minutes. MSE for HRV was calculated for all dose groups to scale factor 40. Results The lowest significant threshold dose was noted in core temperature at 0.25ng/kg. Endogenous TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly responsive at the next dosage level (0.5ng/kg) along with elevations in circulating leukocytes and heart rate. Responses were exaggerated at higher doses (1 and 2 ng/kg). Time domain and frequency domain HRV metrics similarly suggested a threshold dose, differing from placebo at 1.0 and 2.0 ng/kg, below which no clear pattern in response was evident. By applying repeated-measures ANOVA across scale factors, a significant decrease in MSE was seen at 1.0 and 2.0 ng/kg by 2 hours post exposure to LPS. While not statistically significant below 1.0 ng/kg, MSE unexpectedly decreased across all groups in an orderly dose-response pattern not seen in the other outcomes. Conclusions By usingrANOVA across scale factors, MSE can detect autonomic change

  11. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  12. Variables affecting the acceptability of radappertized ground beef products. Effects of food grade phosphates, NaCl, fat level, and grinding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.S.; Shults, G.W.; Mason, V.C.; Wierbicki, E.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of different variables on the quality of an irradiated ground beef product. Factors studied included: different food-grade phosphates; NaCl content; fat content; and size of grind. The influence of these variables on the cooking loss (moisture retention), shear press values and sensory scores was studied. The addition of phosphates and NaCl was desirable in controlling cooking losses. The most effective phosphate was tetrasodium pyrophosphate. The addition of NaCl decreased the shear press force required to penetrate the beef patty, i.e., it tenderized the product. Phosphate addition did not affect the shear press force. Increased fat content increased the cooking losses, but did not affect the shear press force. Irradiation with sterilizing doses had a marked effect on decreasing the shear press force

  13. Intraindividual variability in cognitive performance in three groups of older adults: cross-domain links to physical status and self-perceived affect and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Esther; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hunter, Michael; Moll, Alex; Hultsch, David F

    2002-11-01

    Intraindividual variability of physical status and affect/beliefs as well as their relations with cognition were examined in 3 groups of older adults: healthy elderly, individuals with a nonneurological health-related disturbance (arthritis) and people with neurological compromise (dementia). The findings showed that greater inconsistency in physical performance was observed in groups characterized by central nervous system dysfunction. By contrast, fluctuations in affect appeared to reflect other more transient sources, such as pain. In general, increased inconsistency in non-cognitive domains was associated with poorer cognitive function. There were cross-domain links between inconsistency in physical functioning and fluctuations in cognitive performance, although the nature of the links depended largely upon the neurological status of the individuals. Considered together, the result indicated that measures of cognitive as well as physical variability are important behavioral markers of neurological integrity.

  14. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  15. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch (Gastropoda: Pulmonata shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FS. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm. The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  16. Variables affecting the manifestation of and intensity of pacing behavior: A preliminary case study in zoo-housed polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cless, Isabelle T; Lukas, Kristen E

    2017-09-01

    High-speed video analysis was used to quantify two aspects of gait in 10 zoo-housed polar bears. These two variables were then examined as to how they differed in the conditions of pacing versus locomoting for each bear. Percent difference calculations measured the difference between pacing and locomoting data for each bear. We inferred that the higher the percent difference between pacing and locomoting in a given subject, the more intense the pacing may be. The percent difference values were analyzed alongside caregiver survey data defining the locations, frequency, and anticipatory nature of pacing in each bear, as well as each bear's age and sex, to determine whether any variables were correlated. The frequency and intensity of pacing behavior were not correlated. However, location of pacing was significantly correlated both with the subjects' age and whether or not the subject was classified as an anticipatory pacer. Bears appeared to select specific spots within their exhibits to pace, and the location therefore seemed tied to underlying motivation for the behavior. Additionally, bears that were classified in the survey as pacing anticipatorily displayed significantly more intense pacing behavior as quantified by gait analysis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Theoretical-experimental assessment of the variables affecting fretting of Atucha I nuclear power plant utility steam generators tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulichevsky, Raul M.

    1995-01-01

    Fretting wear of Steam Generator tubes caused by flow induced vibrations generates uncertainty on their integrity. The knowledge of the controlling variables of the wear process may give a criterion to evaluate the tubes residual life. Information on vibratory response and dynamic interaction between tubes and their supports are prerequisites for understanding the relationship between fretting wear and tube vibration. Experimental results of the vibratory response of an Atucha-I nuclear power plant type U-tube, the influence of tube/support clearance on this response and a study of tube/support dynamic interaction, which allow the verification of a finite element model of this type of tubes, are presented in this work. Also wear results for the Incoloy 800/DIN 1.4550 austenitic stainless steel pair of materials and a first evaluation of the wear constant of this pair are presented. (author)

  18. Pre-analytical and Analytical Variables Affecting the Measurement of Plasma-Derived Microparticle Tissue Factor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, RD; Barcel, DA; Williams, JC; Wang, JG; Boles, JC; Manly, DA; Key, NS; Mackman, N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Elevated levels of tissue factor positive (TF+) microparticles (MPs) are observed in plasma from a variety of patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. We and others have described the measurement of TF activity in MPs isolated from plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-analytical and analytical variables on TF activity of MPs isolated from blood of healthy volunteers treated ex vivo with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods We evaluated the following parameters: use of different centrifugation speeds to isolate the MPs; comparison of TF activity of MPs isolated from platelet poor plasma versus platelet free plasma; effect of freeze/thaw on MP TF activity; and comparison of the MP TF activity assay with the measurement of TF protein by ELISA or flow cytometry. Results MPs prepared from platelet poor plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g or 100,000 × g for 15 minutes had similar levels of TF activity. However, significantly less TF activity was found in MPs isolated from platelet free plasma compared with platelet poor plasma. Interestingly, freeze/thawing of the plasma showed donor to donor variation in MP TF activity, with a moderate increase in some individuals. Conclusion TF+ MPs can be quantitatively isolated from platelet poor or platelet free plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g for 15 minutes. Measurement of MP TF activity in plasma can be used to detect a prothrombotic state in patients with various diseases. PMID:21737126

  19. Assessment of intrafamilial clinical variability of poikiloderma with neutropenia by a 10-year follow-up of three affected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concolino, Daniela; Sestito, Simona; Falvo, Francesca; Romano, Giusy; Ceravolo, Miriam; Anastasio, Elisa; Pensabene, Licia; Colombo, Elisa A; Larizza, Lidia

    2018-05-23

    Clericuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia is a well-defined nosological entity, but despite a remarkable number of clinical reports, no long term follow-up data has been presented to date regarding patients with this rare condition. Here we describe the results of clinical follow-up of three siblings, one male (Patient 1) and two females (Patients 2 and 3), subsequent to their first clinical and then molecular diagnosis of Clericuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia syndrome due to mutation of USB1gene. Patient 1 always expressed the most severe phenotype, while patients 2 and 3 showed an intermediate and mild phenotype, respectively, as observed since their first clinical evaluation. None of the patients developed skin cancer and/or myelodysplastic disorders considering the peripheral haematological findings. Lens opacity, never reported before, was found in two of the three patients. The long term follow-up observations confirm the stability over time of the pronounced intra-familial heterogeneity of clinical manifestations observed prior to and upon molecular diagnosis. We conclude that prolonged follow-up is an adjunct tool to monitor intra-familial variability of PN clinical spectrum which may favour surveillance of more serious complications of the disease among siblings, when a patient-specific clinical expressivity is present. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Optimum performance analysis of an irreversible Diesel heat engine affected by variable heat capacities of working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yingru; Chen, Jincan

    2007-01-01

    An irreversible cycle model of the Diesel heat engine is established in which the temperature dependent heat capacities of the working fluid, the irreversibilities resulting from non-isentropic compression and expansion processes and heat leak losses through the cylinder wall are taken into account. The adiabatic equation of ideal gases with temperature dependent heat capacity is strictly deduced without using the additional approximation condition in the relevant literature and is used to analyze the performance of the Diesel heat engine. Expressions for the work output and efficiency of the cycle are derived by introducing the pressure ratio and the compression and expansion efficiencies. The performance characteristic curves of the Diesel heat engine are presented for a set of given parameters. The optimum criteria of some important parameters such as the work output, efficiency, pressure ratio and temperatures of the working fluid are obtained. Moreover, the influence of the compression and expansion efficiencies, variable heat capacities, heat leak and other parameters on the performance of the cycle is discussed in detail. The results obtained may provide a theoretical basis for both optimal design and operation of real Diesel heat engines

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and phonological working memory: Methodological variability affects clinical and experimental performance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarle, Stephanie J; Alderson, R Matt; Patros, Connor H G; Lea, Sarah E; Hudec, Kristen L; Arrington, Elaine F

    2017-05-01

    Despite promising findings in extant research that suggest impaired working memory (WM) serves as a central neurocognitive deficit or candidate endophenotype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), findings from translational research have been relatively underwhelming. This study aimed to explicate previous equivocal findings by systematically examining the effect of methodological variability on WM performance estimates across experimental and clinical WM measures. Age-matched boys (ages 8-12 years) with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) ADHD completed 1 experimental (phonological) and 2 clinical (digit span, letter-number sequencing) WM measures. The use of partial scoring procedures, administration of greater trial numbers, and high central executive demands yielded moderate-to-large between-groups effect sizes. Moreover, the combination of these best-case procedures, compared to worst-case procedures (i.e., absolute scoring, administration of few trials, use of discontinue rules, and low central executive demands), resulted in a 12.5% increase in correct group classification. Collectively, these findings explain inconsistent ADHD-related WM deficits in previous reports, and highlight the need for revised clinical measures that utilize best-case procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The Criteria and Variables Affecting the Selection of Quality Book Ideally Suited for Translation: The Perspectives of King Saud University Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Abdulrahman Abanomey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the ideal definition of QB, that is Quality Book- one that is ideally suited for translation- and the variables affecting its selection criteria among 136 members of King Saud University (KSU academic staff. A workshop was held to elicit the ideal definition of QB to answer the first question, and a 19-item electronic questionnaire with four domains was designed to help collect the data necessary to answer the other two questions of the study. The results revealed that all four domains came low; “Authorship and Publication” came the highest with a mean score of 2.28 and “Titling and Contents” came the lowest with a mean score of 1.76. 5-way ANOVA (without interaction was applied in accordance with the variables of the study at α≤ 0.05 among the mean scores. The analysis revealed significance of the variables of gender, those who translated a book or more before, and those who participated in a conference devoted for translation whereas the variables of qualification and revising a translated book did not reveal any statistical significance. Key words: Quality Book, KSU, Authorship, Translation, Titling

  3. Biological variables and health status affecting inorganic element concentrations in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from Portugal (western Iberian Peninsula)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Marisa; Monteiro, Silvia S.; Torres, Jordi; Oliveira, Isabel; Sequeira, Marina; López, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The coastal preferences of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) intensify their exposure to human activities. The harbour porpoise Iberian population is presently very small and information about the threats it endures is vital for the conservation efforts that are being implemented to avoid local extinction. The present study explored the possible relation between the accumulation of trace elements by porpoises and their sex, body length, nutritional state, presence of parasites and gross pathologies. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) were evaluated in 42 porpoises stranded in Portugal between 2005 and 2013. Considering European waters, porpoises stranded in Portugal present the highest Hg concentrations and the lowest Cd concentrations, which may reflect dietary preferences and the geographic availability of these pollutants. While no effect of sex on trace element concentrations was detected, there was a positive relationship between porpoise body length and the concentration of Cd, Hg and Pb. Animals in worse nutritional condition showed higher levels of Zn. Harbour porpoises with high parasite burdens showed lower levels of Zn and As in all analysed tissues and also lower levels of renal Ni, while those showing gross pathologies presented higher Zn and Hg levels. This is the first data on the relationship between trace elements and health-related variables in porpoises from southern European Atlantic waters, providing valuable baseline information about the contamination status of this vulnerable population. - Highlights: • High levels of mercury in harbour porpoises from Portugal. • Evidence of bioaccumulation of non-essential trace elements. • Presence of parasites influenced some essential trace elements. • Evidence of nutritional state effect on Zn levels. • Presence of gross pathologies influenced Zn and Hg levels. - The small harbour

  4. Consumption of Oxidized Soybean Oil Increased Intestinal Oxidative Stress and Affected Intestinal Immune Variables in Yellow-feathered Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Liang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of oxidized soybean oil in the diet of young chickens on growth performance and intestinal oxidative stress, and indices of intestinal immune function. Corn-soybean-based diets containing 2% mixtures of fresh and oxidized soybean oil provided 6 levels (0.15, 1.01, 3.14, 4.95, 7.05, and 8.97 meqO2/kg of peroxide value (POV in the diets. Each dietary treatment, fed for 22 d, had 6 replicates, each containing 30 birds (n = 1,080. Increasing POV levels reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI of the broilers during d 1 to 10, body weight and average daily gain at d 22 but did not affect overall ADFI. Concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA increased in plasma and jejunum as POV increased but total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC declined in plasma and jejunum. Catalase (CAT activity declined in plasma and jejunum as did plasma glutathione S-transferase (GST. Effects were apparent at POV exceeding 3.14 meqO2/kg for early ADFI and MDA in jejunum, and POV exceeding 1.01 meqO2/kg for CAT in plasma and jejunum, GST in plasma and T-AOC in jejunum. Relative jejunal abundance of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB P50 and NF-κB P65 increased as dietary POV increased. Increasing POV levels reduced the jejunal concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and cluster of differentiation (CD 4 and CD8 molecules with differences from controls apparent at dietary POV of 3.14 to 4.95 meqO2/kg. These findings indicated that growth performance, feed intake, and the local immune system of the small intestine were compromised by oxidative stress when young broilers were fed moderately oxidized soybean oil.

  5. Non-linear Heart Rate Variability as a Discriminator of Internalizing Psychopathology and Negative Affect in Children With Internalizing Problems and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Fiskum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internalizing psychopathology and dysregulated negative affect are characterized by dysregulation in the autonomic nervous system and reduced heart rate variability (HRV due to increases in sympathetic activity alongside reduced vagal tone. The neurovisceral system is however, a complex nonlinear system, and nonlinear indices related to psychopathology are so far less studied in children. Essential nonlinear properties of a system can be found in two main domains: the informational domain and the invariant domain. sample entropy (SampEn is a much-used method from the informational domain, while detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA represents a widely-used method from the invariant domain. To see if nonlinear HRV can provide information beyond linear indices of autonomic activation, this study investigated SampEn and DFA as discriminators of internalizing psychopathology and negative affect alongside measures of vagally-mediated HRV and sympathetic activation.Material and Methods: Thirty-Two children with internalizing difficulties and 25 healthy controls (aged 9–13 were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, Revised, giving an estimate of internalizing psychopathology, negative affect and effortful control, a protective factor against psychopathology. Five minute electrocardiogram and impedance cardiography recordings were collected during a resting baseline, giving estimates of SampEn, DFA short-term scaling exponent α1, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD, and pre-ejection period (PEP. Between-group differences and correlations were assessed with parametric and non-parametric tests, and the relationships between cardiac variables, psychopathology and negative affect were assessed using generalized linear modeling.Results: SampEn and DFA were not significantly different between the groups. SampEn was weakly negatively related to heart rate (HR in the controls

  6. Meteorological variables affect fertility rate after intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep in a seasonal-dependent manner: a 7-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR AI day and maximum T on day 15). However, the effect of meteorological factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.

  7. The Climate Variability & Predictability (CVP) Program at NOAA - Observing and Understanding Processes Affecting the Propagation of Intraseasonal Oscillations in the Maritime Continent Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Climate Variability & Predictability (CVP) Program supports research aimed at providing process-level understanding of the climate system through observation, modeling, analysis, and field studies. This vital knowledge is needed to improve climate models and predictions so that scientists can better anticipate the impacts of future climate variability and change. To achieve its mission, the CVP Program supports research carried out at NOAA and other federal laboratories, NOAA Cooperative Institutes, and academic institutions. The Program also coordinates its sponsored projects with major national and international scientific bodies including the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the International and U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR/US CLIVAR) Program, and the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The CVP program sits within NOAA's Climate Program Office (http://cpo.noaa.gov/CVP). In 2017, the CVP Program had a call for proposals focused on observing and understanding processes affecting the propagation of intraseasonal oscillations in the Maritime Continent region. This poster will present the recently funded CVP projects, the expected scientific outcomes, the geographic areas of their work in the Maritime Continent region, and the collaborations with the Office of Naval Research, Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) and other partners.

