WorldWideScience

Sample records for variable sy muscae

  1. The 1984 eclipse of the symbiotic binary SY Muscae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, S. J.; Michalitisianos, A. G.; Lutz, J. H.; Kafatos, M.

    1985-01-01

    Data from IUE spectra obtained with the 10 x 20-arcsec aperture on May 13, 1984, and optical spectrophotometry obtained with an SIT vidicon on the 1.5-m telescope at CTIO on April 29-May 1, 1984, are reported for the symbiotic binary SY Mus. The data are found to be consistent with a model of a red-giant secondary of 60 solar radii which completely eclipses the hot primary every 627 d but only partially eclipses the 75-solar-radius He(+) region surrounding the primary. The distance to SY Mus is estimated as 1.3 kpc. It is suggested that the large Balmer decrement in eclipse, with (H-alpha)/(H-beta) = 8.3 and (H-beta)/(H-gamma) = 1.5, is associated with an electron density of about 10 to the 10th/cu cm.

  2. UV time-dependent emission in SY Muscae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalitsianos, A.G.; Kafatos, M.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra acquired with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) of SY Mus = HD 10036 on 20 September 1980 and 11 June 1981 indicate a substantial enhancement of UV emission over a nine month period. The general UV flux level appears to have increased by approximately one order of magnitude between the first and second observing epochs. The strong ultraviolet continuum evident throughout the entire IUE spectral range lambdalambda1200-3200 A on 11 June 1981 is closely approximated by a star with Tsub(eff) = 40,000 K, where previously on 20 September 1980 the continuum distribution presented a more complex structure that is possibly explained by a combination of thermal emission from an early type main sequence star, and nebular recombination emission (Michalitsianos et al. 1981). (Auth.)

  3. Syed Khasim

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Syed Khasim. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 26 Issue 7 December 2003 pp 733-739 Composites. Synthesis, characterization and low frequency a.c. conduction of polyaniline/fly ash composites · S C Raghavendra Syed Khasim M Revanasiddappa ...

  4. Pertumbuhan dan Reproduksi Lalat Musca domestica pada Berbagai Media Perkembangbiakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Musca domestica was insect that disturbing human and other animal. Intensity M. Domestica with human living includes public healthy. The aim of research is to observe succeed of Mdomestica in breeding wether difJerent place. Larva growth in each stadia was different, 2-4 days average. Its contributed by humidity. On dry container, pupae that succes eksklosi only 50%. Presentation offood show difJerences oflarvae development. 3rd stage of larvae that has enough food is 17mm in length and 12mm in length for larvae with less food. Salty water make larvae growing faster than water without salto Development of Musca domestica in laboratory injluenced by high humidity, preset of food and adaptation of Musca domestica its self.Keywords : Musca domestica, rearing, development, humidity, food, salt - water

  5. Using the fungus Entomophthora muscae (chon Fresenius to eliminate some larval roles of Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Yas Lahmood

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studied effect serial concentrations from spores filtrate of fungus Entomophthora muscae on some larval roles of musca domestica in laboratory. Results were made clear that the insect roles are sensitive to fungus, and treated the food larva of musca domestica and sprinkle it by concentration 2.8×106 , 2.8×107, 2.8×108 (spore/ml has led to get rates of destruction of cumulative faculty certified on the concentration and time its magnitude 16.60 , 47.67, 53.30 % respectively , also recorded some phenotypic distortion infected dead larva represent by contraction and blackening body. The treatment of pupael by sprinkling the previous fungus concentration recorded rate of destruction of accumulative faculty its magnitude 13.33, 26.67, 33.33% respectively, also the rates emergence of adults ranged between 66.67 – 86.67 % in comparison with rates of emergence of adults in control treatment 96.67% The results are made clear that adults treatment by sprinkle with last concentration from fungus spore filtrate recorded rates of distraction its magnitude 46.61, 56.67, 70% respectively after one week from treatment .

  6. Antimicrobial activity of alcohols from Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Wieloch, Wioletta; Włóka, Emilia; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Przybysz, Elżbieta; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2012-10-01

    Information on the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of cuticular alcohols on growth and virulence of insecticidal fungi is unavailable. Therefore, we set out to describe the content of cuticular and internal alcohols in the body of housefly larvae, pupae, males and females. The total cuticular alcohols in larvae, males and females of Musca domestica were detected in comparable amounts (4.59, 3.95 and 4.03 μg g(-1) insect body, respectively), but occurred in smaller quantities in pupae (2.16 μg g(-1)). The major free alcohol in M. domestica larvae was C(12:0) (70.4%). Internal alcohols of M. domestica larvae were not found. Among cuticular pupae alcohols, C(12:0) (31.0%) was the most abundant. In the internal lipids of pupae, only five alcohols were identified in trace amounts. The most abundant alcohol in males was C(24:0) (57.5%). The percentage content of cuticular C(24:0) in males and females (57.5 and 36.5%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of cuticular lipids in larvae and pupae (0.9 and 5.6%, respectively). Only two alcohols were present in the internal lipids of males in trace amounts (C(18:0) and C(20:0)). The most abundant cuticular alcohols in females were C(24:0) (36.5%) and C(12:0) (26.8%); only two alcohols (C(18:0) and C(20:0)) were detected in comparable amounts in internal lipids (3.61±0.32 and 5.01±0.42 μg g(-1), respectively). For isolated alcohols, antimicrobial activity against 10 reference strains of bacteria and fungi was determined. Individual alcohols showed approximately equal activity against fungal strains. C(14:0) was effective against gram-positive bacteria, whereas gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all tested alcohols. Mixtures of alcohols found in cuticular lipids of larvae, pupae, males and females of M. domestica generally presented higher antimicrobial activity than individual alcohols. In contrast, crude extracts containing both cuticular and internal lipids showed no antifungal activity against the

  7. Circadian rhytm in the house fly (Musca domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    BAZALOVÁ, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis the expression pattern of five circadian clock genes (cwo, pdp 1{$\\varepsilon$}, ck 1{$\\varepsilon$}, ck 2{$\\beta$} and pdh) was studied in the housefly (Musca domestica). The influence of temperature on the expression pattern of these five genes and of two others genes, per and tim, was examined. The locomotor activity of flies exposed to three different temperature conditions was studied.

  8. Christo Beyers-Sy Tydgenote en Geskrifte

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 Mrt. 1974 ... en dan kyk na die bydrae wat hy, as akadernikus, na- vorser ... In 1908 lewer Beyers 'n lesing getitel 'The origin of .... Brown. Sy was 'n Franse dame,. Mira Rivet, wat Beyers gedurende sy studies in Lon~~n ontmoet het.

  9. Filamentary structure and magnetic field orientation in Musca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.; Arzoumanian, D.; André, Ph.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Prusti, T.; Men'shchikov, A.; Royer, P.; Kóspál, Á.; Palmeirim, P.; Ribas, A.; Könyves, V.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Merin, B.; Vavrek, R.; Alves de Oliveira, C.; Didelon, P.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Waelkens, C.

    2016-05-01

    Herschel has shown that filamentary structures are ubiquitous in star-forming regions, in particular in nearby molecular clouds associated with Gould's Belt. High dynamic range far-infrared imaging of the Musca cloud with SPIRE and PACS reveals at least two types of filamentary structures: (1) the main ~10-pc scale high column-density linear filament; and (2) low column-density striations in close proximity to the main filament. In addition, we find features with intermediate column densities (hair-like strands) that appear physically connected to the main filament. We present an analysis of this filamentary network traced by Herschel and explore its connection with the local magnetic field. We find that both the faint dust emission striations and the plane-of-the-sky (POS) magnetic field are locally oriented close to perpendicular to the high-density main filament (position angle ~25-35°). The low-density striations and strands are oriented parallel to the POS magnetic field lines, which are derived previously from optical polarization measurements of background stars and more recently from Planck observations of dust polarized emission. The position angles are 97 ± 25°, 105 ± 7°, and 105 ± 5°. From these observations, we propose a scenario in which local interstellar material in this cloud has condensed into a gravitationally-unstable filament (with "supercritical" mass per unit length) that is accreting background matter along field lines through the striations. We also compare the filamentary structure in Musca with what is seen in similar Herschel observations of the Taurus B211/3 filament system and find that there is significantly less substructure in the Musca main filament than in the B211/3 filament. We suggest that the Musca cloud may represent an earlier evolutionary stage in which the main filament has not yet accreted sufficient mass and energy to develop a multiple system of intertwined filamentary components. Herschel is an ESA space

  10. Size relationships of different body parts in the three dipteran species Drosophila melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomava, Natalia; Wimmer, Ernst A; Posnien, Nico

    2016-06-01

    Body size is an integral feature of an organism that influences many aspects of life such as fecundity, life span and mating success. Size of individual organs and the entire body size represent quantitative traits with a large reaction norm, which are influenced by various environmental factors. In the model system Drosophila melanogaster, pupal size and adult traits, such as tibia and thorax length or wing size, accurately estimate the overall body size. However, it is unclear whether these traits can be used in other flies. Therefore, we studied changes in size of pupae and adult organs in response to different rearing temperatures and densities for D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica. We confirm a clear sexual size dimorphism (SSD) for Drosophila and show that the SSD is less uniform in the other species. Moreover, the size response to changing growth conditions is sex dependent. Comparison of static and evolutionary allometries of the studied traits revealed that response to the same environmental variable is genotype specific but has similarities between species of the same order. We conclude that the value of adult traits as estimators of the absolute body size may differ among species and the use of a single trait may result in wrong assumptions. Therefore, we suggest using a body size coefficient computed from several individual measurements. Our data is of special importance for monitoring activities of natural populations of the three dipteran flies, since they are harmful species causing economical damage (Drosophila, Ceratitis) or transferring diseases (Musca).

  11. Tank SY-101 void fraction instrument functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWethy, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the functional design criteria for design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and installation of a void fraction instrument for Tank SY-101. This instrument will measure the void fraction in the waste in Tank SY-101 at various elevations

  12. INFECTIVITY OF TWO MEMBERS OF THE ENTOMOPHTHORA MUSCAE COMPLEX [ZYGOMYCETES: ENTOMOPHTHORALES] FOR MUSCA DOMESTICA [DIPT.: MUSCIDAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, R; Mullens, B A; Jespersen, J B

    1992-01-01

    Dose-mortality studies were conducted with 2 members of the Entomophthora muscae (Cohn) Fresenius complex from southern California (CA) and Denmark (DA) infecting house flies, Musca domestica L., from southern California. Primary conidia of the DA form were significantly more infective (LC50 = 34...

  13. Syed Manzoorul Islam's Postmodern Tales: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Md Abdul Momen; Talukder, Tusar

    2016-01-01

    The paper brings into focus how Syed Manzoorul Islam, in his three-decade-long literary career, has mastered a narrative style that sets him apart from many of his Bengali contemporaries. It demonstrates all the traits unique to his storytelling: blurring of boundaries between dream and reality, self-reflexivity, irony, and humor. The research…

  14. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan larva Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae dalam beberapa jenis kotoran ternak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Eka Putra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available House fly (Musca domestica is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly’s life history. The research is focused on the development of house fly larvae reared with different livestock manures, such as cow, chicken, and horse. As comparison, rice bran were used as control. Results showed that larvae reared with horse manure has the shortest development time (5 days, with lowest larval survival rate (30%, pupal weight (6.8 ± 0.141 g, and weight of female imago (4.9 ± 0.14 g. This finding indicates the lowest nutrition value of horse manure for house flies larvae. Further research is needed to find the effect of manure to variables that directly influence population growth, such as fecundity of female flies and egg survivorship. These additional information on life history will help the design of appropriate house fly population management program for animal farm.

  15. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from SY-101 to 241-SY-102 (SY-102). The results of the hazards evaluation will be compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  16. Die voorsienigheidsleer van Calvyn: Uit sy debatte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morné Diedericks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Calvyn se leer van God se voorsienigheid is ongetwyfeld een van die mees kontroversiële onderwerpe van sy teologie. Dit word duidelik in al die debatte waarin Calvyn sy leer oor die voorsienigheid moes verdedig, byvoorbeeld teen Pighius, Bolsec, Bullinger en Castellio. Vyfhonderd jaar later word Calvyn weer in die openbaar oor sy voorsienigheidsleer aangeval deur ’n Suid-Afrikaanse teoloog, Adrio König. Calvyn se antwoord op Castellio in Die verborge voorsienigheid van God is duidelik nie deur König in ag geneem nie. In Calvyn se verdediging van sy voorsienigheidsleer verwerp hy nooit die soewereiniteit van God nie, maar gee ook nie vir God die skuld vir die kwaad nie – ’n beskuldiging wat Castellio en König teen Calvyn inbring. Die troos van God se voorsienigheid lê vir Calvyn juis daarin dat God alle dinge, ook teenspoed en verdrukking, deur sy verborge voorsienigheid beskik met die doel om sy kinders nader na Hom te lei. Calvin’s teaching on providence: From his debates. Calvin’s teaching on God’s providence is without doubt one of the most controversial subjects in his theology. This is clear in all the debates in which Calvin had to defend his teaching on providence, against, for example, Pighius, Bolsec, Bullinger and Castellio. Five hundred years later Calvin has again been publicly attacked on his teaching on providence by a South African theologian, Adrio König. König, however, did not consider Calvin’s response to Castellio in The secret providence of God. In Calvin’s defence of his teaching on providence he in no circumstances denies the sovereignty of God, but also does not give God the blame for any ills that might result – an accusation that Castellio and König levied against him. For Calvin, the consolation of God’s providence rests in the fact that God ordains all things, including adversity and affliction, through his secret providence for the purpose of leading his children closer to him.

  17. Musca domestica laboratory susceptibility to three ethnobotanical culinary plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zayyat, Elham A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Elleboudy, Noha A; Ofaa, Shaimaa E

    2015-10-01

    Throughout history, synanthropic Musca domestica had remained a worldwide problem whenever poor sanitation and bad hygienic conditions exists. Houseflies growing resistance to chemical insecticides are a rising environmental problem that necessitates search for alternatives. Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum were tested for bioactivity on M. domestica adults and larvae. They are culinary Mediterranean plants. In adulticidal bioassay, using both CDC bottles and fumigation techniques, basil was the most effective extract with LC50 1.074 and 34.996 g/L, respectively. Concerning larvicidal bioassay by fumigation technique, coriander had the highest toxicity index with LC50 29.521 g/L. In both dipping and feeding technique, basil had the highest toxicity with LC50 32.643 and 0.749 g/L, respectively. Basil showed the highest toxicity results in four out of the five models tested followed by coriander then mint; this result highlights the potentiality of basil as a green insecticide in management of flies and opens new insight in the industrialization of basil-based fly control products.

  18. Evolution of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey G

    2017-04-01

    Houseflies, Musca domestica L., are a significant pest because of the numerous diseases they transmit. Control of housefly populations, particularly at animal production facilities, is frequently done using pyrethroid insecticides which kill insects by prolonging the open time of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). Houseflies have evolved resistance to pyrethroids owing to mutations in Vssc and by cytochrome-P450-mediated detoxification. Three Vssc mutations are known: kdr (L1014F), kdr-his (L1014H) and super-kdr (M918T + L1014F). Generally, the levels of resistance conferred by these mutations are kdr-his resistance than kdr. P450-mediated resistance can result from overexpression of CYP6D1 or another P450 (unidentified) whose overexpression is linked to autosomes II or V. The initial use of field-stable pyrethroids resulted in different patterns of evolution across the globe, but with time these mutations have become more widespread in their distribution. What is known about the fitness costs of the resistance alleles in the absence of insecticide is discussed, particularly with respect to the current and future utility of pyrethroid insecticides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Waste behavior analysis for tank 241-SY-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-103 is on the Flammable Gas Watch List. The waste in this tank behaves similarly to that in tank 241-Sy-101. Both show slurry growth and periodic surface level drops. However, the surface level drops are much smaller than those in tank 101-SY. A standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) was recently installed in tank 103-SY, and waste auger samples were recently taken. This document covers the characterization results to date for the auger samples, and the behavior of the tank waste during both steady state periods and gas release events

  20. Wound Myiasis Due to Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Persian Horned Viper, Pseudocerastes persicus (Squamata: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dehghani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of myiasis due to Musca domestica describes in Pseudocerastes persicus for the first time. The snake was found in Bari Karafs, Kashan, Iran, with a lesion on its body. Fourteen live larvae of M. domestica removed from its wound. This is the first report of a new larval habitat of M. domestica.

  1. Adaptation of Musca domestica L. field population to laboratory breeding causes transcriptional alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Dorte H.; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin; Kristensen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica, has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. Expression of genes coding for detoxification enzymes play a role in the response of the housefly when encountered by a xenobiotic. The highest level of constitutive gene expression of nine P450 ...

  2. Interaction of some organophosphorus compounds in susceptible and resistant houseflies (Musca domestica L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdallah, M.D.

    1963-01-01

    The effect of tri-ortho-cresylphosphate (TOCP) on poisoning by parathion and paraoxon in susceptible and resistant houseflies (Musca domestica L.) was investigated.

    TOCP influenced the penetration of parathion and paraoxon, and this could explain the contradictory results of both an

  3. Temperature and Population Density Effects on Locomotor Activity of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, T. M.; Faurby, S.; Kjærsgaard, A.

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of ectotherm organisms is affected by both abiotic and biotic factors. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the synergistic effects on behavioral traits. This study examined the effect of temperature and density on locomotor activity of Musca domestica (L.). Locomot...

  4. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY-102. The results of the hazards evaluation were compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. Revision 1 of this document deletes hazardous conditions no longer applicable to the current waste transfer design and incorporates hazardous conditions related to the use of an above ground pump pit and overground transfer line. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting authorization of the activity; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The AB Control Decision process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  5. Seymour (Sy) Epstein (1924-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Edward; O'Brien, Jean; Waters, Everett

    2018-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Seymour (Sy) Epstein, who passed away in Amherst on May 20, 2016. Epstein was a significant voice in personality psychology for more than six decades. His wide-ranging, programmatic research addressed cognitive mediation of classical conditioning, stress and coping, the self-concept, drive, conflict, and psychopathology. His research on aggregation strongly influenced the person-situation debate. His most important contribution was his decades-long development of an integrated personality theory, culminating in his magnum opus, Cognitive-Experiential Theory (Oxford University Press, 2014). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The enhancement by caffeine of the frequency of lethal dominant mutation induced by gamma radiation in oocytes of Musca domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targa, H.J.; Rogatko, A.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained, when a new technique for feeding insects is employed, on the effects of caffeine of the radiation - induced breaks of oocyte chromatids of Musca domestica are presented. (M.A.) [pt

  7. Field Studies of Entomophthora (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales)-Induced Behavioral Fever in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsbeek, V.; Mullens, Bradley A.; Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner

    2001-01-01

    House flies were collected over 3 days (three to five times per day) from specific sites on a dairy farm with a range of high to low temperatures. Flies were held individually to determine whether the distribution of fungus-infected (Entomophthora muscae and E. schizophorae) house flies differed ...... that behavioral fever occurs in the field for flies infected with both E. muscae and E. schizophorae and that flies can cure themselves of infection through the use of artificial heat sources....

  8. Results of Waste Transfer and Back-Dilution in Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Barton, W.B.; Conner, J.M.; Kirch, N.W.; Stewart, C.W.; Wells, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    This report chronicles the process of remediation of the flammable gas hazard in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) by waste transfer and back-dilution from December 18, 1999 through April 2, 2000. A brief history is given of the development of the flammable gas retention and release hazard in this tank, and the transfer and dilution systems are outlined. A detailed narrative of each of the three transfer and dilution campaigns is given to provide structure for the balance of the report. Details of the behavior of specific data are then described, including the effect of transfer and dilution on the waste levels in Tanks SY-101 and SY-102, data from strain gauges on equipment suspended from the tank dome, changes in waste configuration as inferred from neutron and gamma logs, headspace gas concentrations, waste temperatures, and the mixerpump operating performance. Operating data and performance of the transfer pump in SY-101 are also discussed

  9. Acceptance Test Report for 241-SY Pump Cradle Hydraulic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this ATP is to verify that hydraulic system/cylinder procured to replace the cable/winch system on the 101-SY Mitigation Pump cradle assembly fulfills its functional requirements for raising and lowering the cradle assembly between 70 and 90 degrees, both with and without pump. A system design review was performed on the 101-SY Cradle Hydraulic System by the vendor before shipping (See WHC-SD-WM-DRR-045, 241-SY-101 Cradle Hydraulic System Design Review). The scope of this plan focuses on verification of the systems ability to rotate the cradle assembly and any load through the required range of motion

  10. Entomophthora muscae — moisture as a factor affecting its transmission and conidial germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Kramer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The role played by moisture in the transmission of Entomophthora muscae and in the germination of its conidia was investigated. A majority of adult house flies exposed to conidial showers that fell upon surfaces covered with droplets of condensation acquired the parasite, while no flies exposed to conidial showers that fell upon dry surfaces did so. A microscopical study of conidial showers showed that germination was practically non-existent on dry surfaces while a vast majority of conidia that fell upon a droplet-covered surface germinated. A method for the in vivo culture of E. muscae was developpd and 11 serial passages of the fungus were achieved. Resting spores rather than conidia became the dominant form produced in the cadavers, and flies in a twelfth group remained unifected.

  11. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise M. O. Cabral

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.

  12. Survival and Movement of Insect Parasitic Nematodes in Poultry Manure and Their Infectivity Against Musca domestica

    OpenAIRE

    Georgis, Ramon; Mullens, Bradley A.; Meyer, Jeffery A.

    1987-01-01

    Survival, infectivity, and movement of three insect parasitic nematodes (Steinernema feltiae All strain, S. bibionis SN strain, and Heterorhabditis heliothidis NC strain) in poultry manure were tested under laboratory conditions. The majority (70-100%) of the nematodes died within 18 hours after exposure to the manure. Nematodes exposed to manure slurry for 6 hours killed at least 95% of the house fly larvae, Musca domestica, but nematodes exposed for 12 hours achieved less than 40% larval mo...

  13. The Musca cloud: A 6 pc-long velocity-coherent, sonic filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacar, A.; Kainulainen, J.; Tafalla, M.; Beuther, H.; Alves, J.

    2016-03-01

    Filaments play a central role in the molecular clouds' evolution, but their internal dynamical properties remain poorly characterized. To further explore the physical state of these structures, we have investigated the kinematic properties of the Musca cloud. We have sampled the main axis of this filamentary cloud in 13CO and C18O (2-1) lines using APEX observations. The different line profiles in Musca shows that this cloud presents a continuous and quiescent velocity field along its ~6.5 pc of length. With an internal gas kinematics dominated by thermal motions (I.e. σNT/cs ≲ 1) and large-scale velocity gradients, these results reveal Musca as the longest velocity-coherent, sonic-like object identified so far in the interstellar medium. The transonic properties of Musca present a clear departure from the predicted supersonic velocity dispersions expected in the Larson's velocity dispersion-size relationship, and constitute the first observational evidence of a filament fully decoupled from the turbulent regime over multi-parsec scales. This publication is based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory (ESO programme 087.C-0583).The reduced datacubes as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A97

  14. Seksuaalisuus ja syöpä : Gynekologista syöpää sairastavan naisen seksuaalisuuden kohtaaminen

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen, Niina; Virtanen, Anni

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on selvittää miten gynekologiseen syöpään sairastuminen ja sen erilaiset hoitomuodot vaikuttavat naisen seksuaalisuuteen. Työn tavoitteena on luoda valmiuksia tuleville hoitoalan ammattilaisille kohdata työssään gynekologista syöpää sairastavan naisen seksuaalisuus. Opinnäytetyön tuotoksena on sähköinen verkkomateriaali syöpäpotilaan seksuaalisuuden kohtaamisesta Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulun opiskelijoille itsenäisen opiskelun tueksi. Työn teoriaosuudess...

  15. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by Corynebacterium sp. strain SY1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Toshio; Monna, L.; Saiki, Yuko; Kodama, Tohru

    1992-01-01

    Strain SY1, identified as a Corynebacterium sp., was isolated on the basis of the ability to utilize dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sole source of sulfur. Strain SY1 could utilize a wide range of organic and inorganic sulfur compounds, such as DBT sulfone, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone, CS 2 , FeS 2 , and even elemental sulfur. Strain SY1 metabolized DBT to dibenzothiophene-5-oxide, DBT sulfone, and 2-hydroxybiphenyl, which was subsequently nitrated to produce at least two different hydroxynitrobiphenyls during cultivation. These metabolites were separated by silica gel column chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, UV, and mass spectral techniques. Resting cells of SY1 desulfurized toluenesulfonic acid and released sulfite anion. On the basis of these results, a new DBT degradation pathway is proposed

  16. Tank 241-SY-103 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-SY-103

  17. Compressed air piping, 241-SY-101 hydraulic pump retrieval trailer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    The following Design Analysis was prepared by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine pressure losses in the compressed air piping installed on the hydraulic trailer for the 241-SY-101 pump retrieval mission

  18. ECTA/DaSy Framework Self-Assessment Comparison Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for IDEA Early Childhood Data Systems (DaSy), 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Self-Assessment Comparison (SAC) Tool is for state Part C and Section 619/Preschool programs to use to assess changes in the implementation of one or more components of the ECTA System Framework and/or subcomponenets of the DaSy Data System Framework. It is a companion to the ECTA/DaSy Framework Self-Assessment. Key features of the SAC are…

  19. Syed Mahmood Naqvi (27 August 1941 - 04 September 2009)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Rao, Y.J.B.

    -1 SYED MAHMOOD NAQVI (1941-2009) Elected Fellow 1986 LIFE, EDUCATION AND FAMILY Being a descendent of Prophet Muhammad's daughter Syeda (hence the title 'Syed') through the 10 lh Shia Imam Ali Naqi (hence the surname 'Naqvi'). Mahmood's roots into science... living, something that he was not used to. He was only moderately educated. However, both he and his father wanted Bhni to obtain ...

  20. SyGuS-Comp 2016: Results and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Alur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Syntax-Guided Synthesis (SyGuS is the computational problem of finding an implementation f that meets both a semantic constraint given by a logical formula φ in a background theory T, and a syntactic constraint given by a grammar G, which specifies the allowed set of candidate implementations. Such a synthesis problem can be formally defined in SyGuS-IF, a language that is built on top of SMT-LIB. The Syntax-Guided Synthesis Competition (SyGuS-Comp is an effort to facilitate, bring together and accelerate research and development of efficient solvers for SyGuS by providing a platform for evaluating different synthesis techniques on a comprehensive set of benchmarks. In this year's competition we added a new track devoted to programming by examples. This track consisted of two categories, one using the theory of bit-vectors and one using the theory of strings. This paper presents and analyses the results of SyGuS-Comp'16.

  1. Toimintaterapian mahdollisuudet syöpätautien vuodeosastoilla

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, Mirka; Ohlgren, Sanna; Välimäki, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Syöpäpotilaiden määrä on kasvanut jatkuvasti ja tulee lisääntymään väistämättä väestön ikääntyessä. On arvioitu, että Suomessa syöpään sairastuu vuonna 2020 yli 33 000 ihmistä, joka on 27 % enemmän kuin vuonna 2008. Mahdollisuus toimia on yksi ihmisen perustarpeista ja syöpään sairastuminen vaikuttaa ihmisen toiminnallisuuteen monilla eri tavoilla. Sairastuminen tai vammautuminen saattaa johtaa tilanteeseen, jossa ihmisen on mahdotonta suoriutua arvostamistaan toiminnoista omassa elämässään. ...

  2. X-Ray Transient in Musca (GRS 1121-68 = GS 1124-683)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Brandt, Søren; Makino, F.

    1991-01-01

    Research Institute, Lyngby; and Space Research Institute, Moscow), report: "A new x-ray source in Musca, GRS 1121-68, has been discovered in data obtained by the WATCH detectors on Jan. 9. The spectrum of the source was harder than that of the Crab nebula, and the flux was about twice that from t...... was taken as La Silla, showing no new object in the 2 x 2 deg field brighter than mag 7-8; a search plate will be taken with the Schmidt telescope at La Silla....

  3. SY Tank Farm ventilation isolation option risk assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, T.B.; Morales, S.D.

    1994-03-01

    The safety of the 241-SY Tank Farm ventilation system has been under extensive scrutiny due to safety concerns associated with tank 101-SY. Hydrogen and other gases are generated and trapped in the waste below the liquid surface. Periodically, these gases are released into the dome space and vented through the exhaust system. This attention to the ventilation system has resulted in the development of several alternative ventilation system designs. The ventilation system provides the primary means of mitigation of accidents associated with flammable gases. This report provides an assessment of various alternatives ventilation system designs.

  4. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  5. Effects of relative humidity, temperature, and population density on production of cuticular hydrocarbons in housefly Musca domestica L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, N; Den Otter, CJ

    The production of cuticular hydrocarbons by both males and females of Musca domestica L. under very wet conditions (90% relative humidity) compared to the production at 50 and 20% relative humidity is delayed up to at least 3 days after emergence from the pupae. Eight days after emergence, however,

  6. Genome of the house fly, Musca domestica L., a global vector of diseases with adaptations to a septic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Jeffrey G; Warren, Wesley C; Beukeboom, Leo W; Bopp, Daniel; Clark, Andrew G; Giers, Sarah D; Hediger, Monika; Jones, Andrew K; Kasai, Shinji; Leichter, Cheryl A; Li, Ming; Meisel, Richard P; Minx, Patrick; Murphy, Terence D; Nelson, David R; Reid, William R; Rinkevich, Frank D; Robertson, Hugh M; Sackton, Timothy B; Sattelle, David B; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Tomlinson, Chad; van de Zande, Louis; Walden, Kimberly; Wilson, Richard K; Liu, Nannan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult house flies, Musca domestica L., are mechanical vectors of more than 100 devastating diseases that have severe consequences for human and animal health. House fly larvae play a vital role as decomposers of animal wastes, and thus live in intimate association with many animal

  7. ATR/OTR-SY Tank Camera Purge System and in Tank Color Video Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werry, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure will document the satisfactory operation of the 101-SY tank Camera Purge System (CPS) and 101-SY in tank Color Camera Video Imaging System (CCVIS). Included in the CPRS is the nitrogen purging system safety interlock which shuts down all the color video imaging system electronics within the 101-SY tank vapor space during loss of nitrogen purge pressure

  8. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Ommi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aeromonas-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results. Out of 600 houseflies 73 (12.2% were infected with Aeromonas spp. Significantly higher frequencies of Aeromonas were isolated in Shahrekord province (13.0%; 39/300 than in Isfahan province (11.3%; 34/300. The recovery frequencies of the organisms were significantly lower in kitchens as compared to those in cattle farms and hospital wards which were similar. Higher proportions of infected flies were obtained during summer whereas low proportions were obtained during winter. Conclusions. It is concluded that houseflies do harbor diarrheagenic pathogens, including Aeromonas especially during summer. The carried organisms are resistant to a number of antimicrobials at different levels. Thus, future plans aimed at stemming infections caused by these organisms should take flies into account. Control efforts of infections caused by this particular bacterium should therefore take into account Musca domestica.

  9. UJI EFIKASI LARVASIDA BERBAHAN AKTIF DICHLORVOS TERHADAP LARVA LALAT RUMAH Musca domestica DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Suwasono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The house fly, Musca domestica have been implicated in the mechanical transmission of pathogens causing diseases. Important diseases that may be transmitted under certain conditions include infection of virus, bacterial, protozoan, fungal and helminthic. Therefore control measures should be carried out only when the presence of the house fly is intolerable to humans due to their being a health hazard or nuisance. The larvicide with active ingredient of dichlorvos 250 g/l was applied to the house fly larvae which conducted in the laboratory. There were jive concentrations of larvicides to be tested i.e. 6; 12; 24; 48 and 96 ml by product/ 3 l of water/m2. A dried powder of chicken dung was utilized as larvae medium. The medium was inoculated with the third instar larvae then it sprayed with the larvicide suspension. All larvicidal assays were carried out at 26 - 30°C temperature and 60-80% RH in the laboratory. The results revealed that all of the five tested concentrations yielded between 0 and 5.2 percent larval mortalities.   Keywords: house fly, Musca domestica, larvicide, dichlorvos

  10. Evaluation of the house fly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector for an anthrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fasanella

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a disease of human beings and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming, Bacillus anthracis. The potential role of insects in the spread of B. anthracis to humans and domestic animals during an anthrax outbreak has been confirmed by many studies. Among insect vectors, the house fly Musca domestica is considered a potential agent for disease transmission. In this study, laboratory-bred specimens of Musca domestica were infected by feeding on anthrax-infected rabbit carcass or anthrax contaminated blood, and the presence of anthrax spores in their spots (faeces and vomitus was microbiologically monitored. It was also evaluated if the anthrax spores were able to germinate and replicate in the gut content of insects. These results confirmed the role of insects in spreading anthrax infection. This role, although not major, given the huge size of fly populations often associated with anthrax epidemics in domestic animals, cannot be neglected from an epidemiological point of view and suggest that fly control should be considered as part of anthrax control programs.

  11. Effects of Persea americana Mill. seed extracts on the postembryonic development of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia del C. Molina Bertrán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The synthetic insecticides used to control Diptera are harmful to the environment and humans. Extracts and compounds from plants are a more sustainable source for the development of bio-insecticides. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of a hydroalcoholic extract of Persea americana Mill seeds as an alternative control of the species Musca domestica. Methods: The extracts were obtained by two methods, the Shaker (S and the Soxhlet extraction (SE method, using 94% ethanol as the solvent. Also, the qualitative chemical composition was determined by phytochemical screening. The effect of the two extracts on the post-embryonic development of the fly as well as the adulticidal effect was evaluated. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of metabolites such as alkaloids, coumarins, tannins, flavonoids, sugars and amino acids. The influence on the post-embryonic development of M. domestica was demonstrated, especially on the viability of larvae and neolarvae to adults; however, the effect on the weight and duration of each period was low. The adulticidal effects of the extracts were determined by the lethal concentration 50(LC50 of 2.910 mg/100 mL and 3.944 mg/100 mL for the S and SE extracts, respectively. Conclusions: Both extracts showed their insecticidal effects against Musca domestica, but the extract elaborated by S method showed greater influence diminishing viability and better adulticidal effect.

  12. Status of tank 241-SY-101 data analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    The Waste Tank Flammable Gas Stabilization Program was established in 1990 to provide for resolution of a major safety issue identified for 23 of the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The safety issue involves the production, accumulation, and periodic release from these tanks of flammable gases in concentrations exceeding the lower flammability limits. This document deals primarily with tank 241-SY-101 from the SY Tank Farm. The flammable gas condition has existed for this tank since the tank was first filled in the time period from 1977 to 1980. During a general review of waste tank chemical stability in 1988--1989, this situation was re-examined and, in March 1990, the condition was declared to be an unreviewed safety question. Tank 241-SY-101 was placed under special operating restrictions, and a program of investigation was begun to evaluate the condition and determine appropriate courses of action. This report summarizes the data that have become available on tank 241-SY-101 since it was declared as an unreviewed safety question and updates the information reported in an earlier document (WHC-EP-0517). The report provides a technical basis for use in the evaluation of safety risks of the tank and subsequent resolution of the unreviewed safety question

  13. syNErgy: A Case Study in Workforce Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, John; Grosskopf, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    With high unemployment and structural changes to industry, workforce development in the United States is a growing concern. Many semiskilled workers lack knowledge, skills, and abilities to be competitive for reemployment to green jobs. Nebraska's syNErgy research grant was introduced to address the training needs of unemployed and underemployed…

  14. Design analysis supporting 101-SY Water Decon System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains the results of stress analysis and component sizing for the 101-SY mitigation pump, Water Decon System. Calculations included are a stress analysis of the High Pressure Manifold, the threaded connection on the Yoke Water Connector and a sizing of an air receiver tank

  15. Design review report for the SY-101 RAPID mitigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents design reviews conducted of the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Mitigation System. As part of the SY-101 Surface-Level-Rise Remediation Project, the SY-101 WID Mitigation System will reduce the potential unacceptable consequences of crust growth in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Projections of the crust growth rate indicate that the waste level in the tank may reach the juncture of the primary and secondary confinement structures of the tank late in 1999. Because of this time constraint, many design activities are being conducted in parallel and design reviews were conducted for system adequacy as well as design implementation throughout the process. Design implementation, as used in this design review report, is the final component selection (e.g., which circuit breaker, valve, or thermocouple) that meets the approved design requirements, system design, and design and procurement specifications. Design implementation includes the necessary analysis, testing, verification, and qualification to demonstrate compliance with the system design and design requirements. Design implementation is outside the scope of this design review. The design activities performed prior to detailed design implementation (i.e., system mission requirements, functional design requirements, technical criteria, system conceptual design, and where design and build contracts were placed, the procurement specification) have been reviewed and are within the scope of this design review report. Detailed design implementation will be controlled, reviewed, and where appropriate, approved in accordance with Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) engineering procedures. Review of detailed design implementation will continue until all components necessary to perform the transfer function are installed and tested

  16. Design review report for the SY-101 RAPID mitigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    1999-05-24

    This report documents design reviews conducted of the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Mitigation System. As part of the SY-101 Surface-Level-Rise Remediation Project, the SY-101 WID Mitigation System will reduce the potential unacceptable consequences of crust growth in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Projections of the crust growth rate indicate that the waste level in the tank may reach the juncture of the primary and secondary confinement structures of the tank late in 1999. Because of this time constraint, many design activities are being conducted in parallel and design reviews were conducted for system adequacy as well as design implementation throughout the process. Design implementation, as used in this design review report, is the final component selection (e.g., which circuit breaker, valve, or thermocouple) that meets the approved design requirements, system design, and design and procurement specifications. Design implementation includes the necessary analysis, testing, verification, and qualification to demonstrate compliance with the system design and design requirements. Design implementation is outside the scope of this design review. The design activities performed prior to detailed design implementation (i.e., system mission requirements, functional design requirements, technical criteria, system conceptual design, and where design and build contracts were placed, the procurement specification) have been reviewed and are within the scope of this design review report. Detailed design implementation will be controlled, reviewed, and where appropriate, approved in accordance with Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) engineering procedures. Review of detailed design implementation will continue until all components necessary to perform the transfer function are installed and tested.

  17. 241-SY Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-25

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The construction history of the 241-SY tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank 241-AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank 241-AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-SY tank farm, the third DST farm constructed, refractory quality and stress relief were improved, while similar tank and liner fabrication issues remained.

  18. Tank 241-SY-102, January 2000 Compatibility Grab Samples Analytical Results for the Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELL, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples taken in January 2000 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank SY-102 samples were performed as directed in Comparability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2000 (Sasaki 1999). No notification limits were exceeded. Preliminary data on samples 2SY-99-5, -6, and -7 were reported in ''Format II Report on Tank 241-SY-102 Waste Compatibility Grab Samples Taken in January 2000'' (Lockrem 2000). The data presented here represent the final results

  19. Analysis of the 241SY101 pump removal trailer and the 241SY101 strongback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the calculations contained in the attached appendix is to determine the vibrational stability of the following combination (The Combination); shipping container, strongback and trailer. The vibrational stability of The Combination will be determined with the shipping container and strongback in the upright position. If the natural frequency of The Combination coincides with the input frequency and no damping is present, resonance will occur. The result of this is that the natural frequency of the Combination must be calculated as well as the input frequency. The input frequency in this case is caused by wind. Due to their geometrical complexity the upper and lower hydraulic clevises were analyzed for structural adequacy by using finite-element analysis (FEA). The FEA software COSMOS/M version 1.70 was used to model the upper and lower hydraulic clevis. All designs are in accordance with Standard Architectural-Civil Design Criteria, Design Loads for Facilities (DOE-RL 1989) and are safety class 3. The design and fabrication of each component is in accordance with American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction, (AISC, 1989). The analyses contained in this document reflects the as-built condition of the 241SY101 hydraulic trailer

  20. Gravitational fragmentation caught in the act: the filamentary Musca molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, J.; Hacar, A.; Alves, J.; Beuther, H.; Bouy, H.; Tafalla, M.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Filamentary structures are common in molecular clouds. Explaining how they fragment to dense cores is a missing step in understanding their role in star formation. Aims: We perform a case study of whether low-mass filaments are close to hydrostatic prior to their fragmentation, and whether their fragmentation agrees with gravitational fragmentation models. To accomplish this, we study the ~6.5 pc long Musca molecular cloud, which is an ideal candidate for a filament at an early stage of fragmentation. Methods: We employ dust extinction mapping, in conjunction with near-infrared JHKS-band data from the CTIO/NEWFIRM instrument, and 870 μm dust continuum emission data from the APEX/LABOCA instrument to estimate column densities in Musca. We use the data to identify fragments from the cloud and to determine the radial density distribution of its filamentary part. We compare the cloud's morphology with 13CO and C18O line emission observed with the APEX/SHeFI instrument. Results: The Musca cloud is pronouncedly fragmented at its ends, but harbors a remarkably well-defined, ~1.6 pc long filament in its center region. The line mass of the filament is 21-31 M⊙ pc-1 and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.07 pc. The radial profile of the filament can be fitted with a Plummer profile, which has the power-index of 2.6 ± 11% and is flatter than that of an infinite hydrostatic filament. The profile can also be fitted with a hydrostatic cylinder truncated by external pressure. These models imply a central density of ~5-10 × 104 cm-3. The fragments in the cloud have a mean separation of ~0.4 pc, in agreement with gravitational fragmentation. These properties, together with the subsonic and velocity-coherent nature of the cloud, suggest a scenario in which an initially hydrostatic cloud is currently gravitationally fragmenting. The fragmentation started a few tenths of a Myr ago from the ends of the cloud, leaving its center still relatively nonfragmented

  1. New Observations of the Old Magnetic Nova GQ Muscae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narloch W.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Photometric observations of GQ Mus performed between 1992 and 2011 are reported. We find that the total amplitude of the orbital modulation of its brightness decreased from ~ 0.9 mag in 1992 to ~ 0.2 mag in 2010, becoming comparable to the amplitude of chaotic flickering on a time scale of several minutes. Optical spectra obtained in 2001 and 2012 indicate continuing activity of GQ Mus. The spectra show broad emission lines of He II and H I typical for magnetic cataclysmic variables. The nova was found to be an UV-bright object in 2001 and 2012. We also show that the orbital period of GQ Mus has been constant between 1989 and 2010–2011.

  2. Plasticity in behavioural responses and resistance to temperature stress in Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Anders; Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Pertoldi, Cino

    2015-01-01

    , at the stressful high temperature Spanish flies flew the furthest and Danish flies the shortest distance. Neither body size nor wing loading affected flight performance, although flies with narrower wings tended to fly further (wing shape effect). Swiss flies were most active in terms of locomotor activity......Organisms can respond to and cope with stressful environments in a number of ways including behavioural, morphological and physiological adjustments. To understand the role of behavioural traits in thermal adaptations we compared heat resistance, locomotor (walking and flying) activity, flight...... performance and morphology of three European populations of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) originating from different thermal conditions (Spain, Switzerland and Denmark) at benign and stressful high temperatures. Spanish flies showed greater heat resistance than Swiss and Danish flies. Similarly...

  3. Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mary Tomy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity.

  4. Variation of Musca domestica L. acetylcholinesterase in Danish housefly populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Huang, Jing; Qiao, Chuan-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Anti-cholinesterase resistance is in many cases caused by modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE). A comparison was made of toxicological data and AChE activity gathered from 21 field populations and nine laboratory strains of houseflies, Musca domestica L., to elucidate the best way of generating...... data to provide advice for management strategies and gathering information for resistance risk assessment on the organophosphates azamethiphos and dimethoate and the carbamate methomyl, which have been the primary insecticides used against adult houseflies in Denmark. Cluster analysis was performed...... and > 2000 houseflies were assigned to one of three phenotypes based on total acetylcholinesterase activity as well as inhibition by azamethiphos, methomyl or omethoate. A cluster, i.e. a phenotype, with high total AChE activity and high sensitivity to azamethiphos and less sensitivity to inhibition...

  5. Operability test procedure [Tank] 241-SY-101 equipment removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The 241-SY-101 equipment removal system (ERS) consists of components, equipment, instrumentation and procedures that will provide the means to disconnect, retrieve, contain, load and transport the Mitigation Pump Assembly (MPA) from waste Tank 241-SY-101 to the Central Waste Complex (CWC). The Operability Test Procedure (OTP) will test the interfaces between ERS components and will rehearse the procedure for MPA removal and transportation to the extent they can be mocked-up at the CTF (Cold Test Facility). At the conclusion of the OTP, the ERS components and equipment will be removed from the CTF, entered into the Component Based Recall System (CBRS), and stored until needed for actual MPA removal and transportation

  6. Biologically based machine vision: signal analysis of monopolar cells in the visual system of Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jenny; Barrett, Steven F; Wilcox, Michael J; Popp, Stephanie

    2002-01-01

    Machine vision for navigational purposes is a rapidly growing field. Many abilities such as object recognition and target tracking rely on vision. Autonomous vehicles must be able to navigate in dynamic enviroments and simultaneously locate a target position. Traditional machine vision often fails to react in real time because of large computational requirements whereas the fly achieves complex orientation and navigation with a relatively small and simple brain. Understanding how the fly extracts visual information and how neurons encode and process information could lead us to a new approach for machine vision applications. Photoreceptors in the Musca domestica eye that share the same spatial information converge into a structure called the cartridge. The cartridge consists of the photoreceptor axon terminals and monopolar cells L1, L2, and L4. It is thought that L1 and L2 cells encode edge related information relative to a single cartridge. These cells are thought to be equivalent to vertebrate bipolar cells, producing contrast enhancement and reduction of information sent to L4. Monopolar cell L4 is thought to perform image segmentation on the information input from L1 and L2 and also enhance edge detection. A mesh of interconnected L4's would correlate the output from L1 and L2 cells of adjacent cartridges and provide a parallel network for segmenting an object's edges. The focus of this research is to excite photoreceptors of the common housefly, Musca domestica, with different visual patterns. The electrical response of monopolar cells L1, L2, and L4 will be recorded using intracellular recording techniques. Signal analysis will determine the neurocircuitry to detect and segment images.

  7. A eficiência de formação estelar em Musca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.; Roberto, A. J.., Jr.; Khan, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos os resultados de um survey no infravermelho próximo (bandas J e H), executado no Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, na direção da nuvem escura em forma de filamento de Musca (observamos ao longo de todo o filamento, além de todas as fontes pontuais IRAS e/ou fontes ROSAT brilhantes a uma distância de 2o da nuvem). Nosso objetivo é determinar a eficiência de formação estelar para esta nuvem escura (massa de estrelas formadas/massa da nuvem), procurando por objetos estelares jovens de pequena massa no seu interior e/ou evoluídos o suficiente para estarem afastados do local de nascimento, mas ainda mostrando características de objetos pré-seqüência principal como emissão de raios-X e excesso de emissão no infravermelho próximo. Este survey não estabeleceu nenhum viés na seleção de fontes pontuais IRAS ou fontes ROSAT, uma vez que a imensa maioria das fontes pontuais IRAS nesta região têm qualidade de fluxo ruim. Os candidatos a objetos estelares jovens foram selecionados pelo excesso no índice de cor (J-H), descontados os efeitos da extinção interestelar na linha de visada, determinada através da emissão estendida no infravermelho distante (IRAS). Estimativas de massa foram feitas para estes candidatos, através da relação massa-luminosidade, para calcular a eficiência de formação estelar de Musca.

  8. 241-SY Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-SY double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks

  9. Syed Manzoorul Islam’s Postmodern Tales: A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdul Momen Sarker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings into focus how Syed Manzoorul Islam, in his three-decade-long literary career, has mastered a narrative style that sets him apart from many of his Bengali contemporaries. It demonstrates all the traits unique to his storytelling: blurring of boundaries between dream and reality, self-reflexivity, irony, and humor. The research also encapsulates how Syed Islam is different from his contemporary short story writers in terms of constructing plot and character. It foregrounds the author’s capability of developing a diction which is completely his own. The paper discusses the postmodern features prevailing in his stories. It shows us how the author invites the readers to be a part of his discourses. It summarizes the author’s surrealist imagination which creates a world that is strangely familiar and unfamiliar at the same time. Overall, the research analyzes how the postmodern elements relate to the major themes of Syed Manzoorul Islam’s short stories. Keywords: Post-modernism, magic-realism, realism, psychoanalysis, political degeneration

  10. Miscellaneous component design for Tank 241SY101 pump removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    A mixer pump has been used to mitigate the hydrogen build-up in tank 241SY101 (SY101), located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. New equipment is being prepared for the removal, transport, storage, and disposal of the test pump. The disposal equipment for the test pump now in tank SY101 includes a shipping container, a strong back, a lifting beam, a test weight, container support stands, a modified mock-up pump, a flexible receiver blast shield, a lifting yoke, and a yoke brace. The structural evaluations of container and strong back are detailed in another supporting document (WHC 1994a), the engineering analyses of flexible receiver blast shield/lifting yoke and yoke brace are given in other supporting documents (WHC 1994b, WHC 1994c), respectively. Engineering tasks that were contracted to Advanced Engineering Consultants (AEC) include the design and analysis of the following. Two spreader-beam lifting devices. a Container test weight. Container support saddles. Mock-up pump modification. This report documents the work description, design basis, assumptions, and design calculations provided by AEC for the above components. All AEC documents appear in Appendix A. Additional work conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) on the modified container test weight, modification to the mock-up pump, the removable support for the transport assembly, and saddle modification for air pallets also are included in this document

  11. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (``burps``) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections.

  12. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (''burps'') a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections

  13. 241-SY-101 mixer pump lifetime expectancy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of WHC-SD-WM-TI-726, Rev. 0 241-SY-101 Mixer Pump Lifetime Expectancy is to determine a best estimate of the mean lifetime of non-repairable (located in the waste) essential features of the hydrogen mitigation mixer pump presently installed in 101-SY. The estimated mean lifetime is 9.1 years. This report does not demonstrate operation of the entire pump assembly within the Tank Farm ''safety envelope''. It was recognized by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) this test pump was not specifically designed for long term service in tank 101-SY. In June 95 the DNFSB visited Hanford and ask the question, ''how long will this test pump last and how will the essential features fail?'' During the 2 day meeting with the DNFSB it was discussed and defined within the meeting just exactly what essential features of the pump must operate. These essential features would allow the pump to operate for the purpose of extending the window for replacement. Operating with only essential features would definitely be outside the operating safety envelope and would require a waiver. There are three essential features: 1. The pump itself (i.e. the impeller and motor) must operate 2. Nozzles and discharges leg must remain unplugged 3. The pump can be re-aimed, new waste targeted, even if manually

  14. The potential for buoyant displacement gas release events in Tank 241-SY-102 after waste transfer from Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, BE; Meyer, P.E.; Chen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) is a double-shell, radioactive waste storage tank with waste that, before the recent transfer and water back-dilution operations, was capable of retaining gas and producing buoyant displacement (BD) gas release events (GREs). Some BD GREs caused gas concentrations in the tank headspace to exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL). A BD GRE occurs when a portion of the nonconvective layer retains enough gas to become buoyant, rises to the waste surface, breaks up, and releases some of its stored gas. The installation of a mixer pump in 1993 successfully mitigated gas retention in the settled solids layer in SY-101 and has since prevented BD GREs. However, operation of the mixer pump over the years caused gas retention in the floating crust layer and a corresponding accelerated waste level growth. The accelerating crust growth trend observed in 1997--98 led to initiation of sequences of waste removal and water back-dilutions in December 1999. Waste is removed from the mixed slurry layer in Tank SY-101 and transferred into Tank 241-Sy-102 (SY-102). Water is then added back to dissolve soluble solids that retain gas. The initial transfer of 89,500 gallons of SY-101 waste, diluted in-line at 0.94:1 by volume with water, to SY-102 was conducted in December 1999. The second transfer of 230,000 gallons of original SY-101 waste, diluted approximately 0.9:1, was completed in January 2000, and the third transfer of 205,500 gallons of original SY-101 waste diluted at 0.9:1 was completed in March 2000

  15. Ion exchange removal of cesium from simulated and actual supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carlson, C.D.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in conjunction with the Process Chemistry and Statistics Section of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), conducted this study as part of the Supernatant Treatment Development Task for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Applied Engineering Project. The study assesses the performance of the CS-100 ion exchange material for removing cesium from simulated and actual alkaline supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103. The objective of these experiments is to compare the cesium ion exchange loading and elution profiles of actual and simulated wastes. Specific experimental objectives include (1) demonstration of decontamination factors (DF) for cesium removal, 92) verification of simulant performance, (3) investigation of waste/exchanger chemistry, and (4) determination of the radionuclide content of the regenerated CS-100 resin prior to disposal

  16. The Effects of Sex-Ratio and Density on Locomotor Activity in the House Fly, Musca domestica

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjærsgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker; Schou, Toke M.; Skovgård, Henrik; Hald, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra-red light system. Sex-ratio significantly affected locomotor activity, increasing with the percentage of males in the vials. In accordance with other studies, males were more active than females, but th...

  17. Ontsporing van die regstaatsbegrip en sy konsekwensies vir die afrikanervolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G.S. Van der Walt

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Die opvatting van die suiwere regstaat bring sy vraagstukke mee wanneer dit in verband gebring word met die leer van die soewereiniteit in eie kring. Laasgenoemde leer wortel in die geloof dat God die mens roep tot diens aan Hom, en dat die mens vry moet wees om ten opsigte van alle lewensaspekte God na die hoogste mate te kan dien. Hierdie verskeidenheid van aspekte is deur dr. A. Kuyper en sy volgelinge gesistemati- seer tot menslike verbande en lewenskringe, elk met ’n be- paalde sfeer waarin ander kringe nie mag inmeng nie. Elkeen is dan soewerein binne sy eie kring. Met verwysing na die staat is dan gespreek van die staatstaak as synde die hand- hawing van die reg, en omdat die staat in toenemende mate hom veral in die latere tyd ook besig gehou het met bedrywig- hede wat nouliks as van juridiese aard beskou kan word, is daar die onderskeid gemaak tussen die primêre en sekundêre taak van die staat. Die sistematiek van die wetsidee, deur prof. Dooyeweerd ontwikkel, waar die staat sy bestemmingsfunksie in die regsaspek vind, het vanselfsprekend geen plek vir so 'n dualistiese staatstaak nie, en die oplossing is deur sommige daarin gesoek om sulke staatsoptrede te vertolk as hebbende wel betrekking op die regsgemeenskap of die regsverkeer. Staatsondernemings soos paaie, spoorweë, spellingreëling, ens. word dan beskou as noodsaaklik vir die instandhouding van die regsgemeenskap en regsverkeer. Tereg wys A. M. Donner1 daarop dat so ’n vertolking eintlik neerkom op ’n oorspanning van die regsbegrip. Hy self sien dan die staatstaak in vrede- of orde-handhawing, wat in die eerste plaas wel regshandha- wing veronderstel. Onder orde word dan alles verstaan wat noodsaaklik is vir die gladde verkeer in die ontwikkelingsgang van die regsgemeenskap. Die wese van die staat het dan vol- gens hom te doen met reg, maar sy taak is meer as suiwere regshandhawing. Wat onrus verwek en die orde versteur, moet uit die openbare lewe verwyder word, en die

  18. Acceptance test procedure for SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becken, G.W.

    1994-12-16

    The proper functioning of a new 241-SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster will be acceptance tested, to establish operability and to provide an operational baseline for the equipment. During this test, a verification of all of the alarm and control circuits associated with the exhaust, which provide operating controls and/or signals to local and remote alarm/annunciator panels, shall be performed. Test signals for sensors that provide alarms, warnings, and/or interlocks will be applied to verify that alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints are correct. Alarm and warning lights, controls, and local and remote readouts for the exhauster will be verified to be adequate for proper operation of the exhauster. Testing per this procedure shall be conducted in two phases. The first phase of testing, to verify alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints primarily, will be performed in the MO-566 Fab Shop. The second phase of testing, to verify proper operation and acceptable interface with other tank farm systems, will be conducted after the exhauster and all associated support and monitoring equipment have been installed in the SY Tank Farm. The exhauster, which is mounted on a skid and which will eventually be located in the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors mounted on the skid and associated equipment. These sensors provide information such as: exhauster system inlet vacuum pressure; prefilter and HEPA filter differential pressures; exhaust stack sampler status; exhaust fan status; system status (running/shut down); and radiation monitoring systems status. The output of these sensors is transmitted to the exhauster annunciator panel where the signals are displayed and monitored for out-of-specification conditions.

  19. SAFETY ANALYSIS APPROACH TO TANK 241-SY-101 REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RYAN, G.W.

    2000-01-01

    An Unreviewed Safety Question was declared related to the unexplained waste surface level growth in high-level radioactive waste storage Tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Because the waste surface level in Tank 241-SY-101 was growing in a manner inconsistent with previous behavior, the following issues of concern were recognized: (1) The continually rising surface level had the potential to reach physical encumbrances or limits within the tank (e.g., instrumentation, cameras, established Authorization Basis limits, and the double containment boundary) and the potential to significantly change the consequences of previously analyzed accidents (e.g., flammable gas deflagrations). (2) The presence of new hazards because of significant quantities of flammable gas retained in the crust (e.g., crust collapse gas-release events). (3) The potential to inhibit information gathering related to the existing hazards in the tank (e.g., unable to determine surface level to assess the potential for large gas releases). In response to this situation, a Contractor Project Team, which included Department of Energy representation, was formed to constructively address the issue. The team was responsible for developing and evaluating remediation options and executing the chosen option for remediating the surface level rise issue for Tank 241-SY-101. From an Authorization Basis perspective, the following important aspects will be discussed in this paper: (1) The integrated nature of the Project Team. The team consisted of all the organizations necessary to ensure that the time available to remediate Tank 241-SY-101 was effectively used. Most notable is the connectivity of the Nuclear Safety and Licensing organization with the Engineering, Design, and Operations organizations. (2) The ability of the safety analysis support to adjust to and address evolving Project Team goals and dynamic tank conditions. (3) Due to the urgency to mitigate this developing issue

  20. Progress toward mitigation of flammable gas Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentsch, J.W.; Babad, H.; Hanson, C.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-01-01

    The mixing pump installed in Hanford Site tank 241-SY-101 has been shown to be effective in releasing flammable gases in a controlled manner. This controlled release of gas prevents the accumulation and episodic release above flammable limits. More work needs to be done to optimize the pumping operation, and to evaluate the long-term effects of mixing so as to assure that no undesirable changes have occurred to the waste. Other alternative mitigation concepts are still being evaluated as a backup to mixing

  1. Yksityisen syöpäsairaalan tietoturvakartoitus

    OpenAIRE

    Kitunen, Martti

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli kartoittaa yksityisen syöpäsairaalan tietoturvallisuutta. Työssä haluttiin tuoda esille tietoturvallisuutta sairaalan näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuudessa osuudessa perehdyttiin tietoturvan osa-alueisiin ja -käsitteisiin. Työssä tarkasteltiin tietoturvallisuuden merkitystä yrityksille, sekä mahdollisia tietoturvauhkia. Lisäksi käytiin läpi tietoturvan arviointiin käytettäviä teknisiä ratkaisuja. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli kartoittaa Docrateen tietotur...

  2. Safety evaluation for adding water to tank 101-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinton, R.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides a new water limit for Tank 241-SY-101. The original limit was set at 9600 gallons. The new limit is now 20,000 gallons. There are various activities that require the use of additional water to the tank. The main activity is the removal of the temporary mixer pump. This requires a large amount of water which will exceed the original limit. Also, other activities such as flushing, adding a viscometer, and adding a void fraction meter requires additional water. The new limit safely incorporates these activities and allows room for more future activities

  3. The Macquarie Dictionary, its History and its Editorial Practices Die Macquarie Dictionary, sy geskiedenis en sy redaksionele praktyke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Delbridge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The Macquarie Dictionary, first published in Sydney in 1981, was intended to be the first comprehensive dictionary of Australian English. Now in its third edition it has been widely adopted by institutions and the general community as the national dictionary. This paper traces its development from a difficult birth to its present maturity, from a large set of cards to an electronic database, from a single book to a lexicographic library. The rationale and the methodology are laid out along with an account of the reception given to the dictionary in Australia and internationally.

    Keywords: dictionary; lexicography; macquarie dictionary; australianness; australianise; australian english; national dictionaries; phonology; international phonetic alphabet; lexical labels; lexicographic style; language style; colloquial; aboriginal words; electronic database; corpus; citation

     

    Die Macquarie Dictionary wat vir die eerste keer in 1981 in Sydney gepubliseer is, was bedoel om die eerste omvattende woordeboek van Australiese Engels te wees. Die woordeboek wat tans in sy derde uitgawe is, word reeds algemeen deur instansies en die algemene publiek as nasionale woordeboek aanvaar. Hierdie artikel skets sy ontwikkeling vanaf 'n moeilike geboorte tot sy huidige volwassenheid, vanaf 'n groot versameling kaartjies tot 'n elektroniese databasis, vanaf 'n enkele boek tot 'n leksikografiese biblioteek. Die grondbeginsels en metodologie word gegee saam met 'n verslag van die ontvangs wat dit in Australië en internasionaal gekry het.

