Sample records for variable temperatures thermodynamics

  1. An optics-based variable-temperature assay system for characterizing thermodynamics of biomolecular reactions on solid support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Yiyan; Landry, James P.; Zhu, X. D., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Li, Yanhong; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Huang, Shengshu; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Chen, Xi [Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States)


    A biological state is equilibrium of multiple concurrent biomolecular reactions. The relative importance of these reactions depends on physiological temperature typically between 10 °C and 50 °C. Experimentally the temperature dependence of binding reaction constants reveals thermodynamics and thus details of these biomolecular processes. We developed a variable-temperature opto-fluidic system for real-time measurement of multiple (400–10 000) biomolecular binding reactions on solid supports from 10 °C to 60 °C within ±0.1 °C. We illustrate the performance of this system with investigation of binding reactions of plant lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) with 24 synthetic glycans (i.e., carbohydrates). We found that the lectin-glycan reactions in general can be enthalpy-driven, entropy-driven, or both, and water molecules play critical roles in the thermodynamics of these reactions.

  2. Complexation of Lanthanides with Nitrate at Variable Temperatures: Thermodynamics and Coordination Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin


    Complexation of neodymium(III) with nitrate was studied at variable temperatures (25, 40, 55 and 70 C) by spectrophotometry and microcalorimetry. The NdNO{sub 3}{sup 2+} complex is weak and becomes slightly stronger as the temperature is increased. The enthalpy of complexation at 25 C was determined by microcalorimetry to be small and positive, (1.5 {+-} 0.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, in good agreement with the trend of the stability constant at variable temperatures. Luminescence emission spectra and lifetime of Eu(III) in nitrate solutions suggest that inner-sphere and bidentate complexes form between trivalent lanthanides (Nd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) and nitrate in aqueous solutions. Specific Ion Interaction approach (SIT) was used to obtain the stability constants of NdNO{sub 3}{sup 2+} at infinite dilution and variable temperatures.

  3. Preliminary analyses of the REMS Ground temperature data in Gale: exploring thermodynamic processes behind the diurnal variability (United States)

    de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Ramos, Miguel; Sebastian, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Carrasco, Isaías; Haberle, Robert M.; Hamilton, Vicky E.; Jurado-Molina, Antonio; Lepinette, Alain; Martín-Torres, Javier; Martínez Frías, Jesús; Mischna, Michael; Mora, Luis; de Pablo, Miguel Angel; Peinado, Verónica; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Urqui O'Callahan, Roser; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Zorzano Mier, María P.


    The Mars surface skin temperature monitored by the Ground Temperature Sensor on REMS, responds to solar forcing and the interactions between atmospheric, surface, and subterranean properties. We present the evolution of the minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures for the first 100 sols. We also give a brief description of the GTS performance. Finally we explore how the diurnal cycle of ground temperatures relates to energy fluxes due to incident solar radiation fluxes, atmospheric thermal emission, wind driven heat exchanges, heat dissipation into the soil, surface properties, and heat fluxes associated to the rover influence. The analysis helps understand the type of possible thermodynamic interactions occurring between the lower atmosphere and the soil.

  4. Maximal temperature in a simple thermodynamical system (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan


    Temperature in a simple thermodynamical system is not limited from above. It is also widely believed that it does not make sense talking about temperatures higher than the Planck temperature in the absence of the full theory of quantum gravity. Here, we demonstrate that there exist a maximal achievable temperature in a system where particles obey the laws of quantum mechanics and classical gravity before we reach the realm of quantum gravity. Namely, if two particles with a given center of mass energy come at the distance shorter than the Schwarzschild diameter apart, according to classical gravity they will form a black hole. It is possible to calculate that a simple thermodynamical system will be dominated by black holes at a critical temperature which is about three times lower than the Planck temperature. That represents the maximal achievable temperature in a simple thermodynamical system.

  5. Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis and Experimental Investigate on a Two-stage Vapor Injection Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump with a Variable Displacement Ratio Rotary Compressor


    Huang, Hui; Liang, Xiangfei; Zhen, Bo; Huang, Boliang; Fang, Jinsheng; Zhuang, Rong


    Two-stage vapor injection compression cycle with flash tank was thermodynamically analyzed, the results showed that there existed the optimum theoretical displacement ratio of high stage to low stage corresponding to the maximum coefficient of performance(COP), the optimum displacement ratio and the volumetric heating capacity decreased with evaporation temperature decreasing. An optimum theoretical displacement ratio correlation for R290, R32 and R410A was given. A new type two-stage vapor i...

  6. Thermodynamics of High Temperature Materials. (United States)


    temperatures In the present range have also been obtained by Krauss and Warncke [8] and by Vollmer et al. [9], using adiabatic calorimetry, and by Kollie [10...value for heat capacity. The electrical resistivity results reported by Kollie [10] and by Powell et al. [13] are respectively about 1 and 1.5% lower...extensive annealing of the specimens used in the measurements: the specimen (>99.89% pure) used by Kollie was annealed at 1100 K for 24 h and Laubitz et al

  7. Evidence, temperature, and the laws of thermodynamics. (United States)

    Vieland, Veronica J


    A primary purpose of statistical analysis in genetics is the measurement of the strength of evidence for or against hypotheses. As with any type of measurement, a properly calibrated measurement scale is necessary if we want to be able to meaningfully compare degrees of evidence across genetic data sets, across different types of genetic studies and/or across distinct experimental modalities. In previous papers in this journal and elsewhere, my colleagues and I have argued that geneticists ought to care about the scale on which statistical evidence is measured, and we have proposed the Kelvin temperature scale as a template for a context-independent measurement scale for statistical evidence. Moreover, we have claimed that, mathematically speaking, evidence and temperature may be one and the same thing. On first blush, this might seem absurd. Temperature is a property of systems following certain laws of nature (in particular, the 1st and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics) involving very physical quantities (e.g., energy) and processes (e.g., mechanical work). But what do the laws of thermodynamics have to do with statistical systems? Here I address that question. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)


    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  9. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points (United States)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.


    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 "Radiation Thermometry". The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  10. Probing thermodynamic fluctuations in high temperature superconductors (United States)

    Vidal, Felix; Veira, J. A.; Maza, J.; Miguélez, F.; Morán, E.; Alario, M. A.


    We probe thermodynamic fluctuations in HTSC by measuring the excess electrical conductivity, Δσ, abovr T c in single-phase (within 4%) Ba 2LnCu 3O 7-δ compounds, with LnY, Ho and Sm. As expected, the measured relative effect, Δσ / σ (300 K), is much more important in HTSC than for low-temperature superconductors (at least one order of magnitude). In the reduced temperature region -5=-0.47 ± 0.06. This result confirms an universal critical behaviour of Δσ in HTSC, and the value of agrees with that predicted by the Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) theory for three-dimensional BCS superconductivity. However, A shows a normal conductivity dependence which is not accounted for by the AL theory.

  11. Variable-temperature FT-IR studies on the thermodynamics of carbon dioxide adsorption on a faujasite-type H-Y zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero Arean, C., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Rodriguez Delgado, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)


    Adsorption of carbon dioxide on a faujasite-type H-Y zeolite (Si:Al 2.6:1) was studied by variable-temperature (200-290 K range) infrared spectroscopy. Adsorbed CO{sub 2} molecules interact with the Bronsted acid Si(OH)Al groups located inside the zeolite supercage, bringing about a characteristic bathochromic shift of the O-H stretching mode from 3645 cm{sup -1} (free OH group) to 3540 cm{sup -1} (hydrogen-bonded CO{sub 2} adsorption complex). Simultaneously, the asymmetric ({nu}{sub 3}) mode of adsorbed CO{sub 2} is observed at 2353 cm{sup -1}. From the observed variation of the integrated intensity of the 3645 and 2353 cm{sup -1} IR absorption bands upon changing temperature, corresponding values of standard adsorption enthalpy and entropy were found to be {Delta}H{sup o} = -28.5({+-}1) kJ mol{sup -1} and {Delta}S{sup o} = -129({+-}10) J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}. Comparison with the reported values of {Delta}H{sup o} for CO{sub 2} adsorption on other zeolites is briefly discussed.

  12. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature (United States)

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan


    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  13. Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fermi, Enrico


    Indisputably, this is a modern classic of science. Based on a course of lectures delivered by the author at Columbia University, the text is elementary in treatment and remarkable for its clarity and organization. Although it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the fundamental facts of thermometry and calorimetry, no advanced mathematics beyond calculus is assumed.Partial contents: thermodynamic systems, the first law of thermodynamics (application, adiabatic transformations), the second law of thermodynamics (Carnot cycle, absolute thermodynamic temperature, thermal engines), the entr

  14. Thermodynamical interpretation of the geometrical variables associated with null surfaces


    Chakraborty, Sumanta; Padmanabhan, T.


    The emergent gravity paradigm interprets gravitational field equations as describing the thermodynamic limit of the underlying statistical mechanics of microscopic degrees of freedom of the spacetime. The connection is established by attributing a heat density Ts to the null surfaces where T is the appropriate Davies-Unruh temperature and s is the entropy density. The field equations can be obtained from a thermodynamic variational principle which extremizes the total heat density of all null...

  15. Equatorial Atlantic interannual variability and its relation to dynamic and thermodynamic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jouanno


    Full Text Available The contributions of the dynamic and thermodynamic forcing to the interannual variability of the equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST are investigated using a set of interannual regional simulations of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The ocean model is forced with an interactive atmospheric boundary layer, avoiding damping toward prescribed air temperature as is usually the case in forced ocean models. The model successfully reproduces a large fraction (R2  =  0.55 of the observed interannual variability in the equatorial Atlantic. In agreement with leading theories, our results confirm that the interannual variations of the dynamical forcing largely contributes to this variability. We show that mean and seasonal upper ocean temperature biases, commonly found in fully coupled models, strongly favor an unrealistic thermodynamic control of the equatorial Atlantic interannual variability.

  16. Low-temperature thermodynamics in the context of dissipative diamagnetism. (United States)

    Kumar, Jishad; Sreeram, P A; Dattagupta, Sushanta


    We revisit here the effect of quantum dissipation on the much studied problem of Landau diamagnetism and analyze the results in the light of the third law of thermodynamics. The case of an additional parabolic potential is separately assessed. We find that dissipation arising from strong coupling of the system to its environment qualitatively alters the low-temperature thermodynamic attributes such as the entropy and the specific heat.

  17. Viability of Variable Generalised Chaplygin gas - a thermodynamical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, D


    The viability of the variable generalised Chaplygin gas (VGCG) model is analysed from the standpoint of its thermodynamical stability criteria with the help of an equation of state, $P = - \\frac{B}{\\rho^{\\alpha}}$, where $B = B_{0}V^{-\\frac{n}{3}}$. Here $B_{0}$ is assumed to be a positive universal constant, $n$ is a constant parameter and $V$ is the volume of the cosmic fluid. We get the interesting result that if the well-known stability conditions of a fluid is adhered to, the values of $n$ are constrained to be negative definite to make $ \\left(\\frac{\\partial P}{\\partial V}\\right)_{S} <0$ \\& $ \\left(\\frac{\\partial P}{\\partial V}\\right)_{T} <0$ throughout the evolution. Moreover the positivity of thermal capacity at constant volume $c_{V}$ as also the validity of the third law of thermodynamics are ensured in this case. For the particular case $n = 0$ the effective equation of state reduces to $\\Lambda$CDM model in the late stage of the universe while for $n <0$ it mimics a phantom-like cosmo...

  18. Dissemination of thermodynamic temperature above the freezing point of silver. (United States)

    Sadli, M; Machin, G; Anhalt, K; Bourson, F; Briaudeau, S; del Campo, D; Diril, A; Kozlova, O; Lowe, D H; Mantilla Amor, J M; Martin, M J; McEvoy, H C; Ojanen-Saloranta, M; Pehlivan, Ö; Rougié, B; Salim, S G R


    The mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin at high temperatures will formally allow dissemination of thermodynamic temperature either directly or mediated through high-temperature fixed points (HTFPs). In this paper, these two distinct dissemination methods are evaluated, namely source-based and detector-based. This was achieved by performing two distinct dissemination trials: one based on HTFPs, the other based on absolutely calibrated radiation thermometers or filter radiometers. These trials involved six national metrology institutes in Europe in the frame of the European Metrology Research Programme joint project 'Implementing the new kelvin' (InK). The results have shown that both dissemination routes are possible, with similar standard uncertainties of 1-2 K, over the range 1273-2773 K, showing that, depending on the facilities available in the laboratory, it will soon be possible to disseminate thermodynamic temperatures above 1273 K to users by either of the two methods with uncertainties comparable to the current temperature scale. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Designing high-temperature steels via surface science and thermodynamics (United States)

    Gross, Cameron T.; Jiang, Zilin; Mathai, Allan; Chung, Yip-Wah


    Electricity in many countries such as the US and China is produced by burning fossil fuels in steam-turbine-driven power plants. The efficiency of these power plants can be improved by increasing the operating temperature of the steam generator. In this work, we adopted a combined surface science and computational thermodynamics approach to the design of high-temperature, corrosion-resistant steels for this application. The result is a low-carbon ferritic steel with nanosized transition metal monocarbide precipitates that are thermally stable, as verified by atom probe tomography. High-temperature Vickers hardness measurements demonstrated that these steels maintain their strength for extended periods at 700 °C. We hypothesize that the improved strength of these steels is derived from the semi-coherent interfaces of these thermally stable, nanosized precipitates exerting drag forces on impinging dislocations, thus maintaining strength at elevated temperatures.

  20. CMEs' Speed, Travel Time, and Temperature: A Thermodynamic Approach (United States)

    Durand-Manterola, Hector J.; Flandes, Alberto; Rivera, Ana Leonor; Lara, Alejandro; Niembro, Tatiana


    Due to their important role in space weather, coronal mass ejections or CMEs have been thoroughly studied in order to forecast their speed and transit time from the Sun to the Earth. We present a thermodynamic analytical model that describes the dynamics of CMEs. The thermodynamic approach has some advantages with respect to the hydrodynamic approach. First, it deals with the energy involved, which is a scalar quantity. Second, one may calculate the work done by the different forces separately and sum all contributions to determine the changes in speed, which simplifies the problem and allows us to obtain fully rigorous results. Our model considers the drag force, which dominates the dynamics of CMEs and the solar gravitational force, which has a much smaller effect, but it is, still, relevant enough to be considered. We derive an explicit analytical expression for the speed of CMEs in terms of its most relevant parameters and obtain an analytical expression for the CME temperature. The model is tested with a CME observed at three different heliocentric distances with three different spacecraft (SOHO, ACE, and Ulysses); also, with a set of 11 CMEs observed with the SOHO, Wind, and ACE spacecraft and, finally, with two events observed with the STEREO spacecraft. In all cases, we have a consistent agreement between the theoretical and the observed speeds and transit times. Additionally, for the set of 11 events, we estimate their temperatures at their departure position from their temperatures measured near the orbit of the Earth.

  1. Modes of vertical thermodynamic and wind variability over the Maritime Continent (United States)

    Bukowski, Jennie; Posselt, Derek J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Atwood, Samuel A.


    The Maritime Continent (MC) is an exceedingly complex region from the perspective of both its meteorology and its aerosol characteristics. Convection in the MC is ubiquitous and assumes a wide variety of forms under the influence of an evolving large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic context. Understanding the interaction between convective systems and their environment, both individually and in the aggregate, requires knowledge of the dominant patterns of spatial and temporal variability. Ongoing cloud model ensemble studies require realistic perturbations to the atmospheric thermodynamic state to devise system sensitivities. Apart from modeling studies, evanescent signals in the tropical system are obscured by the underlying broad-scale meteorological variability, which if constrained could illuminate fine-scale physical processes. To this end, radiosonde observations from 2008 to 2016 are examined from three upper-air sounding sites within the MC for the purpose of exploring the dominant vertical temperature, humidity, and wind structures in the region. Principal component analysis is applied to the vertical atmospheric column to transform patterns present in radiosonde data into canonical thermodynamic and wind profiles for the MC. Both rotated and non-rotated principal components are considered, and the emerging structure functions reflect the fundamental vertical modes of short-term tropical variability. The results indicate that while there is tremendous spatial and temporal variability across the MC, the primary modes of vertical thermodynamic and wind variability in the region can be represented in a lower-dimensional subspace. In addition, the vertical structures are very similar among different sites around the region, though different structures may manifest more strongly at one location than another. The results indicate that, while different meteorology may be found in various parts of the MC at any given time, the processes themselves are remarkably

  2. High Temperature High Pressure Thermodynamic Measurements for Coal Model Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Chen; Vinayak N. Kabadi


    The overall objective of this project is to develop a better thermodynamic model for predicting properties of high-boiling coal derived liquids, especially the phase equilibria of different fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The development of such a model requires data on vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), enthalpy, and heat capacity which would be experimentally determined for binary systems of coal model compounds and compiled into a database. The data will be used to refine existing models such as UNIQUAC and UNIFAC. The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for thk project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique and addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature, pressure and liquid level inside the VLE cell. VLE data measurements for system benzene-ethylbenzene have been completed. The vapor and liquid samples were analysed using the Perkin-Elmer Autosystem gas chromatography.

  3. Temperature Effect on Micelle Formation: Molecular Thermodynamic Model Revisited. (United States)

    Khoshnood, Atefeh; Lukanov, Boris; Firoozabadi, Abbas


    Temperature affects the aggregation of macromolecules such as surfactants, polymers, and proteins in aqueous solutions. The effect on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is often nonmonotonic. In this work, the effect of temperature on the micellization of ionic and nonionic surfactants in aqueous solutions is studied using a molecular thermodynamic model. Previous studies based on this technique have predicted monotonic behavior for ionic surfactants. Our investigation shows that the choice of tail transfer energy to describe the hydrophobic effect between the surfactant tails and the polar solvent molecules plays a key role in the predicted CMC. We modify the tail transfer energy by taking into account the effect of the surfactant head on the neighboring methylene group. The modification improves the description of the CMC and the predicted micellar size for aqueous solutions of sodium n-alkyl sulfate, dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), and n-alkyl polyoxyethylene. The new tail transfer energy describes the nonmonotonic behavior of CMC versus temperature. In the DTAB-water system, we redefine the head size by including the methylene group, next to the nitrogen, in the head. The change in the head size along with our modified tail transfer energy improves the CMC and aggregation size prediction significantly. Tail transfer is a dominant energy contribution in micellar and microemulsion systems. It also promotes the adsorption of surfactants at fluid-fluid interfaces and affects the formation of adsorbed layer at fluid-solid interfaces. Our proposed modifications have direct applications in the thermodynamic modeling of the effect of temperature on molecular aggregation, both in the bulk and at the interfaces.

  4. Vibrational and thermodynamic properties of Ar, N2, O2, H2 and CO adsorbed and condensed into (H,Na)-Y zeolite cages as studied by variable temperature IR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Gribov, Evgueni N; Cocina, Donato; Spoto, Giuseppe; Bordiga, Silvia; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Zecchina, Adriano


    The adsorption of Ar, H2, O2, N2 and CO on (H,Na)-Y zeolite (Si/Al = 2.9, H+/Na+ approximately 5) has been studied at variable-temperature (90-20 K) and sub-atmospheric pressure (0-40 mbar) by FTIR spectroscopy. Unprecedented filling conditions of the zeolite cavities were attained, which allowed the investigation of very weakly adsorbed species and of condensed, liquid-like or solid-like, phases. Two pressure regimes were singled out, characterized by: (i) specific interaction at low pressure of the probe molecules (P) with the internal Brønsted and Lewis sites, and (ii) multilayer adsorption at higher pressure. In the case of CO the perturbation of the protonic sites located inside the sodalite cages was also observed. As the molecule is too large to penetrate the sodalite cage, the perturbation is thought to involve a proton jump tunneling mechanism. The adsorption energy for the (HF)OH...P (P = Ar, H2, O2, N2 and CO) specific interaction involving the high frequency Brønsted acid sites exposed in the supercages was derived following the VTIR (variable temperature infrared spectroscopy) method described by E. Garrone and C. Otero Areán (Chem. Soc. Rev., 2005, 34, 846).

  5. Urea-temperature phase diagrams capture the thermodynamics of denatured state expansion that accompany protein unfolding (United States)

    Tischer, Alexander; Auton, Matthew


    We have analyzed the thermodynamic properties of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) A3 domain using urea-induced unfolding at variable temperature and thermal unfolding at variable urea concentrations to generate a phase diagram that quantitatively describes the equilibrium between native and denatured states. From this analysis, we were able to determine consistent thermodynamic parameters with various spectroscopic and calorimetric methods that define the urea–temperature parameter plane from cold denaturation to heat denaturation. Urea and thermal denaturation are experimentally reversible and independent of the thermal scan rate indicating that all transitions are at equilibrium and the van't Hoff and calorimetric enthalpies obtained from analysis of individual thermal transitions are equivalent demonstrating two-state character. Global analysis of the urea–temperature phase diagram results in a significantly higher enthalpy of unfolding than obtained from analysis of individual thermal transitions and significant cross correlations describing the urea dependence of and that define a complex temperature dependence of the m-value. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy illustrates a large increase in secondary structure content of the urea-denatured state as temperature increases and a loss of secondary structure in the thermally denatured state upon addition of urea. These structural changes in the denatured ensemble make up ∼40% of the total ellipticity change indicating a highly compact thermally denatured state. The difference between the thermodynamic parameters obtained from phase diagram analysis and those obtained from analysis of individual thermal transitions illustrates that phase diagrams capture both contributions to unfolding and denatured state expansion and by comparison are able to decipher these contributions. PMID:23813497


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi


    The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for this project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique, addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature and pressure inside the VLE cell, and a new technique for remote sensing of the liquid level in the cell. VLE data measurements for three binary systems, tetralin-quinoline, benzene--ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene--quinoline, have been completed. The temperature ranges of data measurements were 325 C to 370 C for the first system, 180 C to 300 C for the second system, and 225 C to 380 C for the third system. The smoothed data were found to be fairly well behaved when subjected to thermodynamic consistency tests. SETARAM C-80 calorimeter was used for incremental enthalpy and heat capacity measurements for benzene--ethylbenzene binary liquid mixtures. Data were measured from 30 C to 285 C for liquid mixtures covering the entire composition range. An apparatus has been designed for simultaneous measurement of excess volume and incremental enthalpy of liquid mixtures at temperatures from 30 C to 300 C. The apparatus has been tested and is ready for data measurements. A flow apparatus for measurement of heat of mixing of liquid mixtures at high temperatures has also been designed, and is currently being tested and calibrated.

  7. [Correlativity analysis based on radiation spectrum of correlated color temperature and thermodynamic temperature of a radiating source]. (United States)

    Fu, Tai-ran; Cheng, Xiao-fang; Zhong, Mao-hua; Yang, Zang-jian


    Correlated color temperature, which describes the chromaticity characteristics of a radiating source, is different from its thermodynamic temperature derived from primary spectrum pyrometry. However, establishing their mathematical relationship is feasible. Therefore, the authors theoretically analyzed the variation rule of the correlativity difference between the correlated color temperature of the source and its thermodynamic temperature with the emissivity parameter. And the authors gave the corresponding numerical simulation results. The above theoretical and numerical discussions will make it possible that a colorimeter used to measure the correlated color temperature serves as a pyrometer to realize the measurement of the thermodynamic temperature.

  8. The thermodynamic database COST MP0602 for materials for high-temperature lead-free soldering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupa A.


    Full Text Available The current state of thermodynamic modelling in the field of high-temperature lead-free soldering is presented. A consistent thermodynamic database, containing 18 elements (Ag, Al, Au, Bi, Co, Cu, Ga, Ge, Mg, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Sb, Sn, Ti and Zn has been created. The thermodynamic data for the most of the important binary and selected ternary systems were checked and included into the database. The database was tested using major commercial software packages. Such reliable and sophisticated software coupled to reliable thermodynamic databases are necessary prerequisites for application of thermodynamics in advanced alloys design.

  9. Thermodynamic Temperature of High-Temperature Fixed Points Traceable to Blackbody Radiation and Synchrotron Radiation (United States)

    Wähmer, M.; Anhalt, K.; Hollandt, J.; Klein, R.; Taubert, R. D.; Thornagel, R.; Ulm, G.; Gavrilov, V.; Grigoryeva, I.; Khlevnoy, B.; Sapritsky, V.


    Absolute spectral radiometry is currently the only established primary thermometric method for the temperature range above 1300 K. Up to now, the ongoing improvements of high-temperature fixed points and their formal implementation into an improved temperature scale with the mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin, rely solely on single-wavelength absolute radiometry traceable to the cryogenic radiometer. Two alternative primary thermometric methods, yielding comparable or possibly even smaller uncertainties, have been proposed in the literature. They use ratios of irradiances to determine the thermodynamic temperature traceable to blackbody radiation and synchrotron radiation. At PTB, a project has been established in cooperation with VNIIOFI to use, for the first time, all three methods simultaneously for the determination of the phase transition temperatures of high-temperature fixed points. For this, a dedicated four-wavelengths ratio filter radiometer was developed. With all three thermometric methods performed independently and in parallel, we aim to compare the potential and practical limitations of all three methods, disclose possibly undetected systematic effects of each method and thereby confirm or improve the previous measurements traceable to the cryogenic radiometer. This will give further and independent confidence in the thermodynamic temperature determination of the high-temperature fixed point's phase transitions.

  10. Variable color temperature fluorescent lamp (United States)

    Ravi, J.; Maya, J.


    Color temperature change in a mercury-rare gas low pressure discharge has been investigated. Different pulse waveforms have been employed to increase the ratio of mercury upper level transitions with respect to the resonant 254 nm radiation. Low pressure fluorescent light sources were made with coatings consisting of a blue phosphor, sensitive to 365 nm ultraviolet radiation, blended with the standard 254 nm excited red/green phosphors. With a fast rise excitation waveform, a color temperature rise of as much as 1700 K was realized although at a cost of 26% in relative luminous efficacy. An improved scheme for greater color temperature change is proposed based on a phosphor that is excitable by the mercury 185 nm ultraviolet radiation but which does not absorb 254 nm radiation.

  11. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition (United States)

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.


    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  12. Thermoelectrically-cooled variable-temperature probe (United States)

    Kelso, R. M.; Richmond, R. G.


    Variable-temperature probe for electron spectroscopy requires no cryogenic liquids or resistance heating elements. Device consists of heat sink, probe tip, and nickel-plated copper body which resists oxidation and transfers heat efficiently between tip and heat sink.

  13. Prediction of melting temperatures in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures using thermodynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Guimarães, Nuno; Wengel, Jesper


    thermodynamics that provide reasonably accurate thermodynamic information on nucleic acid duplexes and allow estimation of the melting temperature. Because there are no thermodynamic models specifically developed to predict the hybridization temperature of a probe used in a fluorescence in situ hybridization......Abstract The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA...... (FISH) procedure, the melting temperature is used as a reference, together with corrections for certain compounds that are used during FISH. However, the quantitative relation between melting and experimental FISH temperatures is poorly described. In this review, various models used to predict...

  14. Temperature Dependence and Thermodynamics of Klenow Polymerase Binding to Primed-Template DNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Datta, Kausiki; Wowor, Andy J; Richard, Allison J; LiCata, Vince J


    DNA binding of Klenow polymerase has been characterized with respect to temperature to delineate the thermodynamic driving forces involved in the interaction of this polymerase with primed-template DNA...

  15. Thermodynamics of micropolar fluids with variable concentration of polar particles (United States)

    Neverov, V. V.; Shelukhin, V. V.


    In this paper we derive equations of micropolar fluid with variable concentration of polar particles. Such fluids have non-symmetrical stress tensor and exhibit micro-rotations. To illustrate the derived equations, we consider a pressure driven flow between two parallel planes.

  16. Mnemonic Device for Relating the Eight Thermodynamic State Variables: The Energy Pie (United States)

    Fieberg, Jeffrey E.; Girard, Charles A.


    A mnemonic device, the energy pie, is presented that provides relationships between thermodynamic potentials ("U," "H," "G," and "A") and other sets of variables that carry energy units, "TS" and "PV." Methods are also presented in which the differential expressions for the potentials and the corresponding Maxwell relations follow from the energy…


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien


    A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on thermal water splitting processes is presented. Results of the analysis show that the overall efficiency of any thermal water splitting process operating between two temperature limits is proportional to the Carnot efficiency. Implications of thermodynamic efficiency limits and the impacts of loss mechanisms and operating conditions are discussed as they pertain specifically to hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis. Overall system performance predictions are also presented for high-temperature electrolysis plants powered by three different advanced nuclear reactor types, over their respective operating temperature ranges.

  18. Deep temperature variability in Drake Passage (United States)

    Firing, Yvonne L.; McDonagh, Elaine L.; King, Brian A.; Desbruyères, Damien G.


    Observations made on 21 occupations between 1993 and 2016 of GO-SHIP line SR1b in eastern Drake Passage show an average temperature of 0.53°C deeper than 2000 dbar, with no significant trend, but substantial year-to-year variability (standard deviation 0.08°C). Using a neutral density framework to decompose the temperature variability into isopycnal displacement (heave) and isopycnal property change components shows that approximately 95% of the year-to-year variance in deep temperature is due to heave. Changes on isopycnals make a small contribution to year-to-year variability but contribute a significant trend of -1.4 ± 0.6 m°C per year, largest for density (γn) > 28.1, south of the Polar Front (PF). The heave component is depth-coherent and results from either vertical or horizontal motions of neutral density surfaces, which trend upward and northward around the PF, downward for the densest levels in the southern section, and downward and southward in the Subantarctic Front and Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF). A proxy for the locations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) fronts is constructed from the repeat hydrographic data and has a strong relationship with deep ocean heat content, explaining 76% of deep temperature variance. The same frontal position proxy based on satellite altimeter-derived surface velocities explains 73% of deep temperature variance. The position of the PF plays the strongest role in this relationship between ACC fronts and deep temperature variability in Drake Passage, although much of the temperature variability in the southern half of the section can be explained by the position of the SACCF.

  19. Computer codes used in the calculation of high-temperature thermodynamic properties of sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.K.


    Three computer codes - SODIPROP, NAVAPOR, and NASUPER - were written in order to calculate a self-consistent set of thermodynamic properties for saturated, subcooled, and superheated sodium. These calculations incorporate new critical parameters (temperature, pressure, and density) and recently derived single equations for enthalpy and vapor pressure. The following thermodynamic properties have been calculated in these codes: enthalpy, heat capacity, entropy, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, density, volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. In the code SODIPROP, these properties are calculated for saturated and subcooled liquid sodium. Thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium vapor are calculated in the code NAVAPOR. The code NASUPER calculates thermodynamic properties for super-heated sodium vapor only for low (< 1644 K) temperatures. No calculations were made for the supercritical region.

  20. Interpolation of climate variables and temperature modeling (United States)

    Samanta, Sailesh; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Lohar, Debasish; Pal, Babita


    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and modeling are becoming powerful tools in agricultural research and natural resource management. This study proposes an empirical methodology for modeling and mapping of the monthly and annual air temperature using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The study area is Gangetic West Bengal and its neighborhood in the eastern India, where a number of weather systems occur throughout the year. Gangetic West Bengal is a region of strong heterogeneous surface with several weather disturbances. This paper also examines statistical approaches for interpolating climatic data over large regions, providing different interpolation techniques for climate variables' use in agricultural research. Three interpolation approaches, like inverse distance weighted averaging, thin-plate smoothing splines, and co-kriging are evaluated for 4° × 4° area, covering the eastern part of India. The land use/land cover, soil texture, and digital elevation model are used as the independent variables for temperature modeling. Multiple regression analysis with standard method is used to add dependent variables into regression equation. Prediction of mean temperature for monsoon season is better than winter season. Finally standard deviation errors are evaluated after comparing the predicted temperature and observed temperature of the area. For better improvement, distance from the coastline and seasonal wind pattern are stressed to be included as independent variables.

  1. Temperature variability over the tropical middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanakumar


    Full Text Available A study on the variability of temperature in the tropical middle atmosphere over Thumba (8 32' N, 76 52' E, located at the southern part of India, has been carried out based on rocket observations for a period of 20 years, extending from 1970 to 1990. The rocketsonde-derived mean temperatures over Thumba are corrected prior to 1978 and then compared with the middle atmospheric reference model developed from satellite observations and Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME satellite data. Temperature variability at every 1 km interval in the 25-75 km region was analysed. The tropical stratosphere is found to be highly stable, whereas considerable variability is noted in the middle mesosphere. The effect of seasonal cycle is least in the lower stratosphere. Annual and semi-annual oscillations in temperature are the primary oscillations in the tropical middle atmosphere. Annual temperature oscillations are dominant in the mesosphere and semi-annual oscillations are strong in the stratosphere. The stratopause region is noted to be the part of the middle atmosphere least sensitive to the changes in solar activity and long-term variability.

  2. Variable effects of temperature on insect herbivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Lemoine


    Full Text Available Rising temperatures can influence the top-down control of plant biomass by increasing herbivore metabolic demands. Unfortunately, we know relatively little about the effects of temperature on herbivory rates for most insect herbivores in a given community. Evolutionary history, adaptation to local environments, and dietary factors may lead to variable thermal response curves across different species. Here we characterized the effect of temperature on herbivory rates for 21 herbivore-plant pairs, encompassing 14 herbivore and 12 plant species. We show that overall consumption rates increase with temperature between 20 and 30 °C but do not increase further with increasing temperature. However, there is substantial variation in thermal responses among individual herbivore-plant pairs at the highest temperatures. Over one third of the herbivore-plant pairs showed declining consumption rates at high temperatures, while an approximately equal number showed increasing consumption rates. Such variation existed even within herbivore species, as some species exhibited idiosyncratic thermal response curves on different host plants. Thus, rising temperatures, particularly with respect to climate change, may have highly variable effects on plant-herbivore interactions and, ultimately, top-down control of plant biomass.

  3. Differential temperature Carnot heat analysis shows that computing machines are thermodynamically irreversible (United States)

    Parker, Michael C.; Walker, Stuart D.


    We perform a differential temperature Carnot analysis of the changes in energy and entropy (degrees of freedom) associated with an ideal classical computing machine. Assuming that Carnot's maximum efficiency law is as equally applicable to a computing machine as to a mechanical machine, we find that useful computation is necessarily dissipative and thermodynamically irreversible. In addition, we find that copying or cloning of information is as dissipative as the original process employed to create the information (through a computation) in the first place. We prove minimum heat dissipation kT ln 2 per output calculation bit, where T is the thermodynamic temperature of unavoidable by-product bits (i.e. not the output calculation bits) rather than a generally assumed 'surrounding environment' temperature. Overall, this places computers into the same category as conventional machines, obeying the second law of thermodynamics and always operating below 100% efficiency, such that a perpetual calculating machine cannot exist.

  4. Analysis of elevated temperature data for thermodynamic properties of selected radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wruck, D.A.; Palmer, C.E.A.


    This report is a review of chemical thermodynamic data for Ni, Zr, Tc, U, Np, Pu and Am in aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures. Thermodynamic data for aqueous reactions over the temperature range 20-150{degrees}C are needed for geochemical modeling studies of the Yucca Mountain Project. The present review is focused on the aqueous complexes relevant to expected conditions in the Yucca Mountain region: primarily the hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate and fluoride complexes with the metal ions. Existing thermodynamic data are evaluated, and means of extrapolating 25{degrees}C data to the temperatures of interest are discussed. There will be a separate review of solubility data for relevant Ni, Zr, Tc, Np, Pu and Am compounds.

  5. Thermodynamic Relations for the Entropy and Temperature of Multi-Horizon Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu


    Full Text Available We present some entropy and temperature relations of multi-horizons, even including the “virtual” horizon. These relations are related to the product, division and sum of the entropy and temperature of multi-horizons. We obtain the additional thermodynamic relations of both static and rotating black holes in three- and four-dimensional (AdS spacetime. Especially, a new dimensionless, charge-independence and T+S+ = T_S_-like relation is presented. This relation does not depend on the mass, electric charge, angular momentum and cosmological constant, as it is always a constant. These relations lead us to obtaining some interesting thermodynamic bounds of entropy and temperature, including the Penrose inequality, which is the first geometrical inequality of black holes. Besides, based on these new relations, one can obtain the first law of thermodynamics and the Smarr relation for all horizons of a black hole.

  6. High-temperature experimental and thermodynamic modelling research on the pyrometallurgical processing of copper (United States)

    Hidayat, Taufiq; Shishin, Denis; Decterov, Sergei A.; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni


    Uncertainty in the metal price and competition between producers mean that the daily operation of a smelter needs to target high recovery of valuable elements at low operating cost. Options for the improvement of the plant operation can be examined and decision making can be informed based on accurate information from laboratory experimentation coupled with predictions using advanced thermodynamic models. Integrated high-temperature experimental and thermodynamic modelling research on phase equilibria and thermodynamics of copper-containing systems have been undertaken at the Pyrometallurgy Innovation Centre (PYROSEARCH). The experimental phase equilibria studies involve high-temperature equilibration, rapid quenching and direct measurement of phase compositions using electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The thermodynamic modelling deals with the development of accurate thermodynamic database built through critical evaluation of experimental data, selection of solution models, and optimization of models parameters. The database covers the Al-Ca-Cu-Fe-Mg-O-S-Si chemical system. The gas, slag, matte, liquid and solid metal phases, spinel solid solution as well as numerous solid oxide and sulphide phases are included. The database works within the FactSage software environment. Examples of phase equilibria data and thermodynamic models of selected systems, as well as possible implementation of the research outcomes to selected copper making processes are presented.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi


    It is well known that the fluid phase equilibria can be represented by a number of {gamma}-models , but unfortunately most of them do not function well under high temperature. In this calculation, we mainly investigate the performance of UNIQUAC and NRTL models under high temperature, using temperature dependent parameters rather than using the original formulas. the other feature of this calculation is that we try to relate the excess Gibbs energy G{sup E}and enthalpy of mixing H{sup E}simultaneously. In other words, we will use the high temperature and pressure G{sup E} and H{sup E}data to regress the temperature dependant parameters to find out which model and what kind of temperature dependant parameters should be used.

  8. Thermodynamic Studies of the Phase Relationships of Nonstoichiometric Cerium Oxides at Higher Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Toft


    Partial molar thermodynamic quantities for oxygen in nonstoichiometric cerium oxides were determined by thermogravimetric analysis in CO/CO2 mixtures in the temperature range 900–1400°C. Under these conditions compositions within the range 2.00 greater-or-equal, slanted O/M greater-or-equal, slan......Partial molar thermodynamic quantities for oxygen in nonstoichiometric cerium oxides were determined by thermogravimetric analysis in CO/CO2 mixtures in the temperature range 900–1400°C. Under these conditions compositions within the range 2.00 greater-or-equal, slanted O/M greater...

  9. Pressure–temperature dependence of thermodynamic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    properties of materials under high pressures and temperatures for microscopic under- standing as well as technological applications. In this paper, we report our theoretical study of both pressure and temperature dependences of the thermal properties of rutile within the Debye and Debye–Grüneisen models with and ...

  10. Prediction of melting temperatures in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures using thermodynamic models. (United States)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Guimarães, Nuno; Wengel, Jesper; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe


    The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA thermodynamics that provide reasonably accurate thermodynamic information on nucleic acid duplexes and allow estimation of the melting temperature. Because there are no thermodynamic models specifically developed to predict the hybridization temperature of a probe used in a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure, the melting temperature is used as a reference, together with corrections for certain compounds that are used during FISH. However, the quantitative relation between melting and experimental FISH temperatures is poorly described. In this review, various models used to predict the melting temperature for rRNA targets, for DNA oligonucleotides and for nucleic acid mimics (chemically modified oligonucleotides), will be addressed in detail, together with a critical assessment of how this information should be used in FISH.

  11. Finite-temperature hydrogen adsorption and desorption thermodynamics driven by soft vibration modes. (United States)

    Woo, Sung-Jae; Lee, Eui-Sup; Yoon, Mina; Kim, Yong-Hyun


    It has been widely accepted that enhanced dihydrogen adsorption is required for room-temperature hydrogen storage on nanostructured porous materials. Here we report, based on results of first-principles total energy and vibrational spectrum calculations, finite-temperature adsorption and desorption thermodynamics of hydrogen molecules that are adsorbed on the metal center of metal-porphyrin-incorporated graphene. We have revealed that the room-temperature hydrogen storage is achievable not only with the enhanced adsorption enthalpy, but also with soft-mode driven vibrational entropy of the adsorbed dihydrogen molecule. The soft vibration modes mostly result from multiple orbital coupling between the hydrogen molecule and the buckled metal center, for example, in Ca-porphyrin-incorporated graphene. Our study suggests that the current design strategy for room-temperature hydrogen storage materials should be modified with explicitly taking the finite-temperature vibration thermodynamics into account.

  12. Effect of temperature on microbial growth rate - thermodynamic analysis, the arrhenius and eyring-polanyi connection (United States)

    The objective of this work is to develop a new thermodynamic mathematical model for evaluating the effect of temperature on the rate of microbial growth. The new mathematical model is derived by combining the Arrhenius equation and the Eyring-Polanyi transition theory. The new model, suitable for ...

  13. Thermodynamics of high-temperature and high-density hadron gas by a numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Miyamura, Osamu [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Dept. of Physics


    We study thermodynamical properties of hot and dense hadronic gas an event generator URASiMA. In our results, the increase of temperature is suppressed. It indicates that hot and dense hadronic gas has a large specific heat at constant volume. (author)

  14. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a high temperature triple absorption heat transformer. (United States)

    Khamooshi, Mehrdad; Parham, Kiyan; Yari, Mortaza; Egelioglu, Fuat; Salati, Hana; Babadi, Saeed


    First law of thermodynamics has been used to analyze and optimize inclusively the performance of a triple absorption heat transformer operating with LiBr/H2O as the working pair. A thermodynamic model was developed in EES (engineering equation solver) to estimate the performance of the system in terms of the most essential parameters. The assumed parameters are the temperature of the main components, weak and strong solutions, economizers' efficiencies, and bypass ratios. The whole cycle is optimized by EES software from the viewpoint of maximizing the COP via applying the direct search method. The optimization results showed that the COP of 0.2491 is reachable by the proposed cycle.

  15. Forecasting neutron star temperatures: predictability and variability. (United States)

    Page, Dany; Reddy, Sanjay


    It is now possible to model thermal relaxation of neutron stars after bouts of accretion during which the star is heated out of equilibrium by nuclear reactions in its crust. Major uncertainties in these models can be encapsulated in modest variations of a handful of control parameters that change the fiducial crustal thermal conductivity, specific heat, and heating rates. Observations of thermal relaxation constrain these parameters and allow us to predict longer term variability in terms of the neutron star core temperature. We demonstrate this explicitly by modeling ongoing thermal relaxation in the neutron star XTE J1701-462. Its future cooling, over the next 5 to 30 years, is strongly constrained and depends mostly on its core temperature, uncertainties in crust physics having essentially been pinned down by fitting to the first three years of observations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi


    The Vapor Liquid Equilibrium measurement setup of this work was first established several years ago. It is a flow type high temperature high pressure apparatus which was designed to operate below 500 C temperature and 2000 psia pressure. Compared with the static method, this method has three major advantages: the first is that large quantity of sample can be obtained from the system without disturbing the equilibrium state which was established before; the second is that the residence time of the sample in the equilibrium cell is greatly reduced, thus decomposition or contamination of the sample can be effectively prevented; the third is that the flow system allows the sample to degas as it heats up since any non condensable gas will exit in the vapor stream, accumulate in the vapor condenser, and not be recirculated. The first few runs were made with Quinoline-Tetralin system, the results were fairly in agreement with the literature data . The former graduate student Amad used the same apparatus acquired the Benzene-Ethylbenzene system VLE data. This work used basically the same setup (several modifications had been made) to get the VLE data of Ethylbenzene-Quinoline system.

  17. Thermodynamic dislocation theory of high-temperature deformation in aluminum and steel (United States)

    Le, K. C.; Tran, T. M.; Langer, J. S.


    The statistical-thermodynamic dislocation theory developed in previous papers is used here in an analysis of high-temperature deformation of aluminum and steel. Using physics-based parameters that we expect theoretically to be independent of strain rate and temperature, we are able to fit experimental stress-strain curves for three different strain rates and three different temperatures for each of these two materials. Our theoretical curves include yielding transitions at zero strain in agreement with experiment. We find that thermal softening effects are important even at the lowest temperatures and smallest strain rates.

  18. Low-Temperature Thermodynamic Properties of Superconducting Antiperovskite CdCNi_3 (United States)

    Szczȩśniak, R.; Durajski, A. P.; Skoczylas, K. M.; Herok, Ł.


    We investigate the thermodynamic parameters of the superconducting antiperovskite CdCNi_3 using the Eliashberg approach which is an excellent tool to the exact characterization of the conventional superconductors. In particular, we reproduce the measured superconducting transition temperature (T_C=3.2 K) for a high value of the Coulomb pseudopotential (μ ^{star }C=0.22). Then we determine the energy gap, the thermodynamic critical field and the specific heat for the superconducting and normal state. On this basis, we show that the thermodynamic properties of CdCNi_3 differ slightly from the prediction of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory, which means that CdCNi_3 is a medium-coupling superconductor in contrast to related strong-coupling MgCNi_3.

  19. Thermodynamic properties and low-temperature X-ray diffraction of vitamin B{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, A.V., E-mail:; Smirnova, N.N.; Shipilova, A.S.; Shushunov, A.N.; Gusarova, E.V; Knyazeva, S.S.


    Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B{sub 3} has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B{sub 3} have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 346 K. • The thermodynamic analysis of reactions involving nicotinic acid was made. • The low-temperature X-ray diffraction was used for the determination of coefficients of thermal expansion. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B{sub 3} (nicotinic acid) has been measured for the first time in the range from 5 to 346 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B{sub 3}, namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) – H°(0), entropy S°(T) – S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) – H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 343 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye’s theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. The thermodynamic parameters Δ{sub f}S°, Δ{sub f}G° at T = 298.15 K and p = 0.1 MPa have been calculated. The thermodynamic analysis of reactions involving nicotinic acid was made. The low-temperature X-ray diffraction was used for the determination of coefficients of thermal expansion.

  20. Thermodynamic Temperature Measurement to the Indium Point Based on Radiance Comparison (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamada, Y.


    A multi-national project (the EMRP InK project) was completed recently, which successfully determined the thermodynamic temperatures of several of the high-temperature fixed points above the copper point. The National Metrology Institute of Japan contributed to this project with its newly established absolute spectral radiance calibration capability. In the current study, we have extended the range of thermodynamic temperature measurement to below the copper point and measured the thermodynamic temperatures of the indium point (T_{90} = 429.748 5 K), tin point (505.078 K), zinc point (692.677 K), aluminum point (933.473 K) and the silver point (1 234.93 K) by radiance comparison against the copper point, with a set of radiation thermometers having center wavelengths ranging from 0.65 μm to 1.6 μm. The copper-point temperature was measured by the absolute radiation thermometer which was calibrated by radiance method traceable to the electrical substitution cryogenic radiometer. The radiance of the fixed-point blackbodies was measured by standard radiation thermometers whose spectral responsivity and nonlinearity are precisely evaluated, and then the thermodynamic temperatures were determined from radiance ratios to the copper point. The values of T-T_{90} for the silver-, aluminum-, zinc-, tin- and indium-point cells were determined as -4 mK (U = 104 mK, k=2), -99 mK (88 mK), -76 mK (76 mK), -68 mK (163 mK) and -42 mK (279 mK), respectively.

  1. Ontogenetic thermal tolerance and performance of ectotherms at variable temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavieres, G; Bogdanovich, J. M; Bozinovic, F


    .... Additionally, in constant and variable climatic scenarios, flies shifted to the right the optimum temperature but the maximum performance decreased only in flies reared on high temperatures and high thermal variability...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baluja


    Full Text Available The solubility of Sildenafil citrate in some organic solvents; hexane, toluene,1-butanol and 1,2 dichloroethane has been determined using gravimetric method over different temperature range (298.15 K to 328.15 K at one atmospheric pressure. The modified Apelblat and Buchowski-Ksiazczak λh equations were used to correlate the experimental solubility data. Further, various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated from these solubility data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baluja


    Full Text Available The solubility of Sildenafil citrate in some organic solvents; hexane, toluene,1-butanol and 1,2 dichloroethane has been determined using gravimetric method over different temperature range (298.15 K to 328.15 K at one atmospheric pressure. The modified Apelblat and Buchowski-Ksiazczak λh equations were used to correlate the experimental solubility data. Further, various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated from these solubility data.

  4. Thermodynamic Studies at Higher Temperatures of the Phase Relationships of Substoichiometric Plutonium and Uranium/Plutonium Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Toft


    Partial molar thermodynamic quantities for oxygen in non-stoichiometric Pu and U/Pu oxides were determined by thermogravimetric measurements in CO/CO2 mixtures in the temperature range 900-1450°C. A detailed analysis of the thermodynamic data obtained, as well as data previously published...

  5. Influence of metallic vapours on thermodynamic and transport properties of two-temperature air plasma (United States)

    Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua; Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Rong, Mingzhe


    The metallic vapours (i.e., copper, iron, and silver in this paper) resulting from walls and/or electrode surfaces can significantly affect the characteristics of air plasma. Different from the previous works assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, this paper investigates the influence of metallic vapours on two-temperature (2 T) air plasma. The 2 T compositions of air contaminated by Cu, Fe, and Ag are first determined based on Saha's and Guldberg-Waage's laws. The thermodynamic properties (including mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are then calculated according to their definitions. After determining the collision integrals for each pair of species in air-metal mixtures using the newly published methods and source data, the transport coefficients (including electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated for air-Cu, air-Fe, and air-Ag plasmas with different non-equilibrium degree θ (Te/Th). The influences of metallic contamination as well as non-equilibrium degree are discussed. It is found that copper, iron, and silver exist mainly in the form of Cu2, FeO, and AgO at low temperatures. Generally, the metallic vapours increase mass density at most temperatures, reduce the specific enthalpy and specific heat in the whole temperature range, and affect the transport properties remarkably from 5000 K to 20 000 K. The effect arising from the type of metals is little except for silver at certain temperatures. Besides, the departure from thermal equilibrium results in the delay of dissociation and ionization reactions, leading to the shift of thermodynamic and transport properties towards a higher temperature.

  6. Weighted reciprocal of temperature, weighted thermal flux, and their applications in finite-time thermodynamics. (United States)

    Sheng, Shiqi; Tu, Z C


    The concepts of weighted reciprocal of temperature and weighted thermal flux are proposed for a heat engine operating between two heat baths and outputting mechanical work. With the aid of these two concepts, the generalized thermodynamic fluxes and forces can be expressed in a consistent way within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Then the efficiency at maximum power output for a heat engine, one of key topics in finite-time thermodynamics, is investigated on the basis of a generic model under the tight-coupling condition. The corresponding results have the same forms as those of low-dissipation heat engines [ M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg and C. Van den Broeck Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 150603 (2010)]. The mappings from two kinds of typical heat engines, such as the low-dissipation heat engine and the Feynman ratchet, into the present generic model are constructed. The universal efficiency at maximum power output up to the quadratic order is found to be valid for a heat engine coupled symmetrically and tightly with two baths. The concepts of weighted reciprocal of temperature and weighted thermal flux are also transplanted to the optimization of refrigerators.

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of a High Temperature Triple Absorption Heat Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khamooshi


    Full Text Available First law of thermodynamics has been used to analyze and optimize inclusively the performance of a triple absorption heat transformer operating with LiBr/H2O as the working pair. A thermodynamic model was developed in EES (engineering equation solver to estimate the performance of the system in terms of the most essential parameters. The assumed parameters are the temperature of the main components, weak and strong solutions, economizers’ efficiencies, and bypass ratios. The whole cycle is optimized by EES software from the viewpoint of maximizing the COP via applying the direct search method. The optimization results showed that the COP of 0.2491 is reachable by the proposed cycle.

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of a High Temperature Triple Absorption Heat Transformer (United States)

    Khamooshi, Mehrdad; Yari, Mortaza; Egelioglu, Fuat; Salati, Hana


    First law of thermodynamics has been used to analyze and optimize inclusively the performance of a triple absorption heat transformer operating with LiBr/H2O as the working pair. A thermodynamic model was developed in EES (engineering equation solver) to estimate the performance of the system in terms of the most essential parameters. The assumed parameters are the temperature of the main components, weak and strong solutions, economizers' efficiencies, and bypass ratios. The whole cycle is optimized by EES software from the viewpoint of maximizing the COP via applying the direct search method. The optimization results showed that the COP of 0.2491 is reachable by the proposed cycle. PMID:25136702

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of a Kalina power unit driven by low temperature heat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolos Periklis A.


    Full Text Available In this paper the operation of a reversible Kalina power cycle driven by low temperature heat sources has been studied. A numerical model has been developed to analyze thermodynamically the proposed cycle and to represent it in temperature-entropy and temperature-enthalpy diagrams. A parametric study has been conducted in order to specify the optimum values of the main parameters, i. e. low pressure, condensation and heat source temperature with respect to thermal performance. An improved configuration using a counter-current absorber instead of the conventional condenser (co-current absorber has been proposed which has significantly higher efficiency and work output. Finally, simple equations have been derived which link the main parameters of the unit with the theoretical thermal efficiency.

  10. Thermal dissociation of molten KHSO4: Temperature dependence of Raman spectra and thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Christian B.; Kalampounias, Angelos G.; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    intensities with the stoichiometric coefficients, the equilibrium constant, and the thermodynamics of the reaction equilibrium is derived. The method is used-along with the temperature-dependent features of the Raman spectra-to show that the studied equilibrium 2HSO(4)(-) (1) S2O72-(1) + H2O(g) is the only......Raman spectroscopy is used to study the thermal dissociation of molten KHSO4 at temperatures of 240-450 degrees C under static equilibrium conditions. Raman spectra obtained at 10 different temperatures for the molten phase and for the vapors thereof exhibit vibrational wavenumbers and relative...... band intensities inferring the occurrence of the temperature-dependent dissociation equilibrium 2HSO(4)(-) (1) S2O72-(1) + H2O(g). The Raman data are adequate for determining the partial pressures of H2O in the gas phase above the molten mixtures. A formalism for correlating relative Raman band...

  11. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of two-temperature helium thermal plasmas (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoxue; Murphy, Anthony B.; Li, Xingwen


    Helium thermal plasmas are in widespread use in arc welding and many other industrial applications. Simulation of these processes relies on accurate plasma property data, such as plasma composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients. Departures from LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) generally occur in some regions of helium plasmas. In this paper, properties are calculated allowing for different values of the electron temperature, T e, and heavy-species temperature, T h, at atmospheric pressure from 300 K to 30 000 K. The plasma composition is first calculated using the mass action law, and the two-temperature thermodynamic properties are then derived. The viscosity, diffusion coefficients, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the two-temperature helium thermal plasma are obtained using a recently-developed method that retains coupling between electrons and heavy species by including the electron-heavy-species collision term in the heavy-species Boltzmann equation. It is shown that the viscosity and the diffusion coefficients strongly depend on non-equilibrium ratio θ (θ ={{T}\\text{e}}/{{T}\\text{h}} ), through the plasma composition and the collision integrals. The electrical conductivity, which depends on the electron number density and ordinary diffusion coefficients, and the thermal conductivity have similar dependencies. The choice of definition of the Debye length is shown to affect the electrical conductivity significantly for θ  >  1. By comparing with literature data, it is shown that the coupling between electrons and heavy species has a significant influence on the electrical conductivity, but not on the viscosity. Plasma properties are tabulated in the supplementary data.

  12. Remote Sensing the Vertical Profile of Cloud Droplet Effective Radius, Thermodynamic Phase, and Temperature (United States)

    Martins, J. V.; Marshak, A.; Remer, L. A.; Rosenfeld, D.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Fernandez-Borda, R.; Koren, I.; Correia, A. L.; Zubko, V.; Artaxo, P.


    Cloud-aerosol interaction is a key issue in the climate system, affecting the water cycle, the weather, and the total energy balance including the spatial and temporal distribution of latent heat release. Information on the vertical distribution of cloud droplet microphysics and thermodynamic phase as a function of temperature or height, can be correlated with details of the aerosol field to provide insight on how these particles are affecting cloud properties and their consequences to cloud lifetime, precipitation, water cycle, and general energy balance. Unfortunately, today's experimental methods still lack the observational tools that can characterize the true evolution of the cloud microphysical, spatial and temporal structure in the cloud droplet scale, and then link these characteristics to environmental factors and properties of the cloud condensation nuclei. Here we propose and demonstrate a new experimental approach (the cloud scanner instrument) that provides the microphysical information missed in current experiments and remote sensing options. Cloud scanner measurements can be performed from aircraft, ground, or satellite by scanning the side of the clouds from the base to the top, providing us with the unique opportunity of obtaining snapshots of the cloud droplet microphysical and thermodynamic states as a function of height and brightness temperature in clouds at several development stages. The brightness temperature profile of the cloud side can be directly associated with the thermodynamic phase of the droplets to provide information on the glaciation temperature as a function of different ambient conditions, aerosol concentration, and type. An aircraft prototype of the cloud scanner was built and flew in a field campaign in Brazil.

  13. Remote sensing the vertical profile of cloud droplet effective radius, thermodynamic phase, and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Martins


    Full Text Available Cloud-aerosol interaction is a key issue in the climate system, affecting the water cycle, the weather, and the total energy balance including the spatial and temporal distribution of latent heat release. Information on the vertical distribution of cloud droplet microphysics and thermodynamic phase as a function of temperature or height, can be correlated with details of the aerosol field to provide insight on how these particles are affecting cloud properties and their consequences to cloud lifetime, precipitation, water cycle, and general energy balance. Unfortunately, today's experimental methods still lack the observational tools that can characterize the true evolution of the cloud microphysical, spatial and temporal structure in the cloud droplet scale, and then link these characteristics to environmental factors and properties of the cloud condensation nuclei.

    Here we propose and demonstrate a new experimental approach (the cloud scanner instrument that provides the microphysical information missed in current experiments and remote sensing options. Cloud scanner measurements can be performed from aircraft, ground, or satellite by scanning the side of the clouds from the base to the top, providing us with the unique opportunity of obtaining snapshots of the cloud droplet microphysical and thermodynamic states as a function of height and brightness temperature in clouds at several development stages. The brightness temperature profile of the cloud side can be directly associated with the thermodynamic phase of the droplets to provide information on the glaciation temperature as a function of different ambient conditions, aerosol concentration, and type. An aircraft prototype of the cloud scanner was built and flew in a field campaign in Brazil.

    The CLAIM-3D (3-Dimensional Cloud Aerosol Interaction Mission satellite concept proposed here combines several techniques to simultaneously measure the vertical profile of cloud

  14. Spatial Analysis and Quantification of the Thermodynamic Driving Forces in Protein-Ligand Binding: Binding Site Variability (United States)

    Raman, E. Prabhu; MacKerell, Alexander D.