  8. Characteristics of attention-related body sensations. Temporal stability and associations with measures of body focus, affect, sustained attention, and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihanyi, Benedek T; Ferentzi, Eszter; Köteles, Ferenc

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the temporal stability and correlates of attention-related body sensations that emerge without external stimulation during rest and due to focused attention on a body part. To assess attention-related body sensations, participants were asked to focus on a freely chosen body area with closed eyes, and had to report whether the sensation of that area had changed. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess various aspects of body focus (body awareness, body responsiveness, somatosensory amplification, subjective somatic symptoms), and positive and negative affectivity. Previous experiences in body-mind therapies were also measured. PEBL Continuous Performance Test was used to assess sustained attention. Heart rate variability scores were based on a 3-minute long resting heart rate measurement. Fifty-eight university students (22.3 ± 3.95 years; 34 females) participated in the study. The stability of attention-related body sensations was measured 8 weeks later on a randomly chosen sub-group (n = 28). Attention-related body sensations showed a mediocre temporal stability (r ρ  = 0.47, p = 0.012). People reporting attention-related body sensations showed significantly higher body awareness, somatosensory amplification, and resting heart rate; and marginally higher somatic symptoms. No relation was found with body-mind practice, body responsiveness, positive and negative affect, the vagal component of heart rate variability, and performance in the sustained attention task. Attention-related sensations are relatively stable over time. They are connected to some, but not to all of the aspects of body focus. Further studies are needed to elaborate the influencing stable and situational factors.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, accumulation rates in soil from atmospheric deposition and analysis of their affecting landscape variables along an urban-rural gradient in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shubo; Cui, Qu; Matherne, Brian; Hou, Aixin

    2017-11-01

    This study initiated an in-situ soil experimental system to quantify the annual dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener's concentrations and accumulation rates in soil from atmosphere deposition in a rural-urban fringe, and correlated them by landscape physical and demographic variables in the area. The results showed that the concentrations of all PCB congeners significantly increased with the sampling time (p urban center. The moderate average concentrations along the gradient for PCB 8, 18, and 28 were 31.003, 18.825, and 19.505 ng g-1, respectively. Tetra-CBs including PCB 44, 52, 66, and 77 were 10.243, 31.214, 8.330 and 9.530 ng g-1, respectively. Penta-CBs including PCB 101, 105, 118, and 126 were 9.465, 7.896, 17.703, and 6.363 ng g-1, respectively. Hexa-CBs including PCB 128, 138, 153, 170, 180, and 187 were 6.798, 11.522, 4.969, 6.722, 6.317, and 8.243 ng g-1 respectively. PCB 195, 206, and 209 were 8.259, 9.506, and 14.169 ng g-1, respectively. Most of the PCB congeners had a higher accumulation rate approximately 28 km from the urban center. The computed variables were found to affect the soil PCB concentrations with a threshold effect (p urban sprawling (i.e. built-up areas expanding) were the sources of PCBs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  11. Factors affecting variability in the urinary biomarker 1,6-hexamethylene diamine in workers exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Linda G T; Fent, Kenneth W; Flack, Sheila L; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-01-01

    Although urinary 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) is a useful biomarker of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), a large degree of unexplained intra- and inter-individual variability exists between estimated HDI exposure and urine HDA levels. We investigated the effect of individual and workplace factors on urine HDA levels using quantitative dermal and inhalation exposure data derived from a survey of automotive spray painters exposed to HDI. Painters' dermal and breathing-zone HDI-exposures were monitored over an entire workday for up to three separate workdays, spaced approximately one month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints, and multiple samples were collected throughout the workday. Using mixed effects multiple linear regression modeling, coverall use resulted in significantly lower HDA levels (p = 0.12), and weekday contributed to significant variability in HDA levels (p = 0.056). We also investigated differences in urine HDA levels stratified by dichotomous and classification covariates using analysis of variance. Use of coveralls (p = 0.05), respirator type worn (p = 0.06), smoker status (p = 0.12), paint-booth type (p = 0.02), and more than one painter at the shop (p = 0.10) were all found to significantly affect urine HDA levels adjusted for creatinine concentration. Coverall use remained significant (p = 0.10), even after adjusting for respirator type. These results indicate that the variation in urine HDA level is mainly due to workplace factors and that appropriate dermal and inhalation protection is required to prevent HDI exposure.

  12. Laboratory incubation experiments assessing the factor interactions affecting urine-derived nitrous oxide emissions from spatially and temporally variable upland pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charteris, Alice; Loick, Nadine; Marsden, Karina; Chadwick, Dave; Whelan, Mick; Rao Ravella, Sreenivas; Mead, Andrew; Cardenas, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Urine patches deposited to soils by grazing animals represent hot-spots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Hargreaves et al., 2015), a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) and precursor of ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Urine N2O emissions are produced via nitrification of ureolysis-derived ammonium (NH4+) and/or subsequent nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) denitrification (Kool et al., 2006). The dominant process and the N2O fluxes generated depend on interactions between urine characteristics (e.g. nitrogen [N] concentration and volume), soil characteristics (e.g. carbon [C] availability and pH) and preceding and prevailing environmental conditions (e.g. soil moisture and temperature; Bergstermann et al., 2011; Butterbach-Bahl et al., 2013; Dijkstra et al., 2013). The spatial and temporal variability of these interactions in grazing systems is potentially large and greatly increases the uncertainty associated with N2O emission estimates from such systems. In particular, the contribution of extensively managed upland agroecosystems, which occupy ca. 5.5 million hectares in the UK and provide the bulk of land for sheep farming (Pollott & Stone, 2004), to UK GHG emissions is poorly defined. Improving understanding of the interactions between the wide range of factors affecting urine-derived N2O production and emission from pasture soils and considering this in the context of the spatial and temporal variability of the grazing environment could therefore be extremely valuable in improving the accuracy of N2O emission estimates from such systems. The factorial laboratory incubation experiments presented have been designed to assess the interactive effects of factors such as urine N concentration, volume and soil moisture affecting soil N2O (and nitric oxide [NO], nitrogen gas [N2] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) production and emissions (García-Marco et al., 2014) using the state-of-the-art Denitrification Incubation System (DENIS). This work forms part of a wider project

  13. Elementary students’ affective variables in a networked learning environment supported by a blog: a case study / Variables affectives des élèves du primaire dans un contexte d'apprentissage en réseau soutenu par un blogue: une étude de cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Allaire

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study documents to what extent writing on a blog in a blended learning environment could influence the affective variables of elementary-school students’ writing. We grounded our framework more specifically in Deci and Ryan’s theory of self-determination. Our research team used both pre and post-tests and we conducted the analysis on the basis of inferential and correlational statistics using SPSS 17®. Results indicate an increase in motivation to write in pupils who used the blog, whereas the number of comments made per post did not seem to have any definitive impact on this subject. Cette étude documente dans quelle mesure l'écriture de blogues dans un contexte d'apprentissage en réseau peut influencer les variables affectives de l'écriture chez les élèves du primaire. Le cadre d’analyse est fondé plus spécifiquement sur la théorie de l'autodétermination (Deci & Ryan, 1985, sur le rapport à l'écriture (Chartrand et Prince, 2009 et sur la théorie transactionnelle de Rosenblatt (1991. L’équipe de recherche a conduit des tests avant et après l’exercice d’écriture afin de mesurer les variables affectives. L’analyse est basée sur des statistiques déductives et corrélationnelles, traitées avec SPSS 17®. L’analyse qualitative est également utilisée pour identifier les intentions d’écriture et les thèmes des messages affichés sur le blogue. Les résultats indiquent une augmentation de la motivation d'écrire chez les élèves ayant utilisé le blogue, tandis que le nombre de commentaires formulés par message ne semble pas avoir eu d’effet décisif.

  14. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time…

  15. The role of Personal Self-Regulation and Regulatory Teaching to predict motivational-affective variables, achievement and satisfaction: A structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus ede la Fuente

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation examines how personal self-regulation (presage variable and regulatory teaching (process variable of teaching relate to learning approaches, strategies for coping with stress, and self-regulated learning (process variables of learning and, finally, how they relate to performance and satisfaction with the learning process (product variables. The objective was to clarify the associative and predictive relations between these variables, as contextualized in two different models that use the presage-process-product paradigm (the Biggs and DEDEPRO models. A total of 1101 university students participated in the study. The design was cross-sectional and retrospective with attributional (or selection variables, using correlations and structural analysis. The results provide consistent and significant empirical evidence for the relationships hypothesized, incorporating variables that are part of and influence the teaching-learning process in Higher Education. Findings confirm the importance of interactive relationships within the teaching-learning process, where personal self-regulation is assumed to take place in connection with regulatory teaching. Variables that are involved in the relationships validated here reinforce the idea that both personal factors and teaching and learning factors should be taken into consideration when dealing with a formal teaching-learning context at university.

  16. The role of personal self-regulation and regulatory teaching to predict motivational-affective variables, achievement, and satisfaction: a structural model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Jesus; Zapata, Lucía; Martínez-Vicente, Jose M.; Sander, Paul; Cardelle-Elawar, María

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examines how personal self-regulation (presage variable) and regulatory teaching (process variable of teaching) relate to learning approaches, strategies for coping with stress, and self-regulated learning (process variables of learning) and, finally, how they relate to performance and satisfaction with the learning process (product variables). The objective was to clarify the associative and predictive relations between these variables, as contextualized in two different models that use the presage-process-product paradigm (the Biggs and DEDEPRO models). A total of 1101 university students participated in the study. The design was cross-sectional and retrospective with attributional (or selection) variables, using correlations and structural analysis. The results provide consistent and significant empirical evidence for the relationships hypothesized, incorporating variables that are part of and influence the teaching–learning process in Higher Education. Findings confirm the importance of interactive relationships within the teaching–learning process, where personal self-regulation is assumed to take place in connection with regulatory teaching. Variables that are involved in the relationships validated here reinforce the idea that both personal factors and teaching and learning factors should be taken into consideration when dealing with a formal teaching–learning context at university. PMID:25964764

  17. WE-D-18A-04: How Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms Affect the MTFs of Variable-Contrast Targets in CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, C.T.; Rong, J. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dodge, C.W. [Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To determine how filtered back-projection (FBP), adaptive statistical (ASiR), and model based (MBIR) iterative reconstruction algorithms affect the measured modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of variable-contrast targets over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. Methods: The Catphan 600 CTP401 module, surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape, was scanned on a GE HD750 CT scanner at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 mGy CTDIvol levels with typical patient scan parameters: 120kVp, 0.8s, 40mm beam width, large SFOV, 2.5mm thickness, 0.984 pitch. The images were reconstructed using GE's Standard kernel with FBP; 20%, 40% and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. A task-based MTF (MTFtask) was computed for six cylindrical targets: 2 low-contrast (Polystyrene, LDPE), 2 medium-contrast (Delrin, PMP), and 2 high-contrast (Teflon, air). MTFtask was used to compare the performance of reconstruction algorithms with decreasing CTDIvol from 24mGy, which is currently used in the clinic. Results: For the air target and 75% dose savings (6 mGy), MBIR MTFtask at 5 lp/cm measured 0.24, compared to 0.20 for 70% ASiR and 0.11 for FBP. Overall, for both high-contrast targets, MBIR MTFtask improved with increasing CTDIvol and consistently outperformed ASiR and FBP near the system's Nyquist frequency. Conversely, for Polystyrene at 6 mGy, MBIR (0.10) and 70% ASiR (0.07) MTFtask was lower than for FBP (0.18). For medium and low-contrast targets, FBP remains the best overall algorithm for improved resolution at low CTDIvol (1–6 mGy) levels, whereas MBIR is comparable at higher dose levels (12–24 mGy). Conclusion: MBIR improved the MTF of small, high-contrast targets compared to FBP and ASiR at doses of 50%–12.5% of those currently used in the clinic. However, for imaging low- and mediumcontrast targets, FBP performed the best across all dose levels. For assessing MTF from different reconstruction algorithms, task-based MTF measurements are necessary.

  18. WE-D-18A-04: How Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms Affect the MTFs of Variable-Contrast Targets in CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, C.T.; Rong, J.; Dodge, C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how filtered back-projection (FBP), adaptive statistical (ASiR), and model based (MBIR) iterative reconstruction algorithms affect the measured modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of variable-contrast targets over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. Methods: The Catphan 600 CTP401 module, surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape, was scanned on a GE HD750 CT scanner at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 mGy CTDIvol levels with typical patient scan parameters: 120kVp, 0.8s, 40mm beam width, large SFOV, 2.5mm thickness, 0.984 pitch. The images were reconstructed using GE's Standard kernel with FBP; 20%, 40% and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. A task-based MTF (MTFtask) was computed for six cylindrical targets: 2 low-contrast (Polystyrene, LDPE), 2 medium-contrast (Delrin, PMP), and 2 high-contrast (Teflon, air). MTFtask was used to compare the performance of reconstruction algorithms with decreasing CTDIvol from 24mGy, which is currently used in the clinic. Results: For the air target and 75% dose savings (6 mGy), MBIR MTFtask at 5 lp/cm measured 0.24, compared to 0.20 for 70% ASiR and 0.11 for FBP. Overall, for both high-contrast targets, MBIR MTFtask improved with increasing CTDIvol and consistently outperformed ASiR and FBP near the system's Nyquist frequency. Conversely, for Polystyrene at 6 mGy, MBIR (0.10) and 70% ASiR (0.07) MTFtask was lower than for FBP (0.18). For medium and low-contrast targets, FBP remains the best overall algorithm for improved resolution at low CTDIvol (1–6 mGy) levels, whereas MBIR is comparable at higher dose levels (12–24 mGy). Conclusion: MBIR improved the MTF of small, high-contrast targets compared to FBP and ASiR at doses of 50%–12.5% of those currently used in the clinic. However, for imaging low- and mediumcontrast targets, FBP performed the best across all dose levels. For assessing MTF from different reconstruction algorithms, task-based MTF measurements are necessary

  19. Remote sensing and avian influenza: A review of image processing methods for extracting key variables affecting avian influenza virus survival in water from Earth Observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Annelise; Goutard, Flavie; Chamaillé, Lise; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Lo Seen, Danny

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of water in the transmission of avian influenza (AI) viruses and the existence of often interacting variables that determine the survival rate of these viruses in water; the two main variables are temperature and salinity. Remote sensing has been used to map and monitor water bodies for several decades. In this paper, we review satellite image analysis methods used for water detection and characterization, focusing on the main variables that influence AI virus survival in water. Optical and radar imagery are useful for detecting water bodies at different spatial and temporal scales. Methods to monitor the temperature of large water surfaces are also available. Current methods for estimating other relevant water variables such as salinity, pH, turbidity and water depth are not presently considered to be effective.

  20. How spatial and temporal rainfall variability affect runoff across basin scales: insights from field observations in the (semi-)urbanised Charlotte watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Smith, J. A.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of rainfall variability on runoff response are highly scale-dependent. Sensitivity analyses based on hydrological model simulations have shown that impacts are likely to depend on combinations of storm type, basin versus storm scale, temporal versus spatial rainfall variability. So far, few of these conclusions have been confirmed on observational grounds, since high quality datasets of spatially variable rainfall and runoff over prolonged periods are rare. Here we investigate relationships between rainfall variability and runoff response based on 30 years of radar-rainfall datasets and flow measurements for 16 hydrological basins ranging from 7 to 111 km2. Basins vary not only in scale, but also in their degree of urbanisation. We investigated temporal and spatial variability characteristics of rainfall fields across a range of spatial and temporal scales to identify main drivers for variability in runoff response. We identified 3 ranges of basin size with different temporal versus spatial rainfall variability characteristics. Total rainfall volume proved to be the dominant agent determining runoff response at all basin scales, independent of their degree of urbanisation. Peak rainfall intensity and storm core volume are of secondary importance. This applies to all runoff parameters, including runoff volume, runoff peak, volume-to-peak and lag time. Position and movement of the storm with respect to the basin have a negligible influence on runoff response, with the exception of lag times in some of the larger basins. This highlights the importance of accuracy in rainfall estimation: getting the position right but the volume wrong will inevitably lead to large errors in runoff prediction. Our study helps to identify conditions where rainfall variability matters for correct estimation of the rainfall volume as well as the associated runoff response.

  1. Acute Mental Discomfort Associated with Suicide Behavior in a Clinical Sample of Patients with Affective Disorders: Ascertaining Critical Variables Using Artificial Intelligence Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Susana; Barros, Jorge; Echávarri, Orietta; García, Fabián; Osses, Alex; Moya, Claudia; Maino, María Paz; Fischman, Ronit; Núñez, Catalina; Szmulewicz, Tita; Tomicic, Alemka

    2017-01-01

    In efforts to develop reliable methods to detect the likelihood of impending suicidal behaviors, we have proposed the following. To gain a deeper understanding of the state of suicide risk by determining the combination of variables that distinguishes between groups with and without suicide risk. A study involving 707 patients consulting for mental health issues in three health centers in Greater Santiago, Chile. Using 345 variables, an analysis was carried out with artificial intelligence tools, Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining processes, and decision tree techniques. The basic algorithm was top-down, and the most suitable division produced by the tree was selected by using the lowest Gini index as a criterion and by looping it until the condition of belonging to the group with suicidal behavior was fulfilled. Four trees distinguishing the groups were obtained, of which the elements of one were analyzed in greater detail, since this tree included both clinical and personality variables. This specific tree consists of six nodes without suicide risk and eight nodes with suicide risk (tree decision 01, accuracy 0.674, precision 0.652, recall 0.678, specificity 0.670, F measure 0.665, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) 73.35%; tree decision 02, accuracy 0.669, precision 0.642, recall 0.694, specificity 0.647, F measure 0.667, ROC AUC 68.91%; tree decision 03, accuracy 0.681, precision 0.675, recall 0.638, specificity 0.721, F measure, 0.656, ROC AUC 65.86%; tree decision 04, accuracy 0.714, precision 0.734, recall 0.628, specificity 0.792, F measure 0.677, ROC AUC 58.85%). This study defines the interactions among a group of variables associated with suicidal ideation and behavior. By using these variables, it may be possible to create a quick and easy-to-use tool. As such, psychotherapeutic interventions could be designed to mitigate the impact of these variables on the emotional state of individuals, thereby reducing

  2. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Murta Barbosa

    Full Text Available It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P

  3. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P

  4. Factors Affecting the Financing of Profitability Using Non Performing Financing as Moderating Variable in Sharia Business Unit of Bank Sumut (Bank of North Sumatera in North Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Hidayat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shariah financing has also various kinds of agreement. Its fund has be distributed to low risky sector in order to produce the optimal income in the preparation of Bank Sumut UUS for spin off in 2018. The objective of the research was to analyze the influence of Third Party Fund and CAR on Financing and the influence of Third Party Fund, CAR and ROA as well as to test the significance of Non Performing Financing as the moderating varable on ROA. The sample of the research included 5 (five Branch Offices on Bank Sumut UUS by taking the annual final statements from 2010 until 2015. The instruments used were regression method of panel data, regression method of moderating and path analysis using EViews software. The Third Party Fund did not have any significant influence on ROA with financing as the intervening variable, and neither did CAR on ROA with financing as the moderating variable, had insignificant influence on ROA statistically. Moreover, the Third Party Fund, CAR and Financing had insignificant influence statistically at significant level 5% on ROA with Non Performing Financing as the moderating variable. The implication of this research was that Bank Sumut UUS had to pay attention to the financing risk to make optimal profit s well as micro an macro economic factors for financing provided for productivity an consumer.

  5. Subjective Positive and Negative Sleep Variables Differentially Affect Cellular Immune Activity in a Breast Cancer Survivor: A Time-series Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Singer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on a breast cancer survivor suffering from cancer-related fatigue (CaRF and depression investigated the bidirectional relationship between cellular immune activity and subjective sleep. The 49-year-old patient (breast cancer diagnosis 5 years before the study, currently in remission collected her full urine output for 28 days in 12-h intervals (8:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.. These urine samples were used to determine urinary neopterin (cellular immune activation marker and creatinine concentrations via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Each morning, the patient answered questions on five sleep variables: sleep quality (SQ, sleep recreational value (SRV, total sleep time (TST, total wake time (TWT, and awakenings during sleep period (ADS. For the purpose of this study, the time series of the nighttime urinary neopterin levels and the five sleep variables were determined. Using centered moving average (CMA smoothing and cross-correlational analysis, this study showed that increases in the positive sleep variables SQ and SRV were followed by urinary neopterin concentration decreases after 96–120 h (SQ, lag 4: r = −0.411; p = 0.044; SRV: lag 4: r = −0.472; p = 0.021 and 120–144 h (SRV, lag 5: r = −0.464; p = 0.026. Increases in the negative sleep variable TWT, by contrast, were followed by increases in urinary neopterin concentrations 72–96 h later (lag 3: r = 0.522; p = 0.009. No systematic effects in the other direction, i.e., from urinary neopterin levels to sleep, were observed in this study. Although preliminary, the findings of this study highlight the benefit of carefully investigating temporal delays and directions of effects when studying the dynamic relationship between sleep and immune variables in the natural context of everyday life.

