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Sample records for variable region igv

  1. GANP regulates the choice of DNA repair pathway by DNA-PKcs interaction in AID-dependent IgV region diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohammed Mansour Abbas; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Almofty, Sarah Ameen; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Shimoda, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2014-06-15

    RNA export factor germinal center-associated nuclear protein (GANP) interacts with activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and shepherds it from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and toward the IgV region loci in B cells. In this study, we demonstrate a role for GANP in the repair of AID-initiated DNA damage in chicken DT40 B cells to generate IgV region diversity by gene conversion and somatic hypermutation. GANP plays a positive role in IgV region diversification of DT40 B cells in a nonhomologous end joining-proficient state. DNA-PKcs physically interacts with GANP, and this interaction is dissociated by dsDNA breaks induced by a topoisomerase II inhibitor, etoposide, or AID overexpression. GANP affects the choice of DNA repair mechanism in B cells toward homologous recombination rather than nonhomologous end joining repair. Thus, GANP presumably plays a critical role in protection of the rearranged IgV loci by favoring homologous recombination of the DNA breaks under accelerated AID recruitment. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Histone H3.3 promotes IgV gene diversification by?enhancing formation of AID?accessible single?stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Romanello, Marina; Schiavone, Davide; Frey, Alexander; Sale, Julian E

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Immunoglobulin diversification is driven by activation?induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytidine to uracil within the Ig variable (IgV) regions. Central to the recruitment of AID to the IgV genes are factors that regulate the generation of single?stranded DNA (ssDNA), the enzymatic substrate of AID. Here, we report that chicken DT40 cells lacking variant histone H3.3 exhibit reduced IgV sequence diversification. We show that this results from impairment of the ability of AID t...

  3. Optimization Design of IGV Profile in Centrifugal Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable inlet guide vane (IGV is used to control the mass flow and generate prewhirl in centrifugal compressors. The efficient operation of IGV is limited to the range of aerodynamic characteristics of their vane profiles. In order to find out the best vane profile for IGV regulation, the modern optimization method was adopted to optimize the inlet guide vane profile. The main methodology idea was to use artificial neural network for continuous fitness evaluation and use genetic algorithm for global optimization. After optimization, the regulating performance of IGV has improved significantly, the prewhirl ability has been enhanced greatly, and the pressure loss has been reduced. The mass flow and power of compressor reduced by using the optimized guide vane at large setting angles, and the efficiency increased significantly; the flow field distribution has been improved obviously, since the nonuniform distribution of flow and flow separation phenomenon greatly weakened or even completely disappeared. The achievement of this research can effectively improve the regulation ability of IGV and the performance of compressor.

  4. HCV proteins and immunoglobulin variable gene (IgV) subfamilies in HCV-induced type II mixed cryoglobulinemia: a concurrent pathogenetic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautto, Giuseppe; Mancini, Nicasio; Solforosi, Laura; Diotti, Roberta A; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  5. Histone H3.3 promotes IgV gene diversification by enhancing formation of AID-accessible single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanello, Marina; Schiavone, Davide; Frey, Alexander; Sale, Julian E

    2016-07-01

    Immunoglobulin diversification is driven by activation-induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytidine to uracil within the Ig variable (IgV) regions. Central to the recruitment of AID to the IgV genes are factors that regulate the generation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), the enzymatic substrate of AID Here, we report that chicken DT40 cells lacking variant histone H3.3 exhibit reduced IgV sequence diversification. We show that this results from impairment of the ability of AID to access the IgV genes due to reduced formation of ssDNA during IgV transcription. Loss of H3.3 also diminishes IgV R-loop formation. However, reducing IgV R-loops by RNase HI overexpression in wild-type cells does not affect IgV diversification, showing that these structures are not necessary intermediates for AID access. Importantly, the reduction in the formation of AID-accessible ssDNA in cells lacking H3.3 is independent of any effect on the level of transcription or the kinetics of RNAPII elongation, suggesting the presence of H3.3 in the nucleosomes of the IgV genes increases the chances of the IgV DNA becoming single-stranded, thereby creating an effective AID substrate. © 2016 MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. HCV Proteins and Immunoglobulin Variable Gene (IgV Subfamilies in HCV-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia: A Concurrent Pathogenetic Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sautto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  7. Cutting edge: double-stranded DNA breaks in the IgV region gene were detected at lower frequency in affinity-maturation impeded GANP-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatani, Yousuke; Igarashi, Hideya; Matsui, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Fujimura, Satoru; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Takagi, Katsumasa; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2005-11-01

    Double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at the IgV region (IgV) genes might be involved in somatic hypermutation and affinity-maturation of the B cell receptor in response to T cell-dependent Ag. By ligation-mediated PCR, we studied IgV DSBs that occurred in mature germinal center B cells in response to nitrophenyl-chicken gamma-globulin in a RAG1-independent, Ag-dependent, and IgV-selective manner. We quantified their levels in GANP-deficient B cells that have impaired generation of high-affinity Ab. GANP-/- B cells showed a decreased level of DSBs with blunt ends than control B cells and, on the contrary, the ganp gene transgenic (GANPTg) B cells showed an increased level. These results suggested that the level of IgV DSBs in germinal center B cells is associated with GANP expression, which is presumably required for B cell receptor affinity maturation.

  8. SRSF1-3 contributes to diversification of the immunoglobulin variable region gene by promoting accumulation of AID in the nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Yuka; Nariki, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Naoko; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mari; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Naoki

    2017-01-01

     Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for diversification of the Ig variable region (IgV). AID is excluded from the nucleus, where it normally functions. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating AID localization remain to be elucidated. The SR-protein splicing factor SRSF1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, a splicing isoform of which called SRSF1-3, has previously been shown to contribute to IgV diversification in chicken DT40 cells. In this stu...

  9. Identification of three subgroups of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia based upon mutations of BCL-6 and IgV genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, D; Fais, F; Vivenza, D; Migliaretti, G; Chiorazzi, N; Gaidano, G; Ferrarini, M

    2000-05-01

    Although B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) has been traditionally viewed as a tumor of virgin B cells, this notion has been recently questioned by data suggesting that a fraction of B-CLL derives from antigen experienced B cells. In order to further clarify the histogenetic derivation of this lymphoproliferation, we have analyzed the DNA sequences of the 5' non-coding region of BCL-6 proto-oncogene in 28 cases of B-CLL. Mutations of BCL-6 proto-oncogene, a zinc finger transcription factor implicated in lymphoma development, represent a histogenetic marker of B cell transit through the germinal center (GC) and occur frequently in B cell malignancies derived from GC or post-GC B cells. For comparison, the same tumor panel was analyzed for somatic mutations of the rearranged immunoglobulin variable (IgV) genes, which are known to be acquired at the time of B cell transit through the GC. Sequence analyses of BCL-6 and IgV genes allowed the definition of three groups of B-CLL. Group I B-CLL displayed mutations of both BCL-6 and IgV genes (10/28; 36%). Group II B-CLL displayed mutated IgV genes, but a germline BCL-6 gene (5/28; 18%). Finally, group III B-CLL included the remaining cases (13/28; 46%) that were characterized by the absence of somatic mutations of both BCL-6 and IgV genes. Overall, the distribution of BCL-6 and IgV mutations in B-CLL reinforce the notion that this leukemia is histogenetically heterogeneous and that a substantial subgroup of these lymphoproliferations derives from post-germinal center B cells.

  10. Wall boundary layer development near the tip region of an IGV of an axial flow compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Sitaram, N.

    1983-01-01

    The annulus wall boundary layer inside the blade passage of the inlet guide vane (IGV) passage of a low-speed axial compressor stage was measured with a miniature five-hole probe. The three-dimensional velocity and pressure fields were measured at various axial and tangential locations. Limiting streamline angles and static pressures were also measured on the casing of the IGV passage. Strong secondary vorticity was developed. The data were analyzed and correlated with the existing velocity profile correlations. The end wall losses were also derived from these data.

  11. Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV): high-performance genomics data visualization and exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsdóttir, Helga; Robinson, James T; Mesirov, Jill P

    2013-03-01

    Data visualization is an essential component of genomic data analysis. However, the size and diversity of the data sets produced by today's sequencing and array-based profiling methods present major challenges to visualization tools. The Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV) is a high-performance viewer that efficiently handles large heterogeneous data sets, while providing a smooth and intuitive user experience at all levels of genome resolution. A key characteristic of IGV is its focus on the integrative nature of genomic studies, with support for both array-based and next-generation sequencing data, and the integration of clinical and phenotypic data. Although IGV is often used to view genomic data from public sources, its primary emphasis is to support researchers who wish to visualize and explore their own data sets or those from colleagues. To that end, IGV supports flexible loading of local and remote data sets, and is optimized to provide high-performance data visualization and exploration on standard desktop systems. IGV is freely available for download from http://www.broadinstitute.org/igv, under a GNU LGPL open-source license.

  12. IgV peptide mapping of native Ro60 autoantibody proteomes in primary Sjögren's syndrome reveals molecular markers of Ro/La diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing J; Al Kindi, Mahmood A; Colella, Alex D; Dykes, Lukah; Jackson, Michael W; Chataway, Tim K; Reed, Joanne H; Gordon, Tom P

    2016-12-01

    We have used high-resolution mass spectrometry to sequence precipitating anti-Ro60 proteomes from sera of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and compare immunoglobulin variable-region (IgV) peptide signatures in Ro/La autoantibody subsets. Anti-Ro60 were purified by elution from native Ro60-coated ELISA plates and subjected to combined de novo amino acid sequencing and database matching. Monospecific anti-Ro60 Igs comprised dominant public and minor private sets of IgG1 kappa and lambda restricted heavy and light chains. Specific IgV amino acid substitutions stratified anti-Ro60 from anti-Ro60/La responses, providing a molecular fingerprint of Ro60/La determinant spreading and suggesting that different forms of Ro60 antigen drive these responses. Sequencing of linked anti-Ro52 proteomes from individual patients and comparison with their anti-Ro60 partners revealed sharing of a dominant IGHV3-23/IGKV3-20 paired clonotype but with divergent IgV mutational signatures. In summary, anti-Ro60 IgV peptide mapping provides insights into Ro/La autoantibody diversification and reveals serum-based molecular markers of humoral Ro60 autoimmunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SRSF1-3 contributes to diversification of the immunoglobulin variable region gene by promoting accumulation of AID in the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yuka; Nariki, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Naoko; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mari; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for diversification of the Ig variable region (IgV). AID is excluded from the nucleus, where it normally functions. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating AID localization remain to be elucidated. The SR-protein splicing factor SRSF1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, a splicing isoform of which called SRSF1-3, has previously been shown to contribute to IgV diversification in chicken DT40 cells. In this study, we examined whether SRSF1-3 functions in IgV diversification by promoting nuclear localization of AID. AID expressed alone was localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. In contrast, co-expression of AID with SRSF1-3 led to the nuclear accumulation of both AID and SRSF1-3 and the formation of a protein complex that contained them both, although SRSF1-3 was dispensable for nuclear import of AID. Expression of either SRSF1-3 or a C-terminally-truncated AID mutant increased IgV diversification in DT40 cells. However, overexpression of exogenous SRSF1-3 was unable to further enhance IgV diversification in DT40 cells expressing the truncated AID mutant, although SRSF1-3 was able to form a protein complex with the AID mutant. These results suggest that SRSF1-3 promotes nuclear localization of AID probably by forming a nuclear protein complex, which might stabilize nuclear AID and induce IgV diversification in an AID C-terminus-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of a novel splice variant of human PD-L1 mRNA encoding an isoform-lacking Igv-like domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xian-hui; Xu, Li-hui; Liu, Yi

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the expression and regulation of PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The cDNA encoding human PD-L1 precursor was cloned from the total RNA extracted from the resting and phorbol dibutyrate plus ionomycin- or phytohemagglutinin-activated PBMC, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and independent clones were sequenced and analyzed. The expression and subcellular localization were examined in transiently transfected cells. The PD-L1 gene expression in different PBMC was also analyzed by RT-PCR. A novel human PD-L1 splice variant was identified from the activated PBMC. It was generated by splicing out exon? encoding an immunoglobulin variable domain (Igv)-like domain but retaining all other exons without a frame-shift. Consequently, the putative translated protein contained all other domains including the transmembrane region except for the Igv-like domain. Furthermore, the conventional isoform was expressed on the plasma surface whereas the novel isoform showed a pattern of intracellular membrane distribution in transiently transfected K562 cells. In addition, the expression pattern of the PD-L1 splice variant was variable in different individuals and in different cellular status. PD-L1 expression may be regulated at the posttranscriptional level through alternative splicing, and modulation of the PD-L1 isoform expression may influence the outcome of specific immune responses in the peripheral tissues.

  15. Diverse oligomeric states of CEACAM IgV domains.

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    Bonsor, Daniel A; Günther, Sebastian; Beadenkopf, Robert; Beckett, Dorothy; Sundberg, Eric J

    2015-11-03

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) comprise a large family of cell surface adhesion molecules that bind to themselves and other family members to carry out numerous cellular functions, including proliferation, signaling, differentiation, tumor suppression, and survival. They also play diverse and significant roles in immunity and infection. The formation of CEACAM oligomers is caused predominantly by interactions between their N-terminal IgV domains. Although X-ray crystal structures of CEACAM IgV domain homodimers have been described, how CEACAMs form heterodimers or remain monomers is poorly understood. To address this key aspect of CEACAM function, we determined the crystal structures of IgV domains that form a homodimeric CEACAM6 complex, monomeric CEACAM8, and a heterodimeric CEACAM6-CEACAM8 complex. To confirm and quantify these interactions in solution, we used analytical ultracentrifugation to measure the dimerization constants of CEACAM homodimers and isothermal titration calorimetry to determine the thermodynamic parameters and binding affinities of CEACAM heterodimers. We found the CEACAM6-CEACAM8 heterodimeric state to be substantially favored energetically relative to the CEACAM6 homodimer. Our data provide a molecular basis for the adoption of the diverse oligomeric states known to exist for CEACAMs and suggest ways in which CEACAM6 and CEACAM8 regulate the biological functions of one another, as well as of additional CEACAMs with which they interact, both in cis and in trans.

  16. Anti-tumor immunotherapy by blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway with recombinant human PD-1-IgV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Wu, S; Xue, X; Li, M; Qin, X; Li, W; Han, W; Zhang, Y

    2008-01-01

    Blockade of the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway can delay tumor growth and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice. The extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) V domain of PD-1 is important for the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1, suggesting that PD-1-IgV may be a potential target for anti-tumor immunotherapy. The extracellular sequence of human PD-1-IgV (hPD-1-IgV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The anti-tumor effect of hPD-1-IgV on tumor-bearing mice was tested. hPD-1-IgV recombinant protein could bind PD-L1 at molecular and cellular levels and enhance Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) activity and anti-tumor effect on tumor-bearing mice in vivo. The percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in tumor-bearing mice was decreased compared with control mice after administration of the recombinant protein. Our results suggest that inhibition of the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 by hPD-1-IgV may be a promising strategy for specific tumor immunotherapy.