    Sleutelwoorde: woordeboek; leksikografie; macquarie dictionary; australiesheid; australianiseer; australiese engels; nasionale woordeboeke; fonologie; internasionale fonetiese alfabet; leksikale etikette; leksikografiese styl; taalstyl; omgangstaal; aboriginele woorde; elektroniese databasis; korpus; aanhaling

     

  4. Mixer pump long term operations plan for Tank 241-SY-101 mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the general Operations Plan for performance of the mixer pump long term operations for Tank 241-SY-101 mitigation of gas retention and periodic release in Tank 101-SY. This operations plan will utilize a 112 kW (150 hp) mixing pump to agitate/suspend the particulates in the tank

  5. The effect of dilution on the gas retention behavior of Tank 241-SY- 103 waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, P.R.; Tingey, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five of the 177 underground waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site have been placed on the Flammable Gas watch list. These 25 tanks, containing high-level waste generated during plutonium and uranium processing, have been identified as potentially capable of accumulating flammable gases above the lower flammability limit (Babad et al. 1991). In the case of Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103, it has been proposed that diluting the tank waste may mitigate this hazard (Hudson et al. 1995; Stewart et al. 1994). The effect of dilution on the ability of waste from Tank 241-SY-103 to accumulate gas was studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A similar study has been completed for waste from Tank 241-SY-101 (Bredt et al. 1995). Because of the additional waste-storage volume available in Tank 241-SY-103 and because the waste is assumed to be similar to that currently in Tank 241-SY-101, Tank 241-SY-103 became the target for a demonstration of passive mitigation through in-tank dilution. In 1994, plans for the in-tank dilution demonstration were deferred pending a decision on whether to pursue dilution as a mitigation strategy. However, because Tank 241-SY-103 is an early retrieval target, determination of how waste properties vary with dilution will still be required

  6. 241-SY-101 data acquisition and control system (DACS) remote operator interface operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The readiness of the upgraded 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide proper control and monitoring of the mixer pump and instrumentation in tank 241-SY-101 was evaluated by the performance of OTP-440-001. Results of the OTP are reported here

  7. 241-SY-101 DACS instrument problem screen (SCR 448) acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The operability of the 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide proper control and monitoring of the mitigation mixer pump and instrumentation installed in the 241-SY-101 underground storage tank utilizing the [INSTPROB] screen will be systematically evaluated by the performance of this procedure

  8. 241-SY-101 data acquisition and control system (DACS) operator interface upgrade operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for readiness of the first portion of the upgraded 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) computer system to provide proper control and monitoring of the mitigation mixer pump and instrumentation installed in the 241-SY-101 underground storage tank will be systematically evaluated by the performance of this procedure

  9. Structural analysis and evaluation of the 241SY101 tank annulus heat-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the structural analysis (static and thermal loads) of the 241SY101 tank to determine the maximum allowable temperature and rate of heating that could be applied to tank 241SY101 through annulus air heating without detrimental effects to the structural integrity of the concrete and steel liner of the tank

  10. Acceptance test procedure, 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System, Phase III testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure is for the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System, Phase III Testing. This procedure will test the sealing integrity of the Flexible Receiver System to ensure that release of waste and aerosols will be minimized during the removal of the test mixer pump from tank SY-101

  11. Acceptance Test Procedure: SY101 air pallet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this test procedure is to verify that the system(s) procured to load the SY-101 Mitigation Test Pump package fulfills its functional requirements. It will also help determine the man dose expected due to handling of the package during the actual event. The scope of this procedure focuses on the ability of the air pallets and container saddles to carry the container package from the new 100 foot concrete pad into 2403-WD where it will be stored awaiting final disposition. This test attempts to simulate the actual event of depositing the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test pump into the 2403-WD building. However, at the time of testing road modifications required to drive the 100 ton trailer into CWC were not performed. Therefore a flatbed trailer will be use to transport the container to CWC. The time required to off load the container from the 100 ton trailer will be recorded for man dose evaluation on location. The cranes used for this test will also be different than the actual event. This is not considered to be an issue due to minimal effects on man dose

  12. Microbial hydroxylation and glycosidation of oleanolic acid by Circinella muscae and their anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sensen; Lin, Haijun; Huang, Huilian; Yang, Min; Xu, Bohui; Chen, Guangtong

    2018-05-29

    Biotransformation of oleanolic acid (OA) by Circinella muscae AS 3.2695 was investigated. Nine hydroxylated and glycosylated metabolites (1-9) were obtained. Their structures were elucidated as 3β,7β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 3β,7β,21β-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 3β,7α,21β-trihydroxyolean-12-en- 28-oic acid (3), 3β,7β,15α-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (4), 7β,15α-dihydroxy- 3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 7β-hydroxy-3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (6), oleanolic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (7), 3β,21β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28- oic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (8), and 3β,7β,15α-trihydroxyolean-12-en- 28-oic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (9) by spectroscopic analysis. Among them, compounds 4 and 9 were new compounds. In addition, anti-inflammatory activities were assayed and evaluated for the isolated metabolites. Most of the metabolites exhibited significant inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharides-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells.

  13. Crystallization, data collection and phasing of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marana, S. R.; Cançado, F. C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Valério, A. A. [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Estrutural (CeBiMe), Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), CP 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Ferreira, C.; Terra, W. R. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Barbosa, J. A. R. G., E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Estrutural (CeBiMe), Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), CP 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-08-01

    The digestive lysozymes 1 and 2 from M. domestica were crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystallographic data were processed to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å in both cases. Lysozymes are mostly known for their defensive role against bacteria, but in several animals lysozymes have a digestive function. Here, the initial crystallographic characterization of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica are presented. The proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium sulfate or PEG/2-propanol as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å using synchrotron radiation. The lysozyme 1 and 2 crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} (unit-cell parameters a = 36.52, b = 79.44, c = 45.20 Å, β = 102.97°) and the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (unit-cell parameters a = 73.90, b = 96.40, c = 33.27 Å), respectively. The crystal structures were solved by molecular replacement and structure refinement is in progress.

  14. Larvicidal potential of essential oils against Musca domestica and Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati; Dhiman, R C

    2016-06-01

    The larvicidal activity of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogan citratus (lemongrass), Eucalyptus globulus and Citrus sinensis (orange) essential oils and their combinations was evaluated against Musca domestica (housefly) and Anopheles stephensi (mosquitoes) through contact toxicity assay. Among all the tested essential oils/combinations, Me. piperita was found to be the most effective larvicidal agent against Mu. domestica and An. stephensi with LC50 values of 0.66 μl/cm(2) and 44.66 ppm, respectively, after 48 h. The results clearly highlighted that the addition of mentha oil to other oils (1:1 ratio) improved their larvicidal activity. The order of effectiveness of essential oils/combinations indicated that the pattern for An. stephensi follows the trend as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus > mentha + orange > orange and for Mu. domestica as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + orange > orange > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus. The images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated the toxic effect of Me. piperita as the treated larvae were observed to be dehydrated and deformed. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of tested essential oils/combinations against the larval stages of Mu. domestica and An. stephensi and has the potential for development of botanical formulations.

  15. Differential distribution of glutamate- and GABA-gated chloride channels in the housefly Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Tomo; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Azuma, Masaaki; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-01

    l-Glutamic acid (glutamate) mediates fast inhibitory neurotransmission by affecting glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in invertebrates. The molecular function and pharmacological properties of GluCls have been well studied, but not much is known about their physiological role and localization in the insect body. The distribution of GluCls in the housefly (Musca domestica L.) was thus compared with the distribution of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls). Quantitative PCR and ligand-binding experiments indicate that the GluCl and GABACl transcripts and proteins are predominantly expressed in the adult head. Intense GluCl immunostaining was detected in the lamina, leg motor neurons, and legs of adult houseflies. The GABACl (Rdl) immunostaining was more widely distributed, and was found in the medulla, lobula, lobula plate, mushroom body, antennal lobe, and ellipsoid body. The present findings suggest that GluCls have physiological roles in different tissues than GABACls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gamma-irradiation of pupae of the house fly musca domestica L., and adult survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guneidy, A.M.; Abdu, R.M.; Hamed, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of gamma-irradiation on pupae of the house fly, Musca domestica L., were determined. Pupae of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5-day old, when exposed to a single dose of gamma rays, showed that the younger pupae were more susceptible than older pupae. The 1- and 2-day age groups were fully susceptible to all levels of treatment where no emergence was observed. The 3-day and 4-day age groups were of equal susceptibility to irradiation where emergence of 23.50% and 24.84%, respectively, was recorded at 5 Kr only. Pupae failed to emerge at dosages of 10, 15 and 25 Kr. Emergence was observed at all dosages in the 5-day old group of pupae where there was a correlation between dosage and emergence. At 5 Kr and 10 Kr, 85% and 66.36% of flies, respectively, emerged. This figure declined to 22.54% at 15 Kr and 4.09% at 25 Kr. Males were less susceptible than females. Flies of both sexes emerging from irradiated pupae died earlier than the control flies

  17. Effiacy of citronella and eucalyptus oils against Musca domestica, Cimex lectularius and Pediculus humanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehangir Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess potential impacts of two indigenous plant oils: the citronella (Cymbopogon nardus and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus for their insecticidal effect against Musca domestica (house fly, Cimex lectularius (bed bug and Pediculus humanus (louse. Methods: The oils of these two medicinal plants were applied separately at various concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mL/cup in cups lined with filter paper containing the target insects. Mortality was evaluated after fixed intervals (6, 12 and 24 h subsequent to the release of adult insects. Results: Results showed that both oils exhibited concentration and time dependent mortality against the tested insects. Data pertaining to present investigation clearly showed that percentage mortality owing to these botanicals against these medical pests was significantly high (98.33% at the rate of 3 mL for 24 h of exposure, followed by 2 and 1 mL concentrations with 12 and 6 h of exposure times. Conclusions: The results suggest that these plant oils possess good insecticidal properties against house fly, bed bug, and louse, and are safe to humans. Furthermore, the molecular (biochemical based study of these botanicals against diverse species of pests will be of much significance to control these pest insects.

  18. Effect of Triflumuron and Pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L Larval Stages in the Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The residual effect of triflumuron and pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L larval stages was studied in the laboratory."n"nMethods: Both IGRs at varying concentrations ranging between 0.5 to 2.5 mg/L were placed inside beakers with mice chow and vitamin B complex and water as food for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae."n"nResults: Both IGRs inhibit M. domestica adult emergence of 98-98.5% when applied at the lowest concentration of 0.5 mg/L on the 1st instar, 93-97% of adult emergence inhibition on the 2nd instar,and 91-97% of adult emergence inhibi­tion on the 3rd instar larvae respectively. There was no significant difference between triflumuron and pyriproxy­fen on house­fly adult emergence inhibition when fed to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae (P> 0.05. However, there was a significant difference between the IGRs and the control (P< 0.05."n"nConclusion: Both triflumuron and pyriproxyfen are effective in inhibiting adult emergence of housefly M  domes­tica and therefore should be recommended for fly control particularly in chicken farms and dumping grounds in Malaysia for housefly control activities.

  19. Development of Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) fed with Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Beserra, Eduardo B.; Zanuncio, Teresinha V.; Zanuncio, José C.; Santos, Germi P.

    1995-01-01

    Egg viability and nymphal development of the predatory bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål, 1860) were evaluated during two generations in the Biological Control Laboratory of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (Bioagro/UFV) in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil) at 24.72±1.10ºC and photophase of 12 hours. Three treatments were represented by S. cincticeps fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 larvae. Higher egg viabil...

  20. Search efficiency of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor on Musca domestica pupae in dairy cattle farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    significantly to overall parasitism, M. raptor had a significantly higher attack rate when first a female had located bags with sentinel pupae. Based on the above results, however, S. cameroni seems the most appropriate species for managing house flies in straw bedded dairy cattle farms in Denmark. A biological......Indoor releases of Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girauelt & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were conducted in five organic dairy cattle farms to evaluate the overall effect on parasitism and efficiency at different pupal depths of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae...... control strategy of simultaneous releases of S. cameroni and M. raptor is discussed. Key words: biological control, dairy cattle, dispersion, parasitism, Phygadeuon fumat...

  1. Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101, damaged equipment removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titzler, P.A.; Legare, D.E.; Barrus, H.G.

    1993-11-01

    Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101 has a history of generating hydrogen-nitrous oxide gases. The gases are generated and trapped in the non-convective waste layer near the bottom of the 23-m- (75-ft-) diameter underground tank. Approximately every three months the pressure in the tank is relieved as the trapped gases are released through or around the surface crust into the tank dome. This process moves large amounts of liquid waste and crust material around in the tank. The moving waste displaced air lances and thermocouple assemblies (2-in. schedule-40 pipe) installed in four tank risers and permanently bent them to a maximum angle of 40 degrees. The bends were so severe that assemblies could not be removed from the tank using the originally designed hardware. Just after the tank releases the trapped gas, a 20-to-30-day work ''window'' opens

  2. Solubilities of gases in simulated Tank 241-SY-101 wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, J.D.; Pederson, L.R.

    1995-09-01

    Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, methane, and nitrous oxide solubilities were evaluated as a function of temperature in SYl-SIM-93B, a homogeneous simulated waste mixture containing sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium aluminate, and sodium carbonate, the principal inorganic constituents of the wastes in Tank 241-SY-101. Ammonia solubility data for this simulated waste was obtained as a function of temperature in an earlier study. The choice of a homogeneous waste mixture in this study has the advantage of eliminating complications associated with a changing electrolyte concentration as a function of temperature that would be encountered with a slurry simulant. Dissolution is one of the means by which gases may be retained in Hanford Site wastes. While models are available to estimate gas solubilities in electrolyte solutions, few data are in existence that pertain to highly concentrated, multicomponent electrolytes such as those stored in Hanford Site waste tanks

  3. Tank 241-SY-102 January 2000 Compatibility Grab Samples Analytical Results for the Final Report [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BELL, K.E.

    2000-05-11

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples taken in January 2000 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank SY-102 samples were performed as directed in Comparability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2000 (Sasaki 1999). No notification limits were exceeded. Preliminary data on samples 2SY-99-5, -6, and -7 were reported in ''Format II Report on Tank 241-SY-102 Waste Compatibility Grab Samples Taken in January 2000'' (Lockrem 2000). The data presented here represent the final results.

  4. 241-SY-101 air lance removal lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.L.; Titzler, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    An emergency task was undertaken to remove four air lances and one thermocouple (TC) tree from tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). This resulted from video observation that these pipes were being severely bent during periodic gas release events that regularly occurred every three to four months. At the time, the gas release events were considered to be the number one safety issue within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This emergency removal task was undertaken on an extremely short schedule that required all activities possible to be completed in parallel. This approach and extremely short schedule, while successful, resulted in some undesirable consequences from less than desired time for design, reviews, equipment testing, operations training, and bad weather conditions. These consequences included leakage of liquid waste from the containers to the ground, higher than expected dose rates at the container surface, difficult field operations, and unexpected pipe configuration during removal. In addition, changes to environmental regulations and severe winter weather impacted the packaging and shipping activities required the prepare the removed pipes for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC). The purpose of this document is to identify lessons to be learned for future activities. In context of the emergency conditions that existed at the time and the urgency to remove these pipes, their removal was successfully completed under extremely difficult conditions and schedule. The success of the task should not be overshadowed by the desire to identify areas needing improvement and lessons to be learned. Many of the lessons identified in this document have already resulted in improved conduct of operations and engineering

  5. The Effects of Temperature and Innate Immunity on Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) Between Life Stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Gill, C.; Lowenberger, C.

    2014-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) is a well-established vector of human pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., which can cause infection of broiler chicken flocks, and through contaminated broiler meat can cause outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in humans. We investigated whether Campylobacter j...

  6. Enterobacteria associated with houseflies (Musca domestica) as an infection risk indicator in swine production farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelin, V; Fongaro, G; Pastore, J B; Engel, F; Reimers, M A; Viancelli, A

    2018-04-23

    Houseflies (Musca domestica) spend part of their life development on animal or human manure. Manure is high in pathogenic microbes; thus, houseflies have been known as a mechanical vector for various important zoonotic diseases. Therefore, the present study showcases captured houseflies from intensive swine production regions (which are areas of high manure concentration) in Southern Brazil, and analyses their bodies' to the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. and the sensitivity of these bacteria to various antibiotics. Additionally, Quantitative Microbiology Risk Assessment was performed simulating the contamination of lettuce by flies' bacteria and subsequent lettuce consumption by an adult human being. Houseflies were captured in swine buildings and farm houses from five farms. E. coli quantification values ranged from 10 4 to 10 6 CFU/20 flies, and all sampling sites had positive results from bacteria presence in the collected houseflies. On the other hand, Salmonella sp. presence was observed in only three farms, where the quantification ranged from 10 2 to 10 5 CFU/20 flies. The bacteria showed to be resistant to at least two from the four tested antibiotics (ampicillin, Cefalotin, Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin) antibiotics used in human or veterinary medicine. Infection probability analyses showed risk of human infection by E.coli, indicating possible transmission of zoonotic pathogens through flies. In this context, it was possible to conclude that there is a need for flies control, especially in swine farms where zoonotic pathogens can be abundant, to minimize the health impact of the vectorization of enteric bacteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of Essential Oils from Edible Plants as Insecticides Against the House Fly, Musca Domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Palacios

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The compositions of 12 essential oils (EOs obtained by hydrodistillation of edible fruits and herbs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The insecticidal activity of each oil against the house fly Musca domestica was evaluated by placing flies in a glass jar with a screw cap that held a piece of EO-treated cotton yarn. The dose necessary to kill 50% of flies (LC50 in 30 min was determined at 26 ± 1°C. Twelve EOs and 17 individual terpenes were assayed against M. domestica, showing LC50 values ranging from 3.9 to 85.2 and from 3.3 to >100 mg/dm3, respectively. EO from Citrus sinensis was the most potent insecticide (LC50 = 3.9 mg/dm3, followed by EOs from C. aurantium (LC50 = 4.8 mg/dm3 and Eucalyptus cinerea (LC50 = 5.5 mg/dm3. According to GC/MS analysis, limonene (92.47%, linalool (1.43%, and b-myrcene (0.88% were the principal components of C. sinensis EO. Limonene was also the principal constituent (94.07% of C. aurantium, while 1,8-cineole (56.86% was the major constituent of E. cinerea EO. 1,8-Cineole was most active against M. domestica (LC50 = 3.3 mg/dm3, while (4R(+-limonene, was moderately active (LC50 = 6.2 mg/dm3. Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP selected as a positive control, showed an LC50 of 0.5 mg/dm3. EOs from C. sinensis, C. aurantium, and E. cinerea show promise as natural insecticides against houseflies.

  8. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on developmental stages of house fly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, M; D'Souza, Placid E; Patil, Jagadeesh

    2017-09-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica is a major domestic, medical and veterinary pest. The management of these flies reliance on insecticide, causes environmental constraints, insecticide resistance and residues in the meat, skin. Therefore one of the eco-friendly alternate methods is by using biological agents such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). In the present study evaluated the survival of EPN species Steinernema feltiae , Heterorhabditis indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in poultry manure and also their efficacy against different developmental stages of house fly. After exposing to poultry manure, S. feltiae showed more survival as followed by H. indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in all exposition period. When the exposition period extended to 96 h, all nematode species survivability was drastically reduced. After exposing these nematodes to poultry manure at 24 h their virulence capacity against wax moth, Galleria mellonella showed all the nematode species were able cause 100% mortality. However their progeny production was significantly reduced. Fly eggs and pupae were refractory to these nematode infection. Petri dish without artificial diet assay showed that, second and 3rd-instar larvae were highly susceptible to EPNs as compared to larvae provided with artificial diet. H. indica showed high virulence capacity compared to other nematodes tested. Poultry manure assay revealed that, H. indica and S. carpocapsae caused minimal mortality where as S. feltiae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi did not cause any mortality. This may be because of poor survival and limited movement of nematodes in poultry manure which may be due to ammonia, other toxic substances in poultry manure. The decrease in larval mortality in manure suggests that biocontrol of housefly by using EPNs is unlikely.

  9. Engineering test plan for Tank 241-SY-101 in situ viscometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobocinski, R.G.; Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.

    1994-11-01

    To obtain in situ measurements of the rheological properties within tank 241-SY-101, this document will implement the test strategy defined in PNLMIT-041994, acquisition and Reduction of Data Obtained in Tank SY-101 with the Ball Rheometer. Instructions for all sequences are defined within the procedure. All safety requirements as defined in LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-101-SY have been implemented into this procedure

  10. Design basis and requirements for 241-SY Modular Exhauster concrete pad and retaining wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to serve as the design and functional requirements for a concrete pad for the new 241-SY Modular Exhauster and for a retaining wall to be built near the new ventilation systems

  11. Work plan for new SY tank farm exhauster, on-site fabrication activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.

    1994-01-01

    The replacement SY tank farm exhauster unit is a new piece of equipment, designed to replace the existing SY tank farm K1 Ventilation System exhauster unit. This work plan describes the shop fabrication activities associated with the receiving, assembly, repair, modification, and testing of the new SY tank farm primary exhauster. A general list of these activities include, but are not limited to: repair all shipping damages, including procurement of replacement parts; fabricate hardware needed to install exhauster in the field (e.g., Vent duct tie-in, duct concrete footings/hangers, stack concrete footings, etc.); incorporate equipment modification as provided by WHC Engineering (e.g., Rewire the Alarm Annunciator Cabinet as fail-safe, connections between the exhauster and stack sample cabinet, etc.); test the entire exhauster unit, to the extent possible, prior to field installation; and prepare exhauster unit for transfer to and installation at SY tank farm

  12. A discussion on the safety classification of the tank 241-SY-101 mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vleet, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis, consistent with the methodology used in the draft TWRS FSAR (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067), is presented to show that the classification of the mixer pump in tank 241-SY-101 should be safety significant

  13. Acceptance test report for the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver Gamma Detector System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report is for the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver Gamma Detector System. This test verified that the data logger and data converter for the gamma detector system functions as intended

  14. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-SY-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in tank 241-SY-103. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44 09

  15. Spectrophotometry of the nucleus of the Sy 2 galaxy Markarian 308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.N.; Khachikyan, Eh.E.

    1980-01-01

    The results of spectrophotometry of the Sy2 galaxy Markarian 308 are presented. The profiles of the emission lines [N II] lambda lambda 6583, 6548 A, Hsub(α), [O III] lambda lambda 5007, 4959 A and Hsub(β) are drawn. The electron density, electron temperature, mass and effective volume of the emitting gas are estimated. Markarian 308 shows now less activity compared with other Sy2 galaxies

  16. Design Review Closure Report for the SY-101 Rapid Transfer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POWELL, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report, is to document closure of design review open items, resulting from design reviews conducted for the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Transfer System. Results of the various design reviews were documented in the Design Review Report for The SY-101 Rapid Mitigation System, HNF-4519. In that report, twenty-three open items were identified. In this report the 23 items are reviewed and statused

  17. Design Review Closure Report for the SY-101 Rapid Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWELL, W.J.

    1999-11-29

    The purpose of this report, is to document closure of design review open items, resulting from design reviews conducted for the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Transfer System. Results of the various design reviews were documented in the Design Review Report for The SY-101 Rapid Mitigation System, HNF-4519. In that report, twenty-three open items were identified. In this report the 23 items are reviewed and statused.

  18. Studies on the Utilization, Metabolism and Function of Sterols in the House-Fly, Musca Domestica; Utilisation. Metabolisme et fonctions des sterols chez la mouche domestique (Musca Domestica); Izuchenie usvoeniya, metabolizma i funktsii sterinov v organizme domashnej mukhi Musca Domestica; Estudios sobre la asimilacion, el metabolismo y la funcion de los esteroles in la mosca comun (Musca Domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, W. E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Entomology Research Division, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1963-09-15

    Insects generally have been found to require a dietary source of sterol for normal larval growth and metamorphosis. Our work has pointed to two additional physiological roles for sterols in the housefly, Musca domestica L.: (1) A dietary source of sterol is essential for sustained viable egg production in the female fly; on a sterol-deficient diet eggs are produced but hatch and viability are low. (2) Cholesterol is also involved in the mobilization and utilization of nutrient reserves associated with the initiation of ovarian maturation in the female fly. The quantitative sterol requirements for the above physiological processes and the metabolic conversions that occur during growth, metamorphosis and reproduction have been studied in this insect, using C{sup 14}- and H{sup 3}-labelled sterols in conjunction with a variety of analytical tools, including reverse isotope dilution, gasliquid chromatography and spectroscopy, and employing aseptic rearing techniques and semi-defined larval and Adult diets. Both C{sup 14}-cholesterol and H{sup 3}-{beta}- sitosterol have been used as a source df sterol in either the larval or the adult diet of the house fly, and the pattern of utilization and metabolism was found to be almost identical for these two sterols. However, there was no detectable conversion of {beta}-sitosterol to cholesterol. Sub-minimal quantities of cholesterol have also been used in the larval diet in combination with ''sparing sterols'' such as choies tanol, which will fulfill in part but not entirely the sterol requirement of this insect. The utilization and fate of the 'sparing sterol' has been investigated using C{sup 14} cholestanol, and the metabolism of the minute quantity of essential cholesterol is currently under study using high-specific-activity C{sup 14} cholesterol. - Other species of insects, including the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), have been examined in relation to the patterns of utilization and the metabolic pathways for

  19. Tank SY-102 remediation project: Flowsheet and conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, S.L.; Punjak, W.A.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Pope, N.G.; Agnew, S.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Thomas, K.W.; Ortic, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. A major program in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal. Pretreatment is needed to resolve tank safety issues and to separate wastes into high-level and low-level fractions for subsequent immobilization and disposal. There is a fixed inventory of actinides and fission products in the tank which must be prepared for disposal. By segregating the actinides and fission products from the bulk of the waste, the tank`s contents can be effectively managed. Due to the high public visibility and environmental sensitivity of this problem, real progress and demonstrated efforts toward addressing it must begin as soon as possible. As a part of this program, personnel at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flowsheet to remediate tank SY-102 which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of the flowsheet demonstrations performed with simulated, but radioactive, wastes using an existing glovebox line at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The tank waste was characterized using both a tank history approach and an exhaustive evaluation of the available core sample analyses. This report also presents a conceptual design complete with a working material flow model, a major equipment list, and cost estimates.

  20. Tank 101-SY Window E core sample: Interpretation of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    A full depth core sample was taken for tank 241-SY-101 in December 1991 during a time period called ''Window E.'' This was the second full depth core sample from this tank during the year. The core had two major portions that are known as the convective zone and the nonconvective zone. A crust was on the top of tank but as poorly sampled. The analysis of the Window E core sample stressed segment composite chemical analysis instead of segment by segment as in Window C. Adiabatic calorimetry on samples from both cores showed a slow self heating reaction above 150 degrees C on dried samples. The exothermic events were milder than similar synthetic samples. The chemical and physical properties complemented the information from Window C. The Window E material from the convective zone was more viscous than the Window C convective zone material. The nonconvective zone viscosities were similar for both cores. Heating and dilution tests were made to test mitigation concepts

  1. Tank 101-SY Window E core sample: Interpretation of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    A full depth core sample was taken for tank 241-SY-101 in December 1991 during a time period called ``Window E.`` This was the second full depth core sample from this tank during the year. The core had two major portions that are known as the convective zone and the nonconvective zone. A crust was on the top of tank but as poorly sampled. The analysis of the Window E core sample stressed segment composite chemical analysis instead of segment by segment as in Window C. Adiabatic calorimetry on samples from both cores showed a slow self heating reaction above 150{degrees}C on dried samples. The exothermic events were milder than similar synthetic samples. The chemical and physical properties complemented the information from Window C. The Window E material from the convective zone was more viscous than the Window C convective zone material. The nonconvective zone viscosities were similar for both cores. Heating and dilution tests were made to test mitigation concepts.

  2. Tank SY-102 remediation project: Flowsheet and conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, S.L.; Punjak, W.A.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Pope, N.G.; Agnew, S.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Thomas, K.W.; Ortic, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. A major program in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal. Pretreatment is needed to resolve tank safety issues and to separate wastes into high-level and low-level fractions for subsequent immobilization and disposal. There is a fixed inventory of actinides and fission products in the tank which must be prepared for disposal. By segregating the actinides and fission products from the bulk of the waste, the tank's contents can be effectively managed. Due to the high public visibility and environmental sensitivity of this problem, real progress and demonstrated efforts toward addressing it must begin as soon as possible. As a part of this program, personnel at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flowsheet to remediate tank SY-102 which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of the flowsheet demonstrations performed with simulated, but radioactive, wastes using an existing glovebox line at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The tank waste was characterized using both a tank history approach and an exhaustive evaluation of the available core sample analyses. This report also presents a conceptual design complete with a working material flow model, a major equipment list, and cost estimates

  3. The effects of sex-ratio and density on locomotor activity in the house fly, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjaersgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra......-red light system. Sex-ratio significantly affected locomotor activity, increasing with the percentage of males in the vials. In accordance with other studies, males were more active than females, but the circadian rhythm of the two sexes was not constant over time and changed during the light period...... of the behavioral interactions between houseflies and highlight the importance of these factors when designing behavioral experiments using M. domestica....

  4. Reduction of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in poultry manure by rearing of Musca domestica fly larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Fischer, C.; Bjerrum, L.

    2017-01-01

    A major barrier for using animal waste as substrate for production of insects for feed or food is the concern for safety of the end products. In this study we investigated how rearing of fly larvae of Musca domestica in poultry manure influenced the counts of three pathogenic test strains...... of the larvae stage. This study provides data for evaluation of feed safety of fly larvae reared on animal waste. Furthermore suggests a potential use for reduction of these pathogens in manure........ Enteritidis, and C. jejuni was faster in manure with rearing of fly larvae than in manure without larvae; an 8 log10 reduction of all three test bacteria was observed within four days in manure with larvae; compared to manure without larvae where a 1 to 2 log10 was observed. We found no sign of propagation...

  5. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated neonicotinoid resistance in the house fly Musca domestica L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D K; Kristensen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Neonicotinoids play an essential role in the control of house flies Musca domestica. The development of neonicotinoid resistance was found in two field populations. 766b was 130- and 140-fold resistant to imidacloprid and 17- and 28-fold resistant to thiamethoxam in males and females, respectively....... 791a was 22- and 20-fold resistant to imidacloprid and 9- and 23-fold resistant to thiamethoxam in males and females, respectively. Imidacloprid selection of 791a increased imidacloprid resistance to 75- and 150-fold in males and females, respectively, whereas selection with thiamethoxam had minimum...... of the imidacloprid-selected strain after neonicotinoid exposure. CYP6D1 expression was increased after neonicotinoid exposure in resistant males. CYP6D3 expression was induced in both sexes upon neonicotinoid exposure but significantly higher in females....

  6. A comparison of genotyping-by-sequencing analysis methods on low-coverage crop datasets shows advantages of a new workflow, GB-eaSy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, Daniel P; Battu, Gopal; Hudson, Karen A; Diers, Brian W; Hudson, Matthew E

    2017-12-28

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a method to identify genetic variants and quickly genotype samples, reduces genome complexity by using restriction enzymes to divide the genome into fragments whose ends are sequenced on short-read sequencing platforms. While cost-effective, this method produces extensive missing data and requires complex bioinformatics analysis. GBS is most commonly used on crop plant genomes, and because crop plants have highly variable ploidy and repeat content, the performance of GBS analysis software can vary by target organism. Here we focus our analysis on soybean, a polyploid crop with a highly duplicated genome, relatively little public GBS data and few dedicated tools. We compared the performance of five GBS pipelines using low-coverage Illumina sequence data from three soybean populations. To address issues identified with existing methods, we developed GB-eaSy, a GBS bioinformatics workflow that incorporates widely used genomics tools, parallelization and automation to increase the accuracy and accessibility of GBS data analysis. Compared to other GBS pipelines, GB-eaSy rapidly and accurately identified the greatest number of SNPs, with SNP calls closely concordant with whole-genome sequencing of selected lines. Across all five GBS analysis platforms, SNP calls showed unexpectedly low convergence but generally high accuracy, indicating that the workflows arrived at largely complementary sets of valid SNP calls on the low-coverage data analyzed. We show that GB-eaSy is approximately as good as, or better than, other leading software solutions in the accuracy, yield and missing data fraction of variant calling, as tested on low-coverage genomic data from soybean. It also performs well relative to other solutions in terms of the run time and disk space required. In addition, GB-eaSy is built from existing open-source, modular software packages that are regularly updated and commonly used, making it straightforward to install and maintain

  7. Assessment of gas accumulation and retention -- Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleman, R.T.; Burke, T.M.; Reynolds, D.A.; Simpson, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    An approximate analysis has been carried out to assess and estimate the maximum quantity of gas that is likely to be accumulated within waste tank 241-SY-101, and the maximum quantity which is likely to be retained after gas release events (GRE). According to the phenomenological models used for this assessment, based on interpretation of current and recent operational data, the estimated gas generation rate in the tank is approximately 4 m 3 /day (147 ft 3 /day). About half of this gas is released as it is generated, which is (essentially) continuously. The remainder is accumulated within the slurry layer of settled solids at the bottom of the tank, and released episodically in GREs, known as ''burps,'' that are induced by unstable buoyant conditions which develop when sufficient gas accumulates in the slurry. Calculations based on gas volumes to cause neutral buoyancy in the slurry predict the following: the maximum gas accumulation (at 1 atm pressure) that can occur without triggering a GRE is in the range of 606 to 1,039 m 3 (21,400 to 36,700 ft 3 ); and the maximum gas retention immediately after a GRE is equal to the maximum accumulation minus the gas released in the GRE. GREs do not necessarily involve all of the slurry. In the largest GREs, which are assumed to involve all of the slurry, the minimum gas release (at 1 atm pressure) is calculated to be in the range of 193 to 328 m 3 (6,800 to 11,600 ft 3 ). The corresponding maximum gas retention would be 413 to 711 m 3 (14,600 to 25,100 ft 3 )

  8. Work plan for SY Farm Integrated Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-2a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, R.P.; Katz, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The SY Farm currently has a temporary Data Acquisition ampersand Control System (DACS) housed in a mobile trailer. The system is currently referred to as DACS-1. It was designed and configured to support engineers and scientists conducting the special performance evaluation and testing program for the safety mitigation test equipment located in waste tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY). It is currently being maintained and utilized by engineering personnel to monitor and control the 101-SY mitigation pump activities. Based upon the results of the mitigation testing program, some of the temporary test mitigation equipment (such as mixing pump) will be replaced with longer-term ''operational'' mitigation equipment. This is resulting in new requirements for the Data Acquisition and Control System which will be full-filled by a newer control facility referred to as the DACS-2. A teaming between Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been established for the SY farm mitigation program in order to develop and implement the ''next generation'' of the data acquisition and control system for the mitigation pump operations. The new system will be configured for use by the tank farm operational personnel. It will support the routine operations necessary for safety mitigation and the future waste retrieval of Project W-211. It is intended to replace the existing DACS-1 and provide the necessary control room space for future integration of W-211

  9. Isolation and characterization of a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Serratia sp. SY5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, So-Yeon; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2009-11-01

    The role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is important in overcoming its limitations for field application. A plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Serratia sp. SY5, was isolated from the rhizoplane of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) grown in petroleum and heavy-metal-contaminated soil. This isolate has shown capacities for indole acetic acid production and siderophores synthesis. Compared with a non-inoculated control, the radicular root growth of Zea mays seedlings inoculated with SY5 can be increased by 27- or 15.4-fold in the presence of 15 mg-Cd/l or 15 mg-Cu/l, respectively. The results from hydroponic cultures showed that inoculation of Serratia sp. SY5 had a favorable influence on the initial shoot growth and biomass of Zea mays under noncontaminated conditions. However, under Cd-contaminated conditions, the inoculation of SY5 significantly increased the root biomass of Zea mays. These results indicate that Serratia sp. SY5 can serve as a promising microbial inoculant for increased plant growth in heavy-metal-contaminated soils to improve the phytoremediation efficiency.

  10. Tank 241-SY-101 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNER, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for push mode core samples from tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). It is written in accordance with Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue (Bauer 1998), Low Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (Wiemers and Miller 1997 and DOE 1998), Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Certa 1998), and the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document (Brown et al. 1998) indicates that these issues apply to tank SY-101 for this sampling event. Brown et al. also identifies high-level waste, regulatory, pretreatment and disposal issues as applicable issues for this tank. However, these issues will not be addressed via this sampling event

  11. Hydrogen Peroxide Toxicity Induces Ras Signaling in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cultured Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapa Chetsawang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that overproduction of reactive oxygen species occurs after brain injury and mediates neuronal cells degeneration. In the present study, we examined the role of Ras signaling on hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal cells degeneration in dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Hydrogen peroxide significantly reduced cell viability in SH-SY5Y cultured cells. An inhibitor of the enzyme that catalyzes the farnesylation of Ras proteins, FTI-277, and a competitive inhibitor of GTP-binding proteins, GDP-beta-S significantly decreased hydrogen peroxide-induced reduction in cell viability in SH-SY5Y cultured cells. The results of this study might indicate that a Ras-dependent signaling pathway plays a role in hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity in neuronal cells.

  12. Tietoa terveydestä ja miesten yleisimmistä syövistä : Miehen katsastuskortti

    OpenAIRE

    Haverila, Erika; Karppinen, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Suomessa todetaan yli 27 000 syöpää vuodessa ja siihen kuolee yli 10 000 ihmistä. Syövät ovat yleistyneet väestössä ja yleistyvät jatkossakin, koska ikääntyneiden määrä lisääntyy. Syövän riskitekijöitä ovat ikä, periytyvyys, ympäristötekijät sekä elintavat. Elintavoista tupak-ointi, epäterveellinen ravitsemus, alkoholin liikakäyttö, liian vähäinen liikunta, ylipaino sekä liian runsas altistuminen auringonvalolle ovat tärkeimpiä riskitekijöitä. Terveyden edi-stämistä voidaan pitää yksilön pros...

  13. Project Turnover Deliverables for the SY Farm Enraf Annulus Leak Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document identifies the deliverables that ensure the end user of the SY Farm Enraf Annulus Leak Detectors (ALD) has all the documentation and training required for operating and maintaining the new system. All deliverable items checked on the Acceptance For Beneficial Use (ABU) form have been completed and are available to the end user. This document was written as required by HNF-IP-0842, Volume IV section 3.12 Acceptance of Structures, Systems, and Components for Beneficial Use. This document applies to the deliverable documentation required to operate and maintain the SY Farm Enraf ALD System. Appendix A provides a copy of the ABU form as listed in the appendix of TWR-4092, Engineering Task Plan for the New SY Farm Annulus Leak Detectors. This document attests that all required deliverable items checked on the ABU have been completed and are available to the end user

  14. CompTIA Security+ Review Guide Exam SY0-301

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, James M

    2011-01-01

    Reinforce your preparation for CompTIA's new Security+ exam with this focused review tool Before you take CompTIA's new Security+ exam SY0-301, reinforce your learning with a thorough review and lots of practice. The new edition of this concise guide helps you do just that. It covers all six domains of exam SY0-301, all exam objectives, and includes a helpful "Exam Essentials" section after each domain to help you zero in on what you need to know for the exam. A companion CD offers additional study tools, including two complete practice exams, over a hundred electronic flashcards, and more.Rev

  15. Criticality safety analysis of Hanford Waste Tank 241-101-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.T.; Sapir, J.L.; Krohn, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in Tank 241-101-SY at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, a criticality safety analysis was made using the Sn transport code ONEDANT. The tank contains approximately one million gallons of waste and an estimated 910 G of plutonium. the criticality analysis considers reconfiguration and underestimation of plutonium content. The results indicate that Tank SY-101 does not present a criticality hazard. These methods are also used in criticality analyses of other Hanford tanks

  16. 241-SY-101 multi-functional instrument tree acceptance for beneficial use (ABU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhart, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document formally demonstrates that the ABU process for the 241-SY-101 risers 17B and 17C Multi-functional Instrument Trees (MIT's) has been properly completed in accordance with the approved ABU checklists. For each item required on the ABU Checklist, a bibliography of the documentation prepared and released to satisfy the requirements is provided. Release of this documentation signifies that the tank farm Operations, Engineering, and Maintenance organizations have accepted responsibility for the MIT'S in 241-SY-101 Risers 17B and 17C

  17. Operational experience in mitigating flammable gas releases from Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentsch, J.W.; Babad, H.; Kirch, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    Flammable gases consisting of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and methane are periodically released from Hanford Site waste tank 241-SY-101 at concentrations above the flammable limit. A large mixer pump installed in the tank in 1993 has effectively mitigated this problem by continuously releasing small amounts of the flammable gases at the rate they are generated. Tank 241-SY-101 is also equipped with multiple high-sensitivity gas monitoring systems and level detection systems to measure the quantity of gas that is retained in and released from the waste

  18. House Fly (Musca domestica L. (Diptera Muscidae Development in Different Types of Manure Desarrollo de la Mosca Doméstica (Musca domestica L. (Díptera Muscidae en Distintos Tipos de Estiércol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal production units with different management systems can be found along the Huasco Valley, Region of Atacama, Chile. These constitute sources of house flies (Musca domestica L. and other vector fly species that cause damage to animals and nuisance problems in urban areas. In order to asses the importance of fly breeding sources, an experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions to evaluate different types of animal manure and composted swine manure. Time of larval development, larva mortality, pupa size, and weight and time of development to the adult stage were assessed. Results show that swine, poultry and calf manure produced a significantly higher number of adult flies, shorter life cycles and larger and heavier pupae. Cow, dog, goat and horse manure follow in effectiviveness for fly production. Composted swine manure was totally ineffective for domestic fly development.En algunas comunas del Valle del Huasco, Región de Atacama, Chile, se encuentran diversas explotaciones pecuarias con diferentes sistemas de manejo, las cuales constituyen focos generadores de mosca doméstica, Musca domestica L., y otras especies de moscas con importancia sanitaria y médica. Estos insectos provocan pérdidas económicas en dichos planteles afectando además el bienestar de poblaciones urbanas cercanas. Con el objetivo de cuantificar la importancia de dichos focos en la generación de mosca doméstica, se realizó un ensayo de laboratorio donde se evaluó como sustrato de desarrollo del insecto estiércol de diferentes especies animales y estiércol de cerdo compostado. La calidad de estos sustratos en la producción del insecto se evaluó a través de los siguientes parámetros biológicos: tiempo de desarrollo de larvas, mortalidad de larvas, tamaño y peso de pupas, y tiempo hasta la emergencia de moscas adultas. Los resultados indicaron que el estiércol de cerdo, gallina y ternero produce significativamente más moscas adultas, con un

  19. 101-SY Dome pressure issues surrounding mitigation pump decontamination during removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document addresses issues related to use of the spraywands and ring used to decontaminate the mitigation pump installed in 101-SY. It has been determined that use of the wands will influence tank dome pressures as a function of ventilation system configuration, spray drop size, rinse water temperature, and rate at which spraywand flows are established

  20. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-SY-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-SY-103. This report supports the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09

  1. Microstructure and phase transformations in laser clad CrxSy/Ni coating on H13 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yiwen; Sun, Ronglu; Tang, Ying; Niu, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Laser cladding was carried out onto H13 steel with preplaced NiCrBSi+Ni/MoS2 powders using CO2 laser under the optimized experimental parameters of laser power 2 kW, scanning velocity 6 mm/s and laser beam diameter 3 mm. An X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy were applied to analyze the microstructure and phase compositions of the coating. Thermodynamic calculation was performed with Thermo-Calc software on the basis of a commercially available Ni-based Alloys' database. The experimental results show that MoS2 decomposed and S reacted with Cr to form nonstoichiometric CrxSy during the laser cladding process. The coating consists of spherical CrxSy particles, primary γ-Ni dendrite, interdendritic eutectic (γ-Ni+NiMo) and precipitated NiMo. The precipitated NiMo was fine and uniformly distributed in primary γ-Ni dendrite. The calculated results and experimental data indicate that the solidification process in the coating during laser cladding process was liquid→liquid+CrxSy→ liquid+CrxSy+γ-Ni→liquid+CrxSy+γ-Ni+ eutectic (γ-Ni+NiMo). A solid state phase transformation (fine and uniformly distributed NiMo precipitated from γ-Ni) occurred after the solidification process. The calculations agree well with the experimental data and it is helpful to understand the phase transformation and microstructure evolution in the coating.

  2. In Shop Acceptance Test Report for the SY Farm Annulus Leak Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following test report was written for the SY tank farm annulus leak detectors. The test plan used was HNF-4546, Revision 1. The purpose of the test plan was to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation. The test plan set various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality

  3. The SH-SY5Y cell line in Parkinson's disease research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xicoy, Helena; Wieringa, Bé; Martens, Gerard J M

    2017-01-24

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a devastating and highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease for which only symptomatic treatment is available. In order to develop a truly effective disease-modifying therapy, improvement of our current understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying PD pathogenesis and progression is crucial. For this purpose, standardization of research protocols and disease models is necessary. As human dopaminergic neurons, the cells mainly affected in PD, are difficult to obtain and maintain as primary cells, current PD research is mostly performed with permanently established neuronal cell models, in particular the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y lineage. This cell line is frequently chosen because of its human origin, catecholaminergic (though not strictly dopaminergic) neuronal properties, and ease of maintenance. However, there is no consensus on many fundamental aspects that are associated with its use, such as the effects of culture media composition and of variations in differentiation protocols. Here we present the outcome of a systematic review of scientific articles that have used SH-SY5Y cells to explore PD. We describe the cell source, culture conditions, differentiation protocols, methods/approaches used to mimic PD and the preclinical validation of the SH-SY5Y findings by employing alternative cellular and animal models. Thus, this overview may help to standardize the use of the SH-SY5Y cell line in PD research and serve as a future user's guide.

  4. PROF. ULRICH GERHARD LAUTS (1787— 1865). In sy studie „De ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    In sy studie „De beteekenis van 1813 voor Nederlands geestelijke beschaving"') het die .... af te lê. Daarna het hulle hul eed nog weer bevestig om trou te bly aan ..... L. 'n ver dedigende skrywe aan die Minister gestuur na aanleiding van 'n twis met die militêre geneesheer („Rijksarchief," Dept. van Marine. Prof. U. G..

  5. Tank 241-SY-101 surface level rise remediation test and evaluation plan for transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAUER, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this testing and evaluation plan (TEP) is to provide the high level guidance on testing requirements for ensuring that the equipment and systems to be implemented for remediation of the SY-101 waste level rise USQ are effective

  6. sY116, a human Y-linked polymorphic STS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    linked STS, showed different electrophoretic mobilities in three males, two infertile and one fertile. A study of this STS among 35 other normal males showed that this locus is polymorphic. sY116 has a poly A-rich stretch whose instability ...

  7. 101-SY waste sample speed of sound/rheology testing for sonic probe program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    One problem faced in the clean-up operation at Hanford is that a number of radioactive waste storage tanks are experiencing a periodic buildup and release of potentially explosive gases. The best known example is Tank 241-SY-101 (commonly referred to as 101-SY) in which hydrogen gas periodically built up within the waste to the point that increased buoyancy caused a roll-over event, in which the gas was suddenly released in potentially explosive concentrations (if an ignition source were present). The sonic probe concept is to generate acoustic vibrations in the 101-SY tank waste at nominally 100 Hz, with sufficient amplitude to cause the controlled release of hydrogen bubbles trapped in the waste. The sonic probe may provide a potentially cost-effective alternative to large mixer pumps now used for hydrogen mitigation purposes. Two important parameters needed to determine sonic probe effectiveness and design are the speed of sound and yield stress of the tank waste. Tests to determine these parameters in a 240 ml sample of 101-SY waste (obtained near the tank bottom) were performed, and the results are reported

  8. Paracrine Maturation and Migration of SH-SY5Y Cells by Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervois, P; Wolfs, E; Dillen, Y; Hilkens, P; Ratajczak, J; Driesen, R B; Vangansewinkel, T; Bronckaers, A; Brône, B; Struys, T; Lambrichts, I

    2017-06-01

    Neurological disorders are characterized by neurodegeneration and/or loss of neuronal function, which cannot be adequately repaired by the host. Therefore, there is need for novel treatment options such as cell-based therapies that aim to salvage or reconstitute the lost tissue or that stimulate host repair. The present study aimed to evaluate the paracrine effects of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) on the migration and neural maturation of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The hDPSC secretome had a significant chemoattractive effect on SH-SY5Y cells as shown by a transwell assay. To evaluate neural maturation, SH-SY5Y cells were first induced toward neuronal cells, after which they were exposed to the hDPSC secretome. In addition, SH-SY5Y cells subjected to the hDPSC secretome showed increased neuritogenesis compared with nonexposed cells. Maturated cells were shown to increase immune reactivity for neuronal markers compared with controls. Ultrastructurally, retinoic acid (RA) signaling and subsequent exposure to the hDPSC secretome induced a gradual rise in metabolic activity and neuronal features such as multivesicular bodies and cytoskeletal elements associated with cellular communication. In addition, electrophysiological recordings of differentiating cells demonstrated a transition toward a neuronal electrophysiological profile based on the maximum tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive, Na + current. Moreover, conditioned medium (CM)-hDPSC-maturated SH-SY5Y cells developed distinct features including, Cd 2+ -sensitive currents, which suggests that CM-hDPSC-maturated SH-SY5Y acquired voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. The results reported in this study demonstrate the potential of hDPSCs to support differentiation and recruitment of cells with neuronal precursor characteristics in a paracrine manner. Moreover, this in vitro experimental design showed that the widely used SH-SY5Y cell line can improve and simplify the preclinical in vitro research on the molecular

  9. The Influence of Independent and Intervening Variables on Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that each investigated intervening variable has influence on adoption of ... testing of the model in different social cultural settings and crops to see its ...... Mexico. Crook, T. R., Tood, S.Y., Combs, J. G., Woehr,. D. J. and Ketchen, D. J. (2011).

  10. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in a resistant dairy population of Musca domestica L [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

    Full Text Available House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-"A" and LC50: LC50-"B" significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies.

  11. The Effects of Sex-Ratio and Density on Locomotor Activity in the House Fly, Musca domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjærsgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker; Schou, Toke M.; Skovgård, Henrik; Hald, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex—ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra—red light system. Sex—ratio significantly affected locomotor activity, increasing with the percentage of males in the vials. In accordance with other studies, males were more active than females, but the circadian rhythm of the two sexes was not constant over time and changed during the light period. There was also an effect of density on locomotor activity, where males at intermediate densities showed higher activity. Further, the predictability of the locomotor activity, estimated as the degree of autocorrelation of the activity data, increased with the number of males present in the vials both with and without the presence of females. Overall, this study demonstrates that locomotor activity in M. domestica is affected by sex—ratio and density. Furthermore, the predictability of locomotor activity is affected by both sex—ratio, density, and circadian rhythm. These results add to our understanding of the behavioral interactions between houseflies and highlight the importance of these factors when designing behavioral experiments using M. domestica.

  12. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana infection in the hemolymph serum proteins of the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2017-11-01

    Beauveria bassiana plays a prominent role in biocontrol of houseflies, Musca domestica (L.). Thus, a deeper insight into immune response of M. domestica during B. bassiana infection was warranted to assist the production of more efficient mycoinsecticides. The present study investigates changes in protein profile of M. domestica hemolymph serum post B. bassiana infection using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) followed by identification of selected proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The non-infected or control group of flies showed an expression of 54 proteins, while M. domestica infected with B. bassiana expressed a total of 68 hemolymph serum proteins. Thirty three proteins were expressed in both groups of houseflies, whereas 35 proteins were exclusively expressed in infected flies and 21 proteins were exclusively expressed in control flies. Among the 33 proteins which were expressed in both groups of houseflies, 17 proteins showed downregulation, while16 proteins were upregulated in the infected flies compared to the non-infected ones. The results from this study are expected to facilitate better understanding of insect's immune response mechanism.

  13. Insecticide Mixtures Could Enhance the Toxicity of Insecticides in a Resistant Dairy Population of Musca domestica L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Lee, Jong-Jin

    2013-01-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-“A” and LC50: LC50-“B”) significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies. PMID:23613758

  14. Sustainable production of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae as a protein-rich feed ingredient by utilizing cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mahmoud; Pillai, Viju V.; Goddard, Joshua M.; Park, Hui G.; Kothapalli, Kumar S.; Ross, Deborah A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Milstein, Mark B.; Marquis, Helene; Johnson, Patricia A.; Nyrop, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    The common housefly, Musca domestica, is a considerable component of nutrient recycling in the environment. Use of housefly larvae to biodegrade manure presents an opportunity to reduce waste disposal while the rapidly assimilated insect biomass can also be used as a protein rich animal feed. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of dairy cattle manure using housefly larvae, and the nutritional value of the resulting larva meal as a feed ingredient. Our results demonstrated that dairy cattle manure presents a balanced substrate for larval growth, and the spent manure showed reductions in concentration of total nitrogen (24.9%) and phosphorus (6.2%) with an overall reduction in mass. Larva yield at an optimum density was approximately 2% of manure weight. Nutritional analysis of M. domestica larva meal showed values comparable to most high protein feed ingredients. Larva meal was 60% protein with a well-balanced amino acid profile, and 20% fat with 57% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 39% saturated fatty acids. Larva meal lacked any significant amount of omega-3 fatty acids. Evaluation of micronutrients in larva meal suggested that it is a good source of calcium and phosphorus (0.5% and 1.1% respectively). The nutritional value of larva meal closely matches that of fishmeal, making it a potentially attractive alternative for use as a protein-rich feed ingredient for livestock and aquaculture operations. PMID:28170420

  15. The effect of Beauveria bassiana infection on cell mediated and humoral immune response in house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-10-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi that manifest infections by overcoming insect's immune response could be a successful control agent for the house fly, Musca domestica L. which is a major domestic, medical, and veterinary pest. In this study, the immune response of house fly to Beauveria bassiana infection was investigated to reveal fundamental aspects of house fly hemocyte biology, such as hemocyte numbers and size, which is poorly understood. The total hemocyte counts (THCs) in B. bassiana-infected house fly showed an initial increase (from 6 to 9 h), followed by subsequent decrease (9 to 12 h) with increase in time of infection. The THCs was slightly greater in infected flies than the non-infected ones. Insight into relative hemocyte counts depicted a significant increase in prohemocyte (PR) and decrease in granulocyte (GR) in infected house flies compared to non-infected ones. The relative cell area of hemocyte cells showed a noticeable increase in PR and intermediate cells (ICs), while a considerable reduction was observed for plasmatocyte (PL) and GR. The considerable variation in relative cell number and cell area in the B. bassiana-infected house flies indicated stress development during infection. The present study highlights changes occurring during B. bassiana invasion to house fly leading to establishment of infection along with facilitation in understanding of basic hemocyte biology. The results of the study is expected to help in better understanding of house fly immune response during fungal infection, so as to assist production of more efficient mycoinsecticides for house fly control using B. bassiana.

  16. Biological trait analysis and stability of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Iqbal, Naeem; Razaq, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae), are pests of poultry and have the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. To design a strategy for resistance management, life history traits based on laboratory observations were established for lambda-cyhalothrin-resistant, susceptible and reciprocal crosses of M. domestica strains. Bioassay results showed that the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain developed a resistance ratio of 98.34 compared to its susceptible strain. The lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain had a relative fitness of 0.26 and lower fecundity, hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, and net reproductive rate compared with its susceptible strain. Mean population growth rates, such as intrinsic rate of population increase, and biotic potential were lower for the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain compared to its susceptible strain. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, indoxacarb, and abamectin was unstable while resistance to bifenthrin and methomyl was stable in the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain of M. domestica. Development of resistance can cost considerable fitness for the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain. The present study provided useful information for making potential management strategies to delay resistance development in M. domestica.

  17. Morphological Differentiation Towards Neuronal Phenotype of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by Estradiol, Retinoic Acid and Cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Teppola, Heidi; Sarkanen, Jertta-Riina; Jalonen, Tuula O.; Linne, Marja-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells maintain their potential for differentiation and regression in culture conditions. The induction of differentiation could serve as a strategy to inhibit cell proliferation and tumor growth. Previous studies have shown that differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells can be induced by all-trans-retinoic-acid (RA) and cholesterol (CHOL). However, signaling pathways that lead to terminal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells are still largely unknown. The goal of this study was...

  18. Morphological Differentiation Towards Neuronal Phenotype of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by Estradiol, Retinoic Acid and Cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Teppola, Heidi; Sarkanen, Jertta-Riina; Jalonen, Tuula; Linne, Marja-Leena

    2016-01-01

    Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells maintain their potential for differentiation and regression in culture conditions. The induction of differentiation could serve as a strategy to inhibit cell proliferation and tumor growth. Previous studies have shown that differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells can be induced by all-trans-retinoic-acid (RA) and cholesterol (CHOL). However, signaling pathways that lead to terminal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells are still largely unknown. The goal of this study was...

  19. Process Control Plan for Tank 241-SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    The tank 241-SY-101 transfer system was conceived and designed to address the immediate needs presented by rapidly changing waste conditions in tank 241-SY-101. Within the last year or so, the waste in this tank has exhibited unexpected behavior (Rassat et al. 1999) in the form of rapidly increasing crust growth. This growth has been brought about by a rapidly increasing rate of gas entrapment within the crust. It has been conceived that the lack of crust agitation beginning upon the advent of mixer pump operations may have set-up a more consolidated, gas impermeable barrier when compared to a crust regularly broken up by the prior buoyant displacement events within the tank. As a result, a series of level-growth remediation activities have been developed for tank 241-SY-101. The initial activities are also known as near-term crust mitigation. The first activity of near-term mitigation is to perform the small transfer of convective waste from tank 241-SY-101 into tank 241-SY-102. A 100 kgal transfer represents about a 10% volume reduction allowing a 10% water in-tank dilution. Current thinking holds that this should be enough to dissolve nitrite solids in the crust and perhaps largely eliminate gas retention problem in the crust (Raymond 1999). Additional mitigation activities are also planned on less constrained schedules. The net affect of the small transfer and follow-on mitigation activities for tank 241-SY-101 is strongly believed to be the remediation of tank 241-SY-101 as a flammable gas safety concern. The process for remediating the tank will require two or more transfer/dilution cycles. In-tank dilution will begin shortly after the initial transfer and the total dilution required to reach the final state is estimated to be between 250 to 400K gallons. The final state of the waste will not require any active measures to safely store the waste and operation of the mixer pump will no longer be necessary. The remediation activities are centered on a purpose

  20. Hanford's Battle with Nuclear Waste Tank SY-101: Bubbles, Toils, and Troubles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive waste tank SY-101 is one of 177 big underground tanks that store waste from decades of plutonium production at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in central Washington State. The chemical reactions and radioactivity in all the tanks make bubbles of flammable gas, mainly hydrogen along with a little methane and ammonia. But SY-101 was the most potent gas producer of all. Every few months the gas built up in the million gallons of extra-thick slurry until it suddenly came up in great rushing ''burps''. A few of the tank's larger burps let off enough gas to make the air space at the top of the tank flammable for a few hours. This flammable gas hazard became a dominating force in DOE nuclear waste management politics in the last two decades of the 20th century. It demanded the toil of scientists, managers, and officials from the time it was filled in 1980, until it was finally declared safe in January 2001. The tank seemed almost a personality--acting with violence and apparent malice, hiding information about itself, deceiving us with false indications, and sometimes lulling us into complacency only to attack in a new way. From 1990 through 1993, SY-101's flammable gas troubles were acknowledged as the highest priority safety issue in the entire DOE complex. Uncontrolled crust growth demanded another high-priority remedial effort from 1998 through April 2000. The direct cost of the bubbles, toils, and troubles was high. Overall, the price of dealing with the real and imagined hazards in SY-101 may have reached $250 million. The indirect cost was also high. Spending all this money fighting SY-101?s safety issues only stirred radioactive waste up and moved it around, but accomplished no cleanup whatever. Worse yet, the flammable gas problem spawned suspicions of a much wider danger that impeded and complicated cleanup in other 176 waste tanks for a decade. The real cleanup job has yet to be done. The SY-101 story is really about the collective experience of

  1. Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Het.: Pentatomidae) fed with larvae of Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Col.: Tenebrionidae) or Musca domestica (Dip.: Muscidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zanuncio,José Cola; Beserra,Eduardo Barbosa; Molina-Rugama,Adrián José; Zanuncio,Teresinha Vinha; Pinon,Tobias Baruc Moreira; Maffia,Vanessa Pataro

    2005-01-01

    Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) or Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae were studied during two generations at 24.7 ± 1.1ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12 h of photophase. Body weight of newly-emerged adults, oviposition period, number of egg masses, total number of eggs and longevity of S. cincticeps were higher when fed on Z. confusa or T. mol...

  2. Isolation of fungi in Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae captured at two natural breeding grounds in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales Márcia de Senna Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and identify fungal species found in natural association with adults of Musca domestica. The adult insects were collected from two natural breeding grounds: hog pens and an urban sanitary landfill. The isolated fungi were identified as: Aspergillus flavus (23.8%, A. niger var. niger (14.4%, Penicillium corylophilum (21.4%, P. fellutanum (11.9%, Cladosporium cladosporoides (4.7%, Fusarium sp. (4.7%, Alternaria alternata (11.9%, Curvularia brachyspora (2.4%, Mycelia sterilia (2.4% and the Mucorales order (2.4%.