  6. Modeling the effects of the variability of temperature-related dynamic viscosity on the thermal-affected zone of groundwater heat-pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Cerino Abdin, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Thermal perturbation in the subsurface produced in an open-loop groundwater heat pump (GWHP) plant is a complex transport phenomenon affected by several factors, including the exploited aquifer's hydrogeological and thermal characteristics, well construction features, and the temporal dynamics of the plant's groundwater abstraction and reinjection system. Hydraulic conductivity has a major influence on heat transport because plume propagation, which occurs primarily through advection, tends to degrade following conductive heat transport and convection within moving water. Hydraulic conductivity is, in turn, influenced by water reinjection because the dynamic viscosity of groundwater varies with temperature. This paper reports on a computational analysis conducted using FEFLOW software to quantify how the thermal-affected zone (TAZ) is influenced by the variation in dynamic viscosity due to reinjected groundwater in a well-doublet scheme. The modeling results demonstrate non-negligible groundwater dynamic-viscosity variation that affects thermal plume propagation in the aquifer. This influence on TAZ calculation was enhanced for aquifers with high intrinsic permeability and/or substantial temperature differences between abstracted and post-heat-pump-reinjected groundwater.

  7. Homogeneous grouping of residential users of electric power in accordance with the variables that affect the consumption; Agrupamientos homogeneos de usuarios residenciales de energia electrica en funcion de las variables que impactan el consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E.; Romero Cortes, J. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the monthly consumption of electric power and the capacities in watts of the electric household appliances and domestic lighting performed in a sample of users of the residential tariff. To carry out this task, the information obtained in the answers to the inquiry applied to a group of dwellings, was used (the results of the inquiry are presented in another paper of this Seminar). The correlation variables were obtained from the nominal capacities or through the actual measurements of the energy consumption of the electric household appliances similar to the ones found in the visited homes. At the end of this paper the result of the application of the cluster analysis technic to obtain homogeneous groups of users, is presented, so as to be in position of estimating the shape of the hourly demand curve by means of the recording of the demand (watts) of a small sample of users. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el resultado de correlacion del consumo mensual de energia electrica y las capacidades en watts de los electrodomesticos e iluminacion realizado a una muestra de usuarios de tarifa residencial. Para este trabajo se utilizo la informacion obtenida en las respuestas de una encuesta aplicada en un conjunto habitacional (los resultados de la encuesta se presentan en otro articulo en este Seminario). Las variables de la correlacion se obtuvieron a partir de las especificaciones de capacidades o a traves de mediciones en electrodomesticos similares a los encontrados en los hogares. Al final se presenta el resultado de la aplicacion de la tecnica de formacion de agrupamientos `Cluster Analysis` para obtener grupos homogeneos de usuarios, de forma que se pueda estimar el perfil de demanda electrica mediante el registro de la demanda (watts) de una pequena muestra de usuarios.

  8. Homogeneous grouping of residential users of electric power in accordance with the variables that affect the consumption; Agrupamientos homogeneos de usuarios residenciales de energia electrica en funcion de las variables que impactan el consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E; Romero Cortes, J [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the monthly consumption of electric power and the capacities in watts of the electric household appliances and domestic lighting performed in a sample of users of the residential tariff. To carry out this task, the information obtained in the answers to the inquiry applied to a group of dwellings, was used (the results of the inquiry are presented in another paper of this Seminar). The correlation variables were obtained from the nominal capacities or through the actual measurements of the energy consumption of the electric household appliances similar to the ones found in the visited homes. At the end of this paper the result of the application of the cluster analysis technic to obtain homogeneous groups of users, is presented, so as to be in position of estimating the shape of the hourly demand curve by means of the recording of the demand (watts) of a small sample of users. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el resultado de correlacion del consumo mensual de energia electrica y las capacidades en watts de los electrodomesticos e iluminacion realizado a una muestra de usuarios de tarifa residencial. Para este trabajo se utilizo la informacion obtenida en las respuestas de una encuesta aplicada en un conjunto habitacional (los resultados de la encuesta se presentan en otro articulo en este Seminario). Las variables de la correlacion se obtuvieron a partir de las especificaciones de capacidades o a traves de mediciones en electrodomesticos similares a los encontrados en los hogares. Al final se presenta el resultado de la aplicacion de la tecnica de formacion de agrupamientos `Cluster Analysis` para obtener grupos homogeneos de usuarios, de forma que se pueda estimar el perfil de demanda electrica mediante el registro de la demanda (watts) de una pequena muestra de usuarios.

  9. Phenotypic Variability in a Family with Acrodysostosis Type 2 Caused by a Novel PDE4D Mutation Affecting the Serine Target of Protein Kinase-A Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Julia; Gesing, Julia; Silve, Caroline; Leroy, Chrystel; Bertsche, Astrid; Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang; Kiess, Wieland; Pfäffle, Roland; Schuster, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Acrodysostosis is a very rare congenital multisystem condition characterized by skeletal dysplasia with severe brachydactyly, midfacial hypoplasia, and short stature, varying degrees of intellectual disability, and possible resistance to multiple G protein-coupled receptor signalling hormones. Two distinct subtypes are differentiated: acrodysostosis type 1 resulting from defects in protein kinase type 1-α regulatory subunit and acrodysostosis type 2 caused by mutations in phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D). Most cases are sporadic. We report on a rare multigenerational familial case of acrodysostosis type 2 due to a novel autosomal dominantly inherited PDE4D mutation. A 3.5-year-old boy presented with short stature, midfacial hypoplasia, severe brachydactyly, developmental delay, and behavioural problems. Laboratory investigations revealed mild thyrotropin resistance. His mother shared some characteristic features, such as midfacial hypoplasia and severe brachydactyly, but did not show short stature, intellectual disability or hormonal resistance. Genetic analysis identified the identical, novel heterozygous missense mutation of the PDE4D gene c.569C>T (p.Ser190Phe) in both patients. This case illustrates the significant phenotypic variability of acrodysostosis even within one family with identical mutations. Hence, a specific clinical diagnosis of acrodysostosis remains challenging because of great interindividual variability and a substantial overlap of the two subtypes as well as with other related Gsα-cAMP-signalling-linked disorders. PMID:28515031

  10. Exposure to chronic variable social stress during adolescence alters affect-related behaviors and adrenocortical activity in adult male and female inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-09-01

    Rodent models provide valuable insight into mechanisms that underlie vulnerability to adverse effects of early-life challenges. Few studies have evaluated sex differences in anxiogenic or depressogenic effects of adolescent social stress in a rodent model. Furthermore, adolescent stress studies often use genetically heterogeneous outbred rodents which can lead to variable results. The current study evaluated the effects of adolescent social stress in male and female inbred (BALB/cJ) mice. Adolescent mice were exposed to repeat cycles of alternating social isolation and social novelty for 4 weeks. Adolescent social stress increased anxiety-related behaviors in both sexes and depression-related behavior in females. Locomotion/exploratory behavior was also decreased in both sexes by stress. Previously stressed adult mice produced less basal fecal corticosteroids than controls. Overall, the novel protocol induced sex-specific changes in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors and corticoid production in inbred mice. The chronic variable social stress protocol used here may be beneficial to systematically investigate sex-specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying adolescent stress vulnerability where genetic background can be controlled. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonna C; Björck, Inger M E; Nilsson, Anne C

    2016-01-01

    Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF). The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal. Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB) or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB) was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5-13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings. With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05). The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0-120 min, Pappetite ratings during the whole experimental period (Pappetite sensation could be beneficial in preventing obesity. These effects could possibly be mediated through colonic fermentation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02093481.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD affect the outcome of clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric variables in people with obesity under a dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guerrero, César; Parra-Carriedo, Alicia; Ruiz-de-Santiago, Diana; Galicia-Castillo, Oscar; Buenrostro-Jáuregui, Mario; Díaz-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT, GPX, and SOD are involved in the etiology of obesity and its principal comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of aforementioned SNPs over the output of several variables in people with obesity after a nutritional intervention. The study included 92 Mexican women, which received a dietary intervention by 3 months. Participants were genotyped and stratified into two groups: (1) carriers; mutated homozygous plus heterozygous (CR) and (2) homozygous wild type (WT). A comparison between CR and WT was done in clinical (CV), biochemical (BV), and anthropometric variables (AV), at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Participants ( n  = 92) showed statistically significant differences ( p  T GPX1 (rs1050450), - 251A>G SOD1 (rs2070424), and - 262C>T CAT (rs1001179). (B) Only CR showed statistically changes ( p  T CAT (rs7943316) and 47C>T SOD2 (rs4880). The dietary intervention effect was statistically significantly between the polymorphisms of 47C>T SOD2 and BMI, SBP, TBARS, total cholesterol, and C-LCL ( p  T CAT (rs7943316) and SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, and atherogenic index ( p  CAT enzymes.

  13. Viruses affecting lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. in Greece; incidence and genetic variability of Bean leafroll virus and Pea enation mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisavet K. CHATZIVASSILIOU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. crops are mainly established with non-certified seeds of local landraces, implying high risks for seed transmitted diseases. During April and May of the 2007–2012 growing seasons, surveys were conducted in eight regions of Greece (Attiki, Evros, Fthiotida, Korinthos, Kozani, Larissa, Lefkada and Viotia to monitor virus incidence in lentil fields. A total of 1216 lentil samples, from plants exhibiting symptoms suggestive of virus infection, were analyzed from 2007 to 2009, using tissue-blot immunoassays (TBIA. Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV overall incidence was 4.9%, followed by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV (2.4% and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV (1.0%. When 274 of the samples were tested for the presence of luteoviruses, 38.8% were infected with Bean leafroll virus (BLRV. Since BLRV was not identified in the majority of the samples collected from 2007 to 2009, representative symptomatic plants (360 samples were collected in further surveys performed from 2010 to 2012 and tested by ELISA. Two viruses prevailed in those samples: BLRV (36.1% was associated with stunting, yellowing, and reddening symptoms and Pea enation mosaic virus-1 (PEMV-1 (35.0% was associated with mosaic and mottling symptoms. PSbMV (2.2%, AMV (2.2%, BYMV (3.9% and CMV (2.8% were also detected. When the molecular variability was analyzed for representative isolates, collected from the main Greek lentil production areas, five BLRV isolates showed 95% identity for the coat protein (CP gene and 99% for the 3’ end region. Three Greek PEMV isolates co-clustered with an isolate from Germany when their CP sequence was compared with isolates with no mutation in the aphid transmission gene. Overall, limited genetic variability was detected among Greek isolates of BLRV and PEMV.

  14. Does long term sport rock climbing training affect on echocardiography and heart rate variability in sedentary adults? A randomized, and controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aras Dicle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Regular physical activity can cause some long term effects on human body. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of sport rock climbing (SRC training at 70 % HRmax level on echocardiography (ECHO and heart rate variability (HRV for one hour a day and three days a week in an eight-week period. A total of 19 adults participated in this study voluntarily. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as experimental (EG and control (CG. While the EG went and did climbing training by using the top-rope method for 60 minutes a day, three days a week for 8 weeks and didn’t join any other physical activity programs, CG didn’t train and take part in any physical activity during the course of the study. Same measurements were repeated at the end of eight weeks. According to the findings, no significant change was observed in any of the ECHO and HRV parameters. However, an improvement was seen in some HRV parameters [average heart rate (HRave, standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN, standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals in all five-minute segments of the entire recording (SDANN, percent of difference between adjacent NN intervals that are greater than 50 ms (PNN50, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN interval (RMSSD] in EG. An exercise program based on SRC should be made more than eight weeks in order to have statistically significant changes with the purpose of observing an improvement in heart structure and functions. Keywords: Echocardiography, heart rate variability, sport rock climbing

  15. Meteorological and environmental variables affect flight behaviour and decision-making of an obligate soaring bird, the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon; Brandt, Joseph; Miller, Tricia A.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    The movements of animals are limited by evolutionary constraints and ecological processes and are strongly influenced by the medium through which they travel. For flying animals, variation in atmospheric conditions is critically influential in movement. Obligate soaring birds depend on external sources of updraft more than do other flying species, as without that updraft they are unable to sustain flight for extended periods. These species are therefore good models for understanding how the environment can influence decisions about movement. We used meteorological and topographic variables to understand the environmental influences on the decision to engage in flight by obligate soaring and critically endangered California Condors Gymnogyps californianus. Condors were more likely to fly, soared at higher altitudes and flew over smoother terrain when weather conditions promoted either thermal or orographic updrafts, for example when turbulence and solar radiation were higher and when winds from the east and north were stronger. However, increased atmospheric stability, which is inconsistent with thermal development but may be associated with orographic updrafts, was correlated with a somewhat higher probability of being in flight at lower altitudes and over rougher terrain. The close and previously undescribed linkages between Condor flight and conditions that support development of thermal and orographic updrafts provide important insight into the behaviour of obligate soaring birds and into the environmental parameters that may define the currently expanding distribution of Condors within and outside the state of California.

  16. Factors affecting the variability in the observed levels of cadmium in blood and urine among former and current smokers aged 20-64 and ≥ 65years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-03-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999-2012 were used to evaluate factors that affect observed levels of blood cadmium (BCd) and urine cadmium (UCd) among former and current smokers aged 20-64 and ≥65 years. Adjusted levels (AGM) for BCd and UCd were higher among females as compared to males. The order of AGM for BCd by race/ethnicity for 20-64 years old was non-Hispanic white (NHW) non-Hispanic black (NHB) and NHW > NHB for ≥65 years old. The order of AGMs for UCd for 20-64-year-old current smokers was NHW > NHB and NHW > NHB for former smokers. For 20-64-year-old current smokers, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with higher levels of BCd. Levels of both UCd and BCd increased with age, but the rate of increase was as much as seven times higher among ≥65 years old than 20-64 years old. For current smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked inside home was positively associated with the levels of BCd. For current smokers aged 20-64 years, the number of cigarettes smoked inside home was positively associated with the levels of UCd (p smoked every day on the days they were smoked was also positively associated with the levels of UCd (p smokers, levels of both UCd and BCd were positively associated (p smoked per day at the time of quitting smoking and negatively associated with the time since smoking was quitted (p < 0.01).

  17. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  18. Variables affecting simulated Be sputtering yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björkas, C., E-mail: carolina.bjorkas@helsinki.fi; Nordlund, K.

    2013-08-15

    Since beryllium is a strong candidate for the main plasma-facing material in future fusion reactors, its sputtering behaviour plays an important role in predicting the reactor’s life-time. Consensus about the actual sputtering yields has not yet been achieved, as observations are influenced by experimental method and/or studied sample. In this work, the beryllium sputtering due to deuterium and beryllium self-bombardment is analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. The main methodological aspects that influence the outcome, such as flux and fluence of the bombardment, are highlighted, and it is shown that the simulated yields also depend on the sample structure and deuterium content.

  19. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  20. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  1. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  2. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  3. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  4. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  5. Confounding of three binary-variables counterfactual model

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingwei; Hu, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    Confounding of three binary-variables counterfactual model is discussed in this paper. According to the effect between the control variable and the covariate variable, we investigate three counterfactual models: the control variable is independent of the covariate variable, the control variable has the effect on the covariate variable and the covariate variable affects the control variable. Using the ancillary information based on conditional independence hypotheses, the sufficient conditions...

  6. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  7. Benchmarking Variable Selection in QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Martin; Norinder, Ulf; Boyer, Scott; Carlsson, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Variable selection is important in QSAR modeling since it can improve model performance and transparency, as well as reduce the computational cost of model fitting and predictions. Which variable selection methods that perform well in QSAR settings is largely unknown. To address this question we, in a total of 1728 benchmarking experiments, rigorously investigated how eight variable selection methods affect the predictive performance and transparency of random forest models fitted to seven QSAR datasets covering different endpoints, descriptors sets, types of response variables, and number of chemical compounds. The results show that univariate variable selection methods are suboptimal and that the number of variables in the benchmarked datasets can be reduced with about 60 % without significant loss in model performance when using multivariate adaptive regression splines MARS and forward selection. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Variable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, J.B.; McBride, T.R.; Covic, J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes an automatic variable collimator which controls the width and thickness of X-ray beams in X-ray diagnostic medical equipment, and which is particularly adapted for use with computerized axial tomographic scanners. A two-part collimator is provided which shapes an X-ray beam both prior to its entering an object subject to radiographic analysis and after the attenuated beam has passed through the object. Interposed between a source of radiation and the object subject to radiographic analysis is a first or source collimator. The source collimator causes the X-ray beam emitted by the source of radiation to be split into a plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams. Disposed within the source collimator is a movable aperture plate which may be used to selectively vary the thickness of the plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams transmitted through the source collimator. A second or receiver collimator is interposed between the object subject to radiographic analysis and a series of radiation detectors. The receiver collimator is disposed to receive the attenuated X-ray beams passing through the object subject to radiographic analysis. Located within the receiver collimator are a plurality of movable aperture plates adapted to be displaced relative to a plurality of fixed aperture plates for the purpose of varying the width and thickness of the attenuated X-ray beams transmitted through the object subject to radiographic analysis. The movable aperture plates of the source and receiver collimators are automatically controlled by circuitry which is provided to allow remote operation of the movable aperture plates

  9. Filling Open Screw Holes in the Area of Metaphyseal Comminution Does Not Affect Fatigue Life of the Synthes Variable Angle Distal Femoral Locking Plate in the AO/OTA 33-A3 Fracture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Luis; Collon, Kevin; Alhandi, Ali; Kaimrajh, David; Varon, Maria; Latta, Loren; Vilella, Fernando

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical effect of filling locking variable angle (VA) screw holes at the area of metaphyseal fracture comminution in a Sawbones® (Sawbones USA, Vashon, Washington) model (AO/OTA 33A-3 fracture) using a Synthes VA locking compression plate (LCP) (Depuy Synthes, Warsaw, Indiana). Seven Sawbones® femur models had a Synthes VA-LCP placed as indicated by the manufacturers technique. A 4cm osteotomy was then created to simulate an AO/OTA 33-A3 femoral fracture pattern with metaphyseal comminution. The control group consisted of four constructs in which the open screw holes at the area of comminution were left unfilled; the experimental group consisted of three constructs in which the VA screw holes were filled with locking screws. One of the control constructs was statically loaded to failure at a rate of 5mm/min. A value equal to 75% of the ultimate load to failure was used as the loading force for fatigue testing of 250,000 cycles at 3Hz. Cycles to failure was recorded for each construct and averages were compared between groups. The average number of cycles to failure in the control and experimental groups were 37524±8187 and 43304±23835, respectively (p=0.72). No significant difference was observed with respect to cycles to failure or mechanism of failure between groups. In all constructs in both the control and experimental groups, plate failure reproducibly occurred with cracks through the variable angle holes in the area of bridged comminution. The Synthes VA-LCP in a simulated AO/OTA 33-A3 comminuted metaphyseal femoral fracture fails in a reproducible manner at the area of comminution through the "honeycomb" VA screw holes. Filling open VA screw holes at the site of comminution with locking screws does not increase fatigue life of the Synthes VA-LCP in a simulated AO/OTA 33-A3 distal femoral fracture. Further studies are necessary to determine whether use of this particular plate is contraindicated when bridging

  10. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  11. transformation of independent variables in polynomial regression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    preferable when possible to work with a simple functional form in transformed variables rather than with a more complicated form in the original variables. In this paper, it is shown that linear transformations applied to independent variables in polynomial regression models affect the t ratio and hence the statistical ...