  17. Functional Elements on SIRPα IgV domain Mediate Cell Surface Binding to CD47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Tong, Qiao; Zhou, Yubin; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Yang, Jenny J.; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Chen, Yi-Tien; Ha, Binh; Chen, Celia X-J.; Zen, Ke

    2007-01-01

    Summary SIRPα and SIRPβ1, the two major isoforms of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family, are co-expressed in human leukocytes but mediate distinct extracellular binding interactions and divergent cell signaling responses. Previous studies have demonstrated that binding of SIRPα with CD47, another important cell surface molecule, through the extracellular IgV domain regulates important leukocyte functions including macrophage recognition, leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. Although SIRPβ1 shares highly homologous extracellular IgV structure with SIRPα, it does not bind to CD47. In this study, we defined key amino acid residues exclusively expressing in the IgV domain of SIRPα, but not SIRPβ1, which determine the extracellular binding interaction of SIRPα to CD47. These key residues include Gln67, a small hydrophobic amino acid (Ala or Val) at the 57th position and Met102. We found that Gln67 and Ala/Val57 are critical. Mutation of either of these residues abates SIRPα directly binding to CD47. Functional cell adhesion and leukocyte transmigration assays further demonstrated central roles of Gln67 and Ala/Val57 in SIRPα extracellular binding mediated cell interactions and cell migration. Another SIRPα-specific residue, Met102, appears to assist SIRPα IgV binding through Gln67 and Ala/Val57. An essential role of these amino acids in SIRPα binding to CD47 was further confirmed by introducing these residues into the SIRPβ1 IgV domain, which dramatically converts SIRPβ1 into a CD47-binding molecule. Our results thus revealed the molecular basis by which SIRPα selectively binds to CD47 and shed new light into the structural mechanisms of SIRP isoform mediated distinctive extracellular interactions and cellular responses. PMID:17070842

  18. Functional elements on SIRPalpha IgV domain mediate cell surface binding to CD47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Tong, Qiao; Zhou, Yubin; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Yang, Jenny J; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Chen, Yi-Tien; Ha, Binh; Chen, Celia X-J; Yang, Yang; Zen, Ke

    2007-01-19

    SIRPalpha and SIRPbeta1, the two major isoforms of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family, are co-expressed in human leukocytes but mediate distinct extracellular binding interactions and divergent cell signaling responses. Previous studies have demonstrated that binding of SIRPalpha with CD47, another important cell surface molecule, through the extracellular IgV domain regulates important leukocyte functions including macrophage recognition, leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. Although SIRPbeta1 shares highly homologous extracellular IgV structure with SIRPalpha, it does not bind to CD47. Here, we defined key amino acid residues exclusively expressing in the IgV domain of SIRPalpha, but not SIRPbeta1, which determine the extracellular binding interaction of SIRPalpha to CD47. These key residues include Gln67, a small hydrophobic amino acid (Ala or Val) at the 57th position and Met102. We found that Gln67 and Ala/Val57 are critical. Mutation of either of these residues abates SIRPalpha directly binding to CD47. Functional cell adhesion and leukocyte transmigration assays further demonstrated central roles of Gln67 and Ala/Val57 in SIRPalpha extracellular binding mediated cell interactions and cell migration. Another SIRPalpha-specific residue, Met102, appears to assist SIRPalpha IgV binding through Gln67 and Ala/Val57. An essential role of these amino acid residues in SIRPalpha binding to CD47 was further confirmed by introducing these residues into the SIRPbeta1 IgV domain, which dramatically converts SIRPbeta1 into a CD47-binding molecule. Our results thus revealed the molecular basis by which SIRPalpha binds to CD47 and shed new light into the structural mechanisms of SIRP isoform mediated distinctive extracellular interactions and cellular responses.

  19. Experimental study of complex flow and turbulence structure around a turbomachine rotor blade operating behind a row of Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranna, Francesco

    The flow and turbulence around a rotor blade operating downstream of a row of Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) are investigated experimentally in a refractive index matched turbomachinery facility that provides unobstructed view of the entire flow field. High resolution 2D and Stereoscopic PIV measurements are performed both at midspan and in the tip region of the rotor blade, focusing on effects of wake-blade, wake-boundary-layer and wake-wake interactions. We first examine the modification to the shape of an IGV-wake as well as to the spatial distribution of turbulence within it as the wake propagates along the rotor blade. Due to the spatially non-uniform velocity distribution, the IGV wake deforms through the rotor passage, expanding near the leading edge and shrinking near the trailing edge. The turbulence within this wake becomes spatially non-uniform and highly anisotropic as a result of interaction with the non-uniform strain rate field within the rotor passage. Several mechanisms, which are associated with rapid straining and highly non-uniform production rate (P), including negative production on the suction side of the blade, contribute to the observed trends. During IGV-wake impingement, the suction side boundary layer near the trailing edge becomes significantly thinner, with lower momentum thickness and more stable profile compared to other phases at the same location. Analysis of available terms in the integral momentum equation indicates that the phase-averaged unsteady term is the main contributor to the decrease in momentum thickness within the impinging wake. Thinning of the boundary/shear layer extends into the rotor near wake, making it narrower and increasing the phase averaged shear velocity gradients and associated production term just downstream of the trailing edge. Consequently, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) increases causing as much as 75% phase-dependent variations in peak TKE magnitude. Further away from the blade, the rotor wake is bent

  20. Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV) is a high-performance visualization tool for interactive exploration of large, integrated genomic datasets. It supports a wide variety of data types, including array-based and next-generation sequence data, and genomic annotations.

  1. IgV gene intraclonal diversification and clonal evolution in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnara, Davide; Callea, Vincenzo; Stelitano, Caterina; Morabito, Fortunato; Fabris, Sonia; Neri, Antonino; Zanardi, Sabrina; Ghiotto, Fabio; Ciccone, Ermanno; Grossi, Carlo Enrico; Fais, Franco

    2006-04-01

    Intraclonal diversification of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) genes was evaluated in leukaemic cells from a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) case over a 2-year period at four time points. Intraclonal heterogeneity was analysed by sequencing 305 molecular clones derived from polymerase chain reaction amplification of B-CLL cell IgV heavy (H) and light (C) chain gene rearrangements. Sequences were compared with evaluating intraclonal variation and the nature of somatic mutations. Although IgV intraclonal variation was detected at all time points, its level decreased with time and a parallel emergence of two more represented V(H)DJ(H) clones was observed. They differed by nine nucleotide substitutions one of which only caused a conservative replacement aminoacid change. In addition, one V(L)J(L) rearrangement became more represented over time. Analyses of somatic mutations suggest antigen selection and impairment of negative selection of neoplastic cells. In addition, a genealogical tree representing a model of clonal evolution of the neoplastic cells was created. It is of note that, during the period of study, the patient showed clinical progression of disease. We conclude that antigen stimulation and somatic hypermutation may participate in disease progression through the selection and expansion of neoplastic subclone(s).

  2. [Expression, crystallization and crystallographic study of the 1st IgV domain of human CD96].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenjing; Zhang, Shuijun; Yan, Jinghua; Guo, Ning

    2013-05-01

    CD96 (Tactile) is an adhesion receptor expressed mainly on activated T cells, NK cells. As a family member of the immunoglobulin-like cell receptor, CD96 consists of three immunoglobulin-like domains (V1, V2/C and C) in the extracellular region. Recent studies have shown that the 1st IgV domain of CD96 (CD96V1) plays an essential role in cell adhesion and NK cell-mediated killing. In this study, the 1st IgV domain of human CD96 (hCD96V1) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (BL21). The soluble protein was obtained by refolding of the hCD96V1 inclusion bodies. From analytical ultracentrifugation, we could predict that CD96 V1 maily exists as dimer with approximate molecular weight of 26.9 kDa. The protein was then successfully crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.9 angstrom resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.1, b = 69.5, c = 49.6A, alpha=gamma=90 degrees, beta=105.4 degrees.

  3. The signature of somatic hypermutation appears to be written into the germline IgV segment repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanden, R V; Rothenfluh, H S; Zylstra, P; Weiller, G F; Steele, E J

    1998-04-01

    We present here a unifying hypothesis for the molecular mechanism of somatic hypermutation and somatic gene conversion in IgV genes involving reverse transcription using RNA templates from the V-gene loci to produce cDNA which undergoes homologous recombination with chromosomal V(D)J DNA. Experimental evidence produced over the last 20 years is essentially consistent with this hypothesis. We also review evidence suggesting that somatically generated IgV sequences from B lymphocytes have been fed back to germline DNA over evolutionary time.

  4. IgV H mutations in blastoid mantle cell lymphoma characterize a subgroup with a tendency to more favourable clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliatti, Sergio B; Bertoni, Francesco; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Henz, Samuel; Diss, Tim C; Ghielmini, Michele; Schmid, Ulrico

    2005-07-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is associated with a very unfavourable clinical course. This is particularly true for mantle cell lymphoma of the blastoid subtype (MCL-b). In order to define prognostic factors, we analysed the impact of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IgV H) gene somatic hypermutations on clinical outcome in a series of 21 cases of morphologically, phenotypically, and genotypically well-characterized MCL-b. Testing and estimation were performed using log-rank statistics and displayed on Kaplan-Meier graphs. Thirteen of 21 cases of MCL-b revealed a homology rate of > or = 99% compared to IgV H germ-line sequences in the databases and were scored as non-mutated. Eight of 21 cases (38%) of MCL-b were mutated. In MCL-b the mutation frequency was usually low and the mutation pattern was only rarely antigen-selected, in contrast to a control group of 11 cases with morphologically almost identical, but phenotypically and genotypically clearly distinguishable, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, derived, most likely, from germinal centre B cells. In our series of 21 MCL-b, positive IgV H mutational status, irrespective of varying homology thresholds, had no statistically significant prognostic impact on event-free or overall survival. However, mutated MCL-b tended to present more frequently at an earlier stage and without bone marrow involvement and to show lower rates of relapse and death, resulting in a more favourable clinical outcome. Copyright 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Characterization of Human and Murine T-Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin Domain 4 (TIM-4) IgV Domain Residues Critical for Ebola Virus Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Bethany A; Brouillette, Rachel B; Schaack, Grace A; Chiorini, John A; Maury, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) receptors that are responsible for the clearance of dying cells have recently been found to mediate enveloped virus entry. Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae family of viruses, utilizes PtdSer receptors for entry into target cells. The PtdSer receptors human and murine T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) domain proteins TIM-1 and TIM-4 mediate filovirus entry by binding to PtdSer on the virion surface via a conserved PtdSer binding pocket within the amino-terminal IgV domain. While the residues within the TIM-1 IgV domain that are important for EBOV entry are characterized, the molecular details of virion-TIM-4 interactions have yet to be investigated. As sequences and structural alignments of the TIM proteins suggest distinct differences in the TIM-1 and TIM-4 IgV domain structures, we sought to characterize TIM-4 IgV domain residues required for EBOV entry. Using vesicular stomatitis virus pseudovirions bearing EBOV glycoprotein (EBOV GP/VSVΔG), we evaluated virus binding and entry into cells expressing TIM-4 molecules mutated within the IgV domain, allowing us to identify residues important for entry. Similar to TIM-1, residues in the PtdSer binding pocket of murine and human TIM-4 (mTIM-4 and hTIM-4) were found to be important for EBOV entry. However, additional TIM-4-specific residues were also found to impact EBOV entry, with a total of 8 mTIM-4 and 14 hTIM-4 IgV domain residues being critical for virion binding and internalization. Together, these findings provide a greater understanding of the interaction of TIM-4 with EBOV virions. With more than 28,000 cases and over 11,000 deaths during the largest and most recent Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak, there has been increased emphasis on the development of therapeutics against filoviruses. Many therapies under investigation target EBOV cell entry. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) domain proteins are cell surface factors important for the entry of many enveloped viruses

  6. Efficient subgroup C avian sarcoma and leukosis virus receptor activity requires the IgV domain of the Tvc receptor and proper display on the cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia, Audelia; Federspiel, Mark J

    2008-11-01

    We recently identified and cloned the receptor for subgroup C avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses [ASLV(C)], i.e., Tvc, a protein most closely related to mammalian butyrophilins, which are members of the immunoglobulin protein family. The extracellular domain of Tvc contains two immunoglobulin-like domains, IgV and IgC, which presumably each contain a disulfide bond important for native function of the protein. In this study, we have begun to identify the functional determinants of Tvc responsible for ASLV(C) receptor activity. We found that the IgV domain of the Tvc receptor is responsible for interacting with the glycoprotein of ASLV(C). Additional experiments demonstrated that a domain was necessary as a spacer between the IgV domain and the membrane-spanning domain for efficient Tvc receptor activity, most likely to orient the IgV domain a proper distance from the cell membrane. The effects on ASLV(C) glycoprotein binding and infection efficiency were also studied by site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine residues of Tvc as well as conserved amino acid residues of the IgV Tvc domain compared to other IgV domains. In this initial analysis of Tvc determinants important for interacting with ASLV(C) glycoproteins, at least two aromatic amino acid residues in the IgV domain of Tvc, Trp-48 and Tyr-105, were identified as critical for efficient ASLV(C) infection. Interestingly, one or more aromatic amino acid residues have been identified as critical determinants in the other ASLV(A-E) receptors for a proper interaction with ASLV glycoproteins. This suggests that the ASLV glycoproteins may share a common mechanism of receptor interaction with an aromatic residue(s) on the receptor critical for triggering conformational changes in SU that initiate the fusion process required for efficient virus infection.

  7. Efficient Subgroup C Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Virus Receptor Activity Requires the IgV Domain of the Tvc Receptor and Proper Display on the Cell Membrane▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia, Audelia; Federspiel, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    We recently identified and cloned the receptor for subgroup C avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses [ASLV(C)], i.e., Tvc, a protein most closely related to mammalian butyrophilins, which are members of the immunoglobulin protein family. The extracellular domain of Tvc contains two immunoglobulin-like domains, IgV and IgC, which presumably each contain a disulfide bond important for native function of the protein. In this study, we have begun to identify the functional determinants of Tvc responsible for ASLV(C) receptor activity. We found that the IgV domain of the Tvc receptor is responsible for interacting with the glycoprotein of ASLV(C). Additional experiments demonstrated that a domain was necessary as a spacer between the IgV domain and the membrane-spanning domain for efficient Tvc receptor activity, most likely to orient the IgV domain a proper distance from the cell membrane. The effects on ASLV(C) glycoprotein binding and infection efficiency were also studied by site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine residues of Tvc as well as conserved amino acid residues of the IgV Tvc domain compared to other IgV domains. In this initial analysis of Tvc determinants important for interacting with ASLV(C) glycoproteins, at least two aromatic amino acid residues in the IgV domain of Tvc, Trp-48 and Tyr-105, were identified as critical for efficient ASLV(C) infection. Interestingly, one or more aromatic amino acid residues have been identified as critical determinants in the other ASLV(A-E) receptors for a proper interaction with ASLV glycoproteins. This suggests that the ASLV glycoproteins may share a common mechanism of receptor interaction with an aromatic residue(s) on the receptor critical for triggering conformational changes in SU that initiate the fusion process required for efficient virus infection. PMID:18768966

  8. Intra-Gene DNA Methylation Variability Is a Clinically Independent Prognostic Marker in Women's Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas E; Jones, Allison; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Cunningham, Julie M; Berns, Els M J J; Wik, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B; Davidson, Ben; Trope, Claes G; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Widschwendter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel per-gene measure of intra-gene DNA methylation variability (IGV) based on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 platform, which is prognostic independently of well-known predictors of clinical outcome. Using IGV, we derive a robust gene-panel prognostic signature for ovarian cancer (OC, n = 221), which validates in two independent data sets from Mayo Clinic (n = 198) and TCGA (n = 358), with significance of p = 0.004 in both sets. The OC prognostic signature gene-panel is comprised of four gene groups, which represent distinct biological processes. We show the IGV measurements of these gene groups are most likely a reflection of a mixture of intra-tumour heterogeneity and transcription factor (TF) binding/activity. IGV can be used to predict clinical outcome in patients individually, providing a surrogate read-out of hard-to-measure disease processes.

  9. Intra-Gene DNA Methylation Variability Is a Clinically Independent Prognostic Marker in Women’s Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas E.; Jones, Allison; Goode, Ellen L.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Berns, Els M. J. J.; Wik, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B.; Davidson, Ben; Trope, Claes G.; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Widschwendter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel per-gene measure of intra-gene DNA methylation variability (IGV) based on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 platform, which is prognostic independently of well-known predictors of clinical outcome. Using IGV, we derive a robust gene-panel prognostic signature for ovarian cancer (OC, n = 221), which validates in two independent data sets from Mayo Clinic (n = 198) and TCGA (n = 358), with significance of p = 0.004 in both sets. The OC prognostic signature gene-panel is comprised of four gene groups, which represent distinct biological processes. We show the IGV measurements of these gene groups are most likely a reflection of a mixture of intra-tumour heterogeneity and transcription factor (TF) binding/activity. IGV can be used to predict clinical outcome in patients individually, providing a surrogate read-out of hard-to-measure disease processes. PMID:26629914

  10. Intra-Gene DNA Methylation Variability Is a Clinically Independent Prognostic Marker in Women's Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Bartlett

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel per-gene measure of intra-gene DNA methylation variability (IGV based on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 platform, which is prognostic independently of well-known predictors of clinical outcome. Using IGV, we derive a robust gene-panel prognostic signature for ovarian cancer (OC, n = 221, which validates in two independent data sets from Mayo Clinic (n = 198 and TCGA (n = 358, with significance of p = 0.004 in both sets. The OC prognostic signature gene-panel is comprised of four gene groups, which represent distinct biological processes. We show the IGV measurements of these gene groups are most likely a reflection of a mixture of intra-tumour heterogeneity and transcription factor (TF binding/activity. IGV can be used to predict clinical outcome in patients individually, providing a surrogate read-out of hard-to-measure disease processes.