  3. Isolation and sequence of cDNA encoding a cytochrome P-450 from an insecticide-resistant strain of the house fly, Musca domestica.

    OpenAIRE

    Feyereisen, R; Koener, J F; Farnsworth, D E; Nebert, D W

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA expression library from phenobarbital-treated house fly (Musca domestica) was screened with rabbit antisera directed against partially purified house fly cytochrome P-450. Two overlapping clones with insert lengths of 1.3 and 1.5 kilobases were isolated. The sequence of a 1629-base-pair (bp) cDNA was obtained, with an open reading frame (nucleotides 81-1610) encoding a P-450 protein of 509 residues (Mr = 58,738). The insect P-450 protein contains a hydrophobic NH2 terminus and a 22-res...

  4. A Discussion of SY-101 Crust Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, D.P.; Mahoney, L.A.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Rassat, S.D.; Caley, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The flammable gas hazard in Hanford waste tanks was made an issue by the behavior of double-shell Tank (DST) 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Shortly after SY-101 was filled in 1980, the waste level began rising periodically, due to the generation and retention of gases within the slurry, and then suddenly dropping as the gases were released. An intensive study of the tank's behavior revealed that these episodic releases posed a safety hazard because the released gas was flammable, and, in some cases, the volume of gas released was sufficient to exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL) in the tank headspace (Alleinann et al. 1993). A mixer pump was installed in SY-101 in late 1993 to prevent gases from building up in the settled solids layer, and the large episodic gas releases have since ceased (Allemann et al. 1994; Stewart et al. 1994; Brewster et al. 1995). However, the surface level of SY-101 has been increasing since at least 1995, and in recent months the level growth has shown significant and unexpected acceleration. Based on a number of observations and measurements, including data from the void fraction instrument (VFI), we have concluded that the level growth is caused largely by increased gas retention in the floating crust. In September 1998, the crust contained between about 21 and 43% void based on VFI measurements (Stewart et al. 1998). Accordingly, it is important to understand the dominant mechanisms of gas retention, why the gas retention is increasing, and whether the accelerating level increase will continue, diminish or even reverse. It is expected that the retained gas in the crust is flammable, with hydrogen as a major constituent. This gas inventory would pose a flammable gas hazard if it were to release suddenly. In May 1997, the mechanisms of bubble retention and release from crust material were the subject of a workshop. The evaluation of the crust and potential hazards assumed a more typical void of roughly 15% gas. It could be similar to

  5. An assessment of the dilution required to mitigate Hanford tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Felmy, A.R.; Stewart, C.W.; Tingey, J.M.; Trent, D.S.; Barney, G.S.; Herting, D.L.; Larrick, A.P.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    A group of experts from PNL and WHC convened November 2 and 3, 1994, to screen the current state of knowledge about dilution and reach a consensus on the minimum dilution ratio that will achieve passive mitigation of Tank 241-SY-101 wastes and the dilution ratio that would satisfy the given cross-site transfer criteria with reasonable assurance. The panel evaluated the effects of dilution on the parameters important in gas generation, retention, and release and reached the following conclusions, which are deduced from the existing body of data, experience, and analyses: (1) Dissolution of solids is the single most important aspect of mitigation by dilution. We are confident that diluting until nitrates, nitrites, and aluminum salts are dissolved will mitigate Hanford flammable gas tanks; (2) Sufficient solids dissolution can be achieved in Tank 241-SY-101 at a dilution ratio of 1:1, which will result in a average specific gravity of approximately 1.35. It is likely that a 0.5:1 dilution will also mitigate 241-SY-101, but the current uncertainty is too high to recommend this dilution ratio; (3) The recommended dilution requires a diluent with at least 2 molar free hydroxide, because aluminum probably precipitates at lower hydroxide concentrations. The transfer criteria for Tank 241-SY-101 waste were also evaluated. These criteria have been specified as solids content ≤30% (volume), viscosity ≤30% cP and density <1.5 g/mL. (1) Solids content is the limiting criterion if it is defined as volume fraction of settled solids. A 1:1 dilution will satisfy this criterion at nominal premixing conditions in Tank 241-SY-101; however, analysis of Window E core samples suggests that up to 1.5:1 might be required. If the solids content is interpreted simply as solids volume fraction no further dilution is necessary, because Tank 241-SY-101 waste (excluding the crust) is already below 30%; (2) Bulk density is the next limiting criterion and is met at 0.4:1 dilution

  6. A Discussion of SY-101 Crust Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SD Rassat; PA Gauglitz; SM Caley; LA Mahoney; DP Mendoza

    1999-02-23

    The flammable gas hazard in Hanford waste tanks was made an issue by the behavior of double-shell Tank (DST) 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Shortly after SY-101 was filled in 1980, the waste level began rising periodically, due to the generation and retention of gases within the slurry, and then suddenly dropping as the gases were released. An intensive study of the tank's behavior revealed that these episodic releases posed a safety hazard because the released gas was flammable, and, in some cases, the volume of gas released was sufficient to exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL) in the tank headspace (Allemann et al. 1993). A mixer pump was installed in SY-101 in late 1993 to prevent gases from building up in the settled solids layer, and the large episodic gas releases have since ceased (Allemann et al. 1994; Stewart et al. 1994; Brewster et al. 1995). However, the surface level of SY-101 has been increasing since at least 1995, and in recent months the level growth has shown significant and unexpected acceleration. Based on a number of observations and measurements, including data from the void fraction instrument (VFI), we have concluded that the level growth is caused largely by increased gas retention in the floating crust. In September 1998, the crust contained between about 21 and 43% void based on VFI measurements (Stewart et al. 1998). Accordingly, it is important to understand the dominant mechanisms of gas retention, why the gas retention is increasing, and whether the accelerating level increase will continue, diminish or even reverse. It is expected that the retained gas in the crust is flammable, with hydrogen as a major constituent. This gas inventory would pose a flammable gas hazard if it were to release suddenly. In May 1997, the mechanisms of bubble retention and release from crust material were the subject of a workshop. The evaluation of the crust and potential hazards assumed a more typical void of roughly 15% gas. It could be similar to

  7. A survey of available information on gas generation in tank 241-SY-101: Hanford Tank Safety Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Reynolds, D.A.; Siemer, D.D.; Wallace, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    As a result of a concerted effort to determine the chemical and physical mechanisms underlying the generation and episodic release of gases from tank 241-SY-101, more commonly known as tank 101-SY, the Tank Waste Science Panel has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Four of the members of this panel met to screen the available information on tank 101-SY and provide to the remaining members a shortened list of references that could be used to assess the mechanisms underlying the generation and episodic release of gases from tank 101-SY. This document is the result of this preliminary screening of information for the Tank Waste Science Panel and was provided to the Panel members at their first meeting. 14 refs., 3 tabs

  8. System Design Description for the SY-101 Hydrogen Mitigation Test Project Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERMI, A.M.

    2000-01-24

    This document describes the hardware and software of the computer subsystems for the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

  9. Sharing data between mobile devices, connected vehicles, and infrastructure task 3: system requirements specifications (SyRS) final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    This report describes the system requirements specifications (SyRS) for the use of mobile devices in a connected vehicle environment. Specifically, it defines the different types of requirements (functional, interface, performance, security, data, an...

  10. Pregnancy outcome after hystero-salpingo-contrast-sonography (HyCoSy versus hysterosalpingography (HSG using different contrast media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Siam

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: The pregnancy rates after performing HyCoSy using the proposed homogenously mixed saline and water are nearly the same as those following HSG using different contrast media with inherent advantage of avoiding exposure to radiation.

  11. Engineer/constructor description of work for Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system, project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This document provides a description of work for the design and construction of a waste retrieval system for Tank 241-SY-102. The description of work includes a working estimate and schedule, as well as a narrative description and sketches of the waste retrieval system. The working estimate and schedule are within the established baselines for the Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system. The technical baseline is provided in Functional Design Criteria, WHC-SD-W211-FDC-001, Revision 2

  12. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line: in vitro cell model of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong-rong; Hu, Lin-sen; Li, Guo-yi

    2010-04-20

    To evaluate the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line as an in vitro model of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons for Parkinson's disease (PD) research and to determine the effect of differentiation on this cell model. The data of this review were selected from the original reports and reviews related to SH-SY5Y cells published in Chinese and foreign journals (Pubmed 1973 to 2009). After searching the literature, 60 articles were selected to address this review. The SH-SY5Y cell line has become a popular cell model for PD research because this cell line posses many characteristics of DAergic neurons. For example, these cells express tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, as well as the dopamine transporter. Moreover, this cell line can be differentiated into a functionally mature neuronal phenotype in the presence of various agents. Upon differentiation, SH-SY5Y cells stop proliferating and a constant cell number is subsequently maintained. However, different differentiating agents induce different neuronal phenotypes and biochemical changes. For example, retinoic acid induces differentiation toward a cholinergic neuronal phenotype and increases the susceptibility of SH-SY5Y cells to neurotoxins and neuroprotective agents, whereas treatment with retinoic acid followed by phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate results in a DAergic neuronal phenotype and decreases the susceptibility of cells to neurotoxins and neuroprotective agents. Some differentiating agents also alter kinetics of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP(+)) uptake, making SH-SY5Y cells more similar to primary mesencephalic neurons. Differentiated and undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells have been widely used as a cell model of DAergic neurons for PD research. Some differentiating agents afford SH-SY5Y cells with more potential for studying neurotoxicity and neuroprotection and are thus more relevant to experimental PD research.

  13. Project of the Year Submittal SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAUER, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group is pleased to nominate the SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation Project (SLRRP) for the Project Management Institute's consideration as International Project of the Year for 2001. We selected this project as being our best recent example of effective project management, having achieved and exceeded our client's expectations in resolving urgent safety issues related to the storage of high level nuclear waste. In reflection, we consider the SY-101 SLRRP to be a prime example of safe and effective project delivery. The pages that follow present the tools and techniques employed to manage this complex and technically challenging project. Our objective in submitting this nomination is twofold--to share the lessons we have learned with other organizations, and to honor the men and women who contributed to this endeavor. It was by their diligent effort that the successes we relate here were accomplished 10 months ahead of schedule and one million dollars below the authorized budget

  14. Historical trends in tank 241-SY-101 waste temperatures and levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1993-09-01

    The gas release and fluctuating level of the waste in tank 241-SY-101 have prompted more detailed interest in its historical behavior, in hopes of achieving a better understanding of its current status. To examine the historical behavior, essentially all of the tank waste temperature and level data record has been retrieved, examined, and plotted in various ways. To aid in interpreting the data, the depth of the non-convective waste layer was estimated by using a least-squares Chebyshev approximation to the temperatures. This report documents the retrieval critical examination, and graphic presentation of 241-SY-101 temperature and waste level histories. The graphic presentations clearly indicate a tank cooling trend that has become precipitous since late 1991. The plots also clearly show the decreasing frequency of waste gas release events, increasing height of the non-convective layer, and larger level drops per event

  15. The Syed temporary interstitial iridium gynaecological implant: an inverse planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Albert Y.C.

    2002-01-01

    Patients with advanced gynaecological cancer are often treated with a temporary interstitial implant using the Syed template and Ir-192 ribbons at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Urgency in planning is great. We created a computerized inverse planning system for the Syed temporary gynaecological implant, which optimized the ribbon strengths a few seconds after catheter digitization. Inverse planning was achieved with simulated annealing. We discovered that hand-drawn target volumes had drawbacks; hence instead of producing a grid of points based on target volume, the optimization points were generated directly from the catheter positions without requiring an explicit target volume. Since all seeds in the same ribbon had the same strength, the minimum doses were located at both ends of the implant. Optimization points generated at both ends ensured coverage of the whole implant. Inverse planning took only a few seconds, and generated plans that provide a good starting point for manual improvement. (author)

  16. The effect of dilution on the gas-retention behavior of Tank 241-SY-101 waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, P.R.; Tingey, S.M.; Shade, E.H.

    1995-09-01

    The effect of dilution on gas retention in waste from Tank 241-SY-101 was investigated. A composite sample was prepared from material collected during the Window ''C'' and Window ''E'' sampling events. The composite contained material from both the convective and nonconvective layer in the proportions existing in the tank. Operation of the mixer pump in Tank 241-SY-101 has homogenized the tank material, and dilution of the current waste would require additional mixing; therefore, no attempt was made to use unhomogenized tank waste to prepare the composite. The composite was diluted with 2 M NaOH at ratios of 0.5:1, 0.75: 1, 1:1, and 3:1 per volume (2 M NaOH:tank waste)

  17. Acceptance test procedure, 241-SY-101/241-C-106 shot loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrom, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure is for the 241-SY-101/241-C-106 Shot Loading System. The procedure will test the components of the Shot Loading System and its capability of adequately loading shot into the annular space of the Container. The loaded shot will provide shielding as required for transporting and storage of a contaminated pump after removal from the tank. This test serves as verification that the SLS is acceptable for use in the pump removal operations for Tanks 241-SY-101, 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The pump removal operation for these three tanks will be performed by two different organizations with different equipment, but the Shot Loading System will be compatible between the two operations

  18. Acquisition and reduction of data obtained from Tank 101-SY in-situ ball rheometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, C.L.; Chieda, M.A.; Kirihara, L.J.

    1994-12-01

    Development of the ball rheometer to measure rheological properties and density of the waste in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 will be completed around September 1994. Since the ball rheometer project began, a mixer pump has been installed in this tank, and by all accounts this pump has been very successful at mitigating the flammable gas problem associated with Tank 101-SY. Present plans now call for the use of mixer pumps in several other tanks. The ball rheometer will serve as a diagnostic tool for judging the effectiveness of mixing in Tank 101-SY and others and will be one of few in-situ probes available for diagnostic measurements. The in-situ data collection strategy and the methods of data analysis and reduction are presented in this final report concerning this instrument. It is believed that a generalized Bingham fluid model (Herschel-Bulkley fluid model) may be useful for describing at least some of the waste contained in Tank 101-SY, and data obtained in the tank will initially be reduced using this fluid model. The single largest uncertainty in the determination of the drag force on the ball is the drag force which will be experienced by the cable attached to the ball. This drag can be a substantial fraction of the total drag when the ball is deep within the tank. Careful accounting of the cable drag will be important in the reduction of the data. The data collection strategy allows the determination of the waste fluid rheology both in the undisturbed state and after it has been disturbed by the ball. Fluid density will be measured at regular intervals

  19. Safety Evaluation for Packaging 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1994-10-05

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides analysis and considered necessary to approve a one-time transfer of the 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump (HMMP). This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the HMMP in a new shipping container will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting US Department of Transportation (DOT)/US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. This fulfills onsite, transportation requirements implemented by WHC-CM-2-14.

  20. Safety equipment list for the 241-SY-101 RAPID mitigation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the safety classification for the safety (safety class and safety RAPID Mitigation Project. This document is being issued as the project SEL until the supporting authorization basis documentation, this document will be superseded by the TWRS SEL (LMHC 1999), documentation istlralized. Upon implementation of the authorization basis significant) structures, systems, and components (SSCS) associated with the 241-SY-1O1 which will be updated to include the information contained herein

  1. Thermocouple module halt failure acceptance test procedure for Tank 241-SY-101 DACS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermi, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The readiness of the Tank 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1) to provide monitoring and alarms for a halt failure of any thermocouple module will be tested during the performance of this procedure. Updated DACS-1 ''1/0 MODULE HEALTH STATUS'', ''MININ1'', and ''MININ2'' screens, which now provide indication of thermocouple module failure, will also be tested as part of this procedure

  2. Safety equipment list for the 241-SY-101 RAPID mitigation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORRIS, K.L.

    1999-06-29

    This document provides the safety classification for the safety (safety class and safety RAPID Mitigation Project. This document is being issued as the project SEL until the supporting authorization basis documentation, this document will be superseded by the TWRS SEL (LMHC 1999), documentation istlralized. Upon implementation of the authorization basis significant) structures, systems, and components (SSCS) associated with the 241-SY-1O1 which will be updated to include the information contained herein.

  3. SNJ-1945, a calpain inhibitor, protects SH-SY5Y cells against MPP+ and rotenone

    OpenAIRE

    Knaryan, Varduhi H.; Samantaray, Supriti; Sookyoung, Park; Azuma, Mitsuyoshi; Inoue, Jun; Banik, Naren L.

    2013-01-01

    Complex pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves multiple CNS cell types. Degeneration in spinal cord neurons alongside brain has been shown to be involved in PD and evidenced in experimental parkinsonism. However, the mechanisms of these degenerative pathways are not well understood. In order to unravel these mechanisms SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were differentiated into dopaminergic and cholinergic phenotypes respectively and used as cell culture model following exposure to two...

  4. GLOBE and the Earth SySTEM Model in Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabot, M.; Moore, J.; Dorofy, P.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will share the growing body of work linking ArcMap and GLOBE and the Earth SySTEM approach in the development of preservice teachers. Our work is linking the power of ArcMap with the vast database of GLOBE in a unique way that links the power of geospatial technologies in shaping the planning for and delivery of science instruction in the P-5 classroom.

  5. Safety Evaluation for Packaging 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides analysis and considered necessary to approve a one-time transfer of the 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump (HMMP). This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the HMMP in a new shipping container will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting US Department of Transportation (DOT)/US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. This fulfills onsite, transportation requirements implemented by WHC-CM-2-14

  6. Tank SY-102 waste retrieval assessment: Rheological measurements and pump jet mixing simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1996-09-01

    Wastes stored in Hanford Tank 241-SY-102 are planned to be retrieved from that tank and transferred to 200 East Area through the new pipeline Replacement Cross Site Transfer System (RCSTS). Because the planned transfer of this waste will use the RCSTS, the slurry that results from the mobilization and retrieval operations must meet the applicable waste acceptance criteria for this system. This report describes results of the second phase (the detailed assessment) of the SY-102 waste retrieval study, which is a part of the efforts to establish a technical basis for mobilization of the slurry, waste retrieval, and slurry transport. Hanford Tank 241-SY-102 is located in the SY Tank Farm in the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. It was built in 1977 to serve as a feed tank for 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer, receiving supernatant liquid from S, SX, T, and U tank farms. Since 1981, the primary sources of waste have been from 200 West Area facilities, e.g., T-Plant decontamination operations, Plutonium Finishing Plant operations, and the 222-S Laboratory. It is the only active-service double-shell tank (DST) in the 200 West Area and is used as the staging tank for cross-site transfers to 200 East Area DSTs. The tank currently stores approximately 470 kL (125 kgal) of sludge wastes from a variety of sources including the Plutonium Finishing Plant, T-Plant, and the 222-S Laboratory. In addition to the sludge, approximately twice this amount (about 930 kL) of dilute, noncomplexed waste forms a supernatant liquid layer above the sludge

  7. Ras-MAPK signaling in differentiating SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Anna-Karin

    2000-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant childhood cancer, originating from sympathetic neuroblasts of the peripheral nervous system. Neuroblastoma is a heterogenous group of tumours, while some are highly malignant others can spontaneosly mature into a more benign form or regress. Less than half of the patients survive and this statistics has improved only modestly over the past 20 years. SH-SY5Y is a human neuroblastoma cell line established from a highly malignant tumour. The cells have retained a ca...

  8. Acquisition and reduction of data obtained from tank 101-SY in-situ ball rheometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, C.L.; Chieda, M.A.; Kirihara, L.J.; Phillips, J.R.; Shekarriz, A.; Terrones, G.; Abbott, J.; Unal, C.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Graham, A.

    1995-02-01

    Development of the ball rheometer to measure rheological properties and density of the waste in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 will be completed around September 1994. This instrument is expected to provide the first-of-its-kind in-situ measurements of the fluid properties of the waste contained within this tank. A mixer pump has been installed in this tank, and this pump has been very successful at mitigating the flammable gas problem associated with Tank 101-SY. The ball rheometer will serve as a diagnostic tool for judging the effectiveness of mixing in Tank 101-SY and others and will be one of few in-situ probes available for diagnostic measurements. Based on experiments performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratory, it is believed that a generalized Bingham fluid model (Herschel-Bulkley fluid model) may be useful for describing at least some of the waste contained in Tank 101-SY, and data obtained in the tank will initially be reduced using this fluid model. The single largest uncertainty in the determination of the drag force on the ball is the drag force which will be experienced by the cable attached to the ball. This drag can be a substantial fraction of the total drag when the ball is deep within the tank. It is expected that the fluid properties may be history dependent, thus rheological properties of the undisturbed fluid may be different from the same properties after the fluid has been disturbed by passage of the ball. The data collection strategy allows the determination of the waste fluid rheology both in the undisturbed state and after it has been disturbed by the ball. Unlike the rheological parameters, measurement of density requires no model for its interpretation; however, the effects of yield stress may need to be accounted for. This measurement can be made with fairly good accuracy and may provide the most useful data in determination of mixer pump effectiveness

  9. iSyTE 2.0: a database for expression-based gene discovery in the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakrana, Atul; Yang, Andrian; Anand, Deepti; Djordjevic, Djordje; Ramachandruni, Deepti; Singh, Abhyudai; Huang, Hongzhan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Although successful in identifying new cataract-linked genes, the previous version of the database iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) was based on expression information on just three mouse lens stages and was functionally limited to visualization by only UCSC-Genome Browser tracks. To increase its efficacy, here we provide an enhanced iSyTE version 2.0 (URL: http://research.bioinformatics.udel.edu/iSyTE) based on well-curated, comprehensive genome-level lens expression data as a one-stop portal for the effective visualization and analysis of candidate genes in lens development and disease. iSyTE 2.0 includes all publicly available lens Affymetrix and Illumina microarray datasets representing a broad range of embryonic and postnatal stages from wild-type and specific gene-perturbation mouse mutants with eye defects. Further, we developed a new user-friendly web interface for direct access and cogent visualization of the curated expression data, which supports convenient searches and a range of downstream analyses. The utility of these new iSyTE 2.0 features is illustrated through examples of established genes associated with lens development and pathobiology, which serve as tutorials for its application by the end-user. iSyTE 2.0 will facilitate the prioritization of eye development and disease-linked candidate genes in studies involving transcriptomics or next-generation sequencing data, linkage analysis and GWAS approaches. PMID:29036527

  10. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  11. Fungal dissemination by housefly (Musca domestica L.) and contamination of food commodities in rural areas of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoku, J Z; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N; Dutton, M F

    2016-01-18

    Several insects that act as vectors, including houseflies (Musca domestica L.), are often considered to be an important source of fungal contamination in human foods. Houseflies are also involved in the transmission of bacterial pathogens that may pose a serious hazard to human health. Thus, the rural population of South Africa, as typified by that in the Gauteng Province investigated in this study, is at high risk from fungal exposure disseminated by houseflies and it is therefore important to assess the role of flies in contaminating various food commodities. Eighty four samples of houseflies (captured from households and pit toilets) were studied for their potential to carry fungal spores into food commodities. The fungi occurring in samples of raw maize (15) and porridge (19) were also assessed. Fungal isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics by conventional identification methods. Fifteen genera of fungi were isolated and identified, of which Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Moniliella and Mucor were the most prevalent in all three sample types analysed. The incidence rates of fungal contamination per total fungal count isolated in houseflies, maize and porridge were recorded with mean fungal load of 2×10(8) CFU/ml, 1×10(7)CFU/g and 2×10(7)CFU/g respectively. Additionally, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, P. verrucosum, P. aurantiogriseum and M. suaveolens were the most frequent fungal isolates in houseflies with incidence rate of 34%, 11%, 27%, 21%, 22%, 17% and 32% respectively. F. verticillioides, A. flavus, A. niger and P. oslonii were the most prevalent species contaminating porridge and maize with incidence rate of 23%, 32%, 16% and 28% in maize samples, while incidence rates of 59%, 15% and 29% were recorded in porridge samples with the exception of F. verticillioides. The prevalence of these genera of fungi may pose serious health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  12. The effect of temperature on the toxicity of insecticides against Musca domestica L.: implications for the effective management of diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is an important cause of childhood mortality in developing countries like Pakistan because of unhygienic conditions, lack of awareness, and unwise use of preventive measures. Mechanical transmission of diarrheal pathogens by house flies, Musca domestica, is believed as the most effective route of diarrhea transmission. Although the use of insecticides as a preventive measure is common worldwide for the management of house flies, success of the measure could be compromised by the prevailing environmental temperature since it significantly affects toxicity of insecticides and thus their efficacy. Peaks of the house fly density and diarrheal cases are usually coincided and season specific, yet little is known about the season specific use of insecticides. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the temperature-toxicity relationship in house flies, the effect of post-bioassays temperature (range, 20-34°C on the toxicity of seven insecticides from organophosphate (chlorpyrifos, profenofos, pyrethroid (cypermethrin, deltamethrin and new chemical (emamectin benzoate, fipronil, spinosad classes was evaluated by using a feeding bioassay method. From 20-34°C, the toxicities of chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil increased 2.10, 2.93, 2.40 and 3.82 fold (i.e. positive temperature coefficient, respectively. Whereas, the toxicities of cypermethrin, deltamethrin and spinosad decreased 2.21, 2.42 and 3.16 fold (i.e. negative temperature coefficient, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that for the reduction in diarrheal cases, house flies should be controlled with insecticides according to the prevailing environmental temperature. Insecticides with a positive temperature coefficient may serve as potential candidates in controlling house flies and diarrhea epidemics in hot season and vice versa.

  13. Chemical composition and insecticidal property of Myrsine stolonifera (Koidz.) walker (Family: Myrsinaceae) on Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue Gui; Li, Qian; Jiang, Su Rong; Li, Pei; Yang, Ji Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Musca domestica is one of the most important pests of human health, and has developed strong resistance to many chemicals used for its control. One important approach for creating new pesticides is the exploration of novel compounds from plants. During a wide screening of plants with insecticidal properties that grow in southern China, we found that the methanolic extracts of Myrsine stolonifera had insecticidal activity against the adults of M. domestica. However, the insecticidal constituents and mechanisms of the M. stolonifera extracts remain unclear. The insecticidal components of the methanolic extracts of M. stolonifera were isolated with activity-guided fractionation. From the spectra of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), the compounds were identified as syringing (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-d-glu (2), kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu (3), and quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu (4). This study is the first to report the spectral data for compounds 3 and 4, and their LC 50 values were 0.52mg/g sugar and 0.36mg/g sugar 24h after treatment of the adults of M. domestica, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 (LC 25 ) also inhibited the activities of the enzymes carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, mixed function oxidase, and acetylcholine esterase of adult M. domestica, particularly mixed function oxidase and acetylcholine esterase. The cytotoxic effects of compounds 3 and 4 on cell proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were demonstrated on SL-1 cells. From the extracts of M. stolonifera, quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu and kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu have displayed comparable toxicities to rotenone on M. domestica and also exhibited cytotoxic effects on SL-1 cells; therefore, the extracts of M. stolonifera and their compounds have potential as botanical insecticides to control M. domestica. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Interactions between Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metarhizium Anisopliae and Sublethal Doses of Spinosad for Control of House Fly, Musca Domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sharififard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metarhizium anisopliae strain IRAN 437C is one of the most virulent fungal isolates against house fly, Musca domestica. The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of this isolate with sublethal doses of spino­sad against housefly.Methods: In adult bioassay, conidia of entomopathogenic fungus were applied as inoculated bait at 105 and 107 spore per gram and spinosad at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 µg (A.I. per gram bait. In larval bioassay, conidia were applied as combina­tion of spore with larval bedding at 106 and 108 spore per gram and spinosad at sublethals of 0.002, 0.004 and 0.006 µg (AI per gram medium. Results: Adult mortality was 48% and 72% for fungus alone but ranged from 66–87% and 89–95% in combination treat­ments of 105 and 107 spore/g with sublethal doses of spinosad respectively. The interaction between 105 spore/g with sublethals exhibited synergistic effect, but in combination of 107 spore in spite of higher mortality, the interac­tion was additive. There was significant difference in LT50 among various treatments. LT50 values in all combination treat­ments were smaller than LT50 values in alone ones. Larval mortality was 36% and 69% for fungus alone but ranged from 58%–78% and 81%–100% in combination treatments of 106 and 108 spore/g medium with sublethals of spino­sad respectively. The interaction was synergistic in all combination treatments of larvae.Conclusion: The interaction between M. anispliae and spinosad indicated a synergetic effect that increased the house fly mortality as well as reduced the lethal time.

  15. Laboratory testing of ozone oxidation of Hanford Site waste from Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Stubbs, A.M.; Bolling, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ozone was investigated as a reagent to oxidize and destroy organic species present in simulated and genuine waste from Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY). Two high-shear mixing apparatus were tested to perform the gas-to-solution mass transfer necessary to achieve efficient use of the ozone reagent. Oxidations of nitrite (to form nitrate) and organic species were observed. The organics oxidized to form carbonate and oxalate as well as nitrate and nitrogen gas from nitrogen associated with the organic. oxidations of metal species also were observed directly or inferred by solubilities. The chemical reaction stoichiometries were consistent with reduction of one oxygen atom per ozone molecule. Acetate, oxalate, and formate were found to comprise about 40% of the genuine waste's total organic carbon (TOC) concentration. Ozonation was found to be chemically feasible for destroying organic species (except oxalate) present in the wastes in Tank 101-SY. The simulated waste formulation used in these studies credibly modelled the ozonation behavior of the genuine waste

  16. Level maintenance for Tank 101-SY mitigation-by-mixing test. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Phase A, Phase B and Full Scale testing portions of the Mitigation-By-Mixing Test have demonstrated the effectiveness of the Mixer Pump to maintain the waste in tank 101-SY in the desired mitigated state. The operation of the 101-SY Mixer Pump for short periods of time results in a controlled release of hydrogen gas in concentrations well below the established safety limits. Additionally, it has been shown that operation of the pump on a regular schedule minimizes the historical generation rate of hydrogen inventory in the waste. Generation of hydrogen inventory is exhibited by waste level growth. The primary objective of this procedure is to maintain the waste level in tank 241-SY-101 within the safe operating range as defined by the Safety Assessment and the Test Plan. The secondary objective is to operate the pump on a schedule that maximizes its useful lifespan and prevents the formation of obstructions in the normal flow path of the pump

  17. Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Het.: Pentatomidae fed with larvae of Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Col.: Tenebrionidae or Musca domestica (Dip.: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae or Musca domestica (L. (Diptera: Muscidae larvae were studied during two generations at 24.7 ± 1.1ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12 h of photophase. Body weight of newly-emerged adults, oviposition period, number of egg masses, total number of eggs and longevity of S. cincticeps were higher when fed on Z. confusa or T. molitor larvae than on M. domestica larvae. Regardless of diet, S. cincticeps showed better reproduction and longevity in the second generation in laboratory conditions.Foram avaliadas, em duas gerações, a reprodução e a longevidade de Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae alimentado com larvas de Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae ou Musca domestica (L. (Diptera: Muscidae a 24,7 ± 1,1ºC, 70 ± 10% de U.R. e fotofase de 12 h. O peso de adultos recém emergidos, o período de oviposição, o número de posturas, de ovos totais e a longevidade de fêmeas de S. cincticeps foram maiores com larvas de Z. confusa ou T. molitor que com M. domestica. Independentemente do tipo de presa, S. cincticeps mostrou melhor performance reprodutiva e longevidade na segunda geração.

  18. Autophagy regulates chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Jeong Eun; Shin, In Chul; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that up-regulation of autophagy may be a tractable therapeutic intervention for clearing disease-causing proteins, including α-synuclein, ubiquitin, and other misfolded or aggregated proteins in pesticide-induced neurodegeneration. In a previous study, we reported that chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is mediated through reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, we explored a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach to prevent CPF neurotoxicity involving the regulation of autophagy. We investigated the modulation of CPF-induced apoptosis according to autophagy regulation. We found that CPF induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, as demonstrated by the activation of caspase-3 and nuclear condensation. In addition, we observed that cells treated with CPF underwent autophagic cell death by monitoring the expression of LC3-II and p62. Pretreatment with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly enhanced the cell viability of CPF-exposed cells, and the enhancement of cell viability was partially due to alleviation of CPF-induced apoptosis via a decrease in levels of cleaved caspase-3. Specifically, rapamycin pretreatment decreased Bax and increased Bcl-2 expression in mitochondria. In addition, rapamycin significantly decreased cytochrome c release in from mitochondria into the cytosol. However, pretreatment of cells with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA), remarkably increased CPF toxicity in these cells; this with correlated with increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 in mitochondria. Our results suggest that CPF-induced cytotoxicity is modified by autophagy regulation and that rapamycin protects against CPF-induced apoptosis by enhancing autophagy. Pharmacologic induction of autophagy by rapamycin may be a useful treatment strategy in neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells ► CPF-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by

  19. Autophagy regulates chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyeon [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, In Chul [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hyun Chul, E-mail: hckoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that up-regulation of autophagy may be a tractable therapeutic intervention for clearing disease-causing proteins, including α-synuclein, ubiquitin, and other misfolded or aggregated proteins in pesticide-induced neurodegeneration. In a previous study, we reported that chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is mediated through reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, we explored a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach to prevent CPF neurotoxicity involving the regulation of autophagy. We investigated the modulation of CPF-induced apoptosis according to autophagy regulation. We found that CPF induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, as demonstrated by the activation of caspase-3 and nuclear condensation. In addition, we observed that cells treated with CPF underwent autophagic cell death by monitoring the expression of LC3-II and p62. Pretreatment with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly enhanced the cell viability of CPF-exposed cells, and the enhancement of cell viability was partially due to alleviation of CPF-induced apoptosis via a decrease in levels of cleaved caspase-3. Specifically, rapamycin pretreatment decreased Bax and increased Bcl-2 expression in mitochondria. In addition, rapamycin significantly decreased cytochrome c release in from mitochondria into the cytosol. However, pretreatment of cells with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA), remarkably increased CPF toxicity in these cells; this with correlated with increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 in mitochondria. Our results suggest that CPF-induced cytotoxicity is modified by autophagy regulation and that rapamycin protects against CPF-induced apoptosis by enhancing autophagy. Pharmacologic induction of autophagy by rapamycin may be a useful treatment strategy in neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells ► CPF-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by

  20. Oxidative-Alkaline Leaching of Washed 241-SY-102 and 241-SX-101 Tank Sludges and Its Impact on Immobilized High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Geeting, John GH; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Vienna, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes work designed to evaluate the effectiveness of alkaline permanganate contacts at selectively removing chromium from the Hanford tank sludges 241-SY-102 and 241-SX-101. The key variables examined in this study, as compared to contact with the standard conditions of stoichiometric permanganate in 3 M hydroxide at elevated temperature, were: (a) excess permanganate and hydroxide at elevated temperature, (b) the separation of an elevated temperature 3 M hydroxide leach with either a room temperature permanganate contact or an elevated temperature permanganate contact at 0.25 M hydroxide. It was determined that sequential permanganate and caustic leaching can provide as effective removal of Cr as the combined high hydroxide permanganate contact at elevated temperature while minimizing concomitant Pu dissolution

  1. Levels of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead in dumpsites soil, earthworm (Lybrodrilus Violaceous), Housefly (Musca Domestica) and dragon fly (Libellula luctosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, A.A.; Okedeyi, O.O.; Idowu, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical analyses of cadmium, chromium and lead in dumpsites soil, earthworm (Lybrodrilus violaceous), housefly (Musca domestica) and in indigenous dragonfly (Libellula luctosa) were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry to estimate the degree of metal pollution in two Lagos dumpsites located at Iba Housing Estate (dumpsite A) and Soluos along LASU - Isheri road (dumpsite B). Soil pH and moisture content were also determined. Chromium was not detected (ND) in most of the samples except in the soil samples whose mean and standard deviation (SD) were 0.43 Plus minus 0.37 micro g/g and 0.23 plus minus 0.37 micro g/g, respectively for dumpsites A and B, and the earthworm samples harvested from dumpsite B (1.00 plus minus 1.41 micro g/g the cadmium levels were 4.00 plus minus 3.16 micro g/g and 7.50 plus minus 6.37 micro g/g for earthwarm; 2.86 plus minus 1.43 micro g/g and 4.29 plus minus 3.74 micro g/g for housefly, 0.75 plus minus 1.26 micro g/g and 1.25 plus minus 0.95 micro g/g for dragonfly, respectively for dumpsites A and B. However, the concentration of lead in the invertebrates were, 130.00 plus minus 112.58 micro g/g and 105.75 plus minus 94.44 micro g/g for earthworm; 145.71 plus minus 101.87 micro g/g and 225.71 plus minus 79.31 micro g/g for housefly; 165.00 plus minus 69.78 micro g/g and 85.00 plus minus 69.73 micro g/g for dragonfly respectively for dumpsites A and B. Cadmium and lead levels were found to be higher in the invertebrates harvested from the dumpsites than those collected from the non-dumpsites. The non-dumpsite values for cadmium were 1.24 plus minus 0,94 micro g/g, 0.45 plus minus 0.56 micro g/g and 0.38 plus minus 0.4 micro g/g for earthworm, housefly and dragonfly, respectively. Similarly, the non-dumpsite lead levels for earthworm, housefly and dragonfly were 23.12 plus minus 10.11 micro g/g, 20.75 plus minus 11.85 micro g/g and 33.62 plus minus 14.95 micro g/g, respectively.(author)

  2. How can cloud processing enable generation of new knowledge through multidisciplinary research? The case of Co-ReSyF for coastal research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Eirini; Scarrott, Rory; Tuohy, Eimear; Terra Homem, Miguel; Caumont, Hervé; Grosso, Nuno; Mangin, Antoine; Catarino, Nuno

    2017-04-01

    According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), half the world's population lives within 60 km of the sea, and three-quarters of all large cities are located on the coast. Natural hazards and changing coastal processes due to environmental and climate change and intensified human activities, can affect coastal regions in many ways, such as coastal inundation, erosion and marine pollution among others, causing loss of life and degradation of vulnerable coastal and marine habitats. To fully understand how the environment is changing across transitional landscapes, such as the coastal zone, a combination of methods and disciplines is required. Geospatial approaches that harness global and regional datasets, along with new generation remote sensing products and climate variables, can help characterise trajectories of change in coastal systems and improve our knowledge and understanding of complex processes. However, such approaches often require Big Data and often Real-Time (RT) datasets to ensure timeliness in risk prediction, assessment and management. In addition, the task of identifying suitable datasets from the plethora of data repositories and sources that currently exist can be challenging, even for experienced researchers. As geospatial datasets continue to increase in quantity and quality, processing has become slower and demanding of better, often faster, computing facilities. To address these issues, an EU-funded project is developing an online platform to bring geospatial data, processing and coastal communities together in a collaborative cloud-based environment. The European Commission (EC) H2020 Coastal Water Research Synergy Framework (Co-ReSyF) project is developing a platform based on cloud computing to maximise processing effort and task orchestration. Users will be able to access, view and process satellite data, and visualise and share their outputs on the platform. This will allow faster processing and innovative data synergies, by

  3. Composition, preparation, and gas generation results from simulated wastes of Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-08-01

    This document reviews the preparation and composition of simulants that have been developed to mimic the wastes temporarily stored in Tank 241-SY-101 at Hanford. The kinetics and stoichiometry of gases that are generated using these simulants are also compared, considering the roles of hydroxide, chloride, and transition metal ions; the identities of organic constituents; and the effects of dilution, radiation, and temperature. Work described in this report was conducted for the Flammable Gas Safety Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, (a) whose purpose is to develop information that is necessary to mitigate potential safety hazards associated with waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The goal of this research and of related efforts at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is to determine the thermal and thermal/radiolytic mechanisms by which flammable and other gases are produced in Hanford wastes, emphasizing those stored in Tank 241-SY-101. A variety of Tank 241-SY-101 simulants have been developed to date. The use of simulants in laboratory testing activities provides a number of advantages, including elimination of radiological risks to researchers, lower costs associated with experimentation, and the ability to systematically alter simulant compositions to study the chemical mechanisms of reactions responsible for gas generation. The earliest simulants contained the principal inorganic components of the actual waste and generally a single complexant such as N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) or ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA). Both homogeneous and heterogeneous compositional forms were developed. Aggressive core sampling and analysis activities conducted during Windows C and E provided information that was used to design new simulants that more accurately reflected major and minor inorganic components

  4. Structural analysis of multiport riser 5A installation on tank 241SY101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, J.P.

    1994-09-16

    The Tank 101-SY multiport riser assembly in the 241-SY-101 waste tank will replace the existing 42 inch riser with four smaller ports. Each smaller port can be used independently to access the tank interior with equipment and instruments needed to mitigate the concentration of hydrogen in the tank. This document provides a design report on the structural evaluation of the multiport riser assembly as well as its anchorage. The multiport riser assembly is a steel structure installed directly above the 42-inch riser and sealed at the existing riser flange. The assembly is structurally supported by the concrete pad placed around the 42 inch riser. The multiport riser assembly will provide two 8-inch penetrations, one 12-inch penetration and one 24-inch penetration. Each penetration will have a shielding plate. These penetrations will be used to insert equipment such as a sonic probe into the tank. In addition to normal loads, non-reactor Safety Class 1 structures, systems and components are to withstand the effects of extreme environmental loads including Design Basis Earthquake (DBE), Design Basis Wind (DBW), Design Basis Flood, Volcanic Eruptions and other abnormal loads considered on a case by case basis. Non-reactor Safety Class 2, 3 and 4 structures, systems and components are those that are not Safety Class 1 and are respectively specified as onsite safety related, occupational safety related and non-safety related items. The 241-SY-101 tank is considered as a non-reactor Safety Class 1 structure. The multiport riser assembly is considered as a non-reactor Safety Class 2 structure since it serves to contain the radioactive and toxic materials under normal operating conditions. However, the pressure relief doors provided on the assembly are considered as Safety Class 1 structures.

  5. Assessment of the potential for ammonium nitrate formation and reaction in Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    Two principal scenarios by which ammonium nitrate may be formed were considered: (a) precipitation of ammonium nitrate in the waste, and (b) ammonium nitrate formation via the gas phase reaction of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The first of these can be dismissed because ammonium ions, which are necessary for ammonium nitrate precipitation, can exist only in negligibly small concentrations in strongly alkaline solutions. Gas phase reactions between ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor in the gas phase represent the most likely means by which ammonium nitrate aerosols could be formed in Tank 241-SY-101. Predicted ammonium nitrate formation rates are largely controlled by the concentration of nitrogen dioxide. This gas has not been detected among those gases vented from the wastes using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) or mass spectrometry. While detection limits for nitrogen dioxide have not been established experimentally, the maximum concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the gas phase in Tank 241-SY-101 was estimated at 0.1 ppm based on calculations using the HITRAN data base and on FTIR spectra of gases vented from the wastes. At 50 C and with 100 ppm ammonia also present, less than one gram of ammonium nitrate per year is estimated to be formed in the tank. To date, ammonium nitrate has not been detected on HEPA filters in the ventilation system, so any quantity that has been formed in the tank must be quite small, in good agreement with rate calculations. The potential for runaway exothermic reactions involving ammonium nitrate in Tank 241-SY-101 is minimal. Dilution by non-reacting waste components, particularly water, would prevent hazardous exothermic reactions from occurring within the waste slurry, even if ammonium nitrate were present. 41 refs

  6. SY-101 Rapid Transfer Project Low Temperature Operations Review and Recommendations to Support Lower Temperature Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    The lower temperature limit for the 241 SY-101 RAPID transfer project is currently set at 20 F Based on the analysis and recommendations in this document this limit can be lowered to 0 F. Analysis of all structures systems and components (SSCs) indicate that a reduction in operating temperature may be achieved with minor modifications to field-installed equipment. Following implementation of these changes it is recommended that the system requirements be amended to specify a temperature range for transfer or back dilute evolutions of 0 F to 100 F

  7. The behavior, quantity, and location of undissolved gas in Tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, M.E.; Gallagher, N.B.; Hudson, J.D.; Stewart, C.W.

    1995-10-01

    Mitigation of episodic flammable gas releases from Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101 was accomplished in July 1993 with the installation of a mixer pump that prevents gas retention. But is has not been possible until recently to measure the effects of mixing on the waste or how much gas remains and where it is located. Direct measurements of the void fraction and rheology of the mixed waste by the void fraction instrument (VFI) and ball rheometer along with previous data provide estimates of the location, quantity, and behavior of undissolved gas in the tank. This report documents the compilation and integration of the information that enables this understanding.

  8. Synthesis of reduced-size gold nanostars and internalization in SH-SY5Y cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dacarro, Giacomo

    2017-07-01

    The synthesis of large pentatwinned five-branched gold nanostars (GNS) has been modified so to obtain overall dimensions shrunk to 60% and a lower branches aspect ratio, leading to a dramatic blue shift of their two near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) absorptions but still maintaining one LSPR in the biotransparent NIR range. The interactions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated large and shrunk GNS with SH-SY5Y cells revealed that the large ones (DCI - diameter of the circumference in which GNS can be inscribed = 76 nm) are internalized more efficiently than the shrunk ones (DCI = 46 nm), correlating with a decreased cells surving fraction.

  9. Neurotoxicity of "ecstasy" and its metabolites in human dopaminergic differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Patrícia Silva; Nogueira, Tiago Bernandes; Costa, Vera Marisa; Branco, Paula Sério; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Fernandes, Eduarda; Bastos, Maria Lourdes; Meisel, Andreas; Carvalho, Félix; Capela, João Paulo

    2013-02-04

    "Ecstasy" (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA) is a widely abused recreational drug, reported to produce neurotoxic effects, both in laboratory animals and in humans. MDMA metabolites can be major contributors for MDMA neurotoxicity. This work studied the neurotoxicity of MDMA and its catechol metabolites, α-methyldopamine (α-MeDA) and N-methyl-α-methyldopamine (N-Me-α-MeDA) in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells differentiated with retinoic acid and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate. Differentiation led to SH-SY5Y neurons with higher ability to accumulate dopamine and higher resistance towards dopamine neurotoxicity. MDMA catechol metabolites were neurotoxic to SH-SY5Y neurons, leading to caspase 3-independent cell death in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. MDMA did not show a concentration- and time-dependent death. Pre-treatment with the antioxidant and glutathione precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), resulted in strong protection against the MDMA metabolites' neurotoxicity. Neither the superoxide radical scavenger, tiron, nor the inhibitor of the dopamine (DA) transporter, GBR 12909, prevented the metabolites' toxicity. Cells exposed to α-MeDA showed an increase in intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, which, at the 48 h time-point, was not dependent in the activity increase of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), revealing a possible transient effect. Importantly, pre-treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of γ-GCS, prevented α-MeDA induced increase in GSH levels, but did not augment this metabolite cytotoxicity. Even so, BSO pre-treatment abolished NAC protective effects against α-MeDA neurotoxicity, which were, at least partially, due to GSH de novo synthesis. Inversely, pre-treatment of cells with BSO augmented N-Me-α-MeDA-induced neurotoxicity, but only slightly affected NAC neuroprotection. In conclusion, MDMA catechol metabolites promote differential toxic effects to differentiated dopaminergic human SH-SY

  10. CompTIA security+ review guide exam SY0-401

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart , James M

    2014-01-01

    Focused review for the CompTIA Security+ certification exam The CompTIA Security+ certification offers tremendous opportunities for IT professionals. For those who want to take their careers to the next level, CompTIA Security+ Review Guide: Exam SY0-401 is here to serve as a great resource for certification preparation. This concise, focused guide is easy to use and is organized by each exam objective for quick review and reinforcement of key topics. You'll find information on network security, compliance and operational security, and threats and vulnerabilities. Additionally, this indispensa

  11. Paracrine Maturation and Migration of SH-SY5Y Cells by Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gervois, Pascal; Wolfs, Esther; Dillen, Yörg; Hilkens, Petra; Ratajczak, Jessica; Driesen, Ronald; Vangansewinkel, Tim; Bronckaers, Annelies; Brône, Bert; Struys, Tom; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Neurological disorders are characterized by neurodegeneration and/or loss of neuronal function, which cannot be adequately repaired by the host. Therefore, there is need for novel treatment options such as cell-based therapies that aim to salvage or reconstitute the lost tissue or that stimulate host repair. The present study aimed to evaluate the paracrine effects of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) on the migration and neural maturation of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The hDPSC s...

  12. CompTIA Security+ Deluxe Study Guide Exam SY0-301

    CERN Document Server

    Dulaney, Emmett

    2011-01-01

    Get a host of extras with this Deluxe version including a Security Administration Simulator!  Prepare for CompTIA's new Security+ exam SY0-301 with this Deluxe Edition of our popular CompTIA Security+ Study Guide, 5th Edition. In addition to the 100% coverage of all exam essentials and study tools you'll find in the regular study guide, the Deluxe Edition gives you over additional hands-on lab exercises and study tools, three additional practice exams, author videos, and the exclusive Security Administration simulator. This book is a CompTIA Recommended product. Provides 100% coverage of all e

  13. Synthesis of reduced-size gold nanostars and internalization in SH-SY5Y cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dacarro, Giacomo; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Bertani, Serena Maria; Chirico, Giuseppe; D'Alfonso, Laura; Falqui, Andrea; Marchesi, Nicoletta; Pascale, Alessia; Sironi, Laura; Taglietti, Angelo; Zuddas, Efisio

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of large pentatwinned five-branched gold nanostars (GNS) has been modified so to obtain overall dimensions shrunk to 60% and a lower branches aspect ratio, leading to a dramatic blue shift of their two near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) absorptions but still maintaining one LSPR in the biotransparent NIR range. The interactions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated large and shrunk GNS with SH-SY5Y cells revealed that the large ones (DCI - diameter of the circumference in which GNS can be inscribed = 76 nm) are internalized more efficiently than the shrunk ones (DCI = 46 nm), correlating with a decreased cells surving fraction.

  14. Microscopic investigation to determine the effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. treatment on different life stages of Musca domestica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2017-06-01

    Microscopic investigation was done to determine the effect of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus on different life stages of Musca domestica . Scanning electron microscopy investigation of fungal infected larvae showed sluggish movement, rigor, and failure of body to balance in water. Treated larvae also revealed varied level of cuticle shrinkage and extreme dehydration. Surface of B. bassiana infected pupae showed varied stage of mycelial growth, while the cadaver of adult fly was observed to have extensive fungal growth covering their entire body surface. The application of C. citratus oils on M. domestica larvae resulted in skin shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation, while the treated pupae showed high incidence of incomplete emergence and malformation in emerged adult flies. The current study establishes effect of C. citratus essential oil and B. bassiana infection on different life stages of M. domestica .

  15. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus That Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prompiboon, Pannipa; Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Denton, John S S

    2010-01-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry and is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with M. domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a nonoccluded double-stranded DNA virus...... that inhibits egg production in infected females and is characterized by salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms. MdSGHV has been detected in housefly samples from North America, Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and the southwestern Pacific. In this study, houseflies were collected from various locations......, and the polymorphism detected was correlated with geographic source. The virulence of the geographic MdSGHV isolates was evaluated by per os treatment of newly emerged and 24-h-old houseflies with homogenates of infected salivary glands. In all cases, 24-h-old flies displayed a resistance to oral infection...

  16. Syöpäpotilaiden toiveet hoitoympäristöstä päiväsairaalassa

    OpenAIRE

    Mäki, Saara; Ojalainen, Kati

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää syöpäpotilaiden toiveita päiväsairaalan fyysisestä hoitoympäristöstä. Tavoitteena oli saada selville ideaali päiväsairaalatila, jossa potilaat kokevat olonsa mahdollisimman turvalliseksi ja miellyttäväksi. Tämän opinnäytetyön tuloksia voidaan hyödyntää suunnitellessa uuden syöpäsairaalan päiväosastojen hoitotiloja. Opinnäytetyö on toteutettu yhteistyössä Helsingin ja Uudenmaan sairaanhoitopiirin HYKS :in Syöpäkeskuksen kanssa. Tämän opinnäyt...

  17. Work plan for transition of SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to transfer operating and maintenance responsibility for the 241-SY-101 data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) from Los Alamos National Laboratory to Westinghouse Hanford Company. This work plan defines the tasks required for a successful turnover. It identifies DACS-1 transition, deliverables, responsible organizations and individuals, interfaces, cost, and schedule. The transition plan will discuss all required hardware, software, documentation, maintenance, operations, and training for use at Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The transfer of responsibilities for DACS-1 to WHC is contingent on final approval of applicable Acceptance for Beneficial Use documentation by Waste Tank Operations. The DACS-1 was designed to provide data monitoring, display, and storage for Tank 241-SY-101. The DACS-1 also provides alarm and control of all the hydrogen mitigation testing systems, as well as ancillary systems and equipment (HVAC, UPS, etc.) required to achieve safe and reliable operation of the testing systems in the tank

  18. The effects of heating and dilution on the rheological and physical properties of Tank 241-SY-101 waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, J.M.; Bredt, P.R.; Shade, E.H.

    1994-10-01

    Of the 177 high-level waste underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site, 25 have been identified as being potentially capable of generating and releasing flammable gas. Tank 241-SY-101 has exhibited periodic releases of gas, and in some cases the gas released has exceeded the lower flammable gas limit. The components of the released gas from Tank 241-SY-101 are hydrogen, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, ammonia, carbon monoxide, and methane. A mitigation strategy that may effectively reduce the retention and release of these gases and the release of flammable gases is dilution coupled with eating of the tank wastes. The purpose of this work was to determine changes in rheological and physical properties caused by heating and dilution of actual 241-SY-101 waste. In May and December 1991, following periodic gas releases, samples of the waste in Tank 241-SY-101 were obtained. Current work quantified the effects of heating coupled with NaOH dilution of a combination of waste samples from Tank 241-SY-101 characteristic of a non-convective layer. The experimental approach and results of this heating and dilution study on Tank 241-SY-101 waste samples are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. In Section 3.1, a discussion of the rheological properties of the waste as a function of shearing forces, volume percent dilution, and temperature is presented. In Section 3.2, the physical properties of the waste dilutions are described, including the densities of the slurry, filtered solids, and filtrate; the settling behavior; and the percent filtered solids in the composite sample and each of the composite dilutions. A brief discussion of the results and uncertainties is given is Section 3.3. The conclusions of this investigation are reported in Section 4

  19. Hysterosalpingo-foam sonography (HyFoSy): Tolerability, safety and the occurrence of pregnancy post-procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Chua, Jackie; Cincotta, Robert; Ballard, Emma L; Duncombe, Gregory

    2018-02-01

    Fallopian tube patency testing is an essential part of infertility evaluation. Hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy) has been described as reliable, well tolerated and safe compared to other modalities such as laparoscopy and a dye test or hysterosalpingography. Limited availability of the previously used contrast has led to the introduction of a foam contrast agent as an alternative. To assess the tolerability, safety and occurrence of pregnancy post-procedure of hysterosalpingo-foam sonography (HyFoSy). A retrospective cohort study of women who had a HyFoSy at Queensland Ultrasound for Women from March 2013 to February 2015. A questionnaire was sent to their referring doctor to identify any complications or subsequent pregnancies with or without artificial reproductive technology (ART) within six months of the HyFoSy. Of 200 women, four cases were abandoned due to difficulty introducing the intracervical catheter, severe discomfort or a vasovagal episode. Response from referring doctors for 155 women reported no post-procedural complication. One hundred and eleven women were followed up for at least six months. Twenty-four out of 59 women (40.7%) who had ART and 24 out of 52 women (46.2%) who did not have ART conceived. Fifty percent of women who were nulligravida at the time of investigation, found to have at least one patent fallopian tube, whose partner had a normal semen analysis, spontaneously conceived within the time of follow up. HyFoSy is well tolerated and safe. A preponderance of pregnancies in the first month after HyFoSy suggests that a therapeutic effect may exist. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Syömishäiriökuntoutujien hoitopolku : Peruskouluikäisten psykofyysinen fysioterapia Tampereen kaupungilla

    OpenAIRE

    Mäenrinta, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Syömishäiriöt ovat yleisiä nuorten psykiatrisia sairauksia ja useimmiten uhkaavat nuoren normaalia kehitystä. Fysioterapia voi kuulua syömishäiriötä sairastava lapsen tai nuoren hoitoon jo heti alusta alkaen yhteistyössä moniammatillisen tiimin kanssa. Fysioterapia toteutetaan psykofyysisestä näkökulmasta yksilön omien tarpeiden ja tavoitteiden mukaisesti. Fysioterapiassa käsitellään muun muassa sairastuneen vääristyneitä kokemuksia omasta kehostaan, kielteistä suhtautumista omaan ulkonäkööns...

  1. Ortoreksia : Oppitunti syömishäiriöistä yläkoulun 9.-luokkalaisille

    OpenAIRE

    Suvanto, Minna; Tanninen, Milla

    2015-01-01

    Elinympäristömme luo ihmisille helposti monenlaisia paineita. Sekä kauneudelle että terveydelle kuin ulkonäöllekin on luotu tietynlaiset ihanteet ja esikuvia on tarjolla paljon kaikenikäisille. Samalla ravitsemussuositukset muuttuvat jatkuvasti vallitsevan ajan myötä. Syömishäiriöt ovat käsitteenä melko yleisiä. Tunnetuimmat niistä ovat anoreksia, bulimia ja BED. Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee kyseisten syömishäiriöiden peruspiirteitä, etiologiaa ja parantumisvaiheita. Varsinaiseksi aiheeks...

  2. Design basis and requirements for 241-SY modular exhauster mechanical installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    A new ventilation system is being installed to serve as the K-1 primary exhauster. The existing K-1 primary exhauster will then become the backup. This ventilation system services waste tanks 241-SY-101, 102 and 103. The nominal flow rate through the ventilation system is 1,000 cfm. The new ventilation system will contain a moisture eliminator, a heater, a prefilter, two stages of HEPA filtration, an exhaust fan, a stack and stack sampling system. The purpose of this document is to serve as the design and functional requirements for the mechanical installation of the new 241-SY modular exhauster. The mechanical installation will include modifying the existing ductwork (i.e., installing a ''T'' to connect the new exhauster to the existing system), modifying the existing condensate drain lines to accommodate the new lines associated with the new exhauster, a maintenance platform near the stack of the new exhauster, guy wires and guy wire footings to support the stack of the new exhauster, as well as other miscellaneous tasks associated with the mechanical installation design effort

  3. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  4. SyZyGy: A straight interferometric spacecraft system for gravity wave observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.; Tinto, Massimo; Folkner, William

    2003-01-01

    We consider a spaceborne gravitational wave (GW) detector formed by three spacecraft in a linear array, coherently exchanging laser beams and using the data combinations of time-delay interferometry (TDI). We previously showed how the measured time series of Doppler shifts in the six one-way laser links between spacecraft pairs in a general unequal-arm triangular configuration can be combined, using TDI, to exactly cancel the otherwise overwhelming phase noise of the lasers while retaining sensitivity to GWs. Here we apply TDI, unfolding the general triangular configuration, to the special case of a linear array of three spacecraft. We show that such an array ('SyZyGy') has, compared with an equilateral triangle GW detector of the same scale, a degraded (but non-zero) sensitivity at low frequencies [f -4 -10 -1 Hz). SyZyGy with ∼1 light-second scale could, for the same instrumental assumptions as LISA, make observations in this intermediate frequency GW band with 5σ sensitivity to sinusoidal waves ≅2.5x10 -23 in a year's integration

  5. Acceptance test report, 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System, Phase 3 testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of the phase 3 acceptance test of the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System (FRS). The purpose of this acceptance test is to verify the sealing integrity of the FRS to ensure that the release of waste and aerosols will be minimized during the removal of the test mixer pump from Tank 241-SY-101. The FRS is one of six major components of the Equipment Removal System, which has been designed to retrieve, transport, and store the mixer pump. This acceptance test was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 area from January 10, 1995 to January 17, 1995. The Phase 3 test consisted of two parts. Part one was a water leak test of the seal between the blast shield and mock load distribution frame (LDF) to ensure that significant contamination of the pump pit and waste interaction with the aluminum impact-limiting material under the LDF are prevented during the pump removal operation. The second part of this acceptance test was an air leak test of the assembled flexible receiver system. The purpose of this test was to verify that the release of hazardous aerosols will be minimized if the tank dome pressure becomes slightly positive during the decontamination of the mixer pump

  6. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-103. Examination completed February 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-103. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-SY-103 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-17750 (Jensen 2003) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations

  7. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102. Examination Completed June 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-SY-102 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-17750 (Jensen 2003) and/SUMmarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA

  8. Acceptance test report, 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System, Phase 1 testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of the Phase 1 acceptance test of the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System (FRS). This acceptance test consisted of a pressure-decay/leak test of the containment bag to verify that the seams along the length of the bag had been adequately sealed. The sealing integrity of the FRS must be verified to ensure that the release of waste and aerosols will be minimized during the removal of the test mixer pump from Tank 241-SY-101. The FRS is one of six major components of the Equipment Removal System, which has been designed to retrieve, transport, and store the mixer pump. This acceptance test was performed at Lancs Industries in Kirkland, Washington on January 17, 1995. The bag temperature-compensated pressure loss of 575 Pa was below the acceptance criteria of 625 Pa and the test results were therefore found to be acceptable. The bag manufacturer estimates that 80--90% of the pressure loss is attributed to leakage around the bag inflation valve where the pressure gage was connected. A leak detector was applied over the entire bag during the pre-tests and no leakage was found. Furthermore, the leak rate corresponding to this pressure loss is very small when compared to the acceptable leak rate of the completely assembled FRS. The sealing integrity of the assembled FRS is verified in Phase 3 testing

  9. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (open-quotes burpsclose quotes) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity

  10. Transport of Tank 241-SY-101 Waste Slurry: Effects of Dilution and Temperature on Critical Pipeline Velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KP Recknagle; Y Onishi

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the methods and results of calculations performed to predict the critical velocity and pressure drop required for the two-inch pipeline transfer of solid/liquid waste slurry from underground waste storage Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY- 102 at the Hanford Site. The effects of temperature and dilution on the critical velocity were included in the analysis. These analyses show that Tank 241-SY-101 slurry should be diluted with water prior to delivery to Tank 241-SY-102. A dilution ratio of 1:1 is desirable and would allow the waste to be delivered at a critical velocity of 1.5 ft/sec. The system will be operated at a flow velocity of 6 ft/sec or greater therefore, this velocity will be sufficient to maintain a stable slurry delivery through the pipeline. The effect of temperature on the critical velocity is not a limiting factor when the slurry is diluted 1:1 with water. Pressure drop at the critical velocity would be approximately two feet for a 125-ft pipeline (or 250-ft equivalent straight pipeline). At 6 ft/sec, the pressure drop would be 20 feet over a 250-ft equivalent straight pipeline

  11. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR, brown rice (BR and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  12. Protective Effect of Edaravone Against Aβ25-35-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G-L; Zhang, L; Guo, Y-Y; Ma, Z-L; Wang, H-Y; Li, T; Liu, J; Du, Y; Yao, L; Li, T-T; Du, J-M

    2017-05-20

    Amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies show that Aβ accumulation may lead to mitochondrial oxidative damage. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of edaravone on mitochondrial damage in SH-SY5Y cells treated with Aβ25-35. SH-SY5Y cells were pre-treated with 20, 40 or 80 μM edaravone before treatment with 25 μM Aβ25-35. After 24h cell culture, cellular apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), ATP levels and mitochondrial morphology were evaluated. SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Aβ25-35 had high levels of apoptosis and ROS; loss of ΔΨm, decreased ATP levels and presence of mitochondrial swelling. However, these effects were significantly inhibited by edaravone pre-treatment. These results indicate that edaravone prevents mitochondria oxidative damage caused by Aβ in SH-SY5Y cells, which suggests that it may have potential clinical application in AD therapy.