    The thermodynamic driving forces behind small molecule-protein binding are still not well understood, including the variability of those forces associated with different types of ligands in different binding pockets. To better understand these phenomena we calculate spatially resolved thermodynamic contributions of the different molecular degrees of freedom for the binding of propane and methanol to multiple pockets on the proteins Factor Xa and p38 MAP kinase. Binding thermodynamics are computed using a statistical thermodynamics based end-point method applied on a canonical ensemble comprising the protein-ligand complexes and the corresponding free states in an explicit solvent environment. Energetic and entropic contributions of water and ligand degrees of freedom computed from the configurational ensemble provides an unprecedented level of detail into the mechanisms of binding. Direct protein-ligand interaction energies play a significant role in both non-polar and polar binding, which is comparable to water reorganization energy. Loss of interactions with water upon binding strongly compensates these contributions leading to relatively small binding enthalpies. For both solutes, the entropy of water reorganization is found to favor binding in agreement with the classical view of the “hydrophobic effect”. Depending on the specifics of the binding pocket, both energy-entropy compensation and reinforcement mechanisms are observed. Notable is the ability to visualize the spatial distribution of the thermodynamic contributions to binding at atomic resolution showing significant differences in the thermodynamic contributions of water to the binding of propane versus methanol. PMID:25625202

  15. Thermodynamic theory explains the temperature optima of soil microbial processes and high Q10 values at low temperatures. (United States)

    Schipper, Louis A; Hobbs, Joanne K; Rutledge, Susanna; Arcus, Vickery L


    Our current understanding of the temperature response of biological processes in soil is based on the Arrhenius equation. This predicts an exponential increase in rate as temperature rises, whereas in the laboratory and in the field, there is always a clearly identifiable temperature optimum for all microbial processes. In the laboratory, this has been explained by denaturation of enzymes at higher temperatures, and in the field, the availability of substrates and water is often cited as critical factors. Recently, we have shown that temperature optima for enzymes and microbial growth occur in the absence of denaturation and that this is a consequence of the unusual heat capacity changes associated with enzymes. We have called this macromolecular rate theory - MMRT (Hobbs et al., , ACS Chem. Biol. 8:2388). Here, we apply MMRT to a wide range of literature data on the response of soil microbial processes to temperature with a focus on respiration but also including different soil enzyme activities, nitrogen and methane cycling. Our theory agrees closely with a wide range of experimental data and predicts temperature optima for these microbial processes. MMRT also predicted high relative temperature sensitivity (as assessed by Q10 calculations) at low temperatures and that Q10 declined as temperature increases in agreement with data synthesis from the literature. Declining Q10 and temperature optima in soils are coherently explained by MMRT which is based on thermodynamics and heat capacity changes for enzyme-catalysed rates. MMRT also provides a new perspective, and makes new predictions, regarding the absolute temperature sensitivity of ecosystems - a fundamental component of models for climate change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. How to make thermodynamic perturbation theory to be suitable for low temperature? (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi


    Low temperature unsuitability is a problem plaguing thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) for years. Present investigation indicates that the low temperature predicament can be overcome by employing as reference system a nonhard sphere potential which incorporates one part of the attractive ingredient in a potential function of interest. In combination with a recently proposed TPT [S. Zhou, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 144518 (2006)] based on a λ expansion (λ being coupling parameter), the new perturbation strategy is employed to predict for several model potentials. It is shown that the new perturbation strategy can very accurately predict various thermodynamic properties even if the potential range is extremely short and hence the temperature of interest is very low and current theoretical formalisms seriously deteriorate or critically fail to predict even the existence of the critical point. Extensive comparison with existing liquid state theories and available computer simulation data discloses a superiority of the present TPT to two Ornstein-Zernike-type integral equation theories, i.e., hierarchical reference theory and self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation.

  17. Geometric Thermodynamics of Kerr-AdS black hole with a Cosmological Constant as State Variable

    CERN Document Server

    Larranaga, Alexis


    The thermodynamics of the Kerr-AdS black hole is reformulated within the context of the formalism of geometrothermodynamics (GTD) and the cosmological constant is considered as a new thermodynamical parameter. We conclude that the mass of the black hole corresponds to the total enthalpy of this system. Choosing appropriately the metric in the equilibrium states manifold, we study the phase transitions as a divergence of the thermodynamical curvature scalar. This approach reproduces the Hawking-Page transition and shows that considering the cosmological constant as a thermodynamical parameter does not contribute with new phase transitions.

  18. Accurate thermodynamic relations of the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different shapes and pure theoretical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jinhua; Fu, Qingshan; Xue, Yongqiang, E-mail:; Cui, Zixiang


    Based on the surface pre-melting model, accurate thermodynamic relations of the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different shapes (tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, nanowire) were derived. The theoretically calculated melting temperatures are in relative good agreements with experimental, molecular dynamic simulation and other theoretical results for nanometer Au, Ag, Al, In and Pb. It is found that the particle size and shape have notable effects on the melting temperature of nanocrystals, and the smaller the particle size, the greater the effect of shape. Furthermore, at the same equivalent radius, the more the shape deviates from sphere, the lower the melting temperature is. The value of melting temperature depression of cylindrical nanowire is just half of that of spherical nanoparticle with an identical radius. The theoretical relations enable one to quantitatively describe the influence regularities of size and shape on the melting temperature and to provide an effective way to predict and interpret the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different sizes and shapes. - Highlights: • Accurate relations of T{sub m} of nanocrystals with various shapes are derived. • Calculated T{sub m} agree with literature results for nano Au, Ag, Al, In and Pb. • ΔT{sub m} (nanowire) = 0.5ΔT{sub m} (spherical nanocrystal). • The relations apply to predict and interpret the melting behaviors of nanocrystals.

  19. Temperature of maximum density and excess thermodynamics of aqueous mixtures of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Salgado, D.; Zemánková, K. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, Campus del Agua, Edificio Manuel Martínez-Risco, E-32004 Ourense (Spain); Noya, E. G.; Lomba, E. [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Calle Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)


    In this work, we present a study of representative excess thermodynamic properties of aqueous mixtures of methanol over the complete concentration range, based on extensive computer simulation calculations. In addition to test various existing united atom model potentials, we have developed a new force-field which accurately reproduces the excess thermodynamics of this system. Moreover, we have paid particular attention to the behavior of the temperature of maximum density (TMD) in dilute methanol mixtures. The presence of a temperature of maximum density is one of the essential anomalies exhibited by water. This anomalous behavior is modified in a non-monotonous fashion by the presence of fully miscible solutes that partly disrupt the hydrogen bond network of water, such as methanol (and other short chain alcohols). In order to obtain a better insight into the phenomenology of the changes in the TMD of water induced by small amounts of methanol, we have performed a new series of experimental measurements and computer simulations using various force fields. We observe that none of the force-fields tested capture the non-monotonous concentration dependence of the TMD for highly diluted methanol solutions.

  20. Low-temperature heat capacity and thermodynamic functions of vitamin B{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, A.V., E-mail:; Smirnova, N.N.; Plesovskikh, A.S.; Shushunov, A.N.; Knyazeva, S.S.


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B{sub 12} has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B{sub 12} have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 343 K. • The character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. • The thermal stability of cyanocobalamin was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B{sub 12} (cyanocobalamin) has been measured for the first time in the range from 6 to 343 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B{sub 12}, namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) − H°(0), entropy S°(T) − S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) − H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 343 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye's theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. The thermal stability of cyanocobalamin was also studied by differential scanning calorimetry.

  1. Thermodynamic Properties of a Double Ring-Shaped Quantum Dot at Low and High Temperatures (United States)

    Khordad, R.; Sedehi, H. R. Rastegar


    In this work, we study thermodynamic properties of a GaAs double ring-shaped quantum dot under external magnetic and electric fields. To this end, we first solve the Schrödinger equation and obtain the energy levels and wave functions, analytically. Then, we calculate the entropy, heat capacity, average energy and magnetic susceptibility of the quantum dot in the presence of a magnetic field using the canonical ensemble approach. According to the results, it is found that the entropy is an increasing function of temperature. At low temperatures, the entropy increases monotonically with raising the temperature for all values of the magnetic fields and it is independent of the magnetic field. But, the entropy depends on the magnetic field at high temperatures. The entropy also decreases with increasing the magnetic field. The heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility show a peak structure. The heat capacity reduces with increasing the magnetic field at low temperatures. The magnetic susceptibility shows a transition between diamagnetic and paramagnetic below for T<4 K. The transition temperature depends on the magnetic field.

  2. General method and thermodynamic tables for computation of equilibrium composition and temperature of chemical reactions (United States)

    Huff, Vearl N; Gordon, Sanford; Morrell, Virginia E


    A rapidly convergent successive approximation process is described that simultaneously determines both composition and temperature resulting from a chemical reaction. This method is suitable for use with any set of reactants over the complete range of mixture ratios as long as the products of reaction are ideal gases. An approximate treatment of limited amounts of liquids and solids is also included. This method is particularly suited to problems having a large number of products of reaction and to problems that require determination of such properties as specific heat or velocity of sound of a dissociating mixture. The method presented is applicable to a wide variety of problems that include (1) combustion at constant pressure or volume; and (2) isentropic expansion to an assigned pressure, temperature, or Mach number. Tables of thermodynamic functions needed with this method are included for 42 substances for convenience in numerical computations.

  3. Moderately lower temperatures greatly extend the lifespan of Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera): Thermodynamics or gene regulation? (United States)

    Johnston, Rachel K; Snell, Terry W


    Environmental temperature greatly affects lifespan in a wide variety of animals, but the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are still largely unknown. A moderate temperature decrease from 22°C to 16°C extends the lifespan of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas by up to 163%. Thermodynamic effects on metabolism contribute to this increase in longevity, but are not the only cause. When rotifers are exposed to 16°C for four days and then transfered to 22°C, they survive until day 13 at nearly identical rates as rotifers maintained at 16°C continuously. This persistence of the higher survival for nine days after transfer to 22°C suggests that low temperature exposure alters the expression of genes that affect the rate of aging. The relative persistence of the gene regulation effect suggests that it may play an even larger role in slowing aging than the thermodynamic effects. The life extending effects of these short-term low temperature treatments are largest when the exposure happens early in the life cycle, demonstrating the importance of early development. There is no advantage to lowering the temperature below 16°C to 11° or 5°C. Rotifers exposed to 16°C also displayed increased resistance to heat, starvation, oxidative and osmotic stress. Reproductive rates at 16°C were lower than those at 22°C, but because they reproduce longer, there is no significant change in the lifetime fecundity of females. To investigate which genes contribute to these effects, the expression of specific temperature sensing genes was knocked down using RNAi. Of 12 genes tested, RNAi knockdown of four eliminated the survival enhancing effects of the four-day cold treatment: TRP7, forkhead box C, Y-box factor, and ribosomal protein S6. This demonstrates that active gene regulation is an important factor in temperature mediated life extension, and that these particular genes play an integral role in these pathways. As a thermoresponsive sensor, TRP7 may be

  4. A novel method to harvest Chlorella sp. via low cost bioflocculant: Influence of temperature with kinetic and thermodynamic functions. (United States)

    Kothari, Richa; Pathak, Vinayak V; Pandey, Arya; Ahmad, Shamshad; Srivastava, Chandni; Tyagi, V V


    In this study, harvesting efficiency (HE) of bioflocculant (egg shell) was observed with variation in flocculent concentrations (0-100mgL-1), temperature (30°C, 35°C 40°C, 45°C and 50°C) and variable contact time (0-50min). It was found maximum (≈95.6%) with 100mgL-1 bioflocculant concentration whereas influence of temperature was also observed with optimized concentration of bioflocculant (100mgL-1) at 40°C (≈98.1%) and 50°C (≈99.3%), in 30min of contact time. Significant changes in algal cell structures were also analyzed after exposure to various temperatures with microscopy, SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) and EDS (Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) images with and without bioflocculant. The experimental data was found to be a good fit with pseudo-second order kinetic model. The thermodynamic functions such as ΔG (Gibbs free energy), ΔH (enthalpy), ΔS (entropy) were also determined. The negative value of ΔG and positive value of ΔH and ΔS shows the spontaneous and endothermic nature of flocculation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variability in estuarine water temperature gradients and influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variability in estuarine water temperature gradients and influence on the distribution of zooplankton: a biogeographical perspective. TH Wooldridge, SHP Deyzel. Abstract. Structure and variability of water temperature gradients and potential influence on distribution of two tropical zooplankters (the mysid Mesopodopsis ...

  6. Anisotropy and temperature dependence of structural, thermodynamic, and elastic properties of crystalline cellulose Iβ: a first-principles investigation (United States)

    ShunLi Shang; Louis G. Hector Jr.; Paul Saxe; Zi-Kui Liu; Robert J. Moon; Pablo D. Zavattieri


    Anisotropy and temperature dependence of structural, thermodynamic and elastic properties of crystalline cellulose Iβ were computed with first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and a semi-empirical correction for van der Waals interactions. Specifically, we report the computed temperature variation (up to 500...

  7. Predation life history responses to increased temperature variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Barbosa

    Full Text Available The evolution of life history traits is regulated by energy expenditure, which is, in turn, governed by temperature. The forecasted increase in temperature variability is expected to impose greater stress to organisms, in turn influencing the balance of energy expenditure and consequently life history responses. Here we examine how increased temperature variability affects life history responses to predation. Individuals reared under constant temperatures responded to different levels of predation risk as appropriate: namely, by producing greater number of neonates of smaller sizes and reducing the time to first brood. In contrast, we detected no response to predation regime when temperature was more variable. In addition, population growth rate was slowest among individuals reared under variable temperatures. Increased temperature variability also affected the development of inducible defenses. The combined effects of failing to respond to predation risk, slower growth rate and the miss-match development of morphological defenses supports suggestions that increased variability in temperature poses a greater risk for species adaptation than that posed by a mean shift in temperature.

  8. Higher temperature variability reduces temperature sensitivity of vegetation growth in Northern Hemisphere (United States)

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoyan; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Guo, Weichao; Yin, Yi; Poulter, Ben; Peng, Changhui; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Wang, Pei; Huang, Yongmei


    Interannual air temperature variability has changed over some regions in Northern Hemisphere (NH), accompanying with climate warming. However, whether and to what extent it regulates the interannual sensitivity of vegetation growth to temperature variability (i.e., interannual temperature sensitivity)—one central issue in understanding and predicting the responses of vegetation growth to changing climate—still remains poorly quantified and understood. Here we quantify the relationships between the interannual temperature sensitivity of mean growing-season (April-October) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and ecosystem model simulations of gross primary productivity (GPP), and variability in mean growing-season temperature for forest, shrub, and grass over NH. We find that higher interannual variability in mean growing-season temperature leads to consistent decrease in interannual temperature sensitivity of mean growing-season NDVI among all vegetation types but not in model simulations of GPP. Drier condition associates with 130 ± 150% further decrease in interannual temperature sensitivity of mean growing-season NDVI by temperature variability in forest and shrub. These results illustrate that varying temperature variability can significantly regulate the interannual temperature sensitivity of vegetation growth over NH, interacted with drought variability and nonlinear responses of photosynthesis to temperature. Our findings call for an improved characterization of the nonlinear effects of temperature variability on vegetation growth within global ecosystem models.

  9. The temperature dependence of the BK channel activity - kinetics, thermodynamics, and long-range correlations. (United States)

    Wawrzkiewicz-Jałowiecka, Agata; Dworakowska, Beata; Grzywna, Zbigniew J


    Large-conductance, voltage dependent, Ca2+-activated potassium channels (BK) are transmembrane proteins that regulate many biological processes by controlling potassium flow across cell membranes. Here, we investigate to what extent temperature (in the range of 17-37°C with ΔT=5°C step) is a regulating parameter of kinetic properties of the channel gating and memory effect in the series of dwell-time series of subsequent channel's states, at membrane depolarization and hyperpolarization. The obtained results indicate that temperature affects strongly the BK channels' gating, but, counterintuitively, it exerts no effect on the long-range correlations, as measured by the Hurst coefficient. Quantitative differences between dependencies of appropriate channel's characteristics on temperature are evident for different regimes of voltage. Examining the characteristics of BK channel activity as a function of temperature allows to estimate the net activation energy (Eact) and changes of thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, ΔG) by channel opening. Larger Eact corresponds to the channel activity at membrane hyperpolarization. The analysis of entropy and enthalpy changes of closed to open channel's transition suggest the entropy-driven nature of the increase of open state probability during voltage activation and supports the hypothesis about the voltage-dependent geometry of the channel vestibule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Intrinsic Temperature Sensitivity of Ecosystem Respiration as Explained by Thermodynamics (United States)

    Woods, K. D.; Arcus, V. L.; Schipper, L. A.; Schwalm, C.


    Biological processes exhibit thermal optima; a range within which processes such as photosynthesis and respiration reach a maximum rate. The response of these processes to temperature is well observed in the field and lab experiments, but is poorly captured or explained by widely used Arrhenius equations and Q10 constants. Both Arrhenius and Q10-based explanations of respiration misleadingly project an exponential increase in rate with temperature and rely on concepts such as enzyme denaturation to explain decreases at higher temperatures. This explanation is problematic in that it ignores observed declines which are far below experimental observations of enzyme denaturation. Here, we present a novel theory which explains the intrinsic temperature dependence of plant, soil, and ecosystem respiration based on the thermodynamics of enzyme-catalysed reactions. MacroMolecular Rate Theory (MMRT) allows for the calculation of thermal optima for respiration and photosynthesis (an important input substrate for respiration), as well as for the calculation of the curvature of response which defines temperatures where changes in rates are maximal. To test this theory, we used the recently released FLUXNET2015 dataset which is comprised of 165 sites and 23 years of data. We accounted for the effect of water through partial correlation analysis and extracted the temperature signal of respiration and photosynthesis to fit MacroMolecular Rate Theory. Across ecosystems and biomes, photosynthesis and respiration rates maximized at 7-18oC and 15-27oC respectively. At 16-25oC, and 26-36oC rates photosynthesis and respiration declined. These points, and this method for explaining changes in these processes are important for understanding and predicting net ecosystem carbon gain or loss. They demonstrate temperatures where the sign and magnitude of carbon exchange undergoes important shifts, holding important implications for future carbon cycling.

  11. Thermodynamics of antibody-antigen interaction revealed by mutation analysis of antibody variable regions. (United States)

    Akiba, Hiroki; Tsumoto, Kouhei


    Antibodies (immunoglobulins) bind specific molecules (i.e. antigens) with high affinity and specificity. In order to understand their mechanisms of recognition, interaction analysis based on thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, as well as structure determination is crucial. In this review, we focus on mutational analysis which gives information about the role of each amino acid residue in antibody-antigen interaction. Taking anti-hen egg lysozyme antibodies and several anti-small molecule antibodies, the energetic contribution of hot-spot and non-hot-spot residues is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. Here, thermodynamics of the contribution from aromatic, charged and hydrogen bond-forming amino acids are discussed, and their different characteristics have been elucidated. The information gives fundamental understanding of the antibody-antigen interaction. Furthermore, the consequences of antibody engineering are analysed from thermodynamic viewpoints: humanization to reduce immunogenicity and rational design to improve affinity. Amino acid residues outside hot-spots in the interface play important roles in these cases, and thus thermodynamic and kinetic parameters give much information about the antigen recognition. Thermodynamic analysis of mutant antibodies thus should lead to advanced strategies to design and select antibodies with high affinity. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  12. The temperature behaviour of the elastic and thermodynamic properties of fcc thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroszewicz, S., E-mail: [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnologia Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA (Argentina); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnologia Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA (Argentina); Garces, J.E. [DAEE, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comisin Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)


    The temperature behaviour of the structural, elastical and thermal properties of fcc thorium have been calculated from a free-parameter Helmholtz free energy developed by computing the cohesive energy from first principles calculations coupled to the Chen-Moebius lattice inversion method and the Debye-Grueneisen quasiharmonic model. The elastic constants, shear modulus, Young modulus, Poisson's ratio and thermodynamic properties of fcc Th as the entropy, the harmonic specific heat, the (P, V, T) equation of state and the thermal lattice expansion are found to be in a very good agreement with experiments and ab initio phonon calculations. The results of this work show the potentiality of the Chen-Moebius method coupled to ab initio calculation of the cohesive energy to develop a free-parameter pair potential capable of giving an overall description of fcc Th properties at T = 0 K with an error similar to ab initio calculations.

  13. Thermodynamic Critical Field and Superconducting Fluctuation of Vortices for High Temperature Cuprate Superconductor: La-214

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnemore, Douglas K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Thermodynamics has been studied systematically for the high temperature cuprate superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4-δ, La-214, in the entire superconductive region from strongly underdoped to strongly overdoped regimes. Magnetization studies with H $\\parallel$ c have been made in order to investigate the changes in free energy of the system as the number of carriers is reduced. Above the superconducting transition temperature, the normal-state magnetization exhibits a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic behavior. Below Tc, magnetization data are thermodynamically reversible over large portions of the H-T plane, so the free energy is well defined in these regions. As the Sr concentration is varied over the wide range from 0.060 (strongly underdoped) to 0.234 (strongly overdoped), the free energy change goes through a maximum at the optimum doped in a manner similar to the Tc0 vs. x curve. The density of states, N(0), remains nearly constant in the overdoped and optimum doped regimes, taking a broad maximum around x = 0.188, and then drops abruptly towards zero in the underdoped regime. The La2-xSrxCuO4 (La-214) system displays the fluctuating vortex behavior with the characteristic of either 2D or 3D fluctuations as indicated by clearly identifiable crossing points T* close to Tc. The dimensional character of the fluctuations depends on both applied magnetic fields and the density of charge carriers. The dimensional crossover from 2D to 3D occurs in the strongly underdoped regime when the c-axis coherence distance ξc becomes comparable to the spacing between adjacent CuO2 layers s at sufficiently high magnetic field near Hc2.

  14. Air temperature variability in a high-elevation Himalayan catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynen, Martin; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Buri, Pascal; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Air temperature is a key control of processes affecting snow and glaciers in high-elevation catchments, including melt, snowfall and sublimation. It is therefore a key input variable to models of land-surface-atmosphere interaction. Despite this importance, its spatial variability is poorly

  15. Temperature variability, intensity of wind speed and visibility during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the connections between temperature variability, intensity of wind speed and their effect on visibility of Makurdi town during the harmattan season. Data on mean monthly temperature of harmattan months of November, December, January and February (2001 to 2011), Wind speed and visibility records ...

  16. Thermodynamics of Micro- and Nano-Systems Driven by Periodic Temperature Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Brandner


    Full Text Available We introduce a general framework for analyzing the thermodynamics of small systems that are driven by both a periodic temperature variation and some external parameter modulating their energy. This setup covers, in particular, periodic micro- and nano-heat engines. In a first step, we show how to express total entropy production by properly identified time-independent affinities and currents without making a linear response assumption. In linear response, kinetic coefficients akin to Onsager coefficients can be identified. Specializing to a Fokker-Planck-type dynamics, we show that these coefficients can be expressed as a sum of an adiabatic contribution and one reminiscent of a Green-Kubo expression that contains deviations from adiabaticity. Furthermore, we show that the generalized kinetic coefficients fulfill an Onsager-Casimir-type symmetry tracing back to microscopic reversibility. This symmetry allows for nonidentical off-diagonal coefficients if the driving protocols are not symmetric under time reversal. We then derive a novel constraint on the kinetic coefficients that is sharper than the second law and provides an efficiency-dependent bound on power. As one consequence, we can prove that the power vanishes at least linearly when approaching Carnot efficiency. We illustrate our general framework by explicitly working out the paradigmatic case of a Brownian heat engine realized by a colloidal particle in a time-dependent harmonic trap subject to a periodic temperature profile. This case study reveals inter alia that our new general bound on power is asymptotically tight.

  17. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian


    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  18. Open Thermodynamic System Concept for Fluviokarst Underground Temperature and Discharge Flow Assessments (United States)

    Machetel, P.; Yuen, D. A.


    In this work, we propose to use Open Thermodynamic System (OTS) frameworks to assess temperatures and discharges of underground flows in fluviokarstic systems. The theoretical formulation is built on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. However, such assumptions would require steady states in the Control Volume to cancel the heat exchanges between underground water and embedding rocks. This situation is obviously never perfectly reached in Nature where flow discharges and temperatures vary with rainfalls, recessions and seasonal or diurnal fluctuations. First, we will shortly show that the results of a pumping test campaign on the Cent-Font (Hérault, France) fluviokarst during summer 2005 are consistent with this theoretical approach. Second, we will present the theoretical formalism of the OTS framework that leads to equation systems involving the temperatures and/or the discharges of the underground and surface flows.Third, this approach will be applied to the white (2003) conceptual model of fluviokarst, and we will present the numerical model built to assess the applicability of these assumptions. The first order of the field hydrologic properties observed at the Cent-Fonts resurgence are well described by the calculations based on this OTS framework. If this agreement is necessary, it is not sufficient to validate the method. In order to test its applicability, the mixing process has been modelized as a cooling reaction in a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) for which matrix and intrusive flows are introduced continuously while effluent water is recovered at the output. The enthalpy of the various flows is conserved except for the part that exchanges heat with the embedding rocks. However the numerical model shows that in the water saturated part of the CS, the matrix flow swepts heat by convective-advective processes while temporal heat fluctuations from intrusive flows cross the CV walls. The numerical model shows that the convective flow from


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The authors report the current status of the systematic studies of the QCD thermodynamics by lattice QCD simulations with two flavors of improved Wilson quarks. They evaluate the critical temperature of two flavor QCD in the chiral limit at zero chemical potential and show the preliminary result. Also they discuss fluctuations at none-zero temperature and density by calculating the quark number and isospin susceptibilities and their derivatives with respect to chemical potential.

  20. Variable temperature FT-IR studies on hydrogen adsorption on the zeolite (Mg,Na)-Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero Arean, C. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)]. E-mail:; Turnes Palomino, G. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Llop Carayol, M.R. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)


    Variable-temperature infrared spectroscopy was used for the thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of hydrogen on the zeolite (Mg,Na)-Y. Adsorption renders the H-H stretching mode infrared active, and simultaneous measurement of IR absorbance and hydrogen equilibrium pressure, over a range of temperature, allowed adsorption enthalpy and entropy to be determined. The standard adsorption enthalpy and entropy resulted to be {delta}H{sup o} -18.2({+-}0.8) kJ mol{sup -1} and {delta}S{sup o} = -136({+-}10) J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}, respectively. The adsorption enthalpy is substantially higher than the hydrogen liquefaction heat, which suggests that magnesium-containing porous materials are potential candidates in the search for suitable adsorbents for reversible hydrogen storage.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of rhodium at high temperature and pressure by using mean field potential approach (United States)

    Kumar, Priyank; Bhatt, Nisarg K.; Vyas, Pulastya R.; Gohel, Vinod B.


    The thermophysical properties of rhodium are studied up to melting temperature by incorporating anharmonic effects due to lattice ions and thermally excited electrons. In order to account anharmonic effects due to lattice vibrations, we have employed mean field potential (MFP) approach and for thermally excited electrons Mermin functional. The local form of the pseudopotential with only one effective adjustable parameter rc is used to construct MFP and hence vibrational free energy due to ions - Fion. We have studied equation of state at 300 K and further, to access the applicability of present conjunction scheme, we have also estimated shock-Hugoniot and temperature along principle Hugoniot. We have carried out the study of temperature variation of several thermophysical properties like thermal expansion (βP), enthalpy (EH), specific heats at constant pressure and volume (CP and CV), specific heats due to lattice ions and thermally excited electrons ( and , isothermal and adiabatic bulk moduli (BT and Bs) and thermodynamic Gruneisen parameter (γth) in order to examine the inclusion of anharmonic effects in the present study. The computed results are compared with available experimental results measured by using different methods and previously obtained theoretical results using different theoretical philosophy. Our computed results are in good agreement with experimental findings and for some physical quantities better or comparable with other theoretical results. We conclude that local form of the pseudopotential used accounts s-p-d hybridization properly and found to be transferable at extreme environment without changing the values of the parameter. Thus, even the behavior of transition metals having complexity in electronic structure can be well understood with local pseudopotential without any modification in the potential at extreme environment. Looking to the success of present scheme (MFP + pseudopotential) we would like to extend it further for the

  2. Temperature variability during delirium in ICU patients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendina W van der Kooi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Delirium is an acute disturbance of consciousness and cognition. It is a common disorder in the intensive care unit (ICU and associated with impaired long-term outcome. Despite its frequency and impact, delirium is poorly recognized by ICU-physicians and -nurses using delirium screening tools. A completely new approach to detect delirium is to use monitoring of physiological alterations. Temperature variability, a measure for temperature regulation, could be an interesting component to monitor delirium, but whether temperature regulation is different during ICU delirium has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICU delirium is related to temperature variability. Furthermore, we investigated whether ICU delirium is related to absolute body temperature. METHODS: We included patients who experienced both delirium and delirium free days during ICU stay, based on the Confusion Assessment method for the ICU conducted by a research- physician or -nurse, in combination with inspection of medical records. We excluded patients with conditions affecting thermal regulation or therapies affecting body temperature. Daily temperature variability was determined by computing the mean absolute second derivative of the temperature signal. Temperature variability (primary outcome and absolute body temperature (secondary outcome were compared between delirium- and non-delirium days with a linear mixed model and adjusted for daily mean Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale scores and daily maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. RESULTS: Temperature variability was increased during delirium-days compared to days without delirium (β(unadjusted=0.007, 95% confidence interval (CI=0.004 to 0.011, p<0.001. Adjustment for confounders did not alter this result (β(adjusted=0.005, 95% CI=0.002 to 0.008, p<0.001. Delirium was not associated with absolute body temperature (β(unadjusted=-0.03, 95% CI=-0.17 to 0

  3. Towards the unified non-classical physics: account for quantum fluctuations in equilibrium thermodynamics via the effective temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The concept of effective temperature (ET T*(T0, T is used in order to approximately "quantize" the thermodynamic functions of the dynamical object which is in the thermal equilibrium with thermal bath being at constant temperature T (T0=E0/kB, where E0 is the ground-state energy, kB - Boltzmann constant, is the characteristic ``quantum'' temperature of the system itself. On these grounds the extensive comparative investigation is carried out for the ``standard model'' of statistical mechanics - the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator (HO. Three well-known approaches are considered and their thermodynamic consequences thoroughly studied. These are: the exact quantum, or non-classical Planck-Einstein approach, intermediate, or semiclassical Bloch-Wigner approach and, finally, the pure classical, or Maxwell-Boltzmann approach.

  4. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of a two-temperature polytetrafluoroethylene vapor plasma for ablation-controlled discharge applications (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Weizong; Yan, Joseph D.; Qi, Haiyang; Geng, Jinyue; Wu, Yaowu


    Ablation-controlled plasmas have been used in a range of technical applications where local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is often violated near the wall due to the strong cooling effect caused by the ablation of wall materials. The thermodynamic and transport properties of ablated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vapor, which determine the flowing plasma behavior in such applications, are calculated based on a two-temperature model at atmospheric pressure. To our knowledge, no data for PTFE have been reported in the literature. The species composition and thermodynamic properties are numerically determined using the two-temperature Saha equation and the Guldberg-Waage equation according to van de Sanden et al’s derivation. The transport coefficients, including viscosity, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, are calculated with the most recent collision interaction potentials using Devoto’s electron and heavy-particle decoupling approach but expanded to the third-order approximation (second-order for viscosity) in the frame of the Chapman-Enskog method. Results are computed for different degrees of thermal non-equilibrium, i.e. the ratio of electron to heavy-particle temperatures, from 1 to 10, with electron temperature ranging from 300 to 40 000 K. Plasma transport properties in the LTE state obtained from the present work are compared with existing published results and the causes for the discrepancy analyzed. The two-temperature plasma properties calculated in the present work enable the modeling of wall ablation-controlled plasma processes.

  5. Predicting Microstructure Development During HighTemperature Nitriding of Martensitic Stainless SteelsUsing Thermodynamic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschiptschin André Paulo


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations of the Fe-Cr-N System in the region of the Gas Phase Equilibria have been compared with experimental results of maximum nitrogen absorption during nitriding of two Martensitic Stainless Steels (a 6 mm thick sheet of AISI 410S steel and green powder compacts of AISI 434L steel under N2 atmospheres. The calculations have been performed combining the Fe-Cr-N System description contained in the SGTE Solid Solution Database and the gas phase for the N System contained in the SGTE Substances Database. Results show a rather good agreement for total nitrogen absorption in the steel and nitrogen solubility in austenite in the range of temperatures between 1273 K and 1473 K and in the range of pressures between 0.1 and 0.36 MPa. Calculations show that an appropriate choice of heat treatment parameters can lead to optimal nitrogen absorption in the alloy. It was observed in the calculations that an increased pressure stabilizes CrN at expenses of Cr2N - type nitrides.

  6. Low-Temperature Synthesis and Thermodynamic and Electrical Properties of Barium Titanate Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Maxim


    Full Text Available Studies regarding the morphology dependence of the perovskite-type oxides functional materials properties are of recent interest. With this aim, nanorods (NRs and nanocubes (NCs of barium titanate (BaTiO3 have been successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal route at temperature as low as 408 K, employing barium acetate, titanium isopropoxide, and sodium hydroxide as reagents without any surfactant or template. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, used for the morphology and structure analyses, showed that the NRs were formed by an oriented attachment of the NCs building-blocks with 20 nm average crystallites size. The thermodynamic properties represented by the relative partial molar free energies, enthalpies, and entropies of the oxygen dissolution in the perovskite phase, as well as the equilibrium partial pressure of oxygen, indicated that NRs powders have lower oxygen vacancies concentration than the NCs. This NRs characteristic, together with higher tetragonallity of the structure, leads to the enhancement of the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics. The results presented in this work show indubitably the importance of the nanopowders morphology on the material properties.

  7. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa


    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  8. Koszul Information Geometry and Souriau Geometric Temperature/Capacity of Lie Group Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Barbaresco


    Full Text Available The François Massieu 1869 idea to derive some mechanical and thermal properties of physical systems from “Characteristic Functions”, was developed by Gibbs and Duhem in thermodynamics with the concept of potentials, and introduced by Poincaré in probability. This paper deals with generalization of this Characteristic Function concept by Jean-Louis Koszul in Mathematics and by Jean-Marie Souriau in Statistical Physics. The Koszul-Vinberg Characteristic Function (KVCF on convex cones will be presented as cornerstone of “Information Geometry” theory, defining Koszul Entropy as Legendre transform of minus the logarithm of KVCF, and Fisher Information Metrics as hessian of these dual functions, invariant by their automorphisms. In parallel, Souriau has extended the Characteristic Function in Statistical Physics looking for other kinds of invariances through co-adjoint action of a group on its momentum space, defining physical observables like energy, heat and momentum as pure geometrical objects. In covariant Souriau model, Gibbs equilibriums states are indexed by a geometric parameter, the Geometric (Planck Temperature, with values in the Lie algebra of the dynamical Galileo/Poincaré groups, interpreted as a space-time vector, giving to the metric tensor a null Lie derivative. Fisher Information metric appears as the opposite of the derivative of Mean “Moment map” by geometric temperature, equivalent to a Geometric Capacity or Specific Heat. We will synthetize the analogies between both Koszul and Souriau models, and will reduce their definitions to the exclusive Cartan “Inner Product”. Interpreting Legendre transform as Fourier transform in (Min,+ algebra, we conclude with a definition of Entropy given by a relation mixing Fourier/Laplace transforms: Entropy = (minus Fourier(Min,+ o Log o Laplace(+,X.

  9. Submesoscale Sea Surface Temperature Variability from UAV and Satellite Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Castro


    Full Text Available Earlier studies of spatial variability in sea surface temperature (SST using ship-based radiometric data suggested that variability at scales smaller than 1 km is significant and affects the perceived uncertainty of satellite-derived SSTs. Here, we compare data from the Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST thermal infrared radiometer flown over the Arctic Ocean against coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS measurements to assess the spatial variability of skin SSTs within 1-km pixels. By taking the standard deviation, σ, of the BESST measurements within individual MODIS pixels, we show that significant spatial variability of the skin temperature exists. The distribution of the surface variability measured by BESST shows a peak value of O(0.1 K, with 95% of the pixels showing σ < 0.45 K. Significantly, high-variability pixels are located at density fronts in the marginal ice zone, which are a primary source of submesoscale intermittency near the surface. SST wavenumber spectra indicate a spectral slope of −2, which is consistent with the presence of submesoscale processes at the ocean surface. Furthermore, the BESST wavenumber spectra not only match the energy distribution of MODIS SST spectra at the satellite-resolved wavelengths, they also span the spectral slope of −2 by ~3 decades, from wavelengths of 8 km to <0.08 km.

  10. Correlational and thermodynamic properties of finite-temperature electron liquids in the hypernetted-chain approximation (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigenori


    Correlational and thermodynamic properties of homogeneous electron liquids at finite temperatures are theoretically analyzed in terms of dielectric response formalism with the hypernetted-chain (HNC) approximation and its modified version. The static structure factor and the local-field correction to describe the strong Coulomb-coupling effects beyond the random-phase approximation are self-consistently calculated through solution to integral equations in the paramagnetic (spin unpolarized) and ferromagnetic (spin polarized) states. In the ground state with the normalized temperature θ =0 , the present HNC scheme well reproduces the exchange-correlation energies obtained by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations over the whole fluid phase (the coupling constant rs≤100 ), i.e., within 1% and 2% deviations from putative best QMC values in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic states, respectively. As compared with earlier studies based on the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjölander and modified convolution approximations, some improvements on the correlation energies and the correlation functions including the compressibility sum rule are found in the intermediate to strong coupling regimes. When applied to the electron fluids at intermediate Fermi degeneracies (θ ≈1 ), the static structure factors calculated in the HNC scheme show good agreements with the results obtained by the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation, while a small negative region in the radial distribution function is observed near the origin, which may be associated with a slight overestimation for the exchange-correlation hole in the HNC approximation. The interaction energies are calculated for various combinations of density and temperature parameters ranging from strong to weak degeneracy and from weak to strong coupling, and the HNC values are then parametrized as functions of rs and θ. The HNC exchange-correlation free energies obtained through the coupling-constant integration show reasonable

  11. Correlational and thermodynamic properties of finite-temperature electron liquids in the hypernetted-chain approximation. (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigenori


    Correlational and thermodynamic properties of homogeneous electron liquids at finite temperatures are theoretically analyzed in terms of dielectric response formalism with the hypernetted-chain (HNC) approximation and its modified version. The static structure factor and the local-field correction to describe the strong Coulomb-coupling effects beyond the random-phase approximation are self-consistently calculated through solution to integral equations in the paramagnetic (spin unpolarized) and ferromagnetic (spin polarized) states. In the ground state with the normalized temperature θ=0, the present HNC scheme well reproduces the exchange-correlation energies obtained by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations over the whole fluid phase (the coupling constant rs≤100), i.e., within 1% and 2% deviations from putative best QMC values in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic states, respectively. As compared with earlier studies based on the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjölander and modified convolution approximations, some improvements on the correlation energies and the correlation functions including the compressibility sum rule are found in the intermediate to strong coupling regimes. When applied to the electron fluids at intermediate Fermi degeneracies (θ≈1), the static structure factors calculated in the HNC scheme show good agreements with the results obtained by the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation, while a small negative region in the radial distribution function is observed near the origin, which may be associated with a slight overestimation for the exchange-correlation hole in the HNC approximation. The interaction energies are calculated for various combinations of density and temperature parameters ranging from strong to weak degeneracy and from weak to strong coupling, and the HNC values are then parametrized as functions of rs and θ. The HNC exchange-correlation free energies obtained through the coupling-constant integration show reasonable

  12. Novel Dodecaarylporphyrins: Synthesis and Variable Temperature NMR Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancilla, Mark; Lebrilla, Carlito; Ma, Jian-Guo; Medforth, Craig J.; Muzzi, Cinzia M.; Shelnutt, John A.; Smith, Kevin M.; Voss, Lisa


    An investigation of the synthesis of novel dodecaarylporphyrins using the Suzuki coupling reaction of arylboronic acids with octabromotetraarylporphyrins is reported. Studies of the dynamic properties of these new porphyrins using variable temperature (VT) 1H NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics provide interesting insights into their dynamic properties, including the first determination of {beta} aryl rotation in a porphyrin system.

  13. Stream temperature variability: why it matters to salmon (United States)

    E. Ashley Steel; Brian Beckman; Marie. Oliver


    Salmon evolved in natural river systems, where temperatures fluctuate daily, weekly, seasonally, and all along a stream’s path—from the mountains to the sea. Climate change and human activities alter this natural variability. Dams, for example, tend to reduce thermal fluctuations.Currently, scientists gauge habitat suitability for aquatic species by...

  14. Remotely sensed variability of temperature and chlorophyll in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A consistent time-series of daily sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll a concentration images is generated for the period July 1998–June 2003, and a quantitative analysis undertaken. The variability in SST, upwelling and phytoplankton biomass is explored for selected biogeographic regions, with particular focus ...

  15. Joint variability of global runoff and global sea surface temperatures (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.


    Global land surface runoff and sea surface temperatures (SST) are analyzed to identify the primary modes of variability of these hydroclimatic data for the period 1905-2002. A monthly water-balance model first is used with global monthly temperature and precipitation data to compute time series of annual gridded runoff for the analysis period. The annual runoff time series data are combined with gridded annual sea surface temperature data, and the combined dataset is subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA) to identify the primary modes of variability. The first three components from the PCA explain 29% of the total variability in the combined runoff/SST dataset. The first component explains 15% of the total variance and primarily represents long-term trends in the data. The long-term trends in SSTs are evident as warming in all of the oceans. The associated long-term trends in runoff suggest increasing flows for parts of North America, South America, Eurasia, and Australia; decreasing runoff is most notable in western Africa. The second principal component explains 9% of the total variance and reflects variability of the El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its associated influence on global annual runoff patterns. The third component explains 5% of the total variance and indicates a response of global annual runoff to variability in North Aflantic SSTs. The association between runoff and North Atlantic SSTs may explain an apparent steplike change in runoff that occurred around 1970 for a number of continental regions.

  16. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermodynamic characterization of Zr doped ceria in the 1573-1773 K temperature range. (United States)

    Takacs, M; Scheffe, J R; Steinfeld, A


    This work encompasses the thermodynamic characterization and critical evaluation of Zr(4+) doped ceria, a promising redox material for the two-step solar thermochemical splitting of H2O and CO2 to H2 and CO. As a case study, we experimentally examine 5 mol% Zr(4+) doped ceria and present oxygen nonstoichiometry measurements at elevated temperatures ranging from 1573 K to 1773 K and oxygen partial pressures ranging from 4.50 × 10(-3) atm to 2.3 × 10(-4) atm, yielding higher reduction extents compared to those of pure ceria under all conditions investigated, especially at the lower temperature range and at higher pO2. In contrast to pure ceria, a simple ideal solution model accounting for the formation of isolated oxygen vacancies and localized electrons accurately describes the defect chemistry. Thermodynamic properties are determined, namely: partial molar enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. In general, partial molar enthalpy and entropy values of Zr(4+) doped ceria are lower. The equilibrium hydrogen yields are subsequently extracted as a function of the redox conditions for dopant concentrations as high as 20%. Although reduction extents increase greatly with dopant concentration, the oxidation of Zr(4+) doped ceria is thermodynamically less favorable compared to pure ceria. This leads to substantially larger temperature swings between reduction and oxidation steps, ultimately resulting in lower theoretical solar energy conversion efficiencies compared to ceria under most conditions. In effect, these results point to the importance of considering oxidation thermodynamics in addition to reduction when screening potential redox materials.

  17. Rheological modelling of physiological variables during temperature variations at rest (United States)

    Vogelaere, P.; de Meyer, F.


    The evolution with time of cardio-respiratory variables, blood pressure and body temperature has been studied on six males, resting in semi-nude conditions during short (30 min) cold stress exposure (0°C) and during passive recovery (60 min) at 20°C. Passive cold exposure does not induce a change in HR but increases VO 2, VCO 2 Ve and core temperature T re, whereas peripheral temperature is significantly lowered. The kinetic evolution of the studied variables was investigated using a Kelvin-Voigt rheological model. The results suggest that the human body, and by extension the measured physiological variables of its functioning, does not react as a perfect viscoelastic system. Cold exposure induces a more rapid adaptation for heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures than that observed during the rewarming period (20°C), whereas respiratory adjustments show an opposite evolution. During the cooling period of the experiment the adaptative mechanisms, taking effect to preserve core homeothermy and to obtain a higher oxygen supply, increase the energy loss of the body.

  18. Thermodynamic diagrams for high temperature plasmas of air, air-carbon, carbon-hydrogen mixtures, and argon

    CERN Document Server

    Kroepelin, H; Hoffmann, K-U


    Thermodynamic Diagrams for High Temperature Plasmas of Air, Air-Carbon, Carbon-Hydrogen Mixtures, and Argon provides information relating to the properties of equilibrium gas plasmas formed from hydrocarbons, from air without argon, from pure argon, and from mixtures of air and carbon at various compositions, temperatures and pressures. The data are presented in graphical rather than tabular form to provide a clearer picture of the plasma processes investigated. This book is composed of four chapters, and begins with the introduction to the characteristics of plasmas, with emphasis on their th

  19. Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Temperature in CO2 Emission from Mars' Mesosphere (United States)

    Livengood, Timothy A.; Kostiuk, Theodor; Hewagama, Tilak; Kolasinski, John R.; Henning, Wade; Fast, Kelly Elizabeth; Sonnabend, Guido; Sornig, Manuela


    We have observed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) emission of carbon dioxide that probes Mars’ mesosphere in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2012, 2014, and 2016. These measurements were conducted at 10.6 μm wavelength using the Goddard Space Flight Center Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Winds and Composition (HIPWAC) from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) at resolving power (1-33)×106. The Maxwellian broadening of the emission line can be measured at this resolution, providing a direct determination of temperature in the mesosphere. The nonLTE line appears as a narrow emission core within a broad absorption formed by tropospheric CO2, which provides temperature information reaching down to the martian surface, while the mesospheric line probes temperature at about 60-80 km altitude. We will report on the spatial distribution of temperature and emission line strength with local solar time on Mars, with latitude, as well as long-term variability including seasonal effects that modify the overall thermal structure of the atmosphere. These remote measurements complement results from orbital spacecraft through access to a broad range of local solar time on each occasion.This work has been supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy and Solar Systems Observations Programs

  20. Coral bleaching pathways under the control of regional temperature variability (United States)

    Langlais, C. E.; Lenton, A.; Heron, S. F.; Evenhuis, C.; Sen Gupta, A.; Brown, J. N.; Kuchinke, M.


    Increasing sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are predicted to adversely impact coral populations worldwide through increasing thermal bleaching events. Future bleaching is unlikely to be spatially uniform. Therefore, understanding what determines regional differences will be critical for adaptation management. Here, using a cumulative heat stress metric, we show that characteristics of regional SST determine the future bleaching risk patterns. Incorporating observed information on SST variability, in assessing future bleaching risk, provides novel options for management strategies. As a consequence, the known biases in climate model variability and the uncertainties in regional warming rate across climate models are less detrimental than previously thought. We also show that the thresholds used to indicate reef viability can strongly influence a decision on what constitutes a potential refugia. Observing and understanding the drivers of regional variability, and the viability limits of coral reefs, is therefore critical for making meaningful projections of coral bleaching risk.

  1. Implementation of Temperature Sequential Controller on Variable Speed Drive (United States)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.


    There are many pump and motor installations with quite extensive speed variation, such as Sago conveyor, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and water pumping system. A common solution for these applications is to run several fixed speed motors in parallel, with flow control accomplish by turning the motors on and off. This type of control method causes high in-rush current, and adds a risk of damage caused by pressure transients. This paper explains the design and implementation of a temperature speed control system for use in industrial and commercial sectors. Advanced temperature speed control can be achieved by using ABB ACS800 variable speed drive-direct torque sequential control macro, programmable logic controller and temperature transmitter. The principle of direct torque sequential control macro (DTC-SC) is based on the control of torque and flux utilizing the stator flux field orientation over seven preset constant speed. As a result of continuous comparison of ambient temperature to the references temperatures; electromagnetic torque response is particularly fast to the motor state and it is able maintain constant speeds. Experimental tests have been carried out by using ABB ACS800-U1-0003-2, to validate the effectiveness and dynamic respond of ABB ACS800 against temperature variation, loads, and mechanical shocks.

  2. White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variable Stars: Surface Temperatures and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Sion


    Full Text Available A summary is presented of what is currently known about the surface temperatures of accreting white dwarfs (WDs detected in non-magnetic and magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs based upon synthetic spectral analyses of far ultraviolet data. A special focus is placed on WD temperatures above and below the CV period gap as a function of the orbital period, Porb. The principal uncertainty of the temperatures for the CV WDs in the Teff - Porb distribution, besides the distance to the CV, is the mass of the WD. Only in eclipsing CV systems, an area of eclipsing binary studies, which was so central to Robert H. Koch’s career, is it possible to know CV WD masses with high precision.

  3. Anisotropy and temperature dependence of structural, thermodynamic, and elastic properties of crystalline cellulose Iβ: a first-principles investigation (United States)

    Dri, Fernando L.; Shang, ShunLi; Hector, Louis G., Jr.; Saxe, Paul; Liu, Zi-Kui; Moon, Robert J.; Zavattieri, Pablo D.


    Anisotropy and temperature dependence of structural, thermodynamic and elastic properties of crystalline cellulose Iβ were computed with first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and a semi-empirical correction for van der Waals interactions. Specifically, we report the computed temperature variation (up to 500 K) of the monoclinic cellulose Iβ lattice parameters, constant pressure heat capacity, Cp, entropy, S, enthalpy, H, the linear thermal expansion components, ξi, and components of the isentropic and isothermal (single crystal) elastic stiffness matrices, CijS (T) and CijT (T) , respectively. Thermodynamic quantities from phonon calculations computed with DFT and the supercell method provided necessary inputs to compute the temperature dependence of cellulose Iβ properties via the quasi-harmonic approach. The notable exceptions were the thermal conductivity components, λi (the prediction of which has proven to be problematic for insulators using DFT) for which the reverse, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics approach with a force field was applied. The extent to which anisotropy of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio is temperature-dependent was explored in terms of the variations of each with respect to crystallographic directions and preferred planes containing specific bonding characteristics (as revealed quantitatively from phonon force constants for each atomic pair, and qualitatively from charge density difference contours). Comparisons of the predicted quantities with available experimental data revealed reasonable agreement up to 500 K. Computed properties were interpreted in terms of the cellulose Iβ structure and bonding interactions.

  4. The influence of global sea surface temperature variability on the large-scale land surface temperature (United States)

    Tyrrell, Nicholas L.; Dommenget, Dietmar; Frauen, Claudia; Wales, Scott; Rezny, Mike


    In global warming scenarios, global land surface temperatures () warm with greater amplitude than sea surface temperatures (SSTs), leading to a land/sea warming contrast even in equilibrium. Similarly, the interannual variability of is larger than the covariant interannual SST variability, leading to a land/sea contrast in natural variability. This work investigates the land/sea contrast in natural variability based on global observations, coupled general circulation model simulations and idealised atmospheric general circulation model simulations with different SST forcings. The land/sea temperature contrast in interannual variability is found to exist in observations and models to a varying extent in global, tropical and extra-tropical bands. There is agreement between models and observations in the tropics but not the extra-tropics. Causality in the land-sea relationship is explored with modelling experiments forced with prescribed SSTs, where an amplification of the imposed SST variability is seen over land. The amplification of to tropical SST anomalies is due to the enhanced upper level atmospheric warming that corresponds with tropical moist convection over oceans leading to upper level temperature variations that are larger in amplitude than the source SST anomalies. This mechanism is similar to that proposed for explaining the equilibrium global warming land/sea warming contrast. The link of the to the dominant mode of tropical and global interannual climate variability, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is found to be an indirect and delayed connection. ENSO SST variability affects the oceans outside the tropical Pacific, which in turn leads to a further, amplified and delayed response of.

  5. Adaptation of Paramecium caudatum to variable conditions of temperature stress. (United States)

    Duncan, Alison B; Fellous, Simon; Quillery, Elsa; Kaltz, Oliver


    The environment is rarely constant and organisms are exposed to spatial and temporal variation that will impact life-histories. It is important to understand how such variation affects the adaptation of organisms to their local environment. We compare the adaptation of populations of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum exposed to constant (23 °C or 35 °C) and temporally variable temperature environments (random daily fluctuations between 23 °C or 35 °C). Consistent with theory, our experiment shows the evolution of specialists when evolution proceeds in constant environments and generalists when the environment is temporally variable. In addition, we demonstrate costs for specialists of being locally adapted through reduced fitness in novel environments. Conversely, we do not find any costs for generalists, as all populations from variable environments had equal or superior performance to specialists in their own environment. The lack of a cost for generalists is emphasised by the presence of a super generalist that has the highest performance at both assay temperatures. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Finite Temperature Green's Function Approach for Excited State and Thermodynamic Properties of Cool to Warm Dense Matter. (United States)

    Kas, J J; Rehr, J J


    We present a finite-temperature extension of the retarded cumulant Green's function for calculations of exited-state, correlation, and thermodynamic properties of electronic systems. The method incorporates a cumulant to leading order in the screened Coulomb interaction W, and improves on the GW approximation of many-body perturbation theory. Results for the homogeneous electron gas are presented for a wide range of densities and temperatures, from cool to warm dense matter regimes, which reveal several hitherto unexpected properties. For example, correlation effects remain strong at high T while the exchange-correlation energy becomes small; also the spectral function broadens and damping increases with temperature, blurring the usual quasiparticle picture. These effects are evident, e.g., in Compton scattering which exhibits many-body corrections that persist at normal densities and intermediate T. The approach also yields exchange-correlation energies and potentials in good agreement with existing methods.

  7. Predicting Thermodynamic Behaviors of Non-Protein Amino Acids as a Function of Temperature and pH (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio


    Why does life use α-amino acids exclusively as building blocks of proteins? To address that fundamental question from an energetic perspective, this study estimated the standard molal thermodynamic data for three non-α-amino acids (β-alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and ɛ-aminocaproic acid) and α-amino- n-butyric acid in their zwitterionic, negative, and positive ionization states based on the corresponding experimental measurements reported in the literature. Temperature dependences of their heat capacities were described based on the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. The obtained dataset was then used to calculate the standard molal Gibbs energies ( ∆G o) of the non-α-amino acids as a function of temperature and pH. Comparison of their ∆G o values with those of α-amino acids having the same molecular formula showed that the non-α-amino acids have similar ∆G o values to the corresponding α-amino acids in physiologically relevant conditions (neutral pH, <100 °C). In acidic and alkaline pH, the non-α-amino acids are thermodynamically more stable than the corresponding α-ones over a broad temperature range. These results suggest that the energetic cost of synthesis is not an important selection pressure to incorporate α-amino acids into biological systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkan J. Hadi


    Full Text Available In the present study a thermodynamic model for prediction of gas-liquid equilibrium at high pressures and different temperatures prepared for the binary systems of carbon dioxide (1 with each of the one of the liquid physical solvents (2 (sulfolane, n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and propylene carbonate using Peng-Robenson equation of state (PR-EOS with different mixing rules to show the effect of the type of mixing rule used.Comparison of the experimental phase equilibrium data in the literature with the results of the model showed very good representation for some mixing rules and good for the others.

  9. Thermodynamic Properties of Low-Density {}^{132}Xe Gas in the Temperature Range 165-275 K (United States)

    Akour, Abdulrahman


    The method of static fluctuation approximation was used to calculate selected thermodynamic properties (internal energy, entropy, energy capacity, and pressure) for xenon in a particularly low-temperature range (165-270 K) under different conditions. This integrated microscopic study started from an initial basic assumption as the main input. The basic assumption in this method was to replace the local field operator with its mean value, then numerically solve a closed set of nonlinear equations using an iterative method, considering the Hartree-Fock B2-type dispersion potential as the most appropriate potential for xenon. The results are in very good agreement with those of an ideal gas.

  10. An A-train and MERRA view of cloud, thermodynamic, and dynamic variability within the subtropical marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Kahn


    Full Text Available The global-scale patterns and covariances of subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL cloud fraction and spatial variability with atmospheric thermodynamic and dynamic fields remain poorly understood. We describe an approach that leverages coincident NASA A-train and the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA data to quantify the relationships in the subtropical MBL derived at the native pixel and grid resolution. A new method for observing four subtropical oceanic regions that capture transitions from stratocumulus to trade cumulus is demonstrated, where stratocumulus and cumulus regimes are determined from infrared-based thermodynamic phase. Visible radiances are normally distributed within stratocumulus and are increasingly skewed away from the coast, where trade cumulus dominates. Increases in MBL depth, wind speed, and effective radius (re, and reductions in 700–1000 hPa moist static energy differences and 700 and 850 hPa vertical velocity correspond with increases in visible radiance skewness. We posit that a more robust representation of the cloudy MBL is obtained using visible radiance rather than retrievals of optical thickness that are limited to a smaller subset of cumulus. The method using the combined A-train and MERRA data set has demonstrated that an increase in re within shallow cumulus is strongly related to higher MBL wind speeds that further correspond to increased precipitation occurrence according to CloudSat, previously demonstrated with surface observations. Hence, the combined data sets have the potential of adding global context to process-level understanding of the MBL.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, A. K.; Whittle, D. P.; Worrell, W. L.


    Existing phase diagrams in the systems Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - MSO}{sub 4} (M=Ni, Co) and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - M{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} (M=Al, Fe, Cr) have been used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the molten sulfate systems. The calculated thermodynamic data show satisfactory agreement with most of the available experimental observations. The calculations have shown that the activity of Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} in the melt can be lowered to such an extent that liquid sulfate solutions can be formed at P{sub SO{sub 3}} levels that are prevalent in marine gas turbine operations, and this has been explained on the basis of complex formation in the melt. Thermodynamic analysis of the interaction of the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - MSO{sub 4} (M=Co, Ni) melt with protective oxides Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} has demonstrated the vulnerability of Al-containing alloys to hot corrosion attack.

  12. Variability of surface temperature in agricultural fields of central California (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Millard, J. P.; Goettelman, R. C.


    In an attempt to evaluate the relationship between hand-held infrared thermometers and aircraft thermal scanners in near-level terrain and to quantify the variability of surface temperatures within individual fields, ground-based and aircraft thermal sensor measurements were made along a 50-km transect on 3 May 1979 and a 20-km transect on 7 August 1980. These comparisons were made on fields near Davis, California. Agreement was within 1 C for fields covered with vegetation and 3.6 C for bare, dry fields. The variability within fields was larger for bare, dry fields than for vegetatively covered fields. In 1980, with improvements in the collection of ground truth data, the agreement was within 1 C for a variety of fields.