  12. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  13. Solar Variability and Planetary Climates

    CERN Document Server

    Calisesi, Y; Gray, L; Langen, J; Lockwood, M

    2007-01-01

    Variations in solar activity, as revealed by variations in the number of sunspots, have been observed since ancient times. To what extent changes in the solar output may affect planetary climates, though, remains today more than ever a subject of controversy. In 2000, the SSSI volume on Solar Variability and Climate reviewed the to-date understanding of the physics of solar variability and of the associated climate response. The present volume on Solar Variability and Planetary Climates provides an overview of recent advances in this field, with particular focus at the Earth's middle and lower atmosphere. The book structure mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005, the collection of invited workshop contributions and of complementary introductory papers synthesizing the current understanding in key research areas such as middle atmospheric processes, stratosphere-troposphere dynamical coupling, tropospheric aerosols chemistry, solar storm influences, solar variability physics, and terrestri...

  14. Factors Affecting Pavement Surface and Evaluation Rating Accuracy and Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Sharlan R; Haddock, John E

    2018-01-01

    The collection of sufficient, accurate, and consistent pavement condition data is essential to an effective pavement management system. Condition data drive a variety of pavement management tasks such as: • Predicting future pavement performance• Identifying current and future maintenance and rehabilitation needs • Estimating budget needs and requirements • Reporting to decision makers • Selecting appropriate pavement management tools Pavement condition data are represented at either th...

  15. Formulation variables affecting deposition with the Kchaler device, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of current focus on tightening regulatory requirements, it is imperative that reproducibility of the metered dose of drugs be ensured during the formulation, packaging and use. We developed a dry powder inhalation package in our laboratories consisting of formulation mixes, design and a device, KCHALER, ...

  16. Cannabis and other variables affecting age at onset in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    genetic database of Afrikaners with schizophrenia. Method. A collaborative study on the genetics of schizophrenia in an. Afrikaner founder population has been conducted since 1997. Subjects are recruited by the Department of Psychiatry at the. University of Pretoria, South Africa and genetic analyses are undertaken by the ...

  17. Affective Variables and Success in Mathematics: The Counselor's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Jeanne L.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that most students have potential to be successful in college level mathematics course if they develop requisite skills, self-motivation, and confidence to overcome academic deficiencies and memories of past negative learning experiences. Sees counselor as potentially useful in providing assessment and intervention strategies to deal with…

  18. Cannabis and other variables affecting age at onset in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: An ongoing collaborative study between the Human Neurogenetic Laboratory of Rockefeller University, New York and the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pretoria, has been taking place since 1997, to map genes for schizophrenia. Aspects of cannabis use/abuse will be reported. Method: The ...

  19. Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

  20. Variables affecting orthodontic tooth movement with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, Justin R; McGorray, Susan P; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we examined the impacts of age, sex, root length, bone levels, and bone quality on orthodontic tooth movement. Clear aligners were programmed to move 1 central incisor 1 mm over the course of 8 weeks. Thirty subjects, ages 19 to 64, were enrolled, and measurements were made on digital models (percentage of tooth movement goal achieved). Morphometric features and bone quality were assessed with cone-beam computed tomography. Data from this study were combined with data from 2 similar studies to increase the power for some analyses. The mean percentage of tooth movement goal achieved was 57% overall. Linear regression modeling indicated a cubic relationship between age and tooth movement, with a decreasing rate of movement from ages 18 to 35 years, a slightly increasing rate from ages 35 to 50, and a decreasing rate from ages 50 to 70. The final decreasing trend was not apparent for women. As would be expected, the correlation was significant between the percentage of the goal achieved and the cone-beam computed tomography superimposed linear measures of tooth movement. A significant negative correlation was found between tooth movement and the measurement apex to the center of rotation, but bone quality, as measured by fractal dimension, was not correlated with movement. The relationship between age and tooth movement is complex and might differ for male and female patients. Limited correlations with cone-beam computed tomography morphology and rate of tooth movement were detected. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding Solar Cycle Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M., E-mail: cameron@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-10

    The level of solar magnetic activity, as exemplified by the number of sunspots and by energetic events in the corona, varies on a wide range of timescales. Most prominent is the 11-year solar cycle, which is significantly modulated on longer timescales. Drawing from dynamo theory, together with the empirical results of past solar activity and similar phenomena for solar-like stars, we show that the variability of the solar cycle can be essentially understood in terms of a weakly nonlinear limit cycle affected by random noise. In contrast to ad hoc “toy models” for the solar cycle, this leads to a generic normal-form model, whose parameters are all constrained by observations. The model reproduces the characteristics of the variable solar activity on timescales between decades and millennia, including the occurrence and statistics of extended periods of very low activity (grand minima). Comparison with results obtained with a Babcock–Leighton-type dynamo model confirm the validity of the normal-mode approach.

  2. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement.

  3. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior...... and bound algorithm. A hybrid model consists of measurement equations, which relate latent variables to measurement indicators and utilities to choice indicators, and structural equations, which link travelers’ observable characteristics to latent variables and explanatory variables to utilities. Estimation...

  4. Variable geometry Darrieus wind machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytlinski, J. T.; Serrano, D.

    1983-08-01

    A variable geometry Darrieus wind machine is proposed. The lower attachment of the blades to the rotor can move freely up and down the axle allowing the blades of change shape during rotation. Experimental data for a 17 m. diameter Darrieus rotor and a theoretical model for multiple streamtube performance prediction were used to develop a computer simulation program for studying parameters that affect the machine's performance. This new variable geometry concept is described and interrelated with multiple streamtube theory through aerodynamic parameters. The computer simulation study shows that governor behavior of a Darrieus turbine can not be attained by a standard turbine operating within normally occurring rotational velocity limits. A second generation variable geometry Darrieus wind turbine which uses a telescopic blade is proposed as a potential improvement on the studied concept.

  5. Variable importance in latent variable regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvalheim, O.M.; Arneberg, R.; Bleie, O.; Rajalahti, T.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and practical usefulness of a regression model are a function of both interpretability and prediction performance. This work presents some new graphical tools for improved interpretation of latent variable regression models that can also assist in improved algorithms for variable

  6. Affective processes in human-automation interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Stephanie M

    2011-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature on automation reliance by illuminating the influences of user moods and emotions on reliance on automated systems. Past work has focused predominantly on cognitive and attitudinal variables, such as perceived machine reliability and trust. However, recent work on human decision making suggests that affective variables (i.e., moods and emotions) are also important. Drawing from the affect infusion model, significant effects of affect are hypothesized. Furthermore, a new affectively laden attitude termed liking is introduced. Participants watched video clips selected to induce positive or negative moods, then interacted with a fictitious automated system on an X-ray screening task At five time points, important variables were assessed including trust, liking, perceived machine accuracy, user self-perceived accuracy, and reliance.These variables, along with propensity to trust machines and state affect, were integrated in a structural equation model. Happiness significantly increased trust and liking for the system throughout the task. Liking was the only variable that significantly predicted reliance early in the task. Trust predicted reliance later in the task, whereas perceived machine accuracy and user self-perceived accuracy had no significant direct effects on reliance at any time. Affective influences on automation reliance are demonstrated, suggesting that this decision-making process may be less rational and more emotional than previously acknowledged. Liking for a new system may be key to appropriate reliance, particularly early in the task. Positive affect can be easily induced and may be a lever for increasing liking.

  7. A Framework for Categorizing Important Project Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Vickie S.

    2003-01-01

    While substantial research has led to theories concerning the variables that affect project success, no universal set of such variables has been acknowledged as the standard. The identification of a specific set of controllable variables is needed to minimize project failure. Much has been hypothesized about the need to match project controls and management processes to individual projects in order to increase the chance for success. However, an accepted taxonomy for facilitating this matching process does not exist. This paper surveyed existing literature on classification of project variables. After an analysis of those proposals, a simplified categorization is offered to encourage further research.

  8. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  9. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare.......The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...

  10. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  11. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  12. Análisis de las variables de marketing que afectan al valor del cliente. La permanencia como variable controlable

    OpenAIRE

    Pedreño Santos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    To know how marketing variables affect customer value is essential for a company in order to be market and customer oriented, and to improve investment efficiency in both attracting and retaining customers. Thus, the assessment of the influence of marketing variables in customer value is of prime importance. This is recognized in many empirical studies of these variables, which address the impact of a single variable (or sets of a few variables) on customer value. A comprehensive, integrated ...

  13. Pterins and affective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoekstra (Rocco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be

  14. Variable mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  15. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  16. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  17. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables. This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on

  18. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, E. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables.This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on the

  19. The nebular variables

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    1974-01-01

    The Nebular Variables focuses on the nebular variables and their characteristics. Discussions are organized by type of nebular variable, namely, RW Aurigae stars, T Orionis stars, T Tauri stars, and peculiar nebular objects. Topics range from light variations of the stars to their spectroscopic and physical characteristics, spatial distribution, interaction with nebulosity, and evolutionary features. This volume is divided into four sections and consists of 25 chapters, the first of which provides general information on nebular variables, including their stellar associations and their classifi

  20. 42 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Feature-sensitive verification pursues effective analysis of the exponentially many variants of a program family. However, researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, occurring in real large-scale systems. Such a collection of bugs is a requirement for goal-oriented research...... provide self-contained simplified C99 versions of the bugs, facilitating understanding and tool evaluation. Our study provides insights into the nature and occurrence of variability bugs in a large C software system, and shows in what ways variability affects and increases the complexity of software bugs....

  1. Affect, Reason, and Persuasion: Advertising Strategies That Predict Affective and Analytic-Cognitive Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Arjun; Buck, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship of specific advertising strategies to affective and analytic cognitive responses of the audience. Analyses undergraduate students' responses to 240 advertisements. Demonstrates that advertising strategy variables accounted substantially for the variance in affective and analytic cognition.…

  2. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  3. Collective variables and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.

    1984-09-01

    This is an introduction to some basic concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We emphasize in particular the relevant entropy relative to a given set of collective variables, the meaning of the projection method in the Liouville space, its use to establish the generalized transport equations for these variables, and the interpretation of dissipation in the framework of information theory

  4. Variability: A Pernicious Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of greater male variability in test results is discussed in its historical context, and reasons feminists have objected to the hypothesis are considered. The hypothesis acquires political importance if it is considered that variability results from biological, rather than cultural, differences. (SLD)

  5. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  6. POVMs and hidden variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stairs, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Recent results by Paul Busch and Adan Cabello claim to show that by appealing to POVMs, non-contextual hidden variables can be ruled out in two dimensions. While the results of Busch and Cabello are mathematically correct, interpretive problems render them problematic as no hidden variable proofs

  7. Interdependence Among Organizational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The interrelationship between a set of organizational variables was investigated at 14 work organizations within a company. The variables were production, quality, costs, job satisfaction of operatives, job satisfaction of supervisors, work anxiety, accidents, absence, labor turnover, and industrial unrest. (Author)

  8. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  9. Reward-dependent modulation of movement variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekny, Sarah E; Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

    2015-03-04

    Movement variability is often considered an unwanted byproduct of a noisy nervous system. However, variability can signal a form of implicit exploration, indicating that the nervous system is intentionally varying the motor commands in search of actions that yield the greatest success. Here, we investigated the role of the human basal ganglia in controlling reward-dependent motor variability as measured by trial-to-trial changes in performance during a reaching task. We designed an experiment in which the only performance feedback was success or failure and quantified how reach variability was modulated as a function of the probability of reward. In healthy controls, reach variability increased as the probability of reward decreased. Control of variability depended on the history of past rewards, with the largest trial-to-trial changes occurring immediately after an unrewarded trial. In contrast, in participants with Parkinson's disease, a known example of basal ganglia dysfunction, reward was a poor modulator of variability; that is, the patients showed an impaired ability to increase variability in response to decreases in the probability of reward. This was despite the fact that, after rewarded trials, reach variability in the patients was comparable to healthy controls. In summary, we found that movement variability is partially a form of exploration driven by the recent history of rewards. When the function of the human basal ganglia is compromised, the reward-dependent control of movement variability is impaired, particularly affecting the ability to increase variability after unsuccessful outcomes. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354015-10$15.00/0.

  10. Seasonal Climatologies and Variability of Eastern Tropical Pacific Surface Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Paul C.

    1992-01-01

    Interannual variability caused by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP) is analogous to seasonal variability of comparable magnitude. Climatological spatial patterns and seasonal variability of physical variables that may affect the ETP ecosystem are presented and discussed. Surface temperature, surface salinity, mixed layer depth, thermocline depth, thermocline strength, and surface dynamic height were derived from bathythermograph, hydrocast, and...

  11. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  12. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  13. Affect and person specificity in mood regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Corby, Emma Kate

    2007-01-01

    489 university students in three countries completed questionnaires in a study investigating affect and person specificity in the use of mood regulation strategies. The major aims of the study were to (1) describe the relationship between specific affective states and the strategies utilised, (2) explore the role that individual differences variables played in the tendency to use particular strategies, and (3) measure the impact that the use of different strategies had upon subjective well-b...

  14. Eternity Variables to Simulate Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, WH; Boiten, EA; Moller, B

    2002-01-01

    Simulation of specifications is introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. Eternity variables are introduced as a more powerful alternative for prophecy variables and backward

  15. Sources of Variability in Children's Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lia; Stokes, Patricia D.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment involving 90 students in the 1st, 3rd, and 5th grades investigated how visual examples and grade (our surrogate for age) affected variability in a drawing task. The task involved using circles as the main element in a set of drawings. There were two examples: One was simple and single (a smiley face inside a circle); the other,…

  16. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. ... applied on precipitation data on a monthly, seasonally, annually, decade scale and the number of rainy ... 2015). As a result, such irregularities in precipitation,. i.e., droughts and floods can affect the ... (January–December), years and decades.

  17. Age dependant somatometric and cephalometric variables among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The process of growth passes through stages of developmental processes. This stage is the age. Age is known to affect many parameters in the body and this includes somatometric and cephalometric variables. Methods: The study was conducted with a total number of 409 students of university of Jos, ...

  18. Heart rate variability in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Munkholm, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested reduced in bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy individuals (HC). This meta-analysis investigated: HRV differences in BD compared with HC, major depressive disorder or schizophrenia; HRV differences between affective states; HRV...

  19. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  20. Several complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Topics discussed include the elementary of holomorphic functions of several complex variables; the Weierstrass preparation theorem; meromorphic functions, holomorphic line bundles and divisors; elliptic operators on compact manifolds; hermitian connections; the Hodge decomposition theorem. ( author)

  1. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  2. Variable Pricing Feasibility Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) and Willard Bishop Consulting (Barrington, IL) to evaluate the practicality of using a variable pricing system within DeCA to maintain an average of 30 percent customer savings and lower appropriated fund costs...

  3. Evolution of variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    Throughout the domain of the H R diagram lie groupings of stars whose luminosity varies with time. These variable stars can be classified based on their observed properties into distinct types such as β Cephei stars, δ Cephei stars, and Miras, as well as many other categories. The underlying mechanism for the variability is generally felt to be due to four different causes: geometric effects, rotation, eruptive processes, and pulsation. In this review the focus will be on pulsation variables and how the theory of stellar evolution can be used to explain how the various regions of variability on the H R diagram are populated. To this end a generalized discussion of the evolutionary behavior of a massive star, an intermediate mass star, and a low mass star will be presented. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Affectivity in the Liminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new...... at the threshold. The paper contains three sections: a) liminality and affectivity in van Gennep’s life; b) liminality and affectivity as a theme in his work; c) liminality and affectivity as developed in the early reception of his work....

  5. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  6. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  7. Suspended graphene variable capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelGhany, M.; Mahvash, F.; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Favron, A.; Martel, R.; Siaj, M.; Szkopek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tuning of electrical circuit resonance with a variable capacitor, or varactor, finds wide application with the most important being wireless telecommunication. We demonstrate an electromechanical graphene varactor, a variable capacitor wherein the capacitance is tuned by voltage controlled deflection of a dense array of suspended graphene membranes. The low flexural rigidity of graphene monolayers is exploited to achieve low actuation voltage in an ultra-thin structure. Large arrays compr...

  8. Engaging in Affective Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    schools, the paper develops an affective-power approach drawing on Foucault’s notion of power and Whetherell’s conceptualisation of affect. The approach captures the affective dimension of governing and resistance in interactional practice that engages teachers and pupils. This enables a research focus......The paper presents how the merging of the theoretical concepts ‘Affect’ and ‘Power’ faces methodological and ethical challenges when entangled in teachers’ and pupils’ practice. Based on a study of pedagogical methods aiming to shape certain affective relations and avoid conflicts in Danish primary....... Witnessing tense conflict situations taking place I as a researcher get affected as well, and in turn affect the practice myself. Because, both the teacher, pupil, and I are well aware of my research focus on power and affect, being observed in conflictual situations contributes to pervasive shame...