  11. Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma is associated with somatically hypermutated immunoglobulin variable genes and frequent use of VH1-69 and VH4-59 segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Pacchiarotti, A; Frontani, M; Pescarmona, E; Caprini, E; Lombardo, G A; Russo, G; Faraggiana, T

    2010-03-01

    Accurate assessment of the somatic mutational status of clonal immunoglobulin variable region (IgV) genes is relevant in elucidating tumour cell origin in B-cell lymphoma; virgin B cells bear unmutated IgV genes, while germinal centre and postfollicular B cells carry mutated IgV genes. Furthermore, biases in the IgV repertoire and distribution pattern of somatic mutations indicate a possible antigen role in the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. This work investigates the cellular origin and antigenic selection in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (PCBCL). We analysed the nucleotide sequence of clonal IgV heavy-chain gene (IgVH) rearrangements in 51 cases of PCBCL (25 follicle centre, 19 marginal zone and seven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type) and compared IgVH sequences with their closest germline segment in the GenBank database. Molecular data were then correlated with histopathological features. We showed that all but one of the 51 IgVH sequences analysed exhibited extensive somatic hypermutations. The detected mutation rate ranged from 1.6% to 21%, with a median rate of 9.8% and was independent of PCBCL histotype. Calculation of antigen-selection pressure showed that 39% of the mutated IgVH genes displayed a number of replacement mutations and silent mutations in a pattern consistent with antigenic selection. Furthermore, two segments, VH1-69 (12%) and VH4-59 (14%), were preferentially used in our case series. Data indicate that neoplastic B cells of PBCBL have experienced germinal centre reaction and also suggest that the involvement of IgVH genes is not entirely random in PCBCL and that common antigen epitopes could be pathologically relevant in cutaneous lymphomagenesis.

  12. Potential disturbance interactions with a single IGV in an F109 turbofan engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Joel F.

    A common cause of aircraft engine failure is the high cycle fatigue of engine blades and stators. One of the primary causes of these failures is due to blade row interactions, which cause an aerodynamic excitation to be resonant with a mechanical natural frequency. Traditionally, the primary source of such aerodynamic excitations has been practically limited to viscous wakes from upstream components. However, more advanced designs require that blade rows be very highly loaded and closely spaced. This results in aerodynamic excitation from potential fields of down stream engine components, in addition to the known wake excitations. An experimental investigation of the potential field from the fan of a Honeywell F109 turbofan engine has been completed. The investigation included velocity measurements upstream of the fan, addition of an airfoil shaped probe upstream of the fan on which surface pressure measurements were acquired, and measurement of the velocity in the interaction region between the probe and the fan. This investigation sought to characterize the response on the upstream probe due to the fan potential field and the interaction between a viscous wake and the potential field; as such, all test conditions were for subsonic fan speeds. The results from the collected data show that fan-induced potential disturbances propagate upstream at acoustic velocities, to produce vane surface-pressure amplitudes as high as 40 percent Joel F. Kirk of the inlet, mean total pressure. Further, these fan-induced pressure amplitudes display large variations between the two vane surfaces. An argument is made that the structure of the pressure response is consistent with the presence of two distinct sources of unsteady forcing disturbances. The disturbances on the incoming-rotation-facing surface of the IGV propagated upstream at a different speed than those on the outgoing-rotation-facing surface, indicating that one originated from a rotating source and the other from a

  13. Functional Elements on SIRPα IgV domain Mediate Cell Surface Binding to CD47

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuan; Tong, Qiao; Zhou, Yubin; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Yang, Jenny J.; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Chen, Yi-Tien; Ha, Binh; Chen, Celia X-J.; Zen, Ke

    2006-01-01

    SIRPα and SIRPβ1, the two major isoforms of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family, are co-expressed in human leukocytes but mediate distinct extracellular binding interactions and divergent cell signaling responses. Previous studies have demonstrated that binding of SIRPα with CD47, another important cell surface molecule, through the extracellular IgV domain regulates important leukocyte functions including macrophage recognition, leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. Although SIRPβ1 ...

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the IgV domain of human nectin-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoai; Lu, Guangwen; Cai, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Nectin-4 belongs to a family of immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules and is highly expressed in cancer cells. Recently, nectin-4 was found to be a receptor of measles virus and the IgV domain sustains strong binding to measles virus H protein. In this study, the successful expression and purification of human nectin-4 V domain (nectin-4v) is reported Nectin-4 belongs to a family of immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules and is highly expressed in cancer cells. Recently, nectin-4 was found to be a receptor of measles virus and the IgV domain sustains strong binding to measles virus H protein. In this study, the successful expression and purification of human nectin-4 V domain (nectin-4v) is reported. The purified protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 33.1, b = 51.7, c = 56.9 Å, β = 94.7°. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data was also performed

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the IgV domain of human nectin-4

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoai; Lu, Guangwen; Cai, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Nectin-4 belongs to a family of immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules and is highly expressed in cancer cells. Recently, nectin-4 was found to be a receptor of measles virus and the IgV domain sustains strong binding to measles virus H protein. In this study, the successful expression and purification of human nectin-4 V domain (nectin-4v) is reported

  16. Combining effect of optimized axial compressor variable guide vanes and bleed air on the thermodynamic performance of aircraft engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sangjo; Son, Changmin; Kim, Kuisoon

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this work is to provide evidence of the effectiveness of combined use of the variable guide vanes (VGVs) and bleed air on the thermodynamic performance of aircraft engine system. This paper performed the comparative study to evaluate the overall thermal performance of an aircraft engine with optimized VGVs and bleed air, separately or simultaneously. The low-bypass ratio turbofan engine has been modeled with a 0D/1D modeling approach. The genetic algorithm is employed to find the optimum schedule of VGVs and bleed air. There are four types of design variables: (1) the inlet guide vane (IGV) angle, (2) the IGV and 1st stator vane (SV) angles, (3) bleed air mass flow rate at the exit of the axial compressor, and (4) both type 2 and type 3. The optimization is conducted with surge margin constraints of more than 10% and 15% in the axial compressor. The results show that the additional use of the bleed air increases the efficiency of the compressors. Overall, the percentage reductions of the total fuel consumption for the engine with the IGV, 1st SV and bleed air schedule is 1.63% for 15% surge margin constraints when compared with the engine with the IGV schedule. - Highlights: • The effect of combined use of variable guide vanes and bleed air is evaluated. • The genetic algorithm is employed to find the optimum setting angle and bleed air. • A low bypass ratio mixed turbofan engine is analyzed for optimization. • Additional use of the bleed air shows improved overall performance of the engine.

  17. The IgV domain of human B7-2 (CD86) is sufficient to co-stimulate T lymphocytes and induce cytokine secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, P; Furlong, K; Jellis, C; Greenfield, E; Freeman, G J; Ueda, Y; Levine, B; June, C H; Gray, G S

    1997-06-01

    B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) are genetically and structurally related molecules expressed on antigen-presenting cells. Both bind CD28 to co-stimulate T lymphocytes, resulting in proliferation and cytokine production. The extracellular portions of B7-1 and B7-2 which bind to CD28 and CTLA-4 are related to Ig variable (V) and Ig constant (C) domain sequences. Recent reports have described splice variant forms of B7 proteins which occur in vivo and are of unknown function. Here we describe soluble recombinant forms of B7-1 and B7-2 containing either both of the Ig-like extracellular domains or the individual IgV or IgC domains coupled to an Ig Fc tail. Soluble B7-1 and B7-2 bind to CD28 and CTLA-4, and effectively co-stimulate T lymphocytes resulting in their proliferation and the secretion of cytokines. Furthermore, the IgV domain of B7-2 binds CD28 and CTLA-4, competes with B7-1 and B7-2 for binding to these receptors, and co-stimulates T lymphocytes. Cross-linked soluble B7-2v was the most potent co-stimulatory molecule tested and was active at a concentration approximately 100-fold lower than cross-linked soluble B7-1 or B7-2 proteins. When bound to tosyl-activated beads, B7-2v was capable of sustaining multiple rounds of T cell expansion. These data complement the description of naturally occurring variants to suggest that T cell co-stimulation in vivo may be regulated by soluble or truncated forms of B7 proteins.

  18. Efficacy of endoscopic histoacryl injection in treatment of gastric variceal bleeding caused by regional portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Shanhong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the efficacy of endoscopic histoacryl injection in the treatment of gastric variceal bleeding caused by regional portal hypertension. Methods The endoscopic features and efficacy of endoscopic histoacryl injection were examined and compared in two groups of patients admitted to our hospital from June 2012 to December 2012. One of the groups included 6 patients with gastric variceal bleeding caused by regional portal hypertension and the other group included 6 patients with gastric variceal bleeding caused by hepatitis B cirrhosis-related portal hypertension. Between-group comparison of categorical data was made by Fisher′s test. Results In patients with regional portal hypertension, five of them had severe isolated gastric varices (IGV and one had severe IGV with mild esophageal varices. All six patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis-related portal hypertension had severe IGV and the endoscopic features were similar to those of patients with regional portal hypertension. Significant differences were observed between the group with regional portal hypertension and the group with hepatitis B cirrhosis related portal hypertension in short-term response rate (1/6 vs 6/6, P=0.015 and long-term response rate (0/6 vs 5/6, P=0.015. Conclusion The gastric varices caused by regional portal hypertension has a fast progression rate and a high bleeding risk. The efficacy of endoscopic histoacryl injection in patients with this type of gastric varices is poor.

  19. Rotor boundary layer development with inlet guide vane (IGV) wake impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lichao; Zou, Tengda; Zhu, Yiding; Lee, Cunbiao

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the transition process in a boundary layer on a rotor blade under the impingement of an inlet guide vane wake. The effects of wake strengths and the reduced frequency on the unsteady boundary layer development on a low-speed axial compressor were investigated using particle image velocimetry. The measurements were carried out at two reduced frequencies (fr = fIGVS0/U2i, fr = 1.35, and fr = 0.675) with the Reynolds number, based on the blade chord and the isentropic inlet velocity, being 97 500. At fr = 1.35, the flow separated at the trailing edge when the wake strength was weak. However, the separation was almost totally suppressed as the wake strength increased. For the stronger wake, both the wake's high turbulence and the negative jet behavior of the wake dominated the interaction between the unsteady wake and the separated boundary layer on the suction surface of the airfoil. The boundary layer displacement thickened first due to the negative jet effect. Then, as the disturbances developed underneath the wake, the boundary layer thickness reduced gradually. The high disturbance region convected downstream at a fraction of the free-stream velocity and spread in the streamwise direction. The separation on the suction surface was suppressed until the next wake's arrival. Because of the long recovery time at fr = 0.675, the boundary layer thickened gradually as the wake convected further downstream and finally separated due to the adverse pressure gradient. The different boundary layer states in turn affected the development of disturbances.

  20. Determinants in the Ig Variable Domain of Human HAVCR1 (TIM-1) Are Required To Enhance Hepatitis C Virus Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachko, Alla; Costafreda, Maria Isabel; Zubkova, Iryna; Jacques, Jerome; Takeda, Kazuyo; Wells, Frances; Kaplan, Gerardo; Major, Marian E

    2018-03-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis in humans. Several host molecules participate in HCV cell entry, but this process remains unclear. The complete unraveling of the HCV entry process is important to further understand viral pathogenesis and develop therapeutics. Human hepatitis A virus (HAV) cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), CD365, also known as TIM-1, functions as a phospholipid receptor involved in cell entry of several enveloped viruses. Here, we studied the role of HAVCR1 in HCV infection. HAVCR1 antibody inhibited entry in a dose-dependent manner. HAVCR1 soluble constructs neutralized HCV, which did not require the HAVCR1 mucinlike region and was abrogated by a mutation of N to A at position 94 (N94A) in the Ig variable (IgV) domain phospholipid-binding pocket, indicating a direct interaction of the HAVCR1 IgV domain with HCV virions. However, knockout of HAVCR1 in Huh7 cells reduced but did not prevent HCV growth. Interestingly, the mouse HAVCR1 ortholog, also a phospholipid receptor, did not enhance infection and a soluble form failed to neutralize HCV, although replacement of the mouse IgV domain with the human HAVCR1 IgV domain restored the enhancement of HCV infection. Mutations in the cytoplasmic tail revealed that direct HAVCR1 signaling is not required to enhance HCV infection. Our data show that the phospholipid-binding function and other determinant(s) in the IgV domain of human HAVCR1 enhance HCV infection. Although the exact mechanism is not known, it is possible that HAVCR1 facilitates entry by stabilizing or enhancing attachment, leading to direct interactions with specific receptors, such as CD81. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters cells through a multifaceted process. We identified the human hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), CD365, also known as TIM-1, as a facilitator of HCV entry. Antibody blocking and silencing or knockout of HAVCR1 in hepatoma cells reduced HCV entry. Our findings that the

  1. The human TREM gene cluster at 6p21.1 encodes both activating and inhibitory single IgV domain receptors and includes NKp44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcock, Richard J N; Barrow, Alexander D; Forbes, Simon; Beck, Stephan; Trowsdale, John

    2003-02-01

    We have characterized a cluster of single immunoglobulin variable (IgV) domain receptors centromeric of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on human chromosome 6. In addition to triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 and TREM2, the cluster contains NKp44, a triggering receptor whose expression is limited to NK cells. We identified three new related genes and two gene fragments within a cluster of approximately 200 kb. Two of the three new genes lack charged residues in their transmembrane domain tails. Further, one of the genes contains two potential immunotyrosine Inhibitory motifs in its cytoplasmic tail, suggesting that it delivers inhibitory signals. The human and mouse TREM clusters appear to have diverged such that there are unique sequences in each species. Finally, each gene in the TREM cluster was expressed in a different range of cell types.

  2. Exploration of factors affecting the onset and maturation course of follicular lymphoma through simulations of the germinal center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Michael K; Escobedo, Fernando A

    2009-08-01

    Genetic mutations frequently observed in human follicular lymphoma (FL) B-cells result in aberrant expression of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2 and surface immunoglobulins (Igs) which display one or more novel variable (V) region N-glycosylation motifs. In the present study, we develop a simulation model of the germinal center (GC) to explore how these mutations might influence the emergence and clonal expansion of key mutants which provoke FL development. The simulations employ a stochastic method for calculating the cellular dynamics, which incorporates actual IgV region sequences and a simplified hypermutation scheme. We first bring our simulations into agreement with experimental data for well-characterized normal and bcl-2(+) anti-hapten GC responses in mice to provide a model for understanding how bcl-2 expression leads to permissive selection and memory cell differentiation of weakly competitive B-cells. However, as bcl-2 expression in the GC alone is thought to be insufficient for FL development, we next monitor simulated IgV region mutations to determine the emergence times of key mutants displaying aberrant N-glycosylation motifs recurrently observed in human FL IgV regions. Simulations of 26 germline V(H) gene segments indicate that particular IgV regions have a dynamical selective advantage by virtue of the speed with which one or more of their key sites can generate N-glycosylation motifs upon hypermutation. Separate calculations attribute the high occurrence frequency of such IgV regions in FL to an ability to produce key mutants at a fast enough rate to overcome stochastic processes in the GC that hinder clonal expansion. Altogether, these simulations characterize three pathways for FL maturation through positively selected N-glycosylations, namely, via one of two key sites within germline V(H) region gene segments, or via a site in the third heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR-H3) that is generated from VDJ recombination.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the IgV domain of human nectin-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoai; Lu, Guangwen; Cai, Yongping

    2012-08-01

    Nectin-4 belongs to a family of immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules and is highly expressed in cancer cells. Recently, nectin-4 was found to be a receptor of measles virus and the IgV domain sustains strong binding to measles virus H protein. In this study, the successful expression and purification of human nectin-4 V domain (nectin-4v) is reported. The purified protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 33.1, b = 51.7, c = 56.9 Å, β = 94.7°. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data was also performed.