  13. Boundary-layer temperatures in high accretion rate cataclysmic variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoare, M.G.; Drew, J.E. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics)


    We use the Zanstra method to derive limits on boundary-layer temperatures in eclipsing dwarf novae during outburst and nova-like variables, using the observed He II {lambda}1640 and {lambda}4686 recombination lines. It is assumed that all the emission is produced in the wind rather than the accretion disc. This method constrains the boundary-layer temperatures to between 50 000 and 100 000 K depending on the degree of wind bipolarity. These estimates are lower than the T>or approx200 000 K predicted theoretically. Possible explanations include rapid rotation of the white dwarf and spreading of the boundary layer over the entire white-dwarf surface. (author).

  14. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A> Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao


    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO{sub 3} solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO{sub 4}{sup -} complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO{sub 4}{sup -}] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation.

  15. Processes of India's offshore summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kurian, N.; Lengaigne, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Vialard, J.; Pous, S.; Peter, A-C.; Durand, F.; Naik, Shweta

    . LOCEAN, IRD/CNRS/UPMC/MNHN, Paris, France 3. LEGOS, IRD/CNRS/CNES/UPS, Toulouse, France Corresponding author address: Nisha Kurian Physical Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula. Goa India – 403004; E...., vol.63; 2013; 329-346 Processes of India’s offshore summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability K. Nisha1, M. Lengaigne1,2, V.V. Gopalakrishna,1 J. Vialard2, S. Pous2, A.-C. Peter2, F. Durand3, S.Naik1 1. NIO, CSIR, Goa, India 2...

  16. Internal variability in simulated and observed tropical tropospheric temperature trends (United States)

    Suárez-Gutiérrez, Laura; Li, Chao; Thorne, Peter W.; Marotzke, Jochem


    We explore the extent to which internal variability can reconcile discrepancies between observed and simulated warming in the upper tropical troposphere. We compare all extant radiosonde-based estimates for the period 1958-2014 to simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 multimodel ensemble and the 100 realization Max Planck Institute large ensemble. We consider annual mean temperatures and all available 30-and 15-year trends. Most observed trends fall within the ensemble spread for most of the record, and trends calculated over 15-year periods show better agreement than 30-year trends, with generally larger discrepancies for the older observational products. The simulated amplification of surface warming aloft in the troposphere is consistent with observations, and the linear correlation between surface and simultaneous tropospheric warming trends decreases with trend length. We conclude that trend differences between observations and simulations of tropical tropospheric temperatures are dominated by observational uncertainty and chaotic internal variability rather than by systematic errors in model performance.

  17. An Inexpensive Microscale Method for Measuring Vapor Pressure, Associated Thermodynamic Variables, and Molecular Weight (United States)

    Demuro, Jason C.; Margarian, Hovanes; Mkhikian, Artavan; No, Kwang Hi; Peterson, Andrew R.


    Existing methods for measuring vapor pressure are too expensive or not quantitative enough for chemistry classes in secondary schools. Our method measures the vapor pressure inside a bubble trapped in a graduated microtube made from a disposable 1-mL glass pipet. Vapor pressures of water, methanol, and ethanol are measured over temperature ranges of 4-90 °C. The enthalpy and entropy of vaporization and boiling points, calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, agree well with published values. The vapor pressures of aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol plotted against mole fractions of water give positive deviations from Raoult's law, but concentrations were identified from which molecular weights of the alcohols could be calculated. These molecular weights are not significantly different from published values. Sources of error in the method are analyzed. A procedure for use in secondary schools is outlined.

  18. First principles calculations of thermodynamic and mechanical properties of high temperature bcc Ta-W and Mo-Ta alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda-Jindo, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta 4259, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)], E-mail:; Vu Van Hung; Hoa, N.T. [Department of Physics, Hanoi National Pedagogic University, km8 Hanoi-Sontay Highway, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Turchi, P.E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, L-353 LLNL, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)


    The thermodynamic quantities of high temperature metals and alloys are studied using the statistical moment method, going beyond the quasi-harmonic approximations. Including the power moments of the atomic displacements up to the fourth order, the Helmholtz free energies and the related thermodynamic quantities are derived explicitly in closed analytic forms. The configurational entropy term is taken into account by using the tetrahedron cluster approximation of the cluster variation method (CVM). The energetics of the binary (Ta-W and Mo-Ta) alloys are treated within the framework of the first-principles TB-LMTO (tight-binding linear muffin tin orbital) method coupled to CPA (coherent potential approximation) and GPM (generalized perturbation method). The equilibrium phase diagrams are calculated for the refractory Ta-W and Mo-Ta bcc alloys. In addition, the mechanical properties, i.e., temperature dependence of the elastic moduli C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44} and those of the ideal tensile and shear strengths of the bcc Ta-W and Ta-Mo alloys have been also studied.

  19. Effect of High Pressure and Temperature on Structural, Thermodynamic and Thermoelectric Properties of Quaternary CoFeCrAl Alloy (United States)

    Bhat, Tahir Mohiuddin; Gupta, Dinesh C.


    Employing first-principles based on density functional theory we have investigated the structural, magneto-electronic, thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeCrAl. Electronic band structure displays that CoFeCrAl is an indirect band gap semiconductor in spin-down state with the band gap value of 0.65 eV. Elastic constants reveal CoFeCrAl is a mechanically stable structure having a Debye temperature of 648 K along with a high melting temperature (2130 K). The thermoelectric properties in the temperature range 50-800 K have been calculated. CoFeCrAl possesses a high Seebeck coefficient of - 46 μV/K at room temperature along with the huge power factor of ˜ 4.8 (1012 μW cm-1 K-2 s-1) which maximizes the figure-of-merit up to ˜ 0.75 at 800 K temperature and suggesting CoFeCrAl as potential thermoelectric material. The effect of high pressure and high temperature on the thermal expansion, Grüneisen parameter and heat capacity were also studied by using the quasi-harmonic Debye model.

  20. Emergent constraint on equilibrium climate sensitivity from global temperature variability (United States)

    Cox, Peter M.; Huntingford, Chris; Williamson, Mark S.


    Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) remains one of the most important unknowns in climate change science. ECS is defined as the global mean warming that would occur if the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration were instantly doubled and the climate were then brought to equilibrium with that new level of CO2. Despite its rather idealized definition, ECS has continuing relevance for international climate change agreements, which are often framed in terms of stabilization of global warming relative to the pre-industrial climate. However, the ‘likely’ range of ECS as stated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has remained at 1.5–4.5 degrees Celsius for more than 25 years. The possibility of a value of ECS towards the upper end of this range reduces the feasibility of avoiding 2 degrees Celsius of global warming, as required by the Paris Agreement. Here we present a new emergent constraint on ECS that yields a central estimate of 2.8 degrees Celsius with 66 per cent confidence limits (equivalent to the IPCC ‘likely’ range) of 2.2–3.4 degrees Celsius. Our approach is to focus on the variability of temperature about long-term historical warming, rather than on the warming trend itself. We use an ensemble of climate models to define an emergent relationship between ECS and a theoretically informed metric of global temperature variability. This metric of variability can also be calculated from observational records of global warming, which enables tighter constraints to be placed on ECS, reducing the probability of ECS being less than 1.5 degrees Celsius to less than 3 per cent, and the probability of ECS exceeding 4.5 degrees Celsius to less than 1 per cent.

  1. Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Extreme Soil Temperature in Croatia (United States)

    Sviličić, Petra; Vučetić, Višnja


    In terms of taking the temperature of the Earth in Croatia, first measurements began in 1898 in Križevci, but systematic measurements of soil temperature started in 1951. Today, the measurements are performed at 55 meteorological stations. The process of setting up, calibration, measurement, input, control and data processing is done entirely within the Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Due to the lack of funds, but also as a consequence of the Homeland War, network density in some areas is very rare, leading to aggravating circumstances during analysis. Also, certain temperature series are incomplete or are interrupted and therefore the number of long-term temperature series is very small. This particularly presents problems in coastal area, which is geographically diversified and is very difficult to do a thorough analysis of the area. Using mercury angle geothermometer daily at 7, 14 and 21 h CET, thermal state of soil is measured at 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm depth. Thermometers are placed on the bare ground within the meteorological circle and facing north to reduce the direct impact of solar radiation. Lack of term measurements is noticed in the analysis of extreme soil temperatures, which are not real extreme values, but derived from three observational times. On the basis of fifty year series (1961-2010) at 23 stations, the analysis of trends of the surface maximal and minimal soil temperature, as well as the appearance of freezing is presented. Trends were determined by Sen's slope estimator, and statistical significance on 5% level was determined using the Mann-Kendall test. It was observed that the variability of the surface maximal soil temperature on an annual and seasonal level is much higher than those for surface minimal soil temperature. Trends in the recent period show a statistically significant increase in the maximal soil temperature in the eastern and the coastal regions, especially in the spring and summer season. Also, the

  2. Thermodynamic evaluation of supercritical oxy-type power plant with high-temperature three-end membrane for air separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz


    Full Text Available Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mainly of carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of ‘zero-emission’ technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper a thermodynamic analysis of supercritical power plant fed by lignite was made. Power plant consists of: 600 MW steam power unit with live steam parameters of 650 °C/30 MPa and reheated steam parameters of 670 °C/6 MPa; circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology; air separation unit and installation of the carbon dioxide compression. Air separation unit is based on high temperature membrane working in three-end technology. Models of steam cycle, circulation fluidized bed boiler, air separation unit and carbon capture installation were made using commercial software. After integration of these models the net electricity generation efficiency as a function of the degree of oxygen recovery in high temperature membrane was analyzed.

  3. Why Does the Human Body Maintain a Constant 37-Degree Temperature?: Thermodynamic Switch Controls Chemical Equilibrium in Biological Systems (United States)

    Chun, Paul W.


    Applying the Planck-Benzinger methodology to biological systems, we have established that the negative Gibbs free energy minimum at a well-defined stable temperature, langTSrang, where the bound unavailable energy TΔS° = 0, has its origin in the sequence-specific hydrophobic interactions. Each such system we have examined confirms the existence of a thermodynamic molecular switch wherein a change of sign in [ΔCp°]reaction leads to a true negative minimum in the Gibbs free energy change of reaction, and hence a maximum in the related equilibrium constant, Keq. At this temperature, langTSrang, where ΔH°(TS)(-) = ΔG°(TS)(-)min, the maximum work can be accomplished in transpiration, digestion, reproduction or locomotion. In the human body, this temperature is 37°C. The langTSrang values may vary from one living organism to another, but the fact that the value of TΔS°(T) = 0 will not. There is a lower cutoff point, langThrang, where enthalpy is unfavorable but entropy is favorable, i.e. ΔH°(Th)(+) = TΔS°(Th)(+), and an upper limit, langTmrang, above which enthalpy is favorable but entropy is unfavorable, i.e. ΔH°(Tm)(-) = TΔS°(Tm)(-). Only between these two temperature limits, where ΔG°(T) = 0, is the net chemical driving force favorable for such biological processes as protein folding, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid or protein-membrane interactions, and protein self-assembly. All interacting biological systems examined using the Planck-Benzinger methodology have shown such a thermodynamic switch at the molecular level, suggesting that its existence may be universal.

  4. A thermodynamic data base for Tc to calculate equilibrium solubilities at temperatures up to 300 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdomenech, I. [Studsvik AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Bruno, J. [Intera Information Technologies SL, Cerdanyola (Spain)


    Thermodynamic data has been selected for solids and aqueous species of technetium. Equilibrium constants have been calculated in the temperature range 0 to 300 deg C at a pressure of 1 bar for T<100 deg C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. For aqueous species, the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers model is used for temperature extrapolations. The data base contains a large amount of estimated data, and the methods used for these estimations are described in detail. A new equation is presented that allows the estimation of {Delta}{sub r}Cdeg{sub pm} values for mononuclear hydrolysis reactions. The formation constants for chloro complexes of Tc(V) and Tc(IV), whose existence is well established, have been estimated. The majority of entropy and heat capacity values in the data base have also been estimated, and therefore temperature extrapolations are largely based on estimations. The uncertainties derived from these calculations are described. Using the data base developed in this work, technetium solubilities have been calculated as a function of temperature for different chemical conditions. The implications for the mobility of Tc under nuclear repository conditions are discussed. 70 refs.

  5. Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in thetropical atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F.J.; Klein,S.A.; Seidel, D.J.; Taylor, K.E.; Thorne, P.W.; Wehner, M.F.; Gleckler,P.J.; Boyle, J.S.; Collins, W.D.; Dixon, K.W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J.E.; Jones, G.S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.R.; Lanzante, J.R.; Meehl, G.A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G.A.


    The month-to-month variability of tropical temperatures is larger in the troposphere than at the Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations, and is consistent with basic theory. On multi-decadal timescales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but occurs in only one observational dataset. Other observations show weak or even negative amplification. These results suggest that either different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal timescales, and models fail to capture such behavior, or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational datasets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.

  6. Can oceanic reanalyses be used to assess recent anthropogenic changes and low-frequency internal variability of upper ocean temperature?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corre, L.; Terray, L.; Weaver, A. [Cerfacs-CNRS, Toulouse (France); Balmaseda, M. [E.C.M.W.F, Reading (United Kingdom); Ribes, A. [CNRM-GAME, Meteo France-CNRS, Toulouse (France)


    A multivariate analysis of the upper ocean thermal structure is used to examine the recent long-term changes and decadal variability in the upper ocean heat content as represented by model-based ocean reanalyses and a model-independent objective analysis. The three variables used are the mean temperature above the 14 C isotherm, its depth and a fixed depth mean temperature (250 m mean temperature). The mean temperature above the 14 C isotherm is a convenient, albeit simple, way to isolate thermodynamical changes by filtering out dynamical changes related to thermocline vertical displacements. The global upper ocean observations and reanalyses exhibit very similar warming trends (0.045 C per decade) over the period 1965-2005, superimposed with marked decadal variability in the 1970s and 1980s. The spatial patterns of the regression between indices (representative of anthropogenic changes and known modes of internal decadal variability), and the three variables associated with the ocean heat content are used as fingerprint to separate out the different contributions. The choice of variables provides information about the local heat absorption, vertical distribution and horizontal redistribution of heat, this latter being suggestive of changes in ocean circulation. The discrepancy between the objective analysis and the reanalyses, as well as the spread among the different reanalyses, are used as a simple estimate of ocean state uncertainties. Two robust findings result from this analysis: (1) the signature of anthropogenic changes is qualitatively different from those of the internal decadal variability associated to the Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation, and (2) the anthropogenic changes in ocean heat content do not only consist of local heat absorption, but are likely related with changes in the ocean circulation, with a clear shallowing of the tropical thermocline in the Pacific and Indian oceans. (orig.)

  7. Variable temperature system using vortex tube cooling and fiber optic temperature measurement for low temperature magic angle spinning NMR (United States)

    Martin, Rachel W.; Zilm, Kurt W.


    We describe the construction and operation of a variable temperature (VT) system for a high field fast magic angle spinning (MAS) probe. The probe is used in NMR investigations of biological macromolecules, where stable setting and continuous measurement of the temperature over periods of several days are required in order to prevent sample overheating and degradation. The VT system described is used at and below room temperature. A vortex tube is used to provide cooling in the temperature range of -20 to 20 °C, while a liquid nitrogen-cooled heat exchanger is used below -20 °C. Using this arrangement, the lowest temperature that is practically achievable is -140 °C. Measurement of the air temperature near the spinning rotor is accomplished using a fiber optic thermometer that utilizes the temperature dependence of the absorption edge of GaAs. The absorption edge of GaAs also has a magnetic field dependence that we have measured and corrected for. This dependence was calibrated at several field strengths using the well-known temperature dependence of the 1H chemical shift difference of the protons in methanol.

  8. Prediction of temperature distribution in sericite mica drying with variable temperature and airflow condition (United States)

    Noh, A. Mohd; Mat, S.; Roslan, M. H.; Salleh, E.


    To develop new drying facilities, it was important to know the impact of every input parameter to the drying process. Using a real prototype to carry out the experiment required high cost and time consuming especially for large scale drying. CFD simulation approached was one of the solution. Previous study of drying simulation only focuses on the fix value of the input parameter. This paper presents the result of CFD simulation to predict the heat distribution in sericite mica drying with variable temperature and airflow condition. Variable temperature and airflow was used because the only heat source for the dryer was from the solar energy therefore it’s only available in the day time. The analysis was carried out for 24 hours of drying time. The simulation result shows that the temperature inside the sericite mica increase 8 to 10°C when the solar energy is available and it is still increasing about 4 to 7°C for 5 hours after the solar energy is absent. The result also shows that during the drying time the temperature of sericite mica that is closer to the heat source was higher compared to the one that is further away with the maximum difference of 3.8°C.

  9. Macromolecular rate theory (MMRT) provides a thermodynamics rationale to underpin the convergent temperature response in plant leaf respiration. (United States)

    Liang, Liyin L; Arcus, Vickery L; Heskel, Mary A; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Egerton, John J G; Tjoelker, Mark G; Atkin, Owen K; Schipper, Louis A


    Temperature is a crucial factor in determining the rates of ecosystem processes, for example, leaf respiration (R) - the flux of plant respired CO2 from leaves to the atmosphere. Generally, R increases exponentially with temperature and formulations such as the Arrhenius equation are widely used in earth system models. However, experimental observations have shown a consequential and consistent departure from an exponential increase in R. What are the principles that underlie these observed patterns? Here, we demonstrate that macromolecular rate theory (MMRT), based on transition state theory (TST) for enzyme-catalyzed kinetics, provides a thermodynamic explanation for the observed departure and the convergent temperature response of R using a global database. Three meaningful parameters emerge from MMRT analysis: the temperature at which the rate of respiration would theoretically reach a maximum (the optimum temperature, Topt ), the temperature at which the respiration rate is most sensitive to changes in temperature (the inflection temperature, Tinf ) and the overall curvature of the log(rate) versus temperature plot (the change in heat capacity for the system, ΔCP‡). On average, the highest potential enzyme-catalyzed rates of respiratory enzymes for R are predicted to occur at 67.0 ± 1.2°C and the maximum temperature sensitivity at 41.4 ± 0.7°C from MMRT. The average curvature (average negative ΔCP‡) was -1.2 ± 0.1 kJ mol(-1)  K(-1) . Interestingly, Topt , Tinf and ΔCP‡ appear insignificantly different across biomes and plant functional types, suggesting that thermal response of respiratory enzymes in leaves could be conserved. The derived parameters from MMRT can serve as thermal traits for plant leaves that represent the collective temperature response of metabolic respiratory enzymes and could be useful to understand regulations of R under a warmer climate. MMRT extends the classic TST to enzyme-catalyzed reactions and provides an

  10. Kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of a novel low-temperature-active xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. GN16 isolated from the feces of Grus nigricollis. (United States)

    Zhou, Junpei; Liu, Yu; Shen, Jidong; Zhang, Rui; Tang, Xianghua; Li, Junjun; Wang, Yiyan; Huang, Zunxi


    We previously presented the cloning, heterologous expression, and characterization of a novel multidomain endoxylanase from Arthrobacter sp. GN16 isolated from the feces of Grus nigricollis. Molecular and biochemical characterization studies indicate that the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 domain at the N-terminus of the multidomain xylanase (rXynAGN16L) is a low-temperature-active endoxylanase. Many low-temperature-active enzymes contain regions of high local flexibility related to their kinetic and thermodynamic properties compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. However, the thermodynamic property of low-temperature-active xylanases, including rXynAGN16L, has rarely been reported. In this study, the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of rXynAGN16L were determined using different substrates and temperature conditions to completely characterize its activity properties. The kinetic property of rXynAGN16L is similar to some low-temperature-active GH 10 endoxylanases. Moreover, the thermodynamic property indicates that rXynAGN16L is typically characterized as a low-temperature-active enzyme.

  11. The Effect of Temperature on the Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction: Insights from Thermodynamics (United States)

    Aledo, Juan Carlos; Jimenez-Riveres, Susana; Tena, Manuel


    When teaching the effect of temperature on biochemical reactions, the problem is usually oversimplified by confining the thermal effect to the catalytic constant, which is identified with the rate constant of the elementary limiting step. Therefore, only positive values for activation energies and values greater than 1 for temperature coefficients…

  12. Magnetic materials at finite temperatures: thermodynamics and combined spin and molecular dynamics derived from first principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbach, Markus [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perera, Meewanage Dilina N. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Center for Simulational Physics; Landau, David P [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Center for Simulational Physics; Nicholson, Don M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Asheville, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Yin, Junqi [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). National Inst. for Computational Sciences; Brown, Greg [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics


    We present a unified approach to describe the combined behavior of the atomic and magnetic degrees of freedom in magnetic materials. Using Monte Carlo simulations directly combined with first principles the Curie temperature can be obtained ab initio in good agreement with experimental values. The large scale constrained first principles calculations have been used to construct effective potentials for both the atomic and magnetic degrees of freedom that allow the unified study of influence of phonon-magnon coupling on the thermodynamics and dynamics of magnetic systems. The MC calculations predict the specific heat of iron in near perfect agreement with experimental results from 300K to above Tc and allow the identification of the importance of the magnon-phonon interaction at the phase-transition. Further Molecular Dynamics and Spin Dynamics calculations elucidate the dynamics of this coupling and open the potential for quantitative and predictive descriptions of dynamic structure factors in magnetic materials using first principles-derived simulations.

  13. An analysis of the thermodynamic cycles with high-temperature nuclear reactor for power generation and hydrogen co-production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Michał


    Full Text Available In the present paper, numerical analysis of the thermodynamic cycle with the high-temperature nuclear gas reactor (HTGR for electricity and hydrogen production have been done. The analysed system consists of two independent loops. The first loop is for HTGR and consists of a nuclear reactor, heat exchangers, and blower. The second loop (Rankine cycle consist of up-to four steam turbines, that operate in heat recovery system. The analysis of the system shows that it is possible to achieve significantly higher efficiency than could be offered by traditional nuclear reactor technology (PWR and BWR. It is shown that the thermal efficiency about 52.5% it is possible to achieve when reactor works at standard conditions and steam is superheated up to 530oC. For the cases when the steam has supercritical conditions the value of thermal efficiency is still very high and equal about 50%.

  14. Single amino acid mutation alters thermostability of the alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus: thermodynamics and temperature dependence. (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Yang, Qingjun; Feng, Hong


    Dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP) from Bacillus pumilus BA06 has been demonstrated to have high catalytic efficiency and good thermostability, with potential application in leather processing. In order to get insights into its catalytic mechanism, two mutants with single amino acid substitution according to the homology modeling and multiple sequence alignment were characterized in thermodynamics of thermal denaturation and temperature dependence of substrate hydrolysis. The results showed that both mutants of V149I and R249E have a systematic increase in catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) in a wide range of temperatures, mainly due to an increase of k1 (substrate diffusion) and k2 (acylation) for V149I and of k2 and k3 (deacylation) for R249E. In comparison with the wild-type DHAP, the thermostability is increased for V149I and decreased for R249E. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the free energy (ΔGa°) of activation for thermal denaturation may govern the thermostability. The value of ΔGa° is increased for V149I and decreased for R249E. Based on these data and the structural modeling, it is suggested that substitution of Val149 with Ile may disturb the local flexibility in the substrate-binding pocket, leading to enhancement of binding affinity for the substrate. In contrast, substitution of Arg249 with Glu leads to interruption of interaction with the C-terminal of enzyme, thus resulting in less thermostability. This study indicates that amino acid residues in the active center or in the substrate-binding pocket may disturb the catalytic process and can be selected as the target for protein engineering in the bacterial alkaline proteases. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E


    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  16. An interaction network perspective on the relation between patterns of sea surface temperature variability and global mean surface temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tantet, A.J.J.; Dijkstra, H.A.


    On interannual- to multidecadal timescales variability in sea surface temperature appears to be organized in large-scale spatiotemporal patterns. In this paper, we investigate these patterns by studying the community structure of interaction networks constructed from sea surface temperature

  17. Correcting for heat capacity and 5'-TA type terminal nearest neighbors improves prediction of DNA melting temperatures using nearest-neighbor thermodynamic models. (United States)

    Hughesman, Curtis B; Turner, Robin F B; Haynes, Charles


    Nearest-neighbor thermodynamic (NNT) models currently provide some of the most accurate predictions of melting thermodynamics, including melting temperature (T(m)) values, for short DNA duplexes. Inherent to all existing NNT models is the assumption that ΔH° and ΔS° for the helix-to-coil transition are temperature invariant. Here we investigate the impact that this zero-ΔC(p) assumption has on the accuracy of T(m) predictions for 128 DNA duplexes. Previous and new melting thermodynamic data are analyzed to establish an estimate of ΔC(p)(bp), the heat capacity change per base pair, of 42 ± 16 cal mol(-1) K(-1) bp(-1), as well as an optimal thermodynamic reference temperature (T(ref)) of 53 ± 5 °C. These results were used to modify the unified NNT model to properly account for the temperature dependence of ΔH° and ΔS° and thereby extend the range over which T(m) is accurately predicted. This new approach is shown to be especially useful for duplexes that melt at a T(m) greater than 70 °C. Thermodynamic data collected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for 16 duplexes designed to melt over a broad temperature range were used to verify the values of ΔC(p)(bp) and T(ref) and to show that ΔC(p)(bp) is essentially constant above 37 °C. Additional DSC analysis of 12 duplex sequences containing all 10 nearest neighbors allowed for errors associated with different terminal nearest neighbors to be examined and showed that duplexes containing one or more terminal 5'-TA groups are significantly more stable than predicted by the unified NNT model. A correction to improve prediction of the hybridization thermodynamics of duplexes with terminal 5'-TA groups is provided.

  18. Low Temperature Thermodynamic Equilibrium of CO2 Dimer Anion Species in Cryogenic Argon and Krypton Matrices (United States)

    Goodrich, Michael E.; Moore, David T.


    The separated CO2 dimer anion, (CO2)(CO2-), is observed by FTIR spectroscopy in matrix isolation experiments at 1652 cm-1 upon deposition of high energy argon ions into an argon matrix doped with 0.5% CO2. It has previously been reported by Andrews that upon annealing the matrix to 25K, the separated species converts to an oxalate-like C2O4- species which appears at 1856 cm-1.a We have observed that subsequently holding the matrix at 10K caused the C2O4- species to fully convert back to (CO2)(CO2-). Upon further investigation, we determined that the two species reversibly interconvert between 19K and 23K, suggesting the species are in thermodynamic equilibrium. The associated van't Hoff plot has a linear trend and indicates an endothermic reaction driven by a large increase in entropy. An analogous experiment in a krypton matrix was performed, and the equilibrium was found to occur between 26K and 31K. Interestingly, analysis revealed the reaction in krypton is more endothermic, but has nearly the same entropy value as was observed in the argon experiment. aZhou, M.; Andrews, L.; J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2414 (1999).

  19. Stochastic thermodynamics (United States)

    Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik


    'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response

  20. Correlation between Bulk Thermodynamic Measurements and the Low-Temperature-Resistance Plateau in SmB_{6}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Phelan


    Full Text Available Topological insulators are materials characterized by dissipationless, spin-polarized surface states resulting from nontrivial band topologies. Recent theoretical models and experiments suggest that SmB_{6} is the first topological Kondo insulator, in which the topologically nontrivial band structure results from electron-electron interactions via Kondo hybridization. Here, we report that the surface conductivity of SmB_{6} increases systematically with bulk carbon content. Further, addition of carbon is linked to an increase in n-type carriers, larger low-temperature electronic contributions to the specific heat with a characteristic temperature scale of T^{*}=17  K, and a broadening of the crossover to the insulating state. Additionally, x-ray absorption spectroscopy shows a change in Sm valence at the surface. Our results highlight the importance of phonon dynamics in producing a Kondo insulating state and demonstrate a correlation between the bulk thermodynamic state and the low-temperature resistance of SmB_{6}.

  1. Sorption isotherms, thermodynamic properties and glass transition temperature of mucilage extracted from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.). (United States)

    Velázquez-Gutiérrez, Sandra Karina; Figueira, Ana Cristina; Rodríguez-Huezo, María Eva; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Carrillo-Navas, Hector; Pérez-Alonso, César


    Freeze-dried chia mucilage adsorption isotherms were determined at 25, 35 and 40°C and fitted with the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The integral thermodynamic properties (enthalpy and entropy) were estimated with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Pore radius of the mucilage, calculated with the Kelvin equation, varied from 0.87 to 6.44 nm in the temperature range studied. The point of maximum stability (minimum integral entropy) ranged between 7.56 and 7.63kg H2O per 100 kg of dry solids (d.s.) (water activity of 0.34-0.53). Enthalpy-entropy compensation for the mucilage showed two isokinetic temperatures: (i) one occurring at low moisture contents (0-7.56 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s.), controlled by changes in water entropy; and (ii) another happening in the moisture interval of 7.56-24 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s. and was enthalpy driven. The glass transition temperature Tg of the mucilage fluctuated between 42.93 and 57.93°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Delineation of thermodynamic and dynamic responses to sea surface temperature forcing associated with El Niño (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoming; Cai, Ming; Yang, Song; Wu, Zhaohua


    A new framework is proposed to gain a better understanding of the response of the atmosphere over the tropical Pacific to the radiative heating anomaly associated with the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in canonical El Niño winters. The new framework is based on the equilibrium balance between thermal radiative cooling anomalies associated with air temperature response to SST anomalies and other thermodynamic and dynamic processes. The air temperature anomalies in the lower troposphere are mainly in response to radiative heating anomalies associated with SST, atmospheric water vapor, and cloud anomalies that all exhibit similar spatial patterns. As a result, air temperature induced thermal radiative cooling anomalies would balance out most of the radiative heating anomalies in the lower troposphere. The remaining part of the radiative heating anomalies is then taken away by an enhancement (a reduction) of upward energy transport in the central-eastern (western) Pacific basin, a secondary contribution to the air temperature anomalies in the lower troposphere. Above the middle troposphere, radiative effect due to water vapor feedback is weak. Thermal radiative cooling anomalies are mainly in balance with the sum of latent heating anomalies, vertical and horizontal energy transport anomalies associated with atmospheric dynamic response and the radiative heating anomalies due to changes in cloud. The pattern of Gill-type response is attributed mainly to the non-radiative heating anomalies associated with convective and large-scale energy transport. The radiative heating anomalies associated with the anomalies of high clouds also contribute positively to the Gill-type response. This sheds some light on why the Gill-type atmospheric response can be easily identifiable in the upper atmosphere.

  3. Modelling highly variable daily maximum water temperatures in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hourly water temperatures were used to calculate daily maximum water temperatures for nine sites within the Sabie-Sand River system, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. A suite of statistical models for simulating daily maximum water temperatures, of differing complexity and using inputs of air temperature, flow rates, ...

  4. Thermodynamic instabilities of nuclear matter at finite temperature with finite range effective interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, J.; Polls, A.; Vinas, X.; Pi, M. (Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Estructura y Constituyentes de la Materia); Hernandez, S. (Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica)


    A systematic study of the equation of state for symmetric nuclear matter is performed in the framework of a finite-temperature density dependent Hartree-Fock method using the Gogny finite-range effective interaction. Special attention is devoted to the density and temperature dependence of the single-particle spectrum, the effective mass and the momentum distributions. The liquid-gas phase transition and the spinodal lines are discussed, in connection with the breakup of heated nucleus into small clusters that takes place in medium energy heavy ion reactions. The level density parameter, which has been derived by a low temperature expansion of the internal energy, is also discussed. Comparisons with previous calculations using zero range effective interactions are also made. (orig.).

  5. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo


    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of biofuels as fuels for high temperature fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milewski Jarosław


    Full Text Available Based on mathematical modeling and numerical simulations, applicativity of various biofuels on high temperature fuel cell performance are presented. Governing equations of high temperature fuel cell modeling are given. Adequate simulators of both solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC have been done and described. Performance of these fuel cells with different biofuels is shown. Some characteristics are given and described. Advantages and disadvantages of various biofuels from the system performance point of view are pointed out. An analysis of various biofuels as potential fuels for SOFC and MCFC is presented. The results are compared with both methane and hydrogen as the reference fuels. The biofuels are characterized by both lower efficiency and lower fuel utilization factors compared with methane. The presented results are based on a 0D mathematical model in the design point calculation. The governing equations of the model are also presented. Technical and financial analysis of high temperature fuel cells (SOFC and MCFC are shown. High temperature fuel cells can be fed by biofuels like: biogas, bioethanol, and biomethanol. Operational costs and possible incomes of those installation types were estimated and analyzed. A comparison against classic power generation units is shown. A basic indicator net present value (NPV for projects was estimated and commented.

  7. A thermogravimetric method for accurate determination of thermodynamic quantities at high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, A.H.; Nedermeijer, J.; Laverman, J.W.


    A method for the determination of the change in enthalpy, entropy, and specific heat capacity for monovariant heterogenous equilibria is presented. These quantities are obtained indirectly by measuring the temperature dependence of equilibrium pressures. At a given pressure of the relevant gas the

  8. Selecting polymers for two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs): Consideration of thermodynamic affinity, crystallinity, and glass transition temperature. (United States)

    Bacon, Stuart L; Peterson, Eric C; Daugulis, Andrew J; Parent, J Scott


    Two-phase partitioning bioreactor technology involves the use of a secondary immiscible phase to lower the concentration of cytotoxic solutes in the fermentation broth to subinhibitory levels. Although polymeric absorbents have attracted recent interest due to their low cost and biocompatibility, material selection requires the consideration of properties beyond those of small molecule absorbents (i.e., immiscible organic solvents). These include a polymer's (1) thermodynamic affinity for the target compound, (2) degree of crystallinity (wc ), and (3) glass transition temperature (Tg ). We have examined the capability of three thermodynamic models to predict the partition coefficient (PC) for n-butyric acid, a fermentation product, in 15 polymers. Whereas PC predictions for amorphous materials had an average absolute deviation (AAD) of ≥16%, predictions for semicrystalline polymers were less accurate (AAD ≥ 30%). Prediction errors were associated with uncertainties in determining the degree of crystallinity within a polymer and the effect of absorbed water on n-butyric acid partitioning. Further complications were found to arise for semicrystalline polymers, wherein strongly interacting solutes increased the polymer's absorptive capacity by actually dissolving the crystalline fraction. Finally, we determined that diffusion limitations may occur for polymers operating near their Tg , and that the Tg can be reduced by plasticization by water and/or solute. This study has demonstrated the impact of basic material properties that affects the performance of polymers as sequestering phases in TPPBs, and reflects the additional complexity of polymers that must be taken into account in material selection. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Calculation of the Standard Molal Thermodynamic Properties of Crystalline, Liquid, and Gas Organic Molecules at High Temperatures and Pressures (United States)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Owens, Christine E.; Knox, Annette M.; Richard, Laurent


    Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of organic solids, liquids, and gases at high temperatures and pressures is a requisite for characterizing hydrothermal metastable equilibrium states involving these species and quantifying the chemical affinities of irreversible reactions of organic molecules in natural gas, crude oil, kerogen, and coal with minerals and organic, inorganic, and biomolecular aqueous species in interstitial waters in sedimentary basins. To facilitate calculations of this kind, coefficients for the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state have been compiled for a variety of groups in organic liquids and gases. In addition, molecular weights, critical temperatures and pressures, densities at 25°C and 1 bar, transition, melting, and boiling temperatures ( Tt,Pr, Tm,Pr, and Tv,Pr, respectively) and standard molal enthalpies of transition (Δ H° t,Pr), melting (Δ H° m,Pr), and vaporization (Δ H° v,Pr) of organic species at 1 bar ( Pr) have been tabulated, together with an internally consistent and comprehensive set of standard molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation from the elements in their stable state at 298.15 K ( Tr) and Pr (Δ G° f and Δ H° f, respectively). The critical compilation also includes standard molal entropies ( S°) and volumes ( V°) at Tr and Pr, and standard molal heat capacity power function coefficients to compute the standard molal thermodynamic properties of organic solids, liquids, and gases as a function of temperature at 1 bar. These properties and coefficients have been tabulated for more than 500 crystalline solids, liquids, and gases, and those for many more can be computed from the equations of state group additivity algorithms. The crystalline species correspond to normal alkanes (C nH 2( n+1) ) with carbon numbers ( n, which is equal to the number of moles of carbon atoms in one mole of the species) ranging from 5 to 100, and 23 amino acids including glycine (C 2H 5NO

  10. Elimination of carbon vacancies in 4H-SiC employing thermodynamic equilibrium conditions at moderate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayedh, H. M.; Svensson, B. G. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics/Center for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Nipoti, R. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Microelettronica e Microsistemi, Sezione di Bologna (CNR-IMM of Bologna), I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Hallén, A. [Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), SE-164 40 Kista-Stockholm (Sweden)


    The carbon vacancy (V{sub C}) is a major point defect in high-purity 4H-SiC epitaxial layers limiting the minority charge carrier lifetime. In layers grown by chemical vapor deposition techniques, the V{sub C} concentration is typically in the range of 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −3}, and after device processing at temperatures approaching 2000 °C, it can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude. In the present study, both as-grown layers and a high-temperature processed one have been annealed at 1500 °C and the V{sub C} concentration is demonstrated to be strongly reduced, exhibiting a value of only a few times 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −3} as determined by deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements. The value is reached already after annealing times on the order of 1 h and is evidenced to reflect thermodynamic equilibrium under C-rich ambient conditions. The physical processes controlling the kinetics for establishment of the V{sub C} equilibrium are estimated to have an activation energy below ∼3 eV and both in-diffusion of carbon interstitials and out-diffusion of V{sub C}'s are discussed as candidates. This concept of V{sub C} elimination is flexible and readily integrated in a materials and device processing sequence.

  11. Bridging the Gap in the Chemical Thermodynamic Database for Nuclear Waste Repository: Studies of the Effect of Temperature on Actinide Complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio


    Recent results of thermodynamic studies on the complexation of actinides (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and Pu{sup 4+}) with F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}/HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} at elevated temperatures are reviewed. The data indicate that, for all systems except the 1:1 complexation of Np(V) with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, the complexation of actinides is enhanced by the increase in temperature. The enhancement is primarily due to the increase in the entropy term (T{Delta}S) that exceeds the increase in the enthalpy ({Delta}H) as the temperature is increased. These data bridge the gaps in the chemical thermodynamic database for nuclear waste repository where the temperature could remain significantly higher than 25 C for a long time after the closure of the repository.

  12. Thermodynamic optimisation and analysis of four Kalina cycle layouts for high temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik


    The Kalina cycle has seen increased interest in the last few years as an efficient alternative to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. However, the available literature gives little information on the algorithms to solve or optimise this inherently complex cycle. This paper presents a detailed...... approach to solve and optimise a Kalina cycle for high temperature (a turbine inlet temperature of 500°C) and high pressure (over 100bar) applications using a computationally efficient solution algorithm. A central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation was considered as a case...... study. Four different layouts for the Kalina cycle based on the number and/or placement of the recuperators in the cycle were optimised and compared based on performance parameters such as the cycle efficiency and the cooling water requirement. The cycles were modelled in steady state and optimised...

  13. Summing up dynamics: modelling biological processes in variable temperature scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Verdenius, F.


    The interest of modelling biological processes with dynamically changing external conditions (temperature, relative humidity, gas conditions) increases. Several modelling approaches are currently available. Among them are approaches like modelling under standard conditions, temperature sum models

  14. Thermodynamic properties of standard seawater: extensions to high temperatures and pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Safarov


    Full Text Available Measurements of (p, ρ, T properties of standard seawater with practical salinity S≈35, temperature T=(273.14 to 468.06 K and pressures, p, up to 140 MPa are reported with the reproducibility of the density measurements observed to be in the average percent deviation range Δρ/ρ=±(0.01 to 0.03%. The measurements are made with a newly constructed vibration-tube densimeter which is calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol and aqueous NaCl solutions. Based on these and previous measurements, an empirical expression for the density of standard seawater has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature. This equation is used to calculate other volumetric properties including isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, the thermal pressure coefficient, internal pressure and the secant bulk modulus. The results can be used to extend the present equation of state of seawater to higher temperatures for pressure up to 140 MPa.

  15. Thermodynamics for proton binding of phytate in KNO{sub 3(aq)} at different temperatures and ionic strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretti, Clemente; De Stefano, Concetta, E-mail:; Lando, Gabriele; Sammartano, Silvio


    Highlights: • Protonation data were modeled in a wide range of temperatures and ionic strengths. • Protonation values decrease with increasing ionic strength and temperature. • In KNO{sub 3} proton binding process is slightly exothermic, but less than in NaCl. • The major contribution for the proton association is entropic in nature. • Results are in agreement with previous findings for KCl and NaCl. - Abstract: Potentiometric measurements were performed in KNO{sub 3(aq)}, to determine the apparent protonation constants of phytate at different temperatures (278.15 ≤ T (K) ≤ 323.15) and ionic strengths (0.25 ≤ I (mol) dm{sup −3} ≤ 3.0) values. In general, the protonation constants decrease with increasing both temperature and ionic strength. The data reported were critically compared with previous results obtained in KCl and the values are in a good agreement, considering the experimental errors and slight differences between the activity coefficients of the various species in KCl and KNO{sub 3}. Experimental data were then modeled as a function of temperature and ionic strength using, with comparable results, two approaches: the extended Debye–Hückel equation and the specific ion interaction theory (SIT). The single specific ion interaction coefficients, ε, were also determined. The corresponding values are higher than those in Na{sup +} media. The protonation constants were also analyzed considering a simplified weak interaction model using an empirical equation that contains an additional term which takes into account the formation of weak complexes. The results obtained for the modeling of the protonation constants are in agreement with the literature findings. Thermodynamic protonation parameters were also obtained at different temperatures and ionic strengths. The proton association process is slightly exothermic and the enthalpic contribution is less negative than that in NaCl solution. As observed in other cases for phytate anion, the

  16. An ignored variable: solution preparation temperature in protein crystallization. (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Qing; Lu, Qin-Qin; Cheng, Qing-Di; Ao, Liang-Bo; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Hou, Hai; Liu, Yong-Ming; Li, Da-Wei; Yin, Da-Chuan


    Protein crystallization is affected by many parameters, among which certain parameters have not been well controlled. The temperature at which the protein and precipitant solutions are mixed (i.e., the ambient temperature during mixing) is such a parameter that is typically not well controlled and is often ignored. In this paper, we show that this temperature can influence protein crystallization. The experimental results showed that both higher and lower mixing temperatures can enhance the success of crystallization, which follows a parabolic curve with an increasing ambient temperature. This work illustrates that the crystallization solution preparation temperature is also an important parameter for protein crystallization. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled room temperature may yield poor reproducibility in protein crystallization.

  17. Toward a dynamic-thermodynamic assimilation of satellite surface temperature in numerical atmospheric models (United States)

    Mcnider, Richard T.; Song, Aaron J.; Casey, Daniel M.; Wetzel, Peter J.; Crosson, William L.; Rabin, Robert M.


    An assimilation technique is described in which satellite-observed surface skin temperature tendencies are used in a model surface energy budget so that the predicted rate of temperature change in the model more closely agrees with the satellite observations. Both visible and infrared GOES satellite data are used in the assimilation. The technique is based on analytically recovering surface moisture from similarity expressions derived from an evapotranspiration residual obtained as a difference between the unadjusted model evapotranspiration and the satellite-inferred evapotranspiration. The technique has application in regional-scale models where surface parameters such as root zone moisture, soil moisture, etc., are unknown. It is assumed that the largest error in the surface energy budget is in the evapotranspiration term. Two tests are given for the technique, first, a one-dimensional test against FIFE data and, second, a three-dimensional test over Oklahoma. In these cases the technique appears to correctly adjust the model response to agree better with observations.

  18. Thermodynamic Properties, Sorption Isotherms and Glass Transition Temperature of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica López


    Full Text Available Adsorption and desorption isotherms of fresh and dried Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. were determined at three temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C using a gravimetric technique. The data obtained were fitted to several models including Guggenheim-Anderson- De Boer (GAB, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, Henderson, Caurie, Smith, Oswin, Halsey and Iglesias-Chirife. A non-linear least square regression analysis was used to evaluate the models. The Iglesias-Chirife model fitted best the experimental data. Isosteric heat of sorption was also determined from the equilibrium sorption data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and was found to decrease exponentially with increasing moisture content. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to the sorption isotherms and indicated an enthalpy-controlled sorption process. Glass transition temperature (Tg of Cape gooseberry was also determined by differential scanning calorimetry and modelled as a function of moisture content with the Gordon-Taylor, the Roos and the Khalloufi models, which proved to be excellent tools for predicting glass transition of Cape gooseberry.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Thermodynamics of the Reaction of Titania and Water at High Temperatures (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynhgiao N.; Myers, Dwight L.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Opila, Elizabeth J.


    The transpiration method was used to determine the volatility of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in water vapor-containing environments at temperatures between 1473 and 1673 K. Water contents ranged from 0 to 76 mole % in oxygen or argon carrier gases for 20 to 250 hr exposure times. Results indicate that oxygen is not a key contributor to volatilization and the primary reaction for volatilization in this temperature range is: TiO2(s) + H2O(g) = TiO(OH)2(g). Data were analyzed with both the second and third law methods to extract an enthalpy and entropy of formation. The geometry and vibrational frequencies of TiO(OH)2(g) were computed using B3LYP density functional theory, and the enthalpy of formation was computed using the coupled-cluster singles and doubles method with a perturbative correction for connected triple substitutions [CCSD(T)]. Thermal functions are calculated using both a structure with bent and linear hydroxyl groups. Calculated second and third heats show closer agreement with the linear hydroxyl group, suggesting more experimental and computational spectroscopic and structural work is needed on this system.

  20. Thermodynamic and transport properties of some biologically active compounds in aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhondge, Sudhakar S., E-mail: [P.G. Department of Chemistry, S.K. Porwal College, Kamptee, Nagpur 441 002 (India); Zodape, Sangesh P.; Parwate, Dilip V. [Department of Chemistry, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440 033 (India)


    The experimental data of density and viscosity have been obtained for aqueous solutions of biologically active compounds like salbutamol sulphate (SS), diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in the concentration range (0 to 0.15) mol . kg{sup -1} at three different temperatures. The derived parameters, such as apparent molar volume of solute ({phi}{sub V})), limiting apparent molar volume of solute ({phi}{sub V}{sup 0}), limiting apparent molar expansivity ({phi}{sub E}{sup 0}), thermal expansion coefficient ({alpha}*) and Jones-Dole equation viscosity A and B coefficients, were obtained using the density and viscosity results. It has been observed that the electrolyte-salt (SS) as well as adducts exhibit a positive viscosity B coefficient having negative ((dB)/(dT)). These results are interpreted in the light of possible solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  1. Joint profiling of greenhouse gases, isotopes, thermodynamic variables, and wind from space by combined microwave and IR laser occultation: the ACCURATE concept (United States)

    Kirchengast, G.; Schweitzer, S.


    The ACCURATE (Atmospheric Climate and Chemistry in the UTLS Region And climate Trends Explorer) mission was conceived at the Wegener Center in late 2004 and subsequently proposed in 2005 by an international team of more than 20 scientific partners from more than 12 countries to an ESA selection process for next Earth Explorer Missions. While the mission was not selected for formal pre-phase A study, it received very positive evaluation and was recommended for further development and demonstration. ACCURATE employs the occultation measurement principle, known for its unique combination of high vertical resolution, accuracy and long-term stability, in a novel way. It systematically combines use of highly stable signals in the MW 17-23/178-196 GHz bands (LEO-LEO MW crosslink occultation) with laser signals in the SWIR 2-2.5 μm band (LEO-LEO IR laser crosslink occultation) for exploring and monitoring climate and chemistry in the atmosphere with focus on the UTLS region (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, 5-35 km). The MW occultation is an advanced and at the same time compact version of the LEO-LEO MW occultation concept, studied in 2002-2004 for the ACE+ mission project of ESA for frequencies including the 17-23 GHz band, complemented by U.S. study heritage for frequencies including the 178-196 GHz bands (R. Kursinski et al., Univ. of Arizona, Tucson). The core of ACCURATE is tight synergy of the IR laser crosslinks with the MW crosslinks. The observed parameters, obtained simultaneously and in a self-calibrated manner based on Doppler shift and differential log-transmission profiles, comprise the fundamental thermodynamic variables of the atmosphere (temperature, pressure/geopotential height, humidity) retrieved from the MW bands, complemented by line-of-sight wind, six greenhouse gases (GHGs) and key species of UTLS chemistry (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO) and four CO2 and H2O isotopes (HDO, H218O, 13CO2, C18OO) from the SWIR band. Furthermore, profiles of

  2. Temperature variability and outbreak of meningitis and measles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of temperature on temporal variations of outbreak of meningitis and measles in Yola, Nigeria was examined. Data on monthly maximum temperature and reported cases of the two diseases for a period of 13 years were collected and analysed. The report shows that the reported cases of the two diseases are ...

  3. Variability in Rainfall, Temperature and Relative Humidity at Bahir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess change in rainfall, temperature and relative humidity at Bahir Dar city in relation to global climate change. The study focused on analyzing changes in meteorological data, specifically temperature, rainfall and relative humidity. Bahir Dar city was selected due to its proximity to Lake Tana ...

  4. A Thermodynamic Theory for Dense Silicate Liquids That Includes Explicit Provision for Variation in Composition and Fluid Structure, Derived From the Rosenfeld-Tarazona Potential Energy-Temperature Scaling Law (United States)

    Ghiorso, M. S.; Cutler, I.; Creamer, J. B.; Nevins, D.; Martin, G. B.; Spera, F. J.


    Rosenfeld and Tarazona (1998, Molecular Physics 95:141) derive an expression from a fundamental- measure energy functional for hard spheres and thermodynamic perturbation theory for the scaling of the potential energy (U) on temperature (T) in a dense classical liquid: U = a + bT3/5, where a and b are functions of volume (V). From this expression we have formulated a general theory of the thermodynamic properties of dense liquids, and have applied this theory successfully to both polymerized and depolymerized silicate melts over the temperature range 2000-6000 K and at pressures (P) up to 130 GPa, using data from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of molten MgSiO3, Mg2SiO4, CaMgSi2O6, and CaAl2Si2O8. In this work we extend the thermodynamic treatment to account for the compositional variability of multicomponent liquids and to deal with the mixing of melt species characterized by both composition and distinct cation-oxygen coordination number (CO-CN). We posit that the relation V = Σ Vi Xi holds, where Xi is the mole fraction of an endmember component with a particular CO-CN and Vi is the volume of that species; note that Vi is only a function of T and P, and that the posited relation embodies the concept of ideal volume-mixing of melt species. In combination with Rosenfeld-Tarazona theory, a self-consistent formalism for the solution thermodynamics is obtained, and in particular the equilibrium distribution of species of fixed stoichiometry but variable CO-CN is determined from the condition of homogeneous equilibrium. The resulting thermodynamic model must be calibrated from data documenting both the variation in macroscopic properties (U, V) as well as structural characteristics (CO-CN) of liquids as a function of T and P. We demonstrate application of the theory to a set of MD simulation data on MgSiO3 liquid. Unique measures of structural variation are explored for this and other MD data sets to ascertain an optimal set of endmember species that should be

  5. Development of a new test method of high temperature corrosion in gas turbines based on thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenet, B.; Bossmann, H.P. [ALSTOM (Switzerland) Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)


    The hot corrosion risk in stationary gas turbines is re-evaluated for the new material combinations and the changed fuel quality. Hot corrosion can only be induced, if the condensation of corrosive species, e.g. sulphates, is possible. The risk of sulphate-induced hot corrosion is directly dependent on the total amount of impurities in the hot gas and the pressure. The evaluation of the risk is done based on thermodynamic modelling of the dew point of the corrosive salts. Based on the theoretical approach a laboratory corrosion test was designed. The test method is based on a salt-spraying test. The exposure is performed in dry air with 300vppm SO{sub 2} and 10vol% H{sub 2}O, with the main test temperatures 700 C and 850 C. The hot corrosion behaviour of three base materials, IN738, CM247 and CMSX-4, and the NiCrAlY-coating SV20 were investigated with the new test method. IN738 exhibited the best corrosion resistance of the base materials, but was also attacked after 500h. The base materials, especially CM247 and CMSX-4, have to be protected by an oxidation- and corrosion-resistant overlay coating in a corrosive environment. They can only be used without a protective coating, when a clean environment can be guaranteed. SV20 has exhibited an excellent corrosion resistance with negligible degradation after 1000 h at 700 and 850 C. (orig.)

  6. Seasonal variability in Arctic temperatures during the early Eocene (United States)

    Eberle, J. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, H.


    As a deep time analog for today’s rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (~53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (~79° N.) preserve evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions that at present, quantitative estimates of Eocene Arctic climate are rare. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we provide estimates of early Eocene Arctic temperature, including mean annual temperature (MAT) of ~ 8° C, mean annual range in temperature (MART) of ~ 16.5° C, warm month mean temperature (WMMT) of 16 - 19° C, and cold month mean temperature (CMMT) of 0 - 1° C. Our seasonal range in temperature is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, unusually high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and sea surface temperature (SST) by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and marine Crenarchaeota fall within our range of WMMT, suggesting a bias towards summer values. Consequently, caution should be taken when using these methods to infer MAT and SST that, in turn, are used to constrain climate models. From a paleontologic perspective, our temperature estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round temperatures. Although in both of these reptiles, past temperature tolerances were greater than in their living descendants.

  7. Seasonal variability in Arctic temperatures during early Eocene time (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J.; Fricke, Henry C.; Humphrey, John D.; Hackett, Logan; Newbrey, Michael G.; Hutchison, J. Howard


    As a deep time analog for today's rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (52-53 Ma) rock on Ellesmere Island in Canada's High Arctic (˜ 79°N.) preserves evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions than at present, the quantification of Eocene Arctic climate has been more elusive. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we infer early Eocene Arctic temperatures, including mean annual temperature (MAT) of ˜ 8 °C, mean annual range in temperature of ˜ 16.5-19 °C, warm month mean temperature of 19-20 °C, and cold month mean temperature of 0-3.5 °C. Our seasonal range in temperature is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, relatively high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and SST by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and isoprenoid tetraether lipids in marine Crenarchaeota fall close to our warm month temperature, suggesting a bias towards summer values. From a paleontologic perspective, our temperature estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round temperatures. Although for both of these reptilian groups, past temperature tolerances probably were greater than in living descendants.

  8. Constraints from the CMB temperature and other common observational data sets on variable dark energy density models (United States)

    Jetzer, Philippe; Tortora, Crescenzo


    The thermodynamic and dynamical properties of a variable dark energy model with density scaling as ρx∝(1+z)m, z being the redshift, are discussed following the outline of Jetzer et al. [P. Jetzer, D. Puy, M. Signore, and C. Tortora, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 43, 1083 (2011).GRGVA80001-770110.1007/s10714-010-1091-4]. These kinds of models are proven to lead to the creation/disruption of matter and radiation, which affect the cosmic evolution of both matter and radiation components in the Universe. In particular, we have concentrated on the temperature-redshift relation of radiation, which has been constrained using a very recent collection of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature measurements up to z˜3. For the first time, we have combined this observational probe with a set of independent measurements (Supernovae Ia distance moduli, CMB anisotropy, large-scale structure and observational data for the Hubble parameter), which are commonly adopted to constrain dark energy models. We find that, within the uncertainties, the model is indistinguishable from a cosmological constant which does not exchange any particles with other components. Anyway, while temperature measurements and Supernovae Ia tend to predict slightly decaying models, the contrary happens if CMB data are included. Future observations, in particular, measurements of CMB temperature at large redshift, will allow to give firmer bounds on the effective equation of state parameter weff of this kind of dark energy model.

  9. Core-temperature sensor ingestion timing and measurement variability. (United States)

    Domitrovich, Joseph W; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C


    Telemetric core-temperature monitoring is becoming more widely used as a noninvasive means of monitoring core temperature during athletic events. To determine the effects of sensor ingestion timing on serial measures of core temperature during continuous exercise. Crossover study. Outdoor dirt track at an average ambient temperature of 4.4°C ± 4.1°C and relative humidity of 74.1% ± 11.0%. Seven healthy, active participants (3 men, 4 women; age  =  27.0 ± 7.5 years, height  =  172.9 ± 6.8 cm, body mass  =  67.5 ± 6.1 kg, percentage body fat  =  12.7% ± 6.9%, peak oxygen uptake [Vo(2peak)]  =  54.4 ± 6.9 mL•kg⁻¹•min⁻¹) completed the study. Participants completed a 45-minute exercise trial at approximately 70% Vo(2peak). They consumed core-temperature sensors at 24 hours (P1) and 40 minutes (P2) before exercise. Core temperature was recorded continuously (1-minute intervals) using a wireless data logger worn by the participants. All data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (trial × time), Pearson product moment correlation, and Bland-Altman plot. Fifteen comparisons were made between P1 and P2. The main effect of time indicated an increase in core temperature compared with the initial temperature. However, we did not find a main effect for trial or a trial × time interaction, indicating no differences in core temperature between the sensors (P1  =  38.3°C ± 0.2°C, P2  =  38.3°C ± 0.4°C). We found no differences in the temperature recordings between the 2 sensors. These results suggest that assumed sensor location (upper or lower gastrointestinal tract) does not appreciably alter the transmission of reliable and repeatable measures of core temperature during continuous running in the cold.

  10. Thermodynamics of Bioreactions. (United States)

    Held, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele


    Thermodynamic principles have been applied to enzyme-catalyzed reactions since the beginning of the 1930s in an attempt to understand metabolic pathways. Currently, thermodynamics is also applied to the design and analysis of biotechnological processes. The key thermodynamic quantity is the Gibbs energy of reaction, which must be negative for a reaction to occur spontaneously. However, the application of thermodynamic feasibility studies sometimes yields positive Gibbs energies of reaction even for reactions that are known to occur spontaneously, such as glycolysis. This article reviews the application of thermodynamics in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. It summarizes the basic thermodynamic relationships used for describing the Gibbs energy of reaction and also refers to the nonuniform application of these relationships in the literature. The review summarizes state-of-the-art approaches that describe the influence of temperature, pH, electrolytes, solvents, and concentrations of reacting agents on the Gibbs energy of reaction and, therefore, on the feasibility and yield of biological reactions.