  9. Winds in cataclysmic variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.; Ladd, E.F.; Mason, K.O.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of two dwarf novae, CN Ori and RX And, at various phases of their outburst cycles confirms that the far uv flux increases dramatically about 1-2 days after the optical outburst begins. At this time the uv spectral line profiles indicate the presence of a high velocity wind. The detectability of the wind depends more on the steepness of the spectrum, and thus on the flux in the extreme ultraviolet, than on the absolute value of the far uv luminosity. The uv continuum during outburst consists of (at least) two components, the most luminous of which is located behind the wind and is completely absorbed by the wind at the line frequencies. Several pieces of evidence suggest that the uv emission lines that are observed in many cataclysmic variables during quiescence have a different location in the binary than the wind, and are affected very little by the outburst

  10. Pulsating red variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The observational characteristics of pulsating red variables are reviewed with particular emphasis on the Miras. These variables represent the last stage in the evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A large fraction of the IRAS sources in the Bulge are Mira variables and a subset of these are also OH/IR sources. Their periods range up to 720 days, though most are between 360 and 560 days. At a given period those stars with the highest pulsation amplitudes have the highest mass-loss rates; this is interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between mass-loss and pulsation. It is suggested that once an AGB star has become a Mira it will evolve with increasing pulsation amplitude and mass-loss, but with very little change of luminosity or logarithmic period. 26 refs

  11. Variable stator radial turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  12. Solar Variability Magnitudes and Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The Sun’s net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to many millennia. The former are directly observed as part of the on-going 37-year long total solar irradiance climate data record, while the latter are inferred from solar proxy and stellar evolution models. Since the Sun provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system, changes in the sunlight reaching our planet can have - and have had - significant impacts on life and civilizations.Total solar irradiance has been measured from space since 1978 by a series of overlapping instruments. These have shown changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere from timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. The Sun’s ~0.01% variations over a few minutes are caused by the superposition of convection and oscillations, and even occasionally by a large flare. Over days to weeks, changing surface activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle has comparable irradiance variations with peaks near solar maxima.Secular variations are harder to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Proxy models of the Sun based on cosmogenic isotope records and inferred from Earth climate signatures indicate solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitude of these variations depends on many assumptions. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities.In this talk I will summarize the Sun’s variability magnitudes over different temporal ranges, showing examples relevant for climate studies as well as detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  13. Internal variables in thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, Arkadi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes an effective method for modeling advanced materials like polymers, composite materials and biomaterials, which are, as a rule, inhomogeneous. The thermoelastic theory with internal variables presented here provides a general framework for predicting a material’s reaction to external loading. The basic physical principles provide the primary theoretical information, including the evolution equations of the internal variables. The cornerstones of this framework are the material representation of continuum mechanics, a weak nonlocality, a non-zero extra entropy flux, and a consecutive employment of the dissipation inequality. Examples of thermoelastic phenomena are provided, accompanied by detailed procedures demonstrating how to simulate them.

  14. Resiliencia y variables sociodemograficas

    OpenAIRE

    Calero Martinez, Edgar David

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se aborda la definición de una de las variables dentro de lo que se denomina Capital psicológico positivo, la Resiliencia, sus principales características y algunas de las variables socio demográficas que en el estudio pretenden ver el nivel de relación existente entre cada una de ellas (indirecta o directamente) en el proceso resiliente de una persona para posteriores discusiones y su implicación dentro de la gestión empresarial y sus direcciones futuras.

  15. Biological Sampling Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-08

    There are many sources of variability that exist in the sample collection and analysis process. This paper addresses many, but not all, sources of variability. The main focus of this paper was to better understand and estimate variability due to differences between samplers. Variability between days was also studied, as well as random variability within each sampler. Experiments were performed using multiple surface materials (ceramic and stainless steel), multiple contaminant concentrations (10 spores and 100 spores), and with and without the presence of interfering material. All testing was done with sponge sticks using 10-inch by 10-inch coupons. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as the BA surrogate. Spores were deposited using wet deposition. Grime was coated on the coupons which were planned to include the interfering material (Section 3.3). Samples were prepared and analyzed at PNNL using CDC protocol (Section 3.4) and then cultured and counted. Five samplers were trained so that samples were taken using the same protocol. Each sampler randomly sampled eight coupons each day, four coupons with 10 spores deposited and four coupons with 100 spores deposited. Each day consisted of one material being tested. The clean samples (no interfering materials) were run first, followed by the dirty samples (coated with interfering material). There was a significant difference in recovery efficiency between the coupons with 10 spores deposited (mean of 48.9%) and those with 100 spores deposited (mean of 59.8%). There was no general significant difference between the clean and dirty (containing interfering material) coupons or between the two surface materials; however, there was a significant interaction between concentration amount and presence of interfering material. The recovery efficiency was close to the same for coupons with 10 spores deposited, but for the coupons with 100 spores deposited, the recovery efficiency for the dirty samples was significantly larger (65

  16. Affected in the nightclub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan

    2013-01-01

    simultaneously with the affects of love, joy, sympathy and so on. Alcohol, illicit drugs, bouncers, music and other human or non-human actants are part of the place. It is within this heterogeneous assemblage that affects become embodied. The data consists of 273 cases from a large Copenhagen nightclub where...

  17. Soil variability in engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Finite Element Method (RFEM). This method has been used to investigate the random behavior of soils in the context of a variety of classical geotechnical problems. Afterward, some following studies collected the worldwide variability values of many technical parameters of soils (Phoon and Kulhawy 1999a) and their spatial correlation functions (Phoon and Kulhawy 1999b). In Italy, Cherubini et al. (2007) calculated the spatial variability structure of sandy and clayey soils from the standard cone penetration test readings. The large extent of the worldwide measured spatial variability of soils and rocks heavily affects the reliability of geotechnical designing as well as other uncertainties introduced by testing devices and engineering models. So far, several methods have been provided to deal with the preceding sources of uncertainties in engineering designing models (e.g. First Order Reliability Method, Second Order Reliability Method, Response Surface Method, High Dimensional Model Representation, etc.). Nowadays, the efforts in this field have been focusing on (1) measuring spatial variability of different rocks and soils and (2) developing numerical models that take into account the spatial variability as additional physical variable. References Cherubini C., Vessia G. and Pula W. 2007. Statistical soil characterization of Italian sites for reliability analyses. Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop. on Characterization and Engineering Properties of Natural Soils, 3-4: 2681-2706. Griffiths D.V. and Fenton G.A. 1993. Seepage beneath water retaining structures founded on spatially random soil, Géotechnique, 43(6): 577-587. Mandelbrot B.B. 1983. The Fractal Geometry of Nature. San Francisco: W H Freeman. Matheron G. 1962. Traité de Géostatistique appliquée. Tome 1, Editions Technip, Paris, 334 p. Phoon K.K. and Kulhawy F.H. 1999a. Characterization of geotechnical variability. Can Geotech J, 36(4): 612-624. Phoon K.K. and Kulhawy F.H. 1999b. Evaluation of geotechnical property

  18. INTER-EXAMINER VARIABILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish whether inter-examiner variability is still a significant factor for the undergraduate orthopaedic clinical ... D. The scores for each student were tabulated and the range, mean, and pass rate determined for each of the examiners. ... has not the heart to reject the man”, consistently gave higher scores (1).

  19. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  20. Variability in GPS sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauncey, DL; King, EA; Bignall, HE; Lovell, JEJ; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Tzioumis, AK; Tingay, SJ; Macquart, JP; McCulloch, PM

    2003-01-01

    Flux density monitoring data at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz is presented for a sample of 33 southern hemisphere GPS sources, drawn from the 2.7 GHz Parkes survey. This monitoring data, together with VLBI monitoring data, shows that a small fraction of these sources, similar to10%, vary. Their variability falls

  1. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  2. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  3. Surfing wave climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Iñigo J.; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2014-10-01

    International surfing destinations are highly dependent on specific combinations of wind-wave formation, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. Surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, and analyses of surf quality require the consideration of the seasonal, interannual and long-term variability of surf conditions on a global scale. A multivariable standardized index based on expert judgment is proposed for this purpose. This index makes it possible to analyze surf conditions objectively over a global domain. A summary of global surf resources based on a new index integrating existing wave, wind, tides and sea surface temperature databases is presented. According to general atmospheric circulation and swell propagation patterns, results show that west-facing low to middle-latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Month-to-month analysis reveals strong seasonal variations in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing the frequency of such events in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. Interannual variability was investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional modes of low-frequency climate variability such as El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, revealing their strong influence at both the global and the regional scale. Results of the long-term trends demonstrate an increase in the probability of surfable events on west-facing coasts around the world in recent years. The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers, the surf tourism industry and surf-related coastal planners and stakeholders.

  4. Rainfall–runoff temporal variability in Kermanshah province, Iran ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Investigation of changes in rainfall and runoff patterns in various regions and determining their relationship ... efficiently reveal the human and natural factors in this variability. One of ..... pattern centers affecting on seasonal precipitation of Iran;.

  5. Tides and Decadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms by which oceanic tides and decadal variability in the oceans are connected. We distinguish between variability caused by tides and variability observed in the tides themselves. Both effects have been detected at some level. The most obvious connection with decadal timescales is through the 18.6-year precession of the moon's orbit plane. This precession gives rise to a small tide of the same period and to 18.6-year modulations in the phase and amplitudes of short-period tides. The 18.6-year "node tide" is very small, no more than 2 cm anywhere, and in sea level data it is dominated by the ocean's natural Variability. Some authors have naively attributed climate variations with periods near 19 years directly to the node tide, but the amplitude of the tide is too small for this mechanism to be operative. The more likely explanation (Loder and Garrett, JGR, 83, 1967-70, 1978) is that the 18.6-y modulations in short-period tides, especially h e principal tide M2, cause variations in ocean mixing, which is then observed in temperature and other climatic indicators. Tidally forced variability has also been proposed by some authors, either in response to occasional (and highly predictable) tidal extremes or as a nonlinear low-frequency oscillation caused by interactions between short-period tides. The former mechanism can produce only short-duration events hardly more significant than normal tidal ranges, but the latter mechanism can in principle induce low-frequency oscillations. The most recent proposal of this type is by Keeling and Whorf, who highlight the 1800-year spectral peak discovered by Bond et al. (1997). But the proposal appears contrived and should be considered, in the words of Munk et al. (2002), "as the most likely among unlikely candidates."

  6. Guidelines for the Investigation of Mediating Variables in Business Research

    OpenAIRE

    MacKinnon, David P.; Coxe, Stefany; Baraldi, Amanda N.

    2011-01-01

    Business theories often specify the mediating mechanisms by which a predictor variable affects an outcome variable. In the last 30 years, investigations of mediating processes have become more widespread with corresponding developments in statistical methods to conduct these tests. The purpose of this article is to provide guidelines for mediation studies by focusing on decisions made prior to the research study that affect the clarity of conclusions from a mediation study, the statistical mo...

  7. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  8. Temporal and spatial variability of rainfall distribution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rainfall and evapotranspiration are the two major climatic factors affecting agricultural production. This study examined the extent and nature of rainfall variability from measured data while estimation of evapotranspiration was made from recorded weather data. Analysis of rainfall variability is made by the rainfall anomaly ...

  9. Climate variability and sustainable food production: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The past two decades have seen invigorated debates on the causal link between climate variability and food crop production. This study[1] extends the debate further by investigating how climate variability has affected the production of four specific food crops: maize, millet, rice, and groundnuts in north-eastern Ghana.

  10. Air temperature variability in a high-elevation Himalayan catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynen, Martin; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Buri, Pascal; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Air temperature is a key control of processes affecting snow and glaciers in high-elevation catchments, including melt, snowfall and sublimation. It is therefore a key input variable to models of land-surface-atmosphere interaction. Despite this importance, its spatial variability is poorly

  11. Quantifying and mapping spatial variability in simulated forest plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin R. Corral; Harold E. Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    We used computer simulations to test the efficacy of multivariate statistical methods to detect, quantify, and map spatial variability of forest stands. Simulated stands were developed of regularly-spaced plantations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We assumed no affects of competition or mortality, but random variability was added to individual tree characteristics...

  12. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments

  13. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  14. Technological Capability's Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Reichert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence in configuration of the technological capability of companies in sectors with medium-low technological intensity. To achieve the goal proposed in this article a survey was carried out. Based on the framework developed by Lall (1992 which classifies firms in basic, intermediate and advanced level of technological capability; it was found that the predominant technological capability is intermediate, with 83.7% of respondent companies (plastics companies in Brazil. It is believed that the main contribution of this study is the finding that the dependent variable named “Technological Capability” can be explained at a rate of 65% by six variables: development of new processes; selection of the best equipment supplier; sales of internally developed new technology to third parties; design and manufacture of equipment; study of the work methods and perform inventory control; and improvement of product quality.

  15. Dementia in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with affective disorder have increased risk of developing dementia compared to other groups of psychiatric patients and compared to the general population. METHOD: In the Danish psychiatric central register, 3363 patients...... with unipolar affective disorder, 518 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 1025 schizophrenic and 8946 neurotic patients were identified according to the diagnosis at the first ever discharge from psychiatric hospital during the period from 1970 to 1974. The rate of discharge diagnosis of dementia...... on readmission was estimated during 21 years of follow-up. In addition, the rates were compared with the rates for admission to psychiatric hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of dementia for the total Danish population. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar and with bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk...

  16. Recurrence in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Andersen, P K

    1999-01-01

    The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward...... recurrence. The study base was the Danish psychiatric case register of all hospital admissions for primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. A total of 20,350 first-admission patients were discharged with a diagnosis of major affective disorder. For women with unipolar disorder and for all...... kinds of patients with bipolar disorder, the rate of recurrence was affected by the number of prior episodes even when the effect was adjusted for individual frailty toward recurrence. No effect of episodes but a large effect of the frailty parameter was found for unipolar men. The authors concluded...

  17. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cravings and weight gain Thoughts of death or suicide SAD is more common in women, young people, ... of serotonin, a brain chemical that affects your mood. Their bodies also make too ... with light therapy. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  18. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology......This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  19. Variable Kernel Density Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, George R.; Scott, David W.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate some of the possibilities for improvement of univariate and multivariate kernel density estimates by varying the window over the domain of estimation, pointwise and globally. Two general approaches are to vary the window width by the point of estimation and by point of the sample observation. The first possibility is shown to be of little efficacy in one variable. In particular, nearest-neighbor estimators in all versions perform poorly in one and two dimensions, but begin to b...

  20. TEC variability over Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, B.; Alazo, K.; Rodriguez, M.; Calzadilla, A.

    2003-01-01

    The variability of total electron content (TEC) measured over Havana using ATS-6, SMS-1 and GOES-3 geosynchronous satellite signals has been investigated for low, middle and high solar activity periods from 1974 to 1982. The obtained results show that standard deviation is smooth during nighttime hours and maximum at noon or postnoon hours. Strong solar activity dependence of standard deviation with a maximum values during HSA has been found. (author)

  1. How culture affects management?

    OpenAIRE

    Billi, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    The study is about how culture affects management. Culture can have many different meanings. Management has also many different ways to be approached. While doing research about cultures, the study will try to analyze how the culture affects the management. The study starts with a full explanation of the meaning of culture. Some previous analysis and studies are added to illustrate my study on the subject. The effect culture has on management is studied at different levels. The study does not...

  2. Affective factors which relate to dance on secondary school level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Motivation, stress, anxiety and self-concept are affective variables which may relate to dance performance. An empirical investigation ...

  3. Short timescale variability in the faint sky variability survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Rueda, L.; Groot, P.J.; Augusteijn, T.; Nelemans, G.A.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2006-01-01

    We present the V-band variability analysis of the Faint Sky Variability Survey (FSVS). The FSVS combines colour and time variability information, from timescales of 24 minutes to tens of days, down to V = 24. We find that �1% of all point sources are variable along the main sequence reaching �3.5%

  4. Articulatory variability in cluttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, Mariam; Mooshammer, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the articulatory processes of the hasty and mumbled speech in cluttering, the kinematic variability was analysed by means of electromagnetic midsagittal articulography. In contrast to persons with stuttering, those with cluttering improve their intelligibility by concentrating on their speech task. Variability has always been an important criterion in comparable studies of stuttering and is discussed in terms of the stability of the speech motor system. The aim of the current study was to analyse the spatial and temporal variability in the speech of three persons with cluttering (PWC) and three control speakers. All participants were native speakers of German. The speech material consisted of repetitive CV syllables and loan words such as 'emotionalisieren', because PWC have the severest problems with long words with a complex syllable structure. The results showed a significantly higher coefficient of variation for PWC in loan word production, both in the temporal and in the spatial domain, whereas the means of displacements and durations did not differ between groups. These findings were discussed in terms of the effects of the linguistic complexity, since for the syllable repetition task, no significant differences between PWC and controls were found. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. A Survey of U.S. Atlanta and Nagano Olympians: Variables Perceived to Influence Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Daniel; Greenleaf, Christy; Chung, Yongchul; Guinan, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Examined the frequency and magnitude of specific variables perceived to have affected U.S. Olympic athletes' performance. Respondents perceived that performance was influenced by: performance variables (e.g., preparation for distraction); team variables (e.g., strong cohesion); coaching variables (e.g., coaching expectations); family-friend…

  6. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eTschacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.3 years. Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted five minutes. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  7. About hidden influence of predictor variables: Suppressor and mediator variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Boško

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper procedure for researching hidden influence of predictor variables in regression models and depicting suppressor variables and mediator variables is shown. It is also shown that detection of suppressor variables and mediator variables could provide refined information about the research problem. As an example for applying this procedure, relation between Atlantic atmospheric centers and air temperature and precipitation amount in Serbia is chosen. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  8. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  9. Examining the causes of memory strength variability: recollection, attention failure, or encoding variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Joshua D; Aly, Mariam; Wang, Wei-Chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2013-11-01

    A prominent finding in recognition memory is that studied items are associated with more variability in memory strength than new items. Here, we test 3 competing theories for why this occurs-the encoding variability, attention failure, and recollection accounts. Distinguishing among these theories is critical because each provides a fundamentally different account of the processes underlying recognition memory. The encoding variability and attention failure accounts propose that old item variance will be unaffected by retrieval manipulations because the processes producing this effect are ascribed to encoding. The recollection account predicts that both encoding and retrieval manipulations that preferentially affect recollection will affect memory variability. These contrasting predictions were tested by examining the effect of response speeding (Experiment 1), dividing attention at retrieval (Experiment 2), context reinstatement (Experiment 3), and increased test delay (Experiment 4) on recognition performance. The results of all 4 experiments confirm the predictions of the recollection account and are inconsistent with the encoding variability account. The evidence supporting the attention failure account is mixed, with 2 of the 4 experiments confirming the account and 2 disconfirming the account. These results indicate that encoding variability and attention failure are insufficient accounts of memory variance and provide support for the recollection account. Several alternative theoretical accounts of the results are also considered. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Relating Psychosocial Variables in High School to Alcohol Use Trajectories During the Transition to Young Adulthood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, Craig

    2000-01-01

    .... This study examined psychosocial variables-including peer focus, social skills, affect, antisocial behavior, gender, and sex-role attitudes-in an attempt to uncover variables related to changes...