  4. Estimating individual glomerular volume in the human kidney: clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Zimanyi, Monika A; Samuel, Terence; Hughson, Michael D; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Bertram, John F; Armitage, James A

    2012-05-01

    Measurement of individual glomerular volumes (IGV) has allowed the identification of drivers of glomerular hypertrophy in subjects without overt renal pathology. This study aims to highlight the relevance of IGV measurements with possible clinical implications and determine how many profiles must be measured in order to achieve stable size distribution estimates. We re-analysed 2250 IGV estimates obtained using the disector/Cavalieri method in 41 African and 34 Caucasian Americans. Pooled IGV analysis of mean and variance was conducted. Monte-Carlo (Jackknife) simulations determined the effect of the number of sampled glomeruli on mean IGV. Lin's concordance coefficient (R(C)), coefficient of variation (CV) and coefficient of error (CE) measured reliability. IGV mean and variance increased with overweight and hypertensive status. Superficial glomeruli were significantly smaller than juxtamedullary glomeruli in all subjects (P IGV mean and variability. Overall, mean IGV was particularly reliable with nine or more sampled glomeruli (R(C) > 0.95, IGV and estimated total glomerular number. Multiple comorbidities for CKD are associated with increased IGV mean and variance within subjects, including overweight, obesity and hypertension. Zonal selection and the number of sampled glomeruli do not represent drawbacks for future longitudinal biopsy-based studies of glomerular size and distribution.

  5. Climatological variability in regional air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.D.; Trexler, E.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted

  6. Case note: HR (zaaknr. 13/04255: interregionaal recht; art. 38 lid 3 Statuut; interregionale bevoegdheid rechter i.g.v. verzoek tot nihilstelling alimentatie; overeenkomstige toepassing IPR-bevoegdheidsrecht; voorrang verdragen en EU-verordeningen in interregionale gevallen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Th.M.

    2014-01-01

    Interregionaal recht; art. 38 lid 3 Statuut; interregionale bevoegdheid rechter i.g.v. verzoek tot nihilstelling alimentatie; overeenkomstige toepassing IPR-bevoegdheidsrecht; voorrang verdragen en EU-verordeningen in interregionale gevallen. Overeenkomstige toepassing Verordening (EG) nr. 4/2009

  7. Efficient Subgroup C Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Virus Receptor Activity Requires the IgV Domain of the Tvc Receptor and Proper Display on the Cell Membrane▿

    OpenAIRE

    Munguia, Audelia; Federspiel, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    We recently identified and cloned the receptor for subgroup C avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses [ASLV(C)], i.e., Tvc, a protein most closely related to mammalian butyrophilins, which are members of the immunoglobulin protein family. The extracellular domain of Tvc contains two immunoglobulin-like domains, IgV and IgC, which presumably each contain a disulfide bond important for native function of the protein. In this study, we have begun to identify the functional determinants of Tvc respons...

  8. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent somatic hypermutation requires a splice isoform of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) protein SRSF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehiro, Yuichi; Todo, Kagefumi; Negishi, Misaki; Fukuoka, Junji; Gan, Wenjian; Hikasa, Takuya; Kaga, Yoshiaki; Takemoto, Masayuki; Magari, Masaki; Li, Xialu; Manley, James L; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Kanayama, Naoki

    2012-01-24

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig variable region (IgV) genes requires both IgV transcription and the enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Identification of a cofactor responsible for the fact that IgV genes are much more sensitive to AID-induced mutagenesis than other genes is a key question in immunology. Here, we describe an essential role for a splice isoform of the prototypical serine/arginine-rich (SR) protein SRSF1, termed SRSF1-3, in AID-induced SHM in a DT40 chicken B-cell line. Unexpectedly, we found that SHM does not occur in a DT40 line lacking SRSF1-3 (DT40-ASF), although it is readily detectable in parental DT40 cells. Strikingly, overexpression of AID in DT40-ASF cells led to a large increase in nonspecific (off-target) mutations. In contrast, introduction of SRSF1-3, but not SRSF1, into these cells specifically restored SHM without increasing off-target mutations. Furthermore, we found that SRSF1-3 binds preferentially to the IgV gene and inhibits processing of the Ig transcript, providing a mechanism by which SRSF1-3 makes the IgV gene available for AID-dependent SHM. SRSF1 not only acts as an essential splicing factor but also regulates diverse aspects of mRNA metabolism and maintains genome stability. Our findings, thus, define an unexpected and important role for SRSF1, particularly for its splice variant, in enabling AID to function specifically on its natural substrate during SHM.

  9. Distribution of volumes of individual glomeruli in kidneys at autopsy: association with physical and clinical characteristics and with ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Hughson, Michael D; Diouf, Boucar; Zimanyi, Monika; Samuel, Terence; McNamara, Bridgette J; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Holden, Libby; Mott, Susan A; Bertram, John F

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated considerable variability in the volumes of different glomeruli in given individuals (individual glomerular volume: IGV) in a stereologic study of kidneys at forensic autopsy performed to investigate sudden or unexpected death in people without manifest kidney disease. We review some important associations of IGV by subject characteristics and by ethnic groups. IGVs were measured by the Cavalieri method in 30 glomeruli in each of 111 adult males who belonged to 4 ethnic groups, i.e. US Whites, African-Americans, Africans from Senegal, and Australian Aborigines. Correlations of pooled IGV values with certain subject characteristics were evaluated in the US Whites. Pooled IGV data were compared in subjects across the 4 ethnic groups. In US Whites, mean IGV and its variance were greater with higher age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight, and with gross obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular death. In comparisons by ethnic group, mean IGV and IGV ranges were higher in African-Americans and Australian Aborigines than in US Whites and African Senegalese subjects. We conclude that glomerular enlargement with volume heterogeneity marks more advanced age, relative nephron deficiency, lower birth weight, obesity, hypertension, and advanced cardiovascular disease. The findings in African-Americans and Australian Aborigines suggest that larger IGVs and volume heterogeneity might mark populations with accentuated susceptibility to hypertension and kidney disease, but the data need to be further examined in the context of the determining characteristics defined in the US Whites. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Effects of short-term variability of meteorological variables on soil temperature in permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christian; Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Brakebusch, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    Effects of the short-term temporal variability of meteorological variables on soil temperature in northern high-latitude regions have been investigated. For this, a process-oriented land surface model has been driven using an artificially manipulated climate dataset. Short-term climate variability mainly impacts snow depth, and the thermal diffusivity of lichens and bryophytes. These impacts of climate variability on insulating surface layers together substantially alter the heat exchange between atmosphere and soil. As a result, soil temperature is 0.1 to 0.8 °C higher when climate variability is reduced. Earth system models project warming of the Arctic region but also increasing variability of meteorological variables and more often extreme meteorological events. Therefore, our results show that projected future increases in permafrost temperature and active-layer thickness in response to climate change will be lower (i) when taking into account future changes in short-term variability of meteorological variables and (ii) when representing dynamic snow and lichen and bryophyte functions in land surface models.

  11. Regional simulation of interannual variability over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Kirtman, B. P.; Juang, H.-M. Henry; Kanamitsu, M.

    2002-08-01

    Three regional climate simulations covering the austral summer season during three contrasting phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle were conducted with the Regional Spectral Model (RSM) developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The simulated interannual variability of precipitation over the Amazon River Basin, the Intertropical Convergence Zone, the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins, and extratropical South America compare reasonably well with observations. The RSM optimally filters the peturbations about a time-varying base field, thereby enhancing the information content of the global NCEP reanalysis. The model is better than the reanalysis in reproducing the observed interannual variability of outgoing longwave radiation at both high frequencies (3-30 days) and intraseasonal (30-60 days) scales. The low-level jet shows a peak in its speed in 1998 and a minimum in the 1999 simulations. The lag correlation of the jet index with convection over various areas in continental South America indicates that the jet induces precipitation over the Pampas region downstream. A detailed moisture budget was conducted over various subregions. This budget reveals that moisture flux convergence determines most of the interannual variability of precipitation over the Amazon Basin, the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the Nordeste region of Brazil. However, both surface evaporation and surface moisture flux convergence were found to be critical in determining the interannual variability of precipitation over the southern Pampas, Gran Chaco area, and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone.

  12. Defect in IgV gene somatic hypermutation in common variable immuno-deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Y; Gupta, N; Le Deist, F; Garcia, C; Fischer, A; Weill, J C; Reynaud, C A

    1998-10-27

    Common Variable Immuno-Deficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic primary antibody-deficiency syndrome, but the basic immunologic defects underlying this syndrome are not well defined. We report here that among eight patients studied (six CVID and two hypogammaglobulinemic patients with recurrent infections), there is in two CVID patients a dramatic reduction in Ig V gene somatic hypermutation with 40-75% of IgG transcripts totally devoid of mutations in the circulating memory B cell compartment. Functional assays of the T cell compartment point to an intrinsic B cell defect in the process of antibody affinity maturation in these two cases.

  13. Mutation Pattern of Paired Immunoglobulin Heavy and Light Variable Domains in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiotto, Fabio; Marcatili, Paolo; Tenca, Claudya; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Albesiano, Emilia; Bagnara, Davide; Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Chu, Charles C; Morabito, Fortunato; Bruno, Silvia; Ferrarini, Manlio; Tramontano, Anna; Fais, Franco; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV–diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation analysis. Replacement (R) mutation frequency within IGK/LV chain CDRs correlated significantly with mutation frequency of paired IGHV CDRs in λ but not κ isotype CLL clones. CDRs of IGKV-J rearrangements displayed a lower percentage of R mutations than IGHVs. The frequency/pattern of mutations in kappa CLL Igs differed also from that in κ-expressing normal B cells described in the literature. Instead, the mutation frequency within the FRs of IGHV and either IGKV or IGLV was correlated. Notably, the amount of diversity introduced by replaced amino acids was comparable between IGHVs and IGKVs. The data indicate a different mutation pattern between κ and λ isotype CLL clones and suggest an antigenic selection that, in κ samples, operates against CDR variation. PMID:21785810

  14. Mutation Pattern of Paired Immunoglobulin Heavy and Light Variable Domains in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ghiotto, Fabio; Marcatili, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV-diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥ 2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation analysis. Replacement (R) mutation frequency within IGK/LV chain CDRs correlated significantly with mutation frequency of paired IGHV CDRs in λ but not κ isotype CLL clones. CDRs of IGKV-J rearrangements displayed a lower percentage of R mutations than IGHVs. The frequency/pattern of mutations in kappa CLL Igs differed also from that in κ-expressing normal B cells described in the literature. Instead, the mutation frequency within the FRs of IGHV and either IGKV or IGLV was correlated. Notably, the amount of diversity introduced by replaced amino acids was comparable between IGHVs and IGKVs. The data indicate a different mutation pattern between κ and λ isotype CLL clones and suggest an antigenic selection that, in κ samples, operates against CDR variation.

  15. Somatic hypermutation and antigen-driven selection of B cells are altered in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Neta S; Hazanov, Helena; Barak, Michal; Edelman, Hanna; Hess, Shira; Shcolnik, Hadas; Dunn-Walters, Deborah; Mehr, Ramit

    2010-12-01

    B cells have been found to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune (AI) diseases. A common feature amongst many AI diseases is the formation of ectopic germinal centers (GC) within the afflicted tissue or organ, in which activated B cells expand and undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) and antigen-driven selection on their immunoglobulin variable region (IgV) genes. However, it is not yet clear whether these processes occurring in ectopic GCs are identical to those in normal GCs. The analysis of IgV mutations has aided in revealing many aspects concerning B cell expansion, mutation and selection in GC reactions. We have applied several mutation analysis methods, based on lineage tree construction, to a large set of data, containing IgV productive and non-productive heavy and light chain sequences from several different tissues, to examine three of the most profoundly studied AI diseases - Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Sjögren's Syndrome (SS). We have found that RA and MS sequences exhibited normal mutation spectra and targeting motifs, but a stricter selection compared to normal controls, which was more apparent in RA. SS sequence analysis results deviated from normal controls in both mutation spectra and indications of selection, also showing differences between light and heavy chain IgV and between different tissues. The differences revealed between AI diseases and normal control mutation patterns may result from the different microenvironmental influences to which ectopic GCs are exposed, relative to those in normal secondary lymphoid tissues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coral bleaching pathways under the control of regional temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, C. E.; Lenton, A.; Heron, S. F.; Evenhuis, C.; Sen Gupta, A.; Brown, J. N.; Kuchinke, M.

    2017-11-01

    Increasing sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are predicted to adversely impact coral populations worldwide through increasing thermal bleaching events. Future bleaching is unlikely to be spatially uniform. Therefore, understanding what determines regional differences will be critical for adaptation management. Here, using a cumulative heat stress metric, we show that characteristics of regional SST determine the future bleaching risk patterns. Incorporating observed information on SST variability, in assessing future bleaching risk, provides novel options for management strategies. As a consequence, the known biases in climate model variability and the uncertainties in regional warming rate across climate models are less detrimental than previously thought. We also show that the thresholds used to indicate reef viability can strongly influence a decision on what constitutes a potential refugia. Observing and understanding the drivers of regional variability, and the viability limits of coral reefs, is therefore critical for making meaningful projections of coral bleaching risk.

  17. Measure of uncertainty in regional grade variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutmez, B.; Kaymak, U.; Melin, P.; Castillo, O.; Gomez Ramirez, E.; Kacprzyk, J.; Pedrycz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Because the geological events are neither homogeneous nor isotropic, the geological investigations are characterized by particularly high uncertainties. This paper presents a hybrid methodology for measuring of uncertainty in regional grade variability. In order to evaluate the fuzziness in grade

  18. Recombinant human B7.2 IgV-like domain expressed in bacteria maintains its co-stimulatory activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaocai; Ma, Jun; Zheng, Jin; Lai, Baochang; Geng, Yiping; Wang, Yili; Si, Lüsheng

    2002-07-01

    To investigate which of the two immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, the immunoglobulin variable region homologous domain IgV (hB7.2 IgV) and the immunoglobulin constant region homologous domain IgC (hB7.2 IgC) on the human B7.2 molecule contains receptor binding sites, and to evaluate whether the B7.2 protein expressed in bacteria has biological activity in vitro. Three fragments of hB7.2 IgV,hB7.2 IgC and the complete extracellular region of human B7.2 containing both the IgV and IgC domains,hB7.2 Ig (V+C), were amplified by PCR and subcloned into pGEM-Teasy. Three recombinants,pGEX-4T-3-hB7.2 IgV,pGEX-4T-3-hB7.2 IgC and pGEX-4T-3-hB7.2 Ig (V+C), were generated by cloning the fragments into a prokaryote expression plasmid (pGEX-4T-3) and transformed into the host strain E. coli DH5alpha. The relevant target fusion proteins consisting of GST and hB7.2 IgV,hB7.2 IgC and hB7.2 Ig (V+C), were identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. With the presence of the first signal imitated by anti-CD3 antibody, T cell activation was observed by exposing purified T lymphocytes to each soluble form of the three bacterially-produced human B7.2 fusion proteins by [(3)H]-TdR incorporation. Three recombinant fusion proteins of human B7.2, GST-hB7.2 IgV, GST-hB7.2 IgC and GST-hB7.2 Ig (V+C) were produced and detected in inclusion body form from engineered bacteria. With the first signal present,T lymphocytes proliferated when co-stimulated by bacterially-produced either GST-hB7.2 Ig (V+C) or GST-hB7.2 IgV fusion proteins, but not by GST-hB7.2 IgC. Functional human B7.2 fusion protein can be produced in bacteria. The IgV-like domain of human B7.2 is sufficient for B7.2 to interact with its counter-receptors and co-stimulate T lymphocytes.