  11. Ambient temperature effect on pulse rate variability as an alternative to heart rate variability in young adult. (United States)

    Shin, Hangsik


    Pulse rate variability (PRV) is a promising physiological and analytic technique used as a substitute for heart rate variability (HRV). PRV is measured by pulse wave from various devices including mobile and wearable devices but HRV is only measured by an electrocardiogram (ECG). The purpose of this study was to evaluate PRV and HRV at various ambient temperatures and elaborate on the interchangeability of PRV and HRV. Twenty-eight healthy young subjects were enrolled in the experiment. We prepared temperature-controlled rooms and recorded the ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG) under temperature-controlled, constant humidity conditions. The rooms were kept at 17, 25, and 38 °C as low, moderate, and high ambient temperature environments, respectively. HRV and PRV were derived from the synchronized ECG and PPG measures and they were studied in time and frequency domain analysis for PRV/HRV ratio and pulse transit time (PTT). Similarity and differences between HRV and PRV were determined by a statistical analysis. PRV/HRV ratio analysis revealed that there was a significant difference between HRV and PRV for a given ambient temperature; this was with short-term variability measures such as SDNN SDSD or RMSSD, and HF-based variables including HF, LF/HF and normalized HF. In our analysis the absolute value of PTT was not significantly influenced by temperature. Standard deviation of PTT, however, showed significant difference not only between low and moderate temperatures but also between low and high temperatures. Our results suggest that ambient temperature induces a significant difference in PRV compared to HRV and that the difference becomes greater at a higher ambient temperature.

  12. Entropy Generation of Desalination Powered by Variable Temperature Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Warsinger


    Full Text Available Powering desalination by waste heat is often proposed to mitigate energy consumption and environmental impact; however, thorough technology comparisons are lacking in the literature. This work numerically models the efficiency of six representative desalination technologies powered by waste heat at 50, 70, 90, and 120 °C, where applicable. Entropy generation and Second Law efficiency analysis are applied for the systems and their components. The technologies considered are thermal desalination by multistage flash (MSF, multiple effect distillation (MED, multistage vacuum membrane distillation (MSVMD, humidification-dehumidification (HDH, and organic Rankine cycles (ORCs paired with mechanical technologies of reverse osmosis (RO and mechanical vapor compression (MVC. The most efficient technology was RO, followed by MED. Performances among MSF, MSVMD, and MVC were similar but the relative performance varied with waste heat temperature or system size. Entropy generation in thermal technologies increases at lower waste heat temperatures largely in the feed or brine portions of the various heat exchangers used. This occurs largely because lower temperatures reduce recovery, increasing the relative flow rates of feed and brine. However, HDH (without extractions had the reverse trend, only being competitive at lower temperatures. For the mechanical technologies, the energy efficiency only varies with temperature because of the significant losses from the ORC.

  13. Phantom thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Sigueenza, Carmen L. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    This paper deals with the thermodynamic properties of a phantom field in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. General expressions for the temperature and entropy of a general dark-energy field with equation of state p={omega}{rho} are derived from which we have deduced that, whereas the temperature of a cosmic phantom fluid ({omega}-1) is definite negative, its entropy is always positive. We interpret that result in terms of the intrinsic quantum nature of the phantom field and apply it to (i) attain a consistent explanation for some recent results concerning the evolution of black holes which,induced by accreting phantom energy, gradually loss their mass to finally vanish exactly at the big rip, and (ii) introduce the concept of cosmological information and its relation with life and the anthropic principle. Some quantum statistical-thermodynamic properties of the quantum field are also considered that include a generalized Wien law and the prediction of some novel phenomena such as the stimulated absorption of phantom energy and the anti-laser effect.

  14. Surface air temperature variability in global climate models

    CERN Document Server

    Davy, Richard


    New results from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and multiple global reanalysis datasets are used to investigate the relationship between the mean and standard deviation in the surface air temperature. A combination of a land-sea mask and orographic filter were used to investigate the geographic region with the strongest correlation and in all cases this was found to be for low-lying over-land locations. This result is consistent with the expectation that differences in the effective heat capacity of the atmosphere are an important factor in determining the surface air temperature response to forcing.

  15. Zirconium-cerin solid solutions: thermodynamic model and thermal stability at high temperature; Solutions solides de zirconium dans la cerine: modele thermodynamique et stabilite thermique a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janvier, C.


    The oxides-gaseous dioxygen equilibria and the textural thermal stability of six zirconium-cerin solutions Ce{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 2} (0thermodynamic model where the point defects of solutions are included describe them the best. It becomes then possible to know the variations of the concentrations of the point defects in terms of temperature, oxygen pressure and zirconium concentration. A kinetic study (by calcination at 950 degrees Celsius of the solid solutions) of the specific surface area decrease has revealed a minima (0

  16. Variability of air temperature over a debris-covered glacier in the Nepalese Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, J.; Pellicciotti, F.


    Estimates of melt from debris-covered glaciers require distributed estimates of meteorological variables and air temperature in particular. Meteorological data are scarce for this environment, and spatial variability of temperature over debris is poorly understood. Based on multiple measurements of

  17. Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Neindre, B Le


    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio

  18. A Study of Horizontal Sea Surface Temperature Variability. (United States)


    INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND The study of ocean characteristics has long been of interest to men of the sea. Early mariners were the first to discover that...Surface Temperature, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 864-870. Federov, K.N., 1978: The Thermohaline Finestructure of the Ocean, Pergamon Press. Fieux, M., S

  19. Lithology and temperature: How key mantle variables control rift volcanism (United States)

    Shorttle, O.; Hoggard, M.; Matthews, S.; Maclennan, J.


    Continental rifting is often associated with extensive magmatic activity, emplacing millions of cubic kilometres of basalt and triggering environmental change. The lasting geological record of this volcanic catastrophism are the large igneous provinces found at the margins of many continents and abrupt extinctions in the fossil record, most strikingly that found at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Rather than being considered purely a passive plate tectonic phenomenon, these episodes are frequently explained by the involvement of mantle plumes, upwellings of mantle rock made buoyant by their high temperatures. However, there has been debate over the relative role of the mantle's temperature and composition in generating the large volumes of magma involved in rift and intra-plate volcanism, and even when the mantle is inferred to be hot, this has been variously attributed to mantle plumes or continental insulation effects. To help resolve these uncertainties we have combined geochemical, geophysical and modelling results in a two stage approach: Firstly, we have investigated how mantle composition and temperature contribute to melting beneath Iceland, the present day manifestation of the mantle plume implicated in the 54Ma break up of the North Atlantic. By considering both the igneous crustal production on Iceland and the chemistry of its basalts we have been able to place stringent constraints on the viable temperature and lithology of the Icelandic mantle. Although a >100°C excess temperature is required to generate Iceland's thick igneous crust, geochemistry also indicates that pyroxenite comprises 10% of its source. Therefore, the dynamics of rifting on Iceland are modulated both by thermal and compositional mantle anomalies. Secondly, we have performed a global assessment of the mantle's post break-up thermal history to determine the amplitude and longevity of continental insulation in driving excess volcanism. Using seismically constrained igneous crustal

  20. Understanding Farmers’ Perceptions and Adaptations to Precipitation and Temperature Variability: Evidence from Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari


    Full Text Available Precipitation and temperature variability present significant agricultural risks worldwide. Northern Iran’s agriculture mainly depends on paddy fields, which are directly affected by precipitation and temperature variability. The main aim of this study is to explore farmers’ attitudes towards precipitation and temperature variability and their adaptation strategies in paddy fields in a typical agricultural province in northern Iran. Primary survey data were collected from a sample of 382 paddy farmers of Rasht County in Guilan Province. Data have been analyzed using both summary statistics and bivariate analysis (Pearson, Spearman, and Eta correlation coefficients. Empirical findings reveal that most paddy farmers had experienced precipitation and temperature variability and were taking measures to reduce its negative impacts on their crops. Results also indicate that farm size and household income influence farmers’ perception to precipitation and temperature variability, while availability of water resources also influence farmers’ adaptation decisions.

  1. Thermodynamical and technological assessment for short thermodynamical cycle for hydrogen production. Examples of the high temperature iron oxide and cerium chloride cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemort, F.; Lafon, C. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique (CEA), Rhone Valley Research Center BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Charvin, P.; Abanades, S. [PROMES-CNRS-UPR 8521 BP5 Odeillo 66120 Font Romeu Cedex (France)


    Some investigations have pointed out that the physicochemical properties of the reactants involved in a thermodynamical cycle could make the running of an industrial process very difficult. For instance, the sintering of the solid, the possible reactivity of the embedding matrix,... induce additional operation and then lower very sensibly the efficiency of the cycle. Furthermore, if the toxicity of the reactants is taken into consideration, the attractiveness of this cycle decreases. If other considerations than the efficiency are taken into consideration, it is possible to investigate short cycles involving no more than three chemical steps. The present paper shows the first results obtained from the studies carried out on this kind of cycle that has either medium efficiency but involving inoffensive reactants or higher efficiency but involving more toxic reactants such as chlorides but even so acceptable. In the first case illustrated by the iron oxide cycle, it seems that the medium efficiency can be partially offset by using abundant and inexpensive energy source. Furthermore the experimental investigations have demonstrated the possibility to find a way making the running of the cycle easier. In the second one illustrated by the cerium chloride cycle, the significant industrial experience regarding the chemical engineering of the chloride could make the industrial development easier. In this case, a primary flow sheet has been proposed. (authors)

  2. Correlations for determining thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-helium gas mixtures at temperatures from 7,000 to 35,000 K (United States)

    Zoby, E. V.; Gnoffo, P. A.; Graves, R. A., Jr.


    Simple relations for determining the enthalpy and temperature of hydrogen-helium gas mixtures were developed for hydrogen volumetric compositions from 1.0 to 0.7. These relations are expressed as a function of pressure and density and are valid for a range of temperatures from 7,000 to 35,000 K and pressures from 0.10 to 3.14 MPa. The proportionality constant and exponents in the correlation equations were determined for each gas composition by applying a linear least squares curve fit to a large number of thermodynamic calculations obtained from a detailed computer code. Although these simple relations yielded thermodynamic properties suitable for many engineering applications, their accuracy was improved significantly by evaluating the proportionality constants at postshock conditions and correlating these values as a function of the gas composition and the product of freestream velocity and shock angle. The resulting equations for the proportionality constants in terms of velocity and gas composition and the corresponding simple realtions for enthalpy and temperature were incorporated into a flow field computational scheme. Comparison was good between the thermodynamic properties determined from these relations and those obtained by using a detailed computer code to determine the properties. Thus, an appreciable savings in computer time was realized with no significant loss in accuracy.

  3. Thermodynamic properties and equation of state of liquid di-isodecyl phthalate at temperature between (273 and 423) K and at pressures up to 140 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peleties, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Trusler, J.P.M., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Vega-Maza, D. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    We report measurements of the thermodynamic properties of liquid di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and an equation of state determined therefrom. The speed of sound in DIDP was measured at temperatures between (293.15 and 413.15) K and a pressures between (0.1 and 140) MPa with a relative uncertainty of 0.1%. In addition, the isobaric specific heat capacity was measured at temperatures between (293.15 and 423.15) K at a pressure of 0.1 MPa with a relative uncertainty of 1%, and the density was measured at temperatures between (273.15 and 413.15) K at a pressure of 0.1 MPa with a relative uncertainty of 0.015%. The thermodynamic properties of DIDP were obtained from the measured speeds of sound by thermodynamic integration starting from the initial values of density and isobaric specific heat capacity obtained experimentally. The results have been represented by a new equation of state containing nine parameters with an uncertainty in density not worse than 0.025%. Comparisons with literature data are made.

  4. Thermodynamic description of the Al-Mg-Si system using a new formulation for the temperature dependence of the excess Gibbs energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Du, Yong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation (ICAMS), Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Stiepeler Str. 129, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Yuan, Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Kaptay, George [Department of Nanotechnology, University of Miskolc, H-3515 Miskolc, Egyetemvaros E/7 - 606 (Hungary); Department of Nano-materials, BAY-LOGI Research Institute, H-3515 Miskolc, Egyetemvaros E/7 - 606 (Hungary)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An exponential formulation to describe ternary excess Gibbs energy is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical analysis is performed to verify stability of phase using new formulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Mg-Si system and its boundary binaries have been assessed by the new formulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Present calculations for Al-Mg-Si system are more reasonable than previous ones. - Abstract: An exponential formulation was proposed to replace the linear interaction parameter in the Redlich-Kister (R-K) polynomial for the excess Gibbs energy of ternary solution phase. The theoretical analysis indicates that the proposed new exponential formulation can not only avoid the artificial miscibility gap at high temperatures but also describe the ternary system well. A thermodynamic description for the Al-Mg-Si system and its boundary binaries was then performed by using both R-K linear and exponential formulations. The inverted miscibility gaps occurring in the Mg-Si and the Al-Mg-Si systems at high temperatures due to the use of R-K linear polynomials are avoided by using the new formulation. Besides, the thermodynamic properties predicted with the new formulation confirm the general thermodynamic belief that the solution phase approaches to the ideal solution at infinite temperatures, which cannot be described with the traditional R-K linear polynomials.

  5. Computational Thermodynamic Modeling of Hot Corrosion of Alloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N for Molten Salt Service in Advanced High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Glazoff, Michael; Charit, Indrajt; Sabharwall, Piyush


    An evaluation of thermodynamic aspects of hot corrosion of the superalloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N in the eutectic mixtures of KF and ZrF4 is carried out for development of Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). This work models the behavior of several superalloys, potential candidates for the AHTR, using computational thermodynamics tool (ThermoCalc), leading to the development of thermodynamic description of the molten salt eutectic mixtures, and on that basis, mechanistic prediction of hot corrosion. The results from these studies indicated that the principal mechanism of hot corrosion was associated with chromium leaching for all of the superalloys described above. However, HastelloyTM N displayed the best hot corrosion performance. This was not surprising given it was developed originally to withstand the harsh conditions of molten salt environment. However, the results obtained in this study provided confidence in the employed methods of computational thermodynamics and could be further used for future alloy design efforts. Finally, several potential solutions to mitigate hot corrosion were proposed for further exploration, including coating development and controlled scaling of intermediate compounds in the KF-ZrF4 system.

  6. Rapid determination of thermodynamic parameters from one-dimensional programmed-temperature gas chromatography for use in retention time prediction in comprehensive multidimensional chromatography. (United States)

    McGinitie, Teague M; Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Harynuk, James J


    A new method for estimating the thermodynamic parameters of ΔH(T0), ΔS(T0), and ΔCP for use in thermodynamic modeling of GC×GC separations has been developed. The method is an alternative to the traditional isothermal separations required to fit a three-parameter thermodynamic model to retention data. Herein, a non-linear optimization technique is used to estimate the parameters from a series of temperature-programmed separations using the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. With this method, the time required to obtain estimates of thermodynamic parameters a series of analytes is significantly reduced. This new method allows for precise predictions of retention time with the average error being only 0.2s for 1D separations. Predictions for GC×GC separations were also in agreement with experimental measurements; having an average relative error of 0.37% for (1)tr and 2.1% for (2)tr. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Variable-temperature NMR and conformational analysis of Oenothein B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Suzana C.; Carvalho, Ariadne G.; Fortes, Gilmara A.C.; Ferri, Pedro H.; Oliveira, Anselmo E. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica


    Oenothein B is a dimeric hydrolyzable tannin with a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumour, anti-inflammatory and antiviral. Its nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at room temperature show duplications and broadening of signals. Experiments of 1D and 2D NMR at lower temperatures were useful for the complete NMR assignments of all hydrogens and carbons. The 3D structure of the most stable conformer was determined for the first time by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiment (-20 deg C) and density functional theory (DFT)(B3LYP/6-31G)/ polarizable continuum model (PCM) quantum chemical calculations. The favoured conformation showed a highly compacted geometry and a lack of symmetry, in which the two valoneoyl groups showed distinct conformational parameters and stabilities. (author)

  8. AIRS observations of seasonal variability in meridional temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Correlation coefficient (xy) between OLR and temperature is computed latitudinally (3.5° to 20.5°N) at different longitudes and during JJAS (monsoon months), xy is negative (∼−0.73) over 60° and 70°E longitudes, but it turns positive (∼0.92) over 80° and 90°E longitudes (which is convectively active region), suggesting ...

  9. [Effects of variable temperature on organic carbon mineralization in typical limestone soils]. (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Ge; Gao, Yan-Hong; Ding, Chang-Huan; Ci, En; Xie, De-Ti


    Soil sampling in the field and incubation experiment in the laboratory were conducted to investigate the responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization to variable temperature regimes in the topsoil of limestone soils from forest land and dry land. Two incubated limestone soils were sampled from the 0-10 cm layers of typical forest land and dry land respectively, which were distributed in Tianlong Mountain area of Puding county, Guizhou province. The soils were incubated for 56 d under two different temperature regimes including variable temperature (range: 15-25 degrees C, interval: 12 h) and constant temperature (20 degrees C), and the cumulative temperature was the same in the two temperature treatments. In the entire incubation period (56 d), the SOC cumulative mineralization (63.32 mg x kg(-1)) in the limestone soil from dry land (SH) under the variable temperature was lower than that (63.96 mg x kg(-1)) at constant 20 degrees C, and there was no significant difference in the SOC cumulative mineralization between the variable and constant temperature treatments (P variable temperature was significantly lower than that (209.52 mg x kg(-1)) at constant 20 degrees C. The results indicated that the responses of SOC mineralization to the variable temperature were obviously different between SL and SH soils. The SOC content and composition were significantly different between SL and SH soils affected by vegetation and land use type, which suggested that SOC content and composition were important factors causing the different responses of SOC mineralization to variable temperature between SL and SH soils. In addition, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of two limestone soils were highly (P variable temperature mainly influenced SOC mineralization by changing microbial community activity rather than by changing microbial quantity.

  10. Observed trends in the magnitude and persistence of monthly temperature variability. (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M; Dakos, Vasilis; Bathiany, Sebastian; Scheffer, Marten


    Climate variability is critically important for nature and society, especially if it increases in amplitude and/or fluctuations become more persistent. However, the issues of whether climate variability is changing, and if so, whether this is due to anthropogenic forcing, are subjects of ongoing debate. Increases in the amplitude and persistence of temperature fluctuations have been detected in some regions, e.g. the North Pacific, but there is no agreed global signal. Here we systematically scan monthly surface temperature indices and spatial datasets to look for trends in variance and autocorrelation (persistence). We show that monthly temperature variability and autocorrelation increased over 1957-2002 across large parts of the North Pacific, North Atlantic, North America and the Mediterranean. Furthermore, (multi)decadal internal climate variability appears to influence trends in monthly temperature variability and autocorrelation. Historically-forced climate models do not reproduce the observed trends in temperature variance and autocorrelation, consistent with the models poorly capturing (multi)decadal internal climate variability. Based on a review of established spatial correlations and corresponding mechanistic 'teleconnections' we hypothesise that observed slowing down of sea surface temperature variability contributed to observed increases in land temperature variability and autocorrelation, which in turn contributed to persistent droughts in North America and the Mediterranean.

  11. Sensitivity of soil respiration to variability in soil moisture and temperature in a humid tropical forest (United States)

    Tana Wood; M. Detto; W.L. Silver


    Precipitation and temperature are important drivers of soil respiration. The role of moisture and temperature are generally explored at seasonal or inter-annual timescales; however, significant variability also occurs on hourly to daily time-scales. We used small (1.54 m2), throughfall exclusion shelters to evaluate the role soil moisture and temperature as temporal...

  12. A new general method for simultaneous fitting of temperature and concentration dependence of reaction rates yields kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for HIV reverse transcriptase specificity. (United States)

    Li, An; Ziehr, Jessica L; Johnson, Kenneth A


    Recent studies have demonstrated the dominant role of induced fit in enzyme specificity of HIV reverse transcriptase and many other enzymes. However, relevant thermodynamic parameters are lacking, and equilibrium thermodynamic methods are of no avail because the key parameters can only be determined by kinetic measurement. By modifying KinTek Explorer software, we present a new general method for globally fitting data collected over a range of substrate concentrations and temperatures and apply it to HIV reverse transcriptase. Fluorescence stopped-flow methods were used to record the kinetics of enzyme conformational changes that monitor nucleotide binding and incorporation. The nucleotide concentration dependence was measured at temperatures ranging from 5 to 37 °C, and the raw data were fit globally to derive a single set of rate constants at 37 °C and a set of activation enthalpy terms to account for the kinetics at all other temperatures. This comprehensive analysis afforded thermodynamic parameters for nucleotide binding ( K d , Δ G , Δ H , and Δ S at 37 °C) and kinetic parameters for enzyme conformational changes and chemistry (rate constants and activation enthalpy). Comparisons between wild-type enzyme and a mutant resistant to nucleoside analogs used to treat HIV infections reveal that the ground state binding is weaker and the activation enthalpy for the conformational change step is significantly larger for the mutant. Further studies to explore the structural underpinnings of the observed thermodynamics and kinetics of the conformational change step may help to design better analogs to treat HIV infections and other diseases. Our new method is generally applicable to enzyme and chemical kinetics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Thermodynamic Analysis about Nucleation and Growth of Cubic Boron Nitride Crystals in the hBN-Li3N System under High Pressure and High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei Guo


    Full Text Available The nucleation of cubic boron nitride (cBN single crystals synthesized with lithium nitride (Li3N as a catalyst under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT was analyzed. Many nanometer-sized cubic boron nitride nuclei formed in the near surface layer, as detected by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Based on the experiment results, the transformation kinetics is described by a nucleation and growth process in the thermodynamic stability region of cBN. A theoretical description is developed based on the heterogeneous nucleation and layer growth mechanism, and the relevant parameters are estimated and discussed. The critical crystal radius, r*, increases with the temperature under constant pressure; the change with temperature more pronounced at lower pressure (such as 4.5 GPa. The crystal growth velocity increased with the temperature, and it is parabolic with temperature under certain pressure. These results are consistent with experimental data.

  14. How similar are annual and summer temperature variability in central Sweden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang


    Full Text Available Tree-ring based temperature reconstructions have successfully inferred the past inter-annual to millennium scales summer temperature variability. A clear relationship between annual and summer temperatures can provide insights into the variability of past annual mean temperature from the reconstructed summer temperature. However, how similar are summer and annual temperatures is to a large extent still unknown. This study aims at investigating the relationship between annual and summer temperatures at different timescales in central Sweden during the last millennium. The temperature variability in central Sweden can represent large parts of Scandinavia which has been a key region for dendroclimatological research. The observed annual and summer temperatures during 1901–2005 were firstly decomposed into different frequency bands using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD method, and then the scale-dependent relationship was quantified using Pearson correlation coefficients. The relationship between the observed annual and summer temperatures determined by the instrumental data was subsequently used to evaluate 7 climate models. The model with the best performance was used to infer the relationship for the last millennium. The results show that the relationship between the observed annual and summer temperatures becomes stronger as the timescale increases, except for the 4–16 years timescales at which it does not show any relationship. The summer temperature variability at short timescales (2–4 years shows much higher variance than the annual variability, while the annual temperature variability at long timescales (>32 years has a much higher variance than the summer one. During the last millennium, the simulated summer temperature also shows higher variance at the short timescales (2–4 years and lower variance at the long timescales (>1024 years than those of the annual temperature. The relationship between the two temperatures is

  15. Variability in Glycemic Control with Temperature Transitions during Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal K. Haase


    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH and continuous insulin may be at increased risk of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, particularly during temperature transitions. This study aimed to evaluate frequency of glucose excursions during each phase of TH and to characterize glycemic control patterns in relation to survival. Methods. Patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital for circulatory arrest and treated with both therapeutic hypothermia and protocol-based continuous insulin between January 2010 and June 2013 were included. Glucose measures, insulin, and temperatures were collected through 24 hours after rewarming. Results. 24 of 26 patients experienced glycemic excursions. Hyperglycemic excursions were more frequent during initiation versus remaining phases (36.3%, 4.3%, 2.5%, and 4.0%, p=0.002. Hypoglycemia occurred most often during rewarming (0%, 7.7%, 23.1%, and 3.8%, p=0.02. Patients who experienced hypoglycemia had higher insulin doses prior to rewarming (16.2 versus 2.1 units/hr, p=0.03. Glucose variation was highest during hypothermia and trended higher in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (13.38 versus 9.16, p=0.09. Frequency of excursions was also higher in nonsurvivors (32.3% versus 19.8%, p=0.045. Conclusions. Glycemic excursions are common and occur more often in nonsurvivors. Excursions differ by phase but risk of hypoglycemia is increased during rewarming.

  16. Tack Measurements of Prepreg Tape at Variable Temperature and Humidity (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher; Palmieri, Frank L.; Forghani, Alireza; Hickmott, Curtis; Bedayat, Houman; Coxon, Brian; Poursartip, Anoush; Grimsley, Brian


    NASA’s Advanced Composites Project has established the goal of achieving a 30 percent reduction in the timeline for certification of primary composite structures for application on commercial aircraft. Prepreg tack is one of several critical parameters affecting composite manufacturing by automated fiber placement (AFP). Tack plays a central role in the prevention of wrinkles and puckers that can occur during AFP, thus knowledge of tack variation arising from a myriad of manufacturing and environmental conditions is imperative for the prediction of defects during AFP. A full design of experiments was performed to experimentally characterize tack on 0.25-inch slit-tape tow IM7/8552-1 prepreg using probe tack testing. Several process parameters (contact force, contact time, retraction speed, and probe diameter) as well as environmental parameters (temperature and humidity) were varied such that the entire parameter space could be efficiently evaluated. Mid-point experimental conditions (i.e., parameters not at either extrema) were included to enable prediction of curvature in relationships and repeat measurements were performed to characterize experimental error. Collectively, these experiments enable determination of primary dependencies as well as multi-parameter relationships. Slit-tape tow samples were mounted to the bottom plate of a rheometer parallel plate fixture using a jig to prevent modification of the active area to be interrogated with the top plate, a polished stainless steel probe, during tack testing. The probe surface was slowly brought into contact with the pre-preg surface until a pre-determined normal force was achieved (2-30 newtons). After a specified dwell time (0.02-10 seconds), during which the probe substrate interaction was maintained under displacement control, the probe was retracted from the surface (0.1-50 millimeters per second). Initial results indicated a clear dependence of tack strength on several parameters, with a particularly

  17. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Sierra


    Full Text Available Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feedbacks related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature variability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature. Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long-term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of temperature can either amplify or dampen the release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. These effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between temperature and respiration and the magnitude of the change in temperature variance. A potential consequence of this effect of variability would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of temperature are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average temperature is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.

  18. Temperature dependence of strain energy and thermodynamic properties of V2 O5 -based single-walled nanotubes: Zone-folding approach. (United States)

    Porsev, Vitaly V; Bandura, Andrei V; Evarestov, Robert A


    A zone-folding approach is applied to estimate the thermodynamic properties of V2 O5 -based nanotubes. The results obtained are compared with those from the direct calculations. It is shown that the zone-folding approximation allows an accurate estimation of nanotube thermodynamic properties and gives a gain in computation time compared to their direct calculations. Both approaches show that temperature effects do not change the relative stability of V2 O5 free layers and nanotubes derived from the α- and γ-phase. The internal energy thermal contributions into the strain energy of nanotubes are small and can be ignored. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region (United States)

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé


    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  20. Low temperature behavior of thermodynamic properties of 1D quantum wire under the Rashba spin-orbit interaction and magnetic field (United States)

    Khordad, R.; Rastegar Sedehi, H. R.


    In this work, we study the effects of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and applied magnetic field on thermodynamic properties of a quasi-one-dimensional quantum wire at low temperatures. To this end, we first present an explicit relation for partition function. Then, we give analytical expressions for the mean energy, specific heat, free energy, and entropy of the system. It is found that the specific heat shows a peak structure in the presence of SOI and then reduces to zero. The peak width of the specific heat depends on the strength of SOI. At low temperatures, the entropy reduces with increasing magnetic field in the presence of SOI, but at higher temperatures, it remains almost independent of the magnetic field. The peak of specific heat occurs at a certain value of the magnetic field which depends on the temperature.

  1. Hafnium(IV) complexation with oxalate at variable temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, Mitchell T.; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullmanm, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Appropriate management of fission products in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is crucial in developing advanced reprocessing schemes. The addition of aqueous phase complexing agents can prevent the co-extraction of these fission products. A solvent extraction technique was used to study the complexation of Hf(IV) - an analog to fission product Zr(IV) - with oxalate at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4} utilizing a {sup 175+181}Hf radiotracer. The mechanism of the solvent extraction system of 10{sup -5} M Hf(IV) in 1 M HClO{sub 4} to thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) in toluene demonstrated a 4{sup th}-power dependence in both TTA and H{sup +}, with Hf(TTA){sub 4} the only extractable species. The equilibrium constant for the extraction of Hf(TTA){sub 4} was determined to be log K{sub ex}=7.67±0.07 (25±1 C, 1 M HClO{sub 4}). The addition of oxalate to the aqueous phase decreased the distribution ratio, indicating aqueous Hf(IV)-oxalate complex formation. Polynomial fits to the distribution data identified the formation of Hf(ox){sup 2+} and Hf(ox){sub 2(aq)} and their stability constants were measured at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4}. van't Hoff analysis was used to calculate Δ{sub r}G, Δ{sub r}H, and Δ{sub r}S for these species. Stability constants were observed to increase at higher temperature, an indication that Hf(IV)-oxalate complexation is endothermic and driven by entropy.

  2. Late Holocene temperature variability in Tasmania inferred from borehole temperature data (United States)

    Suman, Asadusjjaman; Dyer, Fiona; White, Duanne


    Thirty-six borehole temperature-depth profiles were analysed to reconstruct the ground surface temperature history (GSTH) of eastern Tasmania for the past 5 centuries. We used the singular value decomposition method to invert borehole temperatures to produce temperature histories. The quality of borehole data was classified as high or low based on model misfit. The quality of the borehole data was not dependent on topography or land use. Analysis reveals that three to five high-quality borehole temperature-depth profiles were adequate to reconstruct robust paleotemperature records from any area. Average GSTH reconstructed from Tasmanian boreholes shows temperature increases about 1.2 ± 0.2 °C during the past 5 centuries. Reconstructed temperatures were consistent with meteorological records and other proxy records from Tasmania during their period of overlap. Temperature changes were greatest around the north-east coast and decreased towards the centre of Tasmania. The extension of the East Australian Current (EAC) further south and its strengthening around the north-east coast of Tasmania over the past century was considered a prime driver of warmer temperatures observed in north-east Tasmania.

  3. An Introduction to Equilibrium Thermodynamics. A Rational Approach to Its Teaching. Part 2: Internal Energy, Entropy, and Temperature. (United States)

    Williams, Donald F.; Glasser, David


    An approach that may be used to introduce the fundamental ideas of thermodynamics using a mathematical background with the knowledge of the behavior of matter is described. The physical background, conservation of energy, predicting the behavior of a system, and solving problems are topics of discussion. (KR)

  4. Thermodynamics and heat power

    CERN Document Server

    Granet, Irving


    Fundamental ConceptsIntroductionThermodynamic SystemsTemperatureForce and MassElementary Kinetic Theory of GasesPressureReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsWork, Energy, and HeatIntroductionWorkEnergyInternal EnergyPotential EnergyKinetic EnergyHeatFlow WorkNonflow WorkReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsFirst Law of ThermodynamicsIntroductionFirst Law of ThermodynamicsNonflow SystemSteady-Flow SystemApplications of First Law of ThermodynamicsReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsThe Second Law of ThermodynamicsIntroductionReversibility-Second Law of ThermodynamicsThe Carnot CycleEntropyReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsProperties of Liquids and GasesIntroductionLiquids and VaporsThermodynamic Properties of SteamComputerized PropertiesThermodynamic DiagramsProcessesReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsThe Ideal GasIntroductionBasic ConsiderationsSpecific Hea...

  5. First-principles investigation of the structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of Al2Cu phase under various pressure and temperature conditions (United States)

    Tian, Jinzhong; Zhao, Yuhong; Hou, Hua; Han, Peide


    The crystal structure, phase stability, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the Al2Cu (θ), Al2Cu (θ‧) and Al2Cu (Ω) phases are studied by the first-principles method. The predicted lattice constants are consistent with the available literature data. θ, θ‧ and Ω phases are thermodynamically stable, and do not undergo any phase transition under pressure. The values of B for Ω are larger than that for θ and θ‧ phases, while the values of G for θ are smaller than that for Ω and θ‧ phases. The studies also reveal that pressure can improve the elastic anisotropy of the θ, θ‧ and Ω phases. The Debye temperature, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for the phases are determined by the quasi-harmonic Debye model. Under identical conditions, the values of ΘD from high to low is in the following order: θ‧>Ω>θ. The heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for θ, θ‧ and Ω phases decrease with pressure when the temperature is kept constant. In contrast, thermal expansion coefficient α is more sensitive to any changes in pressure than any temperature change in the temperature range, 300-800 K.

  6. Sea surface temperature variability over North Indian Ocean - A study of two contrasting monsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sathyendranath, S.; Viswambharan, N.K.; Rao, L.V.G.

    Using the satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) data for 1979 (bad monsoon) and 1983 (good monsoon), the SST variability for two contrasting monsoon seasons is studied. The study indicates that large negative anomalies off the Somali...

  7. Recent spatiotemporal temperature and rainfall variability and trends over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mengistu, Daniel; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Lal, Rattan


    This study analyses the spatial and temporal variability and trends of rainfall, mean maximum and minimum temperatures at seasonal and annual timescales over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia...

  8. High-temperature mass spectrometric study and modeling of thermodynamic properties of binary glass-forming systems containing Bi2O3. (United States)

    Stolyarova, V L; Shilov, A L; Lopatin, S I; Shugurov, S M


    Binary glass-forming systems containing bismuth(III) oxide, especially the Bi2O3-SiO2 system, are of great importance in modern materials science: preparation of thin films, fiber optics, potential solar converters, and radiation shields in nuclear physics. Information on vaporization processes and thermodynamic properties obtained in the present study and the results of modeling of this system will be useful for optimization of the synthesis and applications of Bi2O3-containing materials at high temperatures. High-temperature Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry was used to study the vaporization processes and to determine the partial pressures of components of the Bi2O3-SiO2 system. Measurements were performed with a MS-1301 mass spectrometer. Vaporization was carried out using two iridium-plated molybdenum effusion cells containing the sample under study and pure bismuth(III) oxide (reference substance). Modeling of the thermodynamic properties and structure of glasses and melts in the Bi2O3-SiO2 and Bi2O3-B2O3 systems was performed using a modified approach based on the generalized lattice theory of associated solutions (GLTAS). At a temperature of 1000 K, Bi and O2 were found to be the main vapor species over the samples studied. The Bi2O3 activity as a function of composition of the Bi2O3-SiO2 system was obtained from the measured partial pressures of the vapor species. The thermodynamic properties of mixing from oxides in this system were calculated. The advantages of GLTAS for modeling of glasses and melts in the binary systems containing Bi2O3 were demonstrated. The thermodynamic functions of mixing in glasses and melts of the Bi2O3-SiO2 system determined at 1000 K in the present study, as well as in the Bi2O3-B2O3 system, demonstrated negative deviations from ideality. Modeling of the obtained experimental data using GLTAS allowed a correlation to be found between the thermodynamic properties and the relative number of bonds of various types formed in

  9. Advanced thermodynamics engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Jog, Milind A


    Thermolab Excel-Based Software for Thermodynamic Properties and Flame Temperatures of Fuels IntroductionImportance, Significance and LimitationsReview of ThermodynamicsMathematical BackgroundOverview of Microscopic/NanothermodynamicsSummaryAppendix: Stokes and Gauss Theorems First Law of ThermodynamicsZeroth LawFirst Law for a Closed SystemQuasi Equilibrium (QE) and Nonquasi-equilibrium (NQE) ProcessesEnthalpy and First LawAdiabatic Reversible Process for Ideal Gas with Constant Specific HeatsFirst Law for an Open SystemApplications of First Law for an Open SystemIntegral and Differential Form

  10. The effect of ambient temperature and barometric pressure on ambulatory blood pressure variability. (United States)

    Jehn, Megan; Appel, Lawrence J; Sacks, Frank M; Miller, Edgar R


    The effect of ambient temperature on cardiovascular disease has previously been studied. Less known are the effects of climate on blood pressure (BP) regulation, specifically, the role of temperature on BP variability. We investigated the effect of temperature and barometric pressure on ambulatory BP variability in 333 men and women with above-optimal BP or stage 1 hypertension participating in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) multicenter feeding trial. Each subject consumed the same diet for 3 weeks. Daytime, nighttime, and 24-h BP were recorded by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Climatologic data were obtained from local meteorologic centers. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), age, sex, baseline clinic systolic BP, and clinical center, systolic BP variability was inversely associated with 24-h temperature (P =.005) and daytime temperature (P =.006). There was no observed association between BP variability and barometric pressure. There was a significant trend of increasing nighttime systolic BP and diastolic BP with increasing temperature, but these results did not persist after adjustment for confounding variables. During periods of cold weather, an increase in BP variability may complicate the diagnosis and management of hypertension and may contribute to the high cardiovascular mortality observed in the winter.

  11. Influence of climate on emergency department visits for syncope: role of air temperature variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syncope is a clinical event characterized by a transient loss of consciousness, estimated to affect 6.2/1000 person-years, resulting in remarkable health care and social costs. Human pathophysiology suggests that heat may promote syncope during standing. We tested the hypothesis that the increase of air temperatures from January to July would be accompanied by an increased rate of syncope resulting in a higher frequency of Emergency Department (ED visits. We also evaluated the role of maximal temperature variability in affecting ED visits for syncope. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included 770 of 2775 consecutive subjects who were seen for syncope at four EDs between January and July 2004. This period was subdivided into three epochs of similar length: 23 January-31 March, 1 April-31 May and 1 June-31 July. Spectral techniques were used to analyze oscillatory components of day by day maximal temperature and syncope variability and assess their linear relationship. There was no correlation between daily maximum temperatures and number of syncope. ED visits for syncope were lower in June and July when maximal temperature variability declined although the maximal temperatures themselves were higher. Frequency analysis of day by day maximal temperature variability showed a major non-random fluctuation characterized by a ∼23-day period and two minor oscillations with ∼3- and ∼7-day periods. This latter oscillation was correlated with a similar ∼7-day fluctuation in ED visits for syncope. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that ED visits for syncope were not predicted by daily maximal temperature but were associated with increased temperature variability. A ∼7-day rhythm characterized both maximal temperatures and ED visits for syncope variability suggesting that climate changes may have a significant effect on the mode of syncope occurrence.

  12. Snow-atmosphere coupling and its impact on temperature variability and extremes over North America (United States)

    Diro, G. T.; Sushama, L.; Huziy, O.


    The impact of snow-atmosphere coupling on climate variability and extremes over North America is investigated using modeling experiments with the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this end, two CRCM5 simulations driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the 1981-2010 period are performed, where snow cover and depth are prescribed (uncoupled) in one simulation while they evolve interactively (coupled) during model integration in the second one. Results indicate systematic influence of snow cover and snow depth variability on the inter-annual variability of soil and air temperatures during winter and spring seasons. Inter-annual variability of air temperature is larger in the coupled simulation, with snow cover and depth variability accounting for 40-60% of winter temperature variability over the Mid-west, Northern Great Plains and over the Canadian Prairies. The contribution of snow variability reaches even more than 70% during spring and the regions of high snow-temperature coupling extend north of the boreal forests. The dominant process contributing to the snow-atmosphere coupling is the albedo effect in winter, while the hydrological effect controls the coupling in spring. Snow cover/depth variability at different locations is also found to affect extremes. For instance, variability of cold-spell characteristics is sensitive to snow cover/depth variation over the Mid-west and Northern Great Plains, whereas, warm-spell variability is sensitive to snow variation primarily in regions with climatologically extensive snow cover such as northeast Canada and the Rockies. Furthermore, snow-atmosphere interactions appear to have contributed to enhancing the number of cold spell days during the 2002 spring, which is the coldest recorded during the study period, by over 50%, over western North America. Additional results also provide useful information on the importance of the interactions of snow with large-scale mode of variability in modulating

  13. Late Holocene temperature variability in Tasmania inferred from borehole temperature data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suman


    Full Text Available Thirty-six borehole temperature–depth profiles were analysed to reconstruct the ground surface temperature history (GSTH of eastern Tasmania for the past 5 centuries. We used the singular value decomposition method to invert borehole temperatures to produce temperature histories. The quality of borehole data was classified as high or low based on model misfit. The quality of the borehole data was not dependent on topography or land use. Analysis reveals that three to five high-quality borehole temperature–depth profiles were adequate to reconstruct robust paleotemperature records from any area. Average GSTH reconstructed from Tasmanian boreholes shows temperature increases about 1.2 ± 0.2 °C during the past 5 centuries. Reconstructed temperatures were consistent with meteorological records and other proxy records from Tasmania during their period of overlap. Temperature changes were greatest around the north-east coast and decreased towards the centre of Tasmania. The extension of the East Australian Current (EAC further south and its strengthening around the north-east coast of Tasmania over the past century was considered a prime driver of warmer temperatures observed in north-east Tasmania.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MATEI


    Full Text Available The main objective of the present paper is to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of air-temperature in Romania, by using mean air-temperature values provided by the ECA&D project ( These data sets will be filtered by means of the EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis, which describes various modes of space variability and time coefficient series (PC series. The EOF analysis will also be used to identify the main way of action of the European climate variability mechanism, by using multiple variables in grid points, provided by the National Centre of Atmospheric Research (NCAR, USA. The variables considered here are: sea level pressure (SLP, geopotential height at 500 mb (H500 and air temperature at 850 mb (T850, for the summer and winter seasons. The linear trends and shift points of considered variables are then assessed by means of the Mann-Kendall and Pettitt non-parametric tests. By interpreting the results, we can infer that there is causal relationship between the large-scale analyzed parameters and temperature variability in Romania. These results are consistent with those presented by Busuioc et al., 2010, where the main variation trends of the principal European variables are shown.

  15. Change in the magnitude and mechanisms of global temperature variability with warming (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T.; Ming, Yi; Li, Wenhong; Hill, Spencer A.


    Natural unforced variability in global mean surface air temperature (GMST) can mask or exaggerate human-caused global warming, and thus a complete understanding of this variability is highly desirable. Significant progress has been made in elucidating the magnitude and physical origins of present-day unforced GMST variability, but it has remained unclear how such variability may change as the climate warms. Here we present modelling evidence that indicates that the magnitude of low-frequency GMST variability is likely to decline in a warmer climate and that its generating mechanisms may be fundamentally altered. In particular, a warmer climate results in lower albedo at high latitudes, which yields a weaker albedo feedback on unforced GMST variability. These results imply that unforced GMST variability is dependent on the background climatological conditions, and thus climate model control simulations run under perpetual pre-industrial conditions may have only limited relevance for understanding the unforced GMST variability of the future.

  16. Effects of variability of meteorological measures on soil temperature in permafrost regions


    Beer, Christian; Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Brakebusch, Matthias


    To clarify effects of the variability of meteorological measures and their extreme events on topsoil and subsoil temperature in permafrost regions, an artificially manipulated climate dataset has been used for process-oriented model experiments. Climate variability mainly impacts snow depth, and the cover and thermal diffusivity of lichens and bryophytes. The latter effect is of opposite direction in summer and winter. These impacts of climate variability on insulating layers together substan...

  17. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability (United States)

    C.A. Sierra; M.E. Harmon; E.A. Thomann; S.S. Perakis; H.W. Loescher


    Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feedbacks related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature variability. Anthropogenic...

  18. Kiloampere, Variable-Temperature, Critical-Current Measurements of High-Field Superconductors. (United States)

    Goodrich, L F; Cheggour, N; Stauffer, T C; Filla, B J; Lu, X F


    We review variable-temperature, transport critical-current (I c) measurements made on commercial superconductors over a range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to about 1 kA. We have developed and used a number of systems to make these measurements over the last 15 years. Two exemplary variable-temperature systems with coil sample geometries will be described: a probe that is only variable-temperature and a probe that is variable-temperature and variable-strain. The most significant challenge for these measurements is temperature stability, since large amounts of heat can be generated by the flow of high current through the resistive sample fixture. Therefore, a significant portion of this review is focused on the reduction of temperature errors to less than ±0.05 K in such measurements. A key feature of our system is a pre-regulator that converts a flow of liquid helium to gas and heats the gas to a temperature close to the target sample temperature. The pre-regulator is not in close proximity to the sample and it is controlled independently of the sample temperature. This allows us to independently control the total cooling power, and thereby fine tune the sample cooling power at any sample temperature. The same general temperature-control philosophy is used in all of our variable-temperature systems, but the addition of another variable, such as strain, forces compromises in design and results in some differences in operation and protocol. These aspects are analyzed to assess the extent to which the protocols for our systems might be generalized to other systems at other laboratories. Our approach to variable-temperature measurements is also placed in the general context of measurement-system design, and the perceived advantages and disadvantages of design choices are presented. To verify the accuracy of the variable-temperature measurements, we compared critical-current values obtained on a specimen immersed in liquid helium ("liquid" or I c liq) at 5

  19. Model for the high-temperature oxygen-ordering thermodynamics in YBa2Cu3O6+x - inclusion of electron spin and charge degrees of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleger, P.; Hardy, W.N.; Casalta, H.


    A lattice-gas model for the high temperature oxygen-ordering thermodynamics in YBa2Cu3O6+x is presented, which assumes constant effective pair interactions between oxygen atoms and includes in a simple fashion the effect of the electron spin and charge degrees of freedom. This is done using...... a commonly utilized picture relating the creation of mobile electron holes and unpaired spins to the insertion of oxygen into the basal plane. The model is solved using the nearest-neighbor square approximation of the cluster-variation method. In addition, preliminary Monte Carlo results using next...

  20. Calculation of the Aqueous Thermodynamic Properties of Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates and Precursors and the Estimation of High Temperature and Pressure Equation of State Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Schulte


    Full Text Available The citric acid cycle (CAC is the central pathway of energy transfer for many organisms, and understanding the origin of this pathway may provide insight into the origins of metabolism. In order to assess the thermodynamics of this key pathway for microorganisms that inhabit a wide variety of environments, especially those found in high temperature environments, we have calculated the properties and parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state for the major components of the CAC. While a significant amount of data is not available for many of the constituents of this fundamental pathway, methods exist that allow estimation of these missing data.

  1. Surface-temperature trends and variability in the low-latitude North Atlantic since 1552

    KAUST Repository

    Saenger, Casey


    Sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic Ocean recorded since about 1850 has been ascribed to a natural multidecadal oscillation superimposed on a background warming trend1-6. It has been suggested that the multidecadal variability may be a persistent feature6-8, raising the possibility that the associated climate impacts may be predictable7,8. owever, our understanding of the multidecadal ocean variability before the instrumental record is based on interpretations of high-latitude terrestrial proxy records. Here we present an absolutely dated and annually resolved record of sea surface temperature from the Bahamas, based on a 440-year time series of coral growth rates. The reconstruction indicates that temperatures were as warm as today from about 1552 to 1570, then cooled by about 1° C from 1650 to 1730 before warming until the present. Our estimates of background variability suggest that much of the warming since 1900 was driven by anthropogenic forcing. Interdecadal variability with a period of 15-25 years is superimposed on most of the record, but multidecadal variability becomes significant only after 1730. We conclude that the multidecadal variability in sea surface temperatures in the low-latitude western Atlantic Ocean may not be persistent, potentially making accurate decadal climate forecasts more difficult to achieve. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional diversity of catch mitigates negative effects of temperature variability on fisheries yields. (United States)

    Dee, Laura E; Miller, Steve J; Peavey, Lindsey E; Bradley, Darcy; Gentry, Rebecca R; Startz, Richard; Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E


    Temperature variation within a year can impact biological processes driving population abundances. The implications for the ecosystem services these populations provide, including food production from marine fisheries, are poorly understood. Whether and how temperature variability impacts fishery yields may depend on the number of harvested species and differences in their responses to varying temperatures. Drawing from previous theoretical and empirical studies, we predict that greater temperature variability within years will reduce yields, but harvesting a larger number of species, especially a more functionally diverse set, will decrease this impact. Using a global marine fisheries dataset, we find that within-year temperature variability reduces yields, but current levels of functional diversity (FD) of targeted species, measured using traits related to species' responses to temperature, largely offset this effect. Globally, high FD of catch could avoid annual losses in yield of 6.8% relative to projections if FD were degraded to the lowest level observed in the data. By contrast, species richness in the catch and in the ecosystem did not provide a similar mitigating effect. This work provides novel empirical evidence that short-term temperature variability can negatively impact the provisioning of ecosystem services, but that FD can buffer these negative impacts. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo


    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  4. Complexation of lactate with neodymium(III) and europium(III) at variable temperatures: studies by potentiometry, microcalorimetry, optical absorption, and luminescence spectroscopy. (United States)

    Tian, Guoxin; Martin, Leigh R; Rao, Linfeng


    The complexation of neodymium(III) and europium(III) with lactate was studied at variable temperatures by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry. The stability constants of three successive lactate complexes (ML(2+), ML(2)(+), and ML(3)(aq), where M stands for Nd and Eu and L stands for lactate) at 10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 °C were determined. The enthalpies of complexation at 25 °C were determined by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic data show that the complexation of trivalent lanthanides (Nd(3+) and Eu(3+)) with lactate is exothermic and the complexation becomes weaker at higher temperatures. Results from optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopy suggest that the complexes are inner-sphere chelate complexes in which the protonated α-hydroxyl group of lactate participates in the complexation.

  5. Complexation of Lactate with Nd(III) and Eu(III) at Variable Temperatures: Studies by Potentiometry, Microcalorimetry, Optical Absorption and Luminescence Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Guoxin; Martin, Leigh R.; Rao, Linfeng


    Complexation of neodymium(III) and europium(III) with lactate was studied at variable temperatures by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy and microcalorimetry. Stability constants of three successive lactate complexes (ML{sup 2+}, ML{sup 2+} and ML{sub 3}(aq), where M stands for Nd and Eu, and L stands for lactate) at 10, 25, 40, 55 and 70 C were determined. The enthalpies of complexation at 25 C were determined by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic data show that the complexation of trivalent lanthanides (Nd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) with lactate is exothermic, and the complexation becomes weaker at higher temperatures. Results from optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopy suggest that the complexes are inner-sphere chelate complexes in which the protonated {alpha}-hydroxyl group of lactate participates in the complexation.

  6. Simulating soybean canopy temperature as affected by weather variables and soil water potential (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.


    Hourly weather data for several clear sky days during summer at Phoenix and Baltimore which covered a wide range of variables were used with a plant atmosphere model to simulate soybean (Glycine max L.) leaf water potential, stomatal resistance and canopy temperature at various soil water potentials. The air and dew point temperatures were found to be the significant weather variables affecting the canopy temperatures. Under identical weather conditions, the model gives a lower canopy temperature for a soybean crop with a higher rooting density. A knowledge of crop rooting density, in addition to air and dew point temperatures is needed in interpreting infrared radiometric observations for soil water status. The observed dependence of stomatal resistance on the vapor pressure deficit and soil water potential is fairly well represented. Analysis of the simulated leaf water potentials indicates overestimation, possibly due to differences in the cultivars.

  7. A temperature rise reduces trial-to-trial variability of locust auditory neuron responses. (United States)

    Eberhard, Monika J B; Schleimer, Jan-Hendrik; Schreiber, Susanne; Ronacher, Bernhard


    The neurophysiology of ectothermic animals, such as insects, is affected by environmental temperature, as their body temperature fluctuates with ambient conditions. Changes in temperature alter properties of neurons and, consequently, have an impact on the processing of information. Nevertheless, nervous system function is often maintained over a broad temperature range, exhibiting a surprising robustness to variations in temperature. A special problem arises for acoustically communicating insects, as in these animals mate recognition and mate localization typically rely on the decoding of fast amplitude modulations in calling and courtship songs. In the auditory periphery, however, temporal resolution is constrained by intrinsic neuronal noise. Such noise predominantly arises from the stochasticity of ion channel gating and potentially impairs the processing of sensory signals. On the basis of intracellular recordings of locust auditory neurons, we show that intrinsic neuronal variability on the level of spikes is reduced with increasing temperature. We use a detailed mathematical model including stochastic ion channel gating to shed light on the underlying biophysical mechanisms in auditory receptor neurons: because of a redistribution of channel-induced current noise toward higher frequencies and specifics of the temperature dependence of the membrane impedance, membrane potential noise is indeed reduced at higher temperatures. This finding holds under generic conditions and physiologically plausible assumptions on the temperature dependence of the channels' kinetics and peak conductances. We demonstrate that the identified mechanism also can explain the experimentally observed reduction of spike timing variability at higher temperatures. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Consequences of Part Temperature Variability in Electron Beam Melting of Ti-6Al-4V (United States)

    Fisher, Brian A.; Mireles, Jorge; Ridwan, Shakerur; Wicker, Ryan B.; Beuth, Jack


    To facilitate adoption of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) parts produced via additive manufacturing (AM), the ability to ensure part quality is critical. Measuring temperatures is an important component of part quality monitoring in all direct metal AM processes. In this work, surface temperatures were monitored using a custom infrared camera system attached to an Arcam electron beam melting (EBM®) machine. These temperatures were analyzed to understand their possible effect on solidification microstructure based on solidification cooling rates extracted from finite element simulations. Complicated thermal histories were seen during part builds, and temperature changes occurring during typical Ti64 builds may be large enough to affect solidification microstructure. There is, however, enough time between fusion of individual layers for spatial temperature variations (i.e., hot spots) to dissipate. This means that an effective thermal control strategy for EBM® can be based on average measured surface temperatures, ignoring temperature variability.

  9. Consequences of Part Temperature Variability in Electron Beam Melting of Ti-6Al-4V (United States)

    Fisher, Brian A.; Mireles, Jorge; Ridwan, Shakerur; Wicker, Ryan B.; Beuth, Jack


    To facilitate adoption of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) parts produced via additive manufacturing (AM), the ability to ensure part quality is critical. Measuring temperatures is an important component of part quality monitoring in all direct metal AM processes. In this work, surface temperatures were monitored using a custom infrared camera system attached to an Arcam electron beam melting (EBM®) machine. These temperatures were analyzed to understand their possible effect on solidification microstructure based on solidification cooling rates extracted from finite element simulations. Complicated thermal histories were seen during part builds, and temperature changes occurring during typical Ti64 builds may be large enough to affect solidification microstructure. There is, however, enough time between fusion of individual layers for spatial temperature variations (i.e., hot spots) to dissipate. This means that an effective thermal control strategy for EBM® can be based on average measured surface temperatures, ignoring temperature variability.

  10. Thermodynamics of adaptive molecular resolution. (United States)

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R


    A relatively general thermodynamic formalism for adaptive molecular resolution (AMR) is presented. The description is based on the approximation of local thermodynamic equilibrium and considers the alchemic parameter λ as the conjugate variable of the potential energy difference between the atomistic and coarse-grained model Φ=U(1)-U(0) The thermodynamic formalism recovers the relations obtained from statistical mechanics of H-AdResS (Español et al, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064115, 2015 (doi:10.1063/1.4907006)) and provides relations between the free energy compensation and thermodynamic potentials. Inspired by this thermodynamic analogy, several generalizations of AMR are proposed, such as the exploration of new Maxwell relations and how to treat λ and Φ as 'real' thermodynamic variablesThis article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Theoretical physics 5 thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang


    This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to thermodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, defining macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy and pressure,together with thermodynamic principles. The first part of the book introduces the laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potentials. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes phases and phase transitions in depth. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series cove...

  12. Interactions between temperature and drought in global and regional crop yield variability during 1961-2014 (United States)

    Matiu, Michael; Ankerst, Donna P.; Menzel, Annette


    Inter-annual crop yield variation is driven in large parts by climate variability, wherein the climate components of temperature and precipitation often play the biggest role. Nonlinear effects of temperature on yield as well as interactions among the climate variables have to be considered. Links between climate and crop yield variability have been previously studied, both globally and at regional scales, but typically with additive models with no interactions, or when interactions were included, with implications not fully explained. In this study yearly country level yields of maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat of the top producing countries were combined with growing season temperature and SPEI (standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index) to determine interaction and intensification effects of climate variability on crop yield variability during 1961–2014. For maize, soybeans, and wheat, heat and dryness significantly reduced yields globally, while global effects for rice were not significant. But because of interactions, heat was more damaging in dry than in normal conditions for maize and wheat, and temperature effects were not significant in wet conditions for maize, soybeans, and wheat. Country yield responses to climate variability naturally differed between the top producing countries, but an accurate description of interaction effects at the country scale required sub-national data (shown only for the USA). Climate intensification, that is consecutive dry or warm years, reduced yields additionally in some cases, however, this might be linked to spillover effects of multiple growing seasons. Consequently, the effect of temperature on yields might be underestimated in dry conditions: While there were no significant global effects of temperature for maize and soybeans yields for average SPEI, the combined effects of high temperatures and drought significantly decreased yields of maize, soybeans, and wheat by 11.6, 12.4, and 9.2%, respectively. PMID

  13. Summer temperature and drought co-variability across Europe since 850 CE (United States)

    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik; Büntgen, Ulf; Cook, Edward R.; Esper, Jan; Fleitmann, Dominik; Gagen, Mary H.; García Bustamante, Elena; Fidel González-Rouco, Jesús; Krusic, Paul J.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Andrés Melo Aguilar, Camilo; Seftigen, Kristina; Seim, Andrea; Solomina, Olga; Werner, Johannes P.; Xoplaki, Elena; Zorita, Eduardo


    Under the present global warming condition the increasing risk of droughts and floods is a major concern. Droughts have severe consequences for agricultural productivity across wide areas. However, state-of-the-art climate models are not consistent in their projections of hydroclimate changes under global warming, on regional scales, which limits attempts at defining long-term mitigation strategies. A better understanding of past summer temperature and hydroclimate co-variability will provide valuable empirical information on how increasing/decreasing temperatures will affect summer drought conditions at different time-scales over Europe. We use instrumental data, the new gridded tree-ring-derived Old World Drought Atlas by Cook et al. (2015), the gridded European summer temperature reconstruction by Luterbacher et al. (2016), as well as two high-resolution last millennium (850-2005 CE) climate simulations (CCSM4 and MPI-ESM-P), to assess the spatio-temporal co-variability of summer temperature and summer drought over Europe, at inter-annual to centennial time-scales, since 850 CE. This allows us to i) investigate potential changes in the dominating patterns of co-variability at different time scales, and ii) assess the accuracy and precision of climate models to simulate summer temperature and summer drought co-variability as found in both the 20th century instrumental data and millennium-long tree-ring based climate reconstructions. The discussion of cross-spectral analyses of temperature and drought will likely improve our understanding of the long-term co-variability of these important climate variables at continental scales in Europe. References: Cook, E.R., et al. (2015) Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era. Science Advances, 1, e1500561, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500561. Luterbacher, J., et al. (2016) European summer temperatures since Roman times. Environmental Research Letters 11, e024001, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/1/024001.