  13. Morphological Differentiation Towards Neuronal Phenotype of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by Estradiol, Retinoic Acid and Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teppola, Heidi; Sarkanen, Jertta-Riina; Jalonen, Tuula O; Linne, Marja-Leena

    2016-04-01

    Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells maintain their potential for differentiation and regression in culture conditions. The induction of differentiation could serve as a strategy to inhibit cell proliferation and tumor growth. Previous studies have shown that differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells can be induced by all-trans-retinoic-acid (RA) and cholesterol (CHOL). However, signaling pathways that lead to terminal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells are still largely unknown. The goal of this study was to examine in the RA and CHOL treated SH-SY5Y cells the additive impacts of estradiol (E2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cell morphology, cell population growth, synaptic vesicle recycling and presence of neurofilaments. The above features indicate a higher level of neuronal differentiation. Our data show that treatment for 10 days in vitro (DIV) with RA alone or when combined with E2 (RE) or CHOL (RC), but not when combined with BDNF (RB), significantly (p differentiation.

  14. Optimization of cultivation conditions for biotechnological production of lipid by Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) SY89 for biodiesel preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiru, Tamene Milkessa; Groenewald, Marizeth; Pohl, Carolina; Steyn, Laurinda; Kiggundu, Nicholas; Abate, Dawit

    Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) SY89, an oleaginous yeast, isolated from Ethiopian soil, was grown under nitrogen-limited media. The capacity this with respect to biomass production, lipid yield and lipid content was evaluated. The influence of inoculum size, carbon

  15. Dichloroacetate stimulates changes in the mitochondrial network morphology via partial mitophagy in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pajuelo-Reguera, David; Alán, Lukáš; Olejár, Tomáš; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 6 (2015), s. 2409-2418 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : dichloroacetate * mitochondria * mitophagy * neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells * mitochondrial network Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.018, year: 2015

  16. Similarity analysis applied to the design of scaled tests of hydraulic mitigation methods for Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljegren, L.M.

    1993-02-01

    The episodic gas releases from Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) pose a potential safety hazard. It is thought that gas releases occur because gases are generated and trapped in layers of settled solids located at the bottom of the tank. This document focuses on issues associated with testing of hydraulic mitigation technologies proposed for SY-101. The basic assumption underlying the concept of hydraulic mitigation is that mobilization or maintained suspension of the solids settled in the bottom of the tank wig prevent gas accumulation. Engineering of hydraulic technologies will require testing to determine the operating parameters required to mobilize the solids and to maintain these solids in suspension. Because full scale testing is extremely expensive (even when possible), scaled tests are needed to assess the merit of the proposed technologies and to provide data for numerical or analytical modeling. This research is conducted to support testing and evaluation of proposed hydraulic mitigation concepts only. The work here is oriented towards determining the jet velocities, nozzle sizes, and other operating parameters required to mobilize the settled solids in SY- 101 and maintain them in suspension

  17. SenSyF Experience on Integration of EO Services in a Generic, Cloud-Based EO Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Nuno; Catarino, Nuno; Gutierrez, Antonio; Grosso, Nuno; Andrade, Joao; Caumont, Herve; Goncalves, Pedro; Villa, Guillermo; Mangin, Antoine; Serra, Romain; Johnsen, Harald; Grydeland, Tom; Emsley, Stephen; Jauch, Eduardo; Moreno, Jose; Ruiz, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    SenSyF is a cloud-based data processing framework for EO- based services. It has been pioneer in addressing Big Data issues from the Earth Observation point of view, and is a precursor of several of the technologies and methodologies that will be deployed in ESA's Thematic Exploitation Platforms and other related systems.The SenSyF system focuses on developing fully automated data management, together with access to a processing and exploitation framework, including Earth Observation specific tools. SenSyF is both a development and validation platform for data intensive applications using Earth Observation data. With SenSyF, scientific, institutional or commercial institutions developing EO- based applications and services can take advantage of distributed computational and storage resources, tailored for applications dependent on big Earth Observation data, and without resorting to deep infrastructure and technological investments.This paper describes the integration process and the experience gathered from different EO Service providers during the project.

  18. Presenilin-1 mutations alter K+ currents in the human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Leigh D; Boyle, John P; Thomas, Natasha M

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in presenilin 1 (PS1) are the major cause of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. We have measured the voltage-gated K+ current in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y using whole-cell patch-clamp. When cells were stably transfected to over-express PS1, no change in K+ current...

  19. Acetaldehyde Induces Cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y Cells via Inhibition of Akt Activation and Induction of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. It has been shown that heavy drinking is associated with an earlier onset of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, is speculated to mediate the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by the chronic excessive consumption of alcohol. However, the exact mechanisms by which acetaldehyde induces neurotoxicity are not totally understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of acetaldehyde in SH-SY5Y cells and found that acetaldehyde induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by downregulating the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bax. Acetaldehyde treatment led to a significant decrease in the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB. In addition, acetaldehyde induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK while inhibiting the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, p44/p42MAPK. Meanwhile, acetaldehyde treatment caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and elevated the oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, acetaldehyde induces cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells via promotion of apoptotic signaling, inhibition of cell survival pathway, and induction of oxidative stress.

  20. MacSyFinder: a program to mine genomes for molecular systems with an application to CRISPR-Cas systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie S Abby

    Full Text Available Biologists often wish to use their knowledge on a few experimental models of a given molecular system to identify homologs in genomic data. We developed a generic tool for this purpose.Macromolecular System Finder (MacSyFinder provides a flexible framework to model the properties of molecular systems (cellular machinery or pathway including their components, evolutionary associations with other systems and genetic architecture. Modelled features also include functional analogs, and the multiple uses of a same component by different systems. Models are used to search for molecular systems in complete genomes or in unstructured data like metagenomes. The components of the systems are searched by sequence similarity using Hidden Markov model (HMM protein profiles. The assignment of hits to a given system is decided based on compliance with the content and organization of the system model. A graphical interface, MacSyView, facilitates the analysis of the results by showing overviews of component content and genomic context. To exemplify the use of MacSyFinder we built models to detect and class CRISPR-Cas systems following a previously established classification. We show that MacSyFinder allows to easily define an accurate "Cas-finder" using publicly available protein profiles.MacSyFinder is a standalone application implemented in Python. It requires Python 2.7, Hmmer and makeblastdb (version 2.2.28 or higher. It is freely available with its source code under a GPLv3 license at https://github.com/gem-pasteur/macsyfinder. It is compatible with all platforms supporting Python and Hmmer/makeblastdb. The "Cas-finder" (models and HMM profiles is distributed as a compressed tarball archive as Supporting Information.

  1. SyPRID sampler: A large-volume, high-resolution, autonomous, deep-ocean precision plankton sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Andrew; Kaiser, Carl; Young, Craig M.; Hiebert, Laurel S.; Cole, Eli; Wagner, Jamie K. S.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2017-03-01

    The current standard for large-volume (thousands of cubic meters) zooplankton sampling in the deep sea is the MOCNESS, a system of multiple opening-closing nets, typically lowered to within 50 m of the seabed and towed obliquely to the surface to obtain low-spatial-resolution samples that integrate across 10 s of meters of water depth. The SyPRID (Sentry Precision Robotic Impeller Driven) sampler is an innovative, deep-rated (6000 m) plankton sampler that partners with the Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to obtain paired, large-volume plankton samples at specified depths and survey lines to within 1.5 m of the seabed and with simultaneous collection of sensor data. SyPRID uses a perforated Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight (UHMW) plastic tube to support a fine mesh net within an outer carbon composite tube (tube-within-a-tube design), with an axial flow pump located aft of the capture filter. The pump facilitates flow through the system and reduces or possibly eliminates the bow wave at the mouth opening. The cod end, a hollow truncated cone, is also made of UHMW plastic and includes a collection volume designed to provide an area where zooplankton can collect, out of the high flow region. SyPRID attaches as a saddle-pack to the Sentry vehicle. Sentry itself is configured with a flight control system that enables autonomous survey paths to low altitudes. In its verification deployment at the Blake Ridge Seep (2160 m) on the US Atlantic Margin, SyPRID was operated for 6 h at an altitude of 5 m. It recovered plankton samples, including delicate living larvae, from the near-bottom stratum that is seldom sampled by a typical MOCNESS tow. The prototype SyPRID and its next generations will enable studies of plankton or other particulate distributions associated with localized physico-chemical strata in the water column or above patchy habitats on the seafloor.

  2. Characterization of the novel dimethyl sulfide-degrading bacterium Alcaligenes sp. SY1 and its biochemical degradation pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yiming; Qiu, Jiguo; Chen, Dongzhi; Ye, Jiexu; Chen, Jianmeng, E-mail: jchen@zjut.edu.cn

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • A novel efficient DMS-degrading bacterium Alcaligenes sp. SY1 was identified. • A RSM was applied to optimize incubation condition of Alcaligenes sp. SY1. • SIP was applied as C{sup 13} labelled DMS to trace intermediates during DMS degradation. • Kinetics of DMS degradation via batch experiment was revealed. • Carbon and sulfur balance were analyzed during DMS degradation process. - Abstract: Recently, the biodegradation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) has become a burgeoning field, with a growing focus on the reduction of VOSCs. The reduction of VOSCs encompasses both organic emission control and odor control. Herein, Alcaligenes sp. SY1 was isolated from active sludge and found to utilize dimethyl sulfide (DMS) as a growth substrate in a mineral salt medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was applied to optimize the incubation conditions. The following conditions for optimal degradation were identified: temperature 27.03 °C; pH 7.80; inoculum salinity 0.84%; and initial DMS concentration 1585.39 μM. Under these conditions, approximately 99% of the DMS was degraded within 30 h of incubation. Two metabolic compounds were detected and identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS): dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). The DMS degradation kinetics for different concentrations were evaluated using the Haldane–Andrews model and the pseudo first-order model. The maximum specific growth rate and degradation rate of Alcaligenes sp. SY1 were 0.17 h{sup −1} and 0.63 gs gx{sup −1} h{sup −1}. A possible degradation pathway is proposed, and the results suggest that Alcaligenes sp. SY1 has the potential to control odor emissions under aerobic conditions.

  3. Digging up Von Békésy: Funneling of Touches around the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Pritchett

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a technique that can be used to place tactile stimuli on a continuum between two points using two tactors placed several centimeters apart. As von Békésy first described in 1959, when two pieces of skin several centimeters apart are simultaneously stimulated, a single touch is perceived at an intermediate location. When the relative intensity of the vibration of the two tactors is slowly adjusted from 1:0 to 0:1 a sensation is created of a touch moving across the skin. This has come to be known as the funneling illusion. We have characterized the funneling illusion on a variety of body parts including the hand, arm, wrist, head, torso, and legs. We show that the illusion is robust to a variety of vibration parameters, and demonstrate how it may be used for within modality touch discrimination and adjustment procedures.

  4. Type B Investigation Report for 241-SY-101 Pump Start and 241-C-106 Pit Cleanout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewalt, J.R.

    1993-09-01

    In accordance with the direction of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manager, Richland Operations Office, a Type ``B`` investigation in accordance with the DOE Order 5484.1, Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements, has been conducted. The scope of the investigation included two events: The ``Inadvertent Mixer Pump Operation at 241-SY-101`` (RL-WHC-TANK FARM-1993-069); ``Inadequate Work Control Results in Personnel Skin Contamination at 241-C-106, Pit B`` (RL-WHC-TANK FARM-1993-071) events. Additionally, at the request of the President of the WHC, a broader investigation into Waste Tank Farm ``safety practices`` and ``Conduct of Operations`` was also conducted. The review was focused on (1) WHC organizations performing operations, maintenance, and radiological safety tasks; and (2) KEH organizations performing major maintenance tasks.

  5. PPARbeta agonists trigger neuronal differentiation in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Loreto, S; D'Angelo, B; D'Amico, M A; Benedetti, E; Cristiano, L; Cinque, B; Cifone, M G; Cerù, M P; Festuccia, C; Cimini, A

    2007-06-01

    Neuroblastomas are pediatric tumors originating from immature neuroblasts in the developing peripheral nervous system. Differentiation therapies could help lowering the high mortality due to rapid tumor progression to advanced stages. Oleic acid has been demonstrated to promote neuronal differentiation in neuronal cultures. Herein we report on the effects of oleic acid and of a specific synthetic PPARbeta agonist on cell growth, expression of differentiation markers and on parameters responsible for the malignancy such as adhesion, migration, invasiveness, BDNF, and TrkB expression of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The results obtained demonstrate that many, but not all, oleic acid effects are mediated by PPARbeta and support a role for PPARbeta in neuronal differentiation strongly pointing towards PPAR ligands as new therapeutic strategies against progression and recurrences of neuroblastoma.

  6. Rosiglitazone protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Tae Woo; Lee, Ji Young; Shim, Wan Sub; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Soo Kyung; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2006-01-01

    Acetaldehyde, an inhibitor of mitochondrial function, has been widely used as a neurotoxin because it elicits a severe Parkinson's disease-like syndrome with elevation of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and apoptosis. Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, has been known to show various non-hypoglycemic effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-apoptotic. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of rosiglitazone on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and attempted to examine its mechanism. Acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis was moderately reversed by rosiglitazone treatment. Our results suggest that the protective effects of rosiglitazone on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis may be ascribed to ability to induce the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and to regulate Bcl-2 and Bax expression. These data indicate that rosiglitazone may provide a useful therapeutic strategy for the prevention of progressive neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease

  7. Test plan for qualification testing of the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    A mixer pump was installed in tank 241-SY-101 on July 3, 1993, to support hydrogen mitigation testing. This test mixer pump has proven to be very successful in mitigating the large gas releases, or ''burps,'' from the tank waste. Therefore, a decision has been made to fabricate a spare pump that will be installed upon failure of the existing test pump. Before replacement activities can be initiated, equipment must be available to remove the existing pump. A pump removal system is currently being designed and fabricated that will support the retrieval, transportation and disposal of the existing pump. The Equipment Removal System consists of six major components: the flexible receiver system (FRS), the equipment storage container, the container strongback system, the container transport trailer, the support cranes, and the pump washdown system

  8. Identification and classification of genes regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and TRKB-mediated signalling pathways during neuronal differentiation in two subtypes of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Yuichiro; Adati, Naoki; Ozawa, Ritsuko; Maeda, Aasami; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Takeda, Tadayuki

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background SH-SY5Y cells exhibit a neuronal phenotype when treated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA), but the molecular mechanism of activation in the signalling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we compared the gene expression profiles in SK-N-SH cells and two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells (SH-SY5Y-A and SH-SY5Y-E), each of which show a different phenotype during RA-mediated differentiation. Findings SH-SY5Y-A cells diffe...

  9. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions Fenologia de Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of Objetivando conhecer o ciclo de desenvolvimento de Spalangia endius sob condições de laboratório, 360 pupas de Musca domestica com idade de 24 a 48 horas foram expostas a 15 casais de S. endius por um período de 48 horas a 26 ± 2ºC. Estas pupas foram mantidas em BOD. Com mesma temperatura, umidade relativa <70% e com fotofase de 12 horas, onde diariamente dissecava-se 15 espécimes para avaliar o estágio e tempo de desenvolvimento do himenóptero. A fenologia permite concluir que S. endius apresenta um ciclo de desenvolvimento de 19 dias, cujo período de incubação foi de 24 horas, o desenvolvimento de larvas de S. endius ocorreu nos oito dias subsequentes nos quais uma série de alterações morfológicas foi observada. O estágio de pré-pupa deu-se no décimo dia onde cessa a movimentação e inicia a eliminação de mecônio. O estágio pupal ocorreu do décimo primeiro dia ao décimo nono, momento da emergência dos primeiros machos, já as fêmeas iniciaram a emergência aproximadamente 24 horas após. Estes resultados permitem avaliar aspectos da bionomia pormenorizada do desenvolvimento de S. endius para armazenar e programar a produção deste parasitóide, otimizando sua utilização como agente de controle biológico.

  10. The Secretome of Bone Marrow and Wharton Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces Differentiation and Neurite Outgrowth in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana O. Pires

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine and compare the effects of the secretome of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs isolated from human bone-marrow (BMSCs and the Wharton jelly surrounding the vein and arteries of the umbilical cord (human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs on the survival and differentiation of a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y. For this purpose, SH-SY5Y cells were differentiated with conditioned media (CM from the MSCs populations referred above. Retinoic acid cultured cells were used as control for neuronal differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells viability assessment revealed that the secretome of BMSCs and HUCPVCs, in the form of CM, was able to induce their survival. Moreover, immunocytochemical experiments showed that CM from both MSCs was capable of inducing neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. Finally, neurite lengths assessment and quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that CM from BMSCs and HUCPVCs differently induced neurite outgrowth and mRNA levels of neuronal markers exhibited by SH-SY5Y cells. Overall, our results show that the secretome of both BMSCs and HUCPVCs was capable of supporting SH-SY5Y cells survival and promoting their differentiation towards a neuronal phenotype.

  11. SNJ-1945, a calpain inhibitor, protects SH-SY5Y cells against MPP+ and rotenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaryan, Varduhi H.; Samantaray, Supriti; Sookyoung, Park; Azuma, Mitsuyoshi; Inoue, Jun; Banik, Naren L.

    2014-01-01

    Complex pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves multiple CNS cell types. Degeneration in spinal cord neurons alongside brain has been shown to be involved in PD and evidenced in experimental parkinsonism. However, the mechanisms of these degenerative pathways are not well understood. In order to unravel these mechanisms SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were differentiated into dopaminergic and cholinergic phenotypes respectively and used as cell culture model following exposure to two parkinsonian neurotoxicants MPP+ and rotenone. SNJ-1945, a cell-permeable calpain inhibitor was tested for its neuroprotective efficacy. MPP+ and rotenone dose-dependently elevated the levels of intracellular free Ca2+ and induced a concomitant rise in the levels of active calpain. SNJ-1945 pre-treatment significantly protected cell viability and preserved cellular morphology following MPP+ and rotenone exposure. The neurotoxicants elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) more profoundly in SH-SY5Y cells differentiated into dopaminergic phenotype, and this effect could be attenuated with SNJ-1945 pre-treatment. In contrast, significant levels of inflammatory mediators (cyclooxygenase-2, Cox-2 and cleaved p10 fragment of caspase-1) were upregulated in the cholinergic phenotype, which could be dose-dependently attenuated by the calpain inhibitor. Overall, SNJ-1945 was efficacious against MPP+ or rotenone-induced ROS generation, inflammatory mediators, and proteolysis. A post-treatment regimen of SNJ-1945 was also examined in cells and partial protection was attained with calpain inhibitor administration 1–3 h after exposure to MPP+ or rotenone. Taken together these results indicate that calpain inhibition is a valid target for protection against parkinsonian neurotoxicants, and SNJ-1945 is an efficacious calpain inhibitor in this context. PMID:24341912

  12. In situ determination of rheological properties and void fraction in Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.; Shepard, C.L.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Stokes, T.I.; Terrones, G.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the operation of the void fraction instrument (VFI) and ball rheometer in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101, which contains approximately one million gallons of radioactive waste. These instruments provided the first direct assay of the waste condition in the tank after more than a year of mixer pump operation. The two instruments were deployed in the tank in late 1994 and early 1995 to gather much-needed data on the effect prolonged mixer pump operation has on gas retention in the waste. The information supplied by these instruments has filled a great gap in the quantitative knowledge of the waste condition. The results show that the solids are well-mixed by the current mixer pump to within less than a meter of the tank bottom. Undisturbed sludge remains only on the lowest 10--30 cm and contains 10--12% void. The mixed slurry above contains less than 1% void and has no measurable yield strength and a shear-thinning viscosity of approximately 6 Poise at 1 sec -1 . Estimating the gas volumes in each of the four layers based on VFI data yields a total of 221 ± 57 m 3 (7,800 ± 2,000 SCF) of gas at 1 atmosphere. Given the current waste level of 10.2 m (400 inches), the degassed waste level would be 9.8 m (386 inches). These results confirm that the mixer pump in Tank 241-SY-101 has performed the job it was installed to do--thoroughly mix the waste to release stored gas and prevent gas accumulation

  13. 241-SY-101 strain concentration factor development via nonlinear analysis. Volume 1 of 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The 241-SY-101 waste storage tank at the Hanford-Site has been known to accumulate and release significant quantities of hydrogen gas. An analysis was performed to assess the tank's structural integrity when subjected to postulated hydrogen deflagration loads. The analysis addressed many nonlinearities and appealed to a strain-based failure criteria. The model used to predict the global response of the tank was not refined enough to confidently predict local peak strains. Strain concentration factors were applied at structural discontinuities that were based on steel-lined reinforced-concrete containment studies. The discontinuities included large penetrations, small penetrations, springline geometries, stud/liner connections, and the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch liner thickness transition. The only tank specific strain concentration factor applied in the evaluation was for the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch liner thickness change in the dome. Review of the tank drawings reveals the possibility that a 4 inches Sch. 40 pipe penetrates the dome thickness transition region. It is not obvious how to combine the strain concentration factors for a small penetration with that of a thickness transition to arrive at a composite strain concentration factor. It is the goal of this effort to make an approximate determination of the relative significance of the 4 inch penetration and the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch thickness transition in the 241-SY-101 dome geometry. This is accomplished by performing a parametric study with three general finite-element models. The first represents the thickness transition only, the second represents a 4 inch penetration only, and the third combines the thickness transition with a penetration model

  14. Differentiation of the SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Mackenzie M; Mangold, Colleen A; Szpara, Moriah L

    2016-02-17

    Having appropriate in vivo and in vitro systems that provide translational models for human disease is an integral aspect of research in neurobiology and the neurosciences. Traditional in vitro experimental models used in neurobiology include primary neuronal cultures from rats and mice, neuroblastoma cell lines including rat B35 and mouse Neuro-2A cells, rat PC12 cells, and short-term slice cultures. While many researchers rely on these models, they lack a human component and observed experimental effects could be exclusive to the respective species and may not occur identically in humans. Additionally, although these cells are neurons, they may have unstable karyotypes, making their use problematic for studies of gene expression and reproducible studies of cell signaling. It is therefore important to develop more consistent models of human neurological disease. The following procedure describes an easy-to-follow, reproducible method to obtain homogenous and viable human neuronal cultures, by differentiating the chromosomally stable human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y. This method integrates several previously described methods(1-4) and is based on sequential removal of serum from media. The timeline includes gradual serum-starvation, with introduction of extracellular matrix proteins and neurotrophic factors. This allows neurons to differentiate, while epithelial cells are selected against, resulting in a homogeneous neuronal culture. Representative results demonstrate the successful differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from an initial epithelial-like cell phenotype into a more expansive and branched neuronal phenotype. This protocol offers a reliable way to generate homogeneous populations of neuronal cultures that can be used for subsequent biochemical and molecular analyses, which provides researchers with a more accurate translational model of human infection and disease.

  15. Process Control Plan for Tank 241-SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    The tank 241-SY-101 transfer system was conceived and designed to address the immediate needs presented by rapidly changing waste conditions in tank 241-SY-101. Within approximately the last year, the waste in this tank has exhibited unexpected behavior (Rassat et al. 1999) in the form of rapidly increasing crust growth. This growth has been brought about by a rapidly increasing rate of gas entrapment within the crust. It has been conceived that the lack of crust agitation beginning upon the advent of mixer pump operations may have set-up a more consolidated, gas impermeable barrier when compared to a crust regularly broken up by the prior buoyant displacement events within the tank. The interim goals of the project are to: (1) protect the mixer pump operability (2) begin releasing gas from the crust, and (3) begin dissolving the crust and solids in the slurry layer. The final goals of the project (Final State) are to solve both the level growth and BD-GRE safety issues in this tank by achieving a condition of the waste such that no active measures are required to safely store the waste, i.e., crust and non convective layer are mostly dissolved, and therefore the mixer pump will no longer be needed to prevent BD-GREs in excess of 100% LFL. Transfers (which are designed to create space in the tank) and dilution (which will dissolve the solids) will accomplish this. Dissolution of solids will result in a release of gas retained by those solids and remove that volume of solids as a future retention site

  16. Acceptance test report, 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System, Phase 2 testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of the Phase 2 acceptance test of the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System (FRS). The FRS is one of six major components of the Equipment Removal System, which has been designed to retrieve, transport, and store the test mixer pump currently installed in Tank 241-SY-101. The purpose of this acceptance test is to verify the strength of the containment bag and bag bottom cinching mechanism. It is postulated that 68 gallons of waste could be trapped inside the pump internals. The bag must be capable of supporting this waste if it shakes loose and drains to the bottom of the bag after the bag bottom has been cinched closed. This acceptance test was performed at the Maintenance and Storage Facility (MASF) Facility in the 400 area on January 23, 1995. The bag assembly supported the weight of 920 kg (2,020 lbs) of water with no leakage or damage to the bag. This value meets the acceptance criteria of 910 kg of water and therefore the results were found to be acceptable. The maximum volume of liquid expected to be held up in the pump internals is 258 L (68 gallons), which corresponds to 410 kg. This test weight gives just over a safety factor of 2. The bag also supported a small shock load while it was filled with water when the crane hoisted the bag assembly up and down. Based on the strength rating of the bag components, the bag assembly should support 2--3 times the test weight of 910 kg

  17. Variable weight Khazani-Syed code using hybrid fixed-dynamic technique for optical code division multiple access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad; Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah

    2016-10-01

    Future Internet consists of a wide spectrum of applications with different bit rates and quality of service (QoS) requirements. Prioritizing the services is essential to ensure that the delivery of information is at its best. Existing technologies have demonstrated how service differentiation techniques can be implemented in optical networks using data link and network layer operations. However, a physical layer approach can further improve system performance at a prescribed received signal quality by applying control at the bit level. This paper proposes a coding algorithm to support optical domain service differentiation using spectral amplitude coding techniques within an optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) scenario. A particular user or service has a varying weight applied to obtain the desired signal quality. The properties of the new code are compared with other OCDMA codes proposed for service differentiation. In addition, a mathematical model is developed for performance evaluation of the proposed code using two different detection techniques, namely direct decoding and complementary subtraction.

  18. The effects of temperature and innate immunity on transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) between life stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, S; Gill, C; Lowenberger, C; Skovgård, H; Hald, B

    2014-05-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) is a well-established vector of human pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., which can cause infection of broiler chicken flocks, and through contaminated broiler meat can cause outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in humans. We investigated whether Campylobacter jejuni (Jones) could be transferred between life stages of M. domestica (larvae-pupae-adults) and determined bacterial counts of C. jejuni at different time points after bacterial exposure. C. jejuni was transmitted from infected larvae to pupae, but not to the adult stage. Infected larvae maintained at 25 degrees C had mean bacterial numbers of 6.5 +/- 0.2 SE log10 (colony forming units [CFU]/g) that subsequently dropped to 3.6 +/- 0.3 SE log10 (CFU/g) 8 h after infection. Pupae originating from infected larvae contained mean bacterial numbers of 5.3 +/- 0.1 SE log10 (CFU/g), and these numbers dropped to 4.8 +/- 0.1 SE log10 (CFU/g) 24 h after pupation. The decline in C. jejuni numbers during pupal development coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial peptides, including cecropin, diptericin, attacin, and defensin, in the larva-pupa transition stage and a later second peak in older pupae (4 or 48 h). Conversely, there was a reduced expression of the digestive enzyme, lysozyme, in pupae and adults compared with larvae.

  19. Protozoarios parásitos de importancia en salud pública transportados por Musca domestica Linnaeus en Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Cárdenas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo investiga los protozoarios parásitos de importancia para la salud pública transportados por Musca domestica. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre los meses de junio y diciembre de 1998, en los distritos de Comas y San Juan de Lurigancho de la provincia de Lima. Se estudiaron 3014 moscas colectadas en la basura acumulada en la vía pública de los pueblos jóvenes de los distritos mencionados. Las capturas se agruparon en lotes constituidos por un promedio de 30 moscas. Se estudiaron un total de 100 lotes. Las moscas fueron disecadas y procesadas con agua destilada estéril para obtener un macerado intestinal. Para la observación de los parásitos se utilizó el método directo simple y la coloración tricrómica de Gomori ácido resistente modificado. Se encontraron los siguientes protozoarios que parasitan al hombre: Blastocystis hominis (9,0%, Giardia lamblia (3,0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (2,0%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (1,0%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (17,0%, Endolimax nana (5,0% y Chilomastix mesnili (3,0%. Se reporta por primera vez para el Perú a B. hominis y Cyclospora cayetanensis en M. domestica.

  20. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestic l., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiation as host of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839 (hymenoptera: pteromalidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source used was a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestic L., 1758 and the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity. This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization M. domestic pupae, using gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoid S. endius. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days old pupae were irradiated (dose rate: 1,510 Gy/hr) and exposed to the parasitoid S. endius at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five housefly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow us to conclude that irradiation increase the acceptability period of the housefly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiate the housefly pupae was one day. (author)

  1. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestic l., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiation as host of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839 (hymenoptera: pteromalidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itepan, Natanael M.; Itepan, Sara E.D.Z.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source used was a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10 13 Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestic L., 1758 and the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity. This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization M. domestic pupae, using gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoid S. endius. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days old pupae were irradiated (dose rate: 1,510 Gy/hr) and exposed to the parasitoid S. endius at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five housefly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow us to conclude that irradiation increase the acceptability period of the housefly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiate the housefly pupae was one day. (author)

  2. Glutathione transferase-M2-2 secreted from glioblastoma cell protects SH-SY5Y cells from aminochrome neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos; Huenchuguala, Sandro; Muñoz, Patricia; Villa, Monica; Paris, Irmgard; Mannervik, Bengt; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2015-04-01

    U373MG cells are able to take up aminochrome that induces glutathione transferase M2-2 (GSTM2) expression in a concentration-dependent manner where 100 µM aminochrome increases GSTM2 expression by 2.1-fold (P protects SH-SY5Y cells incubated with 10 µM aminochrome. The significant protection provided by U373MG-conditioned medium in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with aminochrome was dependent on GSTM2 internalization into SH-SY5Y cells as evidenced by (i) uptake of (14)C-GSTM2 released from U373MG cells into SH-SY5Y cells, a process inhibited by anti-GSTM2 antiserum; (ii) lack of protection of U373MG-conditioned medium in the presence of anti-GSTM2 antiserum on SH-SY5Y cells treated with aminochrome; and (iii) lack of protection of conditioned medium from U373MGsiGST6 that expresses an siRNA directed against GSTM2 on SH-SY5Y cells treated with aminochrome. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that U373MG cells protect SH-SY5Y cells against aminochrome neurotoxicity by releasing GSTM2 into the conditioned medium and subsequent internalization of GSTM2 into SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest a new mechanism of protection of dopaminergic neurons mediated by astrocytes by releasing GSTM2 into the intersynaptic space and subsequent internalization into dopaminergic neuron in order to protect these cells against aminochrome neurotoxicity.

  3. Differential Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Protein and Apoptosis-Related Genes in Differentiated and Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells Treated with MPP+

    OpenAIRE

    Khwanraj, Kawinthra; Phruksaniyom, Chareerut; Madlah, Suriyat; Dharmasaroja, Permphan

    2015-01-01

    The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line has been used as a dopaminergic cell model for Parkinson's disease research. Whether undifferentiated or differentiated SH-SY5Y cells are more suitable remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related mRNAs activated by MPP+ and evaluate the differential expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in undifferentiated and retinoic acid- (RA-) induced differentiated cells. The western blot results showed a gradual decre...

  4. Regulation of nicotinic receptor subtypes following chronic nicotinic agonist exposure in M10 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warpman, U; Friberg, L; Gillespie, A

    1998-01-01

    investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells (expressing alpha3, alpha5, beta2, and beta4 nAChR subunits). Nicotine exhibited a 14 times lower affinity for the nAChRs in SH-SY5Y cells as compared with M10 cells, whereas epibatidine showed similar affinities for the nAChRs expressed in the two cell lines...

  5. Effect of ellagic acid on proliferation, cell adhesion and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjaeraa, Christina; Nånberg, Eewa

    2009-05-01

    Ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound found in berries, fruits and nuts, has been shown to possess growth-inhibiting and apoptosis promoting activities in cancer cell lines in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ellagic acid in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In cultures of SH-SY5Y cells incubated with ellagic acid, time- and concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on cell number were demonstrated. Ellagic acid induced cell detachment, decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis as measured by DNA strand breaks. Ellagic acid-induced alterations in cell cycle were also observed. Simultaneous treatment with all-trans retinoic acid did not rescue the cells from ellagic acid effects. Furthermore, the results suggested that pre-treatment with all-trans retinoic acid to induce differentiation and cell cycle arrest did not rescue the cells from ellagic acid-induced cell death.

  6. Quarterly review of 241-SY-101 mixer pump data: January - March 1999; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNER, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents data obtained on 241-SY-101 pump performance. The period covered is January 1 through March 31, 1999. During the quarter: There were changes in pumping parameters. Both the pump volute pressure and amperage decreased during the quarter. It is not clear whether this was due to changes in waste properties (due to less solids or more entrained gas) or due to degradation of the pump. There was an indication of a 7.5-inch increase in the waste level at riser 1 A, and an average growth rate of 0.082 inches per day. There was an indication of a 5.7-inch increase in the waste level at riser 1C. This riser was flushed with water several times, which would lower the level of the crust at this location. Gases continued to be released at less than the pre-pump installation baseline rate, indicating a decrease in the gas generation rate, or an increase in gas retention, or both. The release rate was about 78 percent of the rate in the previous few quarters, and only 34 percent of the generation rate calculated prior to mixer pump installation in 1993. Key controls exist for waste temperature, gas concentration, pump parameters, and long-term waste behavior associated with the safe operation of the mixer pump that mitigates the buoyant displacement gas release event behavior of 241-SY-101. Table 1-1 compares the key controls and the current state of the waste as of March 3 1. 1999. The pump was run 28 times between January 1 and March 31, 1999. All of the pump runs were intended to be normal 25-minute, 1000-rpm excavation runs performed to mix the waste and release gas. Because of the pump oil often reached the high temperature alarm setpoint of 190 F, many of the runs were shortened (by as many as 8 minutes). This phenomenon was identified in November 1998, but got progressively worse over the quarter. The pump schedule was nominally three runs per week. However, core sampling activities interrupted the usual pump schedule several times during the quarter

  7. System Design Description for the SY-101 Hydrogen Mitigation Test Project Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the hardware and software of the computer subsystems for the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, The original system was designed and implemented by LANL, supplied to WHC, and turned over to LMHC for operation. In 1999, the hardware and software were upgraded to provide a state-of-the-art, Year-2000 compliant system.

  8. Baicalein antagonizes rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to Parkinsonism

    OpenAIRE

    Song Ju-Xian; Choi Mandy; Wong Kavin; Chung Winkie; Sze Stephen; Ng Tzi-Bun; Zhang Kalin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Two active compounds, baicalein and its glycoside baicalin were found in the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and reported to be neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of baicalein on the rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to parkinsonism. Methods Cell viability and cytotoxicity were determined by MTT assay. The degree of nuclear apoptosis was evaluated with a fluorescent DNA-bindi...

  9. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP induces differentiation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells into a noradrenergic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Toshiaki; Kawato, Yuka; Osakada, Fumitaka; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Katsuki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji; Niidome, Tetsuhiro; Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Akaike, Akinori

    2008-10-10

    Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) and retinoic acid (RA) have been demonstrated to be the inducers of morphological differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells, a human catecholaminergic neuroblastoma cell line. However, it remains unclear whether morphologically differentiated SH-SY5Y cells by these compounds acquire catecholaminergic properties. We focused on the alteration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and intracellular content of noradrenaline (NA) as the indicators of functional differentiation. Three days treatment with dbcAMP (1mM) and RA (10microM) induced morphological changes and an increase of TH-positive cells using immunocytochemical analysis in SH-SY5Y cells. The percentage of TH-expressing cells in dbcAMP (1mM) treatment was larger than that in RA (10microM) treatment. In addition, dbcAMP increased intracellular NA content, whereas RA did not. The dbcAMP-induced increase in TH-expressing cells is partially inhibited by KT5720, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. We also investigated the effect of butyrate on SH-SY5Y cells, because dbcAMP is enzymatically degraded by intracellular esterase, thereby resulting in the formation of butyrate. Butyrate induced the increase of NA content at lower concentrations than dbcAMP, although the increase in TH-expressing cells by butyrate was smaller than that by dbcAMP. The dbcAMP (1mM)- and butyrate (0.3mM)-induced increase in NA content was completely suppressed by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (1mM), an inhibitor of TH. These results suggest that dbcAMP induces differentiation into the noradrenergic phenotype through both PKA activation and butyrate.

  10. DeSyGNER: A Building Block Architecture Fostering Independent Cooperative Development of Multimedia Knowledge Management Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Deibel, Stephan R.A.; Greenes, Robert A.; Snydr-Michal, Jan T.

    1990-01-01

    Multimedia knowledge management requires generalized sharing, composition and inter-relation of disparate data and knowledge elements. Since traditional computer operating systems treat programs as bodies of isolated functionality, inter-program connections can be made only by considerable effort on the part of each program author. We have been developing a multimedia kernel called DeSyGNER (the Decision Systems Group Nucleus of Extensible Resources) that provides basic multimedia knowledge m...

  11. Semisynthesis of SY-1 for investigation of breast cancer stem cell selectivity of C-ring-modified salinomycin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoli; Borgström, Björn; Månsson, Linda; Persson, Lo; Oredsson, Stina; Hegardt, Cecilia; Strand, Daniel

    2014-07-18

    Salinomycin, a naturally occurring polyether ionophore was recently found to selectively reduce the proportion of CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells, a phenotype associated with breast cancer stem cells. Subsequent studies from our group showed that chemical modification of the allylic C20 hydroxyl of salinomycin, located at the C-ring, can enhance the activity of derivatives against breast cancer cells over 5-fold compared to the native structure. Access to C-ring-modified salinomycin analogues is thus of interest from both a mechanistic and a synthetic perspective. Here, we report efficient strategies for gram scale synthesis of the natural product SY-1 (20-deoxy salinomycin), and a saturated analogue, 18,19-dihydro SY-1, for a comparative in vitro investigation of the biological profiles of these compounds with that of salinomycin. Across several assays, the deoxygenated structures required higher concentrations to elicit similar cellular responses to that of salinomycin. Similarly to salinomycin, SY-1 or 18,19-dihydro SY-1 treatment was found to reduce the proportion of CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells with essentially complete selectivity up to ∼IC25. Importantly, the proportion of CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells showed a pronounced U-shaped dose response curve for salinomycin and its derivatives, but not for paclitaxel. The concentration for maximum response in this assay followed differences in IC50 for salinomycin and its analogues, which emphasizes the importance of taking concentration dependence into account when comparing effects on the CD44(+)/CD24(-) phenotype. Small differences in the global conformation within the triad of compounds investigated together with differences in activity across assays emphasize the importance of substitution at C20 for the activity of salinomycin and its derivatives.

  12. Effects of all-trans-retinoic acid on human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma as in vitro model in neurotoxicity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yuen-Ting; Lau, Way Kwok-Wai; Yu, Man-Shan; Lai, Cora Sau-Wan; Yeung, Sze-Chun; So, Kwok-Fai; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y is a dopaminergic neuronal cell line which has been used as an in vitro model for neurotoxicity experiments. Although the neuroblastoma is usually differentiated by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), both RA-differentiated and undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells have been used in neuroscience research. However, the changes in neuronal properties triggered by RA as well as the subsequent responsiveness to neurotoxins have not been comprehensively studied. Therefore, we aim to re-evaluate the differentiation property of RA on this cell line. We hypothesize that modulation of signaling pathways and neuronal properties during RA-mediated differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells can affect their susceptibility to neurotoxins. The differentiation property of RA was confirmed by showing an extensive outgrowth of neurites, increased expressions of neuronal nuclei, neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and synaptic associated protein-97, and decreased expression of inhibitor of differentiation-1. While undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells were susceptible to 6-OHDA and MPP+, RA-differentiation conferred SH-SY5Y cells higher tolerance, potentially by up-regulating survival signaling, including Akt pathway as inhibition of Akt removed RA-induced neuroprotection against 6-OHDA. As a result, the real toxicity cannot be revealed in RA-differentiated cells. Therefore, undifferentiated SH-SY5Y is more appropriate for studying neurotoxicity or neuroprotection in experimental Parkinson's disease research.

  13. System design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truitt, R.W.; Pounds, T.S.; Smith, S.O.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the hardware subsystems of the data acquisition and control system (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The system was designed and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste tank, directed at certain angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. The SY-101 tank has experienced recurrent periodic gas releases of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and (recently discovered) methane. The hydrogen gas represents a danger, as some of the releases are in amounts above the lower flammability limit (LFL). These large gas releases must be mitigated. Several instruments have been added to the tank to monitor the gas compositions, the tank level, the tank temperature, and other parameters. A mixer pump has been developed to stir the tank waste to cause the gases to be released at a slow rate. It is the function of the DACS to monitor those instruments and to control the mixer pump in a safe manner. During FY93 and FY94 the mixer pump was installed with associated testing operations support equipment and a mitigation test project plan was implemented. These activities successfully demonstrated the mixer pump's ability to mitigate the SY-101 tank hydrogen gas hazard

  14. Modulation of chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by caffeine and chlorogenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Grant, Gary D; Desbrow, Ben; Lai, Richard; Arora, Devinder; Hong, Yinna

    2017-06-01

    Chemotherapy is an important treatment modality for malignancy but is limited by significant toxicity and it susceptibility to numerous drug interactions. While the interacting effects with medications are well known, there is limited evidence on the interaction with commonly consumed food and natural products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactive constituents of coffee (caffeine and chlorogenic acid) on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel in vitro. Pretreatment with caffeine (100 nM and 10 μM) sensitized SH-SY5Y cells to doxorubicin-induced toxicity and increased apoptosis and sensitized PC3 cells to gemcitabine-induced toxicity. Pretreatment with 10 μM caffeine decreased total cell reactive oxygen species (ROS) production but increased mitochondrial ROS production. In contrast, caffeine (10 nM and 10 μM) protected cells against gemcitabine-induced toxicity and apoptosis. Similarly, 1 μM and 10 μM caffeine protected cells against paclitaxel-induced toxicity and mitochondrial ROS production. Chlorogenic acid had no effect on chemotherapy-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary evidence that caffeine, not chlorogenic acid, modulates the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel in SH-SY5Y cells via different mechanisms.

  15. [Resistance of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei SY13 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ to reactive oxygen species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Lv, Jiaping; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Liyu; Song, Jinhui; Wang, Zhifei

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated antioxidative effect of two antioxidative strains, isolated from the traditional fermented dairy products. Both intact cells and cell-free extract of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei SY13 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ were used to study the inhibited effect of linoleic acid peroxidation, the ability of scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical,the ability of tolerancing hydrogen peroxide and the chelating capacity of ferrous ion and reducting activity. Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei SY13 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ demonstrated highest inhibition on linoleic acid peroxidation by 62.95% and 66.16%, respectively. The cell-free extract showed excellent scavenging superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals activity. However, the intact cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ scavenging superoxide and hydroxyl radicals capacity were not detected. The intact cells of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei SY13 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability and chelating ferrous ion capacity were superior to cell-free extract. The highest reduced activety was equivalent to 305 micromol/L and 294 micromol/L L-cysteine. Two latobacilli strains had good antioxidant capacity. As potential probiotics, it can be used in future.

  16. Neurotoxicity Induced by Bupivacaine via T-Type Calcium Channels in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xianjie; Xu, Shiyuan; Liu, Hongzhen; Zhang, Quinguo; Liang, Hua; Yang, Chenxiang; Wang, Hanbing

    2013-01-01

    There is concern regarding neurotoxicity induced by the use of local anesthetics. A previous study showed that an overload of intracellular calcium is involved in the neurotoxic effect of some anesthetics. T-type calcium channels, which lower the threshold of action potentials, can regulate the influx of calcium ions. We hypothesized that T-type calcium channels are involved in bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, we first investigated the effects of different concentrations of bupivacaine on SH-SY5Y cell viability, and established a cell injury model with 1 mM bupivacaine. The cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells was measured following treatment with 1 mM bupivacaine and/or different dosages (10, 50, or 100 µM) of NNC 55-0396 dihydrochloride, an antagonist of T-type calcium channels for 24 h. In addition, we monitored the release of lactate dehydrogenase, cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), cell apoptosis and caspase-3 expression. SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with different dosages (10, 50, or 100 µM) of NNC 55-0396 dihydrochloride improved cell viability, reduced lactate dehydrogenase release, inhibited apoptosis, and reduced caspase-3 expression following bupivacaine exposure. However, the protective effect of NNC 55-0396 dihydrochloride plateaued. Overall, our results suggest that T-type calcium channels may be involved in bupivacaine neurotoxicity. However, identification of the specific subtype of T calcium channels involved requires further investigation. PMID:23658789

  17. Baicalein antagonizes rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Xian; Choi, Mandy Yuen-Man; Wong, Kavin Chun-Kit; Chung, Winkie Wing-Yan; Sze, Stephen Cho-Wing; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Zhang, Kalin Yan-Bo

    2012-01-21

    Two active compounds, baicalein and its glycoside baicalin were found in the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and reported to be neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of baicalein on the rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to parkinsonism. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were determined by MTT assay. The degree of nuclear apoptosis was evaluated with a fluorescent DNA-binding probe Hoechst 33258. The production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined by fluorescent staining with DCFH-DA and Rhodanmine 123, respectively. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was determined by the Western blots. Baicalein significantly increased viability and decreased rotenone-induced death of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pre- and subsequent co-treatment with baicalein preserved the cell morphology and attenuated the nuclear apoptotic characteristics triggered by rotenone. Baicalein antagonized rotenone-induced overproduction of ROS, loss of ΔΨm, the increased expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and the decreased expression of Bcl-2. The antioxidative effect, mitochondrial protection and modulation of anti-and pro-apoptotic proteins are related to the neuroprotective effects of baicalein against rotenone induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.

  18. Baicalein antagonizes rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ju-Xian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two active compounds, baicalein and its glycoside baicalin were found in the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and reported to be neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of baicalein on the rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to parkinsonism. Methods Cell viability and cytotoxicity were determined by MTT assay. The degree of nuclear apoptosis was evaluated with a fluorescent DNA-binding probe Hoechst 33258. The production of reactive oxidative species (ROS and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm were determined by fluorescent staining with DCFH-DA and Rhodanmine 123, respectively. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was determined by the Western blots. Results Baicalein significantly increased viability and decreased rotenone-induced death of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pre- and subsequent co-treatment with baicalein preserved the cell morphology and attenuated the nuclear apoptotic characteristics triggered by rotenone. Baicalein antagonized rotenone-induced overproduction of ROS, loss of ΔΨm, the increased expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and the decreased expression of Bcl-2. Conclusion The antioxidative effect, mitochondrial protection and modulation of anti-and pro-apoptotic proteins are related to the neuroprotective effects of baicalein against rotenone induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.

  19. Salicin from Willow Bark can Modulate Neurite Outgrowth in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfle, Ute; Haarhaus, Birgit; Kersten, Astrid; Fiebich, Bernd; Hug, Martin J; Schempp, Christoph M

    2015-10-01

    Salicin from willow bark has been used throughout centuries in China and Europe for the treatment of pain, headache, and inflammatory conditions. Recently, it could be demonstrated that salicin binds and activates the bitter taste receptor TAS2R16. Studies on rodent tissues showed the general expression of bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) in rodent brain. Here, we demonstrate the expression of hTAS2R16 in human neuronal tissues and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. The functionality was analyzed in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y after stimulation with salicin, a known TAS2R16 agonist. In this setting salicin induced in SH-SY5Y cells phosphorylation of ERK and CREB, the key transcription factor of neuronal differentiation. PD98059, an inhibitor of the ERK pathway, as well as probenecid, a TAS2R16 antagonist, inhibited receptor phosphorylation as well as neurite outgrowth. These data show that salicin might modulate neurite outgrowth by bitter taste receptor activation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Soil structure interaction analysis for the Hanford Site 241-SY-101 double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.; Weiner, E.O.

    1991-09-01

    The 241-SY-101 tank is a double-shell waste storage tank buried in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This analysis addresses the effects of seismic soil-structure interaction on the tank structure and includes a parametric soil-structure interaction study addressing three configurations: two-dimensional soil structure, a two-dimensional structure-soil-structure, and a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction. This study was designed to determine an optimal method for addressing seismic-soil effects on underground storage tanks. The computer programs calculate seismic-soil pressures on the double-shell tank walls and and seismic acceleration response spectra in the tank. The results of this soil-structure interaction parametric study as produced by the computer programs are given in terms of seismic soil pressures and response spectra. The conclusions of this soil-structure interaction evaluation are that dynamically calculated soil pressures in the 241-SY-101 tank are significantly reduce from those using standard hand calculation methods and that seismic evaluation of underground double-shell waste storage tanks must consider soil-structure interaction effects in order to predict conservative structural response. Appendixes supporting this study are available in Volume 2 of this report

  1. Curcumin Attenuated Bupivacaine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells Via Activation of the Akt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, You-Ling; Li, Heng-Chang; Zhao, Wei; Peng, Hui-Hua; Huang, Fang; Jiang, Wei-Hang; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Bupivacaine is widely used for regional anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, and pain management. However, bupivacaine could cause neuronal injury. Curcumin, a low molecular weight polyphenol, has a variety of bioactivities and may exert neuroprotective effects against damage induced by some stimuli. In the present study, we tested whether curcumin could attenuate bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Cell injury was evaluated by examining cell viability, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. We also investigated the levels of activation of the Akt signaling pathway and the effect of Akt inhibition by triciribine on cell injury following bupivacaine and curcumin treatment. Our findings showed that the bupivacaine treatment could induce neurotoxicity. Pretreatment of the SH-SY5Y cells with curcumin significantly attenuated bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. Interestingly, the curcumin treatment increased the levels of Akt phosphorylation. More significantly, the pharmacological inhibition of Akt abolished the cytoprotective effect of curcumin against bupivacaine-induced cell injury. Our data suggest that pretreating SH-SY5Y cells with curcumin provides a protective effect on bupivacaine-induced neuronal injury via activation of the Akt signaling pathway.

  2. The Neuroprotective Effects of Brazilian Green Propolis on Neurodegenerative Damage in Human Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and synapse dysfunction are the major neurodegenerative damage correlated to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. We have found that Brazilian green propolis (propolis improves the cognitive functions of mild cognitive impairment patients living at high altitude; however, mechanism underlying the effects of propolis is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of propolis on oxidative stress, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc, the critical factors of synapse efficacy, using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with propolis significantly ameliorated the hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2- induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, propolis significantly reduced the H2O2-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS derived from mitochondria and 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG, the DNA oxidative damage marker but significantly reversed the fibrillar β-amyloid and IL-1β-impaired BDNF-induced Arc expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, propolis significantly upregulated BDNF mRNA expression in time- and dose-dependent manners. In addition, propolis induced Arc mRNA and protein expression via phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K. These observations strongly suggest that propolis protects from the neurodegenerative damage in neurons through the properties of various antioxidants. The present study provides a potential molecular mechanism of Brazilian green propolis in prevention of cognitive impairment in AD as well as aging.

  3. Neurotoxicity induced by bupivacaine via T-type calcium channels in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjie Wen

    Full Text Available There is concern regarding neurotoxicity induced by the use of local anesthetics. A previous study showed that an overload of intracellular calcium is involved in the neurotoxic effect of some anesthetics. T-type calcium channels, which lower the threshold of action potentials, can regulate the influx of calcium ions. We hypothesized that T-type calcium channels are involved in bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, we first investigated the effects of different concentrations of bupivacaine on SH-SY5Y cell viability, and established a cell injury model with 1 mM bupivacaine. The cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells was measured following treatment with 1 mM bupivacaine and/or different dosages (10, 50, or 100 µM of NNC 55-0396 dihydrochloride, an antagonist of T-type calcium channels for 24 h. In addition, we monitored the release of lactate dehydrogenase, cytosolic Ca(2+ ([Ca2+]i, cell apoptosis and caspase-3 expression. SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with different dosages (10, 50, or 100 µM of NNC 55-0396 dihydrochloride improved cell viability, reduced lactate dehydrogenase release, inhibited apoptosis, and reduced caspase-3 expression following bupivacaine exposure. However, the protective effect of NNC 55-0396 dihydrochloride plateaued. Overall, our results suggest that T-type calcium channels may be involved in bupivacaine neurotoxicity. However, identification of the specific subtype of T calcium channels involved requires further investigation.

  4. Computer system requirements specification for 101-SY hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeece, S.G.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The system requirements specification for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project (HMTP) data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) documents the system requirements for the DACS-1 project. The purpose of the DACS is to provide data acquisition and control capabilities for the hydrogen mitigation testing of Tank SY-101. Mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste, directed at varying angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. Tank and supporting instrumentation is brought into the DACS to monitor the status of the tank and to provide information on the effectiveness of the mitigation test. Instrumentation is also provided for closed loop control of the pump operation. DACS is also capable for being expanded to control and monitor other mitigation testing. The intended audience for the computer system requirements specification includes the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test data acquisition and control system designers: analysts, programmers, instrument engineers, operators, maintainers. It is intended for the data users: tank farm operations, mitigation test engineers, the Test Review Group (TRG), data management support staff, data analysis, Hanford data stewards, and external reviewers

  5. Verskyningsvorme van estetisisme en dekadensie in Sy kom met die sekelmaan en Kaapse rekwisiete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grobbelaar

    1995-04-01

    This article offers a new perspective on the novels of two well-known Afrikaans authors, namely Hettie Smit's Sy kom met die sekelmaan (1937 and Wilma Stockenstrom's Kaapse rekwisiete (1987. Both literary works are read within the framework of late nineteenth-century Western European and British aestheticism and decadence. Characteristic elements of aesthetic and decadent literature, such as an emphasis on artificiality - especially the tendency towards the fictionalization of reality narcissism, sexual perversity, and the utilization of a flowery style are identified in both novels. Stockenstrum 's novel can, however, also be read from a feminist point of view, as is already indicated by the fact that everything is seen through the eyes d f a female character, and by the negative projection of male characters and heterosexual relationships. Lefebvre's Jungian-based search for the Self is a further indication of the feminist character of this novel, as the psychological views of Jung with his accent on identity and individualisation form a myth in its own way in feminist literature.

  6. Structural analysis: Flexible receiver yoke brace for the 241SY101 mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the structural analysis of the flexible-receiver yoke brace that will be used to maintain the mixer pump lifting yoke in a vertical position during the removal of the mixer pump from waste tank 241SY101. During the removal process, the crane is connected to a lifting yoke which is attached to the lifting on the mounting flange of the mixer pump. The pump then can be lifted from the tank. At one point in the removal procedure, the crane will be disconnected from the lifting yoke. At this time, it is possible for the lifting yoke to rotate around the pinned connection between it and the pump if it is subjected to a horizontal load. To prevent the rotation of the lifting yoke, the yoke brace was designed to maintain the yoke in a vertical position while it is disconnected from the crane. This analysis addressed the adequacy of the yoke brace to provide support for the lifting yoke during high winds and a seismic event. The results of this analysis show that, when subjected to a combined design wind and seismic load, the yoke brace design is acceptable to maintain the lifting yoke in a vertical position when the yoke is disconnected from the crane

  7. Optimization of trehalose production by a novel strain Brevibacterium sp. SY361.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Rui; Gu, Guanbin; Fang, Hongying

    2008-10-01

    Trehalose production by a novel strain of Brevibacterium sp. SY361 was optimized in submerged fermentation. Different chemical and physical parameters such as carbon and nitrogen sources, inoculum level, initial pH, incubation temperature, aeration and time-course of fermentation, were studied in order to increase trehalose productivity. An optimal production medium containing 3% (w/v) glucose, 0.9% (v/v) corn steep liquor, 0.5% (w/v) KH(2)PO(4) and 0.4% (w/v) MgSO(4).7 H(2)O was found suitable for trehalose production. An optimal volume of medium in a 500 ml flask was 80 ml. The optimal levels of other parameters were 4.0% (v/v) of inoculum, initial pH of 6.0, incubation temperature of 28-32 degrees C and time-course of 60 h. Optimized parameters gave a maximum trehalose of 12.2 mg/ml with a conversion rate of 58.4%. (c) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mitigation of Tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of testing phases A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R.T.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Chvala, W.D.; Friley, J.R.; Gregory, W.B.; Hudson, J.D.; Michener, T.E.; Panisko, F.E.; Stewart, C.W.; Wise, B.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Efferding, L.E.; Fadeff, J.G.; Irwin, J.J.; Kirch, N.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    A spare mixing pump from the Hanford Grout Program was installed in Hanford double-shell waste Tank 241-SY-101 on July 3, 1993, after being modified to take advantage of waste stratification. It was anticipated that pump mixing would prevent large episodic flammable gas releases that had been occurring about every 100-150 days. A cautious initial test plan, called Phase A, was run to find how the pump and tank would behave in response to very brief and gentle pump operation. No large gas releases were triggered, and the pump performed well except for two incidents of nozzle plugging. On October 21, 1993, the next test series, Phase B, began, and the pump was applied more aggressively to mix the tank contents and mitigate uncontrolled gas releases. Orienting the pump in new directions released large volumes of gas and reduced the waste level to a near-record low. Results of the entire period from pump installation to the end of Phase B on December 17, 1993, are presented in detail in this document. Though long-term effects require further evaluation, we conclude from these data that the jet mixer pump is an effective means of controlling flammable gas release and that it has met the success criteria for mitigation in this tank.

  9. Evaluation of the generation and release of flammable gases in tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babad, H.; Johnson, G.D.; Lechelt, J.A.; Reynolds, D.A. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Pederson, L.R.; Strachan, D.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Meisel, D.; Jonah, C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Ashby, E.C. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 is a double shell, high-level waste tank located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank contains about 1 million gallons of waste that was concentrated at the 242-S Evaporator. Shortly after the waste was put in the tank, the waste began to expand because the generation of gases. In 1990 this tank was declared to have an unreviewed safety question because of the periodic release of hydrogen and nitrous oxide. A safety program was established to conduct a characterization of the waste and vented gases and to determine an effective means to prevent the accumulation of flammable gases in the tank dome space and ventilation system. Results of the expanded characterization conducted in fiscal year 1991 are presented. The use of gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, and hydrogen-specific monitors provided a greater understanding of the vented gases. Additional instrumentation placed in the tank also helped to provide more detailed information on tank temperatures, gas pressure, and gas flow rates. An extensive laboratory study involving the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Georgia Institute of Technology was initiated for the purpose of determining the mechanisms responsible for the generation of various gases. These studies evaluate both radiolytic and thermochemical processes. Results of the first series of experiments are described.

  10. 1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, J.A.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.; Elmore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.