  19. Independent variable complexity for regional regression of the flow duration curve in ungauged basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Geoffrey; Skupin, André; Hope, Allen

    2016-04-01

    The flow duration curve (FDC) is one of the most widely used tools to quantify streamflow. Its percentile flows are often required for water resource applications, but these values must be predicted for ungauged basins with insufficient or no streamflow data. Regional regression is a commonly used approach for predicting percentile flows that involves identifying hydrologic regions and calibrating regression models to each region. The independent variables used to describe the physiographic and climatic setting of the basins are a critical component of regional regression, yet few studies have investigated their effect on resulting predictions. In this study, the complexity of the independent variables needed for regional regression is investigated. Different levels of variable complexity are applied for a regional regression consisting of 918 basins in the US. Both the hydrologic regions and regression models are determined according to the different sets of variables, and the accuracy of resulting predictions is assessed. The different sets of variables include (1) a simple set of three variables strongly tied to the FDC (mean annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and baseflow index), (2) a traditional set of variables describing the average physiographic and climatic conditions of the basins, and (3) a more complex set of variables extending the traditional variables to include statistics describing the distribution of physiographic data and temporal components of climatic data. The latter set of variables is not typically used in regional regression, and is evaluated for its potential to predict percentile flows. The simplest set of only three variables performed similarly to the other more complex sets of variables. Traditional variables used to describe climate, topography, and soil offered little more to the predictions, and the experimental set of variables describing the distribution of basin data in more detail did not improve predictions

  20. Overlapping hotspots in CDRs are critical sites for V region diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lirong; Chahwan, Richard; Wang, Shanzhi; Wang, Xiaohua; Pham, Phuong T; Goodman, Myron F; Bergman, Aviv; Scharff, Matthew D; MacCarthy, Thomas

    2015-02-17

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) mediates the somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig variable (V) regions that is required for the affinity maturation of the antibody response. An intensive analysis of a published database of somatic hypermutations that arose in the IGHV3-23*01 human V region expressed in vivo by human memory B cells revealed that the focus of mutations in complementary determining region (CDR)1 and CDR2 coincided with a combination of overlapping AGCT hotspots, the absence of AID cold spots, and an abundance of polymerase eta hotspots. If the overlapping hotspots in the CDR1 or CDR2 did not undergo mutation, the frequency of mutations throughout the V region was reduced. To model this result, we examined the mutation of the human IGHV3-23*01 biochemically and in the endogenous heavy chain locus of Ramos B cells. Deep sequencing revealed that IGHV3-23*01 in Ramos cells accumulates AID-induced mutations primarily in the AGCT in CDR2, which was also the most frequent site of mutation in vivo. Replacing the overlapping hotspots in CDR1 and CDR2 with neutral or cold motifs resulted in a reduction in mutations within the modified motifs and, to some degree, throughout the V region. In addition, some of the overlapping hotspots in the CDRs were at sites in which replacement mutations could change the structure of the CDR loops. Our analysis suggests that the local sequence environment of the V region, and especially of the CDR1 and CDR2, is highly evolved to recruit mutations to key residues in the CDRs of the IgV region.

  1. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Wittenberg, A.

    2009-08-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly sensitive to the concentration and distribution of ocean chlorophyll. Setting the near-oligotrophic regions to contain optically pure water warms the mean state and suppresses variability in the western tropical Pacific. Doing the same above the shadow zones of the tropical Pacific also warms the mean state but enhances the variability. It is shown that increasing penetration can both deepen the pycnocline (which tends to damp El Niño) while shifting the mean circulation so that the wind response to temperature changes is altered. Depending on what region is involved this change in the wind stress can either strengthen or weaken ENSO variability.

  2. Computed tomography assessment of intestinal gas volumes in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Williams, Sebastian R; Mc Laughlin, Patrick D; O'Connor, Owen J; Desmond, Alan N; Ní Laoíre, Aine; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn Mm; Maher, Michael M

    2012-10-01

    Many patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) rank sensations of bloating and distension among their most debilitating symptoms. Previous studies that have examined intestinal gas volume (IGV) in patients with FGIDs have employed a variety of invasive and imaging techniques. These studies are limited by small numbers and have shown conflicting results. The aim of our study was to estimate, using CT of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP), IGV in patients attending FGID clinic and to compare IGV in patients with and without FGID. All CTAP (n = 312) performed on patients (n = 207) attending a specialized FGID clinic over 10-year period were included in this study. Patients were classified into one of 3 groups according to the established clinical grading system, as organic gastrointestinal disorder (OGID, ie, patients with an organic non-functional disorder, n = 84), FGID (n = 36) or organic and functional gastrointestinal disorder (OFGID, ie, patients with an organic and a functional disorder, n = 87). Two independent readers blinded to the diagnostic group calculated IGV using threshold based 3D region growing with OsiriX. Median IGVs for the FGID, OGID, and OFGID groups were 197.6, 220.6 and 155.0 mL, respectively. Stepwise linear regression revealed age at study, gender, and calculated body mass index to predict the log IGV with an r(2) of 0.116, and P IGV in OGID (Spearman's = 0.253, P = 0.02) but this correlation was non-significant in the other groups. Although bloating is a classic symptom in FGID patients, IGV may not be increased compared with OGID and OFGID patients.

  3. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Anderson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly sensitive to the concentration and distribution of ocean chlorophyll. Setting the near-oligotrophic regions to contain optically pure water warms the mean state and suppresses variability in the western tropical Pacific. Doing the same above the shadow zones of the tropical Pacific also warms the mean state but enhances the variability. It is shown that increasing penetration can both deepen the pycnocline (which tends to damp El Niño while shifting the mean circulation so that the wind response to temperature changes is altered. Depending on what region is involved this change in the wind stress can either strengthen or weaken ENSO variability.

  4. Internal variability in a regional climate model over West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanvyve, Emilie; Ypersele, Jean-Pascal van [Universite catholique de Louvain, Institut d' astronomie et de geophysique Georges Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hall, Nicholas [Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiales/Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Messager, Christophe [University of Leeds, Institute for Atmospheric Science, Environment, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds (United Kingdom); Leroux, Stephanie [Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, BP53, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-02-15

    Sensitivity studies with regional climate models are often performed on the basis of a few simulations for which the difference is analysed and the statistical significance is often taken for granted. In this study we present some simple measures of the confidence limits for these types of experiments by analysing the internal variability of a regional climate model run over West Africa. Two 1-year long simulations, differing only in their initial conditions, are compared. The difference between the two runs gives a measure of the internal variability of the model and an indication of which timescales are reliable for analysis. The results are analysed for a range of timescales and spatial scales, and quantitative measures of the confidence limits for regional model simulations are diagnosed for a selection of study areas for rainfall, low level temperature and wind. As the averaging period or spatial scale is increased, the signal due to internal variability gets smaller and confidence in the simulations increases. This occurs more rapidly for variations in precipitation, which appear essentially random, than for dynamical variables, which show some organisation on larger scales. (orig.)

  5. Automatic efficiency optimization of an axial compressor with adjustable inlet guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jichao; Lin, Feng; Nie, Chaoqun; Chen, Jingyi

    2012-04-01

    The inlet attack angle of rotor blade reasonably can be adjusted with the change of the stagger angle of inlet guide vane (IGV); so the efficiency of each condition will be affected. For the purpose to improve the efficiency, the DSP (Digital Signal Processor) controller is designed to adjust the stagger angle of IGV automatically in order to optimize the efficiency at any operating condition. The A/D signal collection includes inlet static pressure, outlet static pressure, outlet total pressure, rotor speed and torque signal, the efficiency can be calculated in the DSP, and the angle signal for the stepping motor which control the IGV will be sent out from the D/A. Experimental investigations are performed in a three-stage, low-speed axial compressor with variable inlet guide vanes. It is demonstrated that the DSP designed can well adjust the stagger angle of IGV online, the efficiency under different conditions can be optimized. This establishment of DSP online adjustment scheme may provide a practical solution for improving performance of multi-stage axial flow compressor when its operating condition is varied.

  6. Evolutionary and polymorphism analyses reveal the central role of BTN3A2 in the concerted evolution of the BTN3 gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrache, Hassnae; Pontarotti, Pierre; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Olive, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    The butyrophilin 3 (BTN3) receptors are implicated in the T lymphocytes regulation and present a wide plasticity in mammals. In order to understand how these genes have been diversified, we studied their evolution and show that the three human BTN3 are the result of two successive duplications in Primates and that the three genes are present in Hominoids and the Old World Monkey groups. A thorough phylogenetic analysis reveals a concerted evolution of BTN3 characterized by a strong and recurrent homogenization of the region encoding the signal peptide and the immunoglobulin variable (IgV) domain in Hominoids, where the sequences of BTN3A1 or BTN3A3 are replaced by BTN3A2 sequence. In human, the analysis of the diversity of these genes in 1683 individuals representing 26 worldwide populations shows that the three genes are polymorphic, with more than 46 alleles for each gene, and marked by extreme homogenization of the IgV sequences. The same analysis performed for the BTN2 genes shows also a concerted evolution; however, it is not as strong and recurrent as for BTN3. This study shows that BTN3 receptors are marked by extreme concerted evolution at the IgV domain and that BTN3A2 plays a central role in this evolution.

  7. Strong influence of variable treatment on the performance of numerically defined ecological regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelder, Ton; Lehmann, Anthony; Lamouroux, Nicolas; Leathwick, John; Allenbach, Karin

    2009-10-01

    Numerical clustering has frequently been used to define hierarchically organized ecological regionalizations, but there has been little robust evaluation of their performance (i.e., the degree to which regions discriminate areas with similar ecological character). In this study we investigated the effect of the weighting and treatment of input variables on the performance of regionalizations defined by agglomerative clustering across a range of hierarchical levels. For this purpose, we developed three ecological regionalizations of Switzerland of increasing complexity using agglomerative clustering. Environmental data for our analysis were drawn from a 400 m grid and consisted of estimates of 11 environmental variables for each grid cell describing climate, topography and lithology. Regionalization 1 was defined from the environmental variables which were given equal weights. We used the same variables in Regionalization 2 but weighted and transformed them on the basis of a dissimilarity model that was fitted to land cover composition data derived for a random sample of cells from interpretation of aerial photographs. Regionalization 3 was a further two-stage development of Regionalization 2 where specific classifications, also weighted and transformed using dissimilarity models, were applied to 25 small scale "sub-domains" defined by Regionalization 2. Performance was assessed in terms of the discrimination of land cover composition for an independent set of sites using classification strength (CS), which measured the similarity of land cover composition within classes and the dissimilarity between classes. Regionalization 2 performed significantly better than Regionalization 1, but the largest gains in performance, compared to Regionalization 1, occurred at coarse hierarchical levels (i.e., CS did not increase significantly beyond the 25-region level). Regionalization 3 performed better than Regionalization 2 beyond the 25-region level and CS values continued to

  8. Investigation of the Unsteady Total Pressure Profile Corresponding to Counter-Rotating Vortices in an Internal Flow Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kathryn; Morris, Scott; Jemcov, Aleksandar; Cameron, Joshua

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of components in a compressible, internal flow often results in unsteady interactions between the wakes and moving blades. A prime example in which this flow feature is of interest is the interaction between the downstream rotor blades in a transonic axial compressor with the wake vortices shed from the upstream inlet guide vane (IGV). Previous work shows that a double row of counter-rotating vortices convects downstream into the rotor passage as a result of the rotor blade bow shock impinging on the IGV. The rotor-relative time-mean total pressure distribution has a region of high total pressure corresponding to the pathline of the vortices. The present work focuses on the relationship between the magnitude of the time-mean rotor-relative total pressure profile and the axial spacing between the IGV and the rotor. A survey of different axial gap sizes is performed in a two-dimensional computational study to obtain the sensitivity of the pressure profile amplitude to IGV-rotor axial spacing.

  9. Intraregional and inter-regional variability of herbicide sensitivity in common arable weed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mol, Friederike; Gerowitt, Bärbel; Kaczmarek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The question on intraregional versus inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for weed populations is of major importance, both in extrapolation of model parameters and in herbicide zonal approval procedures. We hypothesised that inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for ...

  10. The discrete and localized nature of the variable emission from active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Martina Belz; Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Karovska, Margarita

    1994-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Spectroheliometer on Skylab, we study the empirical characteristics of the variable emission in active regions. These simultaneous multi-wavelength observations clearly confirm that active regions consist of a complex of loops at different temperatures. The variable emission from this complex has very well-defined properties that can be quantitatively summarized as follows: (1) It is localized predominantly around the footpoints where it occurs at discrete locations. (2) The strongest variability does not necessarily coincide with the most intense emission. (3) The fraction of the area of the footpoints, (delta n)/N, that exhibits variable emission, varies by +/- 15% as a function of time, at any of the wavelengths measured. It also varies very little from footpoint to footpoint. (4) This fractional variation is temperature dependent with a maximum around 10(exp 5) K. (5) The ratio of the intensity of the variable to the average background emission, (delta I)/(bar-I), also changes with temperature. In addition, we find that these distinctive characteristics persist even when flares occur within the active region.

  11. High-resolution regional climate model evaluation using variable-resolution CESM over California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Rhoades, A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Zarzycki, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the effect of climate change at regional scales remains a topic of intensive research. Though computational constraints remain a problem, high horizontal resolution is needed to represent topographic forcing, which is a significant driver of local climate variability. Although regional climate models (RCMs) have traditionally been used at these scales, variable-resolution global climate models (VRGCMs) have recently arisen as an alternative for studying regional weather and climate allowing two-way interaction between these domains without the need for nudging. In this study, the recently developed variable-resolution option within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is assessed for long-term regional climate modeling over California. Our variable-resolution simulations will focus on relatively high resolutions for climate assessment, namely 28km and 14km regional resolution, which are much more typical for dynamically downscaled studies. For comparison with the more widely used RCM method, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model will be used for simulations at 27km and 9km. All simulations use the AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) protocols. The time period is from 1979-01-01 to 2005-12-31 (UTC), and year 1979 was discarded as spin up time. The mean climatology across California's diverse climate zones, including temperature and precipitation, is analyzed and contrasted with the Weather Research and Forcasting (WRF) model (as a traditional RCM), regional reanalysis, gridded observational datasets and uniform high-resolution CESM at 0.25 degree with the finite volume (FV) dynamical core. The results show that variable-resolution CESM is competitive in representing regional climatology on both annual and seasonal time scales. This assessment adds value to the use of VRGCMs for projecting climate change over the coming century and improve our understanding of both past and future regional climate related to fine

  12. Impact of region contouring variability on image-based focal therapy evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Eli; Donaldson, Ian A.; Shah, Taimur T.; Hu, Yipeng; Ahmed, Hashim U.; Barratt, Dean C.

    2016-03-01

    Motivation: Focal therapy is an emerging low-morbidity treatment option for low-intermediate risk prostate cancer; however, challenges remain in accurately delivering treatment to specified targets and determining treatment success. Registered multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MPMRI) acquired before and after treatment can support focal therapy evaluation and optimization; however, contouring variability, when defining the prostate, the clinical target volume (CTV) and the ablation region in images, reduces the precision of quantitative image-based focal therapy evaluation metrics. To inform the interpretation and clarify the limitations of such metrics, we investigated inter-observer contouring variability and its impact on four metrics. Methods: Pre-therapy and 2-week-post-therapy standard-of-care MPMRI were acquired from 5 focal cryotherapy patients. Two clinicians independently contoured, on each slice, the prostate (pre- and post-treatment) and the dominant index lesion CTV (pre-treatment) in the T2-weighted MRI, and the ablated region (post-treatment) in the dynamic-contrast- enhanced MRI. For each combination of clinician contours, post-treatment images were registered to pre-treatment images using a 3D biomechanical-model-based registration of prostate surfaces, and four metrics were computed: the proportion of the target tissue region that was ablated and the target:ablated region volume ratio for each of two targets (the CTV and an expanded planning target volume). Variance components analysis was used to measure the contribution of each type of contour to the variance in the therapy evaluation metrics. Conclusions: 14-23% of evaluation metric variance was attributable to contouring variability (including 6-12% from ablation region contouring); reducing this variability could improve the precision of focal therapy evaluation metrics.

  13. Development of a localized probabilistic sensitivity method to determine random variable regional importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millwater, Harry; Singh, Gulshan; Cortina, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    There are many methods to identify the important variable out of a set of random variables, i.e., “inter-variable” importance; however, to date there are no comparable methods to identify the “region” of importance within a random variable, i.e., “intra-variable” importance. Knowledge of the critical region of an input random variable (tail, near-tail, and central region) can provide valuable information towards characterizing, understanding, and improving a model through additional modeling or testing. As a result, an intra-variable probabilistic sensitivity method was developed and demonstrated for independent random variables that computes the partial derivative of a probabilistic response with respect to a localized perturbation in the CDF values of each random variable. These sensitivities are then normalized in absolute value with respect to the largest sensitivity within a distribution to indicate the region of importance. The methodology is implemented using the Score Function kernel-based method such that existing samples can be used to compute sensitivities for negligible cost. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy of the method through comparisons with finite difference and numerical integration quadrature estimates. - Highlights: ► Probabilistic sensitivity methodology. ► Determines the “region” of importance within random variables such as left tail, near tail, center, right tail, etc. ► Uses the Score Function approach to reuse the samples, hence, negligible cost. ► No restrictions on the random variable types or limit states.