  14. Thermodynamics of protein denaturation at temperatures over 100 °C: CutA1 mutant proteins substituted with hydrophobic and charged residues. (United States)

    Matsuura, Yoshinori; Takehira, Michiyo; Joti, Yasumasa; Ogasahara, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Ono, Naoko; Kunishima, Naoki; Yutani, Katsuhide


    Although the thermodynamics of protein denaturation at temperatures over 100 °C is essential for the rational design of highly stable proteins, it is not understood well because of the associated technical difficulties. We designed certain hydrophobic mutant proteins of CutA1 from Escherichia coli, which have denaturation temperatures (Td) ranging from 101 to 113 °C and show a reversible heat denaturation. Using a hydrophobic mutant as a template, we successfully designed a hyperthermostable mutant protein (Td = 137 °C) by substituting six residues with charged ones. Thermodynamic analyses of these mutant proteins indicated that the hydrophobic mutants were stabilized by the accumulation of denaturation enthalpy (ΔH) with no entropic gain from hydrophobic solvation around 100 °C, and that the stabilization due to salt bridges resulted from both the increase in ΔH from ion-ion interactions and the entropic effect of the electrostatic solvation over 113 °C. This is the first experimental evidence that has successfully overcome the typical technical difficulties.

  15. Thermodynamic constants of N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-amino]propanesulfonic acid (Taps) from the temperatures 278.15 K to 328.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Rabindra N. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States)]. E-mail:; Roy, Lakshmi N. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); LeNoue, Sean R. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Denton, Cole E. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Simon, Ashley N. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Richards, Sarah J. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Moore, Andrew C. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Roy, Chandra N. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Redmond, R. Ryan [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Bryant, Paul A. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States)


    Values of the second thermodynamic dissociation constant pK{sub 2} of N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-amino]propanesulfonic acid (Taps) have been determined at twelve temperatures from 278.15 K to 328.15 K including 310.15 K by measurements of the electromotive-force for cells without liquid junction of the type: Pt|H{sub 2} (g, p{sup -}bar =101.325 kPa)|Taps (m{sub 1}), NaTapsate (m{sub 2}), NaCl (m{sub 3})|AgCl|Ag, where m denotes molality. The pK{sub 2} values for the dissociation of Taps are represented by the equation: pK{sub 2}=2969.61.(K/T) - 17.05052+2.73697.ln(T/K). The values of pK{sub 2} for Taps were found to be (8.502+/-0.0007) at T=298.15 K and (8.225+/-0.0009) at T=310.15 K, respectively, indicating thereby to be useful as buffer solutions for pH control in the region 7.4 to 8.5. The thermodynamic quantities, {delta}G{sup -}bar , {delta}H{sup -}bar , {delta}S{sup -}bar , and {delta}C{sub p}{sup -}bar dissociation process of Taps have been derived from the temperature coefficients of the pK{sub 2}.

  16. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA


    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  17. Ocean surface temperature variability: Large model–data differences at decadal and longer periods (United States)

    Laepple, Thomas; Huybers, Peter


    The variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) at multidecadal and longer timescales is poorly constrained, primarily because instrumental records are short and proxy records are noisy. Through applying a new noise filtering technique to a global network of late Holocene SST proxies, we estimate SST variability between annual and millennial timescales. Filtered estimates of SST variability obtained from coral, foraminifer, and alkenone records are shown to be consistent with one another and with instrumental records in the frequency bands at which they overlap. General circulation models, however, simulate SST variability that is systematically smaller than instrumental and proxy-based estimates. Discrepancies in variability are largest at low latitudes and increase with timescale, reaching two orders of magnitude for tropical variability at millennial timescales. This result implies major deficiencies in observational estimates or model simulations, or both, and has implications for the attribution of past variations and prediction of future change. PMID:25385623

  18. General thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Olander, Donald


    The book’s methodology is unified, concise, and multidisciplinary, allowing students to understand how the principles of thermodynamics apply to all technical fields that touch upon this most fundamental of scientific theories. It also offers a rigorous approach to the quantitative aspects of thermodynamics, accompanied by clear explanations to help students transition smoothly from the physical concepts to their mathematical representations

  19. A simple method to measure the complex permittivity of materials at variable temperatures (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Yin, Yang; Liu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Di; Wu, Shiyue; Yuan, Jianping; Li, Lixin


    Measurement of the complex permittivity (CP) of a material at different temperatures in microwave heating applications is difficult and complicated. In this paper a simple and convenient method is employed to measure the CP of a material over variable temperature. In this method the temperature of a sample is increased experimentally to obtain the formula for the relationship between CP and temperature by a genetic algorithm. We chose agar solution (sample) and a Yangshao reactor (microwave heating system) to validate the reliability and feasibility of this method. The physical parameters (the heat capacity, C p , density, ρ, and thermal conductivity, k) of the sample are set as constants in the process of simulation and inversion. We analyze the influence of the variation of physical parameters with temperature on the accuracy of the inversion results. It is demonstrated that the variation of these physical parameters has little effect on the inversion results in a certain temperature range.

  20. The variability of California summertime marine stratus: impacts on surface air temperatures (United States)

    Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.


    This study investigates the variability of clouds, primarily marine stratus clouds, and how they are associated with surface temperature anomalies over California, especially along the coastal margin. We focus on the summer months of June to September when marine stratus are the dominant cloud type. Data used include satellite cloud reflectivity (cloud albedo) measurements, hourly surface observations of cloud cover and air temperature at coastal airports, and observed values of daily surface temperature at stations throughout California and Nevada. Much of the anomalous variability of summer clouds is organized over regional patterns that affect considerable portions of the coast, often extend hundreds of kilometers to the west and southwest over the North Pacific, and are bounded to the east by coastal mountains. The occurrence of marine stratus is positively correlated with both the strength and height of the thermal inversion that caps the marine boundary layer, with inversion base height being a key factor in determining their inland penetration. Cloud cover is strongly associated with surface temperature variations. In general, increased presence of cloud (higher cloud albedo) produces cooler daytime temperatures and warmer nighttime temperatures. Summer daytime temperature fluctuations associated with cloud cover variations typically exceed 1°C. The inversion-cloud albedo-temperature associations that occur at daily timescales are also found at seasonal timescales.

  1. Long-term trends and spatial variability of shallow groundwater temperatures beneath Bratislava (United States)

    Krcmar, David; Benz, Susanne A.; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp; Stankova, Hana


    Shallow groundwater temperatures are closely linked to surface temperatures. In recent years several studies have shown that the effects from atmospheric warming can be observed in rural groundwater temperature measurements. However, urban groundwater temperatures are different. Especially shallow aquifers show temperatures that change with the evolution of a city. Temperatures are locally variable and regionally higher when compared to undisturbed rural environments. For several cities, particularly in cold and temperate climate zones, pronounced subsurface urban heat islands have been reported with groundwater temperatures that are increased by several degrees compared to their rural surrounding. Heat release from basements and other urban infrastructure has been identified as a major heat source, superposing the effects from atmospheric warming. A major challenge still is to distinguish between the anthropogenic urban effects and the influence from climate change. In our study, we focus on the conditions in the city of Bratislava in Slovakia, where productive aquifers are hosted by the sediments in the Danube river valley. At selected wells, long-term groundwater temperature measurements have been recorded since the year 2002. These temperature time series are measured in shallow depth and therefore show substantial seasonal variations. Each temperature time series is compared to satellite-derived land surface temperature trends, and a clear correlation is found that supports the strong coupling between atmospheric, land surface and groundwater temperatures. Additionally, it is now possible to analyze the main differences between these two temperature trends for all selected wells and relate them to location specific cases of urban infrastructure that influence groundwater temperatures but not land surface temperatures.

  2. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru


    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattices, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. This book is divided into three parts. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. In the third part, the multi-electron system is discussed theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for the superconducting state in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and examined in-depth. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States is an introductory treatise and textbook on meso...

  3. Effect of Temperature on the Critical Micelle Concentration and Micellization Thermodynamic of Nonionic Surfactants: Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Fatty Acid Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mohajeri


    Full Text Available In this study, non-ionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters (polysorbate are chosen to examine the temperature effect on the CMC over a wide temperature range. The enthalpy and entropy of micelle formation are evaluated according to the phase separation model. The surface tension of solutions was determined by means of Du Nöuys ring. The CMC values were taken from the sharp breaks in the surface tension vs. logarithms of surfactant concentration plots. As the surfactants' chain length increases the CMC at a constant temperature decreases, which is directly related to the decrease of hydrophilicity of the molecules. For each surfactant, as the system temperature increases, the CMC initially decreases and then increases, owing to the smaller probability of hydrogen bond formation at higher temperatures. The onset of micellization tends to occur at higher concentrations as the temperature increases. To evaluate the enthalpy of micellization, the CMCs are first correlated by a polynomial equation. It is found that ∆Gºm decreases monotonically as the temperature increases over the whole temperature range. Both ∆Hºm and ∆Sºm appear to be decrease monotonically with an increase in temperature. The compensation temperature was found to be 42 ºC by linear regression over the whole temperature range and for all three surfactant systems together.

  4. Entropy production in mesoscopic stochastic thermodynamics: nonequilibrium kinetic cycles driven by chemical potentials, temperatures, and mechanical forces (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Kjelstrup, Signe; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Bedeaux, Dick


    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics (NET) investigates processes in systems out of global equilibrium. On a mesoscopic level, it provides a statistical dynamic description of various complex phenomena such as chemical reactions, ion transport, diffusion, thermochemical, thermomechanical and mechanochemical fluxes. In the present review, we introduce a mesoscopic stochastic formulation of NET by analyzing entropy production in several simple examples. The fundamental role of nonequilibrium steady-state cycle kinetics is emphasized. The statistical mechanics of Onsager’s reciprocal relations in this context is elucidated. Chemomechanical, thermomechanical, and enzyme-catalyzed thermochemical energy transduction processes are discussed. It is argued that mesoscopic stochastic NET in phase space provides a rigorous mathematical basis of fundamental concepts needed for understanding complex processes in chemistry, physics and biology. This theory is also relevant for nanoscale technological advances.

  5. Variable-temperature ¹H-NMR studies on two C-glycosylflavones. (United States)

    Frank, Julia H; Powder-George, Yomica L; Ramsewak, Russel S; Reynolds, William F


    Two known C-glycosylflavones, swertisin and embinoidin, were isolated from the leaves of Anthurium aripoense, and characterized by room temperature 1D and 2D NMR experiments. At this temperature, the ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR spectra of these C-glycosylflavones revealed doubling of signals, which suggested the presence of two rotamers in solution. Variable-temperature (VT) ¹H-NMR studies supported this hypothesis. The T-ROESY data, in addition to the theoretical (MM2) calculations utilizing the Chem3D Pro software, confirmed the hypothesis that the two rotamers interchange via rotation about the C-glycosidic bond.

  6. The Thermodynamic Properties of Cubanite (United States)

    Berger, E. L.; Lauretta, D. S.; Keller, L. P.


    CuFe2S3 exists in two polymorphs, a low-temperature orthorhombic form (cubanite) and a high-temperature cubic form (isocubanite). Cubanite has been identified in the CI-chondrite and Stardust collections. However, the thermodynamic properties of cubanite have neither been measured nor estimated. Our derivation of a thermodynamic model for cubanite allows constraints to be placed on the formation conditions. This data, along with the temperature constraint afforded by the crystal structure, can be used to assess the environments in which cubanite formation is (or is not) thermodynamically favored.

  7. The Influence of Loading Rate and Variable Temperatures on Microbial Communities in Anaerobic Digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Ciotola


    Full Text Available The relationship between seasonal temperatures, organic loading rate (OLR and the structure of archaeal communities in anaerobic digesters was investigated. Previous studies have often assessed archaeal community structure at fixed temperatures and constant OLRs, or at variable temperatures not characteristic of temperate climates. The goal of this study was to determine the maximum OLR that would maintain a balanced microbial ecosystem during operation in a variable temperature range expected in a temperate climate (27–10 °C. Four-liter laboratory digesters were operated in a semi-continuous mode using dairy cow manure as the feedstock. At OLRs of 1.8 and 0.8 kg VS/m3·day the digesters soured (pH < 6.5 as a result of a decrease in temperature. The structure of the archaeal community in the sour digesters became increasingly similar to the manure feedstock with gains in the relative abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. At an OLR of 0.3 kg VS/m3·day the digesters did not sour, but the archaeal community was primarily hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Recommendations for operating an ambient temperature digester year round in a temperate climate are to reduce the OLR to at least 0.3 kg VS/m3·day in colder temperatures to prevent a shift to the microbial community associated with the sour digesters.

  8. Characterization of polymorphic solid-state changes using variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karjalainen, Milja; Airaksinen, Sari; Rantanen, Jukka


    The aim of this study was to use variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction (VT-XRPD) to understand the solid-state changes in the pharmaceutical materials during heating. The model compounds studied were sulfathiazole, theophylline and nitrofurantoin. This study showed that the polymorph form...... of sulfathiazole SUTHAZ01 was very stable and SUTHAZ02 changed as a function of temperature to SUTHAZ01. Theophylline monohydrate changed via its metastable form to its anhydrous form during heating and nitrofurantoin monohydrate changed via amorphous form to its anhydrous form during heating. The crystallinity...... of SUTHAZ01, SUTHAZ02 and theophylline monohydrate were very high and stable. Nitrofurantoin monohydrate was also very crystalline at room temperature but during heating at lower temperatures the crystallinity decreased and started to increase strongly at the temperature where the sample had changed...

  9. Quantitative assessment of drivers of recent global temperature variability: an information theoretic approach (United States)

    Bhaskar, Ankush; Ramesh, Durbha Sai; Vichare, Geeta; Koganti, Triven; Gurubaran, S.


    Identification and quantification of possible drivers of recent global temperature variability remains a challenging task. This important issue is addressed adopting a non-parametric information theory technique, the Transfer Entropy and its normalized variant. It distinctly quantifies actual information exchanged along with the directional flow of information between any two variables with no bearing on their common history or inputs, unlike correlation, mutual information etc. Measurements of greenhouse gases: CO2, CH4 and N2O; volcanic aerosols; solar activity: UV radiation, total solar irradiance ( TSI) and cosmic ray flux ( CR); El Niño Southern Oscillation ( ENSO) and Global Mean Temperature Anomaly ( GMTA) made during 1984-2005 are utilized to distinguish driving and responding signals of global temperature variability. Estimates of their relative contributions reveal that CO2 ({˜ } 24 %), CH4 ({˜ } 19 %) and volcanic aerosols ({˜ }23 %) are the primary contributors to the observed variations in GMTA. While, UV ({˜ } 9 %) and ENSO ({˜ } 12 %) act as secondary drivers of variations in the GMTA, the remaining play a marginal role in the observed recent global temperature variability. Interestingly, ENSO and GMTA mutually drive each other at varied time lags. This study assists future modelling efforts in climate science.

  10. Endotracheal temperature and humidity measurements in laryngectomized patients: intra- and inter-patient variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R.J.; Muller, S.H.; Vincent, A.; Sinaasappel, M.; Zuur, J.K.; Hilgers, F.J.M.


    This study assesses intra- and inter-patient variability in endotracheal climate (temperature and humidity) and effects of heat and moister exchangers (HME) in 16 laryngectomized individuals, measured repeatedly (N = 47). Inhalation Breath Length (IBL) was 1.35 s without HME and 1.05 s with HME (P <

  11. Beyond the mean: the role of variability in predicting ecological effects of stream temperature on salmon (United States)

    E. Ashley Steel; Abby Tillotson; Donald A. Larson; Aimee H. Fullerton; Keith P. Denton; Brian R. Beckman


    Alterations in variance of riverine thermal regimes have been observed and are predicted with climate change and human development. We tested whether changes in daily or seasonal thermal variability, aside from changes in mean temperature, could have biological consequences by exposing Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) eggs to eight...

  12. Endotracheal temperature and humidity measurements in laryngectomized patients: intra- and inter-patient variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R. J.; Muller, S. H.; Vincent, A.; Sinaasappel, M.; Zuur, J. K.; Hilgers, Frans J. M.


    This study assesses intra- and inter-patient variability in endotracheal climate (temperature and humidity) and effects of heat and moister exchangers (HME) in 16 laryngectomized individuals, measured repeatedly (N = 47). Inhalation Breath Length (IBL) was 1.35 s without HME and 1.05 s with HME (P

  13. Variability and long-term change in Australian temperature and precipitation extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Jakob


    We conclude that in assessing the likelihood of climate hazards, one needs to consider the modulation of climate extremes due to both long-term change and climate variability. Our findings imply that when planning for adaptation, different emphasis needs to be given to changing temperature and precipitation extremes.

  14. Thermodynamics with Design Problems. (United States)

    Cilento, E. V.; Sears, J. T.


    Discusses how basic thermodynamics concepts are integrated with design problems. Includes course goals, instructional strategies, and major advantages/disadvantages of the integrated design approach. Advantages include making subject more concrete, emphasizing interrelation of variables, and reinforcing concepts by use in design analysis; whereas…

  15. On the design and implementation of a novel impedance chamber based variable temperature regulator at liquid helium temperatures. (United States)

    Nagendran, R; Thirumurugan, N; Chinnasamy, N; Janawadkar, M P; Sundar, C S


    A novel variable temperature regulator (VTR) based on the use of a fine impedance capillary to control the flow rate of cold helium gas into the VTR chamber is described. The capillary has a diameter of just 200 microm and the flow rate of cold helium gas through the capillary can be effectively controlled to the desired value by heating the capillary to a preset temperature and by controlling the pressure in the VTR chamber to a preset pressure using automated control circuits. Excellent temperature stability (about +/-1 mK at 10 K and +/-2 mK at 100 K) has been demonstrated in this setup with uniform rates of heating or cooling by an optimal choice of parameters. Compared to the more conventional VTR designs based on the use of mechanical long stem valves in the liquid helium reservoir to control the flow rate of liquid helium into the VTR chamber, and the use of a needle valve at the top of the cryostat to control the exchange gas pressure in the thermal isolation chamber, the present design enables temperature stability at any user desired temperature to be attained with uniform rates of cooling/heating with minimum consumption of liquid helium. The VTR has been successfully incorporated in the high field superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer setup developed in-house. It can also be incorporated in any low temperature physical property measurement system in which the temperature has to be varied in a controlled manner from 4.2 to 300 K and vice versa with uniform rates of heating and cooling.

  16. Time Series Analysis: A New Methodology for Comparing the Temporal Variability of Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piia Post


    Full Text Available Temporal variability of three different temperature time series was compared by the use of statistical modeling of time series. The three temperature time series represent the same physical process, but are at different levels of spatial averaging: temperatures from point measurements, from regional Baltan65+, and from global ERA-40 reanalyses. The first order integrated average model IMA(0, 1, 1 is used to compare the temporal variability of the time series. The applied IMA(0, 1, 1 model is divisible into a sum of random walk and white noise component, where the variances for both white noises (one of them serving as a generator of the random walk are computable from the parameters of the fitted model. This approach enables us to compare the models fitted independently to the original and restored series using two new parameters. This operation adds a certain new method to the analysis of nonstationary series.

  17. Karakoram temperature and glacial melt driven by regional atmospheric circulation variability (United States)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Fowler, Hayley J.; Li, Xiao-Feng; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Pritchard, David


    Identifying mechanisms driving spatially heterogeneous glacial mass-balance patterns in the Himalaya, including the `Karakoram anomaly', is crucial for understanding regional water resource trajectories. Streamflows dependent on glacial meltwater are strongly positively correlated with Karakoram summer air temperatures, which show recent anomalous cooling. We explain these temperature and streamflow anomalies through a circulation system--the Karakoram vortex--identified using a regional circulation metric that quantifies the relative position and intensity of the westerly jet. Winter temperature responses to this metric are homogeneous across South Asia, but the Karakoram summer response diverges from the rest of the Himalaya. We show that this is due to seasonal contraction of the Karakoram vortex through its interaction with the South Asian monsoon. We conclude that interannual variability in the Karakoram vortex, quantified by our circulation metric, explains the variability in energy-constrained ablation manifested in river flows across the Himalaya, with important implications for Himalayan glaciers' futures.

  18. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V


    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  19. Green thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Green components of thermodynamics were identified and general aspects of green practices associated with thermodynamics were assessed. Energy uses associated with fossil fuels were reviewed. Green energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower were discussed, as well as biomass plantations. Ethanol production practices were reviewed. Conservation practices in the United States were outlined. Energy efficiency and exergy analyses were discussed. Energy intensity measurements and insulation products for houses were also reviewed. Five case studies were presented to illustrate aspects of green thermodynamics: (1) light in a classroom; (2) fuel saved by low-resistance tires; and (3) savings with high-efficiency motors; (4) renewable energy; and (5) replacing a valve with a turbine at a cryogenic manufacturing facility. It was concluded that the main principles of green thermodynamics are to ensure that all material and energy inputs minimize the depletion of energy resources; prevent waste; and improve or innovate technologies that achieve sustainability. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  20. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, Peter T


    Exceptionally articulate treatment combines precise mathematical style with strong physical intuition. Wide range of applications includes negative temperatures, negative heat capacities, special and general relativistic effects, black hole thermodynamics, gravitational collapse, more. Over 100 problems with worked solutions. Advanced undergraduate, graduate level. Table of applications. Useful formulas and other data.

  1. A comparison of daily temperature-averaging methods: Uncertainties, spatial variability, and societal implications (United States)

    Bernhardt, Jase

    Traditionally, daily average temperature is computed by taking the mean of two values- the maximum temperature over a 24-hour period and the minimum temperature over the same period. These data form the basis for numerous studies of long-term climatologies (e.g. 30-year normals) and recent temperature trends and changes. However, many first-order weather stations (e.g. airports) also record hourly temperature data. Using an average of the 24 hourly temperature readings to compute daily average temperature should provide a more precise and representative estimate of a given day's temperature. These two methods of daily temperature averaging ([Tmax + Tmin]/2, average of 24 hourly temperature values) were computed and mapped for all first-order weather stations across the United States for the 30-year period 1981-2010. This analysis indicates a statistically significant difference between the two methods, as well as an overestimation of temperature by the traditional method ([Tmax + Tmin]/2), particularly in southern and coastal portions of the Continental U.S. The likely explanation for the long-term difference between the two methods is the underlying assumption of the twice-daily method that the diurnal curve of temperature follows a symmetrical pattern. There is an apparent relationship of these differences to the regional synoptic climatology, along with related factors such as land use/land cover and snow cover duration, which help to explain both seasonal patterns and spatial variability. Additional analysis of station normals based on hourly data should have numerous applications and benefits to society, such as better determination of heat wave severity and energy usage needs.

  2. Exergy-based ecological performance of an irreversible Otto cycle with temperature-linear-relation variable specific heat of working fluid (United States)

    Ge, Yanlin; Chen, Lingen; Qin, Xiaoyong; Xie, Zhihui


    Considering internal irreversibility loss (IIL), friction loss (FL) and heat transfer loss (HTL), an irreversible Otto cycle (IOC) model is built up by using air standard (AS) assumption. Based on finite-time thermodynamics (FTT), computing entropy generation rate (EGR) by using the irreversible losses in the cycle, the ecological function (EF) performance of the cycle is optimized when the specific heat (SH) of the working fluid (WF) varies with temperature with linear relation. Some important expressions, including efficiency, power output, EGR and EF, are obtained. Moreover, the effects of variable SH of WF and three losses on cycle performance are investigated. The research conclusion can provide some guidelines for the actual Otto cycle engine performance optimization.

  3. Influence of Siberian High on temperature variability over northern areas of South Asia (United States)

    Riaz, Syed Muhammad Fahad; Iqbal, Muhammad Jawed; Baig, Mirza Jawwad


    Siberian High pressure plays a significant role in wintertime climate variability over South Asia. It brings coldest air masses in the region. The available literature has linked Siberian High with climate of East Asia, central Asia, and Eurasia. This paper examines the linkage between Siberian High pressure and inter-annual variations in temperature over the region of South Asia during winters. The methods employed in this study are that of centers of action approach, maximum covariance, and canonical correlation analyses. The wintertime temperature is not only significantly influenced by the intensity of Siberian High pressure, but it is also significantly correlated with zonal movement of Indian Ocean High. The intensity of Siberian High pressure explains more variance of the temperature during winters over the South Asian region than that of large-scale circulation phenomena, namely, Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and El-Nino-Southern Oscillation. A linear model of wintertime temperature has also been constructed using the Siberian High pressure index and the Indian Ocean High longitudinal index, which explains 28% variability of wintertime temperature for the Northern part of South Asia. We have also presented the justification that this statistical evidence is supported by the circulations and changes in the atmosphere. The modes having maximum possible covariance between the regional wintertime temperature and sea-level pressure of Siberian High have been isolated using the method of maximum covariance analysis and the modes having maximum possible correlations between the two fields have been isolated using canonical correlation analysis.

  4. Estimation of the temperature spatial variability in confined spaces based on thermal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustyn Grzegorz


    Full Text Available In developed countries the salaries of office workers are several times higher than the total cost of maintaining and operating the building. Therefore even a small improvement in human work productivity and performance as a result of enhancing the quality of their work environment may lead to a meaningful economic benefits. The air temperature is the most commonly used indicator in assessing the indoor environment quality. What is more, it is well known that thermal comfort has the biggest impact on employees performance and their ability to work efficiently. In majority of office buildings, indoor temperature is managed by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC appliances. However the way how they are currently managed and controlled leads to the nonhomogeneous distribution of temperature in certain space. An approach to determining the spatial variability of temperature in confined spaces was introduced based on thermal imaging temperature measurements. The conducted research and obtained results enabled positive verification of the method and creation of surface plot illustrating the temperature variability.

  5. Estimation of the temperature spatial variability in confined spaces based on thermal imaging (United States)

    Augustyn, Grzegorz; Jurasz, Jakub; Jurczyk, Krzysztof; Korbiel, Tomasz; Mikulik, Jerzy; Pawlik, Marcin; Rumin, Rafał


    In developed countries the salaries of office workers are several times higher than the total cost of maintaining and operating the building. Therefore even a small improvement in human work productivity and performance as a result of enhancing the quality of their work environment may lead to a meaningful economic benefits. The air temperature is the most commonly used indicator in assessing the indoor environment quality. What is more, it is well known that thermal comfort has the biggest impact on employees performance and their ability to work efficiently. In majority of office buildings, indoor temperature is managed by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) appliances. However the way how they are currently managed and controlled leads to the nonhomogeneous distribution of temperature in certain space. An approach to determining the spatial variability of temperature in confined spaces was introduced based on thermal imaging temperature measurements. The conducted research and obtained results enabled positive verification of the method and creation of surface plot illustrating the temperature variability.

  6. Summer temperature and spatial variability of all-cause mortality in Surat city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Rathi


    Full Text Available Background: Ample information is available on extreme heat associated mortality for few Indian cities, but scant literature is available on effect of temperature on spatial variability of all-cause mortality for coastal cities. Objective: To assess the effect of daily maximum temperature, relative humidity and heat index on spatial variability of all-cause mortality for summer months (March to May from 2014 to 2015 for the urban population of Surat (coastal city. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the all-cause mortality data with temperature and humidity was performed on a total of 9,237 deaths for 184 summer days (2014-2015. Climatic and all-cause mortality data were obtained through Tutiempo website and Surat Municipal Corporation respectively. Bivariate analysis performed through SPSS. Observations: Mean daily mortality was estimated at 50.2 ± 8.5 for the study period with a rise of 20% all-cause mortality at temperature ≥ 40°C and rise of 10% deaths per day during extreme danger level (HI: > 54°C days. Spatial (Zone wise analysis revealed rise of 61% all-cause mortality for Southeast and 30% for East zones at temperature ≥ 40°C. Conclusions: All-cause mortality increased on high summer temperature days. Presence of spatial variation in all-cause mortality provided the evidence for high risk zones. Findings may be helpful in designing the interventions at micro level.

  7. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong


    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between

  8. Effect of solvent polarity and temperature on the spectral and thermodynamic properties of exciplexes of 1-cyanonaphthalene with hexamethylbenzene in organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asim, Sadia [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremaryrgasse 9, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Mansha, Asim [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremaryrgasse 9, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Grampp, Günter, E-mail: [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremaryrgasse 9, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Landgraf, Stephan [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremaryrgasse 9, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Zahid, Muhammad [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremaryrgasse 9, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan)


    Study of the effect of solvent polarity and temperature is done on the exciplex emission spectra of 1-cyanonaphthalene with hexamethylbenzene. Exciplex system is studied in the range of partially polar solvents and in solvent mixture of propyl acetate and butyronitrile. The unique feature of this solvent mixture is that only the solvent polarity changes (6.0≤ε{sub s}≤24.7) with the change in the mole fraction of solvents whereas the solvent viscosity and refractive index remains unaffected. Thermodynamic properties are calculated according to the models developed by Weller and Kuzmin. Fluorescence lifetimes for both the fluorophore as well as the exciplex are evaluated in all used solvents. Exciplex energetics as a function of solvent polarity and temperature are also discussed. Kuzmin model of self-consistent polarization is used for the explanation of the exciplex emission spectra. The effects of solvent polarity and temperature on energy of zero–zero transitions (hv{sub 0}{sup /}), Huang–Rhys factor (S), Gauss broadening of vibronic level (σ) and the dominant high-frequency vibration (hν{sub ν}) are investigated. The strong dependence of exciplex stability and energetics upon the solvent polarity and temperature are observed. Full charge transfer exciplexes were observed in solvents of all polarities and stronger exciplex with large emission intensities were found in solvents of low polarities but with the increase in solvent polarity the exciplex becomes weak and they dissociate fastly into radical ion pairs. The kinetic model of Kuzmin was observed to reduce into the Weller kinetic model for this exciplex system with ∆G{sub ET} = −0.22 eV and the spectral shift, h∆ν>0.2 eV. - Highlights: • Exciplex formed as a result of mixing of charge transfer and locally excited states. • Effect of solvents polarity and temperature on the exciplex stability and thermodynamics. • Solvent polarity will decide the formation of contact radical ion pair

  9. What are the Historical and Future Impacts of Temperature Variability on Thermoelectric Power Plant Performance? (United States)

    Henry, C.; Pratson, L.


    Current literature hypothesize that climate change-driven temperature increases will negatively affect the power production capacity of thermoelectric power plants, which currently produce ~88% of electricity used in the United States. This impact can occur through 1) warm cooling water that reduces the quantity of heat removed from the once-through (open-loop) steam system, 2) increased air temperature and/or humidity that decrease the amount of heat absorption in cooling towers/ponds of wet-recirculating (closed-loop) plants, and 3) environmental protection regulations that impose restrictions on both cooling water withdrawal volume and temperature of discharge. However, despite the widespread consensus that temperature and power generation are negatively related, different models yield a range of results and the magnitude of effects is uncertain. In this study, we test current literature's model predictions using historical data by assembling and analyzing a database of relevant parameters from distinct sources. We examine how daily and seasonal changes in cooling water, ambient air, and wet bulb temperatures have historically impacted coal and natural gas power plants in the U.S., focusing on 39 plants over a period up to 14 years. This allows us to assess how future changes in temperatures may affect generation. Our results suggest that water and ambient air temperatures have a lower impact on thermoelectric plant performance than previously predicted. Moreover, we find that recirculating power plants are more resilient to temperature variability than are once-through plants.

  10. The intraseasonal variability of winter semester surface air temperature in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejiang Yu


    Full Text Available This study investigates systematically the intraseasonal variability of surface air temperature over Antarctica by applying empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis to the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, US Department of Energy, Reanalysis 2 data set for the period of 1979 through 2007. The results reveal the existence of two major intraseasonal oscillations of surface temperature with periods of 26–30 days and 14 days during the Antarctic winter season in the region south of 60°S. The first EOF mode shows a nearly uniform spatial pattern in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean associated with the Antarctic Oscillation. The mode-1 intraseasonal variability of the surface temperature leads that of upper atmosphere by one day with the largest correlation at 300-hPa level geopotential heights. The intraseasonal variability of the mode-1 EOF is closely related to the variations of surface net longwave radiation the total cloud cover over Antarctica. The other major EOF modes reveal the existence of eastward propagating phases over the Southern Ocean and marginal region in Antarctica. The leading two propagating modes respond to Pacific–South American modes. Meridional winds induced by the wave train from the tropics have a direct influence on the surface air temperature over the Southern Ocean and the marginal region of the Antarctic continent.

  11. Elucidating the impact of temperature variability and extremes on cereal croplands through remote sensing. (United States)

    Duncan, John M A; Dash, Jadunandan; Atkinson, Peter M


    Remote sensing-derived wheat crop yield-climate models were developed to highlight the impact of temperature variation during thermo-sensitive periods (anthesis and grain-filling; TSP) of wheat crop development. Specific questions addressed are: can the impact of temperature variation occurring during the TSP on wheat crop yield be detected using remote sensing data and what is the impact? Do crop critical temperature thresholds during TSP exist in real world cropping landscapes? These questions are tested in one of the world's major wheat breadbaskets of Punjab and Haryana, north-west India. Warming average minimum temperatures during the TSP had a greater negative impact on wheat crop yield than warming maximum temperatures. Warming minimum and maximum temperatures during the TSP explain a greater amount of variation in wheat crop yield than average growing season temperature. In complex real world cereal croplands there was a variable yield response to critical temperature threshold exceedance, specifically a more pronounced negative impact on wheat yield with increased warming events above 35 °C. The negative impact of warming increases with a later start-of-season suggesting earlier sowing can reduce wheat crop exposure harmful temperatures. However, even earlier sown wheat experienced temperature-induced yield losses, which, when viewed in the context of projected warming up to 2100 indicates adaptive responses should focus on increasing wheat tolerance to heat. This study shows it is possible to capture the impacts of temperature variation during the TSP on wheat crop yield in real world cropping landscapes using remote sensing data; this has important implications for monitoring the impact of climate change, variation and heat extremes on wheat croplands. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Teaching Differentials in Thermodynamics Using Spatial Visualization (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yueh; Hou, Ching-Han


    The greatest difficulty that is encountered by students in thermodynamics classes is to find relationships between variables and to solve a total differential equation that relates one thermodynamic state variable to two mutually independent state variables. Rules of differentiation, including the total differential and the cyclic rule, are…

  13. Thermodynamic magnon recoil for domain wall motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, P.; Cao, Y.; Sinova, J.


    We predict a thermodynamic magnon recoil effect for domain wall motions in the presence of temperature gradients. All current thermodynamic theories assert that a magnetic domain wall must move toward the hotter side, based on equilibrium thermodynamic arguments. Microscopic calculations, on the

  14. Thermodynamic Characteristic Study of a High-temperature Flow-rate Control Valve for Fuel Supply of Scramjet Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ZENG Wen TONG Zhizhong LI Songjing LI Hongzhou ZHANG Liang


    ... and increasing of leakage,to the valve.In this paper,a high-temperature flow-rate control valve,pilot-controlled by a pneumatic servo system is developed to control the fuel supply for scramjet...

  15. Concise chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, APH


    EnergyThe Realm of ThermodynamicsEnergy BookkeepingNature's Driving ForcesSetting the Scene: Basic IdeasSystem and SurroundingsFunctions of StateMechanical Work and Expanding GasesThe Absolute Temperature Scale Forms of Energy and Their Interconversion Forms of Renewable Energy Solar Energy Wind Energy Hydroelectric Power Geothermal Energy Biomass Energy References ProblemsThe First Law of Thermodynamics Statement of the First Law Reversible Expansion of an Ideal GasConstant-Volume ProcessesConstant-Pressure ProcessesA New Function: EnthalpyRelationship between ?H and ?UUses and Conventions of

  16. Performance of a Small-Scale, Variable Temperature Fixed Dome Digester in a Temperate Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Castano


    Full Text Available Small-scale digesters, similar to popular Chinese designs, have the potential to address the energy needs of smaller dairy farmers in temperate U.S. climates. To assess this potential, a 1.14 m3 (300 gallon modified fixed-dome digester was installed and operated, at variable temperatures (5.3 to 27.9 °C typical of the Midwestern United States, from March 2010 to March 2011 (363 days. Temperature, gas production, and other variables were recorded. The system was fed with dilute dairy manure with 6% volatile solids (VS and an organic loading rate (OLR ranging from 0.83 to 2.43 kg volatile solids (VS/m3/day. The system was loaded with no interruption and exhibited no signs of inhibition from July 2010 to mid-November 2010 (129 days. During this period the digester temperature was over 20 °C with an average daily biogas production of 842 ± 69 L/day, a methane yield of 0.168 m3/kg VS added, and a Volatile Solids reduction of 36%. After the temperature dropped below 20 °C, the digester showed signs of inhibition and soured. These findings suggest that an ambient temperature, modified fixed dome digester could operate without temperature inhibition for approximately six months (169 days a year in a temperate climate when digester temperatures exceed 20 °C. However, during colder months the digester temperature must maintained above 20 °C for viable gas production year round.

  17. Thermodynamic interpretation of soft glassy rheology models. (United States)

    Sollich, Peter; Cates, Michael E


    Mesoscopic models play an important role in our understanding of the deformation and flow of amorphous materials. One such description, based on the shear transformation zone theory, has recently been reformulated within a nonequilibrium thermodynamics framework and found to be consistent with it. We show here that a similar interpretation can be made for the soft glassy rheology (SGR) model. Conceptually this means that the "noise temperature" x, proposed phenomenologically in the SGR model to control the dynamics of a set of slow mesoscopic degrees of freedom, can consistently be interpreted as their actual thermodynamic temperature. (Because such modes are slow to equilibrate, this generally does not coincide with the temperature of the fast degrees of freedom and/or heat bath.) If one chooses to make this interpretation, the thermodynamic framework significantly constrains extensions of the SGR approach to models in which x is a dynamical variable. We assess in this light some such extensions recently proposed in the context of shear banding.

  18. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David


    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  19. Variability of isolated colonies in bean nodulating Rhizobium strains before and after exposure to high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raposeiras Rui


    Full Text Available Irregular response to bean plants to Rhizobium inoculation has been attributed to among other factors, low competitive ability, low N2 fixation efficiency and genetic instability of the symbiont. This genetic instability caused by high rates of genomic rearrangements and/or plasmid deletions can be accentuated by high temperatures. This fact may limit the utilization of these strains as inoculants, especially in tropical soils. In this study, the variability of isolated colonies derived from effective R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (SLP1.3 and BR 10.026 and R tropici (SLA2.2 and BR322 strains was evaluated before and after exposure to high temperatures (four consecutive thermal shocks at 45masculineC. This evaluation involved plant dry matter analysis of inoculated plants and genotypic (plasmid profile and genomic patterns via RAPD analysis of the Rhizobium strains. The results evidenced that high temperature improve the natural performance variability especially between isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains. The plasmid profile of isolated colonies from R. tropici strains were identical regardless of temperature treatment whereas isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli alterations were detected especially after the thermal treatment. The genomic patterns generated by AP-PCR showed more alterations and genetic variation in isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains indicating that R. tropici strains are more stable and lower affected by high temperature.

  20. Life, hierarchy, and the thermodynamic machinery of planet Earth. (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel


    Throughout Earth's history, life has increased greatly in abundance, complexity, and diversity. At the same time, it has substantially altered the Earth's environment, evolving some of its variables to states further and further away from thermodynamic equilibrium. For instance, concentrations in atmospheric oxygen have increased throughout Earth's history, resulting in an increased chemical disequilibrium in the atmosphere as well as an increased redox gradient between the atmosphere and the Earth's reducing crust. These trends seem to contradict the second law of thermodynamics, which states for isolated systems that gradients and free energy are dissipated over time, resulting in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. This seeming contradiction is resolved by considering planet Earth as a coupled, hierarchical and evolving non-equilibrium thermodynamic system that has been substantially altered by the input of free energy generated by photosynthetic life. Here, I present this hierarchical thermodynamic theory of the Earth system. I first present simple considerations to show that thermodynamic variables are driven away from a state of thermodynamic equilibrium by the transfer of power from some other process and that the resulting state of disequilibrium reflects the past net work done on the variable. This is applied to the processes of planet Earth to characterize the generation and transfer of free energy and its dissipation, from radiative gradients to temperature and chemical potential gradients that result in chemical, kinetic, and potential free energy and associated dynamics of the climate system and geochemical cycles. The maximization of power transfer among the processes within this hierarchy yields thermodynamic efficiencies much lower than the Carnot efficiency of equilibrium thermodynamics and is closely related to the proposed principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP). The role of life is then discussed as a photochemical process that generates

  1. Variable Temperature Infrared Spectroscopy Investigations of Benzoic Acid Desorption from Sodium and Calcium Montmorillonite Clays. (United States)

    Nickels, Tara M; Ingram, Audrey L; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L


    Processes involved in thermal desorption of benzoic acid from sodium and calcium montmorillonite clays are investigated by using variable temperature diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). By monitoring the temperature dependence of infrared absorbance bands while heating samples, subtle changes in molecular vibrations are detected and employed to characterize specific benzoic acid adsorption sites. Abrupt changes in benzoic acid adsorption site properties occur for both clay samples at about 125 °C. Difference spectra absorbance band frequency variations indicate that adsorbed benzoic acid interacts with interlayer cations through water bridges and that these interactions can be disrupted by the presence of organic anions, in particular, benzoate.

  2. Conformational Analysis of (+)-Germacrene A by Variable Temperature NMR and NOE Spectroscopy


    Faraldos, Juan A.; Wu, Shuiqin; Chappell, Joe; Coates, Robert M.


    (+)-Germacrene A, an important intermediate in sesquiterpene biosynthesis, was isolated in pure form from a genetically engineered yeast and was characterized by chromatographic properties (TLC, GC), MS, optical rotation, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR data. Variable-temperature 500 MHz 1H NMR spectra in CDCl3 showed that this flexible cyclodecadiene ring exists as three NMR-distinguishable conformational isomers in a ratio of about 5:3:2 at or below ordinary probe temperature (25° C). The confor...

  3. Effective temperature in nonequilibrium state with heat flux using discrete variable model (United States)

    Sobolev, S. L.


    The effective temperature, which acts as a criterion for thermalization in systems with heat flux, has been introduced on the bases of a relatively simple discrete variable model (DVM). The DVM is inherently nonlocal and can be used to describe multi-length and -time scale heat conduction including low-dimensional and sub-continuum regimes. Under far from equilibrium conditions when the heat flux tends to its maximum possible value, the effective temperature and the corresponding nonequilibrium entropy go to zero, which points to a possible generalization of the third law in nonequilibrium situations.

  4. Temperature and pH Responsive Microfibers for Controllable and Variable Ibuprofen Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Tran


    Full Text Available Electrospun microfibers (MFs composed of pH and temperature responsive polymers can be used for controllable and variable delivery of ibuprofen. First, electrospinning technique was employed to prepare poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid (pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs containing ibuprofen. It was found that drug release rates from PCL MFs cannot be significantly varied by either temperature (22–40°C or pH values (1.7–7.4. In contrast, the ibuprofen (IP diffusion rates from pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs were very sensitive to changes in both temperature and pH. The IP release from pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs was highly linear and controllable when the temperature was above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST of pNIPAM-co-MAA (33°C and the pH was lower than the pKa of carboxylic acids (pH 2. At room temperature, however, the release rate was dramatically increased by nearly ten times compared to that at higher temperature and lower pH. Such a unique and controllable drug delivery system could be naturally envisioned to find many practical applications in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences such as programmable transdermal drug delivery.

  5. Long-term temperature trends and variability on Spitsbergen: the extended Svalbard Airport temperature series, 1898–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Nordli


    Full Text Available One of the few long instrumental records available for the Arctic is the Svalbard Airport composite series that hitherto began in 1911, with observations made on Spitsbergen, the largest island in the Svalbard Archipelago. This record has now been extended to 1898 with the inclusion of observations made by hunting and scientific expeditions. Temperature has been observed almost continuously in Svalbard since 1898, although at different sites. It has therefore been possible to create one composite series for Svalbard Airport covering the period 1898–2012, and this valuable new record is presented here. The series reveals large temperature variability on Spitsbergen, with the early 20th century warming as one striking feature: an abrupt change from the cold 1910s to the local maxima of the 1930s and 1950s. With the inclusion of the new data it is possible to show that the 1910s were colder than the years at the start of the series. From the 1960s, temperatures have increased, so the present temperature level is significantly higher than at any earlier period in the instrumental history. For the entire period, and for all seasons, there are positive, statistically significant trends. Regarding the annual mean, the total trend is 2.6°C/century, whereas the largest trend is in spring, at 3.9°C/century. In Europe, it is the Svalbard Archipelago that has experienced the greatest temperature increase during the latest three decades. The composite series may be downloaded from the home page of the Norwegian Meteorological Institute and should be used with reference to the present article.

  6. Using circular dichroism collected as a function of temperature to determine the thermodynamics of protein unfolding and binding interactions (United States)

    Greenfield, Norma J.


    Circular dichroism (CD) is an excellent spectroscopic technique for following the unfolding and folding of proteins as a function of temperature. One of its principal applications is to determine the effects of mutations and ligands on protein and polypeptide stability If the change in CD as a function of temperature is reversible, analysis of the data may be used to determined the van't Hoff enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) of unfolding, the midpoint of the unfolding transition (TM) and the free energy (ΔG) of unfolding. Binding constants of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions may also be estimated from the unfolding curves. Analysis of CD spectra obtained as a function of temperature is also useful to determine whether a protein has unfolding intermediates. Measurement of the spectra of five folded proteins and their unfolding curves at a single wavelength takes approximately eight hours. PMID:17406506

  7. An analysis of surface air temperature trends and variability along the Andes (United States)

    Franquist, Eric S.

    Climate change is difficult to study in mountainous regions such as the Andes since steep changes in elevation cannot always be resolved by climate models. However, it is important to examine temperature trends in this region as rises in surface air temperature are leading to the melting of tropical glaciers. Local communities rely on the glacier-fed streamflow to get their water for drinking, irrigation, and livestock. Moreover, communities also rely on the tourism of hikers who come to the region to view the glaciers. As the temperatures increase, these glaciers are no longer in equilibrium with their current climate and are receding rapidly and decreasing the streamflow. This thesis examines surface air temperature from 858 weather stations across Ecuador, Peru, and Chile in order to analyze changes in trends and variability. Three time periods were studied: 1961--1990, 1971--2000, and 1981--2010. The greatest warming occurred during the period of 1971--2000 with 92% of the stations experiencing positive trends with a mean of 0.24°C/decade. There was a clear shift toward cooler temperatures at all latitudes and below elevations of 500 m during the most recent time period studied (1981--2010). Station temperatures were more strongly correlated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), than the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). A principal component analysis confirmed ENSO as the main contributor of variability with the most influence in the lower latitudes. There were clear multidecadal changes in correlation strength for the PDO. The PDO contributed the most to the increases in station temperature trends during the 1961--1990 period, consistent with the PDO shift to the positive phase in the middle of this period. There were many strong positive trends at individual stations during the 1971--2000 period; however, these trends could not fully be attributed to ENSO, PDO, or SAM, indicating anthropogenic effects of

  8. Climate reconstructions of the NH mean temperature: Can underestimation of trends and variability be avoided? (United States)

    Christiansen, Bo


    Knowledge about the climate in the period before instrumental records are available is based on climate proxies obtained from tree-rings, sediments, ice-cores etc. Reconstructing the climate from such proxies is therefore necessary for studies of climate variability and for placing recent climate change into a longer term perspective. More than a decade ago pioneering attempts at using a multi-proxy dataset to reconstruct the Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean temperature resulted in the much published "hockey-stick"; a NH mean temperature that did not vary much before the rapid increase in the last century. Subsequent reconstructions show some differences but the overall "hockey-stick" structure seems to be a persistent feature However, there has been an increasing awareness of the fact that the applied reconstruction methods underestimate the low-frequency variability and trends. The recognition of the inadequacies of the reconstruction methods has to a large degree originated from pseudo-proxy studies, i.e., from long climate model experiments where artificial proxies have been generated and reconstructions based on these have been compared to the known model climate. It has also been found that reconstructions contain a large element of stochasticity which is revealed as broad distributions of skills. This means that it is very difficult to draw conclusions from a single or a few realizations. Climate reconstruction methods are based on variants of linear regression models relating temperatures and proxies. In this contribution we review some of the theory of linear regression and error-in-variables models to identify the sources of the underestimation of variability. Based on the gained insight we formulate a reconstruction method supposed to minimize this underestimation. The method is tested by applying it to an ensemble of surrogate temperature fields based on two climate simulations covering the last 500 and 1000 years. Compared to the RegEM TTLS method and a

  9. Thermodynamics of aqueous solutes at high temperatures and pressures: Application of the hydration theory and implications for fluid-mediated mass transfer (United States)

    Sulak, M.; Dolejs, D.


    Magmatic activity and prograde devolatilization of subducting or underplating lithologies release large quantities of aqueous fluids that act as mass and heat transfer agents in the planetary interiors. Understanding of mineral-melt-fluid interactions is essential for evaluating the effects of fluid-mediated mass transport in subduction zones, collisional orogens as well as in igneous provinces. The thermodynamic properties of aqueous species were frequently described by the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state [1] but its utility is limited by inavailability of the solvent dielectric properties at high pressures and temperatures, and by decoupling of species-solvent mechanical and electrostatic interactions that cannot be separated within the Born theory. Systematic description of the hydration process in a Born-Haber cycle leads to the following thermochemical contributions: (i) thermodynamic properties of an unhydrated species, (ii) the pressure-volume work required to create a cavity within the solvent to accommodate the species, described by the scaled particle theory, (iii) entropic contribution related to changes in the solute's and the solvent's kinetic degrees of freedom, and (iv) contribution from the solute-solvent molecular interactions and corresponding rearrangement of the solvent molecules to form the hydration shell. Application of the spatial correlation functions [2, 3] results in apparent Gibbs energy of aqueous species, ΔaGi = a + bT + cTlnT + dP + eTlnρ + fTρlnρ, where athrough f represent constants related to standard thermodynamic properties of aqueous species (ΔfH, S, V, cP) and to solvent volumetric properties at 298.15 K and 1 bar (ρ, α, β etc.). In phase equilibrium calculations, the number of required parameters often reduces to four (c = f = 0) while noting that H2O density as the only solvent-related property is accurately known to extreme temperatures and pressures. The equation of state parameters were calibrated for 30

  10. Holocene Southern Ocean surface temperature variability west of the Antarctic Peninsula. (United States)

    Shevenell, A E; Ingalls, A E; Domack, E W; Kelly, C


    The disintegration of ice shelves, reduced sea-ice and glacier extent, and shifting ecological zones observed around Antarctica highlight the impact of recent atmospheric and oceanic warming on the cryosphere. Observations and models suggest that oceanic and atmospheric temperature variations at Antarctica's margins affect global cryosphere stability, ocean circulation, sea levels and carbon cycling. In particular, recent climate changes on the Antarctic Peninsula have been dramatic, yet the Holocene climate variability of this region is largely unknown, limiting our ability to evaluate ongoing changes within the context of historical variability and underlying forcing mechanisms. Here we show that surface ocean temperatures at the continental margin of the western Antarctic Peninsula cooled by 3-4 °C over the past 12,000 years, tracking the Holocene decline of local (65° S) spring insolation. Our results, based on TEX(86) sea surface temperature (SST) proxy evidence from a marine sediment core, indicate the importance of regional summer duration as a driver of Antarctic seasonal sea-ice fluctuations. On millennial timescales, abrupt SST fluctuations of 2-4 °C coincide with globally recognized climate variability. Similarities between our SSTs, Southern Hemisphere westerly wind reconstructions and El Niño/Southern Oscillation variability indicate that present climate teleconnections between the tropical Pacific Ocean and the western Antarctic Peninsula strengthened late in the Holocene epoch. We conclude that during the Holocene, Southern Ocean temperatures at the western Antarctic Peninsula margin were tied to changes in the position of the westerlies, which have a critical role in global carbon cycling.

  11. Electromechanical characterization of piezoelectric actuators subjected to a variable pre-loading force at cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouaidy, M.; Saki, M.; Hammoudi, N.; Simonet, L. [IPN, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France)


    A dedicated apparatus was designed and constructed for studying the electromechanical behavior of prototype piezoelectric actuators subjected to a variable pre-loading force at cryogenic temperatures. This device was successfully used for testing a piezoelectric actuator of PICMA type from PI{sup TM}, for T in the range 2 K-300 K. The dielectric properties as well as dynamic properties were measured including the actuator characteristics when used as force sensor. The corresponding data are reported and discussed. (authors)

  12. Thermodynamic study of phase equilibrium of superionic alloys of Ag3SBr1-xClx system in the concentration range 0.0-0.4 and temperature range 370-395 K (United States)

    Moroz, M. V.; Prokhorenko, M. V.; Prokhorenko, S. V.; Reshetnyak, O. V.


    Thermodynamic assessment of the phase stability of the solid solutions of superionic alloys of the Ag3SBr1-xClx (I) system in the concentration range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4 and temperature range 370-395 K was performed. Partial functions of silver in the alloys of solid solution were used as the thermodynamic parameters. The values of partial thermodynamic functions were obtained with the use of the electromotive force method. Potential-forming processes were performed in electrochemical cells. Linear dependence of the electromotive force of cells on temperature was used to calculate the partial thermodynamic functions of silver in the alloys. The serpentine-like shape of the thermodynamic functions in the concentration range 0-4 is an evidence of the metastable state of solid solution. The equilibrium phase state of the alloys is predicted to feature the formation of the intermediate phase Ag3SBr0.76Cl0.24, and the solubility gap of the solid solution ranges of Ag3SBr0.76Cl0.24 and Ag3SBr.

  13. Modern thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh


    This textbook introduces thermodynamics with a modern approach, starting from four fundamental physical facts (the atomic nature of matter, the indistinguishability of atoms and molecules of the same species, the uncertainty principle, and the existence of equilibrium states) and analyzing the behavior of complex systems with the tools of information theory, in particular with Shannon's measure of information (or SMI), which can be defined on any probability distribution. SMI is defined and its properties and time evolution are illustrated, and it is shown that the entropy is a particular type of SMI, i.e. the SMI related to the phase-space distribution for a macroscopic system at equilibrium. The connection to SMI allows the reader to understand what entropy is and why isolated systems follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Llaw is also formulated for other systems, not thermally isolated and even open with respect to the transfer of particles. All the fundamental aspects of thermodynamics are d...

  14. Understanding the Influence of Terrestrial Water Anomalies on Summer Surface Air Temperature Variability over North America (United States)

    Merrifield, A.; Johnson, N. C.; Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S. P.


    Understanding natural variability in the climate system is vital for the detection and attribution of anthropogenically induced change in General Circulation Models (GCMs). GCM predictions of winter surface air temperature (SAT) variability generally are skillful at midlatitudes due to a strong coupling with tropical variability through atmospheric teleconnections. When atmospheric circulation weakens during the summer, however, GCM predictions of SAT variability are less skillful than during the winter, particularly over North America. This study examines the extent that terrestrial water anomalies in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) equivalent water thickness product influence patterns of summer SAT variability over North America from 2002 to 2014. Analysis of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) CM2.1 10-member ensemble indicates there is a significant land surface feedback on summer SAT. The GRACE product provides a metric for evaluating spurious soil moisture signals, which likely enhance summer SAT variability in the AMIP ensemble. To further investigate spatial patterns in soil moisture, simulated (AMIP) and reanalysis (Climate Prediction Center) rainfall patterns are used to demonstrate a potential cause-effect relationship between precipitation and terrestrial water anomalies. Finally, we evaluate whether soil moisture is a useful diagnostic for enhancing predictions of anomalous summer heat waves over North America.

  15. Last nine-thousand years of temperature variability in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Seppä


    Full Text Available The threat of future global warming has generated a major interest in quantifying past climate variability on centennial and millennial time-scales. However, palaeoclimatological records are often noisy and arguments about past variability are only possible if they are based on reproducible features in several reliably dated datasets. Here we focus on the last 9000 years, explore the results of 36 Holocene pollen-based July mean and annual mean temperature reconstructions from Northern Europe by stacking them to create summary curves, and compare them with a high-resolution, summary chironomid-based temperature record and other independent palaeoclimate records. The stacked records show that the "Holocene Thermal Maximum" in the region dates to 8000 to 4800 cal yr BP and that the "8.2 event" and the "Little Ice Age" at 500–100 cal yr BP are the clearest cold episodes during the Holocene. In addition, a more detailed analysis of the last 5000 years pinpoints centennial-scale climate variability with cold anomalies at 3800–3000 and 500–100 cal yr BP, a long, warmer period around 2000 cal yr BP, and a marked warming since the mid 19th century. The colder (warmer anomalies are associated with increased (decreased humidity over the northern European mainland, consistent with the modern high correlation between cold (warm and humid (dry modes of summer weather in the region. A comparison with the key proxy records reflecting the main forcing factors does not support the hypothesis that solar variability is the cause of the late-Holocene centennial-scale temperature changes. We suggest that the reconstructed anomalies are typical of Northern Europe and their occurrence may be related to the oceanic and atmospheric circulation variability in the North Atlantic – North-European region.

  16. Thermodynamics of the living organisms. Allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy, chemical energy and body temperature in mammals (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov


    The study present relationship between the total metabolic energy (ETME(c), J) derived as a function of body chemical energy (Gchem, J) and absolute temperature (Tb, K) in mammals: ETME(c) =Gchem (Tb/Tn). In formula the temperature Tn =2.73K appears normalization temperature. The calculated total metabolic energy ETME(c) differs negligible from the total metabolic energy ETME(J), received as a product between the basal metabolic rate (Pm, J/s) and the lifespan (Tls, s) of mammals: ETME = Pm×Tls. The physical nature and biological mean of the normalization temperature (Tn, K) is unclear. It is made the hypothesis that the kTn energy (where k= 1.3806×10-23 J/K -Boltzmann constant) presents energy of excitation states (modes) in biomolecules and body structures that could be in equilibrium with chemical energy accumulated in body. This means that the accumulated chemical energy allows trough all body molecules and structures to propagate excitations states with kTn energy with wavelength in the rage of width of biological membranes. The accumulated in biomolecules chemical energy maintains spread of the excited states through biomolecules without loss of energy.

  17. Variability of temperature properties over Kenya based on observed and reanalyzed datasets (United States)

    Ongoma, Victor; Chen, Haishan; Gao, Chujie; Sagero, Phillip Obaigwa


    Updated information on trends of climate extremes is central in the assessment of climate change impacts. This work examines the trends in mean, diurnal temperature range (DTR), maximum and minimum temperatures, 1951-2012 and the recent (1981-2010) extreme temperature events over Kenya. The study utilized daily observed and reanalyzed monthly mean, minimum, and maximum temperature datasets. The analysis was carried out based on a set of nine indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The trend of the mean and the extreme temperature was determined using Mann-Kendall rank test, linear regression analysis, and Sen's slope estimator. December-February (DJF) season records high temperature while June-August (JJA) experiences the least temperature. The observed rate of warming is + 0.15 °C/decade. However, DTR does not show notable annual trend. Both seasons show an overall warming trend since the early 1970s with abrupt and significant changes happening around the early 1990s. The warming is more significant in the highland regions as compared to their lowland counterparts. There is increase variance in temperature. The percentage of warm days and warm nights is observed to increase, a further affirmation of warming. This work is a synoptic scale study that exemplifies how seasonal and decadal analyses, together with the annual assessments, are important in the understanding of the temperature variability which is vital in vulnerability and adaptation studies at a local/regional scale. However, following the quality of observed data used herein, there remains need for further studies on the subject using longer and more data to avoid generalizations made in this study.