  11. Human-machine interface (HMI) report for 241-SY-101 data acquisition system (DACS) upgrade study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides an independent evaluation of information for a Windows based Human Machine Interface (HMI) to replace the existing DOS based Iconics HMI currently used in the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used at Tank 241-SY-101. A fundamental reason for this evaluation is because of the difficulty of maintaining the system with obsolete, unsupported software. The DACS uses a software operator interface (Genesis for DOS HMI) that is no longer supported by its manufacturer, Iconics. In addition to its obsolescence, it is complex and difficult to train additional personnel on. The FY 1997 budget allocated $40K for phase 1 of a software/hardware upgrade that would have allowed the old DOS based system to be replaced by a current Windows based system. Unfortunately, budget constraints during FY 1997 has prompted deferral of the upgrade. The upgrade needs to be performed at the earliest possible time, before other failures render the system useless. Once completed, the upgrade could alleviate other concerns: spare pump software may be able to be incorporated into the same software as the existing pump, thereby eliminating the parallel path dilemma; and the newer, less complex software should expedite training of future personnel, and in the process, require that less technical time be required to maintain the system

  12. Flow sheet development for the remediation of tank SY-102 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, S.L.; Punjak, W.A.; Schreiber, S.B.; Ortiz, E.M.; Jarvinen, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. A major task of TWRS is to separate tank wastes into high-level and low-level fractions. This separation is important because of the enormous costs associated with handling high-level waste and the limited repository space that is available. Due to their high activity, segregating the actinides and fission products from the bulk of the waste is required to achieve this goal. As a part of this program, personnel at the Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed and demonstrated a flow sheet to remediate tank SY-102 at the Hanford Site. This presentation documents the results of the flow sheet demonstrations performed with simulated, but radioactive, wastes using an existing glovebox line at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. Removal of the actinides from a high-salt, low-acid feed by ion exchange is the key unit operation. The flow sheet produces relatively low waste volumes, can be accomplished with conventional chemical processing equipment, and takes advantage of the components of the waste to increase the efficiency of the TRU elements recovery

  13. Mitigation of tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of full-scale testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.; Hudson, J.D.; Friley, J.R.; Panisko, F.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Irwin, J.J.; Fadeff, J.G.; Efferding, L.F.; Michener, T.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-06-01

    The Full-Scale Mixer Pump Test Program was performed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 from February 4 to April 13, 1994, to confirm the long-term operational strategy for flammable gas mitigation and to demonstrate that mixing can control the gas release and waste level. Since its installation on July 3, 1993, the current pump, operating only a few hours per week, has proved capable of mixing the waste sufficiently to release gas continuously instead of in large episodic events. The results of Full-Scale Testing demonstrated that the pump can control gas release and waste level for long-term mitigation, and the four test sequences formed the basis for the long-term operating schedule. The last test sequence, jet penetration tests, showed that the current pump jet creates flow near the tank wall and that it can excavate portions of the bottom sludge layer if run at maximum power. Pump mixing has altered the open-quote normal close-quote configuration of the waste; most of the original nonconvective sludge has been mixed with the supernatant liquid into a mobile convective slurry that has since been maintained by gentle pump operation and does not readily return to sludge

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cocco

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, ubiquitous environmental contaminants, can adversely affect the development and function of the nervous system. Here we evaluated the effect of PCB exposure on mitochondrial function using the PCB mixture Aroclor-1254 (A1254 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. A 6-hour exposure to A1254 (5 μg/ml reduced cellular ATP production by 45%±7, and mitochondrial membrane potential, detected by TMRE, by 49%±7. Consistently, A1254 significantly decreased oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis measured by extracellular flux analyzer. Furthermore, the activity of mitochondrial protein complexes I, II, and IV, but not V (ATPase, measured by BN-PAGE technique, was significantly reduced after 6-hour exposure to A1254. The addition of pyruvic acid during exposure to A1254 significantly prevent A1254-induced cell injury, restoring resting mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels, oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, pyruvic acid significantly preserved the activity of mitochondrial complexes I, II and IV and increased basal activity of complex V. Collectively, the present results indicate that the neurotoxicity of A1254 depends on the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV activity and it was counteracted by pyruvic acid.

  15. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and SH-SY5Y cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinghui

    The Arctic and sub-arctic regions are impacted by the growth of the global nanotechnology industry. Nanomaterials have unique chemical and physical properties that may lead to toxicological effects that interfere with normal cellular metabolism. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are now very common and widely used in daily life. In industry, ZnO NPs are used to protect different materials from damage caused by UV exposure. The scientific literature suggests that ZnO NPs can have negative impacts on both living organisms and plants. However, there is a paucity of research on the mechanisms by which ZnO NPs may affect the neuronal cells. This study investigates how ZnO NPs interact with the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed that the ZnO NPs form 36 nm particles on average, and increase the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in extracellular fluid, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, ZnO NPs, in presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), can also decrease the level of extracellular VEGF compared with TNF-alpha treatment alone. These findings suggest the basis for more studies on understanding the mechanism by which ZnO NPs impact cytokine signaling. Another direction is using ELISA technology to observe the interactions of NPs with different cell types such as neuronal stem cells.

  16. Factibilidad del empleo de hongos entomopatógenos en el control de Musca domestica l. en paisajes antropizados del Noroeste de Michoacán, México.

    OpenAIRE

    García Munguía, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue seleccionar aislamientos de los hongos M. anisopliae y B. bassiana capaces de colonizar y controlar adultos y larvas de Musca domestica e identificar las condiciones ambientales de temperatura y humedad relativa favorables para su empleo. B. bassiana y M. anisopliae fueron transmitidos sexualmente en M. domestica usando 1, 5 y 10 machos vírgenes de 3 dias de edad, expuestos a 6 x 108 conidias mL- 1 de hongos los cuales fueron confinados con 30 hemb...

  17. Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells Provide a Reductionist Model of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Neurotropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Mackenzie M; Mangold, Colleen A; Kuny, Chad V; Szpara, Moriah L

    2017-12-01

    Neuron-virus interactions that occur during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection are not fully understood. Neurons are the site of lifelong latency and are a crucial target for long-term suppressive therapy or viral clearance. A reproducible neuronal model of human origin would facilitate studies of HSV and other neurotropic viruses. Current neuronal models in the herpesvirus field vary widely and have caveats, including incomplete differentiation, nonhuman origins, or the use of dividing cells that have neuropotential but lack neuronal morphology. In this study, we used a robust approach to differentiate human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells over 2.5 weeks, producing a uniform population of mature human neuronal cells. We demonstrate that terminally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells have neuronal morphology and express proteins with subcellular localization indicative of mature neurons. These neuronal cells are able to support a productive HSV-1 infection, with kinetics and overall titers similar to those seen in undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells and the related SK-N-SH cell line. However, terminally differentiated, neuronal SH-SY5Y cells release significantly less extracellular HSV-1 by 24 h postinfection (hpi), suggesting a unique neuronal response to viral infection. With this model, we are able to distinguish differences in neuronal spread between two strains of HSV-1. We also show expression of the antiviral protein cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells, which is the first demonstration of the presence of this protein in nonepithelial cells. These data provide a model for studying neuron-virus interactions at the single-cell level as well as via bulk biochemistry and will be advantageous for the study of neurotropic viruses in vitro IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus (HSV) affects millions of people worldwide, causing painful oral and genital lesions, in addition to a multitude of more severe symptoms such as eye disease, neonatal infection, and, in rare

  18. Ganancia de peso del depredador Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae en combinaciones de las presas Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae y Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto da Costa Matos Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre las ninfas de los asopíneos usados para el control de gusanos desfoliadores en plantaciones de eucalipto, Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae representa un potencial agente de control biológico, sin embargo esta especie ha sido poco estudiada. El presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de las diferentes combinaciones de las presas Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae y Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae sobre el peso de ninfas de P. distinctus. El experimento se realizó en laboratorio do "Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuaria (BIOAGRO", a 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% de humedad relativa y 14 horas de fotoperiodo. Las ninfas de P. distinctus fueron individualizadas en cajas de Petri y alimentadas de acuerdo con los siguientes tratamientos: T1- larvas de M. domestica durante toda la fase ninfal; T2- larvas de M. domestica en el II estadio y de T. molitor en los III, IV y V estadios; T3- larvas de M. domestica en el II y III estadios y de T. molitor en los IV y V estadios; T4- larvas de M. domestica en el II, III y IV estadios y de T. molitor en el V estadio; T5- larvas de T. molitor en todos los estadios. Los mejores resultados de peso y ganancia de peso fueron encontrados cuando P. distinctus fue alimentado alternadamente con larvas de M. domestica y T. molitor. Cuando esse depredador fue solamente alimentado con larvas de M. domestica, presentó pesos menoresLitlle is known about Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae one of the Asopinae species with good possibilities for mass rearing and releasing against defoliator caterpillars in eucalyptus reforested areas in Brazil. We evaluated the impact of prey combinations on weight of nymphs and adults of P. distinctus. The prey were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The experiment was developed under 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% R.H. and photophase of 14 hr, with nymphs of P. distinctus

  19. Efectos de un Inhibidor de Síntesis de Quitina en el Control de Población de Musca Domestica en una Piara Comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyos Duque Diego

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available La Musca domestica asociada a las actividades pecuarias, se ha convertido en un grave problema económico y sanitario dadas las notables cantidades de desechos orgánicos generados por éstas. Se evaluó la actividad y eficacia de un insecticida inhibidor de la síntesis de quitina administrado en el alimento a cerdos en engorde. Para ello se conformaron tres grupos de animales, uno por tratamiento. A cada grupo se le suministró el insecticida mezclado en el alimento así: 25, 12,5 y 0 ppm. Los animales, durante 15 días, consumieron el alimento medicado. Durante los 7 días siguientes consumieron alimento sin medicar. En ambos periodos se evaluó el efecto del insecticida. Para ello, en los días 2, 6, 9, 12 y 15 del primer periodo, se sembraron muestras fecales con larvas de M. domestica. Igual se hizo a los 2,4, 6 y 8 del segundo periodo. Posteriormente se hicieron los recuentos de transformación de larvas a pupas y de eclosión de adultos, encontrándose un control efectivo tanto de la pupación como de la emergencia de adultos sin diferencia significativa entre las dos dosis utilizadas y significativa entre estas y la de O ppm. Se halló un incremento de la metahemoglobina proporcional a la dosis usada y no se detectaron, con la prueba de ICH, efectos teratogénicos. Se recomienda, para bajar picos poblacionales e implementar un programa integrado de control, el uso de 12,2 ppm, usada en periodos alternados de 7 días, excepto en cerdos de menos de 40 kilos y hembras gestantes.

  20. LD50 and inviably dose of gamma radiation for Musca domestica L., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae aged 1, 2, 3 and 4 days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itepan, Natanael M.; Itepan, Sara E.D.Z.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source that was used is a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10 13 Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestica had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity, until reaching the desired ages. Lots of pupae of M. domestica that had been used, gotten by the flotation process. They had been irradiated with the ages of 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The used doses for 1 day pupae was 0 (control) 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy; for 2 days pupae: 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 Gy; for 3 days pupae: 0 (control), 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 and 360 Gy; and for 4 days pupae: 0 (control), 40; 80; 120; 160, 200, 240, 280, 320, 360, 400 480 and 520 Gy. The dose rate was about 1,500Gy/hr. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy and the LD50 was 14.28, 128.04, 243.09 e 353.57 Gy, respectively. (author)

  1. LD50 and inviably dose of gamma radiation for Musca domestica L., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae aged 1, 2, 3 and 4 days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source that was used is a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestica had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity, until reaching the desired ages. Lots of pupae of M. domestica that had been used, gotten by the flotation process. They had been irradiated with the ages of 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The used doses for 1 day pupae was 0 (control) 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy; for 2 days pupae: 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 Gy; for 3 days pupae: 0 (control), 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 and 360 Gy; and for 4 days pupae: 0 (control), 40; 80; 120; 160, 200, 240, 280, 320, 360, 400 480 and 520 Gy. The dose rate was about 1,500Gy/hr. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy and the LD50 was 14.28, 128.04, 243.09 e 353.57 Gy, respectively. (author)

  2. Novel cytochrome P450 (CYP6D1) and voltage sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) alleles of the house fly (Musca domestica) and their roles in pyrethroid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing; Yang, Chan; Liu, Yan; Gao, Qi; Li, Mei; Qiu, Xinghui

    2018-04-01

    The house fly Musca domestica is an important disease vector. Point mutation-mediated target-site insensitivity of the voltage sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) and increased detoxification mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP6D1) overexpression have been characterized as two major mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance. In this study, genetic mutations in the Vssc and CYP6D1 genes and their contribution to pyrethroid resistance were investigated. Twelve lines of house flies homozygous for four genotypes were established. House flies carrying the VSSC 1014F mutation and overexpressing CYP6D1 had higher resistance to pyrethroids than those carrying 1014F alone. The presence of the 15-bp insert in the promoter region of the CYP6D1 gene did not necessarily result in a significant increase in CYP6D1 mRNA and pyrethroid resistance levels. A novel Vssc allele carrying two mutations (G1924D and G2004S) in combination with the classic 1014F and a novel CYP6D1 allele that is very similar to CYP6D1v1 were identified in Chinese house flies. This work demonstrates the effect of genetic mutations in CYP6D1 and Vssc on the susceptibility of house flies to pyrethroids, and verifies that 15-bp insert-containing CYP6D1 alleles have a single origin. These findings offer insights into the evolution of insecticide resistance and have implications for house fly control. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Campylobacter jejuni in Musca domestica: An examination of survival and transmission potential in light of the innate immune responses of the house flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Carson; Bahrndorff, Simon; Lowenberger, Carl

    2017-08-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica, has been implicated as a vector of Campylobacter spp., a major cause of human disease. Little is known whether house flies serve as biological amplifying hosts or mechanical vectors for Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated the period after C. jejuni had been ingested by house flies in which viable C. jejuni colonies could be isolated from whole bodies, the vomitus and the excreta of adult M. domestica and evaluated the activation of innate immune responses of house flies to ingested C. jejuni over time. C. jejuni could be cultured from infected houseflies soon after ingestion but no countable C. jejuni colonies were observed > 24 h postingestion. We detected viable C. jejuni in house fly vomitus and excreta up to 4 h after ingestion, but no viable bacteria were detected ≥ 8 h. Suppression subtractive hybridization identified pathogen-induced gene expression in the intestinal tracts of adult house flies 4-24 h after ingesting C. jejuni. We measured the expression of immune regulatory (thor, JNK, and spheroide) and effector (cecropin, diptericin, attacin, defensing, and lysozyme) genes in C. jejuni-infected and -uninfected house flies using quantitative real time PCR. Some house fly factor, or combination of factors, eliminates C. jejuni within 24 h postingestion. Because C. jejuni is not amplified within the body of the housefly, this insect likely serves as a mechanical vector rather than as a true biological, amplifying vector for C. jejuni, and adds to our understanding of insect-pathogen interactions. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Properties of Dense Cores Embedded in Musca Derived from Extinction Maps and {sup 13}CO, C{sup 18}O, and NH{sub 3} Emission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaieie, Dinelsa A.; Vilas-Boas, José W.; Wuensche, Carlos A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Av. dos Astronautas 1.758—Jardim da Granja, CEP-12227-010, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Racca, Germán A. [Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Naturais/Depto. de Física, Campus Universitário Central, Setor II BR 110, KM 48, Rua Prof. António Campos, Costa e Silva 59610-090—Mossoró-RN (Brazil); Myers, Philip C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hickel, Gabriel R., E-mail: dinelsa.machaieie@inpe.br [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Departamento de Física, Av. BPS, 1303, Pinheirinho, Itajubá, MG (Brazil)

    2017-02-10

    Using near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and the Near Infrared Color Excess method, we studied the extinction distribution in five dense cores of Musca, which show visual extinction greater than 10 mag and are potential sites of star formation. We analyzed the stability in four of them, fitting their radial extinction profiles with Bonnor–Ebert isothermal spheres, and explored their properties using the J = 1–0 transition of {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O and the J = K = 1 transition of NH{sub 3}. One core is not well described by the model. The stability parameter of the fitted cores ranges from 4.5 to 5.7 and suggests that all cores are stable, including Mu13, which harbors one young stellar object (YSO), the IRAS 12322-7023 source. However, the analysis of the physical parameters shows that Mu13 tends to have larger A {sub V}, n {sub c}, and P {sub ext} than the remaining starless cores. The other physical parameters do not show any trend. It is possible that those are the main parameters to explore in active star-forming cores. Mu13 also shows the most intense emission of NH{sub 3}. Its {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O lines have double peaks, whose integrated intensity maps suggest that they are due to the superposition of clouds with different radial velocities seen in the line of sight. It is not possible to state whether these clouds are colliding and inducing star formation or are related to a physical process associated with the formation of the YSO.

  5. Assessment of resistance risk to lambda-cyhalothrin and cross-resistance to four other insecticides in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin, a sodium channel modulator insecticide, has been used frequently for the control of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) worldwide, including Pakistan. This experiment was performed to determine the selection and assessment of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance evolution along with four other insecticides. After 26 generations of selection, the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected population developed 445-fold resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the susceptible population. There was low cross-resistance to bifenthrin and very low cross-resistance to methomyl, imidacloprid, and fipronil in the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected population compared to the field population (G1). Realized heritability (h (2)) of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, methomyl, imidacloprid, and fipronil was 0.07, 0.05, 0.01, 0.08, and 0.08, respectively. The projected rate of resistance development revealed that if 90 % house flies were selected, then a tenfold increase in lethal concentration 50 occurred after 17, 20, 159, 13, and 14 generations for lambda-cyhalothrin (h (2) = 0.07, slope = 2.09), bifenthrin (h (2) = 0.05, slope = 1.73), methomyl (h (2) = 0.01, slope = 2.52), imidacloprid (h (2) = 0.08, slope = 1.89), and fipronil (h (2) = 0.08, slope = 2.03), respectively. The results of our study concluded that the house fly has the potential to develop multiple insecticide resistances following continued selection pressure with lambda-cyhalothrin. This study will be helpful for assisting the development of resistance management strategies.

  6. Fingerprinting ancient gold by measuring Pt with spatially resolved high energy Sy-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, M.F.; Calligaro, T.; Radtke, M.; Reiche, I.; Riesemeier, H.

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements of ancient gold such as Pt, give fundamental information on the circulation of the metal in the past. In the case of objects from the cultural heritage, the determination of trace elements requires non-destructive point analysis in general. These conditions and the need of good detection limits restrain the number of applicable analytical techniques. After the development of a PIXE set-up with a selective Cu or Zn filter of 75 μm and of a PIXE-XRF set-up using a primary target of As, we tested the possibilities of spatially resolved Sy-XRF to determine Pt in gold alloys. With a Zn filter, PIXE showed a detection limit of 1000 ppm in gold while PIXE-XRF lowers this detection limit down to 80 ppm. This last value being constrained by the resonant Raman effect produced on gold. In order to improve the detection limit of Pt keeping the non-destructiveness and access to point analysis, we developed an analytical protocol for XRF with synchrotron radiation at BESSY II, using the BAMline set-up. The L-lines of Pt were excited by a beam of energy above and below 11.564 keV and measured using a Si(Li) detector with a 50 μm Cu filter. A μ-beam of 100-250 μm 2 was used according to the size of the sample. The determination of the Pt content in the samples was carried out by Monte-Carlo simulation and subtraction of Au and Pt spectra obtained on pure standards. The limit of detection for Pt of 20 ppm was determined by using certified standards. The detection limits of a small set of other characteristic elements of gold were also measured using an incident energy of 33 keV

  7. Presenilin expression during induced differentiation of the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Fiona; Sundström, Erik; Samuelsson, Eva-Britt; Wiehager, Birgitta; Seiger, Ake; Johnston, Janet A; Cowburn, Richard F

    2004-06-01

    Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected with both wild-type and exon-9 deleted (deltaE9) presenilin constructs were used to study the role of the presenilin proteins during differentiation. Cells transfected with either wild-type or deltaE9 PS1, of which the latter abolishes normal endoproteolytic cleavage of the protein, showed no obvious differences in their ability to differentiate to a neuronal-like phenotype upon treatment with retinoic acid (RA). A defined pattern of PS1 expression was observed during differentiation with both RA and the phorbol ester TPA. Full-length PS1 was shown to increase dramatically within 5-24 h of RA treatment. TPA gave an earlier and longer lasting increase in full-length PS1 levels. The intracellular distribution pattern of PS1 was markedly altered following RA treatment. Within 24h PS1 was highly up-regulated throughout the cell body around the nucleus. Between 2 and 4 weeks PS1 staining appeared punctate and also localised to the nucleus. Increases in PS1 expression upon treatment with RA and TPA were blocked by treatment with cycloheximide, indicating a role of de-novo protein synthesis in this effect. PS2 expression remained unchanged during differentiation. Levels of full-length PS1 were also seen to increase during neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation in the forebrain of first trimester human foetuses between 6.5 and 11 weeks. These combined observations support the idea that PS1 is involved in neuronal differentiation by a mechanism likely independent of endoproteolysis of the protein.

  8. Numerical simulation of Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 jet initiated fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trent, D.S.; Michener, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    The episodic Gas Release Events (GREs) that have characterized the behavior of Hanford tank 241-SY-101 for the past several years are thought to result from the entrapment of gases generated in the settled solids, i.e., sludge, layer of the tank. Gases consisting of about 36% hydrogen by volume, which are generated by complicated and poorly understood radiological and chemical processes, are apparently trapped in the settled solids layer until their accumulation initiates a buoyant upset of this layer, abruptly releasing large quantities of gas. Once concept for preventing the gas accumulation is to mobilize the settled materials with jet mixing. It is suggested that continual agitation of the settled solids using a mixer pump would free the gas bubbles so that they could continually escape, thus mitigating the potential for accumulation of flammable concentrations of hydrogen in the tank dome space following a GRE. A pump test is planned to evaluate the effectiveness of the jet mixing mitigation concept. The pump will circulate liquid from the upper layer of the tank, discharging it through two horizontal jets located approximately 2 1/2 ft above the tank floor. To prepare for start-up of this pump test, technical, operation, and safety questions concerning an anticipated gas release were addressed by numerical simulation using the TEMPEST computer code. Simulations of the pump initiated gas release revealed that the amount of gas that could potentially be released to the tank dome space is very sensitive to the initial conditions assumed for the amount and distribution of gas in the sludge layer. Calculations revealed that within the assumptions regarding gas distribution and content, the pump might initiate a rollover--followed by a significant gas release--if the sludge layer contains more than about 13 to 14% gas distributed with constant volume fraction

  9. Mechanisms of gas generation from simulated SY tank farm wastes: FY 1995 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barefield, E.K.; Boatright, D.; Deshpande, A.; Doctorovich, F.; Liotta, C.L.; Neumann, H.M.; Seymore, S.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a better understanding of the mechanism of formation of flammable gases in the thermal decomposition of metal complexants such as HEDTA and sodium glycolate in simulated SY tank farm waste mixtures. This report summarizes the results of work done at the Georgia Institute of Technology in fiscal year 1995. Topics discussed are (1) long-term studies of the decomposition of HEDTA in simulated waste mixtures under an argon atmosphere at 90 and 120 degrees C, including time profiles for disappearance of HEDTA and appearance of products and the quantitative analysis of the kinetic behavior; (2) considerations of hydroxylamine as an intermediate in the production of nitrogen containing gases by HEDTA decomposition; (3) some thoughts on the revision of the global mechanism for thermal decomposition of HEDTA under argon; (4) preliminary long-term studies of the decomposition of HEDTA in simulated waste under an oxygen atmosphere at 120 degrees C; (5) estimation of the amount of NH 3 in the gas phase above HEDTA reaction mixtures; and (6) further, examination of the interaction of aluminum with nitrite ion using 27 Al NMR spectroscopy. Section 2 of this report describes the work conducted over the last three years at GIT. Section 3 contains a discussion of the kinetic behavior of HEDTA under argon; Section 4 discusses the role of hydroxylamine. Thermal decomposition of HEDTA to ED3A is the subject of Section 5, and decomposition of HEDTA in simulated waste mixtures under oxygen is covered in Section 6. In Section 7 we estimate ammonia in the gas phase; the role of aluminum is discussed in Section 8

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Arctigenin via Upregulation of P-CREB in Mouse Primary Neurons and Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Wen, Qingping; Ren, Lu; Liang, Wenbo; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Dong; Hu, Yv; Hao, Haiguang; Yan, Yaping; Zhang, Guangxian; Yang, Jingxian; Kang, Tingguo

    2013-01-01

    Arctigenin (Arc) has been shown to act on scopolamine-induced memory deficit mice and to provide a neuroprotective effect on cultured cortical neurons from glutamate-induced neurodegeneration through mechanisms not completely defined. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Arc on H89-induced cell damage and its potential mechanisms in mouse cortical neurons and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We found that Arc prevented cell viability loss induced by H89 in human SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, Arc reduced intracellular beta amyloid (Aβ) production induced by H89 in neurons and human SH-SY5Y cells, and Arc also inhibited the presenilin 1(PS1) protein level in neurons. In addition, neural apoptosis in both types of cells, inhibition of neurite outgrowth in human SH-SY5Y cells and reduction of synaptic marker synaptophysin (SYN) expression in neurons were also observed after H89 exposure. All these effects induced by H89 were markedly reversed by Arc treatment. Arc also significantly attenuated downregulation of the phosphorylation of CREB (p-CREB) induced by H89, which may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of Arc. These results demonstrated that Arc exerted the ability to protect neurons and SH-SY5Y cells against H89-induced cell injury via upregulation of p-CREB. PMID:24025424

  11. Neuroprotective Effect of Arctigenin via Upregulation of P-CREB in Mouse Primary Neurons and Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingguo Kang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctigenin (Arc has been shown to act on scopolamine-induced memory deficit mice and to provide a neuroprotective effect on cultured cortical neurons from glutamate-induced neurodegeneration through mechanisms not completely defined. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Arc on H89-induced cell damage and its potential mechanisms in mouse cortical neurons and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We found that Arc prevented cell viability loss induced by H89 in human SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, Arc reduced intracellular beta amyloid (Aβ production induced by H89 in neurons and human SH-SY5Y cells, and Arc also inhibited the presenilin 1(PS1 protein level in neurons. In addition, neural apoptosis in both types of cells, inhibition of neurite outgrowth in human SH-SY5Y cells and reduction of synaptic marker synaptophysin (SYN expression in neurons were also observed after H89 exposure. All these effects induced by H89 were markedly reversed by Arc treatment. Arc also significantly attenuated downregulation of the phosphorylation of CREB (p-CREB induced by H89, which may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of Arc. These results demonstrated that Arc exerted the ability to protect neurons and SH-SY5Y cells against H89-induced cell injury via upregulation of p-CREB.

  12. Békésy's contributions to our present understanding of sound conduction to the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puria, Sunil; Rosowski, John J

    2012-11-01

    In our daily lives we hear airborne sounds that travel primarily through the external and middle ear to the cochlear sensory epithelium. We also hear sounds that travel to the cochlea via a second sound-conduction route, bone conduction. This second pathway is excited by vibrations of the head and body that result from substrate vibrations, direct application of vibrational stimuli to the head or body, or vibrations induced by airborne sound. The sensation of bone-conducted sound is affected by the presence of the external and middle ear, but is not completely dependent upon their function. Measurements of the differential sensitivity of patients to airborne sound and direct vibration of the head are part of the routine battery of clinical tests used to separate conductive and sensorineural hearing losses. Georg von Békésy designed a careful set of experiments and pioneered many measurement techniques on human cadaver temporal bones, in physical models, and in human subjects to elucidate the basic mechanisms of air- and bone-conducted sound. Looking back one marvels at the sheer number of experiments he performed on sound conduction, mostly by himself without the aid of students or research associates. Békésy's work had a profound impact on the field of middle-ear mechanics and bone conduction fifty years ago when he received his Nobel Prize. Today many of Békésy's ideas continue to be investigated and extended, some have been supported by new evidence, some have been refuted, while others remain to be tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Emulsion-core and polyelectrolyte-shell nanocapsules: biocompatibility and neuroprotection against SH-SY5Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, Marek; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Jantas, Danuta; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Lasoń, Władysław; Warszyński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The emulsion-core and polyelectrolyte-coated nanocapsules, designed as water-insoluble neuroprotective drug delivery system, were synthesized using layer-by-layer saturation method. The isopropyl myristate was used as oil phase and docusate sodium salt as emulsifier. For the polyelectrolyte shell preparation, synthetic polyelectrolytes, cationic (PDADMAC, PAH, and PLL) and anionic (PGA) were used. The particle size and zeta potential of nanocapsules were characterized by the dynamic light scattering. The average size of synthesized nanocapsules ranged from ∼80 to ∼100 nm. Zeta potential values ranged from less than approximately −30 mV for the polyanion layers to greater than approximately +30 mV for the polycation layers. Biocompatibilities of the synthesized nanocarriers were evaluated against SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells using various biochemical assays. The results obtained show that synthesized nanocapsules coated with PLL and PGA were nontoxic to SH-SY5Y cells, and they were used as nanocarriers for model neuroprotective drug (a calpain inhibitor MDL 28170). The neuroprotective action of the encapsulated MDL 28170 against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress cytotoxicity was evaluated in the same cell line. The results showed that nanoencapsulated form of MDL 28170 were biocompatible and protected SH-SY5Y cells against the H 2 O 2 (0.5 mM/24 h)-induced damage in 20–40 times lower concentrations than those of the same drug added directly to the culture medium. These data suggest that the nanoscale carriers of neuroprotective drugs might serve as novel promising therapeutic agents for oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative processes

  14. Die trauma van tuiste en (niebehoort in Zimbabwe en sy diaspora: ‘Omsettingsversteuring’ in Shadows deur Novuyo Rosa Tshuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan U. Jacobs

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Die hernude xenofobiese aanvalle in Maart en April 2015 in Durban, Johannesburg en Kaapstad, die roof, afbrand van huise en winkels, lewensverlies, en vlug van duisende vreemde Afrikane na toevlugskampe, het nie alleen die hele kwessie rondom die Afrika-diaspora in Suid-Afrika na vore gebring nie, maar ook die vraag oor die betekenis van die begrippe ‘tuiste’ en ‘tuisland’ binne ’n diasporiese verband. In Shadows, wat in 2014 met die Herman Charles Bosman-prys bekroon is, beeld die Zimbabwiese skryfster Novuyo Rosa Tshuma die ontwrigte lewensomstandighede in die hedendaagse Zimbabwe uit, asook die hervestiging en dubbele vervreemding van die diasporiese Zimbabwiër-gemeenskap in Suid-Afrika. Die teks bestaan uit ’n novelle, ‘Shadows’, en vyf ander kortverhale, en kan bes beskou word as ’n verhaalsiklus, waarbinne the afsonderlike verhale verbind word deur die tema van diaspora en ook deur ’n aantal herkenbare diasporiese situasies en beelde. Die artikel put uit ‘n reeks opvattings oor diaspora, insluitende die Afrika- en binne-Afrika diaspora, en huidige navorsing oor Zimbabwe en sy diaspora. Die dubbelsinnige begrippe van tuiste en samehorigheid, insluiting en uitsluiting, word ondersoek na aanleiding van Tshuma se uitbeelding van die alledaagse township-lewe in Mugabe se Zimbabwe met sy voedseltekorte, algemene gebrek aan middele, en vernielde ekonomie, en hierteenoor, die randbestaan van die hedendaagse Zimbabwediaspora in Johannesburg met sy gewelddadige vervolging en korrupte magsmisbruike teen onwettige immigrante. Die artikel stel voor dat die psigogeniese toestand van ‘omskakelingsversteuring’, wat Tshuma beklemtoon in een van haar verhale, as ’n metafoor kan dien vir die paradoksale diasporiese vereenselwiging met, en vervreemding van, ’n tuiste, gemeenskap en tuisland in Zimbabwe sowel as in die onvriendelike gasheerland, Suid-Afrika

  15. Downregulation of survivin by siRNA inhibits invasion and promotes apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Liang, H. [Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Cao, W. [Department of Obstetrics, Qingdao Central Hospital, Qingdao (China); Xu, R.; Ju, X.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2014-05-23

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that occurs mainly in children. Malignant neuroblastomas have a poor prognosis because conventional chemotherapeutic agents are not very effective. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of the apoptosis protein family, plays a significant role in cell division, inhibition of apoptosis, and promotion of cell proliferation and invasion. Previous studies found that survivin is highly expressed in some malignant neuroblastomas and is correlated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether survivin could serve as a potential therapeutic target of human neuroblastoma. We employed RNA interference to reduce survivin expression in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line and analyzed the effect of RNA interference on cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo. RNA interference of survivin led to a significant decrease in invasiveness and proliferation and increased apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. RNA interference of survivin inhibited tumor growth in vivo by 68±13% (P=0.002) and increased the number of apoptotic cells by 9.8±1.2% (P=0.001) compared with negative small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment controls. Moreover, RNA interference of survivin inhibited the formation of lung metastases by 92% (P=0.002) and reduced microvascular density by 60% (P=0.0003). Survivin siRNA resulted in significant downregulation of survivin mRNA and protein expression both in vitro and in vivo compared with negative siRNA treatment controls. RNA interference of survivin was found to be a potent inhibitor of SH-SY5Y tumor growth and metastasis formation. These results support further clinical development of RNA interference of survivin as a treatment of neuroblastoma and other cancer types.

  16. Emulsion-core and polyelectrolyte-shell nanocapsules: biocompatibility and neuroprotection against SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, Marek, E-mail: ncpiotro@cyf-kr.edu.pl; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof [Polish Academy of Sciences, Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry (Poland); Jantas, Danuta; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Lasoń, Władysław [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Pharmacology (Poland); Warszyński, Piotr [Polish Academy of Sciences, Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry (Poland)

    2013-11-15

    The emulsion-core and polyelectrolyte-coated nanocapsules, designed as water-insoluble neuroprotective drug delivery system, were synthesized using layer-by-layer saturation method. The isopropyl myristate was used as oil phase and docusate sodium salt as emulsifier. For the polyelectrolyte shell preparation, synthetic polyelectrolytes, cationic (PDADMAC, PAH, and PLL) and anionic (PGA) were used. The particle size and zeta potential of nanocapsules were characterized by the dynamic light scattering. The average size of synthesized nanocapsules ranged from ∼80 to ∼100 nm. Zeta potential values ranged from less than approximately −30 mV for the polyanion layers to greater than approximately +30 mV for the polycation layers. Biocompatibilities of the synthesized nanocarriers were evaluated against SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells using various biochemical assays. The results obtained show that synthesized nanocapsules coated with PLL and PGA were nontoxic to SH-SY5Y cells, and they were used as nanocarriers for model neuroprotective drug (a calpain inhibitor MDL 28170). The neuroprotective action of the encapsulated MDL 28170 against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress cytotoxicity was evaluated in the same cell line. The results showed that nanoencapsulated form of MDL 28170 were biocompatible and protected SH-SY5Y cells against the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (0.5 mM/24 h)-induced damage in 20–40 times lower concentrations than those of the same drug added directly to the culture medium. These data suggest that the nanoscale carriers of neuroprotective drugs might serve as novel promising therapeutic agents for oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative processes.

  17. Unusual negative magnetoresistance in Bi2Se3-ySy topological insulator under perpendicular magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Gangwar, Vinod K.; Daga, D. D.; Singh, Abhishek; Ghosh, A. K.; Kumar, Manoranjan; Lakhani, A.; Singh, Rajeev; Chatterjee, Sandip

    2018-03-01

    The magneto-transport properties of Bi2Se3-ySy were investigated. Magnetoresistance (MR) decreases with an increase in the S content, and finally, for 7% (i.e., y = 0.21) S doping, the magnetoresistance becomes negative. This negative MR is unusual as it is observed when a magnetic field is applied in the perpendicular direction to the plane of the sample. The magneto-transport behavior shows the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillation, indicating the coexistence of surface and bulk states. The negative MR has been attributed to the non-trivial bulk conduction.

  18. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides descriptions of components and tasks that are involved in the computer system for the data acquisition and control of the mitigation tests conducted on waste tank SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The system was designed and implemented by Los alamos National Laboratory and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company. The computers (both personal computers and specialized data-taking computers) and the software programs of the system will hereafter collectively be referred to as the DACS (Data Acquisition and Control System)

  19. Desenvolvimento de Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae alimentado com larvas de Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae e Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae Development of Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae fed with Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo B. Beserra

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Egg viability and nymphal development of the predatory bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål, 1860 were evaluated during two generations in the Biological Control Laboratory of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (Bioagro/UFV in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil at 24.72±1.10ºC and photophase of 12 hours. Three treatments were represented by S. cincticeps fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 larvae. Higher egg viability of this predator was found when the preys were Z. confusa and T. molitor, 74.46% and 80.91 %, than in M. domestica, 57.02%, but incubation period showed no differences between preys. Shorter nymphal development and higher nymphal viability were found with Z. confusa and T. molitor than with M. domestica. Higher weight increase was found for nymphs which originated males and females in the second generation specialy with the first two preys.

  20. Effects of Crust Ingestion on Mixer Pump Performance in Tank 241-SY-101: Workshop Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennen, C.E.; Stewart, C.W.; Meyer, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    In August 1999, a workshop was held at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to discuss the effects of crust ingestion on mixer pump performance in Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The main purpose of the workshop was to evaluate the potential for crust ingestion to degrade mixing and/or damage the mixer pump. The need for a previously determined 12-inch separation between the top of the mixer pump inlet and the crust base was evaluated. Participants included a representative from the pump manufacturer, an internationally known expert in centrifugal pump theory, Hanford scientists and engineers, and operational specialists representing relevant fields of expertise. The workshop focused on developing an understanding of the pump design, addressing the physics of entrainment of solids and gases into the pump, and assessing the effects of solids and gases on pump performance. The major conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) Entrainment of a moderate amount of solids or gas from the crust should not damage the pump or reduce its lifetime, though mixing effectiveness will be somewhat reduced. (2) Air binding should not damage the pump. Vibrations due to ingestion of gas, solids, and objects potentially could cause radial loads that might reduce the lifetime of bearings and seals. However, significant damage would require extreme conditions not associated with the small bubbles, fine solids, and chunks of relatively weak material typical of the crust. (3) The inlet duct extension opening, 235 inches from the tank bottom, should be considered the pump inlet, not the small gap at 262 inches. (4) A suction vortex exists at the inlet of all pumps. The characteristics of the inlet suction vortex in the mixer pump are very hard to predict, but its effects likely extend upward several feet. Because of this, the current 12-inch limit should be replaced with criteria based on actual monitored pump performance. The most obvious criterion (in addition to current operational

  1. The Secretome of Bone Marrow and Wharton Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces Differentiation and Neurite Outgrowth in SH-SY5Y Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ana O. Pires; Andreia Neves-Carvalho; Nuno Sousa; António J. Salgado

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine and compare the effects of the secretome of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human bone-marrow (BMSCs) and the Wharton jelly surrounding the vein and arteries of the umbilical cord (human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs)) on the survival and differentiation of a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). For this purpose, SH-SY5Y cells were differentiated with conditioned media (CM) from the MSCs populations referred above. Retinoic ...

  2. Protective effect of Pycnogenol in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells following acrolein-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mubeen A; Keller, Jeffrey N; Scheff, Stephen W

    2008-12-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the hypotheses involved in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Considerable attention has been focused on increasing the intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels in many neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Pycnogenol (PYC) has antioxidant properties and stabilizes intracellular antioxidant defense systems including glutathione levels. The present study investigated the protective effects of PYC on acrolein-induced oxidative cell toxicity in cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Decreased cell survival in SH-SY5Y cultures treated with acrolein correlated with oxidative stress, increased NADPH oxidase activity, free radical production, protein oxidation/nitration (protein carbonyl, 3-nitrotyrosine), and lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal). Pretreatment with PYC significantly attenuated acrolein-induced cytotoxicity, protein damage, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. A dose-response study suggested that PYC showed protective effects against acrolein toxicity by modulating oxidative stress and increasing GSH. These findings provide support that PYC may provide a promising approach for the treatment of oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  3. Le paysage atlantique dans Lettres à ma fille de Jean Désy. Entre projection et plongée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Marcil-Bergeron

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available L’écrivain-voyageur Jean Désy raconte dans Lettres à ma fille (1997 sa première navigation hauturière, qui consiste en une traversée de l’océan Atlantique à la voile. Deux pôles orientent la représentation du grand large dans ce récit, soit la projection du voyageur vers le dehors et la plongée dans ses souvenirs des paysages nordiques et sylvestres. Par une approche géopoétique, cet article vise à examiner les effets du rythme et de la polysensorialité ainsi que la manière dont l’expérience du Nord et de la forêt participe à la configuration du paysage atlantique. The traveller and writer Jean Désy narrates in Lettres à ma fille (1997 his first ocean navigation, which consists in a sailing across the Atlantic. In this story, two poles orient the representation of the open sea, namely the traveler’s outward projection and his diving into memories from nordic and forest landscapes. Through a geopoetic approach, this article aims to examine the effects of rhythm and polysensoriality, and also how the experience of the North and the forest participates in the configuration of the atlantic landscape.

  4. Ursodeoxycholic acid suppresses mitochondria-dependent programmed cell death induced by sodium nitroprusside in SH-SY5Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Hong Sung; Low, Walter C.

    2012-01-01

    Although ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its highly water-soluble formula (Yoo's solution; YS) have been shown to prevent neuronal damage, the effects of UDCA or YS against Parkinson's disease (PD)-related dopaminergic cell death has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of UDCA and YS on sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced cytotoxicity in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Both UDCA (50–200 μM) and YS (100–200 μM) dose-dependently prevented SNP (1 mM)-induced cell death. Results showed that both UDCA and YS effectively attenuated the production of total reactive oxygen species (ROS), peroxynitrite (ONOO − ) and nitric oxide (NO), and markedly inhibited the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion. SNP-induced programmed cell death events, such as nuclear fragmentation, caspase-3/7 and -9 activation, Bcl-2/Bax ratio decrease, and cytochrome c release, were significantly attenuated by both UDCA and YS. Furthermore, selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositiol-3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002, and Akt/PKB inhibitor, triciribine, reversed the preventive effects of UDCA on the SNP-induced cytotoxicity and Bax translocation. These results suggest that UDCA can protect SH-SY5Y cells under programmed cell death process by regulating PI3K-Akt/PKB pathways.

  5. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginkgolide B on Bupivacaine-Induced Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Zhang, Qing-guo; Lai, Lu-ying; Wen, Xian-jie; Zheng, Ting; Cheung, Chi-wai; Zhou, Shu-qin; Xu, Shi-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Local anesthetics are used routinely and effectively. However, many are also known to activate neurotoxic pathways. We tested the neuroprotective efficacy of ginkgolide B (GB), an active component of Ginkgo biloba, against ROS-mediated neurotoxicity caused by the local anesthetic bupivacaine. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with different concentrations of bupivacaine alone or following preincubation with GB. Pretreatment with GB increased SH-SY5Y cell viability and attenuated intracellular ROS accumulation, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress. GB suppressed bupivacaine-induced mitochondrial depolarization and mitochondria complex I and III inhibition and increased cleaved caspase-3 and Htra2 expression, which was strongly indicative of activation of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis with concomitantly enhanced expressions of Grp78, caspase-12 mRNA, protein, and ER stress. GB also improved ultrastructural changes indicative of mitochondrial and ER damage induced by bupivacaine. These results implicate bupivacaine-induced ROS-dependent mitochondria, ER dysfunction, and apoptosis, which can be attenuated by GB through its antioxidant property. PMID:24228138

  6. Pharmacological Characterization of the Mechanisms Involved in Delayed Calcium Deregulation in SH-SY5Y Cells Challenged with Methadone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Perez-Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that SH-SY5Y cells exposed to high concentrations of methadone died due to a necrotic-like cell death mechanism related to delayed calcium deregulation (DCD. In this study, we show that, in terms of their Ca2+ responses to 0.5 mM methadone, SH-SY5Y cells can be pooled into four different groups. In a broad pharmacological survey, the relevance of different Ca2+-related mechanisms on methadone-induced DCD was investigated including extracellular calcium, L-type Ca2+ channels, μ-opioid receptor, mitochondrial inner membrane potential, mitochondrial ATP synthesis, mitochondrial Ca2+/2Na+-exchanger, reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial permeability transition. Only those compounds targeting mitochondria such as oligomycin, FCCP, CGP 37157, and cyclosporine A were able to amend methadone-induced Ca2+ dyshomeostasis suggesting that methadone induces DCD by modulating the ability of mitochondria to handle Ca2+. Consistently, mitochondria became dramatically shorter and rounder in the presence of methadone. Furthermore, analysis of oxygen uptake by isolated rat liver mitochondria suggested that methadone affected mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in a respiratory substrate-dependent way. We conclude that methadone causes failure of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and this effect is associated with morphological and functional changes of mitochondria. Likely, this mechanism contributes to degenerative side effects associated with methadone treatment.

  7. Differential Effects of Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Ion, Rotenone, and Paraquat on Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Barbosa Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ, a cationic nonselective bipyridyl herbicide, has been used as neurotoxicant to modulate Parkinson’s disease in laboratory settings. Other compounds like rotenone (ROT, a pesticide, and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+ have been widely used as neurotoxicants. We compared the toxicity of these three neurotoxicants using differentiated dopaminergic SH-SY5Y human cells, aiming to elucidate their differential effects. PQ-induced neurotoxicity was shown to be concentration and time dependent, being mitochondrial dysfunction followed by neuronal death. On the other hand, cells exposure to MPP+ induced mitochondrial dysfunction, but not cellular lyses. Meanwhile, ROT promoted both mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death, revealing a biphasic pattern. To further elucidate PQ neurotoxic mechanism, several protective agents were used. SH-SY5Y cells pretreatment with tiron (TIR and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid sodium salt (NaSAL, both antioxidants, and Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, partially protected against PQ-induced cell injury. Additionally, 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenylmethoxy]ethyl-4-(3-phenyl-propylpiperazine (GBR 12909, a dopamine transporter inhibitor, and cycloheximide (CHX, a protein synthesis inhibitor, also partially protected against PQ-induced cell injury. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PQ, MPP+, and ROT exerted differential toxic effects on dopaminergic cells. PQ neurotoxicity occurred through exacerbated oxidative stress, with involvement of uptake through the dopamine transporter and protein synthesis.

  8. Effect of graphene oxide on undifferentiated and retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Min; Zhang, Yujie; Liang, Le; Wei, Min; Hu, Wenbing; Li, Xiaoming; Huang, Qing

    2012-06-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), has created an unprecedented opportunity for development and application in biology, due to its abundant functional groups and well water solubility. Recently, the potential toxicity of GO in the environment and in humans has garnered more and more attention. In this paper, we systematically studied the cytotoxicity of GO nanosheets via examining the effect of GO on the morphology, viability and differentiation of a human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, which was an ideal model used to study neuronal disease in vitro. The results suggested that GO had no obvious cytotoxicity at low concentration (cells exhibited dose- and time-dependent decreases at high concentration (>=80 μg mL-1). Moreover, GO did not induce apoptosis. Very interestingly, GO significantly enhanced the differentiation of SH-SY5Y induced-retinoic acid (RA) by evaluating neurite length and the expression of neuronal marker MAP2. These data provide a promising application for neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. BDNF and the maturation of posttranscriptional regulatory networks in human SH-SY5Y neuroblast differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Goldie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The SH-SY5Y culture system is a convenient neuronal model with the potential to elaborate human/primate-specific transcription networks and pathways related to human cognitive disorders. While this system allows for the exploration of specialised features in the human genome, there is still significant debate about how this model should be implemented, and its appropriateness for answering complex functional questions related to human neural architecture. In view of these questions we sought to characterise the posttranscriptional regulatory structure of the two-stage ATRA differentiation, BDNF maturation protocol proposed by Encinas and colleagues (2010 using integrative whole-genome gene and microRNA (miRNA expression analysis. We report that ATRA-BDNF induced significant increases in expression of key synaptic genes, brain-specific miRNA and miRNA biogenesis machinery, and in AChE activity, compared with ATRA alone. Functional annotation clustering associated BDNF more significantly with neuronal terms, and with synaptic terms not found in ATRA-only clusters. While our results support use of SH-SY5Y as a neuronal model, we advocate considered selection of the differentiation agent/s relative to the system being modelled.

  10. BDNF and the maturation of posttranscriptional regulatory networks in human SH-SY5Y neuroblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Belinda J; Barnett, Michelle M; Cairns, Murray J

    2014-01-01

    The SH-SY5Y culture system is a convenient neuronal model with the potential to elaborate human/primate-specific transcription networks and pathways related to human cognitive disorders. While this system allows for the exploration of specialized features in the human genome, there is still significant debate about how this model should be implemented, and its appropriateness for answering complex functional questions related to human neural architecture. In view of these questions we sought to characterize the posttranscriptional regulatory structure of the two-stage ATRA differentiation, BDNF maturation protocol proposed by Encinas et al. (2000) using integrative whole-genome gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression analysis. We report that ATRA-BDNF induced significant increases in expression of key synaptic genes, brain-specific miRNA and miRNA biogenesis machinery, and in AChE activity, compared with ATRA alone. Functional annotation clustering associated BDNF more significantly with neuronal terms, and with synaptic terms not found in ATRA-only clusters. While our results support use of SH-SY5Y as a neuronal model, we advocate considered selection of the differentiation agent/s relative to the system being modeled.

  11. Bacterial Contamination of Adult House Flies (Musca domestica) and Sensitivity of these Bacteria to Various Antibiotics, Captured from Hamadan City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mansour; Mehrabi, Tahereh; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef

    2017-04-01

    House flies ( Musca domestica ) have been known as a mechanical vector in spreading infectious diseases such as cholera, shigellosis, salmonellosis and skin infections. To investigate the bacterial contaminations of house flies and determine the resistance of these bacteria against various antibiotics. An analytical descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted. The study was performed from July to September 2015 in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. A total number of 300 house flies were collected from four places, 75 flies from each place, including two educational hospitals belonging to Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, a fruit and vegetables center, and a livestock slaughter. The body surface of house flies was washed using the physiological sterile serum and the obtained solution was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for five minutes. The identification of bacteria was carried out using the phenotypic methods. The resistance of bacteria against various antibiotics was determined using the disk diffusion approach. Data were analysed by the employment of SPSS software package version 20.0. A total number of 394 bacterial strains were isolated from 275 house flies. The most prevalent type of bacteria was Bacillus spp which was detected in 31.1% of house flies. Moreover, Staphylococcus s pp. (22.9%), Escherichia coli (11.6%) were other prevalent species, whereas, Enterococcus s pp. was the least prevalent type of bacteria in the collected house flies. In terms of resistance to antibiotics, it was identified that bacteria extracted from house flies which were collected from hospital environments were more resistant to antibiotics compared with the resistance of bacteria extracted from house flies which were collected from non hospital environments. The maximum bacterial isolation was found in houseflies from hospital No.1 environment from around the accumulation of garbage. It is a well-known fact that house flies are a source of bacterial

  12. Progeny of Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) non-viable pupae irradiated by gamma Cobalt-60 and cold stored

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itepan, Sara Eloiza Zen.

    1992-06-01

    This study was designed to test acceptability of cold stored irradiated and non-irradiated pupae of Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) by the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). The work was carried out in the laboratory of the Entomology Section of the Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP) and in the laboratory of Biological Control of House Flies Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto of Entomology Department of the College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The gamma radiation source used was a Cobalt-60 irradiator, Gamma bean-650, with an initial activity of 1,6265 x 10 4 Bq (6,746 Ci). The radiation LD 50 e LD 100 , using a dose ratio of 1457 Gy/h, for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours old pupae and resulted in 15.35; 15.69; 11.30; 49.4; 142.78 and 175 Gy for LD 50 and 20, 22.5; 32.5; 175; 225 and 300 Gy for LD'1 00 respectively. Following exposure, the pupae were kept in climate chamber at 27 ± 3 0 C and 75 ± % of relative humidity, until all adults had emerged. In succession, 24, 48 and 72 hour-old pupae were exposed to gamma irradiation with a dose of 1440 Gy/hour, in their respective lethal doses. Following the exposure the pupae were stored at cool temperature (10 ± 2 0 C) for different periods of time (5, 15, 20 and 30 days). The same treatment was given for non-irradiated pupae. After the storage period the pupae were expose for 24 h to S. endius in a ratio of 1:10 parasitoid-host. It was not observed any statistical difference (Turkey 5%) in progeny of males and females emerged from irradiated and non-irradiated pupae. There was a preference of the parasitoid to pupae of 48 hours old followed by 24 and 72 hours old for storage period more than 5 days and shorter than 20 days. (author). 50 refs., 6 figs., 17 tabs

  13. Activity and relative abundance of hymenopterous parasitoids that attack puparia of Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) on confined pig and cattle farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, H; Jespersen, J B

    1999-01-01

    (Linnaeus). In total, seven pteromalid species were recovered: Spalangia cameroni Perkins, S. nigripes Curtis, S. subpunctata Förster, Muscidifurax raptorGirault & Sanders, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani), Urolepis rufipes(Ashmead) and Nasonia vitripennis (Walker), an ichneumonid Phygadeuon fumator......Gravenhorst, a diapriid Trichopria sp., and a staphylinid Aleocharasp. This is the first time that U. rufipes has been recorded in Europe. Spalangia cameroni and M. raptor were the most frequently recorded species in all regions of the country, and accounted for the main parasitism of Musca domesticaand Stomoxys...... calcitrans puparia. The overall rate of parasitism per farm was low: 12.9% of the total number of fly puparia collected. Direct ordination, used to assess the habitat distribution of the parasitoids, showed that Muscidifurax raptor mainly seeks fly puparia in outdoor manure heaps and especially in manure...

  14. Cordyceps sinensis Oral Liquid Inhibits Damage Induced by Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying-Xin; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ruan, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Jia-Chun; Chu, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. It has been demonstrated to have a variety of biological activities, and an extract of it has been demonstrated to possess a protective effect in occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia of the middle cerebral artery in rats. It could be explored as an agent for treatment of ischemic stroke, and the mechanisms need to be studied further. The study intended to investigate the protective effects of the Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) against damage induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in SH-SY5Y cells. DESIGN • The research team designed an in vitro study. The study occurred at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Shanghai, China. SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to CSOL in doses of 0.01, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL, creating 5 intervention groups. The OGD condition was induced by transfer of the cells from high-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) in a box gassed with air containing 5% CO2 to glucose-free DMEM in a box gassed with 94% N2, 5% CO2, and 1% O2. Like the cells for the interventions groups, the cells for a model group were cultured with high-glucose DMEM and were transferred to the OGD, but they received no dose of COSL. Cells in a control group were cultured with high-glucose DMEM, were not transferred to the OGD condition, and did not receive any dose of COSL. Cell viability was assayed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The apoptosis and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected by flow cytometry, and the protein expression of caspase-3 was observed by western blot. After exposure to OGD, the cell viability of cells treated with 0.01, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL of CSOL increased in a dose-effect relationship. Compared with the cells in the model group, the treatment of CSOL at all the experimental concentrations significantly inhibited both the cell apoptosis

  15. Atractylenolide-I Protects Human SH-SY5Y Cells from 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vasant More

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and apoptosis are the major mechanisms that induce dopaminergic cell death. Our study investigates the protective effects of atractylenolide-I (ATR-I on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+-induced cytotoxicity in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells, as well as its underlying mechanism. Our experimental data indicates that ATR-I significantly inhibits the loss of cell viability induced by MPP+ in SH-SY5Y cells. To further unravel the mechanism, we examined the effect of ATR-I on MPP+-induced apoptotic cell death characterized by an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio, the release of cytochrome-c, and the activation of caspase-3 leading to elevated levels of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP resulting in SH-SY5Y cell death. Our results demonstrated that ATR-I decreases the level of pro-apoptotic proteins induced by MPP+ and also restored Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA levels, which are critical for inducing apoptosis. In addition, ATR-I demonstrated a significant increase in the protein expression of heme-oxygenase in MPP+-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that the pharmacological effect of ATR-I may be, at least in part, caused by the reduction in pro-apoptotic signals and also by induction of anti-oxidant protein.

  16. Alzheimer's disease presenilin-1 exon 9 deletion and L250S mutations sensitize SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanii, H; Ankarcrona, M; Flood, F

    2000-01-01

    . In the present study, we determined whether PS1 mutations also sensitize cells to hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptosis. For this, we established SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines stably transfected with wild-type PS1 or either the PS1 exon 9 deletion (deltaE9) or PS1 L250S mutants. Cultured cells were exposed...

  17. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  18. Antihypoxic effect of miR-24 in SH-SY5Y cells under hypoxia via downregulating expression of neurocan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xingyuan, E-mail: sunxingyuan@sina.com; Ren, Zhanjun; Pan, Yunzhi; Zhang, Chenxin

    2016-09-02

    Hypoxia-induced apoptosis-related mechanisms involved in the brain damage following cerebral ischemia injury. A subset of the small noncoding microRNA (miRNAs) is regulated by tissue oxygen levels, and miR-24 was found to be activated by hypoxic conditions. However, the roles of miR-24 and its target gene in neuron are not well understood. Here, we validated miRNA-24 is down-regulated in patients with cerebral infarction. Hypoxia suppressed the expression of miR-24, but increased the expression of neurocan in both mRNA and protein levels in SH-SY5Y cells. MiR-24 mimics reduced the expression of neurocan, suppressed cell apoptosis, induced cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in SH-SY5Y cells under hypoxia. By luciferase reporter assay, neurocan is validated a direct target gene of miR-24. Furthermore, knockdown of neurocan suppressed cell apoptosis, induced cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in SH-SY5Y cells under hypoxia. Taken together, miR-24 overexpression or silencing of neurocan shows an antihypoxic effect in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, miR-24 and neurocan play critical roles in neuron cell apoptosis and are potential therapeutic targets for ischemic brain disease. - Highlights: • miR-24 and neurocan play critical roles in neuron cell apoptosis. • miR-24 and neurocan are potential therapeutic targets for ischemic brain disease. • Antihypoxic effect of miR-24 and neurocan in SH-SY5Y cells.

  19. Analysis of the Catecholaminergic Phenotype in Human SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 Neuroblastoma Cell Lines upon Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Filograna

    Full Text Available Human cell lines are often used to investigate cellular pathways relevant for physiological or pathological processes or to evaluate cell toxicity or protection induced by different compounds, including potential drugs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the differentiating activities of three agents (retinoic acid, staurosporine and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 cell lines; the first cell line is largely used in the field of neuroscience, while the second is still poorly characterized. After evaluating their effects in terms of cell proliferation and morphology, we investigated their catecholaminergic properties by assessing the expression profiles of the major genes involved in catecholamine synthesis and storage and the cellular concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline. Our results demonstrate that the two cell lines possess similar abilities to differentiate and acquire a neuron-like morphology. The most evident effects in SH-SY5Y cells were observed in the presence of staurosporine, while in BE(2-M17 cells, retinoic acid induced the strongest effects. Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 cells are characterized by the production of both NA and DA, but their levels are considerably higher in BE(2-M17 cells. Moreover, the NAergic phenotype appears to be more pronounced in SH-SY5Y cells, while BE(2-M17 cells have a more prominent DAergic phenotype. Finally, the catecholamine concentration strongly increases upon differentiation induced by staurosporine in both cell lines. In conclusion, in this work the catecholaminergic phenotype of the human BE(2-M17 cell line upon differentiation was characterized for the first time. Our data suggest that SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 represent two alternative cell models for the neuroscience field.

  20. Overexpression of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase increases the expression of neurogenic differentiation markers in the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graser, Stephanie; Mentrup, Birgit; Schneider, Doris; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Jakob, Franz; Hofmann, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Patients suffering from the rare hereditary disease hypophosphatasia (HPP), which is based on mutations in the ALPL gene, tend to develop central nervous system (CNS) related issues like epileptic seizures and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and depression, in addition to well-known problems with the mineralization of bones and teeth. Analyses of the molecular role of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in transgenic SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) neuroblastoma cells compared to SH-SY5Y(TNAPlow) cells indicate that the enzyme influences the expression levels of neuronal marker genes like RNA-binding protein, fox-1 homolog 3 (NEUN) and enolase 2, gamma neuronal (NSE) as well as microtubule-binding proteins like microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and microtubule-associated protein tau (TAU) during neurogenic differentiation. Fluorescence staining of SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) cells reveals TNAP localization throughout the whole length of the developed projection network and even synapsin Ι co-localization with strong TNAP signals at some spots at least at the early time points of differentiation. Additional immunocytochemical staining shows higher MAP2 expression in SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) cells and further a distinct up-regulation of tau and MAP2 in the course of neurogenic differentiation. Interestingly, transgenic SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) cells are able to develop longer cellular processes compared to control cells after stimulation with all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Current therapies for HPP prioritize improvement of the bone phenotype. Unraveling the molecular role of TNAP in extraosseous tissues, like in the CNS, will help to improve treatment strategies for HPP patients. Taking this rare disease as a model may also help to dissect TNAP's role in neurodegenerative diseases and even improve future treatment of common pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the Catecholaminergic Phenotype in Human SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 Neuroblastoma Cell Lines upon Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filograna, Roberta; Civiero, Laura; Ferrari, Vanni; Codolo, Gaia; Greggio, Elisa; Bubacco, Luigi; Beltramini, Mariano; Bisaglia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Human cell lines are often used to investigate cellular pathways relevant for physiological or pathological processes or to evaluate cell toxicity or protection induced by different compounds, including potential drugs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the differentiating activities of three agents (retinoic acid, staurosporine and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 cell lines; the first cell line is largely used in the field of neuroscience, while the second is still poorly characterized. After evaluating their effects in terms of cell proliferation and morphology, we investigated their catecholaminergic properties by assessing the expression profiles of the major genes involved in catecholamine synthesis and storage and the cellular concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline. Our results demonstrate that the two cell lines possess similar abilities to differentiate and acquire a neuron-like morphology. The most evident effects in SH-SY5Y cells were observed in the presence of staurosporine, while in BE(2)-M17 cells, retinoic acid induced the strongest effects. Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 cells are characterized by the production of both NA and DA, but their levels are considerably higher in BE(2)-M17 cells. Moreover, the NAergic phenotype appears to be more pronounced in SH-SY5Y cells, while BE(2)-M17 cells have a more prominent DAergic phenotype. Finally, the catecholamine concentration strongly increases upon differentiation induced by staurosporine in both cell lines. In conclusion, in this work the catecholaminergic phenotype of the human BE(2)-M17 cell line upon differentiation was characterized for the first time. Our data suggest that SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 represent two alternative cell models for the neuroscience field.