  14. Integrated Variable Speed Limits Control and Ramp Metering for Bottleneck Regions on Freeway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hui Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of the existing freeway system and therefore to mitigate traffic congestion and related problems on the freeway mainline lane-drop bottleneck region, the advanced strategy for bottleneck control is essential. This paper proposes a method that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering for freeway bottleneck region control to relieve the chaos in bottleneck region. To this end, based on the analyses of spatial-temporal patterns of traffic flow, a macroscopic traffic flow model is extended to describe the traffic flow operating characteristic by considering the impacts of variable speed limits in mainstream bottleneck region. In addition, to achieve the goal of balancing the priority of the vehicles on mainline and on-ramp, increasing capacity, and reducing travel delay on bottleneck region, an improved control model, as well as an advanced control strategy that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering, is developed. The proposed method is tested in simulation for a real freeway infrastructure feed and calibrates real traffic variables. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can substantially improve the traffic flow efficiency of mainline and on-ramp and enhance the quality of traffic flow at the investigated freeway mainline bottleneck.

  15. Associations between age, body size and nephron number with individual glomerular volumes in urban West African males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Diouf, Boucar; Hughson, Michael D; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2009-05-01

    Glomerulomegaly has been associated with an increased risk of renal disease. Few reports have investigated the heterogeneity of glomerular size within kidneys and associated risk factors. This study measured the individual glomerular volume (IGV) of 720 non-sclerotic glomeruli in kidneys of adult West African males, and investigated associations of IGV with age, total glomerular (nephron) number and body surface area (BSA). IGVs were determined in the kidneys of 24 Senegalese males from two age groups (12 subjects aged 20- 30 years and 12 subjects aged 50-70 years). Subjects were randomly chosen at autopsies performed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Volumes of 30 glomeruli per subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri stereological method. IGVs ranged from 1.31 x 10(6) microm3 to 12.40 x 10(6) microm3 (a 9.4-fold variation). IGV varied up to 5.3-fold within single kidneys. The trimmed range of IGV within subjects (10th to 90th percentile of IGV) was directly correlated with median glomerular size. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of IGV did not differ significantly between age groups or between subjects with higher (> or =1.78 m2) and lower BSA (IGV was significantly and directly correlated with BSA. Kidneys with less than 1 million nephrons had significantly larger mean IGV than kidneys with more than 1 million nephrons, and the trimmed range of IGVs within subjects was inversely correlated with total glomerular number. There was a considerable variation in IGV within kidneys of Senegalese males at autopsy. The heterogeneity of IGV was increased in association with low nephron number and increased BSA, with more pronounced effects in older subjects.

  16. Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Mukund; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Ramachandran, S; Rajesh, T A

    2013-03-01

    This study characterizes over 5 years of high time resolution (5 min), airborne black carbon (BC) concentrations (July 2003 to December 2008) measured over Ahmedabad, an urban region in western India. The data were used to obtain different time averages of BC concentrations, and these averages were then used to assess the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variability of BC over the study region. Assessment of diurnal variations revealed a strong association between BC concentrations and vehicular traffic. Peaks in BC concentration were co-incident with the morning (0730 to 0830, LST) and late evening (1930 to 2030, LST) rush hour traffic. Additionally, diurnal variability in BC concentrations during major festivals (Diwali and Dushera during the months of October/November) revealed an increase in BC concentrations due to fireworks displays. Maximum half hourly BC concentrations during the festival days were as high as 79.8 μg m(-3). However, the high concentrations rapidly decayed suggesting that local meteorology during the festive season was favorable for aerosol dispersion. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model with BC as the dependent variable and meteorological parameters as independent variables was fitted. The variability in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction accounted for about 49% of the variability in measured BC concentrations. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was used to identify the geographical location of local source regions contributing to the effective BC measured (at 880 nm) at the receptor site. The east north-east (ENE) direction to the receptor was identified as a major source region. National highway (NH8) and two coal-fired thermal power stations (at Gandhinagar and Sabarmati) were located in the identified direction, suggesting that local traffic and power plant emissions were likely contributors to the measured BC.

  17. Regional frameworks applied to hydrology: can landscape-based frameworks capture the hydrologic variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McManamay; D. Orth; C. Dolloff; E. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Regional frameworks have been used extensively in recent years to aid in broad-scale management. Widely used landscape-based regional frameworks, such as hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) and physiographic provinces, may provide predictive tools of hydrologic variability. However, hydrologic-based regional frameworks, created using only streamflow data, are also...

  18. Assessment of regional air pollution variability in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Z.; Oztopal, A.

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution concentrations have temporal and spatial variations depending on the prevailing weather conditions, topographic features, city building heights and locations. When the measurements of air pollutants are available at set measurement sites, the regional variability degree of air pollutants is quantified using the point cumulative semi-variogram (PCSV). This technique provides a systematic method for calculating the changes in the concentrations of air pollutants with distance from a specific site. Regional variations of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and total suspended particulate (TSP) matter concentrations in Istanbul city were evaluated using the PCSV concept. The data were available from 16 different air pollution measurement stations scattered all over the city for a period from 1988 to 1994. Monthly regional variation maps were drawn in and around the city at different radii of influence. These maps provide a reference for measuring future changes of air pollution in the city. (author)

  19. Characterizing CDOM Spectral Variability Across Diverse Regions and Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Brice K.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has focused on CDOM absorption (aCDOM) at a reference wavelength, as its magnitude provides insight into the underwater light field and large-scale biogeochemical processes. CDOM spectral slope, SCDOM, has been treated as a constant or semiconstant parameter in satellite retrievals of aCDOM despite significant regional and temporal variabilities. SCDOM and other optical metrics provide insights into CDOM composition, processing, food web dynamics, and carbon cycling. To date, much of this work relies on fluorescence techniques or aCDOM in spectral ranges unavailable to current and planned satellite sensors (e.g., global variability in SCDOM and fit deviations in the aCDOM spectra using the recently proposed Gaussian decomposition method. From this, we investigate if global variability in retrieved SCDOM and Gaussian components is significant and regionally distinct. We iteratively decreased the spectral range considered and analyzed the number, location, and magnitude of fitted Gaussian components to understand if a reduced spectral range impacts information obtained within a common spectral window. We compared the fitted slope from the Gaussian decomposition method to absorption-based indices that indicate CDOM composition to determine the ability of satellite-derived slope to inform the analysis and modeling of large-scale biogeochemical processes. Finally, we present implications of the observed variability for remote sensing of CDOM characteristics via SCDOM.

  20. Smart actuation of inlet guide vanes for small turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusovici, Razvan; Kwok Choon, Stephen T.; Sepri, Paavo; Feys, Joshuo

    2011-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have gained popularity over the past few years to become an indispensable part of aerial missions that include reconnaissance, surveillance, and communication [1]. As a result, advancements in small jet-engine performance are needed to increase the performance (range, payload and efficiency) of the UAV. These jet engines designed especially for UAV's are characterized by thrust force on the order of 100N and due to their size and weight limitations, may lack advanced flow control devices such as IGV [2]. The goal of the current study was to present a conceptual design of an IGV smart-material based actuation mechanism that would be simple, compact and lightweight. The compressor section of an engine increases the pressure and conditions the flow before the air enters the combustion chamber [3]. The airflow entering the compressor is often turbulent due to the high angle of incidence between engine inlet and free-stream velocity, or existing atmospheric turbulence. Actuated IGV are used to help control the relative angle of incidence of the flow that enters the engine compressor, thereby preventing flow separation, compressor stall and thus extending the compressor's operating envelope [4]. Turbine jet- engines which employ variable IGV were developed by Rolls Royce (Trent DR-900) and General Electric (J79).

  1. CD80 and CD86 IgC domains are important for quaternary structure, receptor binding and co-signaling function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Tanya; Gaucher, Denis; El-Far, Mohamed; Breton, Gaëlle; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre

    2014-09-01

    CD86 and CD80, the ligands for the co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and CTLA-4, are members of the Ig superfamily. Their structure includes Ig variable-like (IgV) domains, Ig constant-like (IgC) domains and intracellular domains. Although crystallographic studies have clearly identified the IgV domain to be responsible for receptor interactions, earlier studies suggested that both Ig domains are required for full co-signaling function. Herein, we have used deletion and chimeric human CD80 and CD86 molecules in co-stimulation assays to study the impact of the multimeric state of IgV and IgC domains on receptor binding properties and on co-stimulatory function in a peptide-specific T cell activation model. We report for the first time the presence of CD80 dimers and CD86 monomers in living cells. Moreover, we show that the IgC domain of both molecules inhibits multimer formation and greatly affects binding to the co-receptors CD28 and CTLA-4. Finally, both IgC and intracellular domains are required for full co-signaling function. These findings reveal the distinct but complementary roles of CD80 and CD86 IgV and IgC domains in T cell activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Variable-Resolution Meshes on Regional Climate Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, L. D.; Skamarock, W. C.; Bruyere, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is currently being used for seasonal-scale simulations on globally-uniform and regionally-refined meshes. Our ongoing research aims at analyzing simulations of tropical convective activity and tropical cyclone development during one hurricane season over the North Atlantic Ocean, contrasting statistics obtained with a variable-resolution mesh against those obtained with a quasi-uniform mesh. Analyses focus on the spatial distribution, frequency, and intensity of convective and grid-scale precipitations, and their relative contributions to the total precipitation as a function of the horizontal scale. Multi-month simulations initialized on May 1st 2005 using ERA-Interim re-analyses indicate that MPAS performs satisfactorily as a regional climate model for different combinations of horizontal resolutions and transitions between the coarse and refined meshes. Results highlight seamless transitions for convection, cloud microphysics, radiation, and land-surface processes between the quasi-uniform and locally- refined meshes, despite the fact that the physics parameterizations were not developed for variable resolution meshes. Our goal of analyzing the performance of MPAS is twofold. First, we want to establish that MPAS can be successfully used as a regional climate model, bypassing the need for nesting and nudging techniques at the edges of the computational domain as done in traditional regional climate modeling. Second, we want to assess the performance of our convective and cloud microphysics parameterizations as the horizontal resolution varies between the lower-resolution quasi-uniform and higher-resolution locally-refined areas of the global domain.

  3. Indocyanine green videoangiography "in negative": definition and usefulness in intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simal Julián, Juan Antonio; Miranda Lloret, Pablo; Aparici Robles, Fernando; Beltrán Giner, Andrés; Botella Asunción, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Indocyanine green videoangiography (IGV) raises important limitations when we use it in vascular pathology, especially in cases with arterialization of the venous system such as arteriovenous malformations and fistulae. Our objective was to provide a simple procedure that overcomes the limitations of conventional IGV. We define IGV in negative (IGV-IN), so-called because, in its first phase, the vessel to analyze is clipped, and we report 3 cases of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae treated with this procedure. In 2011, we applied IGV-IN to 3 patients at our center with Borden type III intracranial arteriovenous fistulae. In all 3 cases, IGV-IN enabled both diagnosis and post-dural arteriovenous fistula exclusion control in 1 integrated procedure no longer than 1 minute, requiring only 1 visualization. IGV-IN is an improvement over the conventional IGV method and is able to provide more information in a shorter period of time. It is an intuitive and highly visual procedure, and, more importantly, it is reversible. Studies with larger samples are necessary to determine whether IGV-IN can further reduce the need for postoperative digital subtraction angiography.

  4. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    ANUFRIIEVA, Elena V.; SHADRIN, Nickolai V.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some o...

  5. An observational and modeling study of the regional impacts of climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Radley M.

    Climate variability has large impacts on humans and their agricultural systems. Farmers are at the center of this agricultural network, but it is often agricultural planners---regional planners, extension agents, commodity groups and cooperatives---that translate climate information for users. Global climate models (GCMs) are a leading tool for understanding and predicting climate and climate change. Armed with climate projections and forecasts, agricultural planners adapt their decision-making to optimize outcomes. This thesis explores what GCMs can, and cannot, tell us about climate variability and change at regional scales. The question is important, since high-quality regional climate projections could assist farmers and regional planners in key management decisions, contributing to better agricultural outcomes. To answer these questions, climate variability and its regional impacts are explored in observations and models for the current and future climate. The goals are to identify impacts of observed variability, assess model simulation of variability, and explore how climate variability and its impacts may change under enhanced greenhouse warming. Chapter One explores how well Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) atmospheric models, forced by historical sea surface temperatures (SST), simulate climatology and large-scale features during the exceptionally strong 1997--1999 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. Reasonable performance in this 'proof of concept' test is considered a minimum requirement for further study of variability in models. All model versions produce appropriate local changes with ENSO, indicating that with correct ocean temperatures these versions are capable of simulating the large-scale effects of ENSO around the globe. A high vertical resolution model (VHR) provides the best simulation. Evidence is also presented that SST anomalies outside the tropical Pacific may play a key role in generating remote teleconnections even

  6. Life-history strategies associated with local population variability confer regional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, Stanislav; Houlahan, Jeff E

    2003-07-07

    A widely held ecological tenet is that, at the local scale, populations of K-selected species (i.e. low fecundity, long lifespan and large body size) will be less variable than populations of r-selected species (i.e. high fecundity, short lifespan and small body size). We examined the relationship between long-term population trends and life-history attributes for 185 bird species in the Czech Republic and found that, at regional spatial scales and over moderate temporal scales (100-120 years), K-selected bird species were more likely to show both large increases and decreases in population size than r-selected species. We conclude that life-history attributes commonly associated with variable populations at the local scale, confer stability at the regional scale.

  7. Moment-to-Moment BOLD Signal Variability Reflects Regional Changes in Neural Flexibility across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Jason S; Bolt, Taylor S; Ezie, C E Chiemeka; Uddin, Lucina Q; Heller, Aaron S

    2017-05-31

    Variability of neuronal responses is thought to underlie flexible and optimal brain function. Because previous work investigating BOLD signal variability has been conducted within task-based fMRI contexts on adults and older individuals, very little is currently known regarding regional changes in spontaneous BOLD signal variability in the human brain across the lifespan. The current study used resting-state fMRI data from a large sample of male and female human participants covering a wide age range (6-85 years) across two different fMRI acquisition parameters (TR = 0.645 and 1.4 s). Variability in brain regions including a key node of the salience network (anterior insula) increased linearly across the lifespan across datasets. In contrast, variability in most other large-scale networks decreased linearly over the lifespan. These results demonstrate unique lifespan trajectories of BOLD variability related to specific regions of the brain and add to a growing literature demonstrating the importance of identifying normative trajectories of functional brain maturation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although brain signal variability has traditionally been considered a source of unwanted noise, recent work demonstrates that variability in brain signals during task performance is related to brain maturation in old age as well as individual differences in behavioral performance. The current results demonstrate that intrinsic fluctuations in resting-state variability exhibit unique maturation trajectories in specific brain regions and systems, particularly those supporting salience detection. These results have implications for investigations of brain development and aging, as well as interpretations of brain function underlying behavioral changes across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/375539-10$15.00/0.

  8. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2015-11-18

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some observed regularities. The variability of linear body parameters and proportions was studied. The impacts of salinity, temperature, and population density on morphological characteristics and their variability can manifest themselves in different ways at the intra- and inter-population levels. A significant effect of salinity, pH and temperature on the body proportions was not found. Their intra-population variability is dependent on temperature and salinity. Sexual dimorphism of A. salinus manifests in different linear parameters, proportions, and their variability. There were no effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the female/male parameter ratio. There were significant differences in the body proportions of males and females in different populations. The influence of temperature, salinity, and population density can be attributed to 80%-90% of intra-population variability of A. salinus. However, these factors can explain less than 40% of inter-population differences. Significant differences in the body proportions of males and females from different populations may suggest that some local populations of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region are in the initial stages of differentiation.