  18. Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    DOE-GTRC-05596 11/24/2104 Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate PI: Dr. Yi Deng (PI) School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1821, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Annular Modes (AMs) represent respectively the most important modes of low frequency variability in the tropical and extratropical circulations. The projection of future changes in the ENSO and AM variability, however, remains highly uncertain with the state-of-the-science climate models. This project conducted a process-resolving, quantitative evaluations of the ENSO and AM variability in the modern reanalysis observations and in climate model simulations. The goal is to identify and understand the sources of uncertainty and biases in models’ representation of ENSO and AM variability. Using a feedback analysis method originally formulated by one of the collaborative PIs, we partitioned the 3D atmospheric temperature anomalies and surface temperature anomalies associated with ENSO and AM variability into components linked to 1) radiation-related thermodynamic processes such as cloud and water vapor feedbacks, 2) local dynamical processes including convection and turbulent/diffusive energy transfer and 3) non-local dynamical processes such as the horizontal energy transport in the oceans and atmosphere. In the past 4 years, the research conducted at Georgia Tech under the support of this project has led to 15 peer-reviewed publications and 9 conference/workshop presentations. Two graduate students and one postdoctoral fellow also received research training through participating the project activities. This final technical report summarizes key scientific discoveries we made and provides also a list of all publications and conference presentations resulted from research activities at Georgia Tech. The main findings include

  19. Ice surface temperatures: seasonal cycle and daily variability from in-situ and satellite observations (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Høyer, Jacob L.; Nielsen-Englyst, Pia; Rasmussen, Till A. S.; Tonboe, Rasmus T.


    Surface temperature is an important parameter for understanding the climate system, including the Polar Regions. Yet, in-situ temperature measurements over ice- and snow covered regions are sparse and unevenly distributed, and atmospheric circulation models estimating surface temperature may have large biases. To change this picture, we will analyse the seasonal cycle and daily variability of in-situ and satellite observations, and give an example of how to utilize the data in a sea ice model. We have compiled a data set of in-situ surface and 2 m air temperature observations over land ice, snow, sea ice, and from the marginal ice zone. 2523 time series of varying length from 14 data providers, with a total of more than 13 million observations, have been quality controlled and gathered in a uniform format. An overview of this data set will be presented. In addition, IST satellite observations have been processed from the Metop/AVHRR sensor and a merged analysis product has been constructed based upon the Metop/AVHRR, IASI and Modis IST observations. The satellite and in-situ observations of IST are analysed in parallel, to characterize the IST variability on diurnal and seasonal scales and its spatial patterns. The in-situ data are used to estimate sampling effects within the satellite observations and the good coverage of the satellite observations are used to complete the geographical variability. As an example of the application of satellite IST data, results will be shown from a coupled HYCOM-CICE ocean and sea ice model run, where the IST products have been ingested. The impact of using IST in models will be assessed. This work is a part of the EUSTACE project under Horizon 2020, where the ice surface temperatures form an important piece of the puzzle of creating an observationally based record of surface temperatures for all corners of the Earth, and of the ESA GlobTemperature project which aims at applying surface temperatures in models in order to

  20. How Vial Geometry Variability Influences Heat Transfer and Product Temperature During Freeze-Drying. (United States)

    Scutellà, Bernadette; Passot, Stéphanie; Bourlés, Erwan; Fonseca, Fernanda; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian


    Vial design features can play a significant role in heat transfer between the shelf and the product and, consequently, in the final quality of the freeze-dried product. Our objective was to investigate the impact of the variability of some geometrical dimensions of a set of tubing vials commonly used for pharmaceuticals production on the distribution of the vial heat transfer coefficients (Kv) and its potential consequence on product temperature. Sublimation tests were carried out using pure water and 8 combinations of chamber pressure (4-50 Pa) and shelf temperature (-40°C and 0°C) in 2 freeze-dryers. Kv values were individually determined for 100 vials located in the center of the shelf. Vial bottom curvature depth and contact area between the vial and the shelf were carefully measured for 120 vials and these data were used to calculate Kv distribution due to variability in vial geometry. At low pressures commonly used for sensitive products (below 10 Pa), the vial-shelf contact area appeared crucial for explaining Kv heterogeneity and was found to generate, in our study, a product temperature distribution of approximately 2°C during sublimation. Our approach provides quantitative guidelines for defining vial geometry tolerance specifications and product temperature safety margins. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G


    A variable phase turbine assembly will be designed and manufactured having a turbine, operable with transcritical, two-phase or vapor flow, and a generator – on the same shaft supported by process lubricated bearings. The assembly will be hermetically sealed and the generator cooled by the refrigerant. A compact plate-fin heat exchanger or tube and shell heat exchanger will be used to transfer heat from the geothermal fluid to the refrigerant. The demonstration turbine will be operated separately with two-phase flow and with vapor flow to demonstrate performance and applicability to the entire range of low temperature geothermal resources. The vapor leaving the turbine is condensed in a plate-fin refrigerant condenser. The heat exchanger, variable phase turbine assembly and condenser are all mounted on single skids to enable factory assembly and checkout and minimize installation costs. The system will be demonstrated using low temperature (237F) well flow from an existing large geothermal field. The net power generated, 1 megawatt, will be fed into the existing power system at the demonstration site. The system will demonstrate reliable generation of inexpensive power from low temperature resources. The system will be designed for mass manufacturing and factory assembly and should cost less than $1,200/kWe installed, when manufactured in large quantities. The estimated cost of power for 300F resources is predicted to be less than 5 cents/kWh. This should enable a substantial increase in power generated from low temperature geothermal resources.

  2. Temperature and hydrologic variability of Lake Victoria, East Africa since the Late Pleistocene (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.


    Recent organic geochemical advances have facilitated the comparison between continental temperature change and hydrologic variability. TEX86, a proxy based on the lipids of aquatic Crenarchaeota that show a positive correlation with growth temperature, was used to reconstruct surface water temperatures from Lake Victoria, East Africa during the latest Pleistocene-Holocene. Hydrologic conditions were interpreted using paleoecological implications of shifting pollen and diatom assemblages found in the lake (Kendall, 1969; Stager et al., 2003) and will be compared with future compound specific δ13C data from terrestrial biomarkers in order to determine the patterns of rainfall and aridity in this region. Initial comparisons of climatic changes seen in temperature and hydrologic records appear to show consistency between warm/wet intervals and cool/dry intervals that is often assumed, but more rarely shown, in tropical Africa. Lake Victoria temperatures show a steady warming beginning 16 cal ka, with a pause around the Younger Dryas, dominated by arid conditions and strong savannah grassland development during this interval. There is continued warming to a sustained thermal maximum for this portion of the record at ~10.5-8.5 ka, which generally coincides with the beginning of the Holocene Hypsithermal, an interval of elevated temperatures and precipitation throughout much of tropical Africa. This thermal maximum occurs during the most humid interval of this record (~9.5-8.3 ka), shown by an increase of humid forest pollen and high diatom abundance (due to increased water column mixing and nutrient runoff). Temperatures abruptly cool ~1.5°C in <800 years while precipitation becomes somewhat more seasonally restricted, coinciding with an abrupt drop in inferred P:E ratio and reduction in wind-driven mixing. The record then shows a general cooling, reaching a Holocene thermal minimum of ~18.4°C at ~4.5 ka, contrary to other East African continental and marine

  3. Low-temperature thermodynamic investigation of the sulphur organic salts (TMTTF)2PF6 and (TMTTF)2Br (TMTTF = tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene): II. Dynamical aspects (United States)

    Lasjaunias, J. C.; Monceau, P.; Staresinic, D.; Biljakovic, K.; Carcel, C.; Fabre, J. M.


    This contribution is in continuation of our preceding publication (Lasjaunias J C, Brison J P, Monceau P, Staresinic D, Biljakovic K, Carcel C and Fabre J M 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 837) in which we have considered general aspects of the low-temperature thermodynamical properties of the quasi-one-dimensional organic salts based on sulphur donors with different ground states: (TMTTF)2PF6 in the spin-Peierls state and (TMTTF)2Br (TMTTF = tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene) with commensurate spin modulation. In this part, part II, we present our results on the dynamical aspects related to the non-equilibrium phenomena measured below 1 K. The metastable states excited to slightly higher temperature (by only a few per cent of the starting T0) relax very slowly to the heat bath environment, depending on the duration of the heat pumping. We compare the features observed in the relaxation rates in these two sulphur compounds with those measured for the incommensurate spin-density-wave compound (TMTSF)2PF6. We discuss the possible nature of the long-living low-energy excitations lying at the origin of this complex dynamical behaviour, in relation to their ground states.

  4. Local-scale spatial modelling for interpolating climatic temperature variables to predict agricultural plant suitability (United States)

    Webb, Mathew A.; Hall, Andrew; Kidd, Darren; Minansy, Budiman


    Assessment of local spatial climatic variability is important in the planning of planting locations for horticultural crops. This study investigated three regression-based calibration methods (i.e. traditional versus two optimized methods) to relate short-term 12-month data series from 170 temperature loggers and 4 weather station sites with data series from nearby long-term Australian Bureau of Meteorology climate stations. The techniques trialled to interpolate climatic temperature variables, such as frost risk, growing degree days (GDDs) and chill hours, were regression kriging (RK), regression trees (RTs) and random forests (RFs). All three calibration methods produced accurate results, with the RK-based calibration method delivering the most accurate validation measures: coefficients of determination ( R 2) of 0.92, 0.97 and 0.95 and root-mean-square errors of 1.30, 0.80 and 1.31 °C, for daily minimum, daily maximum and hourly temperatures, respectively. Compared with the traditional method of calibration using direct linear regression between short-term and long-term stations, the RK-based calibration method improved R 2 and reduced root-mean-square error (RMSE) by at least 5 % and 0.47 °C for daily minimum temperature, 1 % and 0.23 °C for daily maximum temperature and 3 % and 0.33 °C for hourly temperature. Spatial modelling indicated insignificant differences between the interpolation methods, with the RK technique tending to be the slightly better method due to the high degree of spatial autocorrelation between logger sites.

  5. Decadal variability in Gulf of Mexico sea surface temperatures since 1734 CE (United States)

    DeLong, K. L.; Maupin, C. R.; Flannery, J. A.; Quinn, T. M.; lin, K.; Shen, C.


    The Gulf of Mexico is a major source of moisture to North America and is a source region for the Gulf Stream, which transports ocean heat northward. Sea surface temperature (SST) variations on centennial to millennial time scales have been documented for this region using paleoceanographic proxies; however, records capable of resolving decadal to subannual variability are lacking. Here we present 274 years of monthly-resolved SST variations derived from records of strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) extracted from four Siderastrea siderea cores recovered from coral colonies within the Dry Tortugas National Park (24°42‧N, 82°48‧W) in the Gulf of Mexico. We find no significant difference in mean Sr/Ca among these cores and significant correlation between cores (r ≥ 0.90, p ≤ 0.05 for monthly). The cross-dated chronology, determined by counting annual bands and correlating Sr/Ca variations, agrees with four 230Th dates within ±2σ analytical precision. Calibration and verification of our multi-core coral Sr/Ca record with local temperature records reveals high agreement (Sr/Ca = -0.042 SST + 10.074, R2 = 0.96; σregression = 0.70°C, 1σ), similar to those reported for single cores from this location. We find winter SSTs tend to be more variable than summer SSTs (0.99 and 0.81°C, 1σ; respectively) with periodic intervals of 10 to 15 years with cooler summer temperatures. The average reconstructed SST during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1734-1880 CE) is colder (-0.82°C) than that during the late twentieth century (1971-2000 CE). The amplitude of decadal-scale variability (1 to 2.5°C) in the LIA is larger compared to similar scale variability in the twentieth century. The secular trend and decadal-scale variability in our reconstruction is broadly similar to an ~ decadally-resolved (~12 years/sample) Mg/Ca record from planktic foraminifer in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Richey et al., 2007), thus further confirming the reconstructed patterns of temperature

  6. Streams in the urban heat island: spatial and temporal variability in temperature (United States)

    Somers, Kayleigh A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Grace, James B.; Hassett, Brooke A.; Sudduth, Elizabeth B.; Wang, Siyi; Urban, Dean L.


    Streams draining urban heat islands tend to be hotter than rural and forested streams at baseflow because of warmer urban air and ground temperatures, paved surfaces, and decreased riparian canopy. Urban infrastructure efficiently routes runoff over hot impervious surfaces and through storm drains directly into streams and can lead to rapid, dramatic increases in temperature. Thermal regimes affect habitat quality and biogeochemical processes, and changes can be lethal if temperatures exceed upper tolerance limits of aquatic fauna. In summer 2009, we collected continuous (10-min interval) temperature data in 60 streams spanning a range of development intensity in the Piedmont of North Carolina, USA. The 5 most urbanized streams averaged 21.1°C at baseflow, compared to 19.5°C in the 5 most forested streams. Temperatures in urban streams rose as much as 4°C during a small regional storm, whereas the same storm led to extremely small to no changes in temperature in forested streams. Over a kilometer of stream length, baseflow temperature varied by as much as 10°C in an urban stream and as little as 2°C in a forested stream. We used structural equation modeling to explore how reach- and catchment-scale attributes interact to explain maximum temperatures and magnitudes of storm-flow temperature surges. The best predictive model of baseflow temperatures (R2  =  0.461) included moderately strong pathways directly (extent of development and road density) and indirectly, as mediated by reach-scale factors (canopy closure and stream width), from catchment-scale factors. The strongest influence on storm-flow temperature surges appeared to be % development in the catchment. Reach-scale factors, such as the extent of riparian forest and stream width, had little mitigating influence (R2  =  0.448). Stream temperature is an essential, but overlooked, aspect of the urban stream syndrome and is affected by reach-scale habitat variables, catchment-scale urbanization

  7. On multi-timescale variability of temperature in China in modulated annual cycle reference frame (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Wu, Zhaohua; Fu, Congbin; Zhou, Tianjun


    The traditional anomaly (TA) reference frame and its corresponding anomaly for a given data span changes with the extension of data length. In this study, the modulated annual cycle (MAC), instead of the widely used climatological mean annual cycle, is used as an alternative reference frame for computing climate anomalies to study the multi-timescale variability of surface air temperature (SAT) in China based on homogenized daily data from 1952 to 2004. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method is used to separate daily SAT into a high frequency component, a MAC component, an interannual component, and a decadal-to-trend component. The results show that the EEMD method can reflect historical events reasonably well, indicating its adaptive and temporally local characteristics. It is shown that MAC is a temporally local reference frame and will not be altered over a particular time span by an extension of data length, thereby making it easier for physical interpretation. In the MAC reference frame, the low frequency component is found more suitable for studying the interannual to longer timescale variability (ILV) than a 13-month window running mean, which does not exclude the annual cycle. It is also better than other traditional versions (annual or summer or winter mean) of ILV, which contains a portion of the annual cycle. The analysis reveals that the variability of the annual cycle could be as large as the magnitude of interannual variability. The possible physical causes of different timescale variability of SAT in China are further discussed.

  8. Thermodynamic properties of cryogenic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Leachman, Jacob; Lemmon, Eric; Penoncello, Steven


    This update to a classic reference text provides practising engineers and scientists with accurate thermophysical property data for cryogenic fluids. The equations for fifteen important cryogenic fluids are presented in a basic format, accompanied by pressure-enthalpy and temperature-entropy charts and tables of thermodynamic properties. It begins with a chapter introducing the thermodynamic relations and functional forms for equations of state, and goes on to describe the requirements for thermodynamic property formulations, needed for the complete definition of the thermodynamic properties of a fluid. The core of the book comprises extensive data tables and charts for the most commonly-encountered cryogenic fluids. This new edition sees significant updates to the data presented for air, argon, carbon monoxide, deuterium, ethane, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen and xenon. The book supports and complements NIST’s REFPROP - an interactive database and tool for the calculation of thermodynamic propertie...

  9. Time and Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Kyle


    Temperature is vital to the health and welfare of all living beings, and Earth's temperature varies considerably from place to place. Early humans could only live in warm areas such as the tropics. Although modern humans have the technology to keep their houses and offices warm even in cold environments, the growth and development of civilization has created unintentional effects. Cities are warmer than their surrounding regions, and on a global scale, Earth is experiencing rising temperatures. Thus, the science of thermodynamics offers an important tool to study these effects. "Time and

  10. Local Versus Remote Contributions of Soil Moisture to Near-Surface Temperature Variability (United States)

    Koster, R.; Schubert, S.; Wang, H.; Chang, Y.


    Soil moisture variations have a straightforward impact on overlying air temperatures, wetter soils can induce higher evaporative cooling of the soil and thus, locally, cooler temperatures overall. Not known, however, is the degree to which soil moisture variations can affect remote air temperatures through their impact on the atmospheric circulation. In this talk we describe a two-pronged analysis that addresses this question. In the first segment, an extensive ensemble of NASA/GSFC GEOS-5 atmospheric model simulations is analyzed statistically to isolate and quantify the contributions of various soil moisture states, both local and remote, to the variability of air temperature at a given local site. In the second segment, the relevance of the derived statistical relationships is evaluated by applying them to observations-based data. Results from the second segment suggest that the GEOS-5-based relationships do, at least to first order, hold in nature and thus may provide some skill to forecasts of air temperature at subseasonal time scales, at least in certain regions.

  11. Temperature variability and offset in steep alpine rock and ice faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hasler


    Full Text Available The thermal condition of high-alpine mountain flanks can be an important determinant of climate change impact on slope stability and correspondingly down-slope hazard regimes. In this study we analyze time-series from 17 shallow temperature-depth profiles at two field sites in steep bedrock and ice. Extending earlier studies that revealed the topographic variations in temperatures, we demonstrate considerable differences of annual mean temperatures for variable surface characteristics and depths within the measured profiles. This implies that measurements and model related to compact and near-vertical bedrock temperatures may deviate considerably from conditions in the majority of bedrock slopes in mountain ranges that are usually non-vertical and fractured. For radiation-exposed faces mean annual temperatures at depth are up to 3 °C lower and permafrost is likely to exist at lower elevations than reflected by estimates based on near-vertical homogeneous cases. Retention of a thin snow cover and ventilation effects in open clefts are most likely responsible for this cooling. The measurements presented or similar data could be used in the future to support the development and testing of models related to the thermal effect of snow-cover and fractures in steep bedrock.

  12. Ozone Depletion at Mid-Latitudes: Coupling of Volcanic Aerosols and Temperature Variability to Anthropogenic Chlorine (United States)

    Solomon, S.; Portmann, R. W.; Garcia, R. R.; Randel, W.; Wu, F.; Nagatani, R.; Gleason, J.; Thomason, L.; Poole, L. R.; McCormick, M. P.


    Satellite observations of total ozone at 40-60 deg N are presented from a variety of instruments over the time period 1979-1997. These reveal record low values in 1992-3 (after Pinatubo) followed by partial but incomplete recovery. The largest post-Pinatubo reductions and longer-term trends occur in spring, providing a critical test for chemical theories of ozone depletion. The observations are shown to be consistent with current understanding of the chemistry of ozone depletion when changes in reactive chlorine and stratospheric aerosol abundances are considered along with estimates of wave-driven fluctuations in stratospheric temperatures derived from global temperature analyses. Temperature fluctuations are shown to make significant contributions to model calculated northern mid-latitude ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chlorine activation on liquid sulfate aerosols at temperatures near 200-210 K (depending upon water vapor pressure), particularly after major volcanic eruptions. Future mid-latitude ozone recovery will hence depend not only on chlorine recovery but also on temperature trends and/or variability, volcanic activity, and any trends in stratospheric sulfate aerosol.

  13. Errors in Sounding of the Atmosphere Using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) Kinetic Temperature Caused by Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model Parameters (United States)

    Garcia-Comas, Maya; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Bermejo-Pantaleon, D.; Marshall, Benjamin T.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Gordley, L. L.; Russell, James M.


    The vast set of near global and continuous atmospheric measurements made by the SABER instrument since 2002, including daytime and nighttime kinetic temperature (T(sub k)) from 20 to 105 km, is available to the scientific community. The temperature is retrieved from SABER measurements of the atmospheric 15 micron CO2 limb emission. This emission separates from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions in the rarefied mesosphere and thermosphere, making it necessary to consider the CO2 vibrational state non-LTE populations in the retrieval algorithm above 70 km. Those populations depend on kinetic parameters describing the rate at which energy exchange between atmospheric molecules take place, but some of these collisional rates are not well known. We consider current uncertainties in the rates of quenching of CO2 (v2 ) by N2 , O2 and O, and the CO2 (v2 ) vibrational-vibrational exchange to estimate their impact on SABER T(sub k) for different atmospheric conditions. The T(sub k) is more sensitive to the uncertainty in the latter two and their effects depend on altitude. The T(sub k) combined systematic error due to non-LTE kinetic parameters does not exceed +/- 1.5 K below 95 km and +/- 4-5 K at 100 km for most latitudes and seasons (except for polar summer) if the Tk profile does not have pronounced vertical structure. The error is +/- 3 K at 80 km, +/- 6 K at 84 km and +/- 18 K at 100 km under the less favourable polar summer conditions. For strong temperature inversion layers, the errors reach +/- 3 K at 82 km and +/- 8 K at 90 km. This particularly affects tide amplitude estimates, with errors of up to +/- 3 K.

  14. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru


    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattice, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. New to this edition is the examination of magnetic crystals, where magnetic symmetry is essential for magnetic phase transitions. The multi-electron system is also discussed  theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for superconductivity in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and studied in-depth. Thermod...

  15. Summer temperature variability across four urban neighborhoods in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA (United States)

    Ellis, Kelsey N.; Hathaway, Jon M.; Mason, Lisa Reyes; Howe, David A.; Epps, Thomas H.; Brown, Vincent M.


    The urban heat island (UHI) is a well-documented effect of urbanization on local climate, identified by higher temperatures compared to surrounding areas, especially at night and during the warm season. The details of a UHI are city-specific, and microclimates may even exist within a given city. Thus, investigating the spatiotemporal variability of a city's UHI is an ongoing and critical research need. We deploy ten weather stations across Knoxville, Tennessee, to analyze the city's UHI and its differential impacts across urban neighborhoods: two each in four neighborhoods, one in more dense tree cover and one in less dense tree cover, and one each in downtown Knoxville and Ijams Nature Center that serve as control locations. Three months of temperature data (beginning 2 July 2014) are analyzed using paired-sample t tests and a three-way analysis of variance. Major findings include the following: (1) Within a given neighborhood, tree cover helps negate daytime heat (resulting in up to 1.19 ∘C lower maximum temperature), but does not have as large of an influence on minimum temperature; (2) largest temperature differences between neighborhoods occur during the day (0.38-1.16 ∘C difference), but larger differences between neighborhoods and the downtown control occur at night (1.04-1.88 ∘C difference); (3) presiding weather (i.e., air mass type) has a significant, consistent impact on the temperature in a given city, and lacks the differential impacts found at a larger-scale in previous studies; (4) distance from city center does not impact temperature as much as land use factors. This is a preliminary step towards informing local planning with a scientific understanding of how mitigation strategies may help minimize the UHI and reduce the effects of extreme weather on public health and well-being.

  16. The mortality burden of hourly temperature variability in five capital cities, Australia: Time-series and meta-regression analysis. (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Bambrick, Hilary; Su, Hong; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao


    Unstable weather, such as intra- and inter-day temperature variability, can impair the health and shorten the survival time of population around the world. Climate change will cause Earth's surface temperature rise, but has unclear effects on temperature variability, making it urgent to understand the characteristics of the burden of temperature variability on mortality, regionally and nationally. This paper aims to quantify the mortality risk of exposure to short-term temperature variability, estimate the resulting death toll and explore how the strength of temperature variability effects will vary as a function of city-level characteristics. Ten-year (2000-2009) time-series data on temperature and mortality were collected for five largest Australia's cities (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide), collectively registering 708,751 deaths in different climates. Short-term temperature variability was captured and represented as the hourly temperature standard deviation within two days. Three-stage analyses were used to assess the burden of temperature variability on mortality. First, we modelled temperature variability-mortality relation and estimated the relative risk of death for each city, using a time-series quasi-Poisson regression model. Second, we used meta-analysis to pool the city-specific estimates, and meta-regression to explore if some city-level factors will modify the population vulnerability to temperature variability. Finally, we calculated the city-specific deaths attributable to temperature variability, and applied such estimates to the whole of Australia as a reflection of the nation-wide death burden associated with temperature variability. We found evidence of significant associations between temperature variability and mortality in all cities assessed. Deaths associated with each 1°C rise in temperature variability elevated by 0.28% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05%, 0.52%) in Melbourne to 1.00% (95%CI: 0.52%, 1.48%) in Brisbane

  17. Use of thermogravimetry and thermodynamic calculations for specifying chromium diffusion occurring in alloys containing chromium carbides during high temperature oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthod, Patrice, E-mail:; Conrath, Elodie


    The chromium diffusion is of great importance for the high temperature oxidation behaviour of the chromium-rich carbides-strengthened superalloys. These ones contain high chromium quantities for allowing them well resisting hot corrosion by constituting and maintaining a continuous external scale of chromia. Knowing how chromium can diffuse in such alloys is thus very useful for predicting the sustainability of their chromia-forming behaviour. Since Cr diffusion occurs through the external part of the alloy already affected by the previous steps of oxidation (decarburized subsurface) it is more judicious to specify this diffusion during the oxidation process itself. This was successfully carried out in this work in the case of a model chromia-forming nickel-based alloy containing chromium carbides, Ni(bal.)–25Cr–0.5C (in wt.%). This was done by specifying, using real-time thermogravimetry, the mass gain kinetic due to oxidation, and by combining it with the post-mortem determination of the Cr concentration profiles in subsurface. The values of D{sub Cr} thus obtained for 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C in the alloy subsurface are consistent with the values obtained in earlier works for similar alloy's chemical compositions. - Highlights: • A Ni25Cr0.50C alloy was oxidized at high temperature in a thermo-balance. • The mass gain files were analysed to specify the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} volatilization constant K{sub v}. • Concentration profiles were acquired to specify the chromium gradient. • The diffusion coefficient of chromium through the subsurface was deduced. • The obtained diffusion coefficient is consistent with values previously obtained.

  18. Surface flux response to interannual tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability in AMIP models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeman, R.; Wang, G. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Research Centre; Jewson, S. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)


    A systematic comparison of observed and modeled atmospheric surface heat and momentum fluxes related to sea surface temperature (SST) variability on interannual time scales in the tropical Pacific is conducted. This is done to examine the ability of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) to simulate the surface fluxes important for driving the ocean on interannual time scales. In order to estimate the model and observed response to such SST variability, various regression calculations are made between a time series representing observed ENSO SST variability in the tropical Pacific and the resulting surface flux anomalies. The models exhibit a range of differences from the observations. Overall the zonal wind stress anomalies are most accurately simulated while the solar radiation anomalies are the least accurately depicted. The deficiencies in the solar radiation are closely related to errors in cloudiness. The total heat flux shows some cancellation of the errors in its components particularly in the central Pacific. The performance of the GCMs in simulating the surface flux anomalies seems to be resolution dependent and low-resolution models tend to exhibit weaker flux responses. The simulated responses in the western Pacific are more variable than those of the central and eastern Pacific but in the west the observed estimates are less robust as well. Further improvements in atmospheric GCM flux simulation through better physical parametrization is clearly required if such models are to be used to their full potential in coupled modeling and climate forecasting. (orig.)

  19. Variable Temperature Infrared Spectroscopy Studies of Aromatic Acid Adsorbate Effects on Montmorillonite Dehydration. (United States)

    Ingram, Audrey L; Nickels, Tara M; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L


    Molecular interactions between benzoic, salicylic, and acetylsalicylic acids and water contained within montmorillonite clay interlayer spaces are characterized by using variable temperature diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (VT-DRIFTS). By using sample perturbation and difference spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectral variations resulting from the removal of interlayer water are used to characterize aromatic acid local environment changes. Difference spectra features representing functional group perturbations are correlated with changes in IR absorptions associated with -O-H and -C = O stretching vibrations. Results suggest that adsorbate carboxylic acid functionalities participate in extensive hydrogen bonding and that the strengths of these interactions are diminished when clays are dehydrated. The nature of these interactions and their temperature-dependent properties are found to depend on adsorbate structure and concentration as well as the clay interlayer cation.

  20. Conformational Analysis of (+)-Germacrene A by Variable Temperature NMR and NOE Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Faraldos, Juan A; Wu, Shuiqin; Chappell, Joe; Coates, Robert M


    (+)-Germacrene A, an important intermediate in sesquiterpene biosynthesis, was isolated in pure form from a genetically engineered yeast and was characterized by chromatographic properties (TLC, GC), MS, optical rotation, UV, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR data. Variable-temperature 500 MHz (1)H NMR spectra in CDCl(3) showed that this flexible cyclodecadiene ring exists as three NMR-distinguishable conformational isomers in a ratio of about 5:3:2 at or below ordinary probe temperature (25° C). The conformer structures were assigned by (1)H NMR data comparisons, NOE experiments, and vicinal couplings as follows: 1a (52%, UU), 1b (29% UD), and 1c (19%, DU).

  1. Global-mean surface temperature variability: space-time perspective from rotated EOFs (United States)

    Chen, Xianyao; Tung, Ka-Kit


    The observed global-mean surface temperature (GST) has been warming in the presence of increasing atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases, but its rise has not been monotonic. Attention has increasingly been focused on the prominent variations about the linear trend in GST, especially on interdecadal and multidecadal time scales. When the sea-surface temperature (SST) and the land- plus-ocean surface temperature (ST) are averaged globally to yield the global-mean SST (GSST) and the GST, respectively, spatial information is lost. Information on both space and time is needed to properly identify the modes of variability on interannual, decadal, interdecadal and multidecadal time scales contributing to the GSST and GST variability. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is usually employed to extract the space-time modes of climate variability. Here we use the method of pair-wise rotation of the principal components (PCs) to extract the modes in these time-scale bands and obtain global spatial EOFs that correspond closely with regionally defined climate modes. Global averaging these clearly identified global modes allows us to reconstruct GSST and GST, and in the process identify their components. The results are: Pacific contributes to the global mean variation mostly on the interannual time scale through El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its teleconnections, while the Atlantic contributes strongly to the global mean on the multidecadal time scale through the interhemispheric mode called the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) has twice as large a variance as the AMO, but its contribution to GST is only 1/10 that of the AMO because of its compensating patterns of cold and warm SST in northwest and northeast Pacific. Its teleconnection pattern, the Pacific/North America (PNA) pattern over land, is also found to be self-cancelling when globally averaged because of its alternating warm and cold centers. The

  2. Concurrent Integration of Science-Based Mechanistic Relationships with Computational Thermodynamics and Kinetic Simulations for Strengthening Magnesium Alloys at Elevated Temperatures (United States)

    Bryan, Z. L.; Manuel, M. V.


    Integrated computational materials engineering approaches to alloy development leverage the hierarchical, interconnected nature of materials systems to rapidly optimize material performance. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of predictive models and simulation tools to elucidate fundamental relationships within the processing-structure-processing materials paradigm. For the current work, computational simulation results were used in combination with mechanistic, science-based models to assist alloy design. Two case studies are presented as illustrative examples that focus on high-temperature magnesium (Mg) alloy development. Solid solution strengthening potency and solute-based effects on creep rate were discussed in the first case study to guide strategies for solute selection in alloy development. This analysis was completed through the identification of composition-sensitive microstructural parameters that were subsequently evaluated in a predictive fashion. The second case study used computational thermo-kinetic simulations to evaluate Mg alloy precipitate systems for their ability to nucleate a high number density of coarsening-resistant particles. This nucleation and growth analysis was then applied to a Mg-Sn-Al alloy to highlight the utility of the current methodology in predicting multicomponent alloy precipitation behavior. This paper ultimately seeks to provide insight into an integrative approach that captures the important underlying material physics through relationships parameterized by descriptive thermodynamic and kinetic factors, where these factors can be readily calculated with a commercially available suite of computational tools in concert with accessible data in the literature.

  3. Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies of the human telomerase RNA pseudoknot: temperature-/urea-dependent folding kinetics and thermodynamics. (United States)

    Holmstrom, Erik D; Nesbitt, David J


    The ribonucleoprotein telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that catalyzes the repetitive addition of a short, species-specific, DNA sequence to the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. The single RNA component of telomerase contains both the template sequence for DNA synthesis and a functionally critical pseudoknot motif, which can also exist as a less stable hairpin. Here we use a minimal version of the human telomerase RNA pseudoknot to study this hairpin-pseudoknot structural equilibrium using temperature-controlled single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments. The urea dependence of these experiments aids in determination of the folding kinetics and thermodynamics. The wild-type pseudoknot behavior is compared and contrasted to a mutant pseudoknot sequence implicated in a genetic disorder-dyskeratosis congenita. These findings clearly identify that this 2nt noncomplementary mutation destabilizes the folding of the wild-type pseudoknot by substantially reducing the folding rate constant (≈ 400-fold) while only nominally increasing the unfolding rate constant (≈ 5-fold). Furthermore, the urea dependence of the equilibrium and rate constants is used to develop a free energy landscape for this unimolecular equilibrium and propose details about the structure of the transition state. Finally, the urea-dependent folding experiments provide valuable physical insights into the mechanism for destabilization of RNA pseudoknots by such chemical denaturants.

  4. Quantum-mechanical study of tensorial elastic and high-temperature thermodynamic properties of grain boundary states in superalloy-phase Ni3Al (United States)

    Friák, Martin; Všianská, Monika; Holec, David; Šob, Mojmír


    Grain boundaries (GBs), the most important defects in solids and their properties are crucial for many materials properties including (in-)stability. Quantum-mechanical methods can reliably compute properties of GBs and we use them to analyze (tensorial) anisotropic elastic properties of interface states associated with GBs in one of the most important intermetallic compounds for industrial applications, Ni3Al. Selecting the Σ5(210) GBs as a case study because of its significant extra volume, we address the mechanical stability of the GB interface states by checking elasticity-based Born stability criteria. One critically important elastic constant, C 55, is found nearly three times smaller at the GB compared with the bulk, contributing thus to the reduction of the mechanical stability of Ni3Al polycrystals. Next, comparing properties of Σ5(210) GB state which is fully relaxed with those of a Σ5(210) GB state when the supercell dimensions are kept equal to those in the bulk we conclude that lateral relaxations have only marginal impact on the studied properties. Having the complete elastic tensor of Σ5(210) GB states we combine Green’s-function based homogenization techniques and an approximative approach to the Debye model to compare thermodynamic properties of a perfect Ni3Al bulk and the Σ5(210) GB states. In particular, significant reduction of the melting temperature (to 79-81% of the bulk value) is predicted for nanometer-size grains.

  5. Temperature variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Milan M.


    Full Text Available According to data of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climatic Change, the global surface air temperature increased to 0,6 ± 0,2 °C in the 20th century. Weber G. R., (1995 quotes that there is a trend of cold in the last 60 years in the middle latitudes including Europe, too. Starting from already mentioned perplexities we have tried to perceive the problem of climate variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century, when it came to very important increasing of concentration of CO2. With that aim we observed the decade values of average annual temperatures in the network of 20 climatic stations. In the period 1951 - 1990 a decrease of temperature was registered in 13 stations while in other stations an increase was less than 0,1 °C. Explorers from Bulgaria (Alexandrov V., 2000 and Hungary (Domonkos P., Zoboki J., 2000 came to similar results, too. However, if we take in account the last decade 20th century the number of stations with positive changes is enlarged on 15. Stations that have small changes and those with decrease of temperature were localized in the south and south eastern part of the country, and they are mainly coincided with before separated climatic regions with maritime pluviometric regime (Radovanović M., 2001. Using Dzerdzevskis B. L., (1975 division on three main types of circulation in the north hemisphere, we found that the increase of temperatures in the last decade 20th century is above all caused by change of dominant type of circulation from the south meridian to zonal. An analysis of seasonal changes showed that in the last five decades 20th century it came to decrease of winter temperatures in almost half of the stations in contrast with results of paleoclimatics models of possible greenhouse effect.

  6. High energy lithium-oxygen batteries - Transport barriers and thermodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Shyamal K.


    We show that it is possible to achieve higher energy density lithium-oxygen batteries by simultaneously lowering the discharge overpotential and increasing the discharge capacity via thermodynamic variables alone. By assessing the relative effects of temperature and pressure on the cell discharge profiles, we characterize and diagnose the critical roles played by multiple dynamic processes that have hindered implementation of the lithium-oxygen battery. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Impact of Air Temperature and SST Variability on Cholera Incidence in Southeastern Africa, 1971-2006 (United States)

    Paz, Shlomit


    The most important climatic parameter related to cholera outbreaks is the temperature, especially of the water bodies and the aquatic environment. This factor governs the survival and growth of V. cholerae, since it has a direct influence on its abundance in the environment, or alternatively, through its indirect influence on other aquatic organisms to which the pathogen is found to attach. Thus, the potential for cholera outbreaks may rise, parallel to the increase in ocean surface temperature. Indeed, recent studies indicate that global warming might create a favorable environment for V. cholerae and increase its incidence in vulnerable areas. Africa is vulnerable to climate variability. According to the recent IPCC report on Africa, the air temperature has indicated a significant warming trend since the 1960s. In recent years, most of the research into disease vectors in Africa related to climate variability has focused on malaria. The IPCC indicated that the need exists to examine the vulnerabilities and impacts of climatic factors on cholera in Africa. In light of this, the study uses a Poisson Regression Model to analyze the possible association between the cholera rates in southeastern Africa and the annual variability of air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) at regional and hemispheric scales, for the period 1971-2006. Data description is as follows: Number of cholera cases per year in Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique. Source: WHO Global Health Atlas - cholera. Seasonal and annual temperature time series: Regional scale: a) Air temperature for southeastern Africa (30° E-36° E, 5° S-17° S), source: NOAA NCEP-NCAR; b) Sea surface temperature, for the western Indian Ocean (0-20° S, 40° E-45° E), source: NOAA, Kaplan SST dataset. Hemispheric scale (for the whole Southern Hemisphere): a) Air temperature anomaly; b) Sea surface temperature anomaly. Source: CRU, University of East Anglia. The following

  8. Short Temporal Scale Variability of Low Cloud Regimes/Vertical Structures and Large-Scale Thermodynamics and Dynamics over the Southeastern Pacific Using MODIS and ERA-Reanalysis Data (United States)

    Kubar, T. L.; Lebsock, M. D.


    boundary layer depths as observed from MODIS, especially between 110°W and 80°W. Maximum coherence between the vertical gradient of equivalent potential temperature or EIS and cloud depth is achieved with zero-day lag, whereas positive pressure vertical velocity anomalies (ω) tend to lead EIS and also cloud depths by a few days, albeit with weaker temporal correlations. Inversion strength co-varies with low cloud fraction at the synoptic scale more weakly than inversion strength or stability does with cloud depth. Physical interpretation of synoptic-scale anomalies of the large-scale dynamics and boundary layer cloud properties over the southeast Pacific is provided, with shorter time-scale variability of clouds better explained by vertical velocity anomalies and slightly longer time-scale variability associated with inversion strength and low-level thermodynamic properties. Finally, since boundary layer cloud heights/depths appear to be intrinsically related to stability/inversion properties, a thorough cloud height/depth climatology is examined with MODIS, GPS, and Calipso for closer comparison with GCM low cloud heights/fraction as a function of boundary layer regime.

  9. Solvation thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh


    This book deals with a subject that has been studied since the beginning of physical chemistry. Despite the thousands of articles and scores of books devoted to solvation thermodynamics, I feel that some fundamen­ tal and well-established concepts underlying the traditional approach to this subject are not satisfactory and need revision. The main reason for this need is that solvation thermodynamics has traditionally been treated in the context of classical (macroscopic) ther­ modynamics alone. However, solvation is inherently a molecular pro­ cess, dependent upon local rather than macroscopic properties of the system. Therefore, the starting point should be based on statistical mechanical methods. For many years it has been believed that certain thermodynamic quantities, such as the standard free energy (or enthalpy or entropy) of solution, may be used as measures of the corresponding functions of solvation of a given solute in a given solvent. I first challenged this notion in a paper published in 1978 b...

  10. Seasonal variability of the temperature and heat fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavala Hidalgo, J.; Pares Sierra, A.; Ochoa, J. [Division de Oceanologia, CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)


    Heat fluxes between the atmosphere and the sea surface in the Gulf of Mexico are computed using COADS climatology, bulk formulae, radiation estimations from satellite, and a numerical model. 9 W m{sup -}2 is the estimated mean surface heat flux into the ocean, this is higher than previous studies due to different bulk formulae and data sources. The annual cycle has an amplitude of 168 W m{sup -}2. The contribution of each term in the heat equation is computed, analyzed and compared to previous studies. A numerical model with thermodynamics is used to study the relative importance of heat advection and entrainment on the sea surface temperature. The results indicate that the entrainment is important in the winter cooling of surface waters. When entrainment, which depends on the buoyancy loss and the wind induced turbulent kinetic energy, is not included, temperatures in winter stay higher than observations, with a root mean square (RMS) difference from observations of 1.5 C. Including entrainment and detainment the RMS decreases to 1.0 C. [Spanish] Se estudian los flujos de calor entre la atmosfera y la superficie del mar en el Golfo de Mexico, utilizando los datos climatologicos de la base Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphera Data Set (COADS), formulas empiricas, estimaciones de la radiacion mediante satelite y con la ayuda de la modelacion numerica. Para los flujos superficiales de calor se obtuvo una media de 9 W m{sup -}2. Este valor es mas alto que el de estudios previos debido a que se utilizaron distintas fuentes de datos y formulas empiricas. Para el ciclo anual se obtuvo una amplitud de 168 W m{sup -}2. Se calcula y analiza la contribucion de cada termino en la ecuacion de calor comparando los valores obtenidos con los de estudios previos. Un modelo numerico con termodinamica es utilizado para estudiar la importancia relativa de la adveccion de calor y los flujos verticales asociados al aporte de agua de la capa intermedia a la superficial. Los resultados

  11. Thermodynamics from concepts to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shavit, Arthur


    The book presents a logical methodology for solving problems in the context of conservation laws and property tables or equations. The authors elucidate the terms around which thermodynamics has historically developed, such as work, heat, temperature, energy, and entropy. Using a pedagogical approach that builds from basic principles to laws and eventually corollaries of the laws, the text enables students to think in clear and correct thermodynamic terms as well as solve real engineering problems.

  12. THERRP: a thermodynamic properties program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeds, R.S.


    The computer program THERPP, a program that calculates the thermodynamic properties of light hydrocarbons and mixtures of light hydrocarbons is documented. A specific pressure--temperature or pressure--enthalpy grid is input to obtain properties in the desired region. THERPP is a modification of the program HSGC. Thermodynamic properties are calculated using Starling's modification to the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state.

  13. Potential relation between equatorial sea surface temperatures and historic water level variability for Lake Turkana, Kenya (United States)

    Bloszies, Chris; Forman, Steven L.


    Water level in Lake Turkana, Kenya in the past ca. 150 years is controlled primarily from the biannual passage of the East and West African Monsoon, with rainfall volume related partially to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Western Indian and East Atlantic oceans. Empirical orthogonal function analyses show significant correlation between Eastern Atlantic or Western Indian SSTs and lake level anomalies, with the first mode accounting for 66% and 55% of the variability. The primary geographic loadings are consistent with a Gulf of Guinea moisture source and positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) state. The second mode explains 10% of variability, and reflects the westward extension of an Indian Ocean cool pool, potentially indicative of a normal to a negative IOD state. There is significant spatial correlation between basin rainfall anomalies associated with Eastern Atlantic SSTs and a low in the continental divide between the Kenyan and the Ethiopian Highlands, which is a passage for moisture from the Congo Basin. Linear regression analysis with Bootstrap sampling and Monte Carlo simulations define numeric relations between Western Indian and Eastern Atlantic SSTs and lake level change for AD 1992-2013. The monthly and yearly lake level reconstructions based on this numeric analysis capture the decadal-scale variability and the 15 m drop in water level in the early 20th century. Meter-scale variability in lake level since ca. AD 1930 is associated with precipitation sourced from the Western Indian Ocean with IOD variability, whereas the 15 m drop in water level in the early 20th century may reflect a profound decrease in moisture from Atlantic/Congo Basin source. These numerical solutions are poised to reconstruct water level variations in the past ca. 300 years for Lake Turkana with new proxy records of SSTs from the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Guinea.

  14. Enhancement of the spring East China precipitation response to tropical sea surface temperature variability (United States)

    Zhang, Mengqi; Sun, Jianqi


    The boreal spring relationship between variabilities of East China precipitation (ECP) and tropical Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) during the period 1951-2014 is investigated in this study. The results show that the leading mode of the ECP variability exhibits an enhanced response to the anomalous El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like SST after the late 1970s, when the SST underwent a decadal change, with two positive centers over the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) and tropical Indian Ocean (TIO). To further understand the relative roles of the ETP and TIO SST anomalies (SSTAs) in the variability of ECP after the late 1970s, partial regression and correlation methods are used. It is found that, without the contribution of the TIO, ETP SSTA plays a limited role in the variability of ECP after the late 1970s; comparatively, a significant correlation between TIO SST and ECP is identified during the same period, when the ETP signal is linearly removed. Physical analyses show that, after the late 1970s, the TIO SSTA affects East Asian atmospheric circulation in two ways: by exciting a zonal wave-train pattern over the mid-latitude Eurasian Continent and by inducing anomalous convection over the Maritime Continent. Via these two mechanisms, the TIO SST variability results in an anomalous East Asian trough and vertical motion over East China and consequently leads to anomalous precipitation over the region. The physical processes linking the ECP and TIO SST are confirmed by an atmospheric general circulation model experiment forced with idealized TIO warming.

  15. Mapping surface temperature variability on a debris-covered glacier with an unmanned aerial vehicle (United States)

    Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.; Litt, M.; Shea, J. M.; Treichler, D.; Koch, I.; Immerzeel, W.


    Debris-covered glacier tongues cover about 12% of the glacier surface in high mountain Asia and much of the melt water is generated from those glaciers. A thin layer of supraglacial debris enhances ice melt by lowering the albedo, while thicker debris insulates the ice and reduces melt. Data on debris thickness is therefore an important input for energy balance modelling of these glaciers. Thermal infrared remote sensing can be used to estimate the debris thickness by using an inverse relation between debris surface temperature and thickness. To date this has only been performed using coarse spaceborne thermal imagery, which cannot reveal small scale variation in debris thickness and its influence on the heterogeneous melt patterns on debris-covered glaciers. We deployed an unmanned aerial vehicle mounted with a thermal infrared sensor over the debris-covered Lirung Glacier in Nepal three times in May 2016 to reveal the spatial and temporal variability of surface temperature in high detail. The UAV survey matched a Landsat 8 overpass to be able to make a comparison with spaceborne thermal imagery. The UAV-acquired data is processed using Structure from Motion photogrammetry and georeferenced using DGPS-measured ground control points. Different surface types were distinguished by using data acquired by an additional optical UAV survey in order to correct for differences in surface emissivity. In situ temperature measurements and incoming solar radiation data are used to calibrate the temperature calculations. Debris thicknesses derived are validated by thickness measurements of a ground penetrating radar. Preliminary analysis reveals a spatially highly heterogeneous pattern of surface temperature over Lirung Glacier with a range in temperature of over 40 K. At dawn the debris is relatively cold and its temperature is influenced strongly by the ice underneath. Exposed to the high solar radiation at the high altitude the debris layer heats up very rapidly as sunrise

  16. Two leading modes of the interannual variability in South American surface air temperature during austral winter (United States)

    Li, Yanjie; Li, Jianping; Kucharski, Fred; Feng, Jin; Zhao, Sen; Zheng, Jiayu


    The first two empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes of the surface air temperature (SAT) interannual variability in the South American (SA) continent have been revealed in several previous studies. This presentation focuses on winter season and furtherly investigates the detailed advection and cloud-radiation processes and teleconnections from tropical sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) combining statistical analysis with Rossby wave dynamics and modelling experiments. The EOF1, featured with the anomalous center in the central part, is related to the tropical eastern Pacific SSTA, which may impact on the SA SAT variability through the Walker circulation and a regional Hadley cell. The anomalous center is largely attributed to low-level advection transported by the Hadley cell. The EOF2, as a fluctuation between anomalies in the southeast Brazil and the southern tip, is related to the SSTA surrounding the Maritime Continent, which may generate a barotropic wave train propagating to the SA continent. This wave train can strengthen high latitude westerly flow transporting warm advection to the southern tip, and generate southeast anomalous flow transporting cold advection to the southeast Brazil. Meanwhile, the cloud-radiation processes are also involved to enhance the advection-induced SAT anomalies in both areas.

  17. Long-Term Variability of Satellite Lake Surface Water Temperatures in the Great Lakes (United States)

    Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.


    The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water temperatures (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake variability. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate variability such as ENSO.

  18. The signatures of large-scale patterns of atmospheric variability in Antarctic surface temperatures (United States)

    Marshall, Gareth J.; Thompson, David W. J.


    We investigate the impact that the four principal large-scale patterns of Southern Hemisphere (SH) atmospheric circulation variability have on Antarctic surface air temperature (SAT): (1) the southern baroclinic annular mode (BAM), which is associated with variations in extratropical storm amplitude; (2) the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), associated with latitudinal shifts in the midlatitude jet; and (3) the two Pacific-South American patterns (PSA1 and PSA2), which are characterized by wave trains originating in the tropical Pacific that extend across the SH extratropics. A key aspect is the use of 35 years of daily observations and reanalysis data, which affords a sufficiently large sample size to assess the signatures of the circulation patterns in both the mean and variability of daily mean SAT anomalies. The BAM exerts the weakest influence on Antarctic SAT, albeit it is still important over select regions. Consistent with previous studies, the SAM is shown to influence SAT across most of the continent throughout the year. The PSA1 also affects SAT across almost all of Antarctica. Regionally, both PSA patterns can exert a greater impact on SAT than the SAM but also have a significantly weaker influence during summer, reflecting the seasonality of the SH response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The SAM and PSA patterns have distinct signatures in daily SAT variance that are physically consistent with their signatures in extratropical dynamic variability. The broad-scale climate linkages identified here provide benchmarks for interpreting the Antarctic climate response to future changes in tropical sea surface temperatures, ozone recovery, and greenhouse gas increases.

  19. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio


    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  20. Joint spatiotemporal variability of global sea surface temperatures and global Palmer drought severity index values (United States)

    Apipattanavis, S.; McCabe, G.J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Gangopadhyay, S.


    Dominant modes of individual and joint variability in global sea surface temperatures (SST) and global Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values for the twentieth century are identified through a multivariate frequency domain singular value decomposition. This analysis indicates that a secular trend and variability related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are the dominant modes of variance shared among the global datasets. For the SST data the secular trend corresponds to a positive trend in Indian Ocean and South Atlantic SSTs, and a negative trend in North Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs. The ENSO reconstruction shows a strong signal in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and Indian Ocean regions. For the PDSI data, the secular trend reconstruction shows high amplitudes over central Africa including the Sahel, whereas the regions with strong ENSO amplitudes in PDSI are the southwestern and northwestern United States, South Africa, northeastern Brazil, central Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australia. An additional significant frequency, multidecadal variability, is identified for the Northern Hemisphere. This multidecadal frequency appears to be related to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The multidecadal frequency is statistically significant in the Northern Hemisphere SST data, but is statistically nonsignificant in the PDSI data.

  1. Long-term sea surface temperature variability in the Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Skliris


    Full Text Available The inter-annual/decadal scale variability of the Aegean Sea Surface Temperature (SST is investigated by means of long-term series of satellite-derived and in situ data. Monthly mean declouded SST maps are constructed over the 1985–2008 period, based on a re-analysis of AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder optimally interpolated data over the Aegean Sea. Basin-average SST time series are also constructed using the ICOADS in situ data over 1950–2006. Results indicate a small SST decreasing trend until the early nineties, and then a rapid surface warming consistent with the acceleration of the SST rise observed on the global ocean scale. Decadal-scale SST anomalies were found to be negatively correlated with the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index over the last 60 years suggesting that along with global warming effects on the regional scale, a part of the long-term SST variability in the Aegean Sea is driven by large scale atmospheric natural variability patterns. In particular, the acceleration of surface warming in the Aegean Sea began nearly simultaneously with the NAO index abrupt shift in the mid-nineties from strongly positive values to weakly positive/negative values.

  2. Mira Variable Stars from LAMOST DR4 Data: Emission Features, Temperature Types, and Candidate Selection (United States)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, Chao; Deng, Licai; de Grijs, Richard; Matsunaga, Noriyuki


    Based on an extensive spectral study of a photometrically confirmed sample of Mira variables, we find a relationship between the relative Balmer emission-line strengths and spectral temperatures of O-rich Mira stars. The {F}{{H}δ }/{F}{{H}γ } flux ratio increases from less than unity to five as stars cool down from M0 to M10, which is likely driven by increasing TiO absorption above the deepest shock-emitting regions. We also discuss the relationship between the equivalent widths of the Balmer emission lines and the photometric luminosity phase of our Mira sample stars. Using our 291 Mira spectra as templates for reference, 191 Mira candidates are newly identified from the LAMOST DR4 catalog. We summarize the criteria adopted to select Mira candidates based on emission-line indices and molecular absorption bands. This enlarged spectral sample of Mira variables has the potential to contribute significantly to our knowledge of the optical properties of Mira stars and will facilitate further studies of these late-type, long-period variables.

  3. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nicolas

    Full Text Available The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L. stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  4. Wind and thermodynamic profiler observations of a late-mature gust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ments of two GF events with a 915 MHz profiler,. May (1999) described detailed structures of vertical motion and virtual temperature. MIPS is capable of providing direct measure- ments of kinematic and thermodynamic variables with fine temporal and vertical resolutions to por- tray the vertical structure of CBZs (Knupp 2006 ...

  5. Influence of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zerong


    Full Text Available To study the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition, considering the heat transfer coefficient as the power function of temperature, mathematical thermal explosion steady state and unsteady-state model of finite cylindrical fireworks and crackers with complex shell structures are established based on two-dimensional steady state thermal explosion theory. The influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition are analyzed. When heat transfer coefficient is changing with temperature and in the condition of natural convection heat transfer, critical ambient temperature lessen, thermal explosion time to ignition shorten. If ambient temperature is close to critical ambient temperature, the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on time to ignition become large. For firework with inner barrel in example analysis, the critical ambient temperature of propellant is 463.88 K and the time to ignition is 4054.9s at 466 K, 0.26 K and 450.8s less than without considering the change of heat transfer coefficient respectively. The calculation results show that the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion time to ignition is greater in this example. Therefore, the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient should be considered into thermal safety evaluation of fireworks to reduce potential safety hazard.

  6. Thermodynamics Far from the Thermodynamic Limit. (United States)

    de Miguel, Rodrigo; Rubí, J Miguel


    Understanding how small systems exchange energy with a heat bath is important to describe how their unique properties can be affected by the environment. In this contribution, we apply Landsberg's theory of temperature-dependent energy levels to describe the progressive thermalization of small systems as their spectrum is perturbed by a heat bath. We propose a mechanism whereby the small system undergoes a discrete series of excitations and isentropic spectrum adjustments leading to a final state of thermal equilibrium. This produces standard thermodynamic results without invoking system size. The thermal relaxation of a single harmonic oscillator is analyzed as a model example of a system with a quantized spectrum than can be embedded in a thermal environment. A description of how the thermal environment affects the spectrum of a small system can be the first step in using environmental factors, such as temperature, as parameters in the design and operation of nanosystem properties.

  7. Versatile variable temperature and magnetic field scanning probe microscope for advanced material research (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Oh; Choi, Seokhwan; Lee, Yeonghoon; Kim, Jinwoo; Son, Donghyeon; Lee, Jhinhwan


    We have built a variable temperature scanning probe microscope (SPM) that covers 4.6 K-180 K and up to 7 T whose SPM head fits in a 52 mm bore magnet. It features a temperature-controlled sample stage thermally well isolated from the SPM body in good thermal contact with the liquid helium bath. It has a 7-sample-holder storage carousel at liquid helium temperature for systematic studies using multiple samples and field emission targets intended for spin-polarized spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study on samples with various compositions and doping conditions. The system is equipped with a UHV sample preparation chamber and mounted on a two-stage vibration isolation system made of a heavy concrete block and a granite table on pneumatic vibration isolators. A quartz resonator (qPlus)-based non-contact atomic force microscope (AFM) sensor is used for simultaneous STM/AFM operation for research on samples with highly insulating properties such as strongly underdoped cuprates and strongly correlated electron systems.

  8. Nanostructures study of CNT nanofluids transport with temperature-dependent variable viscosity in a muscular tube (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Abid, Syed Ali; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Mir, Nazir Ahmed


    The transport of single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofluids with temperature-dependent variable viscosity is analyzed by peristaltically driven flow. The main flow problem has been modeled using cylindrical coordinates and flow equations are simplified to ordinary differential equations using long wavelength and low Reynolds' number approximation. Analytical solutions have been obtained for axial velocity, pressure gradient and temperature. Results acquired are discussed graphically for better understanding. It is observed that with an increment in the Grashof number the velocity of the governing fluids starts to decrease significantly and the pressure gradient is higher for pure water as compared to single-walled carbon nanotubes due to low density. As the specific heat is very high for pure water as compared to the multi-wall carbon nanotubes, it raises temperature of the muscles, in the case of pure water, as compared to the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, it is noticed that the trapped bolus starts decreasing in size as the buoyancy forces are dominant as compared to viscous forces. This model may be applicable in biomedical engineering and nanotechnology to design the biomedical devices.

  9. Extremophiles in Mineral Sulphide Heaps: Some Bacterial Responses to Variable Temperature, Acidity and Solution Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling


    Full Text Available In heap bioleaching, acidophilic extremophiles contribute to enhanced metal extraction from mineral sulphides through the oxidation of Fe(II and/or reduced inorganic sulphur compounds (RISC, such as elemental sulphur or mineral sulphides, or the degradation of organic compounds derived from the ore, biota or reagents used during mineral processing. The impacts of variable solution acidity and composition, as well as temperature on the three microbiological functions have been examined for up to four bacterial species found in mineral sulphide heaps. The results indicate that bacteria adapt to sufficiently high metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, As to allow them to function in mineral sulphide heaps and, by engaging alternative metabolic pathways, to extend the solution pH range over which growth is sustained. Fluctuating temperatures during start up in sulphide heaps pose the greatest threat to efficient bacterial colonisation. The large masses of ores in bioleaching heaps mean that high temperatures arising from sulphide oxidation are hard to control initially, when the sulphide content of the ore is greatest. During that period, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria are markedly reduced in both numbers and activity.