  2. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells show increased resistance to hyperthermic stress after differentiation, associated with elevated levels of Hsp72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lesley; Smith, Danielle J; Anderson, Robin L; Nagley, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Terminally differentiated neurones in the central nervous system need to be protected from stress. We ask here whether differentiation of progenitor cells to neurones is accompanied by up-regulation of Hsp72, with acquisition of enhanced thermotolerance. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were propagated in an undifferentiated form and subsequently differentiated into neurone-like cells. Thermotolerance tests were carried out by exposure of cells to various temperatures, monitoring nuclear morphology as index of cell death. Abundance of Hsp72 was measured in cell lysates by western immunoblotting. The differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells was accompanied by increased expression of Hsp72. Further, in both cell states, exposure to mild hyperthermic stress (43°C for 30 min) increased Hsp72 expression. After differentiation, SH-SY5Y cells were more resistant to hyperthermic stress compared to their undifferentiated state, correlating with levels of Hsp72. Stable exogenous expression of Hsp72 in SH-SY5Y cells (transfected line 5YHSP72.1, containing mildly elevated levels of Hsp72), led to enhanced resistance to hyperthermic stress. Hsp72 was found to be inducible in undifferentiated 5YHSP72.1 cells; such heat-treated cells displayed enhanced thermotolerance. Treatment of cells with KNK437, a suppressor of Hsp72 induction, resulted in acute thermosensitisation of all cell types tested here. Hsp72 has a major role in the enhanced hyperthermic resistance acquired during neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. These findings model the requirement in intact organisms for highly differentiated neurones to be specially protected against thermal stress.

  3. Work plan for upgrade of SY-101 Hydrogen Mitigation Test Project Data Acquisition and Control Systemm (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this effort is to upgrade the existing DACS-1 used for control and data acquisition in support of the hydrogen mitigation program for tank 101-SY. The planned upgrades will enhance the system capabilities to support additional mitigation projects and improve the system operability by implementing changes identified during operation of the system to date. Once the upgrades have been implemented, the DACS-1 system should operate as it did prior to the upgrade, but with greatly increased speed and capability. No retraining of Test Engineers will be required; the upgrade is designed to be transparent to those who operate it, with only a noticeable increase in the speed of the system. This work plan defines the tasks required for implementing the upgrade. It identifies deliverables, responsible organizations and individuals, interfaces, and schedule. This upgrade effort employs system engineering principles wherever applicable

  4. Le paysage atlantique dans Lettres à ma fille de Jean Désy. Entre projection et plongée

    OpenAIRE

    Myriam Marcil-Bergeron

    2015-01-01

    L’écrivain-voyageur Jean Désy raconte dans Lettres à ma fille (1997) sa première navigation hauturière, qui consiste en une traversée de l’océan Atlantique à la voile. Deux pôles orientent la représentation du grand large dans ce récit, soit la projection du voyageur vers le dehors et la plongée dans ses souvenirs des paysages nordiques et sylvestres. Par une approche géopoétique, cet article vise à examiner les effets du rythme et de la polysensorialité ainsi que la manière dont l’expérience...

  5. Interleukin-24 induces neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell differentiation, growth inhibition, and apoptosis by promoting ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Feng, Dongchuan; Gong, Jinchao; Han, Tao

    2013-11-01

    Neuroblastoma is among the most aggressive tumors that occur in childhood and infancy. The clinical prognosis of children with advanced-stage neuroblastoma is still poor. Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is emerging as a new cytokine involved in tumor cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and has been widely studied as a tumor inhibitor. However, little is known about this cytokine's role in neuroblastoma. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of IL-24 on inducing neuroblastoma cell differentiation, growth inhibition, and apoptosis in vitro. Our data show that IL-24 promotes neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell differentiation, growth inhibition, and apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the differentiation- and apoptosis-inducing action of IL-24 depends on the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results suggest that IL-24 can induce neuroblastoma cell differentiation and apoptosis and may be a potential therapeutic agent for neuroblastoma.

  6. Neuronal differentiation and long-term culture of the human neuroblastoma line SH-SY5Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, R; Constantinescu, A T; Reichmann, H; Janetzky, B

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder in industrialized countries. Present cell culture models for PD rely on either primary cells or immortal cell lines, neither of which allow for long-term experiments on a constant population, a crucial requisite for a realistic model of slowly progressing neurodegenerative diseases. We differentiated SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells to a neuronal-like state in a perfusion culture system using a combination of retinoic acid and mitotic inhibitors. The cells could be cultivated for two months without the need for passage. We show, by various means, that the differentiated cells exhibit, at the molecular level, many neuronal properties not characteristic to the starting line. This approach opens the possibility to develop chronic models, in which the effect of perturbations and putative counteracting strategies can be monitored over long periods of time in a quasi-stable cell population.

  7. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermi, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Description of the Proposed Activity/REPORTABLE OCCURRENCE or PIAB: This ECN changes the computer systems design description support document describing the computers system used to control, monitor and archive the processes and outputs associated with the Hydrogen Mitigation Test Pump installed in SY-101. There is no new activity or procedure associated with the updating of this reference document. The updating of this computer system design description maintains an agreed upon documentation program initiated within the test program and carried into operations at time of turnover to maintain configuration control as outlined by design authority practicing guidelines. There are no new credible failure modes associated with the updating of information in a support description document. The failure analysis of each change was reviewed at the time of implementation of the Systems Change Request for all the processes changed. This document simply provides a history of implementation and current system status

  8. Analysis of several hazardous conditions for large transfer and back-dilution sequences in Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CW Stewart; LA Mahoney; WB Barton

    2000-01-01

    The first transfer of 89 kgal of waste and back-dilution of 61 kgal of water in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 was accomplished December 18--20, 1999. Limits were placed on the transfer and back-dilution volumes because of concerns about potential gas release, crust sinking, and degradation of mixer pump performance. Additional transfers and back-dilutions are being planned that will bring the total to 500 kgal, which should dissolve a large fraction of the solids in the tank and dilute it well beyond the point where significant gas retention can occur. This report provides the technical bases for removing the limits on transfer and back-dilution volume by evaluating the potential consequences of several postulated hazardous conditions in view of the results of the first campaign and results of additional analyses of waste behavior

  9. Analysis of several hazardous conditions for large transfer and back-dilution sequences in Tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CW Stewart; LA Mahoney; WB Barton

    2000-01-28

    The first transfer of 89 kgal of waste and back-dilution of 61 kgal of water in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 was accomplished December 18--20, 1999. Limits were placed on the transfer and back-dilution volumes because of concerns about potential gas release, crust sinking, and degradation of mixer pump performance. Additional transfers and back-dilutions are being planned that will bring the total to 500 kgal, which should dissolve a large fraction of the solids in the tank and dilute it well beyond the point where significant gas retention can occur. This report provides the technical bases for removing the limits on transfer and back-dilution volume by evaluating the potential consequences of several postulated hazardous conditions in view of the results of the first campaign and results of additional analyses of waste behavior.

  10. Waste mixing and diluent selection for the planned retrieval of Hanford Tank 241-SY-102: A preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Hudson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This preliminary assessment documents a set of analyses that were performed to determine the potential for Hanford waste Tank 241-SY-102 waste properties to be adversely affected by mixing the current tank contents or by injecting additional diluent into the tank during sludge mobilization. As a part of this effort, the effects of waste heating that will occur as a result of mixer pump operations are also examined. Finally, the predicted transport behavior of the resulting slurries is compared with the waste acceptance criteria for the Cross-Site Transfer System (CSTS). This work is being performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of Westinghouse Hanford Company's W-211 Retrieval Project. We applied the equilibrium chemical code, GMIN, to predict potential chemical reactions. We examined the potential effects of mixing the current tank contents (sludge and supernatant liquid) at a range of temperatures and, separately, of adding pure water at a volume ratio of 1:2:2 (sludge:supernatant liquid:water) as an example of further diluting the current tank contents. The main conclusion of the chemical modeling is that mixing the sludge and the supernate (with or without additional water) in Tank 241-SY-102 dissolves all sodium-containing solids (i.e., NaNO 3 (s), thenardite, NaF(s), and halite), but does not significantly affect the amorphous Cr(OH) 3 and calcite phase distribution. A very small amount of gibbsite [Al(OH) 3 (s)] might precipitate at 25 degrees C, but a somewhat larger amount of gibbsite is predicted to dissolve at the higher temperatures. In concurrence with the reported tank data, the model affirmed that the interstitial solution within the sludge is saturated with respect to many of the solids species in the sludge, but that the supernatant liquid is not in saturation with many of major solids species in sludge. This indicates that a further evaluation of the sludge mixing could prove beneficial

  11. Graphene Oxide–Silver Nanoparticles Nanocomposite Stimulates Differentiation in Human Neuroblastoma Cancer Cells (SH-SY5Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangiliyandi Gurunathan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, graphene and graphene related nanocomposite receive much attention due to high surface-to-volume ratio, and unique physiochemical and biological properties. The combination of metallic nanoparticles with graphene-based materials offers a promising method to fabricate novel graphene–silver hybrid nanomaterials with unique functions in biomedical nanotechnology, and nanomedicine. Therefore, this study was designed to prepare graphene oxide (GO silver nanoparticles (AgNPs nanocomposite (GO-AgNPs containing two different nanomaterials in single platform with distinctive properties using luciferin as reducing agents. In addition, we investigated the effect of GO-AgNPs on differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells. The synthesized GO-AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Raman spectroscopy. The differentiation was confirmed by series of cellular and biochemical assays. The AgNPs were distributed uniformly on the surface of graphene oxide with an average size of 25 nm. As prepared GO-AgNPOs induces differentiation by increasing the expression of neuronal differentiation markers and decreasing the expression of stem cell markers. The results indicated that the redox biology involved the expression of various signaling molecules, which play an important role in differentiation. This study suggests that GO-AgNP nanocomposite could stimulate differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, understanding the mechanisms of differentiation of neuroblastoma cells could provide new strategies for cancer and stem cell therapies. Therefore, these studies suggest that GO-AgNPs could target specific chemotherapy-resistant cells within a tumor.

  12. Mitochondrial Effects of PGC-1alpha Silencing in MPP+ Treated Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyong Ye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The dopaminergic neuron degeneration and loss that occurs in Parkinson’s disease (PD has been tightly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the aged-related cause of the mitochondrial defect observed in PD patients remains unclear, nuclear genes are of potential importance to mitochondrial function. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α is a multi-functional transcription factor that tightly regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. The goal of the present study was to explore the potential pathogenic effects of interference by the PGC-1α gene on N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+-induced SH-SY5Y cells. We utilized RNA interference (RNAi technology to probe the pathogenic consequences of inhibiting PGC-1α in the SH-SY5Y cell line. Remarkably, a reduction in PGC-1α resulted in the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular ATP content and intracellular H2O2 generation, leading to the translocation of cytochrome c (cyt c to the cytoplasm in the MPP+-induced PD cell model. The expression of related proteins in the signaling pathway (e.g., estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1, NRF-2 and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ also decreased. Our finding indicates that small interfering RNA (siRNA interference targeting the PGC-1α gene could inhibit the function of mitochondria in several capacities and that the PGC-1α gene may modulate mitochondrial function by regulating the expression of ERRα, NRF-1, NRF-2 and PPARγ. Thus, PGC-1α can be considered a potential therapeutic target for PD.

  13. Identification and classification of genes regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and TRKB-mediated signalling pathways during neuronal differentiation in two subtypes of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaki Yoshiyuki

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SH-SY5Y cells exhibit a neuronal phenotype when treated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA, but the molecular mechanism of activation in the signalling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K is unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we compared the gene expression profiles in SK-N-SH cells and two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells (SH-SY5Y-A and SH-SY5Y-E, each of which show a different phenotype during RA-mediated differentiation. Findings SH-SY5Y-A cells differentiated in the presence of RA, whereas RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells required additional treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF for full differentiation. After exposing cells to a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, we identified 386 genes and categorised these genes into two clusters dependent on the PI3K signalling pathway during RA-mediated differentiation in SH-SY5Y-A cells. Transcriptional regulation of the gene cluster, including 158 neural genes, was greatly reduced in SK-N-SH cells and partially impaired in SH-SY5Y-E cells, which is consistent with a defect in the neuronal phenotype of these cells. Additional stimulation with BDNF induced a set of neural genes that were down-regulated in RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells but were abundant in differentiated SH-SY5Y-A cells. Conclusion We identified gene clusters controlled by PI3K- and TRKB-mediated signalling pathways during the differentiation of two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells. The TRKB-mediated bypass pathway compensates for impaired neural function generated by defects in several signalling pathways, including PI3K in SH-SY5Y-E cells. Our expression profiling data will be useful for further elucidation of the signal transduction-transcriptional network involving PI3K or TRKB.

  14. Identification and classification of genes regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and TRKB-mediated signalling pathways during neuronal differentiation in two subtypes of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yuichiro; Adati, Naoki; Ozawa, Ritsuko; Maeda, Aasami; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Takeda, Tadayuki

    2008-10-28

    SH-SY5Y cells exhibit a neuronal phenotype when treated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA), but the molecular mechanism of activation in the signalling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we compared the gene expression profiles in SK-N-SH cells and two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells (SH-SY5Y-A and SH-SY5Y-E), each of which show a different phenotype during RA-mediated differentiation. SH-SY5Y-A cells differentiated in the presence of RA, whereas RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells required additional treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for full differentiation. After exposing cells to a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, we identified 386 genes and categorised these genes into two clusters dependent on the PI3K signalling pathway during RA-mediated differentiation in SH-SY5Y-A cells. Transcriptional regulation of the gene cluster, including 158 neural genes, was greatly reduced in SK-N-SH cells and partially impaired in SH-SY5Y-E cells, which is consistent with a defect in the neuronal phenotype of these cells. Additional stimulation with BDNF induced a set of neural genes that were down-regulated in RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells but were abundant in differentiated SH-SY5Y-A cells. We identified gene clusters controlled by PI3K- and TRKB-mediated signalling pathways during the differentiation of two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells. The TRKB-mediated bypass pathway compensates for impaired neural function generated by defects in several signalling pathways, including PI3K in SH-SY5Y-E cells. Our expression profiling data will be useful for further elucidation of the signal transduction-transcriptional network involving PI3K or TRKB.

  15. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  16. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  17. Activated cathepsin L is associated with the switch from autophagy to apoptotic death of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingyun, E-mail: lingyunlee@126.com [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Experimental Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215004 (China); Gao, Luyan [Experimental Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215004 (China); Song, Yunzhen; Qin, Zheng-Hong [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liang, Zhongqin, E-mail: liangzhongqin@suda.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-02-12

    Autophagy and apoptosis are common responses to pathological damage in the process of Parkinson's disease (PD), and lysosome dysfunction may contribute to the etiology of PD's neurodegenerative process. In this study, we demonstrated that the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) increased autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells, as determined by detection of the lysosome marker lysosomal-associated membrane protein1, the autophagy protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II and the autophagy substrate P62 protein. Meanwhile, autophagy repression with 3-methyladenine accelerated the activation of caspase-3 and PARP and aggravated the cell apoptotic death induced by 6-OHDA. Furthermore, we found that 6-OHDA treatment resulted in a transient increase in the intracellular and nuclear expression of cathepsin L (CTSL). The CTSL inhibitor, Z-FY-CHO, could promote autophagy, decrease accumulation of P62, and block activation of caspase-3 and PARP. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of autophagy may primarily be a protective process in SH-SY5Y cell death induced by 6-OHDA, and the nuclear translocation of CTSL could enhance the cell apoptotic cascade via disturbing autophagy-apoptotic systems in SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings highlight the potential role of CTSL in the cross talk between autophagy and apoptosis, which might be considered a therapeutic strategy for treatment of pathologic conditions associated with neurodegeneration. - Highlights: • Inhibition of autophagy aggravated the cell apoptotic death in SH-SY5Y cells. • Activation of cathepsin L impaired the autophagy pathway. • Activation of cathepsin L enhanced the cell apoptotic cascade. • Cathepsin L involves in the cross talk between autophagy and apoptosis.

  18. FGF1 protects neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells from p53-dependent apoptosis through an intracrine pathway regulated by FGF1 phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirou, Caroline; Montazer-Torbati, Fatemeh; Jah, Nadège; Delmas, Elisabeth; Lasbleiz, Christelle; Mignotte, Bernard; Renaud, Flore

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a sympathetic nervous system tumor, accounts for 15% of cancer deaths in children. In contrast to most human tumors, p53 is rarely mutated in human primary neuroblastoma, suggesting impaired p53 activation in neuroblastoma. Various studies have shown correlations between fgf1 expression levels and both prognosis severity and tumor chemoresistance. As we previously showed that fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) inhibited p53-dependent apoptosis in neuron-like PC12 cells, we initiated the study of the interaction between the FGF1 and p53 pathways in neuroblastoma. We focused on the activity of either extracellular FGF1 by adding recombinant rFGF1 in media, or of intracellular FGF1 by overexpression in human SH-SY5Y and mouse N2a neuroblastoma cell lines. In both cell lines, the genotoxic drug etoposide induced a classical mitochondrial p53-dependent apoptosis. FGF1 was able to inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis upstream of mitochondrial events in SH-SY5Y cells by both extracellular and intracellular pathways. Both rFGF1 addition and etoposide treatment increased fgf1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, rFGF1 or overexpressed FGF1 had no effect on p53-dependent apoptosis and fgf1 expression in neuroblastoma N2a cells. Using different FGF1 mutants (that is, FGF1K132E, FGF1S130A and FGF1S130D), we further showed that the C-terminal domain and phosphorylation of FGF1 regulate its intracrine anti-apoptotic activity in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. This study provides the first evidence for a role of an intracrine growth factor pathway on p53-dependent apoptosis in neuroblastoma, and could lead to the identification of key regulators involved in neuroblastoma tumor progression and chemoresistance. PMID:29048426

  19. Lack of Prenylated Proteins, Autophagy Impairment and Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cell Model of Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Maura Tricarico

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD, is a hereditary disease due to mutations in mevalonate kinase gene (MVK. MKD has heterogeneous clinical phenotypes: the correlation between MVK mutations and MKD clinical phenotype is still to be fully elucidated. Deficiency of prenylated proteins has been hypothesized as possible MKD pathogenic mechanism. Based on this hypothesis and considering that neurologic impairment characterizes Mevalonic Aciduria (MA, the most severe form of MKD, we studied the effects of I268T and N301T MVK mutations on protein prenylation, autophagy and programmed cell death in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. Methods: SH-SY5Y cells were transiently transfected, with the pCMV-6 plasmid containing MVK wild type and the two mutated sequences. Protein prenylation levels were evaluated using GFP-RhoA-F to assess farnesylation, and GFP-RhoA to evaluate geranylgeranylation; autophagy was measured by evaluating LC3 and p62 protein levels, while Annexin V-FITC and Propidium Iodide staining allowed apoptosis detection. Results: MVK mutants’ over-expression causes decreased levels of farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, and also increased LC3 lipidation in SH-SY5Y, with concomitant p62 accumulation. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 (an inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase, a late autophagy inhibitor further increase LC3-II and p62 levels, suggesting that degradation of autophagolysosome could be impaired. SH-SY5Y, with both MVK mutants, showed apoptosis increase; the presence of N301T associated with augmented cell death. Conclusions: We hypothesize that mevalonate pathway impairment causes alteration of farnesylation and geranylgeranylation proteins and alteration of the autophagic flux; these changes can induce apoptosis, possibly more relevant in the presence of N301T mutation.

  20. Lack of Prenylated Proteins, Autophagy Impairment and Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cell Model of Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, Paola Maura; Romeo, Alessandra; Gratton, Rossella; Crovella, Sergio; Celsi, Fulvio

    2017-01-01

    Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD), is a hereditary disease due to mutations in mevalonate kinase gene (MVK). MKD has heterogeneous clinical phenotypes: the correlation between MVK mutations and MKD clinical phenotype is still to be fully elucidated. Deficiency of prenylated proteins has been hypothesized as possible MKD pathogenic mechanism. Based on this hypothesis and considering that neurologic impairment characterizes Mevalonic Aciduria (MA), the most severe form of MKD, we studied the effects of I268T and N301T MVK mutations on protein prenylation, autophagy and programmed cell death in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. SH-SY5Y cells were transiently transfected, with the pCMV-6 plasmid containing MVK wild type and the two mutated sequences. Protein prenylation levels were evaluated using GFP-RhoA-F to assess farnesylation, and GFP-RhoA to evaluate geranylgeranylation; autophagy was measured by evaluating LC3 and p62 protein levels, while Annexin V-FITC and Propidium Iodide staining allowed apoptosis detection. MVK mutants' over-expression causes decreased levels of farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, and also increased LC3 lipidation in SH-SY5Y, with concomitant p62 accumulation. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 (an inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase, a late autophagy inhibitor) further increase LC3-II and p62 levels, suggesting that degradation of autophagolysosome could be impaired. SH-SY5Y, with both MVK mutants, showed apoptosis increase; the presence of N301T associated with augmented cell death. We hypothesize that mevalonate pathway impairment causes alteration of farnesylation and geranylgeranylation proteins and alteration of the autophagic flux; these changes can induce apoptosis, possibly more relevant in the presence of N301T mutation. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The biologic role of ganglioside in neuronal differentiation--effects of GM1 ganglioside on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, M. C.; Lee, W. S.; Park, C. S.; Juhng, S. W.

    1994-01-01

    Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell is a cloned cell line which has many attractive features for the study of neuronal proliferation and neurite outgrowth, because it has receptors for insulin, IGF-I and PDGF. Gangliosides are sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids which form an integral part of the plasma membrane of many mammalian cells. They inhibit cell growth mediated by tyrosine kinase receptors and ligand-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity, and autophosphorylation of EGF(epidermal gro...

  2. Safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-101-SY: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentsch, J.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-16

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101, which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of Salvia aristata Aucher ex Benth. on hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Esmaeili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Oxidative stress is implicated in the neuronal damage associated with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotropic lateral sclerosis and cerebral ischemic stroke. The present work was designed to establish the neuroprotective effects of Salvia aristata extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Methods: The total phenol and flavonoids contents of the plant extracts were quantified by colorimetric methods. The antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH free radicals scavenging activity assay, and the neuroprotective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative stress was also investigated using human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells by MTT assay and western blotting techniques. Results: The highest scavenging activity was found for methanol extract of S. aristata roots (85.28 ± 2.61 μg/mL, with the highest total phenolic and flavonoids content (90.28 mg total phenols as gallic acid and 250.12 mg total flavonoids as rutin, respectively. Our results also, showed that H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells was suppressed by treatment with S. aristata. Moreover, S. aristata root extract was effective in attenuating the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic cell death has induced by H2O2.  S. aristata suppressed the down-regulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax, and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to cytosol. In addition, S. aristata attenuated caspase-3, and -9 activation, and eventually protected the cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: Theresults of the present study suggest that treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with S. aristata could block H2O2-induced apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 family members and by suppressing caspase cascade activation.

  4. A safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-SY-101: Hanford Site,Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentsch, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101,which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington.The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  5. Differential Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Protein and Apoptosis-Related Genes in Differentiated and Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells Treated with MPP+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawinthra Khwanraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line has been used as a dopaminergic cell model for Parkinson’s disease research. Whether undifferentiated or differentiated SH-SY5Y cells are more suitable remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related mRNAs activated by MPP+ and evaluate the differential expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in undifferentiated and retinoic acid- (RA- induced differentiated cells. The western blot results showed a gradual decrease in TH in undifferentiated cells and a gradual increase in TH in differentiated cells from days 4 to 10 after cell plating. Immunostaining revealed a gradual increase in TH along with neuritic outgrowth in differentiated cells on days 4 and 7 of RA treatment. For the study on cell susceptibility to MPP+ and the expression of apoptosis-related genes, MTT assay showed a decrease in cell viability to approximately 50% requiring 500 and 1000 μM of MPP+ for undifferentiated and RA-differentiated cells, respectively. Using real-time RT-PCR, treatment with 500 μM MPP+ led to significant increases in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, p53, and caspase-3 in undifferentiated cells but was without significance in differentiated cells. In conclusion, differentiated cells may be more suitable, and the shorter duration of RA differentiation may make the SH-SY5Y cell model more accessible.

  6. JNK signaling pathway regulates sorbitol-induced Tau proteolysis and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells by targeting caspase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera Santa-Catalina, Marta; Caballero Bermejo, Montaña; Argent, Ricardo; Alonso, Juan C; Centeno, Francisco; Lorenzo, María J

    2017-12-15

    Growing evidence suggests that Diabetes Mellitus increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. It is well known that hyperglycemia, a key feature of Diabetes Mellitus, may induce plasma osmolarity disturbances. Both hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity promote the altered post-translational regulation of microtubule-associated protein Tau. Interestingly, abnormal hyperphosphorylation and cleavage of Tau have been proven to lead to the genesis of filamentous structures referred to as neurofibrillary tangles, the main pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. We have previously described that hyperosmotic stress induced by sorbitol promotes Tau proteolysis and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells via caspase-3 activation. In order to gain insights into the regulatory mechanisms of such processes, in this work we explored the intracellular signaling pathways that regulate these events. We found that sorbitol treatment significantly enhanced the activation of conventional families of MAPK in SH-SY5Y cells. Tau proteolysis was completely prevented by JNK inhibition but not affected by either ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK blockade. Moreover, inhibition of JNK, but not ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK, efficiently prevented sorbitol-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. In summary, we provide evidence that JNK signaling pathway is an upstream regulator of hyperosmotic stress-induced Tau cleavage and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y through the control of caspase-3 activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Short Chemical Ischemia Triggers Phosphorylation of eIF2α and Death of SH-SY5Y Cells but not Proteasome Stress and Heat Shock Protein Response in both SH-SY5Y and T98G Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klacanova, Katarina; Pilchova, Ivana; Klikova, Katarina; Racay, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Both translation arrest and proteasome stress associated with accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated protein aggregates were considered as a cause of delayed neuronal death after transient global brain ischemia; however, exact mechanisms as well as possible relationships are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of chemical ischemia and proteasome stress on cellular stress responses and viability of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and glioblastoma T98G cells. Chemical ischemia was induced by transient treatment of the cells with sodium azide in combination with 2-deoxyglucose. Proteasome stress was induced by treatment of the cells with bortezomib. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with sodium azide/2-deoxyglucose for 15 min was associated with cell death observed 24 h after treatment, while glioblastoma T98G cells were resistant to the same treatment. Treatment of both SH-SY5Y and T98G cells with bortezomib was associated with cell death, accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins, and increased expression of Hsp70. These typical cellular responses to proteasome stress, observed also after transient global brain ischemia, were not observed after chemical ischemia. Finally, chemical ischemia, but not proteasome stress, was in SH-SY5Y cells associated with increased phosphorylation of eIF2α, another typical cellular response triggered after transient global brain ischemia. Our results showed that short chemical ischemia of SH-SY5Y cells is not sufficient to induce both proteasome stress associated with accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and stress response at the level of heat shock proteins despite induction of cell death and eIF2α phosphorylation.

  8. TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis is prevented by erythropoietin treatment on SH-SY5Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregi, Nicolas; Wenker, Shirley; Vittori, Daniela; Leiros, Claudia Perez; Nesse, Alcira

    2009-01-01

    The growth factor erythropoietin (Epo) has shown neuronal protective action in addition to its well known proerythroid activity. Furthermore, Epo has dealt with cellular inflammation by inhibiting the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1 and TNF-α. The action of TNF can have both apoptotic and antiapoptotic consequences due to altered balance between different cell signalling pathways. This work has focused on the apoptotic effects of this cytokine and the potential protective action of Epo. The model we used was neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells cultured in the presence of 25 ng/ml TNF-α or pretreated with 25 U/ml Epo for 12 h before the addition of TNF-α. Apoptosis was evaluated by differential cell count after Hoechst staining, analysis of DNA ladder pattern, and measurement of caspase activity. Despite its ability to induce NF-κB nuclear translocation, TNF-α induced cell death, which was found to be associated to upregulation of TNF Receptor 1 expression. On the other hand, cells activated by Epo became resistant to cell death. Prevention of death receptor upregulation and caspase activation may explain this antiapoptotic effect of Epo, which may be also favoured by the induction of a higher expression of protective factors, such as Bcl-2 and NF-κB, through mechanisms involving Jak/STAT and PI3K signalling pathways

  9. Protection against oxidant-induced apoptosis by mitochondrial thioredoxin in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Yu Min; Jones, Dean P.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy; Cai Jiyang

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress plays important roles in aging and age-related degenerative disorders. The newly identified mitochondrial thioredoxin (mtTrx; Trx2) is a key component of the mitochondrial antioxidant system which is responsible for the clearance of reactive intermediates and repairs proteins with oxidative damage. Here, we show that in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma 1cells, overexpression of mtTrx inhibited apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by a chemical oxidant, tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBH). The effects of calcium ionophore (Br-A23187) were not affected by mtTrx, suggesting the protection was specific against oxidative injury. The mitochondrial glutathione pool was oxidized by tBH, and this oxidation was not inhibited by increased mtTrx. Consequently, the antioxidant function of mtTrx is not redundant, but rather in addition, to that of GSH. Mutations of Cys90 and Cys93 to serines rendered mtTrx ineffective in protection against tBH-induced cytoxicity. These data indicate that mtTrx controls the mitochondrial redox status independently of GSH and is a key component of the defensive mechanism against oxidative stress in cultured neuronal cells

  10. 1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, J.A.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.; Elmore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.

  11. Enhanced oxidative stress and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells during methamphetamine induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-W.; Ping, Y.-H.; Yen, J.-C.; Chang, C.-Y.; Wang, S.-F.; Yeh, C.-L.; Chi, C.-W.; Lee, H.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an abused drug that may cause psychiatric and neurotoxic damage, including degeneration of monoaminergic terminals and apoptosis of non-monoaminergic cells in Brain. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these METH-induced neurotoxic effects remain to be clarified. In this study, we performed a time course assessment to investigate the effects of METH on intracellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations in a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. We characterized that METH induces a temporal sequence of several cellular events including, firstly, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential within 1 h of the METH treatment, secondly, an extensive decline in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 8 h of the treatment, thirdly, an increase in mitochondrial mass after the drug treatment for 24 h, and finally, a decrease in mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial proteins per mitochondrion as well as the occurrence of apoptosis after 48 h of the treatment. Importantly, vitamin E attenuated the METH-induced increases in intracellular ROS level and mitochondrial mass, and prevented METH-induced cell death. Our observations suggest that enhanced oxidative stress and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis may play critical roles in METH-induced neurotoxic effects

  12. Coffee induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human neuroblastama SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakio, Shota; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Kobata, Kenji; Tamura, Hiroomi

    2017-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that hypoxia-inducible vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on neuronal and glial cells. On the other hand, recent epidemiological studies showed that daily coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of several neuronal disorders. Therefore, we investigated the effect of coffee on VEGF expression in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that even low concentration of coffee (coffee was attributed to the coffee-dependent inhibition of prolyl hydroxylation of HIF1α, which is essential for proteolytic degradation of HIF-1α. However, no inhibition was observed at the catalytic activity in vitro. Coffee component(s) responsible for the activation of HIF-1α was not major constituents such as caffeine, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and trigonelline, but was found to emerge during roasting process. The active component(s) was extractable with ethyl acetate. Our results suggest that daily consumption of coffee may induce VEGF expression in neuronal cells. This might be related to protective effect of coffee on neural disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  13. Gas generation and retention in Tank 101-SY: A summary of laboratory studies, tank data, and information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Ashby, E.C.; Jonah, C.; Meisel, D.; Strachan, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    Chemical and radioactive wastes from processes used to separate plutonium from uranium are stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in Washington state. In March 1981, it was observed that the volume of wastes in Tank 101-SY slowly increased, followed by a rapid decrease and the venting of large quantities of gases. These cycles occurred every 8 to 15 weeks and continue to the present time. Subsequent analyses showed that these gases were composed primarily of hydrogen and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). In response to the potential for explosion and release of hazardous materials to the environment, laboratory programs were initiated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to develop a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes occurring in this waste tank. An aggressive sampling and analysis effort is also under way to characterize the wastes as fully as possible. These efforts will provide a technically defensible basis for safety analyses and future mitigation/remediation of the tank and its contents

  14. Neurosupportive Role of Vanillin, a Natural Phenolic Compound, on Rotenone Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnasamy Dhanalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin, a phenolic compound, has been reported to offer neuroprotection against experimental Huntington’s disease and global ischemia by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. The present study aims to elucidate the underlying neuroprotective mechanism of vanillin in rotenone induced neurotoxicity. Cell viability was assessed by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to various concentrations of rotenone (5–200 nM for 24 h. The therapeutic effectiveness of vanillin against rotenone was measured by pretreatment of vanillin at various concentrations (5–200 nM and then incubation with rotenone (100 nM. Using effective dose of vanillin (100 nM, mitochondrial membrane potential, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and expression patterns of apoptotic markers were assessed. Toxicity of rotenone was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation, release of cyt-c, and enhanced expressions of proapoptotic and downregulation of antiapoptotic indices via the upregulation of p38 and JNK-MAPK pathway proteins. Our results indicated that the pretreatment of vanillin attenuated rotenone induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Thus, vanillin may serve as a potent therapeutic agent in the future by virtue of its multiple pharmacological properties in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including PD.

  15. Attenuation of rotenone toxicity in SY5Y cells by taurine and N-acetyl cysteine alone or in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkholifi, Faisal K; Albers, David S

    2015-10-05

    There is accumulating evidence that supports the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, it is plausible that a multi-targeted therapeutic approach may be a more effective strategy to retard or even potentially halt the progression of the disease. Taurine is an organic acid that has a role in the regulation of oxidative stress and promoting mitochondrial normal functions, and N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a well-known anti-oxidant and glutathione precursor. The main purpose of this study was to examine the cytoprotective effects of taurine alone or in combination with NAC against rotenone-induced toxicity in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. Taurine treatment produced a concentration-dependent reduction in rotenone-induced cell death. From this, we tested sub-effective concentrations of taurine in combination with low, sub-effective concentrations of NAC against rotenone toxicity, and found the combined treatment afforded greater cytoprotection than either treatment alone. The combined taurine/NAC treatment also attenuated rotenone-induced reductions in aconitase activity suggesting the cytoprotection afforded by the combined treatment may be associated with anti-oxidative mechanisms. Together, our data suggest that a multi-targeted approach may yield new avenues of research exploring the utility of combining therapeutic agents with different mechanisms of actions at concentrations lower than previously tested and shown to be cytoprotective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyclophilin B protects SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity via JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoojung; Jeong, Kwon; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Young-Seok; Jeong, Suyun; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug; Choe, Wonchae

    2016-09-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of aging. PD involves a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyidine (MPTP) and its toxic metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) inhibit the complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and have been widely used to construct PD models. Cyclophilin B (CypB) is an endoplasmic reticulum protein that binds to cyclosporine A as a cyclophilin family member. CypB has peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. We investigated the protective effects of overexpressed CypB on MPP+-induced neurocytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Overexpressed CypB decreased MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress through the modulation of antioxidant enzymes including manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase, and prevented neurocytotoxicity via mitogen-activated protein kinase, especially the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. In addition, CypB inhibited the activation of MPP(+)-induced the pro-apoptotic molecules poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax, and Bcl-2, and attenuated MPP(+)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The data suggest that overexpressed CypB protects neuronal cells from MPP+-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human-machine interface (HMI) report for 241-SY-101 data acquisition [and control] system (DACS) upgrade study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1997-10-22

    This report provides an independent evaluation of information for a Windows based Human Machine Interface (HMI) to replace the existing DOS based Iconics HMI currently used in the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used at Tank 241-SY-101. A fundamental reason for this evaluation is because of the difficulty of maintaining the system with obsolete, unsupported software. The DACS uses a software operator interface (Genesis for DOS HMI) that is no longer supported by its manufacturer, Iconics. In addition to its obsolescence, it is complex and difficult to train additional personnel on. The FY 1997 budget allocated $40K for phase 1 of a software/hardware upgrade that would have allowed the old DOS based system to be replaced by a current Windows based system. Unfortunately, budget constraints during FY 1997 has prompted deferral of the upgrade. The upgrade needs to be performed at the earliest possible time, before other failures render the system useless. Once completed, the upgrade could alleviate other concerns: spare pump software may be able to be incorporated into the same software as the existing pump, thereby eliminating the parallel path dilemma; and the newer, less complex software should expedite training of future personnel, and in the process, require that less technical time be required to maintain the system.

  18. Gas generation and retention in Tank 101-SY: A summary of laboratory studies, tank data, and information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R. [comp.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ashby, E.C. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Jonah, C.; Meisel, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Strachan, D.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Chemical and radioactive wastes from processes used to separate plutonium from uranium are stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in Washington state. In March 1981, it was observed that the volume of wastes in Tank 101-SY slowly increased, followed by a rapid decrease and the venting of large quantities of gases. These cycles occurred every 8 to 15 weeks and continue to the present time. Subsequent analyses showed that these gases were composed primarily of hydrogen and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). In response to the potential for explosion and release of hazardous materials to the environment, laboratory programs were initiated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to develop a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes occurring in this waste tank. An aggressive sampling and analysis effort is also under way to characterize the wastes as fully as possible. These efforts will provide a technically defensible basis for safety analyses and future mitigation/remediation of the tank and its contents.

  19. Measuring Temporal Resolution (Release of Masking) with a Hughson-Westlake Up-Down Instead of a Békèsy-Tracking Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Koenraad S; van Esch, Thamar E M; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2015-06-01

    A temporal resolution test in addition to the pure-tone audiogram may be of great clinical interest because of its relevance in speech perception and expected relevance in hearing aid fitting. Larsby and Arlinger developed an appropriate clinical test, but this test uses a Békèsy-tracking procedure for estimating masked thresholds in stationary and interrupted noise to assess release of masking (RoM) for temporal resolution. Generally the Hughson-Westlake up-down procedure is used in the clinic to measure the pure-tone thresholds in quiet. A uniform approach will facilitate clinical application and might be appropriate for RoM measurements as well. Because there is no golden standard for measuring the RoM in the clinic, we examine in the present study the Hughson-Westlake up-down procedure to measure the RoM and compare the results with the Békèsy-tracking procedure. The purpose of the current study was to examine the differences between a Békèsy-tracking procedure and the Hughson-Westlake up-down procedure for estimating masked thresholds in stationary and interrupted noise to assess RoM. RoM is assessed in eight normal-hearing (NH) and ten hearing-impaired (HI) listeners through both methods. Results from both methods are compared with each other and with predicted thresholds from a model. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, paired t tests. Some differences between the two methods were found. We used a model to quantify the results of the two measurement procedures. The results of the Hughson-Westlake procedure were clearly better in agreement with the model than the results of the Békèsy-tracking procedure. Furthermore, the Békèsy-tracking procedure showed more spread in the results of the NH listeners than the Hughson-Westlake procedure. The Hughson-Westlake procedure seems to be an applicable alternative for measuring RoM for temporal resolution in the clinical audiological practice. American Academy of Audiology.

  20. Palmitic acid induces neurotoxicity and gliatoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma and T98G human glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Wen Ng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity-related central nervous system (CNS pathologies like neuroinflammation and reactive gliosis are associated with high-fat diet (HFD related elevation of saturated fatty acids like palmitic acid (PA in neurons and astrocytes of the brain. Methods Human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y (as a neuronal model and human glioblastoma cells T98G (as an astrocytic model, were treated with 100–500 µM PA, oleic acid (OA or lauric acid (LA for 24 h or 48 h, and their cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The effects of stable overexpression of γ-synuclein (γ-syn, a neuronal protein recently recognized as a novel regulator of lipid handling in adipocytes, and transient overexpression of Parkinson’s disease (PD α-synuclein [α-syn; wild-type (wt and its pathogenic mutants A53T, A30P and E46K] in SH-SY5Y and T98G cells, were also evaluated. The effects of co-treatment of PA with paraquat (PQ, a Parkinsonian pesticide, and leptin, a hormone involved in the brain-adipose axis, were also assessed. Cell death mode and cell cycle were analyzed by Annexin V/PI flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS level was determined using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescien diacetate (DCFH-DA assay and lipid peroxidation level was determined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS assay. Results MTT assay revealed dose- and time-dependent PA cytotoxicity on SH-SY5Y and T98G cells, but not OA and LA. The cytotoxicity was significantly lower in SH-SY5Y-γ-syn cells, while transient overexpression of wt α-syn or its PD mutants (A30P and E46K, but not A53T modestly (but still significantly rescued the cytotoxicity of PA in SH-SY5Y and T98G cells. Co-treatment of increasing concentrations of PQ exacerbated PA’s neurotoxicity. Pre-treatment of leptin, an anti-apoptotic adipokine, did not successfully rescue SH-SY5Y cells from PA-induced cytotoxicity—suggesting a mechanism of PA

  1. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  2. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  3. Effect of toluene diisocyanate on homeostasis of intracellular-free calcium in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.-S.; Chiung, Y.-M.; Kao, Y.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms of TDI (2,4-toluene diisocyanate)-induced occupational asthma are not fully established. Previous studies have indicated that TDI induces non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine and induces contraction of smooth muscle tissue by activating 'capsaicin-sensitive' nerves resulting asthma. Cytosolic-free calcium ion concentrations ([Ca 2+ ] c ) are elevated when either capsaicin acts at vanilloid receptors, or methacholine at muscarinic receptors. This study therefore investigated the effects of TDI on Ca 2+ mobilization in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. TDI was found to elevate [Ca 2+ ] c by releasing Ca 2+ from the intracellular stores and extracellular Ca 2+ influx. 500 μM TDI induced a net [Ca 2+ ] c increase of 112 ± 8 and 78 ± 6 nM in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca 2+ , respectively. In Ca 2+ -free buffer, TDI induced Ca 2+ release from internal stores to reduce their Ca 2+ content and this reduction was evidenced by a suppression occurring on the [Ca 2+ ] c rise induced by thapsigargin, ionomycin, and methacholine after TDI incubation. In the presence of extracellular Ca 2+ , simultaneous exposure to TDI and methacholine led a higher level of [Ca 2+ ] c compared to single methacholine stimulation, that might explain that TDI induces bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine. We conclude that TDI is capable of interfering the [Ca 2+ ] c homeostasis including releasing Ca 2+ from internal stores and inducing extracellular Ca 2+ influx. The interaction of this novel character and bronchial hyperreactivity need further investigation

  4. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2015-01-01

    We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected during our survey for objects beyond the Kuiper Belt using the Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO 4 m telescope. We obtained broadband colors of 62412 at the Magellan Telescope, which, along with 62412's low albedo, suggests it is a C-type asteroid. 62412's orbital dynamics and color strongly correlate with the Hygiea family in the outer main belt, making it the first active asteroid known in this heavily populated family. We also find 62412 to have a very short rotation period of 3.33 ± 0.01 hours from a double-peaked light curve with a maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.45 ± 0.01 mag. We identify 62412 as the fastest known rotator of the Hygiea family and the nearby Themis family of similar composition, which contains several known main belt comets. The activity on 62412 was seen over one year after perihelion passage in its 5.6 year orbit. 62412 has the highest perihelion and one of the most circular orbits known for any active asteroid. The observed activity is probably linked to 62412's rapid rotation, which is near the critical period for break-up. The fast spin rate may also change the shape and shift material around 62412's surface, possibly exposing buried ice. Assuming 62412 is a strengthless rubble pile, we find the density of 62412 to be around 1500 kg m −3 .

  5. The effect of UV-filters on the viability of neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniowska, Żaneta; Pomierny, Bartosz; Smaga, Irena; Filip, Małgorzata; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-05-01

    Topical application of cosmetic products, containing ultraviolet filters (UV filters) are recommended as a protection against sunburns and in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer. However, some UV filters can be absorbed through skin and by consuming contaminated food. Among the chemical UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) and 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (OMC) are absorbed through the skin to the greatest extent. So far, these lipophilic compounds were demonstrated to influence the gonadal and thyroid hormone function, but their effect on central nervous system cells has not been investigated, yet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of some UV filters on cell viability and caspase-3 activity in SH-SY5Y cells. It has been found that benzophenone-2 (BP-2), BP-3, 4-methylbenzophenone (4-MBP) and OMC present in the culture medium for 72h in high concentration (10(-5) and 10(-4)M) and 4-MBC only 10(-4)M produced a significant cytotoxic effect, as determined both by the MTT reduction test and LDH release assay. In contrast to necrotic changes, all tested UV filters increased caspase-3 activity in much lower concentrations (from 10(-8) to 10(-7)M). Proapoptotic properties of the test compounds were positively verified by Hoechst staining. The obtained results indicated that UV filters adversely affected the viability of nerve cells, most likely by enhancing the process of apoptosis. The most potent effect was exerted by BP-3 and 4-MBC and at concentrations that may be reached in vivo. Since human exposure to UV filters is significant these compound should be taken into consideration as one of the possible factors involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide modifies both activity and isoforms of acetylcholinesterase in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Garcimartín

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of cholinergic system and the reactive oxygen species (ROS in the pathogenesis of some degenerative diseases has been widely reported; however, the specific impact of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity as well as AChE isoform levels has not been clearly established. Hence, the purpose of present study is to clarify whether H2O2 alters these parameters.Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were treated with H2O2 (1–1000 µM for 24 h and AChE activity and AChE and cytochrome c levels were evaluated. AChE activity was strongly increased from 1 µM to 1000 µM of H2O2. The results of the kinetic study showed that H2O2 affected Vmax but not Km; and also that H2O2 changed the sigmoid kinetic observed in control samples to hyperbolic kinetic. Thus, results suggest that H2O2 acts as an allosteric activators. In addition, H2O2, (100–1000 µM reduced the total AChE content and modified its isoform profile (mainly 50-, 70-, and 132-kDa·H2O2 from 100 µM to 1000 µM induced cytochrome c release confirming cell death by apoptosis. All these results together suggest: a the involvement of oxidative stress in the imbalance of AChE; and b treatment with antioxidant agents may be a suitable strategy to protect cholinergic system alterations promoted by oxidative stress. Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Hydrogen peroxide, Alternative splicing, Cell culture, Cell death

  7. Force spectroscopy of membrane hardness of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells before and after differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sangwoo; Yang, Woochul; Choi, Yun Kyong; Park, Jung Keuck

    2014-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is utilized in many studies for measuring the structure and the physical characteristics of soft and bio materials. In particular, the force spectroscopy function in the AFM system allows us to explore the mechanical properties of bio cells. In this study, we probe the variation in the membrane hardness of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells (SH-cells) before and after differentiation by using force spectroscopy. The SH-cell, which is usually differentiated by using a chemical treatment with retinoic acid (RA), is a neuronal cell line employed widely as an in-vitro model for neuroscience research. In force spectroscopy, the force-distance curves are obtained from both the original and the RA-treated cells while the AFM tip approaches and pushes on the cell membranes. The slope deduced from linear region in the force-distance curve is the spring constant and corresponds to the hardness of the cell membrane. The spring constant of the RA-treated cells (0.597 ± 0.010 nN/nm) was smaller than that of the original cells (0.794 ± 0.010 nN/nm), reflecting a hardness decrease in the cells differentiated with the RA treatments. The results clearly demonstrated that the differentiated cells are softer than the original cells. The change in the elasticity of the differentiated cells might be caused by morphological modification during differentiation process. We suggest that force spectroscopy can be employed as a novel method to determine the degree of differentiation of stem cells into various functional cells.

  8. Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fragmentation and protective autophagy in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jimena Hebe; Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Porte Alcon, Soledad; Fuentes, Federico; Coluccio Leskow, Federico; Kotler, Mónica Lidia

    2018-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons from substantia nigra. It is characterized by the accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein as the major component of the Lewy bodies. Additional common features of this disease are the mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation/inhibition of autophagy both events associated to the intracellular accumulation of α-synuclein. The mechanism by which these events contribute to neural degeneration remains unknown. In the present work we investigated the effect of α-synuclein on mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy/mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells, an in vitro model of Parkinson disease. We demonstrated that overexpression of wild type α-synuclein causes moderated toxicity, ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, α-synuclein induces the mitochondrial fragmentation on a Drp-1-dependent fashion. Overexpression of the fusion protein Opa-1 prevented both mitochondrial fragmentation and cytotoxicity. On the other hand, cells expressing α-synuclein showed activated autophagy and particularly mitophagy. Employing a genetic strategy we demonstrated that autophagy is triggered in order to protect cells from α-synuclein-induced cell death. Our results clarify the role of Opa-1 and Drp-1 in mitochondrial dynamics and cell survival, a controversial α-synuclein research issue. The findings presented point to the relevance of mitochondrial homeostasis and autophagy in the pathogenesis of PD. Better understanding of the molecular interaction between these processes could give rise to novel therapeutic methods for PD prevention and amelioration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pinocembrin Suppresses H2O2-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction by a Mechanism Dependent on the Nrf2/HO-1 Axis in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; da Costa Ferreira, Gustavo; Brasil, Flávia Bittencourt; Peres, Alessandra

    2018-02-01

    Mitochondria are susceptible to redox impairment, which has been associated with neurodegeneration. These organelles are both a source and target of reactive species. In that context, there is increasing interest in finding natural compounds that modulate mitochondrial function and mitochondria-related signaling in order to prevent or to treat diseases involving mitochondrial impairment. Herein, we investigated whether and how pinocembrin (PB) would prevent mitochondrial dysfunction elicited by the exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). PB (25 μM) was administrated for 4 h before H 2 O 2 treatment (300 μM for 24 h). PB prevented H 2 O 2 -induced loss of cell viability mitochondrial depolarization in SH-SY5Y cells. PB also attenuated redox impairment in mitochondrial membranes. The production of superoxide anion radical (O 2 -• ) and nitric oxide (NO • ) was alleviated by PB in cells exposed to H 2 O 2 . PB suppressed the H 2 O 2 -induced inhibition of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes aconitase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, PB induced anti-inflammatory effects by abolishing the H 2 O 2 -dependent activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The PB-induced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects are dependent on the heme oxygenate-1 (HO-1) enzyme and on the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), since HO-1 inhibition (with 0.5 μM ZnPP IX) or Nrf2 silencing (with small interfering RNA (siRNA)) abolished the effects of PB. Overall, PB afforded cytoprotection by the Nrf2/HO-1 axis in H 2 O 2 -treated SH-SY5Y cells.

  10. Pretreatment of MQA, a caffeoylquinic acid derivative compound, protects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xing; Gao, Lingyue; An, Li; Jiang, Xiaowen; Bai, Junpeng; Huang, Jian; Meng, Weihong; Zhao, Qingchun

    2016-12-01

    Compound MQA (1,5-O-dicaffeoyl-3-O-[4-malic acid methyl ester]-quinic acid) is a natural caffeoylquinic acid derivative isolated from Arctium lappa L. roots. This study aims to explore the neuroprotective effects of MQA against hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The SH-SY5Y cells were divided into four groups, including control, 20 μM MQA, 200 μM H2O2, 200 μM H2O2 + 20 μM MQA groups. The effects of MQA on H 2 O 2 -induced cell death were measured by MTT and LDH assays. Hoechst 33342 and Annexin V-PI double staining were used to observed H2O2-induced apoptosis. Also, the effects of MQA on antioxidant system and mitochondrial pathway were explored. Further, steady-state phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, Akt and GSK-3β were examined by Western blot analysis. Pretreatment with MQA prevented cell death in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 200 μM H2O2 for 3 h. Meanwhile, Hoechst 33342 and Annexin V-PI double staining showed that MQA attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis. These changes are related to elevation in SOD activity, reduction in MDA production and ROS formation, and increases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, the potential mechanisms of MQA against H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis are associated with increases in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreases in cytochrome c release, caspase-3 and caspase-9 expressions, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and dephosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3β. These findings suggest that protective effects of MQA against H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis might be associated with mitochondrial apoptosis, ERK1/2 and AKT/GSK-3β pathway.

  11. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) induces neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and sensitizes it to chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Tataranni, Tiziana; Agriesti, Francesca; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Fratello, Angelo; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2016-05-03

    Neuroblastoma is the most commonly extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood frequently diagnosed. The nervous system-specific metabolite N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is synthesized from aspartate and acetyl-CoA in neurons, it is among the most abundant metabolites present in the central nervous system (CNS) and appears to be involved in many CNS disorders. The functional significance of the high NAA concentration in the brain remains uncertain, but it confers to NAA a unique clinical significance exploited in magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the current study, we show that treatment of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma-derived cell line with sub-cytotoxic physiological concentrations of NAA inhibits cell growth. This effect is partly due to enhanced apoptosis, shown by decrease of the anti-apoptotic factors survivin and Bcl-xL, and partly to arrest of the cell-cycle progression, linked to enhanced expression of the cyclin-inhibitors p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1. Moreover, NAA-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited morphological changes accompanied with increase of the neurogenic markers TH and MAP2 and down-regulation of the pluripotency markers OCT4 and CXCR4/CD184. Finally, NAA-pre-treated SH-SY5Y cells resulted more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapeutic drugs Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil.To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the neuronal differentiating effects of NAA in neuroblastoma cells. NAA may be a potential preconditioning or adjuvant compound in chemotherapeutic treatment.

  12. A fluorescence assay for measuring acetylcholinesterase activity in rat blood and a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, Michael F; Liu, Yitong

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme responsible for metabolism of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and inhibition of AChE can have therapeutic applications (e.g., drugs for Alzheimer's disease) or neurotoxic consequences (e.g., pesticides). A common absorbance-based AChE activity assay that uses 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) can have limited sensitivity and be prone to interference. Therefore, an alternative assay was developed, in which AChE activity was determined by measuring fluorescence of resorufin produced from coupled enzyme reactions involving acetylcholine and Amplex Red (10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine). The Amplex Red assay was used for two separate applications. First, AChE activity was measured in rat whole blood, which is a biomarker for exposure to AChE inhibitor pesticides. Activity was quantified from a 10(5)-fold dilution of whole blood, and there was a linear correlation between Amplex Red and DTNB assays. For the second application, Amplex Red assay was used to measure AChE inhibition potency in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y), which is important for assessing pharmacological and toxicological potential of AChE inhibitors including drugs, phytochemicals, and pesticides. Five known reversible inhibitors were evaluated (IC50, 7-225 nM), along with irreversible inhibitors chlorpyrifos-oxon (ki=1.01 nM(-1)h(-1)) and paraoxon (ki=0.16 nM(-1)h(-1)). Lastly, in addition to inhibition, AChE reactivation was measured in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM). The Amplex Red assay is a sensitive, specific, and reliable fluorescence method for measuring AChE activity in both rat whole blood and cultured SH-SY5Y cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Inhibition of WNT signaling reduces differentiation and induces sensitivity to doxorubicin in human malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebsoonthron, Junjira; Jaroonwitchawan, Thiranut; Yamabhai, Montarop; Noisa, Parinya

    2017-06-01

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common cancers in infancy, arising from the neuroblasts during embryonic development. This cancer is difficult to treat and resistance to chemotherapy is often found; therefore, clinical trials of novel therapeutic approaches, such as targeted-cancer signaling, could be an alternative for a better treatment. WNT signaling plays significant roles in the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human neuroblastoma. In this report, WNT signaling of a malignant human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y cells, was inhibited by XAV939, a specific inhibitor of the Tankyrase enzyme. XAV939 treatment led to the reduction of β-catenin within the cells, confirming its inhibitory effect of WNT. The inhibition of WNT signaling by XAV939 did not affect cell morphology, survival, and proliferation; however, the differentiation and sensitivity to anticancer drugs of human neuroblastoma cells were altered. The treatment of XAV939 resulted in the downregulation of mature neuronal markers, including β-tubulin III, PHOX2A, and PHOX2B, whereas neural progenitor markers (PAX6, TFAP2α, and SLUG) were upregulated. In addition, the combination of XAV939 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of SH-SY5Y and IMR-32 cells to doxorubicin in both 2D and 3D culture systems. Microarray gene expression profiling suggested numbers of candidate target genes of WNT inhibition by XAV939, in particular, p21, p53, ubiquitin C, ZBED8, MDM2, CASP3, and FZD1, and this explained the enhanced sensitivity of SH-SY5Y cells to doxorubicin. Altogether, these results proposed that the altered differentiation of human malignant neuroblastoma cells by inhibiting WNT signaling sensitized the cells to anticancer drugs. This approach could thus serve as an effective treatment option for aggressive brain malignancy.

  14. Evaluation of the neurotoxic/neuroprotective role of organoselenides using differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line challenged with 6-hydroxydopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernanda Martins; Londero, Giovana Ferreira; de Medeiros, Liana Marengo; da Motta, Leonardo Lisbôa; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; de Oliveira, Valeska Aguiar; Ibrahim, Mohammad; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Porciúncula, Lisiane de Oliveira; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Klamt, Fábio

    2012-08-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress plays a major role in several neurodegenerative conditions, like Parkinson disease (PD). Hence, there is an enormous effort for the development of new antioxidants compounds with therapeutic potential for the management of PD, such as synthetic organoselenides molecules. In this study, we selected between nine different synthetic organoselenides the most eligible ones for further neuroprotection assays, using the differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line as in vitro model. Neuronal differentiation of exponentially growing human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was triggered by cultivating cells with DMEM/F12 medium with 1% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) with the combination of 10 μM retinoic acid for 7 days. Differentiated cells were further incubated with different concentrations of nine organoselenides (0.1, 0.3, 3, 10, and 30 μM) for 24 h and cell viability, neurites densities and the immunocontent of neuronal markers were evaluated. Peroxyl radical scavenging potential of each compound was determined with TRAP assay. Three organoselenides tested presented low cytotoxicity and high antioxidant properties. Pre-treatment of cells with those compounds for 24 h lead to a significantly neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity, which were directly related to their antioxidant properties. Neuroprotective activity of all three organoselenides was compared to diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)₂, the simplest of the diaryl diselenides tested. Our results demonstrate that differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells are suitable cellular model to evaluate neuroprotective/neurotoxic role of compounds, and support further evaluation of selected organoselenium molecules as potential pharmacological and therapeutic drugs in the treatment of PD.

  15. Specific pesticide-dependent increases in α-synuclein levels in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and melanoma (SK-MEL-2) cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorfa, Areski; Bétemps, Dominique; Morignat, Eric; Lazizzera, Corinne; Hogeveen, Kevin; Andrieu, Thibault; Baron, Thierry

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate a role of genetic and environmental factors in Parkinson's disease involving alterations of the neuronal α-synuclein (α-syn) protein. In particular, a relationship between Parkinson's disease and occupational exposure to pesticides has been repeatedly suggested. Our objective was to precisely assess changes in α-syn levels in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and melanoma (SK-MEL-2) cell lines following acute exposure to pesticides (rotenone, paraquat, maneb, and glyphosate) using Western blot and flow cytometry. These human cell lines express α-syn endogenously, and overexpression of α-syn (wild type or mutated A53T) can be obtained following recombinant adenoviral transduction. We found that endogenous α-syn levels in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line were markedly increased by paraquat, and to a lesser extent by rotenone and maneb, but not by glyphosate. Rotenone also clearly increased endogenous α-syn levels in the SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell line. In the SH-SY5Y cell line, similar differences were observed in the α-syn adenovirus-transduced cells, with a higher increase of the A53T mutated protein. Paraquat markedly increased α-syn in the SK-MEL-2 adenovirus-transduced cell line, similarly for the wild-type or A53T proteins. The observed differences in the propensities of pesticides to increase α-syn levels are in agreement with numerous reports that indicate a potential role of exposure to certain pesticides in the development of Parkinson's disease. Our data support the hypothesis that pesticides can trigger some molecular events involved in this disease and also in malignant melanoma that consistently shows a significant but still unexplained association with Parkinson's disease.