  9. Extreme Variables in Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Peña, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    in two multi-epoch infrared surveys: the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) and the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV). In order to further investigate the nature of the selected variable stars, we use photometric information arising from public surveys at near- to far-infrared wavelengths. In addition we have performed spectroscopic and photometric follow-up for a large subset of the samples arising from GPS and VVV. We analyse the widely separated two-epoch K-band photometry in the 5th, 7th and 8th data releases of the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey. We find 71 stars with ΔK > 1 mag, including 2 previously known OH/IR stars and a Nova. Even though the mid-plane is mostly excluded from the dataset, we find the majority (66%) of our sample to be within known star forming regions (SFRs), with two large concentrations in the Serpens OB2 association (11 stars) and the Cygnus-X complex (27 stars). The analysis of the multi-epoch K-band photometry of 2010-2012 data from VVV covering the Galactic disc at |b| explained as arising from shock-excited emission caused by molecular outflows. Whether these molecular outflows are related to outbursts events cannot be confirmed from our data. Adding the GPS and VVV spectroscopic results, we find that between 6 and 14 objects are new additions to the FUor class from their close resemblance to the near-infrared spectra of FUors, and at least 23 more objects are new additions to the eruptive variable class. For most of these we are unable to classify them into any of the original definitions for this variable class. In any case, we are adding up to 37 new stars to the eruptive variable class which would double the current number of known objects. We note that most objects are found to be deeply embedded optically invisible stars, thus increasing the number of objects belonging to this subclass by a much larger factor. In general, objects in our samples which are found to be likely eruptive variable stars show a mixture of

  10. Mesopause region temperature variability and its trend in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Mateus S.; Bageston, José V.; Caetano, Nattan R.; Peres, Lucas V.; Bencherif, Hassan; Schuch, Nelson J.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the study of the upper atmosphere is increasing, mostly because of the need to understand the patterns of Earth's atmosphere. Since studies on global warming have become very important for the development of new technologies, understanding all regions of the atmosphere becomes an unavoidable task. In this paper, we aim to analyze the temperature variability and its trend in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region during a period of 12 years (from 2003 to 2014). For this purpose, three different heights, i.e., 85, 90 and 95 km, were focused on in order to investigate the upper atmosphere, and a geographic region different to other studies was chosen, in the southern region of Brazil, centered in the city of Santa Maria, RS (29°41'02'' S; 53°48'25'' W). In order to reach the objectives of this work, temperature data from the SABER instrument (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry), aboard NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED) satellite, were used. Finally, two cases were studied related to distinct grids of latitude/longitude used to obtain the mean temperature profiles. The first case considered a grid of 20° × 20° lat/long, centered in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. In the second case, the region was reduced to a size of 15° × 15° in order to compare the results and discuss the two cases in terms of differences or similarities in temperature trends. Observations show that the size of the geographical area used for the average temperature profiles can influence the results of variability and trend of the temperature. In addition, reducing the time duration of analyses from 24 to 12 h a day also influences the trend significantly. For the smaller geographical region (15° × 15°) and the 12 h daily time window (09:00-21:00 UT) it was found that the main contributions for the temperature variability at the three heights were the annual and semi-annual cycles and the solar flux influence

  11. Regionalizing Africa: Patterns of Precipitation Variability in Observations and Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hamada S.; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have documented dramatic climatic and environmental changes that have affected Africa over different time scales. These studies often raise questions regarding the spatial extent and regional connectivity of changes inferred from observations and proxies and/or derived from climate models. Objective regionalization offers a tool for addressing these questions. To demonstrate this potential, applications of hierarchical climate regionalizations of Africa using observations and GCM historical simulations and future projections are presented. First, Africa is regionalized based on interannual precipitation variability using Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data for the period 19812014. A number of data processing techniques and clustering algorithms are tested to ensure a robust definition of climate regions. These regionalization results highlight the seasonal and even month-to-month specificity of regional climate associations across the continent, emphasizing the need to consider time of year as well as research question when defining a coherent region for climate analysis. CHIRPS regions are then compared to those of five GCMs for the historic period, with a focus on boreal summer. Results show that some GCMs capture the climatic coherence of the Sahel and associated teleconnections in a manner that is similar to observations, while other models break the Sahel into uncorrelated subregions or produce a Sahel-like region of variability that is spatially displaced from observations. Finally, shifts in climate regions under projected twenty-first-century climate change for different GCMs and emissions pathways are examined. A projected change is found in the coherence of the Sahel, in which the western and eastern Sahel become distinct regions with different teleconnections. This pattern is most pronounced in high-emissions scenarios.

  12. Constancy despite variability: Local and regional macrofaunal diversity in intertidal seagrass beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyé, Aurélien; Legendre, Pierre; Grall, Jacques; Gauthier, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    The importance of seagrass habitat for the diversity of benthic fauna has been extensively studied worldwide. Most of the information available is, however, about α diversity while little consideration has been given to β diversity. To fill the knowledge gaps regarding the variability of epifaunal and infaunal seagrass assemblages at large spatial and temporal scales, we scrutinized an extensive dataset covering five years of monitoring of eight intertidal Zostera marina meadows around Brittany (France). High species richness arose at the regional scale from the combination of high local diversity of the meadows and substantial among-meadows β diversity. Epifauna and infauna appeared as distinct self-communities as they displayed different spatial and temporal patterns and varied in their responses to local hydrological conditions. Infauna had higher total β diversity than epifauna due to a tighter link to the great variability of local environmental conditions in the region. Both exhibited substantial variations in species composition and community structure with variations of dominant species that were accompanied by extensive change in numerous rare species. The dominant epifaunal species were all grazers. Changes in species composition were induced mostly by species replacement and rarely by richness differences between meadows. Indeed, species richness remained within a narrow range for all seagrass beds, suggesting a potential carrying capacity for species richness of the meadows. Overall, all meadows contributed equally to the regional turnover of seagrass macrofauna, emphasizing high variability and complementarity among beds at the regional scale. The implications of this substantial within-seagrass variability for the functioning of benthic ecosystems at broad scale and for conservation purposes in habitat mosaics warrant further investigations but our results clearly advocate taking into account within-habitat variation when evaluating the diversity

  13. Long-term Variability of H2CO Masers in Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, N.; Araya, E. D.; Hoffman, I. M.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Linz, H.; Olmi, L.; Lorran-Costa, I.

    2017-10-01

    We present results of a multi-epoch monitoring program on variability of 6 cm formaldehyde (H2CO) masers in the massive star-forming region NGC 7538 IRS 1 from 2008 to 2015, conducted with the Green Bank Telescope, the Westerbork Radio Telescope , and the Very Large Array. We found that the similar variability behaviors of the two formaldehyde maser velocity components in NGC 7538 IRS 1 (which was pointed out by Araya and collaborators in 2007) have continued. The possibility that the variability is caused by changes in the maser amplification path in regions with similar morphology and kinematics is discussed. We also observed 12.2 GHz methanol and 22.2 GHz water masers toward NGC 7538 IRS 1. The brightest maser components of CH3OH and H2O species show a decrease in flux density as a function of time. The brightest H2CO maser component also shows a decrease in flux density and has a similar LSR velocity to the brightest H2O and 12.2 GHz CH3OH masers. The line parameters of radio recombination lines and the 20.17 and 20.97 GHz CH3OH transitions in NGC 7538 IRS 1 are also reported. In addition, we observed five other 6 cm formaldehyde maser regions. We found no evidence of significant variability of the 6 cm masers in these regions with respect to previous observations, the only possible exception being the maser in G29.96-0.02. All six sources were also observed in the {{{H}}}213{CO} isotopologue transition of the 6 cm H2CO line; {{{H}}}213{CO} absorption was detected in five of the sources. Estimated column density ratios [{{{H}}}212{CO}]/[{{{H}}}213{CO}] are reported.

  14. Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin variable genes supports a germinal center experienced normal counterpart in primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Ledard, Anne; Prochazkova-Carlotti, Martina; Deveza, Mélanie; Laforet, Marie-Pierre; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Vergier, Béatrice; Parrens, Marie; Feuillard, Jean; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Gachard, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Immunophenotype of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type (PCLBCL-LT) suggests a germinal center-experienced B lymphocyte (BCL2+ MUM1+ BCL6+/-). As maturation history of B-cell is "imprinted" during B-cell development on the immunoglobulin gene sequence, we studied the structure and sequence of the variable part of the genes (IGHV, IGLV, IGKV), immunoglobulin surface expression and features of class switching in order to determine the PCLBCL-LT cell of origin. Clonality analysis with BIOMED2 protocol and VH leader primers was done on DNA extracted from frozen skin biopsies on retrospective samples from 14 patients. The clonal DNA IGHV sequence of the tumor was aligned and compared with the closest germline sequence and homology percentage was calculated. Superantigen binding sites were studied. Features of selection pressure were evaluated with the multinomial Lossos model. A functional monoclonal sequence was observed in 14 cases as determined for IGHV (10), IGLV (2) or IGKV (3). IGV mutation rates were high (>5%) in all cases but one (median:15.5%), with superantigen binding sites conservation. Features of selection pressure were identified in 11/12 interpretable cases, more frequently negative (75%) than positive (25%). Intraclonal variation was detected in 3 of 8 tumor specimens with a low rate of mutations. Surface immunoglobulin was an IgM in 12/12 cases. FISH analysis of IGHM locus, deleted during class switching, showed heterozygous IGHM gene deletion in half of cases. The genomic PCR analysis confirmed the deletions within the switch μ region. IGV sequences were highly mutated but functional, with negative features of selection pressure suggesting one or more germinal center passage(s) with somatic hypermutation, but superantigen (SpA) binding sites conservation. Genetic features of class switch were observed, but on the non functional allele and co-existing with primary isotype IgM expression. These data suggest that cell-of origin is

  15. Mitochondrial DNA control region variability in wild boars from west Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đan Mihajla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of most abundant game species in hunting areas of Balkan region. The large fraction of pre-glacial genetic diversity in wild boar populations from the Balkans was addressed due to high proportion of unique mtDNA haplotypes found in Greece, indicating Balkan as main refugial area for wild boars. The aim of the present study is to characterize mitochondrial DNA control region variability in wild boars from different areas in the West Balkan region, in order to evaluate level of genetic variability, to detect unique haplotypes and to infer possible structuring. The total number of 163 individuals from different sampling localities were included in the study. A fragment of the mtDNA control region was amplified and sequenced by standard procedures. Population genetic analyses were performed using several computer packages: BioEdit, ARLEQUIN 3.5.1.2., Network 4.6.0.0 and MEGA5. Eleven different haplotypes were identified and haplotype diversity was 0.676, nucleotide diversity 0.0026, and the average number of nucleotide differences (k 1.169. The mismatch distribution and neutrality tests indicated the expansion of the all populations. It is shown that high level of genetic diversity is present in the wild boars from the West Balkan region and we have managed to detect regional unique haplotypes in high frequency. Genetic diversity differences have been found in regional wild boar groups, clustering them in two main clusters, but further speculations on the reasons for the observed clustering are prevented due to restricted informativness of the single locus marker. Obtained knowledge of genetic variation in the wild boar may be relevant for improving knowledge of the phylogeny and phylogeography of the wild boars, but as well as for hunting societies and responsible authorities for the effective control of wild boar populations.

  16. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration versus endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for isolated gastric varices: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emori, Keigo; Toyonaga, Atsushi; Oho, Kazuhiko; Kumamoto, Masafumi; Haruta, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Hiroto; Morita, Yukihiko; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Tsuruta, Osamu; Sata, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Isolated gastric varices (IGV) have a lower risk of bleeding than esophageal varices, however IGV bleeding is associated with a higher mortality than bleeding of esophageal varices. In recent years, two widely used treatments for IGV have been balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) using cyanoacrylate or ethanolamine oleate (EO). This study compared these two treatment methods for IGV. The subjects were 112 patients who were treated at our hospital for IGV bleeding between October 1990 and December 2003. Forty-nine (49) patients were treated with B-RTO and 63 patients with EIS. These two patient groups were compared as regards content of treatment, post-treatment incidence of variceal bleeding, incidence of IGV rebleeding, survival rate, cause of death, and complications. Multivariate analysis was performed on post-treatment variceal bleeding and survival. Although EO was used in higher amounts in the B-RTO group than in the EIS group, the B-RTO group had a significantly lower number of treatment sessions and a significantly shorter treatment period (pIGV rebleeding after treatment than the B-RTO group. Treatment method was the only independent prognostic factor of IGV bleeding after treatment (p=0.024). The two groups did not differ significantly in the percentage of patients with aggravated esophageal varices after treatment. Bleeding from ectopic varices was not observed in any patient. There was no significant difference in survival by treatment method. The presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was the only independent prognostic factor for survival (p=0.003). It is concluded that B-RTO was more effective than EIS in the eradication of IGV and prevention of IGV recurrence and rebleeding.

  17. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; David L. Peterson; Kevin S. McKelvey; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability...

  18. Climate Drivers of Spatiotemporal Variability of Precipitation in the Source Region of Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y.; Berndtsson, R.; An, D.; Yuan, F.

    2017-12-01

    Variability of precipitation regime has significant influence on the environment sustainability in the source region of Yangtze River, especially when the vegetation degradation and biodiversity reduction have already occurred. Understanding the linkage between variability of local precipitation and global teleconnection patterns is essential for water resources management. Based on physical reasoning, indices of the climate drivers can provide a practical way of predicting precipitation. Due to high seasonal variability of precipitation, climate drivers of the seasonal precipitation also varies. However, few reports have gone through the teleconnections between large scale patterns with seasonal precipitation in the source region of Yangtze River. The objectives of this study are therefore (1) assessment of temporal trend and spatial variability of precipitation in the source region of Yangtze River; (2) identification of climate indices with strong influence on seasonal precipitation anomalies; (3) prediction of seasonal precipitation based on revealed climate indices. Principal component analysis and Spearman rank correlation were used to detect significant relationships. A feed-forward artificial neural network(ANN) was developed to predict seasonal precipitation using significant correlated climate indices. Different influencing climate indices were revealed for precipitation in each season, with significant level and lag times. Significant influencing factors were selected to be the predictors for ANN model. With correlation coefficients between observed and simulated precipitation over 0.5, the results were eligible to predict the precipitation of spring, summer and winter using teleconnections, which can improve integrated water resources management in the source region of Yangtze River.

  19. Improving preparedness of farmers to Climate Variability: A case study of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, D.; Parthasarathy, D.; Dave, P.

    2016-12-01

    A key objective of the ongoing research is to understand the risk and vulnerability of agriculture and farming communities with respect to multiple climate change attributes, particularly monsoon variability and hydrology such as ground water availability. Climate Variability has always been a feature affecting Indian agriculture but the nature and characteristics of this variability is not well understood. Indian monsoon patterns are highly variable and most of the studies focus on larger domain such as Central India or Western coast (Ghosh et al., 2009) but district level analysis is missing i.e. the linkage between agriculture and climate variables at finer scale has not been investigated comprehensively. For example, Eastern Vidarbha region in Maharashtra is considered as one of the most agriculturally sensitive region in India, where every year a large number of farmers commit suicide. The main reasons for large number of suicides are climate related stressors such as droughts, hail storms, and monsoon variability aggravated with poor socio-economic conditions. Present study has tried to explore the areas in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra where famers and crop productivity, specifically cotton, sorghum, is highly vulnerable to monsoon variability, hydrological and socio-economic variables which are further modelled to determine the maximal contributing factor towards crops and farmers' vulnerability. After analysis using primary and secondary data, it will aid in decision making regarding field operations such as time of sowing, harvesting and irrigation requirements by optimizing the cropping pattern with climatic, hydrological and socio-economic variables. It also suggests the adaptation strategies to farmers regarding different types of cropping and water harvesting practices, optimized dates and timings for harvesting, sowing, water and nutrient requirements of particular crops according to the specific region. Primarily along with secondary analysis

  20. Analysis of the relation between socioeconomic variables and truck trips in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Lagnier Gil Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to analyze the relation between socioeconomic variables and freight trip generation, regarding the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, through the use of linear regression models. A systematic literature review is conducted in order to identify which independent variables could be used in the models. The variables found are mostly related to the establishment, such as number of employees, floor area, number of stores among others; and socioeconomic variables, such as population, households and jobs in the region. The relation between the latter and number of truck trips is verified with linear regression models, and the results show that the models are valid and the variables are able to explain the freight flow in the region studied, contributing to  the region’s transport planning and  to the strategic planning  of companies that operate in the region.