  11. ENSO modulation of interannual variability of dust aerosols over the northwest Indian ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, P.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Mineral dust is known to affect many aspects of the climate of the north Indian Ocean (IO) However, what controls its interannual variability over this region is largely unknown The authors study the mechanism controlling the interannual variability...

  12. Measuring Variability in the Presence of Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, W. F.

    Quantitative measurements of a variable signal in the presence of noise requires very careful attention to subtle affects which can easily bias the measurements. This is not limited to the low-count rate regime, nor is the bias error necessarily small. In this talk I will mention some of the dangers in applying standard techniques which are appropriate for high signal to noise data but fail in the cases where the S/N is low. I will discuss methods for correcting the bias in the these cases, both for periodic and non-periodic variability, and will introduce the concept of the ``filtered de-biased RMS''. I will also illustrate some common abuses of power spectrum interpretation. All of these points will be illustrated with examples from recent work on CV and AGN variability.

  13. Structure and Evolution of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.

    2007-06-01

    Theoretical models and observational results are reviewed. The general picture of the structure and evolution of cataclysmic variables (CV) is presented, together with a brief discussion of additional mechanisms of intrinsic variability of the components and magnetic activity of secondaries. Special attention is paid to the accretion structures - flow, disk, column - which are affected by the magnetic field of the white dwarf. The mass and angular momentum transfer in asynchronous MCVs leads to a "propeller" stage of rapid synchronization, after which the "idlings" of the white dwarf are altered to "swingings" with a characteristic time of century(ies). The disk- magnetic field interaction leads to precession of the white dwarf, which causes quasi-periodic changes of the equilibrium rotational period. "Shot noise" in cataclysmic variables is discussed based on one-bandpass and multi-color observations.

  14. Individual Movement Variability Magnitudes Are Explained by Cortical Neural Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Shlomi; Donchin, Opher; Dinstein, Ilan

    2017-09-13

    Humans exhibit considerable motor variability even across trivial reaching movements. This variability can be separated into specific kinematic components such as extent and direction that are thought to be governed by distinct neural processes. Here, we report that individual subjects (males and females) exhibit different magnitudes of kinematic variability, which are consistent (within individual) across movements to different targets and regardless of which arm (right or left) was used to perform the movements. Simultaneous fMRI recordings revealed that the same subjects also exhibited different magnitudes of fMRI variability across movements in a variety of motor system areas. These fMRI variability magnitudes were also consistent across movements to different targets when performed with either arm. Cortical fMRI variability in the posterior-parietal cortex of individual subjects explained their movement-extent variability. This relationship was apparent only in posterior-parietal cortex and not in other motor system areas, thereby suggesting that individuals with more variable movement preparation exhibit larger kinematic variability. We therefore propose that neural and kinematic variability are reliable and interrelated individual characteristics that may predispose individual subjects to exhibit distinct motor capabilities. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity and movement kinematics are remarkably variable. Although intertrial variability is rarely studied, here, we demonstrate that individual human subjects exhibit distinct magnitudes of neural and kinematic variability that are reproducible across movements to different targets and when performing these movements with either arm. Furthermore, when examining the relationship between cortical variability and movement variability, we find that cortical fMRI variability in parietal cortex of individual subjects explained their movement extent variability. This enabled us to explain why some subjects

  15. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper connects two strands of the literature on social trust by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data...... set is available. The results indicate that trust affects schooling and the rule of law directly. These variables in turn affect the investment rate (schooling) and provide a direct effect (rule of law) on the growth rate. The paper closes with a short discussion of the relevance of the findings....

  16. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  17. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    the paper raises the questions where to locate aesthetics when planners and architects wishes to design for aesthetical experiences and sensations rather than formal objects. The paper will proceed through a brief outline of the recent notion of assemblage and affect in urban studies, planning theory...... happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...

  18. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  19. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  20. The Relationship among Leisure Interests, Personality Traits, Affect, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Todd J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between leisure interests and the Big Five personality traits, positive and negative affect, and moods. Regression analysis identified particular personality but not mood or affect variables as significant predictors of leisure factor scores. Further exploration through factor analysis revealed factor…

  1. Phytoscreening with SPME: Variability Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Matt A; Burken, Joel G

    2015-01-01

    Phytoscreening has been demonstrated at a variety of sites over the past 15 years as a low-impact, sustainable tool in delineation of shallow groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Collection of tree cores is rapid and straightforward, but low concentrations in tree tissues requires sensitive analytics. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is amenable to the complex matrix while allowing for solvent-less extraction. Accurate quantification requires the absence of competitive sorption, examined here both in laboratory experiments and through comprehensive examination of field data. Analysis of approximately 2,000 trees at numerous field sites also allowed testing of the tree genus and diameter effects on measured tree contaminant concentrations. Collectively, while these variables were found to significantly affect site-adjusted perchloroethylene (PCE) concentrations, the explanatory power of these effects was small (adjusted R(2) = 0.031). 90th quantile chemical concentrations in trees were significantly reduced by increasing Henry's constant and increasing hydrophobicity. Analysis of replicate tree core data showed no correlation between replicate relative standard deviation (RSD) and wood type or tree diameter, with an overall median RSD of 30%. Collectively, these findings indicate SPME is an appropriate technique for sampling and analyzing chlorinated solvents in wood and that phytoscreening is robust against changes in tree type and diameter.

  2. The dynamics of variable-density turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The dynamics of variable-density turbulent fluids are studied by direct numerical simulation. The flow is incompressible so that acoustic waves are decoupled from the problem, and implying that density is not a thermodynamic variable. Changes in density occur due to molecular mixing. The velocity field, is in general, divergent. A pseudo-spectral numerical technique is used to solve the equations of motion. Three-dimensional simulations are performed using a grid size of 128 3 grid points. Two types of problems are studied: (1) the decay of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, and (2) buoyancy-generated turbulence in a fluid with large density fluctuations. In the case of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, the overall statistical decay behavior, for the cases studied, is relatively unaffected by the presence of density variations when the initial density and velocity fields are statistically independent. The results for this case are in quantitative agreement with previous numerical and laboratory results. In this case, the initial density field has a bimodal probability density function (pdf) which evolves in time towards a Gaussian distribution. The pdf of the density field is symmetric about its mean value throughout its evolution. If the initial velocity and density fields are statistically dependent, however, the decay process is significantly affected by the density fluctuations. For the case of buoyancy-generated turbulence, variable-density departures from the Boussinesq approximation are studied. The results of the buoyancy-generated turbulence are compared with variable-density model predictions. Both a one-point (engineering) model and a two-point (spectral) model are tested against the numerical data. Some deficiencies in these variable-density models are discussed and modifications are suggested

  3. Climate variability and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manton, M.

    2006-01-01

    When Australia's climate should not be definite barrier to the population reaching 30 million by 2050, it is recognised that our climate has limited the development of the nation over the past 200 years. Indeed in 1911, based on a comparison of the climate and development between the US and Australia. Griffith Taylor predicted that Australia's population would be 19 million at the end of the 20th century, which is a pretty good 90-year forecast. The climate constraint is not only due to much of the country being semi-arid with an annual rainfall below 400 millimetres, but also due to the large year-to-year variability of rainfall across the country

  4. Variable cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A.P.; Sprunger, E.V.

    1980-09-16

    A variable cycle turboshaft engine includes a remote fan system and respective high and low pressure systems for selectively driving the fan system in such a manner as to provide VTOL takeoff capability and minimum specific fuel consumption (SFC) at cruise and loiter conditions. For takeoff the fan system is primarily driven by the relatively large low pressure system whose combustor receives the motive fluid from a core bypass duct and, for cruise and loiter conditions, the fan system is driven by both a relatively small high pressure core and the low pressure system with its combustor inoperative. A mixer is disposed downstream of the high pressure system for mixing the relatively cold air from the bypass duct and the relatively hot air from the core prior to its flow to the low pressure turbine.

  5. The Affective Dimensions of Mathematical Difficulties in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Lebens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical difficulties (MDs are frequently characterised by cognitive deficits such as ineffective problem solving strategies and a lack of computational fluency. The established literature indicates that mathematical achievement is not only a function of cognitive factors but it also points to the importance of affective factors for the development of mathematical achievement. In the light of this evidence, the exploration of children's affective responses towards mathematics becomes a central issue. Whereas previous studies tended to research affective motivational constructs such as self-efficacy in isolation from other related constructs, the literature suffers from a shortage of research on the relationship between different affective motivational variables and their impact on mathematical achievement in different age and achievement bands. The present paper aims to address this aim by employing a newly developed instrument to measure affective motivational variables. Overall, the present findings support the assumption that children of average ability are less influenced by affective factors than children with mathematical difficulties.

  6. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  7. The market value of variable renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, Lion

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive discussion of the market value of variable renewable energy (VRE). The inherent variability of wind speeds and solar radiation affects the price that VRE generators receive on the market (market value). During windy and sunny times the additional electricity supply reduces the prices. Because the drop is larger with more installed capacity, the market value of VRE falls with higher penetration rate. This study aims to develop a better understanding on how the market value with penetration, and how policies and prices affect the market value. Quantitative evidence is derived from a review of published studies, regression analysis of market data, and the calibrated model of the European electricity market EMMA. We find the value of wind power to fall from 110% of the average power price to 50–80% as wind penetration increases from zero to 30% of total electricity consumption. For solar power, similarly low value levels are reached already at 15% penetration. Hence, competitive large-scale renewable deployment will be more difficult to accomplish than as many anticipate. - Graphical abstract: Wind value factor estimates from a literature review (a), the numerical model EMMA (b), and German historical market data (c). The value factor (wind revenue over base price) decreases with higher penetration rates. Highlights: ► The variability of solar and wind power affects their market value. ► The market value of variable renewables falls with higher penetration rates. ► We quantify the reduction with market data, numerical modeling, and a lit review. ► At 30% penetration, wind power is worth only 50–80% of a constant power source

  8. Statistical variability of hydro-meteorological variables as indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical variability of hydro-meteorological variables as indicators of climate change in north-east Sokoto-Rima basin, Nigeria. ... water resources development including water supply project, agriculture and tourism in the study area. Key word: Climate change, Climatic variability, Actual evapotranspiration, Global warming ...

  9. The Affective Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carnera, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper confronts biopolitics with modern labour addressing questions of ‘governmentality’, ‘self-management’ and ‘social innovation’. It argues that the new modes of production within immaterial labour involve a new complex relation between on the one hand the ‘Art of Governance...... of biopolitics that surpasses that of governmentality. The affective self-relation is used as a research tool to analyse the creation of social and economic values in our new modes of productions, for instance, within free labour of the cultural industry. The movie The Five Obstructions is used to show how...... organizing good affective encounters based on limitations enhance and facilitate the performative dimension of self-management. Finally, the paper addresses the problem of critique confronting self-relation with Spinoza's ethics as an ethical difference of powe...

  10. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  11. The Performance of Variable Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. McNamara; Henry R. Oppenheimer

    1991-01-01

    Variable annuities have become increasingly important in retirement plans. This paper provides an examination of the investment performance of variable annuities for the period year-end 1973 to year-end 1988. Returns, risk, and selectivity measures are analyzed for the sample of annuities, for individual variable annuities, and for subsamples of annuities with similar portfolio size and turnover. While the investment returns of variable annuities were greater than inflation over the period, t...

  12. Solar variability and clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2000-01-01

    Satellite observations have revealed a surprising imprint of the 11- year solar cycle on global low cloud cover. The cloud data suggest a correlation with the intensity of Galactic cosmic rays. If this apparent connection between cosmic rays and clouds is real, variations of the cosmic ray flux caused by long-term changes in the solar wind could have a significant influence on the global energy radiation budget and the climate. However a direct link between cosmic rays and clouds has not been unambiguously established and, moreover, the microphysical mechanism is poorly understood. New experiments are being planned to find out whether cosmic rays can affect cloud formation, and if so how. (37 refs).

  13. Experimental variability and data pre-processing as factors affecting the discrimination power of some chemometric approaches (PCA, CA and a new algorithm based on linear regression) applied to (+/-)ESI/MS and RPLC/UV data: Application on green tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorgulescu, E; Voicu, V A; Sârbu, C; Tache, F; Albu, F; Medvedovici, A

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the experimental variability (instrumental repeatability, instrumental intermediate precision and sample preparation variability) and data pre-processing (normalization, peak alignment, background subtraction) on the discrimination power of multivariate data analysis methods (Principal Component Analysis -PCA- and Cluster Analysis -CA-) as well as a new algorithm based on linear regression was studied. Data used in the study were obtained through positive or negative ion monitoring electrospray mass spectrometry (+/-ESI/MS) and reversed phase liquid chromatography/UV spectrometric detection (RPLC/UV) applied to green tea extracts. Extractions in ethanol and heated water infusion were used as sample preparation procedures. The multivariate methods were directly applied to mass spectra and chromatograms, involving strictly a holistic comparison of shapes, without assignment of any structural identity to compounds. An alternative data interpretation based on linear regression analysis mutually applied to data series is also discussed. Slopes, intercepts and correlation coefficients produced by the linear regression analysis applied on pairs of very large experimental data series successfully retain information resulting from high frequency instrumental acquisition rates, obviously better defining the profiles being compared. Consequently, each type of sample or comparison between samples produces in the Cartesian space an ellipsoidal volume defined by the normal variation intervals of the slope, intercept and correlation coefficient. Distances between volumes graphically illustrates (dis)similarities between compared data. The instrumental intermediate precision had the major effect on the discrimination power of the multivariate data analysis methods. Mass spectra produced through ionization from liquid state in atmospheric pressure conditions of bulk complex mixtures resulting from extracted materials of natural origins provided an excellent data

  14. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  15. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sue; Bergman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the research on middle school students' understanding of variables and explores preservice elementary and middle school teachers' knowledge of variables. According to research studies, middle school students have limited understanding of variables. Many studies have examined the performance of middle school students and offered…

  16. Visual cues and listening effort: individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and 2 presentation modalities (audio only [AO] and auditory-visual [AV]). Signal-to-noise ratios were adjusted to provide matched speech recognition across audio-only and AV noise conditions. Also measured were subjective perceptions of listening effort and 2 predictive variables: (a) lipreading ability and (b) WMC. Objective and subjective results indicated that listening effort increased in the presence of noise, but on average the addition of visual cues did not significantly affect the magnitude of listening effort. Although there was substantial individual variability, on average participants who were better lipreaders or had larger WMCs demonstrated reduced listening effort in noise in AV conditions. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that integrating auditory and visual cues requires cognitive resources in some participants. The data indicate that low lipreading ability or low WMC is associated with relatively effortful integration of auditory and visual information in noise.

  17. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  18. Integration i flere variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Denne note handler om parameterfremstillinger for kurver, flader og rumlige områder og om integration af funktioner på sådanne geometriske objekter. Formålet er primært at opstille og motivere de generelle definitioner og beregninger af henholdsvis kurve- \\, flade- \\, og rum-integraler. Udgangspu......Denne note handler om parameterfremstillinger for kurver, flader og rumlige områder og om integration af funktioner på sådanne geometriske objekter. Formålet er primært at opstille og motivere de generelle definitioner og beregninger af henholdsvis kurve- \\, flade- \\, og rum......-integralerne. Undervejs introduceres \\texttt{Integrator8}. Det er en pakke med Maple procedurer, som er udviklet specielt med henblik på eksempelbaseret visuel læring af de indledende integrationsbegreber og deres mangfoldige anvendelser. Vi giver eksempler på, hvordan integration i flere variable anvendes til beregning...... og forståelse af rumfang, vægt, massemidtpunkter, inertimomenter, kraftmomenter, etc. Flowkurverne for et givet vektorfelt i rummet kan findes og visualiseres med \\texttt{Integrator8}. De vigtige begreber divergens og rotation for et vektorfelt fremtræder derved som naturlige størrelser til...

  19. Social and Affective Robotics Tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Evers, Vanessa; Deisenroth, Marc; Merino, Luis; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Social and Affective Robotics is a growing multidisciplinary field encompassing computer science, engineering, psychology, education, and many other disciplines. It explores how social and affective factors influence interactions between humans and robots, and how affect and social signals can be

  20. Cryotherapy, Sensation, and Isometric-Force Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denegar, Craig R.; Buckley, William E.; Newell, Karl M.

    2003-01-01

    was measured using strain gauges mounted on an apparatus built to measure finger forces. Results: Sensation of pressure was less (ie, it took greater pressure to elicit a response) after ice immersion, thumbs were more affected than index fingers, and the decrease was greater in the right limb than the left. Two-point discrimination was not affected by cryotherapy but was higher in the finger than in the thumb under all conditions. Isometric-force variability (standard deviation of mean isometric force) was greater as percentage of force increased from 10% to 40% of MVIC. Targeting accuracy (root mean square error) was decreased at 40% of MVIC. Accuracy and force variability were not affected by cryotherapy. Conclusions: The application of cryotherapy and reduced sensation of pressure appear to have little effect on motor control of the digits. These results support the hypothesis that the use of cold is not contraindicated for use as an analgesic before submaximal rehabilitative exercise focusing on restoring neuromuscular control to injured tissues. PMID:12937521

  1. Variability of the Wind Turbine Power Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M. Bandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine power curves are calibrated by turbine manufacturers under requirements stipulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission to provide a functional mapping between the mean wind speed v ¯ and the mean turbine power output P ¯ . Wind plant operators employ these power curves to estimate or forecast wind power generation under given wind conditions. However, it is general knowledge that wide variability exists in these mean calibration values. We first analyse how the standard deviation in wind speed σ v affects the mean P ¯ and the standard deviation σ P of wind power. We find that the magnitude of wind power fluctuations scales as the square of the mean wind speed. Using data from three planetary locations, we find that the wind speed standard deviation σ v systematically varies with mean wind speed v ¯ , and in some instances, follows a scaling of the form σ v = C × v ¯ α ; C being a constant and α a fractional power. We show that, when applicable, this scaling form provides a minimal parameter description of the power curve in terms of v ¯ alone. Wind data from different locations establishes that (in instances when this scaling exists the exponent α varies with location, owing to the influence of local environmental conditions on wind speed variability. Since manufacturer-calibrated power curves cannot account for variability influenced by local conditions, this variability translates to forecast uncertainty in power generation. We close with a proposal for operators to perform post-installation recalibration of their turbine power curves to account for the influence of local environmental factors on wind speed variability in order to reduce the uncertainty of wind power forecasts. Understanding the relationship between wind’s speed and its variability is likely to lead to lower costs for the integration of wind power into the electric grid.