  16. Protective Effects of Fisetin Against 6-OHDA-Induced Apoptosis by Activation of PI3K-Akt Signaling in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ryoko; Kurose, Takumi; Morishige, Yuta; Fujimori, Ko

    2018-02-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. 3,3',4',7-Tetrahydroxyflavone (fisetin), a plant flavonoid has a variety of physiological effects such as antioxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of fisetin against 6-OHDA-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. 6-OHDA-mediated cell toxicity was reduced in a fisetin concentration-dependent manner. 6-OHDA-mediated elevation of the expression of the oxidative stress-related genes such as hemeoxygenase-1, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1, NF-E2-related factor 2, and γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier was suppressed by fisetin. Fisetin also lowered the ratio of the proapoptotic Bax protein and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, fisetin effectively suppressed 6-OHDA-mediated activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, which leads to the cell death, while, 6-OHDA-induced caspase-3/7 activity was lowered. Furthermore, fisetin activated the PI3K-Akt signaling, which inhibits the caspase cascade, and fisetin-mediated inhibition of 6-OHDA-induced cell death was negated by the co-treatment with an Akt inhibitor. These results indicate that fisetin protects 6-OHDA-induced cell death by activating PI3K-Akt signaling in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. This is the first report that the PI3K-Akt signaling is involved in the fisetin-protected ROS-mediated neuronal cell death.

  17. The anti-inflammatory effect of melatonin in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to sublethal dose of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparat, Chutikorn; Chantadul, Varunya; Permpoonputtana, Kannika; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2017-06-01

    Brain inflammaging is considered as one of the underlying factors of neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine mainly synthesized by the pineal gland, on hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced inflammaging state in SH-SY5Y cells. Our data showed that p21 Cip1 and p16 INK4a , cell cycle arrest markers, and the number of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-βgal) staining increased significantly in H 2 O 2 -treated cells. Melatonin treatment could reverse this effect. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significantly higher percentage in the G0/G1 phase and a lower proportion in the S phase of H 2 O 2 treated cells. Cells pretreated with H 2 O 2 showed a dramatic decrease in the formation of Ki67 immunoactivity while the treatment with melatonin increased Ki67-positive cell. Both mRNA and protein expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) which were increased after induction with H 2 O 2 , could be attenuated by melatonin. In addition, melatonin decreased the phospho-nuclear factor kappa B (pNF-κB) expression and prevented its nuclear translocation, as well as abrogated the reduction of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to H 2 O 2 . The present data suggested the importance of melatonin on ameliorating inflammation in SH-SY5Y cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Mediates Neuroprotection in Proteasome Inhibition-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Benxu; Maffi, Shivani Kaushal; Martinez, Alex Anthony; Acosta, Yolanda P Villarreal; Morales, Liza D; Roberts, James L

    2011-01-01

    The proteasome is an enzyme complex responsible for targeted intracellular proteolysis. Alterations in proteasome-mediated protein clearance have been implicated in the pathogenesis of aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In such diseases, proteasome inhibition may contribute to formation of abnormal protein aggregates, which in turn activate intracellular unfolded protein responses that cause oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-1) for neural SH-SY5Y cells treated with the proteasomal inhibitor, Epoxomicin, In SH-SY5Y cells, Epoxomicin treatment results in accumulation of intracellular ubiquitinated proteins and cytochrome c release from damaged mitochondria, leading to cell death, in Epoxomicin time- and dose-dependent manner. In cells treated with small amounts of IGF-1, the same dosages of Epoxomicin reduced both mitochondrial damage (cytochrome c release) and reduced caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage, both of which are markers of apoptosis. Notably, however, IGF-1-treated SH-SY5Y cells still contained ubiquitinated protein aggregates. This result indicates that IGF-1 blocks the downstream apoptotic consequences of Epoxomicin treatment leading to decreased proteasome function. Clues as to the mechanism for this protective effect come from (a) increased AKT phosphorylation observed in IGF-1-protected cells, vs. cells exposed to Epoxomicin without IGF-1, and (b) reduction of IGF-1 protection by pretreatment of the cells with LY294002 (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase). Together these findings suggest that activation of PI3/AKT pathways by IGF-1 is involved in IGF-1 neuroprotection against apoptosis following proteasome inhibition. PMID:21545837

  19. An Extract from Shrimp Processing By-Products Protects SH-SY5Y Cells from Neurotoxicity Induced by Aβ25–35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased evidence suggests that marine unsaturated fatty acids (FAs can protect neurons from amyloid-β (Aβ-induced neurodegeneration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography (GC assays showed that the acetone extract 4-2A obtained from shrimp Pandalus borealis industry processing wastes contained 67.19% monounsaturated FAs and 16.84% polyunsaturated FAs. The present study evaluated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of 4-2A in Aβ25–35-insulted differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were measured by using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. Quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to study the expression of neurotrophins, pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis-related genes. Administration of 20 μM Aβ25–35 significantly reduced SH-SY5Y cell viability, the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF and its tyrosine kinase TrkA receptor, as well as the level of glutathione, while increased reactive oxygen species (ROS, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its TrkB receptor. Aβ25–35 also increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3 expression. Treatment with 4-2A significantly attenuated the Aβ25–35-induced changes in cell viability, ROS, GSH, NGF, TrkA, TNF-α, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, except for nitric oxide, BDNF and TrKB. In conclusion, 4-2A effectively protected SH-SY5Y cells against Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis/death by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress and up-regulating NGF and TrKA expression.

  20. Caspase Activation of p21-Activated Kinase 2 Occurs During Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells and in SH-SY5Y Cell Culture Models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry W. Marlin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK-2 appears to have a dual function in the regulation of cell survival and cell death. Activation of full-length PAK-2 by the p21 G-proteins Rac or Cdc42 stimulates cell survival. However, PAK-2 is unique among the PAK family because it is also activated through proteolytic cleavage by caspase 3 or similar caspases to generate the constitutively active PAK-2p34 fragment. Caspase activation of PAK-2 correlates with the induction of apoptosis in response to many stimuli and recombinant expression of PAK-2p34 has been shown to stimulate apoptosis in several human cell lines. Here, we show that caspase activation of PAK-2 also occurs during cisplatin-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as well as in SH-SY5Y cell culture models for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I or of ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated protein degradation, which both appear to be involved in Parkinson’s disease, induce apoptosis and caspase activation of PAK-2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein, which results in accumulation and aggregation of β-amyloid peptide, the main component of β-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s disease, also induces apoptosis and caspase activation of PAK-2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Expression of the PAK-2 regulatory domain inhibits caspase-activated PAK-2p34 and prevents apoptosis in 293T human embryonic kidney cells, indicating that caspase activation of PAK-2 is directly involved in the apoptotic response. This is the first evidence that caspase activation of PAK-2 correlates with apoptosis in cell culture models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease and that selective inhibition of caspase-activated PAK-2p34 could prevent apoptosis.

  1. Neuronal-like differentiated SH-SY5Y cells adaptation to a mild and transient H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akki, Rachid; Siracusa, Rosalba; Morabito, Rossana; Remigante, Alessia; Campolo, Michela; Errami, Mohammed; La Spada, Giuseppina; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Marino, Angela

    2018-03-01

    Preconditioning (PC) is a cell adaptive response to oxidative stress and, with regard to neurons, can be considered as a neuroprotective strategy. The aim of the present study was to verify how neuronal-like differentiated SH-SY5Y cells adapt to a mild and transient H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress and, hence, whether may be considered as more sensitive cell model to study PC pathways. A first screening allowed to define H 2 O 2 concentrations for PC (10μM-50μM), applied before damage(100μM H 2 O 2 ). Cell viability measured 24 hours after 100μM H 2 O 2 -induced damage was ameliorated by 24-hour pre-exposure to low-concentration H 2 O 2 (10μM-30μM) with cell size as well restored. Markers for apoptosis (Bcl-2 and Bad), inflammation (iNOS), and redox system (MnSOD) were also determined, showing that, in cells pre-exposed to 10μM H 2 O 2 and then submitted to 100μM H 2 O 2 , Bcl-2 levels were higher, Bad and iNOS levels were lower than those observed in damaged cells, and MnSOD levels were unchanged. Such findings show that (1) neuronal-like differentiated SH-SY5Y cells are a suitable model to investigate PC response and more sensitive to the effect of a mild and transient H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress with respect to other neuronal cells; (2) 10μM H 2 O 2 -induced PC is mediated by apoptotic and inflammatory pathways, unlike antioxidant system; (3) such neuroprotective strategy and underlying signals proven in neuronal-like differentiated SH-SY5Y cells may contribute to understand in vivo PC mechanisms and to define a window for pharmacological intervention, namely, related to ischemic brain damage. Neuronal-like differentiated SH-SY5Y cells are a suitable model to investigate PC, an endogenous neuroprotective response to a mild and transient H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress, elicited by 24-hour exposure to very low H 2 O 2 concentrations and mediated by both apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. This model reflects in vivo PC mechanisms occurring

  2. CyberKnife : kirjallisuuskatsaus sädehoitolaitteesta ja sen käyttökohteista syövän ja muiden sairauksien hoidossa

    OpenAIRE

    Sormunen, Santtu; Laaksoranta, Eero-Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Uusia syöpien hoitolaitteita ja -menetelmiä kehitetään koko ajan. Suomeen saatiin vuonna 2012 Pohjoismaiden ensimmäinen CyberKnife-hoitolaite. Tästä laitteesta ei ole vielä tehty kattavaa suomenkielistä kirjallisuuskatsausta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, millainen hoitolaite CyberKnife on ja millaisia sairauksia sillä voidaan hoitaa. Tavoitteenamme oli tuoda esille monipuolista tietoa CK-hoitolaitteesta terveydenhuoltoalan ammattilaisille ja opiskelijoille. Työ tehtiin sov...

  3. Modulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis by trimethyltin chloride in human tumour cells: Neuroblastoma SY5Y and cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa S3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, Ana-Maria; Splettstoesser, Frank; Dopp, Elke; Rettenmeier, Albert W.; Buesselberg, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    Physiological modifications of intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) levels trigger and/or regulate a diversity of cellular activities (e.g. neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, muscular contraction, cell proliferation), while calcium overloads could result in cytotoxicity. Previously, we have shown that trimethyltin chloride (Me 3 SnCl; TMT) modulates calcium homeostasis in cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa S3) cells [Florea, A.-M., Dopp, E., Buesselberg, D., 2005. TMT induces elevated calcium transients in HeLa cells: types and levels of response. Cell Calcium 37, 252-258]. Here we compare [Ca 2+ ] i -changes induced by trimethyltin chloride in neuroblastoma SY5Y and HeLa S3 cells using calcium-sensitive dyes (fluo-4/AM (fluo-4) and rhod-2/AM (rhod-2)) and laser scanning microscopy (LSM). TMT-induced calcium elevations in neuroblastoma SY5Y as well as in HeLa S3 cells. [Ca 2+ ] i rose to a sustained plateau or to transient spikes. Overall, the detected averaged increase of the maximum calcium elevation were: 0.5 μM ∼125.6%; 5 μM ∼130.1%; 500 μM ∼145% in HeLa S3 cells and 0.5 μM ∼133.3%; 5 μM ∼136.1%; 500 μM ∼147.1% in neuroblastoma SY5Y cells. The calcium rise derived from internal stores did not significantly depend on the presence of calcium in the external solution: ∼109% (no calcium added) versus ∼117% (2 mM calcium; 5 μM TMT) in HeLa cells. This difference was similar in neuroblastoma SY5Y cells, were ∼127% versus ∼136% increase (5 μM TMT) were measured. Staining of calcium stores with rhod-2 showed a TMT-induced [Ca 2+ ] i -decrease in the stores followed by an increase of the calcium concentration in the nuclei of the two cell lines tested. Our results suggest that toxic effects in human tumour cells after exposure to trimethyltin compounds might be due to an elevation of [Ca 2+ ] i

  4. Interleukin-18 alters protein expressions of neurodegenerative diseases-linked proteins in human SH-SY5Y neuron-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina M Sutinen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress (OS are present in Alzheimer´s disease (AD brains in addition to neuronal loss, Amyloid-β (Aβ plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-protein neurofibrillary tangles. Previously we showed that levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-18 (IL-18, are elevated in post-mortem AD brains. IL-18 can modulate the tau kinases, Cdk5 and GSK3β, as well as Aβ-production. IL-18 levels are also increased in AD risk diseases, including type-2 diabetes and obesity. Here, we explored other IL-18 regulated proteins in neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells. Differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, incubated with IL-18 for 24, 48 or 72h, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE. Specific altered protein spots were chosen and identified with mass spectrometry and verified by western immunoblotting. IL-18 had time-dependent effects on the SH-SY5Y proteome, modulating numerous protein levels/modifications. We concentrated on those related to OS (DDAH2, peroxiredoxins 2, 3 and 6, DJ-1, BLVRA, Aβ-degradation (MMP14, TIMP2, Aβ-aggregation (Septin-2 and modifications of axon growth and guidance associated, collapsing response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2. IL-18 significantly increased antioxidative enzymes, indicative of OS, and altered levels of glycolytic α- and γ-enolase and multifunctional 14-3-3γ and -ε, commonly affected in neurodegenerative diseases. MMP14, TIMP2, α-enolase and 14-3-3ε, indirectly involved in Aβ metabolism, as well as Septin-2 showed changes that increase Aβ levels. Increased 14-3-3γ may contribute to GSK3β driven tau hyperphosphorylation and CRMP2 Thr514 and Ser522 phosphorylation with the Thr555-site, a target for Rho kinase, showing time-dependent changes. IL-18 also increased caspase-1 levels and vacuolization of the cells. Although our SH-SY5Y cells were not aged, as neurons in AD, our work suggests that heightened or prolonged IL-18 levels can drive protein changes of known

  5. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  6. Role of D-Limonene in Autophagy Induced by Bergamot Essential Oil in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Rossella; Cassiano, Maria Gilda Valentina; Ciociaro, Antonella; Adornetto, Annagrazia; Varano, Giuseppe Pasquale; Chiappini, Carlotta; Berliocchi, Laura; Tassorelli, Cristina; Bagetta, Giacinto; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso et Poiteau) essential oil (BEO) is a well characterized, widely used plant extract. BEO exerts anxiolytic, analgesic and neuroprotective activities in rodents through mechanisms that are only partly known and need to be further investigated. To gain more insight into the biological effects of this essential oil, we tested the ability of BEO (0.005–0.03%) to modulate autophagic pathways in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. BEO-treated cells show increased LC3II levels and appearance of dot-like formations of endogenous LC3 protein that colocalize with the lysosome marker LAMP-1. Autophagic flux assay using bafilomycin A1 and degradation of the specific autophagy substrate p62 confirmed that the observed increase of LC3II levels in BEO-exposed cells is due to autophagy induction rather than to a decreased autophagosomal turnover. Induction of autophagy is an early and not cell-line specific response to BEO. Beside basal autophagy, BEO also enhanced autophagy triggered by serum starvation and rapamycin indicating that the underlying mechanism is mTOR independent. Accordingly, BEO did not affect the phosphorylation of ULK1 (Ser757) and p70S6K (Thr389), two downstream targets of mTOR. Furthermore, induction of autophagy by BEO is beclin-1 independent, occurs in a concentration-dependent manner and is unrelated to the ability of BEO to induce cell death. In order to identify the active constituents responsible for these effects, the two most abundant monoterpenes found in the essential oil, d-limonene (125–750 µM) and linalyl acetate (62.5–375 µM), were individually tested at concentrations comparable to those found in 0.005–0.03% BEO. The same features of stimulated autophagy elicited by BEO were reproduced by d-limonene, which rapidly increases LC3II and reduces p62 levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Linalyl acetate was ineffective in replicating BEO effects; however, it greatly enhanced LC3 lipidation triggered by d

  7. Fluorescence technique application of X-ray in labeling with Mn, Sr and Cu, of the parasitoid and host: Muscidifuax uniraptor Kogan and Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop the methodology of the labeling adult of Musca domestica and Muscidifurax uniraptor using the elements Mn, Sr and Cu with the use of x-ray fluorescence. This work was carried out in the Laboratory of Biological Control of House Flies, 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto', of the 'Entomology, Phytopatology and Zoology Department of the College of Agriculture 'Luiz de Queiroz' ESALQ/USP), and the Division of Methods the Development and Nuclear Analytics Techniques, of CENA/USP, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The larvae was removed to the labeled diet with increasing level of the elements Mn, Sr and Cu. The levels tested for all element were: 0 (control); 0,25; 0,50; 1,00; 2,00; 4,00; 8,00; 16,00; 32,00 and 64,00 mg/gr of diet. Labeled pupae with 1,00 to 4,00 (Mn) and 1,00 (Sr and Cu) mg/gr of diet were tested for the pupal parasitoid M. uniraptor. The concentration quantity of the chemical elements was realized by the Analytical Technique denominated (EDXRF) energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Concentrations of 2,00 (Mn) and 1,00 (Sr) supplemented to the diet of M. domestica were sufficient for the adult insect labeled, however, not affecting its life expectancy. Pupae originated from the larvae of M. domestica treated with dose of 2,00 (Mn) and 1,00 (Sr and Cu) mg supplemented to the diet, and used as hosts of the parasitoid M. uniraptor, affected the viability of the immature phase and did not label the adults. (author)

  8. One-step transvaginal three-dimensional hysterosalpingo-foam sonography (3D-HyFoSy) confirmation test for Essure® follow-up: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizolfi, B; Lazzeri, L; Franchini, M; Di Spiezio Sardo, A; Nappi, C; Piccione, E; Exacoustos, C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate, in patients who underwent Fallopian-tube sterilization by hysteroscopic insertion of an Essure® device, the feasibility and accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal sonography (TVS) to check the position of the device and 3D hysterosalpingo-foam sonography (3D-HyFoSy) using contrast-enhanced gel foam to assess consequent tubal occlusion. This was a prospective multicenter study conducted from June 2012 to July 2014 in four Italian centers, which included 50 women who underwent hysteroscopic Essure microinsert placement in a total of 95 Fallopian tubes. Placement of the microinserts was performed in an outpatient setting following standard procedure recommendations. All patients underwent transvaginal 3D-HyFoSy and hysterosalpingography (HSG) approximately 12-14 weeks after the procedure. The position of the devices was first checked on 3D-TVS and classified according to specific criteria (Positions A, B, C and D). Then, 3D-HyFoSy with ExEm® gel foam as the ultrasound contrast agent was performed to confirm tubal occlusion by the absence of contrast agent within the tubes and/or around the ovaries. To evaluate the feasibility of 3D-HyFoSy, consecutive volume acquisitions were performed while injecting the gel foam. After sonographic evaluation, women underwent HSG to assess the success of sterilization, as standard methodology. Side effects and pain evoked during and after 3D-HyFoSy and HSG were evaluated using a numeric pain rating scale. On 3D-TVS, 10 devices (10.5%) were in Position A, two (2.1%) in Position B, 59 (62.1%) in Position C and 24 (25.3%) in Position D. During 3D-HyFoSy, tubal occlusion was observed in 89 of 95 tubes (93.7%). In the six cases in which the passage of the contrast was observed, one device (16.7%) was in Position B, one device (16.7%) in Position D and four devices (66.7%) were found to lie in Position C. Tubal patency was confirmed at HSG with a concordance rate of 100%. The mean pain score associated with 3D-HyFoSy

  9. Effect of Amaranthus on Advanced Glycation End-Products Induced Cytotoxicity and Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warisa Amornrit

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus plants, or spinach, are used extensively as a vegetable and are known to possess medicinal properties. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs cause cell toxicity in the human neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y, through an increase in oxidative stress, as shown by reducing cell viability and increasing cell toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. We found that preincubation of SH-SY5Y cells with either petroleum ether, dichloromethane or methanol extracts of A. lividus and A. tricolor dose-dependently attenuated the neuron toxicity caused by AGEs treatment. Moreover, the results showed that A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts significantly downregulated the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 genes in AGEs-induced cells. We concluded that A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts not only have a neuroprotective effect against AGEs toxicity, but also have anti-inflammatory activity by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. This suggests that Amaranthus may be useful for treating chronic inflammation associated with neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Inhibition of amyloid β aggregation and protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells by triterpenoid saponins from the cactus Polaskia chichipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Koji; Koike, Shin; Ogasawara, Yuki; Takahashi, Kunio; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Kinoshita, Kaoru

    2017-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) destroys brain function, especially in the hippocampus, and is a social problem worldwide. A major pathogenesis of AD is related to the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, resulting in neuronal cell death in the brain. Here, we isolated four saponins (1-4) and elucidated their structures from 1D and 2D NMR and HRFABMS spectral data. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined as new saponins which have cochalic acid as the aglycon, and 3 was determined as a new saponin with oleanolic acid as the aglycon. Compound 4 was confirmed as the known saponin chikusetsusaponin V (=ginsenoside R 0 ). Isolated saponins (1-4) and six previously reported saponins (5-10) were tested for their inhibitory effects of Aβ aggregation and their protective effects on SH-SY5Y cells against Aβ-associated toxicity. As the results, compounds 3 and 4 showed inhibitory effect of Aβ aggregation and compounds 5-8 exerted the protective effects on SH-SY5Y cells against Aβ-associated toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. B and V photoelectric photometry and light curve solution of the interacting binary systems HI Puppis, BL Eridani and SY Horologii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first photoelectric observations of the eclipsing binary systems HI Puppis, BL Eridani, and SY Horologii were obtained and complete B and V light curves are presented. Improved light elements were derived for all three systems. The light curves of HI Puppis were analyzed by the three different computer models of Wilson and Devinney (1971), Binnendijk (1977), and Wood (1971) to get the geometrical and photometric elements of the system. HI Puppis, whose light curves show a total eclipse at secondary minimum, is shown to be a classic A-Type W Ursae Majoris system. The geometrical and photometric elements of BL Eridani were obtained from the analysis of the light curves using the method of Wilson and Devinney. The asymmetric nature of the light curve is treated as being due to the presence of an underluminous starspot on the primary component. The light curves of BL Eri show secondary eclipse to be total. The system is found to be a near contact system with the primary component filling its Roche lobe and the secondary nearly filling its lobe with a fill-out ratio of approximately 1.0. The light curves of SY Horologii were also subjected to the model of Wilson and Devinney. Both primary and secondary eclipses are partial

  12. Protective Effect of Neuropeptide Apelin-13 on 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Dopaminergic Cells: Involvement of Its Antioxidant and Antiapoptotic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouresmaeili-Babaki, Elham; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Ravan, Hadi

    2018-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of brain dopaminergic neurons. Beside pharmacologic and symptomatic treatment of PD the neuroprotective therapy has recently attracted more attention. Apelin, a novel neuropeptide, and its receptors have numerous reported roles in regulating brain functions. In addition, this peptide has potent neuroprotective effects in some neurodegenerative situations. In this study, the effects of apelin-13 were investigated in a cell model of PD. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell damage was induced by 150 μM 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and the cells viability was examined by MTT assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry method. Immunoblotting analysis was also employed to evaluate cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity. Data showed that 6-OHDA could decrease cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential and increase intracellular ROS, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 levels. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with apelin-13 (5 and 10 nM) significantly prevented the mentioned biochemical and molecular markers of 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, the results showed that apelin receptor and PI3K signaling contributed to the observed protective effects of apelin. The results suggest that apelin-13 has protective effects against dopaminergic neural toxicity and its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties are involved, at least in part, in such protection.

  13. Chrysotoxine, a novel bibenzyl compound selectively antagonizes MPP⁺, but not rotenone, neurotoxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Xian; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Wong, Ngok-Shun; Sze, Cho-Wing; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Tang, Chi-Wai; Tong, Yao; Zhang, Yan-Bo

    2012-07-11

    Chrysotoxine is a naturally occurring bibenzyl compound found in medicinal Dendrobium species. We previously reported that chrysotoxine structure-specifically suppressed 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopaminergic cell death. Whether chrysotoxine and other structurally similar bibenzyl compounds could also inhibit the neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP(+)) and rotenone has not been investigated. We showed herein that chrysotoxine inhibited MPP(+), but not rotenone, induced dopaminergic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction as indexed by the decrease in membrane potential, increase in calcium concentration and NF-κB activation triggered by MPP(+) were blocked by chrysotoxine pretreatment. The imbalance between the pro-apoptotic signals (Bax, caspase-3, ERK and p38 MAPK) and the pro-survival signals (Akt/PI3K/GSK-3β) induced by MPP(+) was partially or totally rectified by chrysotoxine. The results indicated that ROS inhibition, mitochondria protection, NF-κB modulation and regulation of multiple signals determining cell survival and cell death were involved in the protective effects of chrysotoxine against MPP(+) toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Given the different toxic profiles of 6-OHDA and MPP(+) as compared to rotenone, our results also indicated that DAT inhibition may partially account for the neuroprotective effects of chrysotoxine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternatively Spliced Methionine Synthase in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cobalamin and GSH Dependence and Inhibitory Effects of Neurotoxic Metals and Thimerosal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Waly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The folate and cobalamin (Cbl- dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS is highly sensitive to oxidation and its activity affects all methylation reactions. Recent studies have revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA in human brain and patient-derived fibroblasts. Here we show that MS mRNA in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells is alternatively spliced, resulting in three primary protein species, thus providing a useful model to examine cofactor dependence of these variant enzymes. MS activity was dependent upon methylcobalamin (MeCbl or the combination of hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM. OHCbl-based activity was eliminated by depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH but could be rescued by provision of either glutathionylcobalamin (GSCbl or MeCbl. Pretreatment of cells with lead, arsenic, aluminum, mercury, or the ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal lowered GSH levels and inhibited MS activity in association with decreased uptake of cysteine, which is rate-limiting for GSH synthesis. Thimerosal treatment decreased cellular levels of GSCbl and MeCbl. These findings indicate that the alternatively spliced form of MS expressed in SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells is sensitive to inhibition by thimerosal and neurotoxic metals, and lower GSH levels contribute to their inhibitory action.

  15. Oxidative stress response in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to short-term 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic Cermak, Ana Marija; Pavicic, Ivan; Trosic, Ivancica

    2018-01-28

    The exact mechanism that could explain the effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure at non-thermal level is still unknown. Increasing evidence suggests a possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and development of oxidative stress. To test the proposed hypothesis, human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1800 MHz short-term RF exposure for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. Electric field strength within Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic cell (GTEM) was 30 V m -1 and specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated to be 1.6 W kg -1 . Cellular viability was measured by MTT assay and level of ROS was determined by fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Concentrations of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls were used to assess lipid and protein oxidative damage and antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring concentrations of total glutathione (GSH). After radiation exposure, viability of irradiated cells remained within normal physiological values. Significantly higher ROS level was observed for every radiation exposure time. After 60 min of exposure, the applied radiation caused significant lipid and protein damage. The highest GSH concentration was detected after 10 minute-exposure. The results of our study showed enhanced susceptibility of SH-SY5Y cells for development of oxidative stress even after short-term RF exposure.

  16. Bee venom protects SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced apoptotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, Ah-Reum; Kim, Seung-Nam; Kim, Seung-Tae; Park, Ji-Yeun; Chung, Sung-Hyun; Choe, Bo-Young; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyejung; Yin, Chang-Shik; Park, Hi-Joon

    2012-01-06

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Recently, bee venom was reported to protect dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induced mice PD model, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of bee venom against Parkinsonian toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+)), in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our results revealed that bee venom pretreatment (1-100 ng/ml) increased the cell viability and decreased apoptosis assessed by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity assays in MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Bee venom increased the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression and decreased the pro-apoptotic Bax, cleaved PARP expressions. In addition, bee venom prevented the MPP(+)-induced suppression of Akt phosphorylation, and the neuroprotective effect of bee venom against MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002. These results suggest that the anti-apoptotic effect of bee venom is mediated by the cell survival signaling, the PI3K/Akt pathway. These results provide new evidence for elucidating the mechanism of neuroprotection of bee venom against PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the apoptosis of oxygen and glucose-deprived SH-SY5Y cells and its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Xiao-Hong; Min, Lian-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to observe the effects of the extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) on the apoptosis of oxygen and glucose-deprived (OGD) human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) cells and explore its mechanism. SH-SY5Y cells were divided into normal control group, OGD group, OGD for 4 h and EGb761-pretreated groups including very low-concentration (20 μg/ml), low-concentration group (25 μg/ml), moderate-concentration group (50 μg/ml) and high-concentration group (100 μg/ml). Twenty four hours after reoxygenation, cell viability was determined with 3-[4, 5-dimehyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, apoptosis rate was detected with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining flow cytometry and the protein level of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was observed with immunofluorescence technique in each group. Cell viability was significantly lower in OGD group than in EGb761-pretreated groups, especially in moderate-concentration group (50 μg/ml) (P cells probably through inhibiting AIF nuclear translocation. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of EGb761 in clinical practice.

  18. Mechanisms of CDDO-imidazolide-mediated cytoprotection against acrolein-induced neurocytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and primary human astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speen, Adam; Jones, Colton; Patel, Ruby; Shah, Halley; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Brooke, Elizabeth A S; Zhu, Hong; Li, Y Robert; Jia, Zhenquan

    2015-10-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous unsaturated aldehyde has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders. However, limited study has been conducted into potential therapeutic protection and underlying mechanism against acrolein-induced cytotoxicity via upregulation of cellular aldehyde-detoxification defenses. In this study we have utilized RA-differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells and primary human astrocytes to investigate the induction of glutathione (GSH) by the synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dixooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) and the protective effects CDDO-Im-mediated antioxidant defenses on acrolein toxicity. Acrolein exposure to RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells resulted in a significant time dependent depletion of cellular GSH preceding a reduction in cell viability and LDH release. Further, we demonstrated the predominance of cellular GSH in protection against acrolein-induced cytotoxicity. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) at 25μM dramatically depleted GSH and significantly potentiated acrolein-induced cytotoxicity. Pretreatment of the cells with 100nM CDDO-Im afforded a dramatic protection against acrolein-induced cytotoxicity. Pretreatment of BSO and CDDO was found to prevent the CDDO-Im-mediated GSH induction and partially reversed the cytoprotective effects of CDDO-Im against acrolein cytotoxicity. Overall, this study represents for the first time the CDDO-Im mediated upregulation of GSH is a predominant mechanism against acrolein-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroprotective effect of Demethoxycurcumin, a natural derivative of Curcumin on rotenone induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY 5Y Neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Muthu; Rajasankar, Srinivasagam; Gobi, Veerappan Venkatesh; Dhanalakshmi, Chinnasamy; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Kalandar, Ameer; Chidambaram, Ranganathan

    2017-04-18

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are the main toxic events leading to dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) and identified as vital objective for therapeutic intercession. This study investigated the neuro-protective effects of the demethoxycurcumin (DMC), a derivative of curcumin against rotenone induced neurotoxicity. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells are divided into four experimental groups: untreated cells, cells incubated with rotenone (100 nM), cells treated with DMC (50 nM) + rotenone (100 nM) and DMC alone treated. 24 h after treatment with rotenone and 28 h after treatment with DMC, cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay, and levels of ROS and MMP, plus expression of apoptotic protein were analysed. Rotenone induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells was significantly reduced by DMC pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner, indicating the potent neuroprotective effects of DMC. Rotenone treatment significantly increases the levels of ROS, loss of MMP, release of Cyt-c and expression of pro-apoptotic markers and decreases the expression of anti-apoptotic markers. Even though the results of the present study indicated that the DMC may serve as a potent therapeutic agent particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases like PD, further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required.

  20. Promotion of SH-SY5Y Cell Growth by Gold Nanoparticles Modified with 6-Mercaptopurine and a Neuron-Penetrating Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yaruo; Zhang, Enqi; Fu, Ailing

    2017-12-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the discovery of effective biomaterials for nerve regeneration. Here, we reported a novel application of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) and a neuron-penetrating peptide (RDP) as a neurophic agent to promote proliferation and neurite growth of human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. When the cells were treated with 6MP-AuNPs-RDP conjugates, they showed higher metabolic activity than the control. Moreover, SH-SY5Y cells were transplanted onto the surface coated with 6MP-AuNPs-RDP to examine the effect of neurite development. It can be concluded that 6MP-AuNPs-RDP attached to the cell surface and then internalized into cells, leading to a significant increase of neurite growth. Even though 6MP-AuNPs-RDP-treated cells were recovered from frozen storage, the cells still maintained constant growth, indicating that the cells have excellent tolerance to 6MP-AuNPs-RDP. The results suggested that the 6MP-AuNPs-RDP had promising potential to be developed as a neurophic nanomaterial for neuronal growth.

  1. 64 - 68 SY Mudi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... Extraction and Fractionation. The air-dried powdered sample (200g) was percolated ... blood samples containing heavy parasitaemia of. Plasmodium falciparum. Venous blood from patients ... Venous blood (2ml) from the main vein of white healthy rabbit's pinnae was withdrawn using a disposable 5ml ...

  2. Haider, Dr Syed Aftab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specialization: Planetary Atmospheres, Ionosphere & Magnetosphere of Mars Address: Sr Professor & Chairman, Planetary Sciences and, Exploration Division, Physical Research Laboratory, navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009, Gujarat Contact: Office: (079) 2631 4555. Residence: (079) 2682 5302. Mobile: 96623 27992

  3. Variable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, J.B.; McBride, T.R.; Covic, J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes an automatic variable collimator which controls the width and thickness of X-ray beams in X-ray diagnostic medical equipment, and which is particularly adapted for use with computerized axial tomographic scanners. A two-part collimator is provided which shapes an X-ray beam both prior to its entering an object subject to radiographic analysis and after the attenuated beam has passed through the object. Interposed between a source of radiation and the object subject to radiographic analysis is a first or source collimator. The source collimator causes the X-ray beam emitted by the source of radiation to be split into a plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams. Disposed within the source collimator is a movable aperture plate which may be used to selectively vary the thickness of the plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams transmitted through the source collimator. A second or receiver collimator is interposed between the object subject to radiographic analysis and a series of radiation detectors. The receiver collimator is disposed to receive the attenuated X-ray beams passing through the object subject to radiographic analysis. Located within the receiver collimator are a plurality of movable aperture plates adapted to be displaced relative to a plurality of fixed aperture plates for the purpose of varying the width and thickness of the attenuated X-ray beams transmitted through the object subject to radiographic analysis. The movable aperture plates of the source and receiver collimators are automatically controlled by circuitry which is provided to allow remote operation of the movable aperture plates

  4. Final Report For The Erosion And Corrosion Analysis Of Waste Transfer Primary Pipeline Sections From 241-SY Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, J. S.; Wyrwas, R. B.; Cooke, G. A.

    2012-01-01

    Three sections of primary transfer pipeline removed from the 241-SY Tank Farm in Hanford's 200 West area, labeled as SN-285, SN-286, and SN-278, were analyzed for the presence and amount of corrosion and erosion on the inside surface of the transfer pipe. All three sections of pipe, ranging in length between 6 and 8 in., were received at the 222-S Laboratory still in the pipe-in-pipe assembly. The annular spaces were filled with urethane foam injected into the pipes for as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) purposes. The 3-in. primary transfer pipes were first separated from the outer encasement, 6-in. pipes. The pipes were cut into small sections, or coupons, based upon the results of a non-destructive pipe wall thickness measurement which used an ultrasonic transducer. Following removal of the foam, the coupons were subjected to a series of analytical methods utilizing both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to obtain erosion and corrosion information. The ultrasonic transducer analysis of the SN-285 primary pipe did not show any thinned locations in the pipe wall which were outside the expected range for the 3-in. schedule 40 pipe of 216 mils. A coupon was cut from the thinnest area on the pipe, and analysis of the inside surface, which was in contact with the tank waste, revealed a continuous layer of corrosion ∼ 100 11m (4 mils) thick under a semi-continuous layer of tank waste residue ∼ 20 11m (1 mil) thick. This residue layer was composed of an amorphous phase rich in chromium, magnesium, calcium, and chlorine. Small pits were detected throughout the inside pipe surface with depths up to ∼ 50 11m (2 mils). Similarly, the SN-286 primary pipe did not show, by the ultrasonic transducer measurements, any thinned locations in the pipe wall which were outside the expected range for this pipe. Analysis of the coupon cut from the pipe section showed the presence of a tank waste layer containing sodium aluminate and phases rich in iron

  5. Neuroprotective effects of glyceryl nonivamide against microglia-like cells and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chin; Uang, Hao-Wei; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Ing-Jun; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2007-12-01

    Glyceryl nonivamide (GLNVA), a vanilloid receptor (VR) agonist, has been reported to have calcitonin gene-related peptide-associated vasodilatation and to prevent subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLNVA on activated microglia-like cell mediated- and proparkinsonian neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In coculture conditions, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 cells as a model of activated microglia. LPS-induced neuronal death was significantly inhibited by diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. However, capsazepine, the selective VR1 antagonist, did not block the neuroprotective effects of GLNVA. GLNVA reduced LPS-activated microglia-mediated neuronal death, but it lacked protection in DPI-pretreated cultures. GLNVA also decreased LPS activated microglia induced overexpression of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) and glycoprotein 91 phagocyte oxidase (gp91(phox)) on SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment of BV-2 cells with GLNVA diminished LPS-induced nitric oxide production, overexpression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), and gp91(phox) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS). GLNVA also reduced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB (IkappaB)alpha/IkappaBbeta degradation, NF-kappaB activation, and the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and prostaglandin E2 in BV-2 cells. However, GLNVA augmented anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production on LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Furthermore, in 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells, GLNVA rescued the changes in condensed nuclear and apoptotic bodies, prevented the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduced cells death. GLNVA also suppressed accumulation of iROS and up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 expression. 6-OHDA-induced overexpression of nNOS, i

  6. Protective effects of TRH and its analogues against various cytotoxic agents in retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska-Feil, L; Jantas, D; Leskiewicz, M; Budziszewska, B; Kubera, M; Basta-Kaim, A; Lipkowski, A W; Lason, W

    2010-12-01

    TRH (thyroliberin) and its analogues were reported to possess neuroprotective effects in cellular and animal experimental models of acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we evaluated effects of TRH and its three stable analogues, montirelin (CG-3703), RGH-2202 and Z-TRH (N-(carbobenzyloxy)-pGlutamyl-Histydyl-Proline) on the neuronally differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, which is widely accepted for studying potential neuroprotectants. We found that TRH and all the tested analogues at concentrations 0.1-50 μM attenuated cell damage induced by MPP(+) (2 mM), 3-nitropropionate (10 mM), hydrogen peroxide (0.5 mM), homocysteine (250 μM) and beta-amyloid (20μM) in retinoic acid differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TRH and its analogues decreased the staurosporine (0.5 μM)-induced LDH release, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation, which indicate the anti-apoptotic proprieties of these peptides. The neuroprotective effects of TRH (10 μM) and RGH-2202 (10 μM) on St-induced cell death was attenuated by inhibitors of PI3-K pathway (wortmannin and LY294002), but not MAPK/ERK1/2 (PD98059 and U0126). Moreover, TRH and its analogues at neuroprotective concentrations (1 and 10 μM) increased expression of Bcl-2 protein, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. All in all, these results extend data on neuroprotective properties of TRH and its analogues and provide evidence that mechanism of anti-apoptotic effects of these peptides in SH-SY5Y cell line involves induction of PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2. Furthermore, the data obtained on human cell line with a dopaminergic phenotype suggest potential utility of TRH and its analogues in the treatment of some neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Systemic Sclerosis Questionnaire (SySQ): Validation of the translation of the original German version into Spanish and its relationship to the disease and to quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Domínguez, Maria Pilar; Casarrubias-Ramírez, Moisés; Gasca-Martínez, Victor; Maldonado García, Cindy; Carranza-Muleiro, Rosa Angélica; Medina, Gabriela; García-Collinot, Grettel; Montes-Cortes, Daniel Hector

    2017-12-11

    Translation, transculturation and validity of the self-administered questionnaire for functionality (Systemic Sclerosis Questionnaires [SySQ]) for use in Spanish patients with systemic sclerosis and its relationship to the severity of the disease and to quality of life. We conducted an observational analytical study to perform a cross-cultural validation of the self-administered questionnaire on functionality in scleroderma. The validity of the form and content was evaluated by an expert panel. The method included: a) adaptation into Spanish of the construct for translation and back translation, and transculturation; b) internal consistency with the SySQ (Cronbach's alpha), and c) reproducibility was assessed taking into account all occasions in which the test was performed with Cohen's kappa. Additionally, we calculated the Spearman correlation coefficient with the Medsger severity scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire score and SF-36 score. We included 70 patients with systemic sclerosis: age 17-78 (51±12) years, 65 (93%) were women, diffuse/limited subtype 64/36%, disease duration of 0.5-40 years. Optimal internal consistency for all categories of the final version of SySQ (Cronbach's α of 0.961) and intraobserver reliability in 2 tests over a 2-week interval (Cohen's kappa coefficient 0.618) and optimal interobserver reliability in 2 tests on the same day (Cohen's kappa coefficient 0.911). Moderate correlation between functionality by SySQ and by Health Assessment Questionnaire (r=0.573, P<.0001). Inverse correlation between SySQ and quality of life mental health domain SF-36 (r=-0.435, P<.001) and physical domain SF-36 (r=-0.638, P<.001). Medsger severity scale (tendon, heart, lung, vascular) also showed significant correlation with SySQ. SySQ in this validated Spanish version is a suitable instrument to measure functional status in patients with systemic sclerosis. Reduced functionality is related to greater tendon and peripheral vascular involvement and

  8. Detection and localisation of the abalone probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and its extracellular protease, VmproA, within the digestive tract of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Huddy

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone.

  9. Detection and localisation of the abalone probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and its extracellular protease, VmproA, within the digestive tract of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Robert J; Coyne, Vernon E

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone.

  10. Logfile-Analysen zur Evaluation der didaktischen Einbettung von CSCL-Systemen - am Beispiel der CommSy-Nutzung in offenen Seminaren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Klein

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In unserem Beitrag evaluieren wir die didaktische Einbettung einer CSCL-Anwendung anhand von Logfile-Analysen. Dazu betrachten wir exemplarisch die Nutzung des webbasierten Systems CommSy in einer projektorientierten Lehrveranstaltung, die wir als offenes Seminar charakterisieren. Wir erzielen zwei Ergebnisse: (1 Wir geben Hinweise zur Gestaltung des Nutzungskontexts eines CSCL-Systems sowie zur Unterstützung seiner anfänglichen und kontinuierlichen Nutzung. (2 Wir beschreiben die Analyse von Nutzungsanlässen und -mustern sowie von NutzerInnentypen anhand von Logfiles. Dabei können Logfile-Analysen zur Validierung weiterer Evaluationsergebnisse dienen, sind selbst jedoch nur in Kombination mit zusätzlichen Informationen zum Nutzungskontext interpretierbar.

  11. Distributions of 14 elements on 60 selected absorbers from two simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1993-10-01

    Sixty commercially available or experimental absorber materials were evaluated for partitioning high-level radioactive waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. The distributions of 14 elements onto each absorber were measured from simulated solutions that represent acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate solutions from Hanford high-level waste (HLW) Tank 102-SY. The selected elements, which represent fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y); actinides (U, Pu, and Am); and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr), were traced by radionuclides and assayed by gamma spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for each of the 1680 element/absorber/solution combinations were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to provide sorption kinetics information for the specified elements from these complex media. More than 5000 measured distribution coefficients are tabulated

  12. Am80 induces neuronal differentiation via increased tropomyosin-related kinase B expression in a human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohira, Hideo; Kitaoka, Akira; Enjoji, Munechika; Uno, Tsukasa; Nakashima, Manabu

    2012-01-01

    Am80, a synthetic retinoid, has been used in differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as one of natural retinoid has been also used to treat APL. ATRA treatment causes neuronal differentiation by inducing tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) expression and increasing the sensitivity to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a TrkB ligand. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Am80 on neuronal differentiation, BDNF sensitivity and TrkB expression in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Treatment with Am80 induced morphological differentiation of neurite outgrowth and increased the expression of GAP43 mRNA, a neuronal differentiation marker. Additionally, TrkB protein was also increased, and exogenous BDNF stimulation after treatment with Am80 induced greater neurite outgrowth than without BDNF treatment. These results suggest that Am80 induced neuronal differentiation by increasing TrkB expression and BDNF sensitivity.

  13. Opioid receptors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: evidence for distinct morphine (. mu. ) and enkephalin (delta) binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmi, S.M.I.; Mishra, R.K.

    1986-06-13

    Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exhibited a heterogeneous population of ..mu.. and delta types of opioid binding sites. These specific binding sites displayed the characteristic saturability, stereospecificity and reversibility, expected of a receptor. Scatchard analysis of (/sup 3/H)-D-Ala/sup 2/-D-Leu/sup 5/-enkephalin (DADLE) in the presence of 10/sup -5/M D-Pro/sup 4/-morphiceptin (to block the ..mu.. receptors) and the competitive displacement by various highly selective ligands yielded the binding parameters of delta sites which closely resemble those of the delta receptors in brain and mouse neuroblastoma clones. Similarly, the high affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)-dihydromorphine, together with the higher potency of morphine analogues to displace (/sup 3/H)-naloxone binding established the presence of ..mu.. sites. Guanine nucleotides and NaCl significantly inhibited the association and increased the dissociation of (/sup 3/H)-DADLE binding.

  14. Analyzing the variability of sediment yield: A case study from paired watersheds in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebabu, Kindiye; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Adgo, Enyew; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Aklog, Dagnachew; Masunaga, Tsugiyuki; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Sultan, Dagnenet; Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Yibeltal, Mesenbet

    2018-02-01

    Improved knowledge of watershed-scale spatial and temporal variability of sediment yields (SY) is needed to design erosion control strategies, particularly in the most severely eroded areas. The present study was conducted to provide this knowledge for the humid tropical highlands of Ethiopia using the Akusity and Kasiry paired watersheds in the Guder portion of the Upper Blue Nile basin. Discharge and suspended sediment concentration data were monitored during the rainy season of 2014 and 2015 using automatic flow stage sensors, manual staff gauges and a depth-integrated sediment sampler. The SY was calculated using empirical discharge-sediment curves for different parts of each rainy season. The measured mean daily sediment concentration differed greatly between years and watersheds (0.51 g L- 1 in 2014 and 0.92 g L- 1 in 2015 for Kasiry, and 1.04 g L- 1 in 2014 and 2.20 g L- 1 in 2015 for Akusity). Sediment concentrations at both sites decreased as the rainy season progressed, regardless of the rainfall pattern, owing to depletion of the sediment supply and limited transport capacity of the flows caused by increased vegetation cover. Rainy season SYs for Kasiry were 7.6 t ha- 1 in 2014 and 27.2 t ha- 1 in 2015, while in Akusity SYs were 25.7 t ha- 1 in 2014 and 71.2 t ha- 1 in 2015. The much larger values in 2015 can be partly explained by increased rainfall and larger peak flow events. The magnitude and timing of peak flow events are major determinants of the amount and variability of SYs. Thus, site-specific assessment of such events is crucial to reveal SY dynamics of small watersheds in tropical highland environments.

  15. Tolerance of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) to dichlorvos (76% EC) an insecticide used for fly control in the tsunami-hit coastal villages of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Gunasekaran, K; Boopathidoss, P S

    2008-02-01

    The Directorate of Public Health (DPH), Tamil Nadu, in southern India employed spraying of dichlorvos (76% EC) for quick elimination of fly concentrations in the tsunami-hit coastal villages at the concentration of 304g (a.i.)/10,000m(2). However, nuisance of house flies remained high particularly in temporary shelters and centralized relief kitchens. Susceptibility of house fly, Musca domestica to dichlorvos was determined in the laboratory to provide information for an effective management of this pest. Various concentrations of dichlorvos (76% EC) viz., 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8microg (a.i.) per fly, were tested using topical application against F(1) progenies of house flies collected 12 months after insecticide applications from different habitats in the tsunami-hit coastal villages. Fly mortality was recorded at 24h post treatment. Parallel controls were maintained for comparison. Mortality of the house flies varied between 17.5% and 100% and increased with an increase in dosage of the insecticide. Mortality was >80% at 0.6 and 0.8microg (a.i.) per fly. The LD(50) of dichlorvos tested against flies collected from different villages varied from 0.218microg (a.i.) to 0.235microg (a.i.) per fly and the LD(90) varied from 0.574microg (a.i.) to 0.639microg (a.i.) per fly. House flies collected from a rural village, Thirukanur that had never been exposed for insecticide treatment in the past one decade, when tested, the mortality varied between 92.5% and 100% and increased with concentration of dichlorvos. Mortality was >90% from 0.2microg (a.i.) per fly and the LD(50) was 0.0399microg (a.i.)/fly, while the LD(90) was 0.1604microg (a.i.)/fly. The LD(90) values of the flies collected from the tsunami-hit villages were 3.5-3.9 times higher than that of the flies collected from Thirukanur. Fly abundance remained high in tsunami-hit villages with no marked reduction, suggesting that the flies had developed tolerance to dichlorvos. It is suggested that for an effective

  16. Rosiglitazone inhibits chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis via modulation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyeon; Jang, Sea Jeong [Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hyun Chul, E-mail: hckoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Oxidative stress can lead to expression of inflammatory transcription factors, which are important regulatory elements in the induction of inflammatory responses. One of the transcription factors, nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) plays a significant role in the inflammation regulatory process. Inflammatory cell death has been implicated in neuronal cell death in some neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying apoptosis initiated by chlorpyrifos (CPF)-mediated oxidative stress. Based on the cytotoxic mechanism of CPF, we examined the neuroprotective effects of rosiglitazone (RGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, against CPF-induced neuronal cell death. The treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CPF induced oxidative stress. In addition, CPF activated the p38, JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and induced increases in the inflammatory genes such as COX-2 and TNF-α. CPF also induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and inhibitors of NF-κB abolished the CPF-induced COX-2 expression. Pretreatment with RGZ significantly reduced ROS generation and enhanced HO-1 expression in CPF-exposed cells. RGZ blocked the activation of both p38 and JNK signaling, while ERK activation was strengthened. RGZ also attenuated CPF-induced cell death through the reduction of NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory factors. Results from this study suggest that RGZ may exert an anti-apoptotic effect against CPF-induced cytotoxicity by attenuation of oxidative stress as well as inhibition of the inflammatory cascade via inactivation of signaling by p38 and JNK, and NF-κB. - Highlights: • CPF induces apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells • ROS involved in CPF-mediated apoptotic cell death • Inflammation involved in CPF-mediated apoptotic cell death • Rosiglitazone modulates ROS and inflammatory response in CPF-treated cells.

  17. Pre-exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields modifies menadione-induced genotoxic effects in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

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    Jukka Luukkonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extremely low frequency (ELF magnetic fields (MF are generated by power lines and various electric appliances. They have been classified as possibly carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, but a mechanistic explanation for carcinogenic effects is lacking. A previous study in our laboratory showed that pre-exposure to ELF MF altered cancer-relevant cellular responses (cell cycle arrest, apoptosis to menadione-induced DNA damage, but it did not include endpoints measuring actual genetic damage. In the present study, we examined whether pre-exposure to ELF MF affects chemically induced DNA damage level, DNA repair rate, or micronucleus frequency in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Exposure to 50 Hz MF was conducted at 100 µT for 24 hours, followed by chemical exposure for 3 hours. The chemicals used for inducing DNA damage and subsequent micronucleus formation were menadione and methyl methanesulphonate (MMS. Pre-treatment with MF enhanced menadione-induced DNA damage, DNA repair rate, and micronucleus formation in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Although the results with MMS indicated similar effects, the differences were not statistically significant. No effects were observed after MF exposure alone. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm our previous findings showing that pre-exposure to MFs as low as 100 µT alters cellular responses to menadione, and show that increased genotoxicity results from such interaction. The present findings also indicate that complementary data at several chronological points may be critical for understanding the MF effects on DNA damage, repair, and post-repair integrity of the genome.

  18. Pre-exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields modifies menadione-induced genotoxic effects in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Jukka; Liimatainen, Anu; Höytö, Anne; Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne

    2011-03-23

    Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) are generated by power lines and various electric appliances. They have been classified as possibly carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, but a mechanistic explanation for carcinogenic effects is lacking. A previous study in our laboratory showed that pre-exposure to ELF MF altered cancer-relevant cellular responses (cell cycle arrest, apoptosis) to menadione-induced DNA damage, but it did not include endpoints measuring actual genetic damage. In the present study, we examined whether pre-exposure to ELF MF affects chemically induced DNA damage level, DNA repair rate, or micronucleus frequency in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Exposure to 50 Hz MF was conducted at 100 µT for 24 hours, followed by chemical exposure for 3 hours. The chemicals used for inducing DNA damage and subsequent micronucleus formation were menadione and methyl methanesulphonate (MMS). Pre-treatment with MF enhanced menadione-induced DNA damage, DNA repair rate, and micronucleus formation in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Although the results with MMS indicated similar effects, the differences were not statistically significant. No effects were observed after MF exposure alone. The results confirm our previous findings showing that pre-exposure to MFs as low as 100 µT alters cellular responses to menadione, and show that increased genotoxicity results from such interaction. The present findings also indicate that complementary data at several chronological points may be critical for understanding the MF effects on DNA damage, repair, and post-repair integrity of the genome.

  19. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) induced calcium signals and cytotoxicity in two human cell lines: SY-5Y neuroblastoma and 293 embryonic kidney (HEK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, Ana-Maria; Splettstoesser, Frank; Buesselberg, Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 ) has anticancer properties; however, its use also leads to neuro-, hepato- or nephro-toxicity, and therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of As 2 O 3 toxicity. We studied As 2 O 3 influence on intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) homeostasis of human neuroblastoma SY-5Y and embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293).We also relate the As 2 O 3 induced [Ca 2+ ] i modifications with cytotoxicity. We used Ca 2+ sensitive dyes (fluo-4 and rhod-2) combined with laser scanning microscopy or fluorescence activated cell sorting to measure Ca 2+ changes during the application of As 2 O 3 and we approach evaluation of cytotoxicity. As 2 O 3 (1 μM) increased [Ca 2+ ] i in SY-5Y and HEK 293 cells. Three forms of [Ca 2+ ] i -elevations were found: (1) steady-state increases (2) transient [Ca 2+ ] i -elevations and (3) Ca 2+ -spikes. [Ca 2+ ] i modifications were independent from extracellular Ca 2+ but dependent on internal calcium stores. The effect was not reversible. Inositol triphosphate (IP 3 ) and ryanodine (Ry) receptors are involved in regulation of signals induced by As 2 O 3 . 2-APB and dantrolene significantly reduced the [Ca 2+ ] i -rise (p 2+ ] i -elevation or spiking. This indicates that other Ca 2+ regulating mechanisms are involved. In cytotoxicity tests As 2 O 3 significantly reduced cell viability in both cell types. Staining with Hoechst 33342 showed occurrence of apoptosis and DNA damage. Our data suggest that [Ca 2+ ] i is an important messenger in As 2 O 3 induced cell death

  20. A proteomic analysis of the interactions between poly(L-lactic acid nanofibers and SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marote

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Poly (L-lactic acid (PLLA is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer that has been put forward as a promising material for therapeutic approaches aiming to restore neuronal function. The topographic cues present in PLLA-based scaffolds, defined by the technique used in their preparation, have been shown to play a role on the cellular behavior of adherent cells. Even though this interaction has been shown to influence the regenerative output of the scaffold, there is a lack of studies addressing this response at the proteomic level. Hence, this work focuses on the effect of electrospun PLLA-based nanofibers on the proteome, cellular processes and signaling pathways of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. It also further explores how these molecular mediators might influence cell proliferation and differentiation upon in vitro culture. For that, mass spectrometry followed by bioinformatics analysis was firstly performed and further complemented with Western blot, cell viability and imaging assays. Results show that PLLA nanofibers differentially activate and inhibit specific cellular functions and signaling pathways related to cell division, apoptosis, actin remodeling, among others. These ultimately block cellular proliferation and induce morphological rearrangements through cytoskeleton remodeling, adaptations that turn cells more prone to differentiate. In synthesis, PLLA nanofibers shift the SH-SY5Y cells proteome towards a state more responsive to differentiation-inductive cues such as the retinoic acid. Unveiling cells responses to nanomaterials is an important step to increase the tools available for their manipulation and potentiate their use in neural tissue engineering. Further studies should be performed to compare the effects of other topographic cues on cellular behavior.

  1. Heat shock protein 70 modulates neural progenitor cells dynamics in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to high glucose content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Leila; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Jafarian, Vahab; Biray Avci, Çıgır; Goker Bagca, Bakiye; Pinar Ozates, Neslihan; Khaksar, Majid; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2018-01-18

    In the current experiment, detrimental effects of high glucose condition were investigated on human neuroblastoma cells. Human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y were exposed to 5, 40, and 70 mM glucose over a period of 72 h. Survival rate and the proliferation of cells were analyzed by MTT and BrdU incorporation assays. Apoptosis was studied by the assays of flow cytometry and PCR array. In order to investigate the trans-differentiation capacity of the cell into mature neurons, we used immunofluorescence imaging to follow NeuN protein level. The transcription level of HSP70 was shown by real-time PCR analysis. MMP-2 and -9 activities were shown by gelatin Zymography. According to data from MTT and BrdU incorporation assay, 70 mM glucose reduced cell viability and proliferation rate as compared to control (5 mM glucose) and cells treated with 40 mM glucose (P Cell exposure to 70 mM glucose had potential to induced apoptosis after 72 h (P SH-SY5Y cells to detrimental effects of high glucose condition during trans-differentiation into mature neuron-like cells. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed the expression of HSP70 in cells under high content glucose levels, demonstrating the possible cell compensatory response to an insulting condition (p control vs 70 mM group  cells being exposed to 70 mM glucose. High glucose condition could abrogate the dynamics of neural progenitor cells. The intracellular level of HSP70 was proportional to cell damage in high glucose condition. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Damage of Neuroblastoma Cell SH-SY5Y Mediated by MPP+ Inhibits Proliferation of T-Cell Leukemia Jurkat by Co-Culture System

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    Fuli Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system has implications in pathology of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Research data demonstrated that the peripheral CD4+ T-cell population decreased in pathogenesis of PD. The effect of damaged dopaminergic neurons on peripheral T cells of PD is still unknown. In this study, we constructed a neuronal and glial cells co-culture model by using human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y and gliomas cells U87. After the co-culture cells were treated with neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ for 24 h, the conditioned media was harvested and used to cultivate T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells for another 24 h. We then analyzed the cell proliferation, cell cycle and necrosis effect of Jurkat cells. The results showed that co-culture medium of SH-SY5Y and U87 cells with MPP+ treatment inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells compared to control medium without MPP+, even though the same concentration of MPP+ had very little toxicity to the Jurkat cell. Furthermore, co-culture medium with low concentration of MPP+ (100 µM arrested Jurkat cells cycle in G2/M phase through increasing cell cycle division 2 (CDC2 and CyclinB1 expression level, whereas co-culture medium with high concentration of MPP+ (500 µM induced Jurkat cell necrosis through cellular swelling and membrane breakage. Our data implies that damaged dopamine neurons with glial cells can lead to the reduced number or inhibited proliferation activity of peripheral T cells.

  3. PACAP Protects Against Ethanol and Nicotine Toxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells: Implications for Drinking-Smoking Co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavalan, Sridharan; Getachew, Bruk; Manaye, Kebreten F; Khundmiri, Syed J; Csoka, Antonei B; McKinley, Raechel; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Tizabi, Yousef

    2017-07-01

    The detrimental effects of heavy drinking and smoking are multiplied when the two are combined. Treatment modalities for each and especially for the combination are very limited. Although in low concentration, alcohol and nicotine, each may have beneficial effects including neuroprotection, their combination, instead of providing additive protection, may actually lead to toxicity in cell cultures. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous 38 amino-acid peptide with demonstrated protection against neuronal injury, trauma as well as various endogenous and exogenous toxic agents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PACAP may also protect against toxicity induced by high alcohol, high nicotine, or the combination of low alcohol and nicotine concentrations, and if so, whether this effect was mediated via PAC1 receptor. We used the neuroblastoma-derived SH-SY5Y cells and applied various colorimetric assays for determination of cell viability or toxicity. Results indicate that PACAP blocks toxicity induced by high alcohol and high nicotine as well as their combination at low concentrations. The effects of PACAP in turn were blocked by the PACAP antagonist (PACAP 6-38), indicating involvement of the PACAP receptor PAC1 and possibly vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in PACAP's protection. Moreover, no combined toxicity of low alcohol and low nicotine could be detected in calcium-free medium. These findings suggest possible beneficial effects of PACAP in preventing alcohol and nicotine toxicity and that calcium contributes to the damage induced by combination of low alcohol and nicotine in SH-SY5Y cells.