  10. Inter-annual variability of sea surface temperature, wind speed and sea surface height anomaly over the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Sathe, P.V.

    have made an attempt to study the annual and inter-annual variability of certain prominent processes occurring over the tropical Indian Ocean. The monthly mean values of Wind Speed (FSU), Sea Surface Temperature (REYNOLDS) and Sea Surface Height Anomaly...

  11. Modelling of the thermodynamic and solvation properties of electrolyte solutions with the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (United States)

    Schreckenberg, Jens M. A.; Dufal, Simon; Haslam, Andrew J.; Adjiman, Claire S.; Jackson, George; Galindo, Amparo


    An improved formulation of the extension of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range to electrolytes (SAFT-VRE) is presented, incorporating a representation for the dielectric constant of the solution that takes into account the temperature, density and composition of the solvent. The proposed approach provides an excellent correlation of the dielectric-constant data available for a number of solvents including water, representative alcohols and carbon dioxide, and it is shown that the methodology can be used to treat mixed-solvent electrolyte solutions. Models for strong electrolytes of the metal-halide family are considered here. The salts are treated as fully dissociated and ion-specific interaction parameters are presented. Vapour pressure, density, and mean ionic activity coefficient data are used to determine the ion-ion and solvent-ion parameters, and mixed-salt electrolyte solutions (brines) are then treated predictively. We find that the resulting intermolecular potential models follow physical trends in terms of energies and ion sizes with a close relationship observed with well-established ionic diameters. A good description is obtained for the densities, mean ionic activity coefficients, and vapour pressures of the electrolyte solutions studied. The theory is also seen to provide excellent predictions of the osmotic coefficient and of the depression of the freezing temperature, and provides a qualitative estimate of the solvation free energy. The vapour pressure of aqueous brines is predicted accurately, as is the density of these solutions, although not at the highest pressures considered. Calculations for the vapour-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria of salts in water+methanol and water+n-butan-1-ol are presented. In addition, it is shown that the salting-out of carbon dioxide in sodium chloride solutions is captured well using a predictive model.

  12. Simulation of spatio-temporal variability of temperature in the Taganrog Bay with MITgcm model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporozhtsev I. F.


    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to analyze efficiency of MITgcm in simulation of temperature fields' variability in the Taganrog Bay. Authors are the first to consider hydrodynamic modeling approach based on MITgcm for this bay. In situ temperature values to be compared with the model data have been obtained during two Murmansk Marine Biological Institute Kola Scientific Center RAS and Southern Scientific Center RAS coupled expeditions in summer and autumn of 2005. The step of calculation grid is agreed with the step of direct measurements stations grid. The obtained during cruises temperature and salinity data cover the Taganrog Bay with 2' latitude and 3' longitude steps (and with 4' latitude and 6' longitude steps correspondingly for thermohaline homogeneous areas. Depth step is 0.5 m. Data for initialization and atmospheric forcing have been taken from public reanalysis databases and atlases, datasets limitations are discussed. To simplify boundary conditions simulation has been carried out for the whole Azov Sea. Numerical experiments series has been fulfilled to determine the optimal start date of simulation and initial constant temperature field. In view of significant experiment time cost optimization task has been solved for restricted parameters values set and with doubled grid steps (4' latitude and 6' longitude steps. The determined values have been used to solve original task of model data verification with the measured ones. As far as the results obtained by the authors with the particular workstation PC are concerned, the conclusion about possibility of MITgcm simulation in real areas without specialized highperformance computers has been given.

  13. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? Results Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. Conclusions Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  14. Compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2 as substitutes for SF6 to reduce global warming potential (United States)

    Zhong, Linlin; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Xiaohua; Wu, Junhui; Han, Guiquan; Han, Guohui; Lu, Yanhui; Yang, Aijun; Wu, Yi


    C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO) which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2) theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs energy. The compositions of C5F10O-CO2-O2 mixtures are then determined using the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Next, the thermodynamic properties (mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are derived from the previously calculated compositions. Lastly, the transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated based on Chapman-Enskog method. It is found that, as an arc quenching gas, C5F10O could not recombine into itself with the temperature decreasing down to room temperature after the arc extinction. Besides, the key species at room temperature are always CF4, CO2, and C4F6 if graphite is not considered. When taken into account, graphite will replace C4F6 as one of the dominate particles. The mixing of CO2 with C5F10O plasma significantly affects the thermodynamic properties (e.g. vanishing and/or shifting of the peaks in specific heat) and transport coefficients (e.g. reducing viscosity and changing the number of peaks in thermal conductivity), while the addition of O2 with C5F10O-CO2 mixtures has no remarkable influence on both thermodynamic and transport properties.

  15. Compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2 as substitutes for SF6 to reduce global warming potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Zhong


    Full Text Available C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2 theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs energy. The compositions of C5F10O-CO2-O2 mixtures are then determined using the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Next, the thermodynamic properties (mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat are derived from the previously calculated compositions. Lastly, the transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity are calculated based on Chapman-Enskog method. It is found that, as an arc quenching gas, C5F10O could not recombine into itself with the temperature decreasing down to room temperature after the arc extinction. Besides, the key species at room temperature are always CF4, CO2, and C4F6 if graphite is not considered. When taken into account, graphite will replace C4F6 as one of the dominate particles. The mixing of CO2 with C5F10O plasma significantly affects the thermodynamic properties (e.g. vanishing and/or shifting of the peaks in specific heat and transport coefficients (e.g. reducing viscosity and changing the number of peaks in thermal conductivity, while the addition of O2 with C5F10O-CO2 mixtures has no remarkable influence on both thermodynamic and transport properties.

  16. Variability of Sea Surface Temperature Response to Tropical Cyclones along the NEC Bifurcation Latitude (United States)

    Fernandez, I.; Villanoy, C. L.


    The east of the Philippines serves as an entry point to an annual average of 20 tropical cyclones. The ocean is dynamic where the North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcates into the Kurushio Current to the north and Mindanao Current to the south. The displacement and intensity of NEC bifurcation in the region varies seasonally and interannually driven by local monsoons and ENSO. The variability of the NEC bifurcation latitude may alter the origins of the Kuroshio and modify the sea surface temperature field, which can alter the strength of the typhoons and upper ocean response. This paper aims to characterize the variability of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Response to Tropical Cyclones along with the NEC Bifurcation latitude using daily merged product of the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E), Sea Surface Height (SSH) and SSH Anomaly (SSHA) from AVISO and background climatological D26 (depth of 26 °C) and T100 (depth integrated temperature up to 100 meters) from ARGO profiles and CTD data from WOA09 from 2003 to 2012. SSH measurements from this period were used as a proxy for determining the bifurcation latitude (YB). Characteristics of the meridional distribution from 0° to 30°N of D26 is homogenous along 10-15°N. Monthly mean D26 along 10-15°N, 125-145°E shows high correlation with YB . Variations of the D26 and T100 showed deepening and warming along with YB. Two regions were derived from meridional distribution of T100 namely BSouth (15°N), where background climatological condition is shallow (D26) and varies seasonally. These regions where used to compare variability with respect to SST recovery time and the SST maximum change (ΔSSTmax) along with other factors such as TCs translation speed (TS) and intensity based on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Results showed that in both regions SST Recovery time is described as fast (5days). Difference between both regions can be described with respect to the

  17. Thermodynamically complete equation of state of MgO from true radiative shock temperature measurements on samples preheated to 1850 K (United States)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.; Ahrens, T. J.


    Plate impact experiments in the 100-250 GPa pressure range were done on a 〈100 〉 single-crystal MgO preheated before compression to 1850 K. Hot Mo(driver)-MgO targets were impacted with Mo or Ta flyers launched by the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun up to 7.5 km/s. Radiative temperatures and shock velocities were measured with 3%-4% and 1%-2% uncertainty, respectively, by a six-channel pyrometer with 3-ns time resolution, over a 500-900-nm spectral range. MgO shock front reflectivity was determined in additional experiments at 220 and 248 GPa using ≈50 /50 high-temperature sapphire beam splitters. Our measurements yield accurate experimental data on the mechanical, optical, and thermodynamic properties of B1 phase MgO from 102 GPa and 3900 K to 248 GPa and 9100 K, a region not sampled by previous studies. Reported Hugoniot data for MgO initially at ambient temperature, T =298 K, and the results of our current Hugoniot measurements on samples preheated to 1850 K were analyzed using the most general methods of least-squares fitting to constrain the Grüneisen model. This equation of state (EOS) was then used to construct maximum likelihood linear Hugoniots of MgO with initial temperatures from 298 to 2400 K. A parametrization of all EOS values and best-fit coefficients was done over the entire range of relevant particle velocities. Total uncertainties of all the EOS parameters and correlation coefficients for these uncertainties are also given. The predictive capabilities of our updated Mie-Grüneisen EOS were confirmed by (1) the good agreement between our Grüneisen data and five semiempirical γ (V ) models derived from porous shock data only or from combined static and shock data sets, (2) the very good agreement between our 1-bar Grüneisen values and γ (T ) at ambient pressure recalculated from reported experimental data on the adiabatic bulk modulus Ks(T ) , and (3) the good agreement of the brightness temperatures, corrected for shock reflectivity

  18. Latitudinal and longitudinal variability of mesospheric winds and temperatures during stratospheric warming events (United States)

    Hoffmann, P.; Singer, W.; Keuer, D.; Hocking, W. K.; Kunze, M.; Murayama, Y.


    Continuous MF and meteor radar observations allow detailed studies of winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) as well as temperatures around the mesopause. This height region is characterized by a strong variability in winter due to enhanced planetary wave activity and related stratospheric warming events, which are distinct coupling processes between lower, middle and upper atmosphere. Here the variability of mesospheric winds and temperatures is discussed in relation with major and minor stratospheric warmings as observed during winter 2005/06 in comparison with results during winter 1998/99. Our studies are based on MF radar wind measurements at Andenes (69°N, 16°E), Poker Flat (65°N, 147°W) and Juliusruh (55°N, 13°E) as well as on meteor radar observations of winds and temperatures at Resolute Bay (75°N, 95°W), Andenes (69°N, 16°E) and Kühlungsborn (54°N, 12°E). Additionally, energy dissipation rates have been estimated from spectral width measurements using a 3 MHz Doppler radar near Andenes. Particular attention is directed to the changes of winds, turbulence and the gravity wave activity in the mesosphere in relation to the planetary wave activity in the stratosphere. Observations indicate an enhancement of planetary wave 1 activity in the mesosphere at high latitudes during major stratospheric warmings. Daily mean temperatures derived from meteor decay times indicate that strong warming events are connected with a cooling of the 90 km region by about 10 20 K. The onset of these cooling processes and the reversals of the mesospheric circulation to easterly winds occur some days before the changes of the zonal circulation in the stratosphere start indicating a downward propagation of the circulation disturbances from the MLT region to the stratosphere and troposphere during the stratospheric warming events. The short-term reversal of the mesospheric winds is followed by a period of strong westerly winds connected with enhanced

  19. Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes showing unusual complexation of actinide ions in room temperature ionic liquids: role of ligand structure, radiolytic stability, emission spectroscopy, and thermodynamic studies. (United States)

    Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Sengupta, Arijit; Iqbal, Mudassir; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem


    Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes (C4DGAs) with varying structural modifications were evaluated for actinide complexation from their extraction behavior toward actinide ions such as UO2(2+), Pu(4+), PuO2(2+), and Am(3+) in the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-n-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (C8mimNTf2). The formation constants were calculated for Am(3+) which showed a significant role of ligand structure, nature of substituents, and spacer length. Although the alkyl substituents on the amidic nitrogen increase the extraction efficiency of americium at lower acidity because of the inductive effect of the alkyl groups, at higher acidity the steric crowding around the ligating site determines the extraction efficiency. All C4DGAs formed 1:1 complexes with Am(3+) while for the analogous Eu(3+) complexes no inner sphere water molecules were detected and the asymmetry of the metal ligand complex differed from one another as proved by time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLIFS). Thermodynamic studies indicated that the extraction process, predominant by the Am(3+)-C4DGA complexation reaction, is exothermic. The unique role of the medium on Am(3+) complexation with the C4DGA molecules with varying spacer length, L-IV and L-V, was noticed for the first time with a reversal in the trend observed in the RTIL compared to that seen in a nonpolar molecular diluent like n-dodecane. Various factors leading to a more preorganized structure were responsible for favorable metal ion complexation. The solvent systems show promise to be employed for nuclear waste remediation, and sustainability options were evaluated from radiolytic stability as well as stripping studies.

  20. Variability of the Structure Parameters of Temperature and Humidity Observed in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Under Unstable Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, M.; Moene, A.F.; Beyrich, F.


    The structure parameters of temperature and humidity are important in scintillometry as they determine the structure parameter of the refractive index of air, the primary atmospheric variable obtained with scintillometers. In this study, we investigate the variability of the logarithm of the

  1. Variable interval time/temperature (VITT) defrost-control-system evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Two variable-interval-time/temperature (VITT) heat pump defrost control systems are analyzed to determine if systems manufactured by Honeywell and Ranco qualify for credit for heat pumps with demand defrost control. The operation of the systems is described. VITT controls are not demand defrost control systems but utilize demand defrost control as backup systems in most Ranco models and all Honeywell models. The evaluations and results, intended to provide DOE information in making its determinations regarding credits for the control systems are discussed. The evaluation methodology utilizes a modified version of the Heat Pump Seasonal Performance Model (HPSPM) and the important modifications are discussed in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a detailed listing and discussion of the HPSPM output. (MCW)

  2. Thermodynamics of High Temperature Materials. (United States)


    Standards 2306/A2 siI1/ 1 C’enter for Chemical Physics 2306/Ki Gaithersburg, MD 20899 _____________ It CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT...DATE AFSRNE13. NUMIBER OF PAGES Bolling, AFB DC 20332 7 114 MONITORING AGENCY NAME A ADORESS(fI different from Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS...R. Righini, A. Cibrarlo and A. Rosso, Rapporto Interno 5/173, Instituto di Metrologia "G. Colonnetti", (1979). [2] A. Cezairliyan, Proceedings of the

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic dissipative flow across the slendering stretching sheet with temperature dependent variable viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jayachandra Babu

    Full Text Available The boundary layer flow across a slendering stretching sheet has gotten awesome consideration due to its inexhaustible pragmatic applications in nuclear reactor technology, acoustical components, chemical and manufacturing procedures, for example, polymer extrusion, and machine design. By keeping this in view, we analyzed the two-dimensional MHD flow across a slendering stretching sheet within the sight of variable viscosity and viscous dissipation. The sheet is thought to be convectively warmed. Convective boundary conditions through heat and mass are employed. Similarity transformations used to change over the administering nonlinear partial differential equations as a group of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Runge-Kutta based shooting technique is utilized to solve the converted equations. Numerical estimations of the physical parameters involved in the problem are calculated for the friction factor, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Viscosity variation parameter and chemical reaction parameter shows the opposite impact to each other on the concentration profile. Heat and mass transfer Biot numbers are helpful to enhance the temperature and concentration respectively. Keywords: MHD, Variable viscosity, Viscous dissipation, Convective boundary conditions, Slendering stretching sheet

  4. Influence of temperature and precipitation variability on near-term snow trends (United States)

    Mankin, Justin S.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.


    Snow is a vital resource for a host of natural and human systems. Global warming is projected to drive widespread decreases in snow accumulation by the end of the century, potentially affecting water, food, and energy supplies, seasonal heat extremes, and wildfire risk. However, over the next few decades, when the planning and implementation of current adaptation responses are most relevant, the snow response is more uncertain, largely because of uncertainty in regional and local precipitation trends. We use a large (40-member) single-model ensemble climate model experiment to examine the influence of precipitation variability on the direction and magnitude of near-term Northern Hemisphere snow trends. We find that near-term uncertainty in the sign of regional precipitation change does not cascade into uncertainty in the sign of regional snow accumulation change. Rather, temperature increases drive statistically robust consistency in the sign of future near-term snow accumulation trends, with all regions exhibiting reductions in the fraction of precipitation falling as snow, along with mean decreases in late-season snow accumulation. However, internal variability does create uncertainty in the magnitude of hemispheric and regional snow changes, including uncertainty as large as 33 % of the baseline mean. In addition, within the 40-member ensemble, many mid-latitude grid points exhibit at least one realization with a statistically significant positive trend in net snow accumulation, and at least one realization with a statistically significant negative trend. These results suggest that the direction of near-term snow accumulation change is robust at the regional scale, but that internal variability can influence the magnitude and direction of snow accumulation changes at the local scale, even in areas that exhibit a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  5. Decadal slowdown in global air temperature rise triggered by variability in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (United States)

    England, Matthew H.


    Various explanations have been proposed for the recent slowdown in global surface air temperature (SAT) rise, either involving enhanced ocean heat uptake or reduced radiation reaching Earth's surface. Among the mechanisms postulated involving enhanced ocean heat uptake, past work has argued for both a Pacific and Atlantic origin, with additional contributions from the Southern Ocean. Here we examine the mechanisms driving 'hiatus' periods originating out of the Atlantic Ocean. We show that while Atlantic-driven hiatuses are entirely plausible and consistent with known climate feedbacks associated with variability in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), the present climate state is configured to enhance global-average SAT, not reduce it. We show that Atlantic hiatuses are instead characterised by anomalously cool fresh oceanic conditions in the North Atlantic, with the atmosphere advecting the cool temperature signature zonally. Compared to the 1980s and 1990s, however, the mean climate since 2001 has been characterised by a warm saline North Atlantic, suggesting the AMOC cannot be implicated as a direct driver of the current hiatus. We further discuss the impacts of a warm tropical Atlantic on the unprecedented trade wind acceleration in the Pacific Ocean, and propose that this is the main way that the Atlantic has contributed to the present "false pause" in global warming.

  6. Characterisation of micro and nano SQUIDs at variable temperature and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehn, Claudia; Storm, Jan-Hendrik; Bechstein, Sylke; Schurig, Thomas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)


    SQUIDs are highly suited to investigate the magnetic properties of samples with small dimensions, such as nanoparticles, or to read out nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Due to the small sample size, SQUIDs with dimensions in the μm or nm regime are desirable. These micro or nano SQUIDs should have a low noise and no hysteresis in the current-voltage-characteristic, even when operated in high magnetic fields of up to several 100 mT. To investigate such SQUID, we developed measurement setups which can simulate the measurement conditions of the intended SQUID application. The design and performance of two measurement setups will be shown and compared. One setup uses a dipstick that is immersed in liquid helium and can be evacuated to provide SQUID temperatures between 4.5 K and 10 K. The other one uses an evaporation cryostat so that the temperature can be varied from 2 K to 60 K. Both setups are equipped with coils to enable SQUID operation in variable magnetic field. To minimize noise, the output of the SQUID under test is preamplified by a SQUID series array which is operated at 4.2 K. First results of the characterisation of micro and nano SQUIDs will be presented.

  7. Interannual to decadal summer drought variability over Europe and its relationship to global sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionita, M.; Lohmann, G. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); University of Bremen, MARUM, Bremen (Germany); Rimbu, N. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Climed Norad, Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest University, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Chelcea, S. [National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management, Bucharest (Romania); Dima, M. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Bucharest University, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest (Romania)


    Interannual to decadal variability of European summer drought and its relationship with global sea surface temperature (SST) is investigated using the newly developed self calibrated Palmer drought severity index (scPDSI) and global sea surface temperature (SST) field for the period 1901-2002. A European drought severity index defined as the average of scPDSI over entire Europe shows quasiperiodic variations in the 2.5-5 year band as well as at 12-13 years suggesting a possible potential predictability of averaged drought conditions over Europe. A Canonical Correlation Analysis between summer scPDSI anomalies over Europe and global SST anomalies reveals the existence of three modes of coupled summer drought scPDSI patterns and winter global SST anomalies. The first scPDSI-SST coupled mode represents the long-term trends in the data which manifest in SST as warming over all oceans. The associated long-term trend in scPDSI suggests increasing drought conditions over the central part of Europe. The second mode is related to the inter-annual ENSO and decadal PDO influence on the European climate and the third one captures mainly the drought pattern associated to Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The lag relationships between winter SST and summer drought conditions established in this study can provide a valuable skill for the prediction of drought conditions over Europe on interannual to decadal time scales. (orig.)

  8. Interannual to decadal summer drought variability over Europe and its relationship to global sea surface temperature (United States)

    Ionita, M.; Lohmann, G.; Rimbu, N.; Chelcea, S.; Dima, M.


    Interannual to decadal variability of European summer drought and its relationship with global sea surface temperature (SST) is investigated using the newly developed self calibrated Palmer drought severity index (scPDSI) and global sea surface temperature (SST) field for the period 1901-2002. A European drought severity index defined as the average of scPDSI over entire Europe shows quasiperiodic variations in the 2.5-5 year band as well as at 12-13 years suggesting a possible potential predictability of averaged drought conditions over Europe. A Canonical Correlation Analysis between summer scPDSI anomalies over Europe and global SST anomalies reveals the existence of three modes of coupled summer drought scPDSI patterns and winter global SST anomalies. The first scPDSI-SST coupled mode represents the long-term trends in the data which manifest in SST as warming over all oceans. The associated long-term trend in scPDSI suggests increasing drought conditions over the central part of Europe. The second mode is related to the inter-annual ENSO and decadal PDO influence on the European climate and the third one captures mainly the drought pattern associated to Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The lag relationships between winter SST and summer drought conditions established in this study can provide a valuable skill for the prediction of drought conditions over Europe on interannual to decadal time scales.

  9. Variability of Surface Temperature and Melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet, 2000-2011 (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino, C.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.


    Enhanced melting along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data, have been documented for the Greenland Ice Sheet. Recently we developed a climate-quality data record of ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 1ST product -- Using daily and mean monthly MODIS 1ST maps from the data record we show maximum extent of melt for the ice sheet and its six major drainage basins for a 12-year period extending from March of 2000 through December of 2011. The duration of the melt season on the ice sheet varies in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The short time of the study period (approximately 12 years) precludes an evaluation of statistically-significant trends. However the dataset provides valuable information on natural variability of IST, and on the ability of the MODIS instrument to capture changes in IST and melt conditions indifferent drainage basins of the ice sheet.

  10. Hybrid Vibration Control under Broadband Excitation and Variable Temperature Using Viscoelastic Neutralizer and Adaptive Feedforward Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. O. Marra


    Full Text Available Vibratory phenomena have always surrounded human life. The need for more knowledge and domain of such phenomena increases more and more, especially in the modern society where the human-machine integration becomes closer day after day. In that context, this work deals with the development and practical implementation of a hybrid (passive-active/adaptive vibration control system over a metallic beam excited by a broadband signal and under variable temperature, between 5 and 35°C. Since temperature variations affect directly and considerably the performance of the passive control system, composed of a viscoelastic dynamic vibration neutralizer (also called a viscoelastic dynamic vibration absorber, the associative strategy of using an active-adaptive vibration control system (based on a feedforward approach with the use of the FXLMS algorithm working together with the passive one has shown to be a good option to compensate the neutralizer loss of performance and generally maintain the extended overall level of vibration control. As an additional gain, the association of both vibration control systems (passive and active-adaptive has improved the attenuation of vibration levels. Some key steps matured over years of research on this experimental setup are presented in this paper.

  11. [Further promotion effect of variable temperature drying on effective components in roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba]. (United States)

    Zhou, Bing-Qian; Lv, Hai-Hua; Yang, Fan; Liu, Wei; Geng, Yan-Ling; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Tao; Qu, Zhen-Yu


    To study the effects of different variable temperature drying modes on active components of roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba, and provide basis for its industrialized drying process. In order to ensure the content of active components, variable temperature drying modes were designed: low temperature at 30 ℃ and high temperature at 60 ℃, low temperature at 30 ℃ and high temperature at 70 ℃, low temperature at 30 ℃ and high temperature at 80 ℃, low temperature at 40 ℃ and high temperature at 60 ℃, low temperature at 40 ℃ and high temperature at 70 ℃, low temperature at 40 ℃ and high temperature at 80 ℃ and air dry oven was used for variable temperature drying process. Then HPLC method was used to determine the changes of active components in roots of S. miltiorrhiza f. alba under different temperature modes; and SPSS 17.0 was used to analyze the data. The results showed that the samples, which were first dried at 40 ℃ for six hours and then dried at 80 ℃ for three hours, had the highest contents in dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone Ⅰ and tanshinone ⅡA as compared with other kinds of drying methods, and the contents were 0.35, 2.76, 0.78, 4.47 mg•g⁻¹, respectively. Additionally, as compared with samples dried in the shade, the contents of dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone Ⅰ were increased 2.9% (P>0.05), 45.3% (PVariable temperature drying can significantly affect the contents of active components in roots of S. miltiorrhiza f. alba. As compared with the traditional process of shade-drying process, low temperature drying can significantly increase the content of water-soluble active components and also with significant promotion effect on the liposoluble components such as tanshinone ⅡA, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone Ⅰ. The variable temperature drying mode, can effectively shorten the process of drying and provide theoretical basis for industrial processing of roots of S. miltiorrhiza f

  12. Equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Mário J


    This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions.  These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This textbo...

  13. Equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Mário J


    This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions. These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This new edit...

  14. Statistical Thermodynamics of Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Quevedo


    Full Text Available We formulate the thermodynamics of economic systems in terms of an arbitrary probability distribution for a conserved economic quantity. As in statistical physics, thermodynamic macroeconomic variables emerge as the mean value of microeconomic variables, and their determination is reduced to the computation of the partition function, starting from an arbitrary function. Explicit hypothetical examples are given which include linear and nonlinear economic systems as well as multiplicative systems such as those dominated by a Pareto law distribution. It is shown that the macroeconomic variables can be drastically changed by choosing the microeconomic variables in an appropriate manner. We propose to use the formalism of phase transitions to study severe changes of macroeconomic variables.

  15. An Adaptive Mesh Algorithm: Mapping the Mesh Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scannapieco, Anthony J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Both thermodynamic and kinematic variables must be mapped. The kinematic variables are defined on a separate kinematic mesh; it is the duel mesh to the thermodynamic mesh. The map of the kinematic variables is done by calculating the contributions of kinematic variables on the old thermodynamic mesh, mapping the kinematic variable contributions onto the new thermodynamic mesh and then synthesizing the mapped kinematic variables on the new kinematic mesh. In this document the map of the thermodynamic variables will be described.

  16. Satellite Observed Variability in Antarctic and Arctic Surface Temperatures and Their Correlation to Open Water Areas (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)


    Recent studies using meterological station data have indicated that global surface air temperature has been increasing at a rate of 0.05 K/decade. Using the same set of data but for stations in the Antarctic and Arctic regions (>50 N) only, the increases in temperature were 0.08, and 0.22 K/decade, when record lengths of 100 and 50 years, respectively, were used. To gain insights into the increasing rate of warming, satellite infrared and passive microwave observations over the Arctic region during the last 20 years were processed and analyzed. The results show that during this period, the ice extent in the Antarctic has been increasing at the rate of 1.2% per decade while the surface temperature has been decreasing at about 0.08 K per decade. Conversely, in the Northern Hemisphere, the ice extent has been decreasing at a rate of 2.8% per decade, while the surface temperatures have been increasing at the rate of 0.38 K per decade. In the Antarctic, it is surprising that there is a short term trend of cooling during a global period of warming. Very large anomalies in open water areas in the Arctic were observed especially in the western region, that includes the Beaufort Sea, where the observed open water area was about 1x10(exp 6) sq km, about twice the average for the region, during the summer of 1998. In the eastern region, that includes the Laptev Sea, the area of open water was also abnormally large in the summer of 1995. Note that globally, the warmest and second warmest years in this century, were 1998 and 1995, respectively. The data, however, show large spatial variability with the open water area distribution showing a cyclic periodicity of about ten years, which is akin to the North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillations. This was observed in both western and eastern regions but with the phase of one lagging the other by about two years. This makes it difficult to interpret what the trends really mean. But although the record length of satellite data is still

  17. Low-temperature thermodynamic investigation of the sulphur organic salts (TMTTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6} and (TMTTF){sub 2}Br (TMTTF {identical_to} tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene): I. General aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasjaunias, J.C.; Brison, J.P.; Monceau, P. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperature, CNRS, BP 166, Grenoble (France); Staresinic, D. [Institute of Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Biljakovic, K. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperature, CNRS, BP 166, Grenoble (France); Institute of Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Carcel, C.; Fabre, J.M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Structurale Organique, Universite de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)


    A detailed thermodynamical investigation of the quasi-one-dimensional sulphur-based organic salts (TMTTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6} and (TMTTF){sub 2}Br is presented in the temperature range from 30 mK to 7 K. In this part (part I), we consider the general aspects of the low-temperature specific heat of these materials in relationship with their ground states and we compare them with those previously measured for selenium members of the same family. All these compounds exhibit very similar thermodynamical behaviour, despite a variety of electronic ground states: spin-Peierls for (TMTTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}, commensurate antiferromagnetic spin modulation for (TMTTF){sub 2}Br, incommensurate spin-density wave for (TMTSF){sub 2}PF{sub 6} (TMTSF{identical_to}tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene). We show that the low-energy excitations which are predominant below 1 K have a similar character to that observed in glassy systems, at least on short timescales of measurements. The dynamical aspects of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics will be presented separately in the following part (part II). (author)

  18. Application of multi-pass high pressure homogenization under variable temperature regimes to induce autolysis of wine yeasts. (United States)

    Comuzzo, Piergiorgio; Calligaris, Sonia; Iacumin, Lucilla; Ginaldi, Federica; Voce, Sabrina; Zironi, Roberto


    The effects of the number of passes and processing temperature management (controlled vs. uncontrolled) were investigated during high pressure homogenization-induced autolysis of Saccharomyces bayanus wine yeasts, treated at 150MPa. Both variables were able to affect cell viability, and the release of soluble molecules (free amino acids, proteins and glucidic colloids), but the effect of temperature was more important. S. bayanus cells were completely inactivated in 10 passes without temperature control (corresponding to a processing temperature of 75°C). The two processing variables also affected the volatile composition of the autolysates produced: higher temperatures led to a lower concentration of volatile compounds. The management of the operating conditions may allow the compositional characteristics of the products to be modulated, making them suitable for different winemaking applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermodynamics of anisotropic branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ávila, Daniel [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Fernández, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Patiño, Leonardo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Trancanelli, Diego [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo,05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil)


    We study the thermodynamics of flavor D7-branes embedded in an anisotropic black brane solution of type IIB supergravity. The flavor branes undergo a phase transition between a ‘Minkowski embedding’, in which they lie outside of the horizon, and a ‘black hole embedding’, in which they fall into the horizon. This transition depends on the black hole temperature, its degree of anisotropy, and the mass of the flavor degrees of freedom. It happens either at a critical temperature or at a critical anisotropy. A general lesson we learn from this analysis is that the anisotropy, in this particular realization, induces similar effects as the temperature. In particular, increasing the anisotropy bends the branes more and more into the horizon. Moreover, we observe that the transition becomes smoother for higher anisotropies.

  20. Spatial variability of air temperature in a free-stall in the Northeastern semi-arid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira C. M. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The knowledge on the spatial variability of climatic attributes and the building of Kriging maps can assist in the design and management of confined animal facilities, by allowing a spatial visualization that is helpful for the planning and control of information from the production environment. The study aimed to characterize the spatial variability of air temperature in a free-stall barn used for dairy cattle confinement located in Petrolina-PE, Brazil, in different seasons and at different times. The variable air temperature was recorded at 136 points distributed in the areas under the shed and the shade cloth for the study of spatial variability and the construction of maps by Kriging. Air temperature data was collected in the winter and in the summer, in the months of July and August (2013 and January and February (2014, at different times (9 and 15 h. According to the results, the use of geostatistics enabled to define areas with different spatial variabilities in air temperature and specific areas in the free-stall with values higher than the recommended levels for thermal comfort. In addition, the central part of the facility is the region with the lowest values of air temperatures, due to the presence of a ridge vent.

  1. The influence of riparian woodland on the spatial and temporal variability of stream water temperatures in an upland salmon stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Malcolm


    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variability of stream water temperatures was investigated at six locations on the Girnock Burn (30km2 catchment, Cairngorms, Scotland over three hydrological years between 1998 and 2002. The key site-specific factors affecting the hydrology and climatology of the sampling points were investigated as a basis for physical process inference. Particular emphasis was placed on assessing the effects of riparian forest in the lower catchment versus the heather moorland riparian zones that are spatially dominant in the upper catchment. The findings were related to river heat budget studies that provided process detail. Gross changes in stream temperature were affected by the annual cycle of incoming solar radiation and seasonal changes in hydrological and climatological conditions. Inter-annual variation in these controlling variables resulted in inter-annual variability in thermal regime. However, more subtle inter-site differences reflected the impact of site-specific characteristics on various components of the river energy budget. Inter-site variability was most apparent at shorter time scales, during the summer months and for higher stream temperatures. Riparian woodland in the lower catchment had a substantial impact on thermal regime, reducing diel variability (over a period of 24 hours and temperature extremes. Observed inter-site differences are likely to have a substantial effect on freshwater ecology in general and salmonid fish in particular. Keywords: temperature, thermal regime, forest, salmon, hydrology, Girnock Burn, Cairngorm

  2. Thermodynamics a complete undergraduate course

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M


    This is an undergraduate textbook in thermodynamics—the science of heat, work, temperature, and entropy. The text presents thermodynamics in and of itself, as an elegant and powerful set of ideas and methods. These methods open the way to understanding a very wide range of phenomena in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. Starting out from an introduction of concepts at first year undergraduate level, the roles of temperature, internal energy, and entropy are explained via the laws of thermodynamics. The text employs a combination of examples, exercises, and careful discussion, with a view to conveying the feel of the subject as well as avoiding common misunderstandings. The Feynman–Smuluchowski ratchet, Szilard’s engine, and Maxwell’s daemon are used to elucidate entropy and the second law. Free energy and thermodynamic potentials are discussed at length, with applications to solids as well as fluids and flow processes. Thermal radiation is discussed, and the main ideas significant to global...

  3. Upper mixed layer temperature and salinity variability in the tropical boundary of the California Current, 1997-2007 (United States)

    Gomez-Valdes, Jose; Jeronimo, Gilberto


    Spatial and temporal interannual variability of mixed layer (ML) temperature and ML salinity off Baja California are examined using empirical orthogonal functions analysis. Conductivity-temperature-depth data collected from October 1997 through January 2007 over a grid based on Mexican Research of the California Current quarterly survey cruises are analyzed. Net heat flux (NHF) and sea surface height anomaly (SSH) from satellite products are also analyzed. The first leading mode of both ML temperature and ML salinity show a single-signed loading pattern, in which the variability increases southward. Those patterns have been reported before, but they are lacking a quantitative explanation. ML temperature variability is mainly associated with NHF variability, while ML salinity variability is mainly associated with large-scale SSH variability. The principal component (PC) of ML salinity is correlated with North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and Warm Water Volume climate indices, while the PC of ML temperature is only correlated with the latter index. Those results indicate that the principal mode of ML salinity variability is a diagnostic variable of basin-scale process. An abrupt freshening (˜-0.7) and cooling (˜-4°C) event from January 1998 to January 1999 and an abrupt freshening (˜-0.5) event from January 2002 to January 2003 are conspicuous features in the mixed layer. The 1998-1999 events are associated with the major El Niño-La Niña cycle in the 10-year period. The 2002-2003 freshening is related to an enhancement of subarctic water into the equatorward flow that started during the summer of 2002 off Oregon (49°N).

  4. Temperature variability is a key component in accurately forecasting the effects of climate change on pest phenology. (United States)

    Merrill, Scott C; Peairs, Frank B


    Models describing the effects of climate change on arthropod pest ecology are needed to help mitigate and adapt to forthcoming changes. Challenges arise because climate data are at resolutions that do not readily synchronize with arthropod biology. Here we explain how multiple sources of climate and weather data can be synthesized to quantify the effects of climate change on pest phenology. Predictions of phenological events differ substantially between models that incorporate scale-appropriate temperature variability and models that do not. As an illustrative example, we predicted adult emergence of a pest of sunflower, the sunflower stem weevil Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte). Predictions of the timing of phenological events differed by an average of 11 days between models with different temperature variability inputs. Moreover, as temperature variability increases, developmental rates accelerate. Our work details a phenological modeling approach intended to help develop tools to plan for and mitigate the effects of climate change. Results show that selection of scale-appropriate temperature data is of more importance than selecting a climate change emission scenario. Predictions derived without appropriate temperature variability inputs will likely result in substantial phenological event miscalculations. Additionally, results suggest that increased temperature instability will lead to accelerated pest development. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Simple, Chemoselective Hydrogenation with Thermodynamic Stereocontrol


    Iwasaki, Kotaro; Wan, Kanny K.; Oppedisano, Alberto; Crossley, Steven W. M.; Shenvi, Ryan A.


    Few methods permit the hydrogenation of alkenes to a thermodynamically favored configuration when steric effects dictate the alternative trajectory of hydrogen delivery. Dissolving metal reduction achieves this control, but with extremely low functional group tolerance. Here we demonstrate a catalytic hydrogenation of alkenes that affords the thermodynamic alkane products with remarkably broad functional group compatibility and rapid reaction rates at standard temperature and pressure.

  6. Simple, chemoselective hydrogenation with thermodynamic stereocontrol. (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kotaro; Wan, Kanny K; Oppedisano, Alberto; Crossley, Steven W M; Shenvi, Ryan A


    Few methods permit the hydrogenation of alkenes to a thermodynamically favored configuration when steric effects dictate the alternative trajectory of hydrogen delivery. Dissolving metal reduction achieves this control, but with extremely low functional group tolerance. Here we demonstrate a catalytic hydrogenation of alkenes that affords the thermodynamic alkane products with remarkably broad functional group compatibility and rapid reaction rates at standard temperature and pressure.

  7. Thermodynamic Ground States of Complex Oxide Heterointerfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunkel, F.; Hoffmann-Eifert, S.; Heinen, R. A.


    The formation mechanism of 2-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at heterointerfaces between nominally insulating oxides is addressed with a thermodynamical approach. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the thermodynamic ground states of various 2DEG systems directly probed in high temperature...

  8. Thermodynamics of charged and rotating black strings (United States)

    Fatima, Aeeman; Saifullah, K.


    We study thermodynamics of cylindrically symmetric black holes. Uncharged as well as charged and rotating objects have been discussed. We derive surface gravity and hence the Hawking temperature and entropy for all these cases. We correct some results in the literature and present new ones. It is seen that thermodynamically these black configurations behave differently from spherically symmetric objects.

  9. The thermodynamic solar energy; Le solaire thermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivoire, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-IMP), 66 - Perpignan (France)


    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  10. Mixing times towards demographic equilibrium in insect populations with temperature variable age structures. (United States)

    Damos, Petros


    In this study, we use entropy related mixing rate modules to measure the effects of temperature on insect population stability and demographic breakdown. The uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn, and how it is moved after a finite act of time steps, is modeled using a stochastic transformation of the Leslie matrix. Age classes are represented as a cycle graph and its transitions towards the stable age distribution are brought forth as an exact Markov chain. The dynamics of divergence, from a non equilibrium state towards equilibrium, are evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Moreover, Kullback-Leibler distance is applied as information-theoretic measure to estimate exact mixing times of age transitions probabilities towards equilibrium. Using empirically data, we show that on the initial conditions and simulated projection's trough time, that population entropy can effectively be applied to detect demographic variability towards equilibrium under different temperature conditions. Changes in entropy are correlated with the fluctuations of the insect population decay rates (i.e. demographic stability towards equilibrium). Moreover, shorter mixing times are directly linked to lower entropy rates and vice versa. This may be linked to the properties of the insect model system, which in contrast to warm blooded animals has the ability to greatly change its metabolic and demographic rates. Moreover, population entropy and the related distance measures that are applied, provide a means to measure these rates. The current results and model projections provide clear biological evidence why dynamic population entropy may be useful to measure population stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermodynamic study of residual heat from a high temperature nuclear reactor to analyze its viability in cogeneration processes; Estudio termodinamico del calor residual de un reactor nuclear de alta temperatura para analizar su viabilidad en procesos de cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan R, A.; Valle H, J.; Escalante, J. A., E-mail: [Universidad Politecnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo, Boulevard acceso a Tolcayuca 1009, Ex-Hacienda San Javier, 43860 Tolcayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)


    In this paper the thermodynamic study of a nuclear power plant of high temperature at gas turbine (GTHTR300) is presented for estimating the exploitable waste heat in a process of desalination of seawater. One of the most studied and viable sustainable energy for the production of electricity, without the emission of greenhouse gases, is the nuclear energy. The fourth generation nuclear power plants have greater advantages than those currently installed plants; these advantages have to do with security, increased efficiencies and feasibility to be coupled to electrical cogeneration processes. In this paper the thermodynamic study of a nuclear power plant type GTHTR300 is realized, which is selected by greater efficiencies and have optimal conditions for use in electrical cogeneration processes due to high operating temperatures, which are between 700 and 950 degrees Celsius. The aim of the study is to determine the heat losses and the work done at each stage of the system, determining where they are the greatest losses and analyzing in that processes can be taken advantage. Based on the study was appointed that most of the energy losses are in form of heat in the coolers and usually this is emitted into the atmosphere without being used. From the results a process of desalination of seawater as electrical cogeneration process is proposed. This paper contains a brief description of the operation of the nuclear power plant, focusing on operation conditions and thermodynamic characteristics for the implementation of electrical cogeneration process, a thermodynamic analysis based on mass and energy balance was developed. The results allow quantifying the losses of thermal energy and determining the optimal section for coupling of the reactor with the desalination process, seeking to have a great overall efficiency. (Author)

  12. Impact of short-term temperature variability on emergency hospital admissions for schizophrenia stratified by season of birth (United States)

    Zhao, Desheng; Zhang, Xulai; Xu, Zhiwei; Cheng, Jian; Xie, Mingyu; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Shusi; Li, Kesheng; Yang, Huihui; Wen, Liying; Wang, Xu; Su, Hong


    Diurnal temperature range (DTR) and temperature change between neighboring days (TCN) are important meteorological indicators closely associated with global climate change. However, up to date, there have been no studies addressing the impacts of both DTR and TCN on emergency hospital admissions for schizophrenia. We conducted a time-series analysis to assess the relationship between temperature variability and daily schizophrenia onset in Hefei, an inland city in southeast China. Daily meteorological data and emergency hospital admissions for schizophrenia from 2005 to 2014 in Hefei were collected. After stratifying by season of birth, Poisson generalized linear regression combined with distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was used to examine the relationship between temperature variability and schizophrenia, adjusting for long-term trend and seasonality, mean temperature, and relative humidity. Our analysis revealed that extreme temperature variability may increase the risk for schizophrenia onset among patients born in spring, while no such association was found in patients born in summer and autumn. In patients born in spring, the relative risks of extremely high DTR comparing the 95th and 99th percentiles with the reference (50th, 10 °C) at 3-day lag were 1.078 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.025-1.135) and 1.159 (95 % CI 1.050-1.279), respectively. For TCN effects, only comparing 99th percentile with reference (50th, 0.7 °C) was significantly associated with emergency hospital admissions for schizophrenia (relative risk (RR) 1.111, 95 % CI 1.002-1.231). This study suggested that exposure to extreme temperature variability in short-term may trigger later days of schizophrenia onset for patients born in spring, which may have important implications for developing intervention strategies to prevent large temperature variability exposure.

  13. Adriatic Sea surface temperature and ocean colour variability during the MFSPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Böhm


    Full Text Available Two years and six months of night-time Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR sea surface temperature (SST and daytime Sea viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS data collected during the MFSPP have been used to examine spatial and temporal variability of SST and chlorophyll (Chl in the Adriatic Sea. Flows along the Albanian and the Italian coasts can be distinguished year-round in the monthly averaged Chl but only in the colder months in the monthly averaged SST’s. The Chl monthly-averaged fields supply less information on circulation features away from coastal boundaries and where conditions are generally oligotrophic, except for the early spring bloom in the Southern Adriatic Gyre. To better characterise the year-to-year and seasonal variability, exploratory data analysis techniques, particularly the plotting of multiple Chl-SST histograms, are employed to make joint quantitative use of monthly-averaged fields. Modal water mass (MW, corresponding to the Chl-SST pairs in the neighbourhood of the maximum of each monthly histogram, are chosen to represent the temporal and spatial evolution of the prevalent processes and their variability in the Adriatic Sea. Over an annual cycle, the MW followed a triangular path with the most pronounced seasonal and interannual variations in both Chl-SST properties and spatial distributions of the MW in the colder part of the year. The winter of 1999 is the colder (by at least 0.5°C and most eutrophic (by 0.2 mg/m 3. The fall of the year 2000 is characterised by the lack of cooling in the month of November that was observed in the previous year. In addition to characterising the MW, the two-dimensional histogram technique allows a distinction to be made between different months in terms of the spread of SST values at a given Chl concentration. During spring and summer, the spread is minimal indicating surface homothermal conditions. In fall and winter, on the other hand, a spread of points

  14. The Role of Auxiliary Variables in Deterministic and Deterministic-Stochastic Spatial Models of Air Temperature in Poland (United States)

    Szymanowski, Mariusz; Kryza, Maciej


    Our study examines the role of auxiliary variables in the process of spatial modelling and mapping of climatological elements, with air temperature in Poland used as an example. The multivariable algorithms are the most frequently applied for spatialization of air temperature, and their results in many studies are proved to be better in comparison to those obtained by various one-dimensional techniques. In most of the previous studies, two main strategies were used to perform multidimensional spatial interpolation of air temperature. First, it was accepted that all variables significantly correlated with air temperature should be incorporated into the model. Second, it was assumed that the more spatial variation of air temperature was deterministically explained, the better was the quality of spatial interpolation. The main goal of the paper was to examine both above-mentioned assumptions. The analysis was performed using data from 250 meteorological stations and for 69 air temperature cases aggregated on different levels: from daily means to 10-year annual mean. Two cases were considered for detailed analysis. The set of potential auxiliary variables covered 11 environmental predictors of air temperature. Another purpose of the study was to compare the results of interpolation given by various multivariable methods using the same set of explanatory variables. Two regression models: multiple linear (MLR) and geographically weighted (GWR) method, as well as their extensions to the regression-kriging form, MLRK and GWRK, respectively, were examined. Stepwise regression was used to select variables for the individual models and the cross-validation method was used to validate the results with a special attention paid to statistically significant improvement of the model using the mean absolute error (MAE) criterion. The main results of this study led to rejection of both assumptions considered. Usually, including more than two or three of the most significantly

  15. Thermodynamics for Chemists, Physicists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Hołyst, Robert


    Thermodynamics is an essential part of chemical physics and is of fundamental importance in physics, chemistry and engineering courses. This textbook takes an interdisciplinary approach to the subject and is therefore suitable for undergraduates in all those courses. The book is an introduction to phenomenological thermodynamics and its applications to phase transitions and chemical reactions, with some references to statistical mechanics. It strikes the balance between the rigorousness of the Callen text and phenomenological approach of the Atkins text. The book is divided in three parts. The first introduces the postulates and laws of thermodynamics and complements these initial explanations with practical examples. The second part is devoted to applications of thermodynamics to phase transitions in pure substances and mixtures. The third part covers thermodynamic systems in which chemical reactions take place. There are some sections on more advanced topics such as thermodynamic potentials, natural variabl...

  16. The spatial variability of air temperature and nocturnal urban heat island intensity in the city of Brno, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovolný Petr


    Full Text Available This study seeks to quantify the effects of a number of factors on the nocturnal air temperature field in a medium-sized central European city located in complex terrain. The main data sources consist of mobile air temperature measurements and a geographical database. Temperature measurements were taken along several profiles through the city centre and were made under a clear sky with no advection. Altogether nine sets of detailed measurements, in all seasons, were assembled. Altitude, quantity of vegetation, density of buildings and the structure of the transportation (road system were considered as explanatory variables. The result is that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the density of buildings were the most important factors, each of them explaining a substantial part (more than 50% of overall air temperature variability. Mobile measurements with NDVI values as a covariate were used for interpolation of air temperature for the entire study area. The spatial variability of nocturnal air temperature and UHI intensity in Brno is the main output presented. Air temperatures interpolated from mobile measurements and NDVI values indicate that the mean urban heat island (UHI intensity in the early night in summer is at its highest (approximately 5 °C in the city centre and decreases towards the suburban areas.

  17. Influence of sea surface temperature on the intraseasonal variability of the South China Sea summer monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxy, Mathew [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Centre for Climate Change Research, Pune (India); Hokkaido University, Faculty of Environmental Earth Science and Graduate School of Environmental Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tanimoto, Youichi [Hokkaido University, Faculty of Environmental Earth Science and Graduate School of Environmental Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); JAMSTEC, Research Institute for Global Change, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)


    The objective of this study is to examine, based on recently available high resolution satellite and observational data, the evolution and role of sea surface temperature (SST) in influencing the intraseasonal variability of the South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon (SM). The study focuses on the 30-60 day timescale when the northward propagating anomalies are dominant over the SCS. Composite analysis of the SST maximum events during SCS SM shows that increased SST anomalies over the SCS are significantly influenced by the downward shortwave radiation flux anomalies, with the suppressed surface latent heat flux anomalies supplementing to it. A thermal damping of the positive SST anomalies induces positive upward heat fluxes, which then destabilize the lower atmosphere between 1,000 and 700 hPa. The positive SST anomalies lead the positive precipitation anomalies over the SCS by 10 days, with a significant correlation (r = 0.44) between the SST-precipitation anomalies. The new findings here indicate an ocean-to-atmosphere effect over the SCS, where underlying SST anomalies tend to form a favorable condition for convective activity and sustain enhanced precipitation during the SCS SM. It is also argued, based on our observations, that the negative sea level pressure anomalies induced by the positive SST anomalies play a role in enhancing the northward propagation of the intraseasonal anomalies over the SCS. (orig.)

  18. Effect of extrusion variables (temperature, moisture) on the antinutrient components of cereal brans. (United States)

    Kaur, Satinder; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit; Dar, B N


    The study was carried out, to explore the potentiality of extrusion technology for elimination of antinutritional components of cereal brans. Extrusion variables were moisture content (14, 17 and 20 %) and temperatures (115 °C, 140 °C, 165 °C). Phytic acid, polyphenols, oxalates, trypsin inhibitor, bulk density and color of brans after extrusion were analyzed. All four raw bran samples had high concentration of phytic acid, polyphenols, oxalates and trypsin inhibitors. Extrusion cooking was found effective in reduction of these antinutritients. Extrusion processing reduced the phytic acid by 54.51 %, polyphenol by 73.38 %, oxalates by 36.84 %, and trypsin inhibitor by 72.39 %. The heat treatment caused the highest reduction in polyphenols followed by trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid and oxalates. The highest reduction in antinutrients was observed at 140 °C and 20 % moisture content. Bulk density increased significantly compared to raw brans and increase in redness and decrease in yellowness of brans was observed after extrusion treatment.

  19. [Physiological and biochemical change of Paris seed in after-ripening during variable temperature stratification]. (United States)

    Li, Zhao-ling; Tong, Kai; Yan, Shen; Yang, Hua; Wang, Qiao; Tang, Yong-bin; Deng, Meng-sheng; Tian, Meng-liang


    In order to explore the dormancy physiological and biochemical mechanism of Paris seeds, the seed embryo growth courses, and the dynamic change of 5 enzymes, include SOD, POD, CAT, MDH, G-6-PDH were measured during variable temperature stratification. The results indicated that Paris seeds embryo grew quickly after 40 d in warm-stratification (18 ± 1) °C, at the meantime the metabolic activity was significantly strengthened. These facts showed that Paris seeds turned into physiological after-ripening process. After 60-80 d, the morphological embryo after-ripping process basically completed, and the following cold-stratification (4 ± 1) °C furthered Paris seed to finish physiological after-ripening. After 40 d, the activity of MDH decreased while G-6-PDH increased significantly. This showed that the main respiratory pathway of seed changed from TCA to PPP, which benifited breaking seed dormancy. In the whole period of stratification process, the activity variation of SOD and CAT was insignificantly and the activity of POD was enhanced significantly after shifting the seed in cold stratification process. This showed that SOD, CAT had no direct effects on breaking Paris seed dormancy but keeping the seed vigor, while the POD might involve in the process of Paris seed dormancy breaking.

  20. Thermodynamic basis for cluster kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Xubo


    Due to the inaccessibility of the supercooled region of marginal metallic glasses (MMGs) within the experimental time window, we study the cluster kinetics above the liquidus temperature, Tl, to acquire information on the fragility of the MMG systems. Thermodynamic basis for the stability...

  1. Temporal variability of extreme temperature indices in Utah during the past few decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the trends in five annual extreme indices of temperature for Utah, USA. The analyses were conducted for 28 meteorological stations, during the period from 1970 to 2006, characterized by high quality data set. The analyses of extreme temperature indices have identified an increase in the maximum and minimum air temperatures in Utah. Predominantly, the minimum air temperature is increasing in the studied region. Most of Utah has shown a decrease in the diurnal temperature range, which indicates that the minimum temperature is increasing faster than the maximum temperature.

  2. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy. (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter


    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at; a full web server is available at http

  3. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Garcia-Martin

    Full Text Available Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs. However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at; a full web server is available at http

  4. Universal thermodynamics in different gravity theories: Conditions for generalized second law of thermodynamics and thermodynamical equilibrium on the horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Saugata; Chakraborty, Subenoy


    The present work deals with a detailed study of universal thermodynamics in different modified gravity theories. The validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) and thermodynamical equilibrium (TE) of the Universe bounded by a horizon (apparent/event) in f(R)-gravity, Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, RS-II brane scenario and DGP brane model has been investigated. In the perspective of recent observational evidences, the matter in the Universe is chosen as interacting holographic dark energy model. The entropy on the horizons are evaluated from the validity of the unified first law and as a result there is a correction (in integral form) to the usual Bekenstein entropy. The other thermodynamical parameter namely temperature on the horizon is chosen as the recently introduced corrected Hawking temperature. The above thermodynamical analysis is done for homogeneous and isotropic flat FLRW model of the Universe. The restrictions for the validity of GSLT and the TE are presented in tabular form f...

  5. [Biogeocenosis thermodynamics based on remote sensing]. (United States)

    Sandlerskiĭ, R B; Puzachenko, Iu G


    Methodological issues in the studies of spatial and temporal variations in the energy conversion are shown to be solvable on the basis of information thermodynamic approach using the remote sensing techniques. A possibility of evaluation of the main components of the energy balance of a biogeocenosis, considered as an open thermodynamic system maintaining its structure through the conversion of solar energy, is demonstrated by analysis of the southern taiga landscapes of Valdai Hills. Analysis of the ratio of thermodynamic variables for the different types of biogeocenosis shows that the energy flow absorbed by the surface, is being redistributed among balance components by various mechanisms, and it depends on the structure of the redistribution system expressed by the non-equilibrium. Non-equilibrium of the solar energy transformation is determined before all by the energy costs in the synthesis of biological products, and has a little impact on exergy of the solar radiation, i.e., the cost of energy to evaporation. Invariance of energy conversion by landscape as a whole and generalized types of biogeocenoses are estimated. The ability of the taiga landscapes to maintain energy absorbed invariants, exergy and temperatures forms a naturally determined series similar to a succession trend: meadows--falls--deciduous forests--coniferous forest. Anthropogenic objects are shown to possess the weakest autoregulation ability. Raised bogs keep high heating of the territory and preserve precipitation in the subsurface runoff, in contrast to the forests carrying out moisture transport from the soil into the atmosphere. The bog's ability to maintain the level of biological production is comparable to that of coniferous forests. The role of forest vegetation in climate regulation is estimated; it is shown that the absence of forests increases the surface temperature by 4 degrees C.

  6. JPL field measurements at the Finney County, Kansas, test site, October 1976: Meteorological variables, surface reflectivity, surface and subsurface temperatures (United States)

    Kahle, A. B.; Schieldge, J.; Paley, H. N.


    Data collected at the Finney County, Kansas test site as part of the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment (JSME) are presented here, prior to analysis, to provide all JSME investigators with an immediate source of primary information. The ground-truth measurements were taken to verify and complement soil moisture data taken by microwave and infrared sensors during aircraft overflights. Measurements were made of meteorological variables (air speed, temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall), surface reflectivity, and temperatures at and below the surface.

  7. Thermodynamics of geothermal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, P.S.Z.


    A model to predict the thermodynamic properties of geothermal brines, based on a minimum amount of experimental data on a few key systems, is tested. Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium chloride, taken from the literature, are represented by a parametric equation over the range 0 to 300{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 1 kbar. Density measurements at 20 bar needed to complete the volumetric description also are presented. The pressure dependence of activity and thermal properties, derived from the volumetric equation, can be used to complete an equation of state for sodium chloride solutions. A flow calorimeter, used to obtain heat capacity data at high temperatures and pressures, is described. Heat capacity measurements, from 30 to 200{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 200 bar, are used to derive values for the activity coefficient and other thermodynamic properties of sodium sulfate solutions as a function of temperature. Literature data on the solubility of gypsum in mixed electrolyte solutions have been used to evaluate model parameters for calculating gypsum solubility in seawater and natural brines. Predictions of strontium and barium sulfate solubility in seawater also are given.

  8. Assessment of Trends and Variability of Rainfall and Temperature for the District of Mandi in Himachal Pradesh, India (United States)

    Mohd Wani, John; Sarda, V. K.; Jain, Sanjay. K.


    Climate variability, particularly, that of the annual air temperature and precipitation, has received a great deal of attention worldwide. The magnitude of the variability of the factors changes according to the locations. The present study focuses on detecting the trends and variability in the annual temperature and rainfall for the district of Mandi in Himachal Pradesh, India. This study used annual and monsoon time series data for the time period 1981-2010 and modified the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator in analyzing the problem. The results of the analysis indicate that the annual maximum temperature (TMX) and annual minimum temperature (TMN) for the period of 30 years have shown an increasing trend, whereas the monsoon's maximum and minimum temperatures have shown a decreasing trend, although it is statistically not significant. The amount of annual rainfall does not show any significant trend, but the monsoonal rainfall has shown an increasing trend that is also statistically not significant. The resulting Mann-Kendall test statistic (Z) and Sen's slope estimate (Q) of all the parameters studied indicate that changes are occurring in the magnitude and timing of the precipitation and temperature events at the Mandi station.