  2. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  3. Risk, Affect and Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time theorising has underestimated the importance of affect and emotion in decision making and the management of risk and uncertainty. In relatively one-sided interpretations emotions were often interpreted as threats for rational decision making, and could be triggered by uncertainties, which would go along with social change. Recent interdisciplinary research has shown the importance to acknowledge the more complex link between reasoning and emotions. The article outlines different perspectives on emotion in risk research of economics, psychology and sociology and argues for further research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601293

  4. Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of differ...

  5. Climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rind, D.

    1990-01-01

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century

  6. Climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rind, D.

    1991-01-01

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century. 19 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Intraspecific chromosome variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dubinin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available (Editorial preface. The publication is presented in order to remind us of one of dramatic pages of the history of genetics. It re-opens for the contemporary reader a comprehensive work marking the priority change from plant cytogenetics to animal cytogenetics led by wide population studies which were conducted on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The year of the publication (1937 became the point of irretrievable branching between the directions of Old World and New World genetics connected with the problems of chromosome variability and its significance for the evolution of the species. The famous book of T. Dobzhansky (1937 was published by Columbia University in the US under the title “Genetics and the origin of species”, and in the shadow of this American ‘skybuilding’ all other works grew dim. It is remarkable that both Dobzhansky and Dubinin come to similar conclusions about the role of chromosomes in speciation. This is not surprising given that they both might be considered as representatives of the Russian genetic school, by their birth and education. Interestingly, Dobzhansky had never referred to the full paper of Dubinin et al. (1937, though a previous short communication in Nature (1936 was included together with all former papers on the related subject. In full, the volume of the original publication printed in the Biological Journal in Moscow comprised 47 pages, in that number 41 pages of the Russian text accompanied by 16 Figs, a table and reference list, and, above all, 6 pages of the English summary. This final part in English is now reproduced in the authors’ version with the only addition being the reference list in the originally printed form.

  8. Quality Assurance in the Presence of Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenroth, Kim; Metzger, Andreas; Pohl, Klaus

    Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) is a reuse-driven development paradigm that has been applied successfully in information system engineering and other domains. Quality assurance of the reusable artifacts of the product line (e.g. requirements, design, and code artifacts) is essential for successful product line engineering. As those artifacts are reused in several products, a defect in a reusable artifact can affect several products of the product line. A central challenge for quality assurance in product line engineering is how to consider product line variability. Since the reusable artifacts contain variability, quality assurance techniques from single-system engineering cannot directly be applied to those artifacts. Therefore, different strategies and techniques have been developed for quality assurance in the presence of variability. In this chapter, we describe those strategies and discuss in more detail one of those strategies, the so called comprehensive strategy. The comprehensive strategy aims at checking the quality of all possible products of the product line and thus offers the highest benefits, since it is able to uncover defects in all possible products of the product line. However, the central challenge for applying the comprehensive strategy is the complexity that results from the product line variability and the large number of potential products of a product line. In this chapter, we present one concrete technique that we have developed to implement the comprehensive strategy that addresses this challenge. The technique is based on model checking technology and allows for a comprehensive verification of domain artifacts against temporal logic properties.

  9. Weighting Mean and Variability during Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gardelle, Vincent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Humans can not only perform some visual tasks with great precision, they can also judge how good they are in these tasks. However, it remains unclear how observers produce such metacognitive evaluations, and how these evaluations might be dissociated from the performance in the visual task. Here, we hypothesized that some stimulus variables could affect confidence judgments above and beyond their impact on performance. In a motion categorization task on moving dots, we manipulated the mean and the variance of the motion directions, to obtain a low-mean low-variance condition and a high-mean high-variance condition with matched performances. Critically, in terms of confidence, observers were not indifferent between these two conditions. Observers exhibited marked preferences, which were heterogeneous across individuals, but stable within each observer when assessed one week later. Thus, confidence and performance are dissociable and observers’ confidence judgments put different weights on the stimulus variables that limit performance. PMID:25793275

  10. Bioavailability and variability of biphasic insulin mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Mosekilde, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Absorption of subcutaneously administered insulin is associated with considerable variability. Some of this variability was quantitatively explained for both soluble insulin and insulin suspensions in a recent contribution to this journal (Søeborg et al., 2009). In the present article......, the absorption kinetics for mixtures of insulins is described. This requires that the bioavailability of the different insulins is considered. A short review of insulin bioavailability and a description of the subcutaneous depot thus precede the presentation of possible mechanisms associated with subcutaneous...... insulin degradation. Soluble insulins are assumed to be degraded enzymatically in the subcutaneous tissue. Suspended insulin crystals form condensed heaps that are assumed to be degraded from their surface by invading macrophages. It is demonstrated how the shape of the heaps affects the absorption...

  11. Psychosocial predictors of affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; González, M José; Santos, Noelia; Romero, Martín

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we propose to study the role of psychosocial variables in affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, considering that affect is a key variable in treatment adherence. Seventy-four patients (average age 33,24 ± 10,56) with metal multibracket-fixed orthodontic treatment were included. Patients were assessed twice. The first stage, at the beginning of treatment, included assessment of dental impact (Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire), trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg's self-esteem scale), and self-efficacy (General Self-efficacy Scale). In the second stage, 6 months later, positive and negative affect towards treatment was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Dental social impact differentiates between patients with high and low negative affect, while self-efficacy differentiates between patients with high and low positive affect. Trait anxiety and self-esteem differentiate between both types of affect (positive and negative). Trait anxiety and self-esteem (when trait anxiety weight is controlled) are significant predictor variables of affective balance. These results have important practical implications, because it seems essential to adopt a bio-psychosocial model incorporating assessment methods focusing on day-to-day changes in mood and well-being.

  12. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D A; Thayne, W V; Dailey, R A

    1985-07-01

    We conducted two studies to determine how herd management practices and traits of individual cows affect performance of the herd and of the cow within a herd. Management practices, reproductive performance of the herd, and relationships between management and reproductive performance were characterized on 83 dairy farms with 7596 cows. Data included 21 management variables (e.g., facilities, herd health program, estrous detection program) and 8 performance variables obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement or unofficial records (e.g., size of herd, production, days open). Although varying among herds, annual average herd incidences of reproductive disorders and reproductive performance were similar to those reported. Managerial practices influenced incidences of retained placenta and uterine infection, days open of cows not bred and of all cows, services per conception, and percentages of herd open more than 100 days and culled for low production. Veterinarian was the most consistent variable influencing herd reproductive performance. Data also were collected from production and lifetime records of 2532 cows in 19 herds. Reproductive performance was affected by season of calving, production, maturity, and reproductive disorders. Several cows with extremely poor reproductive records were maintained.

  13. Performance of Sorghum Varieties under Variable Rainfall in Central Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msongaleli, Barnabas M; Tumbo, S D; Kihupi, N I; Rwehumbiza, Filbert B

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall variability has a significant impact on crop production with manifestations in frequent crop failure in semiarid areas. This study used the parameterized APSIM crop model to investigate how rainfall variability may affect yields of improved sorghum varieties based on long-term historical rainfall and projected climate. Analyses of historical rainfall indicate a mix of nonsignificant and significant trends on the onset, cessation, and length of the growing season. The study confirmed that rainfall variability indeed affects yields of improved sorghum varieties. Further analyses of simulated sorghum yields based on seasonal rainfall distribution indicate the concurrence of lower grain yields with the 10-day dry spells during the cropping season. Simulation results for future sorghum response, however, show that impacts of rainfall variability on sorghum will be overridden by temperature increase. We conclude that, in the event where harms imposed by moisture stress in the study area are not abated, even improved sorghum varieties are likely to perform poorly.

  14. Multisensory Perception of Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Gelder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration must stand out among the fields of research that have witnessed a most impressive explosion of interest this last decade. One of these new areas of multisensory research concerns emotion. Since our first exploration of this phenomenon (de Gelder et al., 1999 a number of studies have appeared and they have used a wide variety of behavioral, neuropsychological and neuroscientifc methods. The goal of this presentation is threefold. First, we review the research on audiovisual perception of emotional signals from the face and the voice followed by a report or more recent studies on integrating emotional information provided by the voice and whole body expressions. We will also include some recent work on multisensory music perception. In the next section we discuss some methodological and theoretical issues. Finally, we will discuss findings about abnormal affective audiovisual integration in schizophrenia and in autism.

  15. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...... of individual experiences of school and everyday school life as it unfolds in and beyond the formal teaching situations. The chapter follows in the wake of a growing attention to the aspects of everyday life and lived life at school in the history of education. It also develops tools for and demonstrates how...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....

  16. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  17. Natural Variability of Mexican Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Herrera, Graciela; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Kemper-Valverdea, N.

    The purpose of this paper was 1) to present a new algorithm for analyzing the forest fires, 2) to discuss the present understanding of the natural variability at different scales with special emphasis on Mexico conditions since 1972, 3) to analyze the internal and external factors affecting forest fires for example ENSO and Total Solar Irradiance, and 4) to discuss the implications of this knowledge, on research and on restoration and management methods, which purpose is to enhance forest biodiversity conservation. 5) We present an estimate of the Mexican forest fires for the next decade. These results may be useful to minimize human and economic losses.

  18. Variable blue straggler stars in NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, H.C.; Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E.W.; Nemec, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nine variable blue stragglers have been found in the globular cluster NGC 5466. The six dwarf Cepheids in this cluster coexist in the instability strip with other nonvariable stars. The three eclipsing binaries are among the hottest of the blue stragglers. The hypothesis is discussed that all blue stragglers in this cluster have undergone mass transfer in close binaries. Under this hypothesis, rotation and spin-down play important roles in controlling the evolution of blue stragglers in old clusters and in affecting some of their observational properties. 14 refs

  19. Does observability affect prosociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Alex; Lawrence, Claire; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2018-03-28

    The observation of behaviour is a key theoretical parameter underlying a number of models of prosociality. However, the empirical findings showing the effect of observability on prosociality are mixed. In this meta-analysis, we explore the boundary conditions that may account for this variability, by exploring key theoretical and methodological moderators of this link. We identified 117 papers yielding 134 study level effects (total n = 788 164) and found a small but statistically significant, positive association between observability and prosociality ( r = 0.141, 95% confidence interval = 0.106, 0.175). Moderator analysis showed that observability produced stronger effects on prosociality: (i) in the presence of passive observers (i.e. people whose role was to only observe participants) versus perceptions of being watched, (ii) when participants' decisions were consequential (versus non-consequential), (iii) when the studies were performed in the laboratory (as opposed to in the field/online), (iv) when the studies used repeated measures (instead of single games), and (v) when the studies involved social dilemmas (instead of bargaining games). These effects show the conditions under which observability effects on prosociality will be maximally observed. We describe the theoretical and practical significance of these results. © 2018 The Authors.

  20. Historic range of variability for upland vegetation in the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory K. Dillon; Dennis H. Knight; Carolyn B. Meyer

    2005-01-01

    An approach for synthesizing the results of ecological research pertinent to land management is the analysis of the historic range of variability (HRV) for key ecosystem variables that are affected by management activities. This report provides an HRV analysis for the upland vegetation of the Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming. The variables include...

  1. Blood Pressure Variability and Cognitive Function Among Older African Americans: Introducing a New Blood Pressure Variability Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny; Sperling, Scott A; Park, Moon Ho; Helenius, Ira M; Williams, Ishan C; Manning, Carol

    2017-09-01

    Although blood pressure (BP) variability has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment, whether this relationship affects African Americans has been unclear. We sought correlations between systolic and diastolic BP variability and cognitive function in community-dwelling older African Americans, and introduced a new BP variability measure that can be applied to BP data collected in clinical practice. We assessed cognitive function in 94 cognitively normal older African Americans using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI). We used BP measurements taken at the patients' three most recent primary care clinic visits to generate three traditional BP variability indices, range, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation, plus a new index, random slope, which accounts for unequal BP measurement intervals within and across patients. MMSE scores did not correlate with any of the BP variability indices. Patients with greater diastolic BP variability were less accurate on the CAMCI verbal memory and incidental memory tasks. Results were similar across the four BP variability indices. In a sample of cognitively intact older African American adults, BP variability did not correlate with global cognitive function, as measured by the MMSE. However, higher diastolic BP variability correlated with poorer verbal and incidental memory. By accounting for differences in BP measurement intervals, our new BP variability index may help alert primary care physicians to patients at particular risk for cognitive decline.

  2. [The influence of affect on satisfaction with conversations and interpersonal impressions from the perspective of dyadic affective combinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken, Fujiwara; Daibo, Ikuo

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the influence of affect on interpersonal relationships in a dyadic communication context. The combination of speakers' affective states was considered, as compared to previous studies which considered only the individual's affective state. The independent variables, in a between-subjects design, were affective condition (positive vs. negative) and affective combination (similar vs. dissimilar). Participants (N = 86) took a test on creative thinking and were given false feedback. Then they had a 6-minute conversation and answered questions about their satisfaction with the conversation and their impressions of their partner. Results showed that the two-factor interactions were significant for satisfaction with the conversation and interpersonal impressions (social desirability) of the partner. The scores for these variables in the positive affect condition were higher than in the negative affect condition only when the affective combination was dissimilar. These results show that individual's affect could not predict conversational outcomes. The results were discussed in terms of incorrect inferences about the partner's affective state and imbalanced conversation activity.

  3. HOW NORMAL IS VARIABLE, OR HOW VARIABLE IS NORMAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TOUWEN, BCL

    Variability is an important property of the central nervous system, and it shows characteristic changes during infancy and childhood. The large amount of variations in the performance of sensomotor functions in infancy is called indiscriminate or primary variability. During toddling age the child

  4. Photometric Variability in the Faint Sky Variability Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Rueda, L.; Groot, P.J.; Augusteijn, T.; Nelemans, G.A.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    The Faint Sky Variability Survey (FSVS) is aimed at finding photometric and/or astrometric variable objects between 16th and 24th mag on time-scales between tens of minutes and years with photometric precisions ranging from 3 millimag to 0.2 mag. An area of ~23 deg2, located at mid and

  5. Guidelines for the Investigation of Mediating Variables in Business Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P; Coxe, Stefany; Baraldi, Amanda N

    2012-03-01

    Business theories often specify the mediating mechanisms by which a predictor variable affects an outcome variable. In the last 30 years, investigations of mediating processes have become more widespread with corresponding developments in statistical methods to conduct these tests. The purpose of this article is to provide guidelines for mediation studies by focusing on decisions made prior to the research study that affect the clarity of conclusions from a mediation study, the statistical models for mediation analysis, and methods to improve interpretation of mediation results after the research study. Throughout this article, the importance of a program of experimental and observational research for investigating mediating mechanisms is emphasized.

  6. Predictors of recurrence in affective disorder. A case register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is affected by socio-demographic variables such as gender, age at onset and marital status and by illness related factors as the length of previous episodes and the total duration of the illness. The present study investigated how the effect...... of these variables changed with the progression of the illness. METHOD: Using survival analysis, the risk of recurrence was estimated in a case register study including all hospital admissions with primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. RESULTS: Totally, 20350 first admission patients had been...... disorder socio-demographic variables such as gender, age at onset and marital status act as risk factors for further recurrence. Later, however, the illness itself seem to follow its own rhythm regardless of prior predictors. LIMITATION: The data relate to re-admissions rather than recurrence...

  7. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  8. Security affects us all!

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    In the hope of minimising the number of thefts of the Organization’s property, which can lead to months of work going to waste on certain projects, you are reminded of the importance that CERN attaches to the rules concerning the protection of equipment for which we are responsible. If you see any unusual behaviour or if you are the victim of a theft, don’t hesitate to report it by submitting a ticket through the CERN Portal or calling the CSA. Security affects us all!   CERN is attractive in more ways than one, and it remains as attractive as ever to thieves. With the nice weather and with the holiday season in full swing, the number of thefts recorded at CERN is on the rise. Items stolen include money, computers, electronic equipment, cable drums and copper antennae.   There are a few basic precautions that you should take to protect both your own and the Organization’s property: lock your door, don’t leave valuable items in your office, st...

  9. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  10. Factors affecting outcome in ocular myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Marco; Ariatti, Alessandra; Valzania, Franco; Kaleci, Shaniko; Tondelli, Manuela; Nichelli, Paolo F; Galassi, Giuliana

    2018-01-01

    50%-60% of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) progress to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) within two years. The aim of our study was to explore factors affecting prognosis of OMG and to test the predictive role of several independent clinical variables. We reviewed a cohort of 168 Caucasian patients followed from September 2000 to January 2016. Several independent variables were considered as prognostic factors: gender, age of onset, results on electrophysiological tests, presence and level of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR Abs), treatments, thymic abnormalities. The primary outcome was the progression to GMG and/or the presence of bulbar symptoms. Secondary outcomes were either achievement of sustained minimal manifestation status or worsening in ocular quantitative MG subscore (O-QMGS) or worsening in total QMG score (T-QMGS), assessed by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) quantitative scores. Changes in mental and physical subscores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed with SF-36 questionnaire. Variance analysis was used to interpret the differences between AChR Ab titers at different times of follow up among the generalized and non-generalized patients. Conversion to GMG occurred in 18.4% of patients; it was significantly associated with sex, later onset of disease and anti-AChR Ab positivity. Antibody titer above the mean value of 25.8 pmol/mL showed no significant effect on generalization. Sex and late onset of disease significantly affected T-QMGS worsening. None of the other independent variables significantly affected O-QMGS and HRQoL. Sex, later onset and anti-AChR Ab positivity were significantly associated with clinical worsening.

  11. Affective match: Leader emotions, follower positive affect, and follower performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, F.; van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    Leader emotions may play an important role in leadership effectiveness. Extending earlier research on leader emotional displays and leadership effectiveness, we propose that the affective match between follower positive affect (PA) and leaders' emotional displays moderates the effectiveness of

  12. Constraint-led changes in internal variability in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudum, Anita; Birklbauer, Jürgen; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a one-time application of elastic constraints on movement-inherent variability during treadmill running. Eleven males ran two 35-min intervals while surface EMG was measured. In one of two 35-min intervals, after 10 min of running without tubes, elastic tubes (between hip and heels) were attached, followed by another 5 min of running without tubes. To assess variability, stride-to-stride iEMG variability was calculated. Significant increases in variability (36 % to 74 %) were observed during tube running, whereas running without tubes after the tube running block showed no significant differences. Results show that elastic tubes affect variability on a muscular level despite the constant environmental conditions and underline the nervous system's adaptability to cope with somehow unpredictable constraints since stride duration was unaltered.