  4. IGF-1 protects SH-SY5Y cells against MPP+-induced apoptosis via PI3K/PDK-1/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanyang; Park, Seungjoon

    2018-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is a well-known anti-apoptotic pro-survival factor and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is linked to cell survival induced by IGF-1. It is also reported that Akt signaling is modulated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). In the current study, we investigated whether the anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-1 in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ) is associated with the activity of PI3K/PDK1/Akt pathway. Treatment of cells with IGF-1 inhibited MPP + -induced apoptotic cell death. IGF-1-induced activation of Akt and the protective effect of IGF-1 on MPP + -induced apoptosis were abolished by chemical inhibition of PDK1 (GSK2334470) or PI3K (LY294002). The phosphorylated levels of Akt and PDK1 were significantly suppressed after MPP + exposure, while IGF-1 treatment completely restored MPP+-induced reductions in phosphorylation. IGF-1 protected cells from MPP + insult by suppressing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and malondialdehyde levels and increasing superoxide dismutase activity. Mitochondrial ROS levels were also increased during MPP + exposure, which were attenuated by IGF-1 treatment. In addition, IGF-1-treated cells showed increased activities of succinate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase, stabilization of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, increased ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax, prevention of cytochrome c release and inhibition of caspase-3 activation with PARP cleavage. Furthermore, the protective effects of IGF-1 on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were attenuated when cells were preincubated with GSK2334470 or LY294002. Our data suggest that IGF-1 protects SH-SY5Y cells against MPP + -associated oxidative stress by preserving mitochondrial integrity and inhibiting mitochondrial apoptotic cascades via the activation of PI3K/PDK1/Akt pathway. © 2018 The authors.

  5. N-Methyl-D aspartate receptor-mediated effect on glucose transporter-3 levels of high glucose exposed-SH-SY5Y dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Ayse Basak; Engin, Evren Doruk; Karakus, Resul; Aral, Arzu; Gulbahar, Ozlem; Engin, Atilla

    2017-11-01

    High glucose and insulin lead to neuronal insulin resistance. Glucose transport into the neurons is achieved by regulatory induction of surface glucose transporter-3 (GLUT3) instead of the insulin. N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity increases GLUT3 expression. This study explored whether an endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (KynA) affects the neuronal cell viability at high glucose concentrations. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to 150-250 mg/dL glucose and 40 μU/mL insulin. In KynA and N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) supplemented cultures, oxidative stress, mitochondrial metabolic activity (MTT), nitric oxide as nitrite+nitrate (NOx) and GLUT3 were determined at the end of 24 and 48-h incubation periods. Viable cells were counted by trypan blue dye. High glucose-exposed SH-SY5Y cells showed two-times more GLUT3 expression at second 24-h period. While GLUT3-stimulated glucose transport and oxidative stress was increased, total mitochondrial metabolic activity was significantly reduced. Insulin supplementation to high glucose decreased NOx synthesis and GLUT3 levels, in contrast oxidative stress increased three-fold. KynA significantly reduced oxidative stress, and increased MTT by regulating NOx production and GLUT3 expression. KynA is a noteworthy compound, as an endogenous, specific NMDA receptor antagonist; it significantly reduces oxidative stress, while increasing cell viability at high glucose and insulin concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Involvement of activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in protection against 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cell death by α-iso-cubebenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Do Yeon; Kang, Jong-Koo; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2014-09-01

    Free radical-mediated neurodegeneration is one of the many causes of Parkinson's disease (PD). As part of our ongoing studies on the identification of biologically active Schisandra chinensis components, we have isolated and structurally elucidated α-iso-cubebenol. This study was carried out in an attempt to clarify the neuroprotective effect of α-iso-cubebenol on toxin-insulted dopaminergic neuronal death using 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. α-iso-cubebenol significantly attenuated the loss of mitochondrial function (MTT assay) and membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase assay) associated with 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Pretreatment of the cells with α-iso-cubebenol diminished the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium in response to 6-OHDA. Moreover, α-iso-cubebenol protected against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity through inhibition of SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. In addition, JC-1 staining, which is a well-established measure of mitochondrial damage, was decreased after treatment with α-iso-cubebenol. Notably, α-iso-cubebenol inhibited the release of mitochondrial flavoprotein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to the cytosol and nucleus following 6-OHDA treatment. In addition, α-iso-cubebenol reduced the 6-OHDA-induced phosphorylation of ERK and induced the phosphorylation of PKA, PKB, and CREB in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, α-iso-cubebenol stimulated the activation of Nrf2, a downstream target of CREB. Furthermore, α-iso-cubebenol stimulated the expression of multiple antioxidant response genes (NQO-1 and HO-1). Finally, CREB and Nrf2 siRNA transfection diminished α-iso-cubebenol-mediated neuroprotection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Synergism between caffeine and γ-radiation in the induction of dominant lethal mutations in oocytes and spermatozoa of Musca domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targa, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Caffeine was studied with regard to its synergism with γ-radiation in the induction of dominant lethal mutations in S14 oocytes and mature spermatozoa of M. domestica. In S14 oocytes an increase in the frequency of such a type of mutation was observed only when the exposure to γ-radiation followed a pretreatment with a diet containing 0.2% of caffeine. Negative results were obtained with (a) post-treatment with the same kind of diet, (b) pretreatment with diets containing 0.1 and 0.02% of caffeine and (c) exposure to the radiation 6 h after interruption of the feeding treatment with the diet containing 0.2% of caffeine. Such influence of the conditions under which the treatment is performed and the synergistic effects is probably related to the food intake pattern and the rapid metabolism of the caffeine. When the 0.2% caffeine pretreatment was combined with an exposure of the oocytes to variable doses of γ-radiation, the increments in the mutations observed seemed to be negatively correlated to the radiation doses used. Also, under such conditions, the dose/survival relationship fits well an exponential curve expressed by in y=-0.866chi. With mature spermatozoa, synergism by caffeine was found only when the females, after having been mated with the irradiated males, were fed for 24 h on a diet supplemented with 0.2% of caffeine. (orig.)

  8. Pharmacognostical Analysis and Protective Effect of Standardized Extract and Rizonic Acid from Erythrina velutina against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aline H.; Fonseca, Francisco Noé; Pimenta, Antônia T. A.; Lima, MaryAnne S.; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Viana, Glauce S. B.; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M. M.; Leal, Luzia Kalyne A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Erythrina velutina is a tree common in the northeast of Brazil extensively used by traditional medicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. Objective: To develop a standardized ethanol extract of E. velutina (EEEV) and to investigate the neuroprotective potential of the extract and rizonic acid (RA) from E. velutina on neuronal cells. Materials and methods: The plant drug of E. velutina previously characterized was used for the production of EEEV. Three methods were evaluated in order to obtain an extract with higher content of phenols. The neuroprotective effect of standardized EEEV (HPLC-PDA) and RA was investigated on SH-SY5Y cell exposure to the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Results: The powder of the plant drug was classified as moderately coarse and several quality control parameters were determined. EEEV produced by percolation gave the highest phenol content when related to others extractive methods, and its HPLC-PDA analysis allowed to identify four flavonoids and RA, some reported for the first time for the species. EEEV and RA reduced significantly the neurotoxicity induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells determined by the MTT assay and the nitrite concentration. EEEV also showed a free radical scavenging activity. Conclusion: This is the first pharmacological study about E. velutina which used a controlled standardized extract since the preparation of the herbal drug. This extract and RA, acting as an antioxidant, presents a neuroprotective effect suggesting that they have potential for future development as a therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disease as Parkinson. SUMMARY The powder of Erythrina velutina was classified as moderately coarse and several quality-control parameters were determined.Ethanolic extract from E. velutina (EEEV) produced by percolation gave the highest phenol content when related to others extractive methods and its HPLC–PDA analysis of EEEV allowed to identify four flavonoids and rizonic

  9. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. The potential for release of contamination to receptors through the various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to determine the extent of release of contamination to the surrounding environment. Proposed activities include walkover radiation surveys at all sites, soil borings at SY-200, piezometer installation and water table sampling at SA-1 and SY-200, and surface water and sediment runoff sampling at all three sites. Data from the site characterization activities will be combined with data from ongoing site-wide monitoring programs (i.e., groundwater, surface water, and biological monitoring) to provide input for a screening-level risk assessment and evaluation of altemative remedial actions

  10. Survivin knockdown increased anti-cancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Motarab; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2012-08-01

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that mostly occurs in children. Malignant neuroblastomas have poor prognosis because conventional chemotherapeutic agents are hardly effective. Survivin, which is highly expressed in some malignant neuroblastomas, plays a significant role in inhibiting differentiation and apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. We examined consequences of survivin knockdown by survivin short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid and then treatment with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, in malignant neuroblastoma cells. Our Western blotting and laser scanning confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that survivin was highly expressed in malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines and slightly in SK-N-DZ cell line. Expression of survivin was very faint in malignant neuroblastoma IMR32 cell line. We transfected SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY-5Y cells with survivin shRNA, treated with EGCG, and confirmed knockdown of survivin at mRNA and protein levels. Survivin knockdown induced morphological features of neuronal differentiation, as we observed following in situ methylene blue staining. Combination of survivin shRNA and EGCG promoted neuronal differentiation biochemically by increases in the expression of NFP, NSE, and e-cadherin and also decreases in the expression of Notch-1, ID2, hTERT, and PCNA. Our in situ Wright staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that combination therapy was highly effective in inducing, respectively, morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis. Apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid to tBid, increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and increases in the expression and activity of calpain and caspase-3. Combination therapy decreased migration of cells through matrigel and inhibited proliferative (p-Akt and NF-κB), invasive (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and angiogenic (VEGF and b-FGF) factors. Also, in vitro

  11. Survivin knockdown increased anti-cancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Motarab [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States); Banik, Naren L. [Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Ray, Swapan K., E-mail: swapan.ray@uscmed.sc.edu [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that mostly occurs in children. Malignant neuroblastomas have poor prognosis because conventional chemotherapeutic agents are hardly effective. Survivin, which is highly expressed in some malignant neuroblastomas, plays a significant role in inhibiting differentiation and apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. We examined consequences of survivin knockdown by survivin short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid and then treatment with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, in malignant neuroblastoma cells. Our Western blotting and laser scanning confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that survivin was highly expressed in malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines and slightly in SK-N-DZ cell line. Expression of survivin was very faint in malignant neuroblastoma IMR32 cell line. We transfected SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY-5Y cells with survivin shRNA, treated with EGCG, and confirmed knockdown of survivin at mRNA and protein levels. Survivin knockdown induced morphological features of neuronal differentiation, as we observed following in situ methylene blue staining. Combination of survivin shRNA and EGCG promoted neuronal differentiation biochemically by increases in the expression of NFP, NSE, and e-cadherin and also decreases in the expression of Notch-1, ID2, hTERT, and PCNA. Our in situ Wright staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that combination therapy was highly effective in inducing, respectively, morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis. Apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid to tBid, increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and increases in the expression and activity of calpain and caspase-3. Combination therapy decreased migration of cells through matrigel and inhibited proliferative (p-Akt and NF-{kappa}B), invasive (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and angiogenic (VEGF and b-FGF) factors. Also, in vitro

  12. Neurotoxicity induced by dexamethasone in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line can be prevented by folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budni, J; Romero, A; Molz, S; Martín-de-Saavedra, M D; Egea, J; Del Barrio, L; Tasca, C I; Rodrigues, A L S; López, M G

    2011-09-08

    Folic acid (folate) is a vitamin of the B-complex group that is essential for cell replication. Folate is a major determinant of one-carbon metabolism, in which S-adenosylmethionine donates methyl groups that are crucial for neurological function. Many roles for folic acid have been reported, including neuroprotective and antidepressant properties. On the other hand, increased concentrations of corticoids have proven neurotoxic effects and hypersecretion of glucocorticoids has been linked to different mood disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of folic acid on dexamethasone-induced cellular death in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and the possible intracellular signaling pathway involved in such effect. Exposure to 1 mM dexamethasone for 48 h caused a significant reduction of cell viability measured as 3-[4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells for 72 h to increasing concentrations of folate (1-300 μM) was not cytotoxic. However, pretreatment with folate (10-300 μM) reduced dexamethasone-induced toxicity in a significant manner. To explore the putative intracellular signaling pathways implicated in the protective effect of folate we used different protein kinase inhibitors. The protective effect of folic acid on dexamethasone-induced neurotoxicity was reversed by the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt, LY294002), Ca²⁺/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, KN-93), and protein kinase A (PKA, H-89) inhibitors, but not the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK1/2, PD98059) and protein kinase C (PKC, chelerythrine) inhibitors. In conclusion, the results of this study show that folic acid can protect against dexamethasone-induced neurotoxicity and its protective mechanism is related to a signaling pathway that involves PI3K/Akt, CaMKII, and PKA. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  14. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] alters SH-SY5Y cell migration and invasion by the inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 occurring through a PKC-ε/ERK/mTOR Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscella, Antonella; Vetrugno, Carla; Calabriso, Nadia; Cossa, Luca Giulio; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Marsigliante, Santo

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] ([Pt(acac)2(DMS)]) exerted substantial cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and decreased metalloproteases (MMPs) production and cells migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The ubiquitously distributed sodium-hydrogen antiporter 1 (NHE1) is involved in motility and invasion of many solid tumours. The present study focuses on the effects of [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] in SH-SY5Y cell migration and also on the possibility that NHE1 may be involved in such effect. After sublethal [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] treatment cell migration was examined by wounding assay and cell invasion by transwell assay. NHE1 activity was measured in BCECF-loaded SH-SY5Y as the rate of Na+-dependent intracellular pH recovery in response to an acute acid pulse. Gelatin zymography for MMP-2/9 activities, Western blottings of MMPs, MAPKs, mTOR, S6 and PKCs and small interfering RNAs to PKC-ε/-δ mRNA were performed. Sublethal concentrations of [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] decreases NHE1 activity, inhibits cell migration and invasion and decreases expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] administered to SH-SY5Y cells provokes the increment of ROS, generated by NADPH oxidase, responsible for the PKC-ε and PKC-δ activation. Whilst PKC-δ activates p38/MAPK, responsible for the inhibition of MMP-2 and -9 secretion, PKC-ε activates a pathway made of ERK1/2, mTOR and S6K responsible for the inhibition of NHE1 activity and cell migration. In conclusion, we have shown a drastic impairment in tumour cell metastatization in response to inhibition of NHE1 and MMPs activities by [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] occurring through a novel mechanism mediated by PKC-δ/-ε activation.

  15. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality

  16. In vitro neuroprotective potential of four medicinal plants against rotenone-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoposengwe, Keabetswe; van Tonder, Jacob John; Steenkamp, Vanessa

    2013-12-12

    Lannea schweinfurthii, Zanthoxylum capense, Scadoxus puniceus and Crinum bulbispermum are used traditionally to treat neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytoprotective potential of the four plants, after induction of toxicity using rotenone, in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Cytotoxicity of the plant extracts and rotenone was assessed using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Fluorometry was used to measure intracellular redox state (reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular glutathione content), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase-3 activity, as a marker of apoptotic cell death. Of the tested plants, the methanol extract of Z. capense was the least cytotoxic; LC50 121.3 ± 6.97 μg/ml, while S. puniceus methanol extract was the most cytotoxic; LC50 20.75 ± 1.47 μg/ml. Rotenone reduced intracellular ROS levels after 24 h exposure. Pre-treating cells with S. puniceus and C. bulbispermum extracts reversed the effects of rotenone on intracellular ROS levels. Rotenone exposure also decreased intracellular glutathione levels, which was counteracted by pre-treatment with any one of the extracts. MMP was reduced by rotenone, which was neutralized by pre-treatment with C. bulbispermum ethyl acetate extract. All extracts inhibited rotenone-induced activation of caspase-3. The studied plants demonstrated anti-apoptotic activity and restored intracellular glutathione content following rotenone treatment, suggesting that they may possess neuroprotective properties.

  17. PDGF-mediated protection of SH-SY5Y cells against Tat toxin involves regulation of extracellular glutamate and intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuhui; Yao Honghong; Peng Fuwang; Callen, Shannon; Buch, Shilpa

    2009-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) protein Tat has been implicated in mediating neuronal apoptosis, one of the hallmark features of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Mitigation of the toxic effects of Tat could thus be a potential mechanism for reducing HIV toxicity in the brain. In this study we demonstrated that Tat-induced neurotoxicity was abolished by NMDA antagonist-MK801, suggesting the role of glutamate in this process. Furthermore, we also found that pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with PDGF exerted protection against Tat toxicity by decreasing extracellular glutamate levels. We also demonstrated that extracellular calcium chelator EGTA was able to abolish PDGF-mediated neuroprotection, thereby underscoring the role of calcium signaling in PDGF-mediated neuroprotection. We also showed that Erk signaling pathway was critical for PDGF-mediated protection of cells. Additionally, blocking calcium entry with EGTA resulted in suppression of PDGF-induced Erk activation. These findings thus underscore the role of PDGF-mediated calcium signaling and Erk phosphorylation in the protection of cells against HIV Tat toxicity.

  18. Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, and ammonia in contact with tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1996-02-01

    Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. Described in this report are the results of tests to evaluate the rates of thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving flammable gases in the presence of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste. Flammable gases generated by the radiolysis of water and by the thermal and radiolytic decomposition of organic waste constituents may themselves participate in further reactions. Examples include the decomposition of nitrous oxide to yield nitrogen and oxygen, the reaction of nitrous oxide and hydrogen to produce nitrogen and water, and the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. The composition of the gases trapped in bubbles in the wastes might therefore change continuously as a function of the time that the gas bubbles are retained

  19. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. roots against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury and potential mechanisms in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xing; Guo, Li-Ping; Hu, Xiao-Long; Huang, Jin; Fan, Yan-Hua; Ren, Tian-Shu; Zhao, Qing-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in neuronal cell death related with various chronic neurodegenerative disorders. This study was designed to explore neuroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of Arctium lappa L. roots (EAL) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell injury in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The cell viability was significantly decreased after exposure to 200 μM H2O2, whereas pretreatment with different concentrations of EAL attenuated the H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Hoechst 33342 staining indicated that EAL reversed nuclear condensation in H2O2-treated cells. Meanwhile, TUNEL assay with DAPI staining showed that EAL attenuated apoptosis was induced by H2O2. Pretreatment with EAL also markedly elevated activities of antioxidant enzyme (GSH-Px and SOD), reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA) production, prevented ROS formation, and the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, EAL showed strong radical scavenging ability in 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays. Furthermore, EAL inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis by increases in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreases in cytochrome c release, and attenuation of caspase-3, caspase-9 activities, and expressions. These findings suggest that EAL may be regarded as a potential antioxidant agent and possess potent neuroprotective activity against H2O2-induced injury.

  20. Enhancement of chemically induced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkonen, Jukka [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, Bioteknia 2, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: Jukka.Luukkonen@uku.fi; Hakulinen, Pasi; Maeki-Paakkanen, Jorma [Department of Environmental Health, National Public Health Institute, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, Bioteknia 2, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-03-09

    The objective of the study was to investigate effects of 872 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage at a relatively high SAR value (5 W/kg). The experiments also involved combined exposure to RF radiation and menadione, a chemical inducing intracellular ROS production and DNA damage. The production of ROS was measured using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein and DNA damage was evaluated by the Comet assay. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to RF radiation for 1 h with or without menadione. Control cultures were sham exposed. Both continuous waves (CW) and a pulsed signal similar to that used in global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones were used. Exposure to the CW RF radiation increased DNA breakage (p < 0.01) in comparison to the cells exposed only to menadione. Comparison of the same groups also showed that ROS level was higher in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 30 and 60 min after the end of exposure (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). No effects of the GSM signal were seen on either ROS production or DNA damage. The results of the present study suggest that 872 MHz CW RF radiation at 5 W/kg might enhance chemically induced ROS production and thus cause secondary DNA damage. However, there is no known mechanism that would explain such effects from CW RF radiation but not from GSM modulated RF radiation at identical SAR.

  1. Enhancement of chemically induced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkonen, Jukka; Hakulinen, Pasi; Maeki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate effects of 872 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage at a relatively high SAR value (5 W/kg). The experiments also involved combined exposure to RF radiation and menadione, a chemical inducing intracellular ROS production and DNA damage. The production of ROS was measured using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein and DNA damage was evaluated by the Comet assay. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to RF radiation for 1 h with or without menadione. Control cultures were sham exposed. Both continuous waves (CW) and a pulsed signal similar to that used in global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones were used. Exposure to the CW RF radiation increased DNA breakage (p < 0.01) in comparison to the cells exposed only to menadione. Comparison of the same groups also showed that ROS level was higher in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 30 and 60 min after the end of exposure (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). No effects of the GSM signal were seen on either ROS production or DNA damage. The results of the present study suggest that 872 MHz CW RF radiation at 5 W/kg might enhance chemically induced ROS production and thus cause secondary DNA damage. However, there is no known mechanism that would explain such effects from CW RF radiation but not from GSM modulated RF radiation at identical SAR

  2. En route to the conductivity bottleneck in p-type CuCr1-xMxO2-ySy (M = Li, Mg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, P.; Mazumder, N.; Akhtar, A. J.; Roy, R.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2017-05-01

    We extend our material design concept [P. Mandal et al. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49, 275109, (2016); N. Mazumder et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3539, (2013)] further aiming to overcome the conductivity bottleneck (1 Scm-1) in p-type transparent conducting oxide (TCO). In this work, we execute the strategy of simultaneous cationic-anionic hole doping in the prototype p-TCO CuCrO2. CuCr1-xMxO2-ySy (M = Li, Mg) is prepared by solid state heating at 1150 °C. Using Rietveld analysis, the presence of Mgcr•, Licr • and SO×areconfirmed and quantified. The diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra are acquired to determine the dominant optical gap (˜ 3.5 eV) and found to be affected little upon site selective hole doping. From temperature dependence (80 - 300 K) of DC conductivity (σdc), (Licr •+SO×)dopingcan be identified to be the more plausible alternative to reach the bottleneck threshold compared to (Mgcr •+SO×) albeit of smaller σdc at 300 K.

  3. OGG1 Involvement in High Glucose-Mediated Enhancement of Bupivacaine-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Jie; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Qing-Guo; Li, Le; Lai, Lu-Ying; Jiang, Shan; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia can inhibit expression of the 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) which is one of the key repair enzymes for DNA oxidative damage. The effect of hyperglycemia on OGG1 expression in response to local anesthetics-induced DNA damage is unknown. This study was designed to determine whether high glucose inhibits OGG1 expression and aggravates bupivacaine-induced DNA damage via reactive oxygen species (ROS). SH-SY5Y cells were cultured with or without 50 mM glucose for 8 days before they were treated with 1.5 mM bupivacaine for 24 h. OGG1 expression was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot. ROS was estimated using the redox-sensitive fluorescent dye DCFH-DA. DNA damage was investigated with immunostaining for 8-oxodG and comet assays. OGG1 expression was inhibited in cells exposed to high glucose with concomitant increase in ROS production and more severe DNA damage as compared to control culture conditions, and these changes were further exacerbated by bupivacaine. Treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) prevented high glucose and bupivacaine mediated increase in ROS production and restored functional expression of OGG1, which lead to attenuated high glucose-mediated exacerbation of bupivacaine neurotoxicity. Our findings indicate that subjects with diabetes may experience more detrimental effects following bupivacaine use. PMID:26161242

  4. Some commonly used brominated flame retardants cause Ca2+-ATPase inhibition, beta-amyloid peptide release and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz Al-Mousa

    Full Text Available Brominated flame retardants (BFRs are chemicals commonly used to reduce the flammability of consumer products and are considered pollutants since they have become widely dispersed throughout the environment and have also been shown to bio-accumulate within animals and man. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of some of the most commonly used groups of BFRs on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The results showed that of the BFRs tested, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA and decabromodiphenyl ether (DBPE, all are cytotoxic at low micromolar concentrations (LC(50 being 2.7 ± 0.7 µM, 15 ± 4 µM and 28 ± 7 µM, respectively. They induced cell death, at least in part, by apoptosis through activation of caspases. They also increased intracellular [Ca(2+] levels and reactive-oxygen-species within these neuronal cells. Furthermore, these BFRs also caused rapid depolarization of the mitochondria and cytochrome c release in these neuronal cells. Elevated intracellular [Ca(2+] levels appear to occur through a mechanism involving microsomal Ca(2+-ATPase inhibition and this maybe responsible for Ca(2+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, µM levels of these BFRs caused β-amyloid peptide (Aβ-42 processing and release from these cells with a few hours of exposure. These results therefore shows that these pollutants are both neurotoxic and amyloidogenic in-vitro.

  5. Impact of lithium alone or in combination with haloperidol on oxidative stress parameters and cell viability in SH-SY5Y cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Mielicki, Wojciech; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta; Lazarek, Jerry; Strzelecki, Dominik

    2016-02-01

    It has been reported that lithium may inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Lithium salts also appear to stimulate cell proliferation, increase neurogenesis, and delay cell death. Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration may play an important role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and the disease course thereof. The aim of this research is to estimate the influence of lithium (alone and in combination with haloperidol) on the parameters of oxidative stress and viability of SH-SY5Y cell lines in neutral and pro-oxidative conditions. The evaluated oxidative stress parameter was lipid peroxidation. The viability of the cell lines was measured utilising the MTT test. In neutral conditions, higher levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were observed in those samples which contained both haloperidol and lithium than in other samples. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Cell viability was significantly higher in therapeutic lithium samples than in the controls; samples of haloperidol alone as well as those of haloperidol with lithium did not differ from controls. The results of our study may indicate that lithium possess neuroprotective properties that may be partly due to antioxidative effects. The combination of lithium and haloperidol may generate increased oxidative stress.

  6. Agmatine Protects Against 6-OHDA-Induced Apoptosis, and ERK and Akt/GSK Disruption in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Esmat; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Moosavi, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a metabolite of dopamine is known to induce dopaminergic cell toxicity which makes that a suitable agent inducing an experimental model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Agmatine has been shown to protect against some cellular and animal PD models. This study was aimed to assess whether agmatine prevents 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cell death and if yes, then how it affects Akt/glycogen synthesis kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signals. The cells were treated with different drugs, and their viability was examined via MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay and morphological observation. Western blot studies were done to assess cleaved caspase-3, Akt/GSK-3β, and ERK proteins. 6-OHDA-induced cell death and caspase-3 cleavage, while agmatine prevented those changes. 6-OHDA also decreased the amount of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt)/Akt while increased GSK-3β activity which was prevented by agmatine. Additionally, this toxin increased pERK/ERK ratio which was averted again by agmatine. The PI3/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, impeded the changes induced by agmatine, while ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not disturb the effects of agmatine, and by itself, it preserved the cells against 6-OHDA toxicity. This study revealed that agmatine is protective in 6-OHDA model of PD and affects Akt/GSK-3β and ERK pathways.

  7. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation increases the rate of oxygen consumption and enhances the spare respiratory capacity of mitochondria in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Zhiyin; Lee, Do-Yup; Lim, James; Canaria, Christie A; Barnebey, Adam; Yanonne, Steven M; McMurray, Cynthia T

    2012-04-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is used in differentiation therapy to treat a variety of cancers including neuroblastoma. The contributing factors for its therapeutic efficacy are poorly understood. However, mitochondria (MT) have been implicated as key effectors in RA-mediated differentiation process. Here we utilize the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line as a model to examine how RA influences MT during the differentiation process. We find that RA confers an approximately sixfold increase in the oxygen consumption rate while the rate of glycolysis modestly increases. RA treatment does not increase the number of MT or cause measurable changes in the composition of the electron transport chain. Rather, RA treatment significantly increases the mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We propose a competition model for the therapeutic effects of RA. Specifically, the high metabolic rate in differentiated cells limits the availability of metabolic nutrients for use by the undifferentiated cells and suppresses their growth. Thus, RA treatment provides a selective advantage for the differentiated state. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. OGG1 Involvement in High Glucose-Mediated Enhancement of Bupivacaine-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Jie Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia can inhibit expression of the 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase (OGG1 which is one of the key repair enzymes for DNA oxidative damage. The effect of hyperglycemia on OGG1 expression in response to local anesthetics-induced DNA damage is unknown. This study was designed to determine whether high glucose inhibits OGG1 expression and aggravates bupivacaine-induced DNA damage via reactive oxygen species (ROS. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured with or without 50 mM glucose for 8 days before they were treated with 1.5 mM bupivacaine for 24 h. OGG1 expression was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and western blot. ROS was estimated using the redox-sensitive fluorescent dye DCFH-DA. DNA damage was investigated with immunostaining for 8-oxodG and comet assays. OGG1 expression was inhibited in cells exposed to high glucose with concomitant increase in ROS production and more severe DNA damage as compared to control culture conditions, and these changes were further exacerbated by bupivacaine. Treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC prevented high glucose and bupivacaine mediated increase in ROS production and restored functional expression of OGG1, which lead to attenuated high glucose-mediated exacerbation of bupivacaine neurotoxicity. Our findings indicate that subjects with diabetes may experience more detrimental effects following bupivacaine use.

  9. The signaling cascades of Ganoderma lucidum extracts in stimulating non-amyloidogenic protein secretion in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinweha, Sirinthorn; Wanikiat, Payong; Sanvarinda, Yupin; Supavilai, Porntip

    2008-12-19

    Ganoderma lucidum (GL) is a medicinal mushroom that possesses various pharmacological properties which are also documented in the ancient reports where GL is praised for its effects on the promotion of health and longevity. In this study, we have investigated the effect of GL mycelia extracts on the non-amyloidogenic protein secretion (sAPPalpha) and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In order to characterize the signaling pathway which mediates GL-enhanced sAPPalpha secretion, we used inhibitors of nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling pathways, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1), protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), to block GL-mediated sAPPalpha secretion as well as ERK1/2 and PKC activation by using Western blot analysis. Our results provided for the first time evidence that GL mycelia extracts increased APP expression and promoted sAPPalpha secretion. In addition, GL extracts activated ERK1/2 and PKC phosphorylation. The complex signaling cascades of PI3K and ERK may be responsible for GL-mediated sAPPalpha secretion.

  10. Impact of haloperidol and quetiapine on the expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas Johannes; Hemmeter, Ulrich Michael; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Vedder, Helmut; Heiser, Philip

    2009-05-01

    Antipsychotics are known to alter antioxidant activities in vivo. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line the impact of a typical (haloperidol) and an atypical (quetiapine) antipsychotic on the expression of genes encoding the key enzymes of the antioxidant metabolism (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase; Mn superoxide dismutase; glutathione peroxidase; catalase) and enzymes of the glutathione metabolism (gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, glutathione-S-transferase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, glutathione reductase). The cells were incubated for 24h with 0.3, 3, 30 and 300microM haloperidol and quetiapine, respectively; mRNA levels were measured by polymerase chain reaction. In the present study, we observed mostly significant decreases of mRNA contents. With respect to the key pathways, we detected mainly effects on the mRNA levels of the hydrogen peroxide detoxifying enzymes. Among the enzymes of the glutathione metabolism, glutathione-S-transferase- and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase-mRNA levels showed the most prominent effects. Taken together, our results demonstrate a significantly reduced expression of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes after treatment with the antipsychotics, haloperidol and quetiapine.

  11. Impact of plant extracts tested in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment on cell survival and energy metabolism in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas Johannes; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Hemmeter, Ulrich Michael; Kircher, Tilo; Schulz, Eberhard; Clement, Hans-Willi; Heiser, Philip

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts such as Hypericum perforatum and Pycnogenol have been tested as alternatives to the classical ADHD drugs. It has been possible to describe neuroprotective effects of such plant extracts. A reduction of ADHD symptoms could be shown in clinical studies after the application of Pycnogenol, which is a pine bark extract. The impacts of the standardized herbal extracts Hypericum perforatum, Pycnogenol and Enzogenol up to a concentration of 5000 ng/mL on cell survival and energy metabolism in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells has been investigated in the present examination. Hypericum perforatum significantly decreased the survival of cells after treatment with a concentration of 5000 ng/mL, whereas lower concentrations exerted no significant effects. Pycnogenol( induced a significant increase of cell survival after incubation with a concentration of 32.25 ng/mL and a concentration of 250 ng/mL. Other applied concentrations of Pycnogenol failed to exert significant effects. Treatment with Enzogenol did not lead to significant changes in cell survival.Concerning energy metabolism, the treatment of cells with a concentration of 5000 ng/mL Hypericum perforatum led to a significant increase of ATP levels, whereas treatment with a concentration of 500 ng/mL had no significant effect. Incubation of cells with Pycnogenol and Enzogenol exerted no significant effects.None of the tested substances caused any cytotoxic effect when used in therapeutically relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Lycopene protects human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced death via inhibition of oxidative stress and mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    FENG, CHUNSHENG; LUO, TIANFEI; ZHANG, SHUYAN; LIU, KAI; ZHANG, YANHONG; LUO, YINAN; GE, PENGFEI

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is characterized by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a common pathway that results in neuronal injury or death due to various types of pathological stress. Although lycopene has been identified as a potent antioxidant, its effect on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal damage remains unclear. In the present study, pretreatment with lycopene was observed to protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against H2O2-induced death via inhibition of apoptosis resulting from activation of caspase-3 and translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) to the nucleus. Furthermore, the over-produced ROS, as well as the reduced activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were demonstrated to be alleviated by lycopene. Additionally, lycopene counteracted H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, which was evidenced by suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, attenuation of the decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibition of the increase of Bax and decrease of Bcl-2 levels within the mitochondria. The release of cytochrome c and AIF from the mitochondria was also reduced. These results indicate that lycopene is a potent neuroprotectant against apoptosis, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and could be administered to prevent neuronal injury or death. PMID:27035331

  13. The Human NADPH Oxidase, Nox4, Regulates Cytoskeletal Organization in Two Cancer Cell Lines, HepG2 and SH-SY5Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Auer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases of human cells are not only functional in defense against invading microorganisms and for oxidative reactions needed for specialized biosynthetic pathways but also during the past few years have been established as signaling modules. It has been shown that human Nox4 is expressed in most somatic cell types and produces hydrogen peroxide, which signals to remodel the actin cytoskeleton. This correlates well with the function of Yno1, the only NADPH oxidase of yeast cells. Using two established tumor cell lines, which are derived from hepatic and neuroblastoma tumors, respectively, we are showing here that in both tumor models Nox4 is expressed in the ER (like the yeast NADPH oxidase, where according to published literature, it produces hydrogen peroxide. Reducing this biochemical activity by downregulating Nox4 transcription leads to loss of F-actin stress fibers. This phenotype is reversible by adding hydrogen peroxide to the cells. The effect of the Nox4 silencer RNA is specific for this gene as it does not influence the expression of Nox2. In the case of the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell line, Nox4 inhibition leads to loss of cell mobility as measured in scratch assays. We propose that inhibition of Nox4 (which is known to be strongly expressed in many tumors could be studied as a new target for cancer treatment, in particular for inhibition of metastasis.

  14. Cold Shock Induced Protein RBM3 but Not Mild Hypothermia Protects Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells From MPP+-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jie Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The cold shock protein RBM3 can mediate mild hypothermia-related protection in neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unclear whether RBM3 and mild hypothermia provide same protection in model of Parkinson's disease (PD, the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. In this study, human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells subjected to insult by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ served as an in-vitro model of PD. Mild hypothermia (32°C aggravated MPP+-induced apoptosis, which was boosted when RBM3 was silenced by siRNA. In contrast, overexpression of RBM3 significantly reduced this apoptosis. MPP+ treatment downregulated the expression of RBM3 both endogenously and exogenously and suppressed its induction by mild hypothermia (32°C. In conclusion, our data suggest that cold shock protein RBM3 provides neuroprotection in a cell model of PD, suggesting that RBM3 induction may be a suitable strategy for PD therapy. However, mild hypothermia exacerbates MPP+-induced apoptosis even that RBM3 could be synthesized during mild hypothermia.

  15. Arctigenin Confers Neuroprotection Against Mechanical Trauma Injury in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells by Regulating miRNA-16 and miRNA-199a Expression to Alleviate Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Li, Na; Xia, Yang; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-Feng; Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Wang, Yue; Meng, Ya-Kun; Yang, Jing-Xian; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical trauma injury is a severe insult to neural cells. Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of inflammatory factors that have dramatic consequences for undamaged cells, leading to normal cell death after the initial injury. The present study investigated the capacity for arctigenin (ARC) to prevent secondary effects and evaluated the mechanism underlying the action of microRNA (miRNA)-199a and miRNA-16 in a mechanical trauma injury (MTI) model using SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. SH-SY5Y cells are often applied to in vitro models of neuronal function and differentiation. Recently, miRNAs have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in NF-κB and cholinergic signaling, which can regulate inflammation. The cell model was established by scratch-induced injury of human SH-SY5Y cells, which mimics the characteristics of MTI. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and immunocytochemistry were used to measure cell viability. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine and cholinesterase (CHE) content. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content was measured to assess the degree of cell injury. The mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR to analyze ARC's mechanism of action. miRNA inhibitors and mimics were used to inhibit and strengthen the expression of miRNAs. Protein expression was detected by western blotting analysis. ARC treatment reduced the TNF-α and IL-6 levels as well as the number of TUNEL+ apoptotic SH-SY5Y cells surrounding the scratch and increased the IL-10 level compared to the controls. ARC attenuated the increase of the cell damage degree and LDH content induced by scratching, indicating increased cell survival. Mechanistic studies showed that ARC upregulated the miRNA-16 and miRNA-199a levels to reduce upstream protein (IKKα and IKKβ) expression and inhibit NF-κB signaling pathway activity; moreover, the increased miRNA-199a suppresses

  16. Variable importance in latent variable regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvalheim, O.M.; Arneberg, R.; Bleie, O.; Rajalahti, T.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and practical usefulness of a regression model are a function of both interpretability and prediction performance. This work presents some new graphical tools for improved interpretation of latent variable regression models that can also assist in improved algorithms for variable

  17. Protective effect of Codium tomentosum alga on SH-SY5Y model of neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6 – OHDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson Disease (PD is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra and oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of different algae extracts on the cell death induced by by 6-OH-dopamine on a neuronal human cell model (SH- SY5Y. The neuroprotective effect of methanolic and dichloromethane algae extract (Padina pavonica, Sargassum muticum, Saccorhiza polyschides, Codium tomentosum, Ulva compressa in the presence of 6-OH-DA was assessed using the MTT method. The activity of caspase-3 and the quantification of hydrogen peroxide (extracellular environment and real time production production were studied in the presence and in the absence of the macroalgae extracts. The highest neuroprotective effect was exhibited by methanolic fractions (1000 µg/ml; 24 hours of S. muticum (115.80 ± 8.53% of viable cells, S. polyschides (106.51 ± 4.26 of viable cells, P. pavonica (95.98 ± 3.95 of viable cells and dichloromethane (1000 µg/ml; 24 hours fraction of C. tomentosum alga (102.22 ± 4.24 of viable cells, when compared with 6-OH-DA condition (100μM; 24 hours (67.40 ± 3.56 of viable cells. For the extracts that exhibited the highest neuroprotective effect was studied the possible alterations induced in the mechanisms of action previous selected. The dichloromethane fraction of Codium tomentosum alga (1000 µg/ml highly reduced the 6-OH-DA induced increase of caspase-3 activity, the less quantity of H2O2 in the extracellular environment and less production of H2O2 on real time (2.58 ± 1.77 UAF mg of protein-1 min-1; 0.0 ± 0.005 µM of H2O2, 54.07 ± 6.66 UAF min-1, respectively when compared with the 6-OH-DA condition at 100μM (4.5 ± 1:35 UAF mg of protein-1 min-1; ± 0.4 0.0019 µM of H2O2; 214.26 ± 8:46 UAF min-1, respectively. These results suggest that Codium tomentosum

  18. Rabies virus co-localizes with early (Rab5) and late (Rab7) endosomal proteins in neuronal and SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waqas; Li, Yingying; Guo, Yidi; Wang, Xinyu; Duan, Ming; Guan, Zhenhong; Liu, Zengshan; Zhang, Maolin

    2017-06-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) is a highly neurotropic virus that follows clathrin-mediated endocytosis and pH-dependent pathway for trafficking and invasion into endothelial cells. Early (Rab5, EEA1) and late (Rab7, LAMP1) endosomal proteins play critical roles in endosomal sorting, maturity and targeting various molecular cargoes, but their precise functions in the early stage of RABV neuronal infection remain elusive. In this study, the relationship between enigmatic entry of RABV with these endosomal proteins into neuronal and SH-SY5Y cells was investigated. Immunofluorescence, TCID 50 titers, electron microscopy and western blotting were carried out to determine the molecular interaction of the nucleoprotein (N) of RABV with early or late endosomal proteins in these cell lines. The expression of N was also determined by down-regulating Rab5 and Rab7 in both cell lines through RNA interference. The results were indicative that N proficiently colocalized with Rab5/EEA1 and Rab7/LAMP1 in both cell lines at 24 and 48 h post-infection, while N titers significantly decreased in early infection of RABV. Down-regulation of Rab5 and Rab7 did not inhibit N expression, but it prevented productive infection via blocking the normal trafficking of RABV in a low pH environment. Ultrathin sections of cells studied by electron microscope also verified the close association of RABV with Rab5 and Rab7 in neurons. From the data it was concluded that primary entry of RABV strongly correlates with the kinetics of Rab-proteins present on early and late vesicles, which provides helpful clues to explain the early events of RABV in nerve cells.

  19. Distributions of 14 elements on 63 absorbers from three simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge, acidified supernate, and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1994-08-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 63 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste (HLW). These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with three solutions prepared to simulate acid-dissolved sludge (pH 0.6), acidified supernate (pH 3.5), and alkaline supernate (pH 13.9) from underground storage tank 102-SY at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. To these simulants we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U, Pu, and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr). For each of more than 2500 element/absorber/solution combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. Because we measured the sorption of many different elements, the tabulated results indicate those elements most likely to interfere with the sorption of elements of greater interest. On the basis of nearly 7500 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of these absorbers appear suitable for processing HLW. This study supersedes the previous version of LA-12654, in which results attributed to a solution identified as an alkaline supernate simulant were misleading because that solution contained insufficient hydroxide

  20. The enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase esterifies cerebrosterol and limits the toxic effect of this oxysterol on SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Valeria; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Cigliano, Luisa; Marasco, Daniela; Abrescia, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Cholesterol is mostly removed from the CNS by its conversion to cerebrosterol (24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)OH-C), which is transported to the circulation for bile formation in liver. A neurotoxic role of this oxysterol was previously demonstrated in cell culture. Here, we provide evidence that the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, long known to esterify cholesterol, also produces monoesters of 24(S)OH-C. Proteoliposomes containing apolipoprotein A-I or apolipoprotein E were used to stimulate the enzyme activity and entrap the formed esters. Proteoliposomes with apolipoprotein A-I were found to be more active than those with apolipoprotein E in stimulating the production of oxysteryl esters. Cholesterol and 24(S)OH-C were found to compete for enzyme activity. High levels of haptoglobin, as those circulating during the acute inflammatory phase, inhibited 24(S)OH-C esterification. When highly neurotoxic 24(S)OH-C was treated with enzyme and proteoliposomes before incubation with differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, the neuron survival improved. The esters of 24(S)OH-C, embedded into proteoliposomes by the enzyme and isolated from unesterified 24(S)OH-C by gel filtration chromatography, did not enter the neurons in culture. These results suggest that the enzyme, in the presence of the apolipoproteins, converts 24(S)OH-C into esters restricted to the extracellular environment, thus preventing or limiting oxysterol-induced neurotoxic injuries to neurons in culture. 24-hydroxycholesterol (24(S)OH-C) is neurotoxic. The enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) synthesizes monoesters of 24(S)OH-C in reaction mixtures with proteoliposomes containing phospholipids and apolipoprotein A-I or apolipoprotein E. The esters, also produced by incubation of cerebrospinal fluid only with tritiated 24(S)OH-C, are embedded into lipoproteins that do not enter neurons in culture. The enzyme activity limits the toxicity of 24-hydroxycholesterol in neuron culture. © 2014

  1. The SyBil-AA real-time fMRI neurofeedback study: protocol of a single-blind randomized controlled trial in alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchen, Martin Fungisai; Kirsch, Martina; Bahs, Nathalie; Halli, Patrick; Gerhardt, Sarah; Schäfer, Axel; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Kiefer, Falk; Kirsch, Peter

    2018-01-17

    Alcohol Use Disorder is a highly prevalent mental disorder which puts a severe burden on individuals, families, and society. The treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder is challenging and novel and innovative treatment approaches are needed to expand treatment options. A promising neuroscience-based intervention method that allows targeting cortical as well as subcortical brain processes is real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback. However, the efficacy of this technique as an add-on treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder in a clinical setting is hitherto unclear and will be assessed in the Systems Biology of Alcohol Addiction (SyBil-AA) neurofeedback study. N = 100 patients with Alcohol Use Disorder will be randomized to 5 parallel groups in a single-blind fashion and receive real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback while they are presented pictures of alcoholic beverages. The groups will either downregulate the ventral striatum, upregulate the right inferior frontal gyrus, negatively modulate the connectivity between these regions, upregulate, or downregulate the auditory cortex as a control region. After receiving 3 sessions of neurofeedback training within a maximum of 2 weeks, participants will be followed up monthly for a period of 3 months and relapse rates will be assessed as the primary outcome measure. The results of this study will provide insights into the efficacy of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback training in the treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder as well as in the involved brain systems. This might help to identify predictors of successful neurofeedback treatment which could potentially be useful in developing personalized treatment approaches. The study was retrospectively registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (trial identifier: DRKS00010253 ; WHO Universal Trial Number (UTN): U1111-1181-4218) on May 10th, 2016.

  2. 17β-estradiol-induced regulation of the novel 5-HT1A-related transcription factors NUDR and Freud-1 in SH SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, Samuel O; Albert, Paul R; Austin, Mark C; Iyo, Abiye H

    2012-05-01

    Nuclear deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (NUDR/Deaf-1) and five prime repressor element under dual repression (Freud-1) are novel transcriptional regulators of the 5-HT(1A) receptor, a receptor that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric illnesses. The antidepressant effect of 17β-Estradiol (17βE(2)) is purported to involve the downregulation of this receptor. We investigated the possible role of NUDR and Freud-1 in 17βE(2)-induced downregulation of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in the neuroblastoma cell line SH SY5Y. Cells were treated with 10 nM of 17βE(2) for 3 or 48 h, followed by a 24-h withdrawal period. Proteins were isolated and analyzed by western blotting. 17βE(2) treatment increased NUDR immunoreactivity while Freud-1 and the 5-HT(1A) receptor showed significant decreases. Upon withdrawal of 17βE(2), protein expression returned to control levels, except for NUDR, which remained significantly elevated in the 3-h treatment. Taken together, these data support a non-genomic downregulation of 5-HT(1A) receptor protein by 17βE(2), which does not involve NUDR and Freud-1. Rather, changes in both transcription factors seem to be compensatory/homeostatic responses to changes in 5-HT(1A) receptor induced by 17βE(2). These observations further highlight the importance of NUDR and Freud-1 in regulating 5-HT(1A) receptor expression.

  3. Extreme sensitivity of gene expression in human SH-SY5Y neurocytes to ultra-low doses of Gelsemium sempervirens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gelsemium sempervirens L. (Gelsemium s.) is a traditional medicinal plant, employed as an anxiolytic at ultra-low doses and animal models recently confirmed this activity. However the mechanisms by which it might operate on the nervous system are largely unknown. This work investigates the gene expression of a human neurocyte cell line treated with increasing dilutions of Gelsemium s. extract. Methods Starting from the crude extract, six 100 × (centesimal, c) dilutions of Gelsemium s. (2c, 3c, 4c, 5c, 9c and 30c) were prepared according to the French homeopathic pharmacopoeia. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed for 24 h to test dilutions, and their transcriptome compared by microarray to that of cells treated with control vehicle solutions. Results Exposure to the Gelsemium s. 2c dilution (the highest dose employed, corresponding to a gelsemine concentration of 6.5 × 10-9 M) significantly changed the expression of 56 genes, of which 49 were down-regulated and 7 were overexpressed. Several of the down-regulated genes belonged to G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways, calcium homeostasis, inflammatory response and neuropeptide receptors. Fisher exact test, applied to the group of 49 genes down-regulated by Gelsemium s. 2c, showed that the direction of effects was significantly maintained across the treatment with high homeopathic dilutions, even though the size of the differences was distributed in a small range. Conclusions The study shows that Gelsemium s., a medicinal plant used in traditional remedies and homeopathy, modulates a series of genes involved in neuronal function. A small, but statistically significant, response was detected even to very low doses/high dilutions (up to 30c), indicating that the human neurocyte genome is extremely sensitive to this regulation. PMID:24642002

  4. A novel compound derived from danshensu inhibits apoptosis via upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Long; Liu, Xin-Hua; Jia, Yao-Ling; Wu, Dan; Xiong, Qing-Hui; Gong, Qi-Hai; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2013-04-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has potential anti-apoptotic properties. A novel compound [4-(2-acetoxy-3-((R)-3-(benzylthio)-1-methoxy-1-oxopropan-2- ylamino)-3-oxopropyl)-1,2-phenylene diacetate (DSC)] was synthesized by joining danshensu and cysteine through an appropriate linker. This study investigated if the cytoprotective properties of DSC involved the induction of HO-1. We evaluated the cytoprotective effects of DSC on H2O2-induced cell damage, apoptosis, intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, and apoptosis-related proteins expression and its underlying mechanisms. DSC concentration-dependently attenuated cell death, lactate dehydrogenase release, intracellular and mitochondrial ROS production, and ΔΨm collapse, modulated apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, p53, and cleaved PARP) expression, and inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in SH-SY5Y cells induced by H2O2. In addition, DSC concentration-dependently induced HO-1 expression associated with nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2), while the effect of DSC was inhibited by a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. Furthermore, the protective effect of DSC on H2O2-induced cell death was abolished by HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP, but was mimicked by carbon monoxide-releasing moiety CORM-3 or HO-1 by-product bilirubin. Finally, DSC inhibited H2O2-induced changes of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 expression, and all of these effects were reversed by HO-1 silencing. Induction of HO-1 may be, at least in part, responsible for the anti-apoptotic property of DSC, an effect that involved the activation of PI3K/Akt/Nrf-2 axis. DSC might have the potential for beneficial therapeutic interventions for neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Curcumin Rescues a PINK1 Knock Down SH-SY5Y Cellular Model of Parkinson's Disease from Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Celia; van Dyk, Hayley Christy; Engelbrecht, Lize; van der Westhuizen, Francois Hendrikus; Kinnear, Craig; Loos, Ben; Bardien, Soraya

    2017-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mutations in the PINK1 gene result in an autosomal recessive form of early-onset PD. PINK1 plays a vital role in mitochondrial quality control via the removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. The aim of the present study was to create a cellular model of PD using siRNA-mediated knock down of PINK1 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells The possible protective effects of curcumin, known for its many beneficial properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, was tested on this model in the presence and absence of paraquat, an additional stressor. PINK1 siRNA and control cells were separated into four treatment groups: (i) untreated, (ii) treated with paraquat, (iii) pre-treated with curcumin then treated with paraquat, or (iv) treated with curcumin. Various parameters of cellular and mitochondrial function were then measured. The PINK1 siRNA cells exhibited significantly decreased cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial respiration and ATP production, and increased apoptosis. Paraquat-treated cells exhibited decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis, a more fragmented mitochondrial network and decreased MMP. Curcumin pre-treatment followed by paraquat exposure rescued cell viability and increased MMP and mitochondrial respiration in control cells, and significantly decreased apoptosis and increased MMP and maximal respiration in PINK1 siRNA cells. These results highlight a protective effect of curcumin against mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in PINK1-deficient and paraquat-exposed cells. More studies are warranted to further elucidate the potential neuroprotective properties of curcumin.

  6. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  7. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  8. An Involvement of PI3-K/Akt Activation and Inhibition of AIF Translocation in Neuroprotective Effects of Undecylenic Acid (UDA) Against Pro-Apoptotic Factors-Induced Cell Death in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantas, Danuta; Piotrowski, Marek; Lason, Wladyslaw

    2015-12-01

    Undecylenic acid (UDA), a naturally occurring 11-carbon unsaturated fatty acid, has been used for several years as an economical antifungal agent and a nutritional supplement. Recently, the potential usefulness of UDA as a neuroprotective drug has been suggested based on the ability of this agent to inhibit μ-calpain activity. In order to verify neuroprotective potential of UDA, we tested protective efficacy of this compound against cell damage evoked by pro-apoptotic factors (staurosporine and doxorubicin) and oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We showed that UDA partially protected SH-SY5Y cells against the staurosporine- and doxorubicin-evoked cell death; however, this effect was not connected with its influence on caspase-3 activity. UDA decreased the St-induced changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic AIF level, whereas in Dox-model it affected only the cytosolic AIF content. Moreover, UDA (1-40 μM) decreased the hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage which was connected with attenuation of hydrogen peroxide-mediated necrotic (PI staining, ADP/ATP ratio) and apoptotic (mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation, AIF translocation) changes. Finally, we demonstrated that an inhibitor of PI3-K/Akt (LY294002) but not MAPK/ERK1/2 (U0126) pathway blocked the protection mediated by UDA in all tested models of SH-SY5Y cell injury. These in vitro data point to UDA as potentially effective neuroprotectant the utility of which should be further validated in animal studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Variable mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  10. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1

  11. Neuroprotective effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor group II and III activators against MPP(+)-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: the impact of cell differentiation state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantas, D; Greda, A; Golda, S; Korostynski, M; Grygier, B; Roman, A; Pilc, A; Lason, W

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have documented that metabotropic glutamate receptors from group II and III (mGluR II/III) are a potential target in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), however, the neuroprotective effects of particular mGluR II/III subtypes in relation to PD pathology are recognized only partially. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various mGluR II/III activators in the in vitro model of PD using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line and mitochondrial neurotoxin MPP(+). We demonstrated that all tested mGluR ligands: mGluR II agonist - LY354740, mGluR III agonist - ACPT-I, mGluR4 PAM - VU0361737, mGluR8 agonist - (S)-3,4-DCPG, mGluR8 PAM - AZ12216052 and mGluR7 allosteric agonist - AMN082 were protective against MPP(+)-evoked cell damage in undifferentiated (UN-) SH-SY5Y cells with the highest neuroprotection mediated by mGluR8-specific agents. However, in retinoic acid- differentiated (RA-) SH-SY5Y cells we found protection mediated only by mGluR8 activators. We also demonstrated the cell proliferation stimulating effect for mGluR4 and mGluR8 PAMs. Next, we showed that the protection mediated by mGluR II/III activators in UN-SH-SY5Y was not accompanied by the modulation of caspase-3 activity, however, a decrease in the number of apoptotic nuclei was found. Finally, we showed that the inhibitor of necroptosis, necrostatin-1 blocked the mGluR III-mediated protection. Altogether our comparative in vitro data add a further proof to neuroprotective effects of mGluR agonists or PAMs and point to mGluR8 as a promising target for neuroprotective interventions in PD. The results also suggest the participation of necroptosis-related molecular pathways in neuroprotective effects of mGluR III activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Pt(O,O’-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] Alters SH-SY5Y Cell Migration and Invasion by the Inhibition of Na+/H+ Exchanger Isoform 1 Occurring through a PKC-ε/ERK/mTOR Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscella, Antonella; Vetrugno, Carla; Calabriso, Nadia; Cossa, Luca Giulio; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Marsigliante, Santo

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that [Pt(O,O’-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] ([Pt(acac)2(DMS)]) exerted substantial cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and decreased metalloproteases (MMPs) production and cells migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The ubiquitously distributed sodium-hydrogen antiporter 1 (NHE1) is involved in motility and invasion of many solid tumours. The present study focuses on the effects of [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] in SH-SY5Y cell migration and also on the possibility that NHE1 may be involved in such effect. After sublethal [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] treatment cell migration was examined by wounding assay and cell invasion by transwell assay. NHE1 activity was measured in BCECF-loaded SH-SY5Y as the rate of Na+-dependent intracellular pH recovery in response to an acute acid pulse. Gelatin zymography for MMP-2/9 activities, Western blottings of MMPs, MAPKs, mTOR, S6 and PKCs and small interfering RNAs to PKC-ε/-δ mRNA were performed. Sublethal concentrations of [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] decreases NHE1 activity, inhibites cell migration and invasion and decreases expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] administered to SH-SY5Y cells provokes the increment of ROS, generated by NADPH oxidase, responsible for the PKC-ε and PKC-δ activation. Whilst PKC-δ activates p38/MAPK, responsible for the inhibition of MMP-2 and -9 secretion, PKC-ε activates a pathway made of ERK1/2, mTOR and S6K responsible for the inhibition of NHE1 activity and cell migration. In conclusion, we have shown a drastic impairment in tumour cell metastatization in response to inhibition of NHE1 and MMPs activities by [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] occurring through a novel mechanism mediated by PKC-δ/-ε activation. PMID:25372487

  13. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  14. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  15. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  16. Identification of novel microRNAs in post-transcriptional control of Nrf2 expression and redox homeostasis in neuronal, SH-SY5Y cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhanan Narasimhan

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2/NFE2L2, a redox-sensitive transcription factor plays a critical role in adaptation to cellular stress and affords cellular defense by initiating transcription of antioxidative and detoxification genes. While a protein can be regulated at multiple levels, control of Nrf2 has been largely studied at post-translational regulation points by Keap1. Importantly, post-transcriptional/translational based regulation of Nrf2 is less understood and to date there are no reports on such mechanisms in neuronal systems. In this context, studies involving the role of microRNAs (miRs which are normally considered as fine tuning regulators of protein production through translation repression and/or post-transcriptional alterations, are in place. In the current study, based on in-silico analysis followed by immunoblotting and real time analysis, we have identified and validated for the first time that human NFE2L2 could be targeted by miR153/miR27a/miR142-5p/miR144 in neuronal, SH-SY5Y cells. Co-transfection studies with individual miR mimics along with either WT 3' UTR of human Nrf2 or mutated miRNA targeting seed sequence within Nrf2 3' UTR, demonstrated that Nrf2 is a direct regulatory target of these miRs. In addition, ectopic expression of miR153/miR27a/miR142-5p/miR144 affected Nrf2 mRNA abundance and nucleo-cytoplasmic concentration of Nrf2 in a Keap1 independent manner resulting in inefficient transactivating ability of Nrf2. Furthermore, forced expression of miRs diminished GCLC and GSR expression resulting in alteration of Nrf2 dependent redox homeostasis. Finally, bioinformatics based miRNA-disease network analysis (MDN along with extended computational network analysis of Nrf2 associated pathologic processes suggests that if in a particular cellular scenario where any of these miR153/miR27a/miR142-5p/miR144 either individually or as a group is altered, it could affect Nrf2 thus triggering and

  17. The nebular variables

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    1974-01-01

    The Nebular Variables focuses on the nebular variables and their characteristics. Discussions are organized by type of nebular variable, namely, RW Aurigae stars, T Orionis stars, T Tauri stars, and peculiar nebular objects. Topics range from light variations of the stars to their spectroscopic and physical characteristics, spatial distribution, interaction with nebulosity, and evolutionary features. This volume is divided into four sections and consists of 25 chapters, the first of which provides general information on nebular variables, including their stellar associations and their classifi

  18. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  19. Ginsenoside Rb1 Attenuates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Cells via Protection of Mitochondria and Inhibition of AIF and Cytochrome c Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Ge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of mitochondria in the protective effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on cellular apoptosis caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation, in this study, MTT assay, TUNEL staining, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and western blotting were used to examine the cellular viability, apoptosis, ROS level, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the distribution of apoptosis inducing factor, cytochrome c, Bax and Bcl-2 in nucleus, mitochondria and cytoplasm. We found that pretreatment with GRb1 improved the cellular viability damaged by OGD. Moreover, GRb1 inhibited apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells induced by OGD. Further studies showed that the elevation of cellular reactive oxygen species levels and the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential caused by OGD were both counteracted by GRb1. Additionally, GRb1 not only suppressed the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor into nucleus and cytochrome c into cytoplasm, but also inhibited the increase of Bax within mitochondria and alleviated the decrease of mitochondrial Bcl-2. Our study indicates that the protection of GRb1 on OGD-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells is associated with its protection on mitochondrial function and inhibition of release of AIF and cytochrome c.

  20. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced neurite remodeling in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells implicates the Cdc42 GTPase and is independent of Ras-ERK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleaume, Celine; Eychene, Alain; Harnois, Thomas; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Constantin, Bruno; Caigneaux, Evelyne; Muller, Jean-Marc; Philippe, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is known to regulate proliferation or differentiation in normal and tumoral cells. SH-SY5Y is a differentiated cell subclone derived from the SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cell line and possess all the components for an autocrine action of VIP. In the present study, we investigated the morphological changes and intracellular signaling pathways occurring upon VIP treatment of SH-SY5Y cells. VIP induced an early remodeling of cell projections: a branched neurite network spread out and prominent varicosities developed along neurites. Although activated by VIP, the Ras/ERK pathway was not required for the remodeling process. In contrast, pull-down experiments revealed a strong Cdc42 activation by VIP while expression of a dominant-negative Cdc42 prevented the VIP-induced neurite changes, suggesting an important role for this small GTPase in the process. These data provide the first evidence for a regulation of the activity of Rho family GTPases by VIP and bring new insights in the signaling pathways implicated in neurite remodeling process induced by VIP in neuroblastoma cells