  9. Mathematical foundations of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, R; Stark, M; Ulam, S


    Mathematical Foundations of Thermodynamics details the core concepts of the mathematical principles employed in thermodynamics. The book discusses the topics in a way that physical meanings are assigned to the theoretical terms. The coverage of the text includes the mechanical systems and adiabatic processes; topological considerations; and equilibrium states and potentials. The book also covers Galilean thermodynamics; symmetry in thermodynamics; and special relativistic thermodynamics. The book will be of great interest to practitioners and researchers of disciplines that deal with thermodyn

  10. The circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Part I: The use of modern telemetry systems to monitor core body temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomko Joanna


    Full Text Available The best known daily rhythms in humans include: the sleep-wake rhythm, the circadian core body temperature variability, daily fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heartbeat frequency, and daily changes in hormone secretion: e.g. melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin. The core body temperature in humans has a characteristic sinusoidal course, with the maximum value occurring between 3:00-5:00 pm and the minimum between 3:00-5:00 am. Analysis of literature indicates that the obtained results concerning core body temperature are to a large extent influenced by the type of method applied in the measurement. Depending on test protocols, we may apply various methodologies to measuring core body temperature. One of the newest methods of measuring internal and external body temperature consists in the utilisation of remote temperature sensors transmitting the obtained value via a radio signal. The advantages of this method includes the ability to perform: continuous core temperature measurement, observe dynamic changes in core body temperature occurring in circadian rhythm and the repeatability and credibility of the obtained results, which is presented in numerous scientific reports.

  11. Thermodynamics of freezing and melting


    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, Jeppe C.


    Although the freezing of liquids and melting of crystals are fundamental for many areas of the sciences, even simple properties like the temperature?pressure relation along the melting line cannot be predicted today. Here we present a theory in which properties of the coexisting crystal and liquid phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variatio...

  12. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore


    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  13. Transformations between Extensive and Intensive Versions of Thermodynamic Relationships (United States)

    Eberhart, James G.


    Most thermodynamic properties are either extensive (e.g., volume, energy, entropy, amount, etc.) or intensive (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical potential, mole fraction, etc.). By the same token most of the mathematical relationships in thermodynamics can be written in extensive or intensive form. The basic laws of thermodynamics are usually…

  14. Delineation of Spatial Variability in the Temperature-Mortality Relationship on Extremely Hot Days in Greater Vancouver, Canada. (United States)

    Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Walker, Blake Byron; Henderson, Sarah B


    Climate change has increased the frequency and intensity of extremely hot weather. The health risks associated with extemely hot weather are not uniform across affected areas owing to variability in heat exposure and social vulnerability, but these differences are challenging to map with precision. We developed a spatially and temporally stratified case-crossover approach for delineation of areas with higher and lower risks of mortality on extremely hot days and applied this approach in greater Vancouver, Canada. Records of all deaths with an extremely hot day as a case day or a control day were extracted from an administrative vital statistics database spanning the years of 1998-2014. Three heat exposure and 11 social vulnerability variables were assigned at the residential location of each decedent. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for a 1°C increase in daily mean temperature at a fixed site with an interaction term for decedents living above and below different values of the spatial variables. The heat exposure and social vulnerability variables with the strongest spatially stratified results were the apparent temperature and the labor nonparticipation rate, respectively. Areas at higher risk had values ≥ 34.4°C for the maximum apparent temperature and ≥ 60% of the population neither employed nor looking for work. These variables were combined in a composite index to quantify their interaction and to enhance visualization of high-risk areas. Our methods provide a data-driven framework for spatial delineation of the temperature--mortality relationship by heat exposure and social vulnerability. The results can be used to map and target the most vulnerable areas for public health intervention. Citation: Ho HC, Knudby A, Walker BB, Henderson SB. 2017. Delineation of spatial variability in the temperature-mortality relationship on extremely hot days in greater Vancouver, Canada. Environ Health Perspect 125:66-75;

  15. Effect of system variables involved in packed column SFC of nevirapine as model analyte using response surface methodology: application to retention thermodynamics, solute transfer kinetic study and binary diffusion coefficient determination. (United States)

    Kaul, Neerej; Agrawal, Himani; Paradkar, A R; Mahadik, K R


    A multifactor optimization technique is successfully applied to study the effect of simultaneously varying the system variables on feasibility of nevirapine analysis by packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (PC-SFC). The optimal conditions were determined with the aid of the response surface methodology using 3(3) factorial designs. The method is based on methanol-modified carbon dioxide as the mobile phase at flow rate of 3.0 ml/min with elution through a JASCO Finepak SIL-5, [C18 (5-micron, 25 cm x 4.6 mm, i.d.)] column using photodiode array detection. The method has been successfully used to analyze commercial solid dosage form to assess the chromatographic performance of SFC system. The present work briefs the thermodynamic applications of PC-SFC with an emphasis on the results of nevirapine. The foremost of such applications is the determination of solute diffusion coefficient in supercritical mobile phase by Taylor-Aris peak broadening technique.

  16. Assimilation of temperature and hydraulic gradients for quantifying the spatial variability of streambed hydraulics (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Andrews, Charles B.; Liu, Jie; Yao, Yingying; Liu, Chuankun; Tyler, Scott W.; Selker, John S.; Zheng, Chunmiao


    Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of water flux into or out of shallow aquifers is imperative for water resources management and eco-environmental conservation. In this study, the spatial variability in the vertical specific fluxes and hydraulic conductivities in a streambed were evaluated by integrating distributed temperature sensing (DTS) data and vertical hydraulic gradients into an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) and an empirical thermal-mixing model. The formulation of the EnKF/EnKS assimilation scheme is based on a discretized 1D advection-conduction equation of heat transfer in the streambed. We first systematically tested a synthetic case and performed quantitative and statistical analyses to evaluate the performance of the assimilation schemes. Then a real-world case was evaluated to calculate assimilated specific flux. An initial estimate of the spatial distributions of the vertical hydraulic gradients was obtained from an empirical thermal-mixing model under steady-state conditions using a constant vertical hydraulic conductivity. Then, this initial estimate was updated by repeatedly dividing the assimilated specific flux by estimates of the vertical hydraulic gradients to obtain a refined spatial distribution of vertical hydraulic gradients and vertical hydraulic conductivities. Our results indicate that optimal parameters can be derived with fewer iterations but greater simulation effort using the EnKS compared with the EnKF. For the field application in a stream segment of the Heihe River Basin in northwest China, the average vertical hydraulic conductivities in the streambed varied over three orders of magnitude (5 × 10-1 to 5 × 102 m/d). The specific fluxes ranged from near zero (qz fish spawning and other wildlife incubation, regional flow and hyporheic solute transport models in the Heihe River Basin, as well as in other similar hydrologic settings.

  17. Low-temperature thermodynamics of the heavy-fermion metal YbRh{sub 2}(Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}){sub 2} within a topological scenario for the quantum critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodel, V A; Zverev, M V [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Clark, J W, E-mail: vak@wuphys.wustl.ed, E-mail: jwc@wuphys.wustl.ed, E-mail: zverev@mbslab.kiae.r [McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)


    We describe a topological scenario for the quantum critical point signaled by a divergent density of states at zero temperature, in which the Landau quasiparticle picture survives but the topology of the Fermi surface is altered. Predictions of this scenario for thermodynamic properties of the heavy-fermion metal YbRh{sub 2}(Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}){sub 2} are shown to be in agreement with available experimental data, whereas the conventional scenario based on critical fluctuations of a collective mode fails to explain these properties.

  18. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.K.


    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  19. Hadron thermodynamics in relativistic nuclear collisions (United States)

    Ammiraju, P.


    Various phenomenological models based on statistical thermodynamical considerations were used to fit the experimental data at high P sub T to a two temperature distribution. Whether this implies that the two temperatures belong to two different reaction mechanisms, or consequences of Lorentz-contraction factor, or related in a fundamental way to the intrinsic thermodynamics of Space-Time can only be revealed by further theoretical and experimental investigations of high P sub T phenomena in extremely energetic hadron-hadron collisions.

  20. Annual to Inter-Decadal Variability in Surface Air Temperature Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    global trends, being generally greater in minimum temperature (0.14-0.72°C) than in maximum temperature (0.07-0.13°C). Shifts in ... the rate of global warming has prompted much discussion. The increase in global mean surface ..... The same was also true for the maximum temperatures at Mtwara (Fig. 8). The changes in ...

  1. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of Np(V) Complexation with Acetate at Variable Temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Srinivasan, Thandankorai G.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio


    Spectrophotometric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/acetate complex and determine the equilibrium constants at variable temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K) and at the ionic strength of 1.05 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. The enthalpy of complexation at corresponding temperatures was determined by microcalorimetric titrations. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with acetate is weak but strengthened as the temperature is increased. The complexation is endothermic and is entropy-driven. The enhancement of the complexation at elevated temperatures is primarily due to the increasingly larger entropy gain when the solvent molecules are released from the highly-ordered solvation spheres of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and acetate to the bulk solvent where the degree of disorder is higher at higher temperatures.

  2. Using Variable Temperature Powder X-Ray Diffraction to Determine the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Solid MgO (United States)

    Corsepius, Nicholas C.; DeVore, Thomas C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Warnaar, Deborah L.


    A laboratory exercise was developed by using variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine [alpha] for MgO (periclase)and was tested in the Applied Physical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Laboratories at James Madison University. The experiment which was originally designed to provide undergraduate students with a…

  3. Thermodynamics of the hot BIon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea


    We investigate the thermodynamics of the recently obtained nite temperature BIon solution of arXiv:1012.1494, focusing on two aspects. The first concerns comparison of the free energy of the three available phases for the finite temperature brane-antibrane wormhole configuration. Based on this we...... propose a heuristic picture for the dynamics of the phases that involves a critical temperature below which a stable phase exists. This stable phase is the finite temperature analogue of the thin throat branch of the extremal brane anti-brane wormhole configuration. The second aspect that we consider...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The compositional dependence of viscosity, and viscous flow activation energy of glasses with composition xNa2O∙(15-x K2O∙yCaO∙(10-yZnO∙zZrO2∙(75-zSiO2 (x = 0, 7.5, 15; y = 0, 5, 10; z = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 was analyzed. The studied glasses were described by the thermodynamic model of Shakhmatkin and Vedishcheva considering the glass as an equilibrium ideal solution of species with stoichiometry given by the composition of stable crystalline phases of respective glass forming system. Viscosity-composition relationships were described by the regression approach considering the viscous flow activation energy and the particular isokome temperature as multilinear function of equilibrium molar amounts of system components. The classical approach where the mole fractions of individual oxides are considered as independent variables was compared with the thermodynamic model. On the basis of statistical analysis there was proved that the thermodynamic model is able to describe the composition property relationships with higher reliability. Moreover, due its better physical justification, thermodynamic model can be even used for predictive purposes.

  5. Do walleye pollock exhibit flexibility in where or when they spawn based on variability in water temperature? (United States)

    Bacheler, Nathan M.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Bailey, Kevin M.; Bartolino, Valerio


    Environmental variability is increasingly recognized as a primary determinant of year-class strength of marine fishes by directly or indirectly influencing egg and larval development, growth, and survival. Here we examined the role of annual water temperature variability in determining when and where walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) spawn in the eastern Bering Sea. Walleye pollock spawning was examined using both long-term ichthyoplankton data (N=19 years), as well as with historical spatially explicit, foreign-reported, commercial catch data occurring during the primary walleye pollock spawning season (February-May) each year (N=22 years in total). We constructed variable-coefficient generalized additive models (GAMs) to relate the spatially explicit egg or adult catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) to predictor variables including spawning stock biomass, season, position, and water temperature. The adjusted R2 value was 63.1% for the egg CPUE model and 35.5% for the adult CPUE model. Both egg and adult GAMs suggest that spawning progresses seasonally from Bogoslof Island in February and March to Outer Domain waters between the Pribilof and Unimak Islands by May. Most importantly, walleye pollock egg and adult CPUE was predicted to generally increase throughout the study area as mean annual water temperature increased. These results suggest low interannual variability in the spatial and temporal dynamics of walleye pollock spawning regardless of changes in environmental conditions, at least at the spatial scale examined in this study and within the time frame of decades.

  6. Thermodynamic tables to accompany Modern engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balmer, Robert T


    This booklet is provided at no extra charge with new copies of Balmer's Modern Engineering Thermodynamics. It contains two appendices. Appendix C contains 40 thermodynamic tables, and Appendix D consists of 6 thermodynamic charts. These charts and tables are provided in a separate booklet to give instructors the flexibility of allowing students to bring the tables into exams. The booklet may be purchased separately if needed.

  7. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A


    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  8. Seasonal Canopy Temperatures for Normal and Okra Leaf Cotton under Variable Irrigation in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan


    Full Text Available Temperature affects a number of physiological factors in plants and is related to water use, yield and quality in many crop species. Seasonal canopy temperature, measured with infrared thermometers, is often used in conjunction with environmental factors (e.g., air temperature, humidity, solar radiation to assess crop stress and management actions in cotton. Normal and okra leaf shapes in cotton have been associated with differences in water use and canopy temperature. The okra leaf shape in cotton is generally expected to result in lower water use and lower canopy temperatures, relative to normal leaf, under water deficits. In this study canopy temperatures were monitored in okra and normal leaf varieties for a growing season at four irrigation levels. Differences in canopy temperature (<2 °C were measured between the two leaf shapes. As irrigation levels increased, canopy temperature differences between the leaf shapes declined. At the lowest irrigation level, when differences in sensible energy exchanges due to the okra leaf shape would be enhanced, the canopy temperature of the okra leaf was warmer than the normal leaf. This suggests that varietal differences that are not related to leaf shape may have more than compensated for leaf shape differences in the canopy temperature.

  9. Interannual to multidecadal Euro-Atlantic blocking variability during winter and its relationship with extreme low temperatures in Europe (United States)

    Rimbu, Norel; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ionita, Monica


    The dominant modes of blocking frequency variability in the Atlantic-European region are evaluated for the 1871-2010 period. An Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of a two-dimensional blocking indicator field reveals three dominant EOFs, describing about 35% of interannual to multidecadal blocking variability. The first EOF captures an out-of-phase blocking frequency anomaly over Greenland and Western Europe regions. The corresponding principal component time series is strongly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation index but shows also significant correlations with indices of the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, and East Atlantic-Western Russia patterns. The second EOF shows a dominant center over the North Sea region as well as a less pronounced center with anomalies of the same sign over southeastern Greenland. The multidecadal variations of this mode of blocking variability are related with a basin wide North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomaly which projects partly on the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The third mode is an east-west dipole of blocking frequency anomalies from Scandinavian and southern Greenland regions and shows enhanced variability at 20 year time scales. The coherent variations of the time coefficients of this pattern with open solar flux suggest a possible solar influence on blocking variability at these time scales. Furthermore, the dominant patterns of blocking variability are related with distinct anomaly patterns in the occurrence of extreme low temperature events over Europe at interannual to multidecadal time scales. AMO as well as the solar signals was detected also in the corresponding extreme low temperature blocking patterns. We argue that multivariate analysis of blocking indicators gives additional information about blocking and related extreme climate phenomena variability and predictability comparative with classical sectorial approach.

  10. The Influence of Recurrent Modes of Climate Variability on the Occurrence of Monthly Temperature Extremes Over South America (United States)

    Loikith, Paul C.; Detzer, Judah; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Lee, Huikyo; Barkhordarian, Armineh


    The associations between extreme temperature months and four prominent modes of recurrent climate variability are examined over South America. Associations are computed as the percent of extreme temperature months concurrent with the upper and lower quartiles of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic Niño, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index distributions, stratified by season. The relationship is strongest for ENSO, with nearly every extreme temperature month concurrent with the upper or lower quartiles of its distribution in portions of northwestern South America during some seasons. The likelihood of extreme warm temperatures is enhanced over parts of northern South America when the Atlantic Niño index is in the upper quartile, while cold extremes are often association with the lowest quartile. Concurrent precipitation anomalies may contribute to these relations. The PDO shows weak associations during December, January, and February, while in June, July, and August its relationship with extreme warm temperatures closely matches that of ENSO. This may be due to the positive relationship between the PDO and ENSO, rather than the PDO acting as an independent physical mechanism. Over Patagonia, the SAM is highly influential during spring and fall, with warm and cold extremes being associated with positive and negative phases of the SAM, respectively. Composites of sea level pressure anomalies for extreme temperature months over Patagonia suggest an important role of local synoptic scale weather variability in addition to a favorable SAM for the occurrence of these extremes.

  11. Hydrogen production from methane reforming: thermodynamic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, A.J.; Hori, Carla E.; Avila Neto, Cicero; Franco, Tatiana [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail:


    The main contributions of this study are to conduct a comparative thermodynamic analysis of methane reforming reactions and to asses the influence of key operational variables on chemical equilibrium using an in-house code, developed in the open-source software Scilab{sup c} INRIA-ENPC ( Equilibrium compositions are calculated by two distinct methods: evaluation of equilibrium constants and Lagrange multipliers. Both methods result in systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically using the Scilab function 'fsolve'. Comparison between experimental and simulated equilibrium data, published in the literature, was used to validate the simulated results. Effects of temperature, pressure, initial H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratio (steam reforming), initial CH{sub 4}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ratio (dry reforming) and initial O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio (partial oxidation) on the reaction products were evaluated. (author)

  12. THEREDA. Thermodynamic reference data base. Phase II. Release of thermodynamic data. Summary and final report; THEREDA. Thermodynamische Referenz-Datenbasis. Phase II. Freigabe thermodynamischer Daten. Zusammenfassung der Abschlussberichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmaier, Marcus; Gaona, Xavier; Marquardt, Christian; Montoya, Vanessa [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; Bok, Frank; Richter, Anke [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Moog, Helge C.; Scharge, Tina [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Voigt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Wilhelm, Stefan [AF Consult AG, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)


    The final report on the thermodynamic reference data base THEREDA covers the following issues: project management, quality management (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf HZDR and GRS), data base interfaces, documentation, uranium (HZDR), other nuclides (Karlsruhe Institute for technology, KIT), data for cement minerals and their reaction products (AF-Consult, GRS), phosphate (GRS), systems with CO2 and carbonate at variable temperatures and pressure (Bergakademie Freiberg, TUBAF).

  13. Temperature and food-mediated variability of European Atlantic sardine recruitment (United States)

    Garrido, Susana; Silva, Alexandra; Marques, Vitor; Figueiredo, Ivone; Bryère, Philippe; Mangin, Antoine; Santos, A. Miguel P.


    The influence of the environmental conditions during larval development on the resulting recruitment strength was investigated for European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) at Atlanto-Iberian waters. Satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) data from the previous spawning seasons (January to March/April and October to December of the previous year) were related to recruitment success data in the main recruitment hotspots. Recruitment data was taken from yearly acoustic scientific cruises and from the ICES recruitment index estimated by an age-structured model for the entire stock. A linear discriminant analysis model using SST, Chla, and the abundance of spawners during the spawning season identified years of high and low recruitment for all the recruitment hotspots with an accuracy of ≥79%. In general, high recruitment years were associated with high Chla and low SST, although the most important variables to discriminate between the groups were area-specific. High recruitment years were mostly related to high food availability (Chla), particularly during the last quarter of the previous year. In Western Iberia and in the Gulf of Cadiz, high recruitment years were also associated to lower SST, whereas in the Bay of Biscay, where SST during the winter was generally below the optimal range ≈11-12 °C for sardine larval development, higher recruitment was associated with high SST. For ICES data of the southern European sardine stock, lower SST and higher Chla during the last quarter of the previous year were associated with high recruitment years and SST alone was able to discriminate between the two recruitment groups with 73% accuracy. Although the time-series of available data are still small, these significant relationships are consistent with field and laboratory studies relating larval growth and mortality with main environmental drivers. These relationships should be further investigated in the following years to

  14. Influence of Tree-Scale Environmental Variability on Tree-Ring Reconstructions of Temperature at Sonora Pass, CA (United States)

    Ma, L.; Stine, A.


    Tree-ring width from treeline environments tend to covary with local interannual temperature variabilities. However, other environmental factors such as moisture and light availability may further modulate tree growth in cold climates. We investigate the influence of various environmental factors on a tree-ring record from a research plot near Sonora Pass, CA (38.32N, 119.64W; elev. 3130 m). This treeline ecotone is dominated by whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) growing as individuals and as stands, and at the transition between tree form and krummholtz. We surveyed all trees in the 160m x 90m site, mapping and coring all trees with a diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm. We use survey data to test for an influence of inter-tree competition on growth. We also test for modulation of growth by variation in distance from surface water, aspect and slope, and soil types. Initial result shows a relationship between tree ring width and local May-July temperature (R = 0.33, p effect of spatial variability on mean growth rate and on reconstructed temperatures. Trees that have larger or closer neighboring trees experience greater competition, and we hypothesize that competition will be inversely related to average growth rate. Further, we test the sensitivity of ring-width interannual variability to other non-temperature environmental drivers such as moisture availability, light competition, and spatial relations in the microenvironment. We hypothesize that trees that have ready access to light and water will likely produce ring records more closely correlated with the temperature record, and thus will produce a temperature reconstruction with a higher signal-to-noise ratio; whereas trees that experience more microenvironment limitations or competition will produce ring records resembling temperature and additional environmental factors or will contain more noise.

  15. Thermodynamics and dynamics of a monoatomic glass former. Constant pressure and constant volume behavior. (United States)

    Kapko, Vitaliy; Matyushov, Dmitry V; Angell, C Austen


    We report constant-volume and constant-pressure simulations of the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of the low-temperature liquid and crystalline phases of the modified Stillinger-Weber (SW) model. We have found an approximately linear temperature increase of the effective Gaussian width of the distribution of inherent structures. This effect comes from non-Gaussianity of the landscape and is consistent with the predictions of the Gaussian excitations model representing the thermodynamics of the configurational manifold as an ensemble of excitations, each carrying an excitation entropy. The SW model provides us with both the configurational and excess entropies, with the difference mostly attributed to vibrational anharmonicity. We therefore can address the distinction between the excess thermodynamic quantities, often used to interpret experiments, and configurational thermodynamics used to describe the dynamics in the Adam-Gibbs (AG) equation. However we are limited computationally to work at temperatures above the "crossover" temperature at which the breakdown in the Adam-Gibbs relation has been identified in laboratory studies. We find a new break in the slope of the constant pressure AG plot (in the same sense but at much higher temperature than with laboratory data) when the excess entropy is used in the AG equation. This break, which we associate with anharmonic vibrational effects, is not seen when the configurational entropy is used. The simulation diffusivity data are equally well fitted by the AG equation and by a new equation, derived within the Gaussian excitations model, that emphasizes enthalpy over entropy as the thermodynamic control variable for transport in viscous liquids. We show that the modified SW model has close links to the behavior observed for bulk metallic glasses, both in its diffusional and in its thermodynamic properties.

  16. Microinertia and internal variables

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, A


    The origin of microinertia of micromorphic theories is investigated from the point of view of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In the framework of dual internal variables microinertia stems from a thermodynamic equation of state related to the internal variable with the properties of mechanical momentum.

  17. Temperature-related Intraspecific Variability in the Behavioral Manipulation of Acanthocephalan Parasites on Their Gammarid Hosts. (United States)

    Labaude, Sophie; Cézilly, Frank; Rigaud, Thierry


    Understanding the effect of temperature on ecologically important species has become a major challenge in the context of global warming. However, the consequences of climate change cannot be accurately predicted without taking into consideration biotic interactions. Parasitic infection, in particular, constitutes a widespread biotic interaction, and parasites impact their hosts in multiple ways, eventually leading to consequences for communities and ecosystems. We explored the effect of temperature on the anti-predator behavior of a keystone freshwater invertebrate, the amphipod Gammarus fossarum. Gammarids regularly harbor manipulative acanthocephalan parasites that modify their anti-predator behavior in ways that potentially increase the probability of trophic transmission to their definitive hosts. We investigated the impact of temperature on gammarids infected by two acanthocephalan parasites, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis and Polymorphus minutus. Uninfected and naturally infected gammarids were acclimatized to different temperatures, and their behavior was measured. Our results showed that the effect of infection on the phototaxis of gammarids increased with increasing temperature, with a stronger effect induced by P. tereticollis. In contrast, temperature had no effect on the alteration of refuge use or geotaxis observed in infected gammarids. Our results provide the first direct evidence that temperature can affect the extent of behavioral alteration brought about by certain parasite species. However, the consequences of increased trophic transmission remain elusive; the supposedly key anti-predatory behavior was not significantly affected by exposure of gammarids to different temperatures.

  18. Temperature-Phase Converter Based on a LC Cell as a Variable Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Torres


    Full Text Available The main characteristic of liquid crystals is that their properties, both electrical and optical, can be modified through a convenient applied signal, for instance a certain voltage. This tunable behavior of liquid crystals is directly related to the orientation of their nanometric components with respect to a director direction. However, the initial alignment is a fabrication-dependent parameter and may be either planar or homeotropic. In addition, the strong dependence of the properties of liquid crystals with the temperature is well known and widely used for several temperature sensors. This dependence is produced by the influence of the temperature on the ordering of the molecules. In this work, we have studied the temperature dependence of the electric properties of a liquid crystal cell, in particular the dielectric permittivity, with the temperature as a function of the initial alignment set during the fabrication process. Starting from experimental measurements, an equivalent circuit model including the temperature dependence has been proposed. We have observed that a good linearity in a wide temperature range is provided at a suitable exciting frequency. Finally, a proper conditioner circuit is proposed as a powerful tool for linear and high sensibility temperature measurement.

  19. Sensitivity of summer stream temperatures to climate variability in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Charles Luce; Brian Staab; Marc Kramer; Seth Wenger; Dan Isaak; Callie McConnell


    Estimating the thermal response of streams to a warming climate is important for prioritizing native fish conservation efforts. While there are plentiful estimates of air temperature responses to climate change, the sensitivity of streams, particularly small headwater streams, to warming temperatures is less well understood. A substantial body of literature correlates...

  20. Spatial and temporal variability of Crenarchaeota in Lake Superior and implications for the application of the TEX86 temperature proxy (United States)

    Woltering, M. L.; Werne, J. P.; Hicks, R. E.; Kish, J. L.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.


    We present results of a study of Crenarchaeota in the water column of Lake Superior, in which their vertical distribution was examined through in situ filtration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and temporal variability through a three-year time-series sediment trap deployment. We observed that Crenarchaeotal cells and membrane lipids are distributed throughout the water column during overturning conditions, but mainly reside in the hypolimnion when Lake Superior is thermally stratified. TEX86 derived temperatures in suspended particulate matter were in very good agreement with the actual water temperatures at times and depths that the SPM was sampled. Fluxes of isoprenoid crenarchaeotal membrane lipids towards the sediment mainly occur in winter and late spring/early summer and starts when the lake is overturning. We observed a strong covariance of all the fluxes analyzed in the sediment traps suggesting a role of resuspension and sediment focusing to the study site. A lack of seasonality in the trend of TEX86 derived temperatures in settling particles shows that the crenarchaeotal membrane lipid flux during the stratified period is likely dominated by lipids that have been produced in the hypolimnion. Both TEX86 derived temperatures from surface sediments and the flux weighted averaged temperatures from the sediment traps yield temperatures that are close the average hypolmnetic water temperature as well as the temperature observed during the start of overturning. These data suggest that the TEX86 from the sediments of Lake Superior largely reflects a subsurface water temperature and not an annual mean surface water temperature. The sensitivity of hypolimnetic water temperatures of Lake Superior to changes in atmospheric temperatures surrounding Lake Superior are small, even when large changes in atmospheric temperatures would occur over a century time scale. Therefore caution needs to be applied when interpreting trends of TEX86 temperatures from Lake

  1. Thermal boundary layer in stagnation-point flow past a permeable shrinking sheet with variable surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Sharif Uddin


    Full Text Available An investigation is made to study the heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow over a non-isothermal permeable shrinking sheet with suction/injection. In this study, power-law variation of sheet temperature is considered. By similarity transformation, the governing equations with the boundary conditions are transformed to self-similar nonlinear ordinary differential equations and then those are solved numerically by shooting method. In presence of variable sheet temperature, the variation of temperature is analysed. For larger shrinking rate compared to that of straining rate, dual solutions for velocity and temperature are obtained. It is found that for positive value of power-law exponent of variable sheet temperature heat transfer at the sheet as well as heat absorption at the sheet with temperature overshoot near the sheet occur and for negative value heat transfer from the sheet occurs though there is overshoot away from the sheet. With increasing positive power-law exponent heat transfer reduces for first solution and heat absorption enhances for second solution. Whereas, with increasing magnitude of negative power-law exponent heat transfer increases for second solution and for first solution the heat transfer increases for larger shrinking rate and it decreases for smaller shrinking rate. Due to suction heat transfer/absorption increases in all cases and for injection heat transfer/absorption increases for first solution and decreases for second solution. Also, interesting effects of suction/injection and Prandtl number on temperature distribution are observed when the sheet temperature varies (directly/inversely along the sheet.

  2. Treatise on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Planck, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig

    Great classic, still one of the best introductions to thermodynamics. Fundamentals, first and second principles of thermodynamics, applications to special states of equilibrium, more. Numerous worked examples. 1917 edition.

  3. Recent Variability of the Observed Diurnal Temperature Range in the Karakoram and its Surrounding Mountains of Northern Pakistan (United States)

    Shahzad, M. I.; Waqas, A.; H, A.


    Spatial and temporal variability in the observed daily diurnal temperature range (DTR) for the recent 30-year period (1985-2015) is examined from a total of 17 stations in Hindukush Karakoram Himalaya region, Northern Pakistan (HKNP). Maximum temperature, minimum temperature and cloud cover data are used to establish possible relationship with regional DTR. The regional annual mean DTR (average of the 17 stations) is 13.59, with a maximum in autumn (14.99 °C) and minimum in winter (12.14 °C). The DTR in the HKNP increases with an annual rate of 0.03 °C decade-1 calculated by the Mann-Kendall method. This observed DTR trend is in clear contrast to the narrowing of DTR seen worldwide. Correlation analysis show that trend in DTR is primarily control by greater warming in maximum temperature and a slight cooling in minimum temperature in HKNP. Strong negative correlation is found between the DTR and observed cloud cover data in all seasons, indicating that variability in cloud cover have huge impact on the variation of DTR in this particular region. The statistically significant increasing trend of DTR along with decreasing trend of cloud cover explicitly in spring season suggests an early melt of snow and ice covers of the region, consequently change the hydrological cycle of the region demands better water resource managements in HKNP in coming years.

  4. Cyclic effects and recrystallisation in temperature and rate dependent state variable based plasticity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, Gerhardus J


    Full Text Available working processes. Dislocation density or related stress values play the primary role of internal state dependent variables in the development of many unified constitutive material models using the Kocks-Mecking work hardening theory as foundation...

  5. Development of the high-temperature, solid-state, electromotive force technique to study the thermodynamics of Lewis-acid-base transition metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, G.L.


    The basic principles of the Engel-Brewer theory of metals are summarized and illustrated. Definitions of words used to describe its fundamentals are clarified. The theory predicts the extreme stability of the Lewis-acid-base alloys. The thermodynamics of such alloys may be obtained through the use of oxide-electrolyte, electrochemical cells. Experimental techniques associated with the use of these cells are explained in detail. Much attention is given to the preparation and processing of the materials required. A selective review of the cell literature demonstrates frequent difficulty in obtaining accurate thermodynamic data. In an attempt to correct this situation, as well as to correct problems discovered in this work, the physical processes which create the cell emf are clearly identified. The fundamental understanding afforded by the resulting cell model implies the procedures used to both discover and eliminate errors. Those due to concentration overpotentials, reactive impurities in the gas phase, and interfacial reactions are carefully analyzed. The procedures used to test for and attain equilibrium in an alloy-oxide, powder compact are supported through identification of the transport processes that mediate equilibration.

  6. Temporal Variability in Vertical Groundwater Fluxes and the Effect of Solar Radiation on Streambed Temperatures Based on Vertical High Resolution Distributed Temperature Sensing (United States)

    Sebok, E.; Karan, S.; Engesgaard, P. K.; Duque, C.


    Due to its large spatial and temporal variability, groundwater discharge to streams is difficult to quantify. Methods using vertical streambed temperature profiles to estimate vertical fluxes are often of coarse vertical spatial resolution and neglect to account for the natural heterogeneity in thermal conductivity of streambed sediments. Here we report on a field investigation in a stream, where air, stream water and streambed sediment temperatures were measured by Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) with high spatial resolution to; (i) detect spatial and temporal variability in groundwater discharge based on vertical streambed temperature profiles, (ii) study the thermal regime of streambed sediments exposed to different solar radiation influence, (iii) describe the effect of solar radiation on the measured streambed temperatures. The study was carried out at a field site located along Holtum stream, in Western Denmark. The 3 m wide stream has a sandy streambed with a cobbled armour layer, a mean discharge of 200 l/s and a mean depth of 0.3 m. Streambed temperatures were measured with a high-resolution DTS system (HR-DTS). By helically wrapping the fiber optic cable around two PVC pipes of 0.05 m and 0.075 m outer diameter over 1.5 m length, temperature measurements were recorded with 5.7 mm and 3.8 mm vertical spacing, respectively. The HR-DTS systems were installed 0.7 m deep in the streambed sediments, crossing both the sediment-water and the water-air interface, thus yielding high resolution water and air temperature data as well. One of the HR-DTS systems was installed in the open stream channel with only topographical shading, while the other HR-DTS system was placed 7 m upstream, under the canopy of a tree, thus representing the shaded conditions with reduced influence of solar radiation. Temperature measurements were taken with 30 min intervals between 16 April and 25 June 2013. The thermal conductivity of streambed sediments was calibrated in a 1D flow

  7. Thermodynamic Measure for Nonequilibrium Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Grandpierre


    Full Text Available One of the most fundamental laws of Nature is formulated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. At present, in its usual formulation the central concept is entropy characterized in terms of equilibrium state variables. We point out that because thermodynamic changes arise when systems are out of equilibrium and because entropy is not a natural state variable characterizing non-equilibrium states, a new formulation of the Second Law is required. In this paper, we introduce a new, more general, but still entropic measure that is suitable in non-equilibrium conditions as well. This new entropic measure has given a name extropy. The introduction of extropy allows us to formulate the Second Law in a more suitable and precise form, and it resolves some conceptual difficulties related to the interpretation of entropy. We point out that extropy has a fundamental significance in physics, in biology, and in our scientific worldview.

  8. Measurements of Dielectric Properties of Mars Analog Soils with Variable Temperature and Moisture Content (United States)

    Cereti, A.; Mellon, M. T.; Sizemore, H. G.; Phillips, R. J.


    We performed impedance spectroscopy of various martian analog soils, with varying temperature and moisture content, to investigate how the complex dielectric permittivity depends on these factors, as this parameter can strongly affect radar signals propagation.

  9. Variability of Temperature and Its Impact on Reference Evapotranspiration: The Test Case of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderraouf Elferchichi


    Full Text Available The present study provides an assessment of the climate variability at a subnational scale, focusing on the case of the Apulia region, in Southeastern Italy. The variables considered for the purpose of a trend analysis were the minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures, and reference evapotranspiration. These are very important in an urban–rural planning context. The study was based on 38 monitoring stations and consisted in the application of the nonparametric Mann–Kendall test and a progressive trend analysis, both used to detect the changes. The 1950–2003 period was investigated on seasonal and annual scales. The results generally showed a warming process and an acceleration of the atmospheric evaporative demand which took place especially since the mid-1970s. The latter had a significant positive trend, while the period before the break point of the 70s had a cooling effect. Finally, the warming effect was more pronounced for minimum temperatures.

  10. Sensitivity of frost occurrence to temperature variability in the European Alps (United States)

    Auer, Ingeborg; Matulla, Christoph; Böhm, Reinhard; Ungersböck, Markus; Maugeri, Maurizio; Nanni, Teresa; Pastorelli, Rossella


    In this study, we set out to investigate the linkage of frost frequency to monthly mean temperature and its sensitivity to temperature changes. According to other related studies, the linkage between frost frequency and monthly mean temperature is approximated month per month via hyperbolic tangent functions. These models are validated using three validation experiments including split sample tests and temporal cross-validation. As there are quality-checked station data in Austria, whose temporal resolution and length allow for such a validation procedure, the validation experiments are conducted there.After the performance of the empirical models is evaluated and found adequate, the hyperbolic tangent approach is applied to about 500 stations within the so called Greater Alpine region (GAR), which extends from about 4 °E to 18 °E and from 44 °N to 49 °N. Using these models, it is possible to derive the sensitivity of frost frequency for any location for which the annual temperature cycle is known. This strategy is explicitly demonstrated for the Po Plain, where vertical temperature profiles on a monthly base are on hand as well as in Austria, where spatially high resolved maps of monthly mean temperature are available. Moreover, at stations for which long-term homogenised series of monthly mean temperature are available, reconstructions of frost frequency via the empirical models are done, returning to historical periods where no measurements of minimum temperature exist.On the basis of these findings, the impact of a possible future warming can be assessed, which is essential with regard to glaciers, permafrost and avalanches. Reduction in frost might bring positive economic aspects for agriculture, but negative consequences for low level skiing areas. Copyright

  11. Influence of control variables on mannequin temperature in a paediatric operating theatre. (United States)

    Cassey, John; Strezov, Vladimir; Armstrong, Peter; Forsyth, Robert; Lucas, John; Jones, Bryan; Farrell, Patrick


    Core temperature drops in all children having general anaesthesia. Convection heating may be useful, but its effectiveness in the paediatric setting is not established. Additionally, its utility in many paediatric situations is limited by blanket design. Using a mannequin model in a sham operation, we assessed the likely safety and effectiveness of a draping technique in association with a 'Bair Hugger' and a heat dissipation unit (HDU). In Part 1 of the study, the influence of ambient temperature was assessed. In Part 2, a simulated laparotomy was set up and a more detailed assessment of air temperatures around the mannequin was made. In addition, the effect of a change in the HDU design was assessed. Part 1: the technique achieved 'near-plateau' temperature within 5-10 min. A difference of 8 degrees C in ambient temperature (between 18 and 26 degrees C) translated only to a 2-3 degrees C difference under the drapes. Part 2: the technique produced sidestream cooler zones at the head and shoulders. Air temperature at these sites was 28-34 degrees C, whereas at other points (irrespective of their distance from the heat source), it was 37-40 degrees C. Warm air reached sufficient skin sites to anticipate adequate heat transfer in the clinical situation. Air temperature at 'skin' surface stayed below 40 degrees C over the 90-min study period. A customized HDU used in association with a 'Bair Hugger' unit and a careful surgical draping technique provides stable, safe and consistent air temperatures around a mannequin. Net heat gain by a child's body should occur with this arrangement. Further evaluation in a clinical study is underway.

  12. Sensitivity of extreme precipitation to temperature: the variability of scaling factors from a regional to local perspective (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Kirchengast, G.


    Potential increases in extreme rainfall induced hazards in a warming climate have motivated studies to link precipitation intensities to temperature. Increases exceeding the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate of 6-7%/°C-1 are seen in short-duration, convective, high-percentile rainfall at mid latitudes, but the rates of change cease or revert at regionally variable threshold temperatures due to moisture limitations. It is unclear, however, what these findings mean in term of the actual risk of extreme precipitation on a regional to local scale. When conditioning precipitation intensities on local temperatures, key influences on the scaling relationship such as from the annual cycle and regional weather patterns need better understanding. Here we analyze these influences, using sub-hourly to daily precipitation data from a dense network of 189 stations in south-eastern Austria. We find that the temperature sensitivities in the mountainous western region are lower than in the eastern lowlands. This is due to the different weather patterns that cause extreme precipitation in these regions. Sub-hourly and hourly intensities intensify at super-CC and CC-rates, respectively, up to temperatures of about 17 °C. However, we also find that, because of the regional and seasonal variability of the precipitation intensities, a smaller scaling factor can imply a larger absolute change in intensity. Our insights underline that temperature precipitation scaling requires careful interpretation of the intent and setting of the study. When this is considered, conditional scaling factors can help to better understand which influences control the intensification of rainfall with temperature on a regional scale.

  13. Chromium Biosorption from Cr(VI) Aqueous Solutions by Cupressus lusitanica Bark: Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies


    Alma Rosa Netzahuatl-Muñoz; María del Carmen Cristiani-Urbina; Eliseo Cristiani-Urbina


    The present study investigated the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of chromium (Cr) ion biosorption from Cr(VI) aqueous solutions by Cupressus lusitanica bark (CLB). CLB total Cr biosorption capacity strongly depended on operating variables such as initial Cr(VI) concentration and contact time: as these variables rose, total Cr biosorption capacity increased significantly. Total Cr biosorption rate also increased with rising solution temperature. The pseudo-second-order model describ...

  14. Sensitivity of crop yield and N losses in winter wheat to changes in mean and variability of temperature and precipitation in Denmark using the FASSET model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Ravi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E


    temperatures, caused by early maturity, with little change in variability. This, however, increased soil mineral N causing increased N losses. On sandy loam, larger temperature variability lowered grain yields and increased N losses coupled with higher variability at all the mean temperature ranges. On coarse...... in variability. Larger temperature variability did not affect soil mineral N and N2O emissions, but increased N leaching on coarse sand. Large response in grain yield, N uptake and soil N cycling, and in their variability was predicted when summer precipitation was varied, whereas only N leaching responded...... loam. This study illustrates the importance of considering effects of changes to mean climatic factors, climatic variability and soil types on both crop yield and soil N losses...

  15. Thickness and temperature depending intermixing of SiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub x}N{sub y}/SiO{sub 2} superlattices: Experimental observation and thermodynamic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhigunov, D. M. [Faculty of Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sarikov, A. [IMDEA Materials Institute, c/ Eric Kandel, 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); V. Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics NAS Ukraine, 45 Nauki Avenue, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine); Chesnokov, Yu. M.; Vasiliev, A. L. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, pl. Akademika Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zakharov, N. [Max-Planck-Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Kashkarov, P. K. [Faculty of Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, pl. Akademika Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Multilayered SiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub x}N{sub y}/SiO{sub 2} thin films were fabricated using different techniques and subsequently annealed at high temperatures (≥1100 °C) in order to form Si nanocrystals by means of the well-known superlattice approach. The thickness of the SiO{sub x} and SiO{sub x}N{sub y} layers was varied from 1.5 to 5 nm, while for the SiO{sub 2} layers it was fixed at 4 nm. Using transmission electron microscopy, we showed that the multilayered structure generally sustains the high temperature annealing for both types of films. However, for samples with ultrathin SiO{sub x} or SiO{sub x}N{sub y} layers a breakdown of the superlattice structure and a complete intermixing of layers were observed at high temperatures. On the contrary, annealing at lower temperature (900 °C) preserves the multilayered structure even of such samples. Theoretical calculations showed that the intermixing of SiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub x}N{sub y}/SiO{sub 2} superlattices in the ultrathin layers thickness limit may be explained thermodynamically by the gain in the Gibbs free energy, which depends in turn on the annealing temperature.

  16. Large Scale Variability of Phytoplankton Blooms in the Arctic and Peripheral Seas: Relationships with Sea Ice, Temperature, Clouds, and Wind (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Cota, Glenn F.


    Spatially detailed satellite data of mean color, sea ice concentration, surface temperature, clouds, and wind have been analyzed to quantify and study the large scale regional and temporal variability of phytoplankton blooms in the Arctic and peripheral seas from 1998 to 2002. In the Arctic basin, phytoplankton chlorophyll displays a large symmetry with the Eastern Arctic having about fivefold higher concentrations than those of the Western Arctic. Large monthly and yearly variability is also observed in the peripheral seas with the largest blooms occurring in the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Barents Sea during spring. There is large interannual and seasonal variability in biomass with average chlorophyll concentrations in 2002 and 2001 being higher than earlier years in spring and summer. The seasonality in the latitudinal distribution of blooms is also very different such that the North Atlantic is usually most expansive in spring while the North Pacific is more extensive in autumn. Environmental factors that influence phytoplankton growth were examined, and results show relatively high negative correlation with sea ice retreat and strong positive correlation with temperature in early spring. Plankton growth, as indicated by biomass accumulation, in the Arctic and subarctic increases up to a threshold surface temperature of about 276-277 degree K (3-4 degree C) beyond which the concentrations start to decrease suggesting an optimal temperature or nutrient depletion. The correlation with clouds is significant in some areas but negligible in other areas, while the correlations with wind speed and its components are generally weak. The effects of clouds and winds are less predictable with weekly climatologies because of unknown effects of averaging variable and intermittent physical forcing (e.g. over storm event scales with mixing and upwelling of nutrients) and the time scales of acclimation by the phytoplankton.

  17. Spatio-Temporal Variability in Topoclimate Inferred from Land Surface Temperature Data and its Relevance for Mapping Climatic Refugia (United States)

    Dobrowski, S.; Oyler, J.; Allred, B.


    Topoclimatic diversity is considered an important trait of climatic refugia as it should allow for short distance dispersal of organisms to ameliorate climatic shifts. Nevertheless, topoclimatic diversity can be a challenge to quantify in the absence of distributed sensors or extensive instrumentation. In practice, topographic complexity is used as a proxy for topoclimatic diversity with the assumption that complex terrain will necessarily lead to diverse climates. However, this ignores spatio-temporal variability in soil moisture, snow cover, land cover, and vegetation which mediates the influence terrain has on climate. To better quantify topoclimatic diversity, we examine ten year climatological means for each month for daytime and nighttime MODIS Aqua satellite land surface temperature (LST) observations over the pacific northwest of the U.S. LST is well suited for this application because it is sensitive to variability in regional climate, hydrology, and land cover all of which can dramatically alter the energy balance and temperature of a site. We decompose the spatio-temporal variability in LST into its drivers including geographic position (x,y,z), biophysical factors (e.g. snow cover, vegetation cover, land surface type), and topoclimatic factors (e.g. cold air drainage, aspect). We find that nighttime LST data can be readily used to identify topoclimatic diversity driven by cold air pooling and thermal stratification of minimum temperatures whereas daytime LST data primarily characterizes the influence of vegetation cover on maximum temperatures. For both daytime and nighttime LST, the relative influence of topoclimatic drivers varies seasonally and is also sensitive to maritime influences or continentality of the site. Our approach allows for the decomposition of thermal variability into spatial and temporal components and allows for directly mapping regions of high topoclimatic diversity, an initial step for identifying potential climate refugia.

  18. Principal modes and related frequencies of sea surface temperature variability in the Pacific coast of North America


    Lluch Cota, Daniel B.; Wooster, W.S.; Hare, S.R.; Lluch Belda, Daniel; Pares Sierra, A.


    We examined monthly time-series (1950 to 1999) of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in 47 quadrants (2° 2°) along the Pacific coast of North America. Correlation, clustering and principal components analyses were applied to identify the spatial structure in coastal SST. The resulting modes and the individual series were investigated using spectral analysis to identify the most significant time-scales of variability, and the propagation of the main signals was explored by computing the w...

  19. Long term variability of the annual hydrological regime and sensitivity to temperature phase shifts in Saxony/Germany


    Renner, M.; Bernhofer, C.


    Recently, climatological studies report observational evidence of changes in the timing of the seasons, such as earlier timing of the annual cycle of surface temperature, earlier snow melt and earlier onset of the phenological spring season. Also hydrological studies report earlier timing and changes in monthly streamflows. From a water resources management perspective, there is a need to quantitatively describe the variability in the timing of hydrological regimes and to understand how clima...

  20. Long term variability of the annual hydrological regime and sensitivity to temperature phase shifts in Saxony/Germany


    Renner, M.; Bernhofer, C.


    The timing of the seasons strongly effects ecosystems and human activities. Recently, there is increasing evidence of changes in the timing of the seasons, such as earlier spring seasons detected in phenological records, advanced seasonal timing of surface temperature, earlier snow melt or streamflow timing. For water resources management there is a need to quantitatively describe the variability in the timing of hydrological regimes and to understand how climatic changes control the seasonal...

  1. Modes of variability of the vertical temperature profile of the middle atmosphere at mid-latitude: Similarities with solar forcing (United States)

    Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain; Kerzenmacher, Tobias; Angot, Guillaume


    A long and continuous temperature data set from ground to mesopause was obtained in merging lidar and radiosonde data at mid-latitude over south of France (44°N). The analyses using Empirical Orthogonal Functions has been applied on vertical temperature profiles to investigate the variability differently than it has been done in previous investigations. This study reveals as the first mode in winter, a strong anti-correlation between upper stratosphere and mesosphere that is most probably link with planetary waves propagation and associated stratospheric warmings. While in summer the variability is located in the mesosphere and associated with mesospheric inversions that are probably generated by gravity waves breaking. This study shows that even if the daily temperature variability appears to be complex, a large part (30%) can be modeled, each season, using the first EOF. These vertical patterns exhibit some similarities with solar-atmospheric responses, suggesting a potential feedback of the dynamic. This is already observed for winter response, but during summer the contribution of gravity waves on the mesospheric solar response suggests future investigations to explore the role of this potential mechanism in solar-atmospheric connections.

  2. Temperature and field-dependent transport measurements in continuously tunable tantalum oxide memristors expose the dominant state variable (United States)

    Graves, Catherine E.; Dávila, Noraica; Merced-Grafals, Emmanuelle J.; Lam, Si-Ty; Strachan, John Paul; Williams, R. Stanley


    Applications of memristor devices are quickly moving beyond computer memory to areas of analog and neuromorphic computation. These applications require the design of devices with different characteristics from binary memory, such as a large tunable range of conductance. A complete understanding of the conduction mechanisms and their corresponding state variable(s) is crucial for optimizing performance and designs in these applications. Here we present measurements of low bias I-V characteristics of 6 states in a Ta/ tantalum-oxide (TaOx)/Pt memristor spanning over 2 orders of magnitude in conductance and temperatures from 100 K to 500 K. Our measurements show that the 300 K device conduction is dominated by a temperature-insensitive current that varies with non-volatile memristor state, with an additional leakage contribution from a thermally-activated current channel that is nearly independent of the memristor state. We interpret these results with a parallel conduction model of Mott hopping and Schottky emission channels, fitting the voltage and temperature dependent experimental data for all memristor states with only two free parameters. The memristor conductance is linearly correlated with N, the density of electrons near EF participating in the Mott hopping conduction, revealing N to be the dominant state variable for low bias conduction in this system. Finally, we show that the Mott hopping sites can be ascribed to oxygen vacancies, where the local oxygen vacancy density responsible for critical hopping pathways controls the memristor conductance.

  3. Temperature dependence of an estuarine harmful algal bloom: Resolving interannual variability in bloom dynamics using a degree day approach. (United States)

    Ralston, David K; Keafer, Bruce A; Brosnahan, Michael L; Anderson, Donald M


    Observations of harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in an estuary over multiple years were used to assess drivers of their spatial and temporal variability. Nauset Estuary on Cape Cod, Massachusetts has a recurrent, self-seeding A. fundyense population that produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins and leads to nearly annual closure to shellfishing. Weekly surveys of the entire estuary were made in 3 of 4 consecutive years, with surveys of a subembayment during the intervening year. Major A. fundyense blooms were observed all 4 years, with maximum concentrations >10(6) cells L(-1). Concentrations were greatest in three salt ponds at the distal edges of the estuary. The bloom timing varied among the salt ponds and among years, although the blooms had similar durations and maximum cell concentrations. Nutrient concentrations did not correlate with the growth of the bloom, but differences in water temperature among years and ponds were significant. Net growth rates inferred from the surveys were similar to those from laboratory experiments, and increased linearly with temperature. A growing degree day calculation was used to account for effects of interannual variability and spatial gradients in water temperature on population development. The approach collapsed variability in the timing of bloom onset, development, and termination across years and among ponds, suggesting that this relatively simple metric could be used as an early-warning indicator for HABs in Nauset and similar areas with localized, self-seeding blooms.

  4. Decadal variability of clouds, solar radiation and temperature at a high-latitude coastal site in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajsa Parding


    Full Text Available The observed variability of shortwave (SW irradiance, clouds and temperature and the potential connections between them is studied for the subarctic site Bergen (60.4°N, 5.3°E, located on the Norwegian west coast. Focusing on the quality and spatial representativity of the data, we compare observations from independent instruments and neighbouring measurement sites. The observations indicate that the decrease of sunshine duration and SW irradiance during the 1970s and 80s in Bergen is associated with the increasing frequency of clouds, in particular clouds of low base heights. We argue that the observed cloud changes are indicative of increased frequencies of storms in northern Europe. The annual mean observational time series show an increase in SW irradiance since 1990, which is not accompanied by a cloud cover (NN decrease. This implies the influence of factors other than clouds, for example, decreasing aerosol emissions. Calculations of the aerosol optical depth (AOD based on irradiance observations for hours when the sun is unobscured by clouds confirm a decreasing aerosol load after 1990, from 0.15 to 0.10 AOD which corresponds to 2–6 Wm−2 of brightening. At the same time, a seasonal analysis reveals opposite changes in SW irradiance and NN during the months of strongest changes – March, April and August – also during the recent period of increasing SW irradiance. We conclude that the seasonally decreasing NN also contributes to the recent changes in SW irradiance. Finally, we address the relationship between temperature, SW irradiance and clouds. In winter (December–February, the surface air temperature in Bergen is statistically linked to the warming influence of clouds. In all other seasons, the North Atlantic sea surface temperature variability has a more dominant influence on the air temperature in Bergen compared to local cloud and SW irradiance variability.

  5. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A


    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  6. Interannual variability in temperature and precipitation alone cannot explain Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Southern Alps of New Zealand (United States)

    Doughty, Alice; Mackintosh, Andrew; Anderson, Brian; Putnam, Aaron; Dadic, Ruzica; Barrell, David; Denton, George; Chinn, Trevor; Schaefer, Joerg


    Several glacial modeling studies suggest that interannual climate variability within an unchanged mean climate state can cause large fluctuations in glacier length (~1 km), which would complicate interpretations of moraine records as proxy evidence of past climatic change. We modeled glacier fluctuations forced by stochastic variability in mean annual temperature and total annual precipitation and compared them to the mapped and dated Holocene moraine sequence in the Cameron valley, New Zealand. Using a 2D coupled mass balance - ice flow model, we simulated interannual mass balance, ice volume, and glacier length changes and show that stochastic variability does not cause large advances (>300 m) of the Cameron Glacier. We suggest that the glacier has been responding to shifts in the mean climate, and thus its moraine record is a valuable indicator of past climate.

  7. Multiple ion binding equilibria, reaction kinetics, and thermodynamics in dynamic models of biochemical pathways. (United States)

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Wu, Fan; Kushmerick, Martin J; Beard, Daniel A


    The operation of biochemical systems in vivo and in vitro is strongly influenced by complex interactions between biochemical reactants and ions such as H(+), Mg(2+), K(+), and Ca(2+). These are important second messengers in metabolic and signaling pathways that directly influence the kinetics and thermodynamics of biochemical systems. Herein we describe the biophysical theory and computational methods to account for multiple ion binding to biochemical reactants and demonstrate the crucial effects of ion binding on biochemical reaction kinetics and thermodynamics. In simulations of realistic systems, the concentrations of these ions change with time due to dynamic buffering and competitive binding. In turn, the effective thermodynamic properties vary as functions of cation concentrations and important environmental variables such as temperature and overall ionic strength. Physically realistic simulations of biochemical systems require incorporating all of these phenomena into a coherent mathematical description. Several applications to physiological systems are demonstrated based on this coherent simulation framework.

  8. On the skill of seasonal sea surface temperature forecasts in the California Current System and its connection to ENSO variability (United States)

    Jacox, Michael G.; Alexander, Michael A.; Stock, Charles A.; Hervieux, Gaëlle


    The California Current System (CCS) is a biologically productive Eastern Boundary Upwelling System that experiences considerable environmental variability on seasonal and interannual timescales. Given that this variability drives changes in ecologically and economically important living marine resources, predictive skill for regional oceanographic conditions is highly desirable. Here, we assess the skill of seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) forecasts in the CCS using output from Global Climate Forecast Systems in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME), and describe mechanisms that underlie SST predictability. A simple persistence forecast provides considerable skill for lead times up to 4 months, while skill above persistence is mostly confined to forecasts of late winter/spring and derives primarily from predictable evolution of ENSO-related variability. Specifically, anomalously weak (strong) equatorward winds are skillfully forecast during El Niño (La Niña) events, and drive negative (positive) upwelling anomalies and consequently warm (cold) temperature anomalies. This mechanism prevails during moderate to strong ENSO events, while years of ENSO-neutral conditions are not associated with significant forecast skill in the wind or significant skill above persistence in SST. We find also a strong latitudinal gradient in predictability within the CCS; SST forecast skill is highest off the Washington/Oregon coast and lowest off southern California, consistent with variable wind forcing being the dominant driver of SST predictability. These findings have direct implications for regional downscaling of seasonal forecasts and for short-term management of living marine resources.

  9. Climate variability of heat waves and their associated diurnal temperature range variations in Taiwan (United States)

    Kueh, M.-T.; Lin, C.-Y.; Chuang, Y.-J.; Sheng, Y.-F.; Chien, Y.-Y.


    This study investigates heat waves in Taiwan and their maintenance mechanism, based upon observations and dynamically downscaled simulations. A 95th percentile threshold is used for identifying hot extremes over a period of consecutive days. Heat waves are forecast to become more severe in the future projection. Daily minimum temperatures are generally high and diurnal temperature ranges (DTR) are relatively large. The daily minimum temperature serves as the primary control in the variation in DTR during heat waves. An apparent increase in the daily minimum temperature suggests elevated heat stress at nighttime during future heat waves. Heat waves in Taiwan are associated with abnormal warming and drying atmospheric conditions under the control of an enhanced western North Pacific subtropical high. The surrounding waters serve as a vast moisture source to suppress the drying magnitude in the surface layer as the temperature rises, thereby ensuring a high humidity level during the hot spell. The subsidence and adiabatic warming above can trap the warm and humid air in the surface layer, leading to positive feedback to the abnormally hot surface condition. The associated warming and drying atmospheric conditions cover certain spatial extents, suggesting that the extreme situation identified here is not confined to just an island-wide hot spell; the abnormal hot weather can take place across a broad geographical area.

  10. Fundamentals of Nano-Thermodynamics


    Hartmann, M.; Mahler, G.; Hess, O.


    Recent progress in the synthesis and processing of nano-structured materials and systems calls for an improved understanding of thermal properties on small length scales. In this context, the question whether thermodynamics and, in particular, the concept of temperature can apply on the nanoscale is of central interest. Here we consider a quantum system consisting of a regular chain of elementary subsystems with nearest neighbour interactions and assume that the total system is in a canonical...

  11. The Thermodynamics of Exercise Science


    Simeoni, R. J.


    This article describes the “human body engine” via a thermodynamics-based model that considers the work associated with gas pressure, volume and temperature changes for the glucose-based equation of respiration. The efficacy of the model is supported by prior studies that: accurately predict the slow component of oxygen uptake kinetics; quantitatively explain observed race splitting strategies within endurance events; and accurately predict maximum velocities in endurance swimming. These pr...

  12. Impact of Velocity Slip and Temperature Jump of Nanofluid in the Flow over a Stretching Sheet with Variable Thickness (United States)

    Guo, Chengjie; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Chaoli; Chen, Xuehui; Zhang, Xinxin


    In this study, the generalised velocity slip and the generalised temperature jump of nanofluid in the flow over a stretching sheet with variable thickness are investigated. Because of the non-adher