  13. Identification parameters and criteria affecting airphoto lineations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Etr, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    In areas where bedrock exposures are predominant, linear features can be seen easily on aerial photographs as expressions of joints, faults, fractures, folds, bedding, etc. In case of limited bedrock exposures, because of surficial blanketing by unconsolidated material and/or vegetation, bedrock lineations may be faintly expressed in different fashions (e.g. subtle vegetation alignments, soil tonal differences, etc.) depending on the nature, thickness, and water content of the unconsolidated cover and the kind and homogenity of vegetation. The most important variables affecting airphoto linear features are: structure, lithology, topography, drainage, erosion, vegetation, climate, tone, scale of photographs, and use of supplementary information. (author). 31 refs

  14. Soil variability in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, E.; Freppaz, M.; Stanchi, S.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The high spatial variability of soils is a relevant issue at local and global scales, and determines the complexity of soil ecosystem functions and services. This variability derives from strong dependencies of soil ecosystems on parent materials, climate, relief and biosphere, including human impact. Although present in all environments, the interactions of soils with these forming factors are particularly striking in mountain areas.

  15. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  16. Delta Scuti variables. Lecture 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The class of variables near or on the upper main sequence, the delta Scuti variables, are not only the usual ones about the masses, radii, and luminosities, but also the age, rotation, element diffusion to change the surface layer composition, the occurance of convection and the presence of radial and nonradial pulsation modes

  17. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  18. THE VARIABILITY OF INTERLANGUAGE USE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www

    Variability is evident in the interlanguage grammars of all L2 learners, irrespective of their levels of proficiency; their interlanguage use is characterised by the variable occurrence of target L2 forms, and the .... instruction and negative feedback to discover that their hypotheses about the L2 are incorrect. 4.1. Krashen's view.

  19. Independent SU(2)-loop variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loll, R.

    1991-04-01

    We give a reduction procedure for SU(2)-trace variables and introduce a complete set of indepentent, gauge-invariant and almost local loop variables for the configuration space of SU(2)-lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions. (orig.)

  20. Operant Variability: Procedures and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Armando; Tonneau, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Barba's (2012) article deftly weaves three main themes in one argument about operant variability. From general theoretical considerations on operant behavior (Catania, 1973), Barba derives methodological guidelines about response differentiation and applies them to the study of operant variability. In the process, he uncovers unnoticed features of…

  1. Introduction: Affective Ecologies and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera M Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Engaging the affective and materialist turn in the social sciences, this special section elaborates on how analytical attention on affect and affective relations is central to understanding human-nature relations and to conservation interventions. The contributors to this section use conceptual resources from affect theory, new materialism, and indigenous ontologies to illustrate the practical significance of paying attention to affect in understanding nature-society relations. This introduction reviews these conceptual resources to make a case for affective political ecology.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  3. Encountering Science Education's Capacity to Affect and Be Affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-01-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science…

  4. Individual canine Airway Response Variability to a Deep Inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In healthy individuals, a DI can reverse (bronchodilation or prevent (bronchoprotection induced airway constriction. For individuals with asthma or COPD, these effects may be attenuated or absent. Previous work showed that the size and duration of a DI affected the subsequent response of the airways. Also, increased airway tone lead to increased airway size variability. The present study examined how a DI affected the temporal variability in individual airway baseline size and after methacholine challenge in dogs using High-Resolution Computed Tomography. Dogs were anesthetized and ventilated, and on 4 separate days, HRCT scans were acquired before and after a DI at baseline and during a continuous intravenous infusion of methacholine (Mch at 3 dose rates (17, 67, and 200 μg/mm. The Coefficient of Variation was used as an index of temporal variability in airway size. We found that at baseline and the lowest dose of Mch, variability decreased immediately and 5 minutes after the DI ( P < 0.0001. In contrast, with higher doses of Mch, the DI caused a variable response. At a rate of 67 μg/min of Mch, the temporal variability increased after 5 minutes, while at a rate of 200 μg/min of Mch, the temporal variability increased immediately after the DI. Increased airway temporal variability has been shown to be associated with asthma. Although the mechanisms underlying this temporal variability are poorly understood, the beneficial effects of a DI to decrease airway temporal variability was eliminated when airway tone was increased. If this effect is absent in asthmatics, this may suggest a possible mechanism for the loss of bronchoprotective and bronchodilatory effects after a DI in asthma.

  5. Affective Norms for 362 Persian Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bagheri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past two decades, a great deal of research has been conducted on developing affective norms for words in various languages, showing that there is an urgent need to create such norms in Persian language, too. The present study intended to develop a set of 362 Persian words rated according to their emotional valence, arousal, imageability, and familiarity so as to prepare the ground for further research on emotional word processing. This was the first attempt to set affective norms for Persian words in the realm of emotion.  Methods: Prior to the study, a multitude of words were selected from Persian dictionary and academic books in Persian literature. Secondly, three independent proficient experts in the Persian literature were asked to extract the suitable words from the list and to choose the best (defined as grammatically correct and most often used. The database normalization process was based on the ratings by a total of 88 participants using a 9-point Likert scale. Each participant evaluated about 120 words on four different scales.  Results: There were significant relationships between affective dimensions and some psycholinguistic variables. Also, further analyses were carried out to investigate the possible relationship between different features of valences (positive, negative, and neutral and other variables included in the dataset.  Conclusion: These affective norms for Persian words create a useful and valid dataset which will provide researchers with applying standard verbal materials as well as materials applied in other languages, e.g. English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, etc.

  6. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGreese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to , e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of the regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches towards characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability.

  7. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    analyses conducted without survival models and without paying attention to diagnostic instability or the individual heterogeneity of the course of episodes. Totally, these drawbacks and pitfalls affect the results of previous studies in unpredictable ways and make it hazardous to draw conclusions about...... as an expression of an affective episode. On average, a progressive course with increasing risk of recurrence with every new episode was found for unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. Initially, the two types of disorders followed markedly different courses, but later in the course of the illness the risk...... a progressive course of episodes. Initially in the course of affective disorders, socio-demographic variables such as gender, age at onset, and marital status and co-morbidity with alcoholism acted as risk factors for further recurrence. Later, however, particularly variables related to the previous course...

  8. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  9. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That Can Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. While couples can't control all of the causes of infertility, ...

  10. A preliminary investigation of daily variability of stuttering in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Christopher D; Leslie, Paula; Quesal, Robert W; Yaruss, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Variability in frequency of stuttering has made the results of treatment outcome studies difficult to interpret. Many factors that affect variability have been investigated; yet the typical range of variability experienced by speakers remains unknown. This study examined the day-to-day variability in the percentage of syllables containing stuttered and nonstuttered disfluencies in the speech of six adult speakers in three spontaneous speaking situations and two reading tasks. The frequency of moments stuttering during the tasks were compared within and between speakers and days to document the degree of variability in stuttering frequency and explore whether there were any consistent patterns. The Stuttering Severity Instrument-Fourth Edition (SSI-4) and Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering for Adults (OASES-A) were also tested for day-to-day variability. Correlations between frequency, severity, and life impact were made. The primary result of this study was the large range over which frequency of stuttering varied from day to day for the same individual. This variability did not correlate with any measures of stuttering severity but did correlate with life impact as measured by the OASES-A. No global pattern was detected in variability from day to day within or between participants. However, there were significantly more nonstuttered disfluencies present during the spontaneous speaking tasks than during the reading tasks. The day-to-day variability in the life impact of the disorder (OASES-A) was less than the day-to-day variability in observable stuttering behavior (percentage of syllables stuttered and SSI-4). Frequency of stuttering varies significantly from situation to situation and day to day, with observed variability exceeding the degree of change often reported in treatment outcomes studies from before to after treatment. This variability must be accounted for in future clinical and scientific work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  11. Real Exchange Rate Variability: An Empirical Analysis of the Developing Countries Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Edwards

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential role of monetary and real factors in explaining real exchange rate variability in developing countries. For this purpose two indexes of real effective exchange rate variability that measure short-term and long-term variability were constructed for 30 countries. The results obtained, using a generalized least squares procedures on cross section data, indicate that real exchange rate variability has been affected both by real and monetar...

  12. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  13. Imaging Variable Stars with HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, M.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of astronomical sources, ranging from objects in our solar system to objects in the early Universe, have revolutionized our knowledge of the Universe its origins and contents. I highlight results from HST observations of variable stars obtained during the past twenty or so years. Multiwavelength observations of numerous variable stars and stellar systems were obtained using the superb HST imaging capabilities and its unprecedented angular resolution, especially in the UV and optical. The HST provided the first detailed images probing the structure of variable stars including their atmospheres and circumstellar environments. AAVSO observations and light curves have been critical for scheduling of many of these observations and provided important information and context for understanding of the imaging results of many variable sources. I describe the scientific results from the imaging observations of variable stars including AGBs, Miras, Cepheids, semiregular variables (including supergiants and giants), YSOs and interacting stellar systems with a variable stellar components. These results have led to an unprecedented understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these objects and their place in the stellar evolutionary chains, and in the larger context of the dynamic evolving Universe.

  14. Anxiety, affect, self-esteem, and stress: mediation and moderation effects on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  15. Anxiety, affect, self-esteem, and stress: mediation and moderation effects on depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Nima

    Full Text Available Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression.Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113 completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses.The results indicated that (i anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression.The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  16. Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Methods Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. Main Findings The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. Conclusion The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators. PMID:24039896

  17. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  18. Affect, exercise, and physical activity among healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Margaret; Dunn, Andrea; Cooper, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Many adolescents do not meet public health recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In studies of variables influencing adolescent MVPA, one that has been understudied is the affective response to exercise. We hypothesized that adolescents with a more positive affective response to acute exercise would be more active. Adolescents (N = 124; 46% male) completed two 30-min exercise tasks (above and below the ventilatory threshold [VT]), and wore ActiGraph accelerometers for 6.5 +/- 0.7 days. Affective valence was assessed before, during, and after each task. A more positive affective response during exercise below the VT was associated with greater participation in MVPA (p positive affective response to exercise will engage in more MVPA. To promote greater participation in MVPA among adolescents, programs should be designed to facilitate a positive affective experience during exercise.

  19. The Association Between Life Satisfaction and Affective Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Martin; Fors, Filip

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the correlation between life satisfaction and affective (emotional) well-being—two conceptually distinct dimensions of subjective well-being. We propose a simple model that distinguishes between a stable and a transitory componentof affective well-being, and which also accounts for measurement error in self-reportsof both variables, including current mood-bias effects on life satisfaction judgments. The model is estimated using momentarily measured well-being data, from an experie...

  20. Low-Frequency Temporal Variability in Mira and Semiregular Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Karovska, M.; Waagen, E. O.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate low-frequency variability in a large sample of Mira and semiregular variables with long-term visual light curves from the AAVSO International Database. Our aim is to determine whether we can detect and measure long-timescale variable phenomena in these stars, for example photometric variations that might be associated with supergranular convection. We analyzed the long-term light curves of 522 variable stars of the Mira and SRa, b, c, and d classes. We calculated their low-frequency time-series spectra to characterize rednoise with the power density spectrum index, and then correlate this index with other observable characteristics such as spectral type and primary pulsation period. In our initial analysis of the sample, we see that the semiregular variables have a much broader range of spectral index than the Mira types, with the SRb subtype having the broadest range. Among Mira variables we see that the M- and S-type Miras have similarly wide ranges of index, while the C-types have the narrowest with generally shallower slopes. There is also a trend of steeper slope with larger amplitude, but at a given amplitude, a wide range of slopes are seen. The ultimate goal of the project is to identify stars with strong intrinsic red noise components as possible targets for resolved surface imaging with interferometry.

  1. Longitudinal Research with Latent Variables

    CERN Document Server

    van Montfort, Kees; Satorra, Albert

    2010-01-01

    This book combines longitudinal research and latent variable research, i.e. it explains how longitudinal studies with objectives formulated in terms of latent variables should be carried out, with an emphasis on detailing how the methods are applied. Because longitudinal research with latent variables currently utilizes different approaches with different histories, different types of research questions, and different computer programs to perform the analysis, the book is divided into nine chapters. Starting from some background information about the specific approach, short history and the ma

  2. Potential impacts of climate change and variability on groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aizebeokhai

    largely mimic the projected changes in precipitation. Increased precipitation intensity and variability is projected to increase the risks of flooding in many coastal areas, and drought in many arid and semi-arid regions. Higher water temperatures and changes in extremes, including floods and droughts, are projected to affect.

  3. Input Variability Facilitates Unguided Subcategory Learning in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvåg, Sunniva Sørhus; Austad, Margit; Plante, Elena; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This experiment investigated whether input variability would affect initial learning of noun gender subcategories in an unfamiliar, natural language (Russian), as it is known to assist learning of other grammatical forms. Method: Forty adults (20 men, 20 women) were familiarized with examples of masculine and feminine Russian words. Half…

  4. A study of school adjustment related variables of young children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for identifying relevant variables that affect the school adjustment of young ... Keywords: cognitive ability; hot executive function; peer relationships; school ... tend to act independently and have fewer positive feelings about their ... cognition provides a basis for developing social ..... is associated with hot EF is not activated,.

  5. Forests: the potential consequences of climate variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    2001-01-01

    This pamphlet reports the recent scientific assessment that analyzed how future climate variablity and change may affect forests in the United States. The assessment, sponsored by the USDA Forest Service, and supported, in part, by the U.S Department of Energy, and the National Atmospheric and Space Administration, describes the suite of potential impacts on forests....

  6. Impacts of Climate Change and Climate Variability on Cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacts of Climate Change and Climate Variability on Cocoa ( Theobroma Cacao ) Yields in Meme Division, South West Region of Cameroon. ... Farm selection was based on age, consistency of sizes and management practices in an attempt to keep the factors affecting cocoa yield constant. Data on cocoa yield, flowering, ...

  7. Impacts of climate change, variability and adaptation strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacts of climate change, variability and adaptation strategies on agriculture in semi arid areas of Tanzania: The case of Manyoni District in Singida Region, Tanzania. ... The changes have affected crops and livestock in a number of ways resulting in reduced productivity. Empirical analysis of rainfall suggest decreasing ...

  8. Some Social Variables In Domestic Violence In A Nigerian Population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Domestic violence is any intentional abuse of a family member mostly women by a partner which causes pain or injury. It is a growing phenomenon and is affected by several social variables. In pregnancy, domestic violence causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and other reproductive health consequences to ...

  9. Addressing Cultural Variables in Parent Training Programs with Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Chikira H.; Cook, Katrina L.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been increased attention given to understanding how cultural variables may have an impact on the efficacy of treatments with Latino families seeking psychological services. Within parent training programs, understanding the extent to which culture can affect parenting practices is vital to providing quality care. The focus of…

  10. A study on the effect of macroeconomic variables and firm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to conducted studies, financial structure of organization was so important in its value and validity. For this purpose, managers should be aware about the variables affect the financial structure or organization and achieve an optimized financial structure using a proper attitude and scientific theories. The factors ...

  11. High-performance control of continuously variable transmissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der S.H.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, developments with respect to the pushbelt continuously variable transmission (CVT) are mainly directed towards a reduction of the fuel consumption of a vehicle. The fuel consumption of a vehicle is affected by the variator of the CVT, which transfers the torque and varies the transmission

  12. N-linked glycosylation of the immunoglobulin variable region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, Fleur S.; Derksen, Ninotska I. L.; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni; van Schie, Karin A.; Kruithof, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena A.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Ijspeert, Hanna; van der Burg, Mirjam; Gils, Ann; Hafkenscheid, Lise; Toes, René E. M.; Rombouts, Yoann; Plomp, Rosina; Wuhrer, Manfred; van Ham, S. Marieke; Vidarsson, Gestur; Rispens, Theo

    2018-01-01

    N-glycosylation sites are introduced at positions in which glycans can affect antigen binding as a result of a specific clustering of progenitor glycosylation sites in the germline sequences of variable domain genes. By analyzing multiple human monoclonal and polyclonal (auto)antibody responses, we

  13. distribution of hourly variability index of sky clearness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Clouds affect the values of insolation for solar technology and other applications. To detect the presence of variability in the sky ... It appears that the site has great potential for application of solar technologies. INTRODUCTION. Knowledge about the .... for solar collectors-part 1. Thermal performance of glazed liquid heating.

  14. Variables and advantages of the polymerization process in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Andres F; Ortiz, Jairo A; Restrepo, Elizabeth; Devia Alfonso

    1998-01-01

    They are given to know the parameters that affect the polymerization process in plasma like they are: the kinetics, the electric joining, the variables related to the substrata and the interaction plasma/surface. Some advantages of the polymerization process are also presented with regard to the conventional processes

  15. Wind power variability and power system reserves in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2017-01-01

    Variable renewable generation, primarily from wind and solar, introduces new uncertainties in the operation of power systems. This paper describes and applies a method to quantify how wind power development will affect the use of short-term automatic reserves in the future South African power sys...

  16. The Relationship between Housing Finance and Macroeconomics Variables in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binti Mohd Shukor Nur Baizura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing finance is one of the factors that contribute in the overall economy growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the relationship of housing finance variable and the macroeconomic variables in Malaysia. By adopting time series technique of Vector Auto regression (VAR and Impulse Response to determine the dynamic relationship between the macroeconomic and housing finance variable. The cointegration result shows that there exists a long run relationship between the macroeconomic variable and housing finance variable. The finding from impulse response function indicates that Gross Domestic Product (GDP response positively to the Primary Mortgage Market (PMM, which shows that during the good economy there are more housing loan extends by the banking institution. Meanwhile, interest rate response negatively to Secondary Mortgage Market (SMM, which implies that during the financial crisis, more housing loan sold to the Secondary Mortgage Market as one of the measure by the government to increase liquidity in banking institutions. As a conclusion, there is presence of relationship between the variable which change in one variable will affect the other variable in the long run.

  17. Manipulating continuous variable photonic entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plenio, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    I will review our work on photonic entanglement in the continuous variable regime including both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states. The feasibility and efficiency of various entanglement purification protocols are discussed this context. (author)

  18. Intensive variable and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Xinqi; Yuan, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Opening with intensive variables theory, using a combination of static and dynamic GIS and integrating numerical calculation and spatial optimization, this book creates a framework and methodology for evaluating land use effect, among other concepts.

  19. Variability of nitrate and phosphate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sundar, D.

    Nitrate and phosphate are important elements of the biogeochemical system of an estuary. Observations carried out during the dry season April-May 2002, and March 2003 and wet season September 2002, show temporal and spatial variability of these two...

  20. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key