  1. Two centuries of observed atmospheric variability and change over the North Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Martin; van den Besselaar, Else; Hannachi, Abdel; Kent, Elizabeth; Lefebvre, Christiana; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schenk, Frederik; van der Schrier, Gerard; Woollings, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the upcoming North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA), we present a synthesis of current knowledge about past, present and possible future climate change in the North Sea region. A climate change assessment from published scientific work has been conducted as a kind of regional IPCC report, and a book has been produced that will be published by Springer in 2016. In the framework of the NOSCCA project, we examine past and present studies of variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period, roughly the past 200 years, based on observations and reanalyses. The variables addressed in this presentation are large-scale circulation, pressure and wind, surface air temperature, precipitation and radiative properties (clouds, solar radiation, and sunshine duration). While air temperature over land, not unexpectedly, has increased everywhere in the North Sea region, with strongest trends in spring and in the north of the region, a precipitation increase has been observed in the north and a decrease in the south of the region. This pattern goes along with a north-eastward shift of storm tracks and is in agreement with climate model projections under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. For other variables, it is not obvious which part of the observed changes may be due to anthropogenic activities and which is internally forced. It remains also unclear to what extent atmospheric circulation over the North Sea region is influenced by distant factors, in particular Arctic sea-ice decline in recent decades. There are indications of an increase in the number of deep cyclones (but not in the total number of cyclones), while storminess since the late 19th century shows no robust trends. The persistence of circulation types appears to have increased over the last century, and consequently, there is an indication for 'more extreme' extreme events. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess

  2. Effects of Recent Regional Soil Moisture Variability on Global Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. A.; Madani, N.; Kimball, J. S.; Reichle, R. H.; Colliander, A.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture exerts a major regional control on the inter-annual variability of the global land sink for atmospheric CO2. In semi-arid regions, annual biomass production is closely coupled to variability in soil moisture availability, while in cold-season-affected regions, summer drought offsets the effects of advancing spring phenology. Availability of satellite solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) observations and improvements in atmospheric inversions has led to unprecedented ability to monitor atmospheric sink strength. However, discrepancies still exist between such top-down estimates as atmospheric inversion and bottom-up process and satellite driven models, indicating that relative strength, mechanisms, and interaction of driving factors remain poorly understood. We use soil moisture fields informed by Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) observations to compare recent (2015-2017) and historic (2000-2014) variability in net ecosystem land-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE). The operational SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4C) product relates ground-based flux tower measurements to other bottom-up and global top-down estimates to underlying soil moisture and other driving conditions using data-assimilation-based SMAP Level 4 Soil Moisture (L4SM). Droughts in coastal Brazil, South Africa, Eastern Africa, and an anomalous wet period in Eastern Australia were observed by L4C. A seasonal seesaw pattern of below-normal sink strength at high latitudes relative to slightly above-normal sink strength for mid-latitudes was also observed. Whereas SMAP-based soil moisture is relatively informative for short-term temporal variability, soil moisture biases that vary in space and with season constrain the ability of the L4C estimates to accurately resolve NEE. Such biases might be caused by irrigation and plant-accessible ground-water. Nevertheless, SMAP L4C daily NEE estimates connect top-down estimates to variability of effective driving factors for accurate estimates of regional

  3. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION CYGNUS OB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present an analysis of near-infrared time-series photometry in J, H, and K bands for about 100 epochs of a 1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign region of the Lynds 1003/1004 dark cloud in the Cygnus OB7 region. Augmented by data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we identify 96 candidate disk bearing young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. Of these, 30 are clearly Class I or earlier. Using the Wide-Field Imaging Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, we were able to obtain photometry over three observing seasons, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.05 mag down to J Almost-Equal-To 17. We study detailed light curves and color trajectories of {approx}50 of the YSOs in the monitored field. We investigate the variability and periodicity of the YSOs and find the data are consistent with all YSOs being variable in these wavelengths on timescales of a few years. We divide the variability into four observational classes: (1) stars with periodic variability stable over long timescales, (2) variables which exhibit short-lived cyclic behavior, (3) long-duration variables, and (4) stochastic variables. Some YSO variability defies simple classification. We can explain much of the observed variability as being due to dynamic and rotational changes in the disk, including an asymmetric or changing blocking fraction, changes to the inner disk hole size, as well as changes to the accretion rate. Overall, we find that the Class I:Class II ratio of the cluster is consistent with an age of <1 Myr, with at least one individual, wildly varying source {approx}100, 000 yr old. We have also discovered a Class II eclipsing binary system with a period of 17.87 days.

  4. YSOVAR: Mid-infrared variability in the star-forming region Lynds 1688

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Allen, L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Meng, H. Y. A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M. [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Parks, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place South, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: hguenther@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The emission from young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) is dominated by the inner rim of their circumstellar disks. We present IR data from the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) survey of ∼800 objects in the direction of the Lynds 1688 (L1688) star-forming region over four visibility windows spanning 1.6 yr using the Spitzer Space Telescope in its warm mission phase. Among all light curves, 57 sources are cluster members identified based on their spectral energy distribution and X-ray emission. Almost all cluster members show significant variability. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Ten out of 57 cluster members have periodic variations in the light curves with periods typically between three and seven days, but even for those sources, significant variability in addition to the periodic signal can be seen. No period is stable over 1.6 yr. Nonperiodic light curves often still show a preferred timescale of variability that is longer for more embedded sources. About half of all sources exhibit redder colors in a fainter state. This is compatible with time-variable absorption toward the YSO. The other half becomes bluer when fainter. These colors can only be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. No relation between mid-IR variability and stellar effective temperature or X-ray spectrum is found.

  5. Hydroclimatic variability in the Lake Mondsee region and its relationships with large-scale climate anomaly patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbu, Norel; Ionita, Monica; Swierczynski, Tina; Brauer, Achim; Kämpf, Lucas; Czymzik, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Flood triggered detrital layers in varved sediments of Lake Mondsee, located at the northern fringe of the European Alps (47°48'N,13°23'E), provide an important archive of regional hydroclimatic variability during the mid- to late Holocene. To improve the interpretation of the flood layer record in terms of large-scale climate variability, we investigate the relationships between observational hydrological records from the region, like the Mondsee lake level, the runoff of the lake's main inflow Griesler Ache, with observed precipitation and global climate patterns. The lake level shows a strong positive linear trend during the observational period in all seasons. Additionally, lake level presents important interannual to multidecadal variations. These variations are associated with distinct seasonal atmospheric circulation patterns. A pronounced anomalous anticyclonic center over the Iberian Peninsula is associated with high lake levels values during winter. This center moves southwestward during spring, summer and autumn. In the same time, a cyclonic anomaly center is recorded over central and western Europe. This anomalous circulation extends southwestward from winter to autumn. Similar atmospheric circulation patterns are associated with river runoff and precipitation variability from the region. High lake levels are associated with positive local precipitation anomalies in all seasons as well as with negative local temperature anomalies during spring, summer and autumn. A correlation analysis reveals that lake level, runoff and precipitation variability is related to large-scale sea surface temperature anomaly patterns in all seasons suggesting a possible impact of large-scale climatic modes, like the North Atlantic Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on hydroclimatic variability in the Lake Mondsee region. The results presented in this study can be used for a more robust interpretation of the long flood layer record from Lake Mondsee sediments

  6. The Tokar Gap Jet: Regional Circulation, Diurnal Variability, and Moisture Transport Based on Numerical Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Shannon R.; Pratt, Lawrence J.; Jiang, Houshuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure, variability, and regional connectivity of the Tokar Gap jet (TGJ) are described using WRF Model analyses and supporting atmospheric datasets from the East African–Red Sea–Arabian Peninsula (EARSAP) region during summer 2008. Sources

  7. Characterization of the Deep Water Surface Wave Variability in the California Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Bôas, Ana B.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2017-11-01

    Surface waves are crucial for the dynamics of the upper ocean not only because they mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, but also because they determine the sea state. The surface wave field in a given region is set by the combination of local and remote forcing. The present work characterizes the seasonal variability of the deep water surface wave field in the California Current region, as retrieved from over two decades of satellite altimetry data combined with wave buoys and wave model hindcast (WaveWatch III). In particular, the extent to which the local wind modulates the variability of the significant wave height, peak period, and peak direction is assessed. During spring/summer, regional-scale wind events of up to 10 m/s are the dominant forcing for waves off the California coast, leading to relatively short-period waves (8-10 s) that come predominantly from the north-northwest. The wave climatology throughout the California Current region shows average significant wave heights exceeding 2 m during most of the year, which may have implications for the planning and retrieval methods of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.

  8. Variability and change of sea level and its components in the Indo-Pacific region during the altimetry era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Quran; Zhang, Xuebin; Church, John A.; Hu, Jianyu

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that regional sea level exhibits interannual and decadal variations associated with the modes of climate variability. A better understanding of those low-frequency sea level variations benefits the detection and attribution of climate change signals. Nonetheless, the contributions of thermosteric, halosteric, and mass sea level components to sea level variability and trend patterns remain unclear. By focusing on signals associated with dominant climate modes in the Indo-Pacific region, we estimate the interannual and decadal fingerprints and trend of each sea level component utilizing a multivariate linear regression of two adjoint-based ocean reanalyses. Sea level interannual, decadal, and trend patterns primarily come from thermosteric sea level (TSSL). Halosteric sea level (HSSL) is of regional importance in the Pacific Ocean on decadal time scale and dominates sea level trends in the northeast subtropical Pacific. The compensation between TSSL and HSSL is identified in their decadal variability and trends. The interannual and decadal variability of temperature generally peak at subsurface around 100 m but that of salinity tend to be surface-intensified. Decadal temperature and salinity signals extend deeper into the ocean in some regions than their interannual equivalents. Mass sea level (MassSL) is critical for the interannual and decadal variability of sea level over shelf seas. Inconsistencies exist in MassSL trend patterns among various estimates. This study highlights regions where multiple processes work together to control sea level variability and change. Further work is required to better understand the interaction of different processes in those regions.

  9. Optical photometric variable stars towards the Galactic H II region NGC 2282

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Somnath; Mondal, Soumen; Joshi, Santosh; Jose, Jessy; Das, Ramkrishna; Ghosh, Supriyo

    2018-05-01

    We report here CCD I-band time series photometry of a young (2-5 Myr) cluster NGC 2282, in order to identify and understand the variability of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. The I-band photometry, down to ˜20.5 mag, enables us to probe the variability towards the lower mass end (˜0.1 M⊙) of PMS stars. From the light curves of 1627 stars, we identified 62 new photometric variable candidates. Their association with the region was established from H α emission and infrared (IR) excess. Among 62 variables, 30 young variables exhibit H α emission, near-IR (NIR)/mid-IR (MIR) excess or both and are candidate members of the cluster. Out of 62 variables, 41 are periodic variables, with a rotation rate ranging from 0.2-7 d. The period distribution exhibits a median period at ˜1 d, as in many young clusters (e.g. NGC 2264, ONC, etc.), but it follows a unimodal distribution, unlike others that have bimodality, with slow rotators peaking at ˜6-8 d. To investigate the rotation-disc and variability-disc connection, we derived the NIR excess from Δ(I - K) and the MIR excess from Spitzer [3.6]-[4.5] μm data. No conclusive evidence of slow rotation with the presence of discs around stars and fast rotation for discless stars is obtained from our periodic variables. A clear increasing trend of the variability amplitude with IR excess is found for all variables.

  10. Regions of variability for a class of analytic and locally univalent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    f ′′(0) whenever f varies over the class C(A,B). Keywords. Janowski class; univalent functions; variability regions. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 30C45. 1. Introduction and preliminary results. Let C be the complex plane. We use the following notations for open and closed discs with center c and radius r in the ...

  11. Interannual variability in the extent of wetland-stream connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Vanderhoof; Laurie Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The degree of hydrological connectivity between wetland systems and downstream receiving waters can be expected to influence the volume and variability of stream discharge. The Prairie Pothole Region contains a high density of depressional wetland features, a consequence of glacial retreat. Spatial variability in wetland density, drainage evolution, and precipitation...

  12. Regional variability of farmer decision making and irrigation water use: insights from a data-scarce region of North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Brozović, Nick; Mijic, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Over the last fifty years, changes in agriculture brought about by the Green Revolution have transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country into the worlds' third largest grain producer and one of the most intensively irrigated parts of the globe. Regionally, cheap energy, subsidised seeds and fertilisers, and in some areas Government purchase guarantees for grain promote the intensification of farming. While this allows farmers to survive, it also aggravates the drain agriculture is having on resources, particularly energy and water. Analysis at a regional scale, however, masks the considerable spatial variability that exists on a more localised level and must be taken into consideration to understand correctly aggregate system response to policy, hydrologic, and climatic change. In this study we present and analyse the results from over 100 farmer interviews conducted in the data-scarce districts of Jalaun and Sitapur on the Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh during the post monsoon period of 2013. Variables such as the volumes and timing of irrigation water applied, sources of water, methods of abstraction and irrigation, and costs incurred are mapped, using qualitative data analysis and GIS. Large differences between the districts emerge, for instance in the region of Jalaun where cheaper canal water is available in addition to groundwater. This has enabled farmers to afford more water efficient technologies such as sprinklers, a practice not found in Sitapur which depends almost exclusively on more expensive diesel pumps. Results are used to delineate the spatial variability in water use practices, along with farmer behaviour and decision making. The primary data are compared with socio-economic information taken from regionally produced statistical abstracts. The combined data are used to identify the main drivers that influence farmer decision-making, which is in turn leading to groundwater overdraught in many parts of North India. Finally

  13. Stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal macroalgae: geographic and anthropogenic variability

    OpenAIRE

    González-Viana, I. (Inés); Bode, A. (Antonio)

    2013-01-01

    Proyectos ANILE (CTM2009-08396 and CTM2010-08804-E) del Plan Nacional de I+D+i y RADIALES del Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO). I.G.V. recibió un contrato FPI del Ministerio de Economía y Competividad Growing human population add to the natural nitrogen loads to coastal waters. As the excess nitrogen is readily incorporated in new biomass anthropogenic and natural nitrogen sources may be traced by the measurement of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N). In this study δ15N was dete...

  14. ESA STSE “SST Diurnal Variability: Regional Extend - Implications in Atmospheric Modelling”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    The diurnal variability of SST, driven by the coincident occurrence of low enough wind and solar heating, has been observed in various regions of the global ocean [4, 5, 6]. Atmospheric, oceanic and climate models are not adequately resolving the daily SST cycle, resulting in biases of the total...

  15. Linking the uncertainty of low frequency variability in tropical forcing in regional climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, Chris E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Meteorology; Barsugli, Joseph J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). CIRES; Li, Wei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Meteorology

    2015-02-20

    The project utilizes multiple atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) to examine the regional climate sensitivity to tropical sea surface temperature forcing through a series of ensemble experiments. The overall goal for this work is to use the global teleconnection operator (GTO) as a metric to assess the impact of model structural differences on the uncertainties in regional climate variability.

  16. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  17. The NTF Inlet Guide Vanes Thermal Gradient Problem and Its Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Venki S.; Paryz, Roman W.; Bissett, Owen W.; Kilgore, W.

    2013-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility (NTF) utilizes Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) to provide precise, quick response Mach number control for the tunnel. During cryogenic operations, the massive IGV structure can experience large thermal gradients, measured as "Delta T or (Delta)T", between the IGV ring and its support structure called the transfer case. If these temperature gradients are too large, the IGV structure can be stressed beyond its safety limit and cease operation. In recent years, (Delta)T readings exceeding the prescribed safety limits were observed frequently during cryogenic operations, particularly during model access. The tactical operation methods of the tunnel to minimize (Delta)T did not always succeed. One obvious option to remedy this condition is to warm up the IGV structure by disabling the main drive operation, but this "natural" warm up method can takes days in some cases, resulting in productivity loss. This paper documents the thermal gradient problem associated with the IGV structure during cryogenic operation and how the facility has recently achieved an acceptable mitigation which has resulted in improved efficiency of operations.

  18. The terroir of vineyards - climatic variability in an Austrian wine-growing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerersdorfer, T.

    2010-09-01

    The description of a terroir is a concept in viticulture that relates the sensory attributes of wine to the environmental conditions in which the grapes grow. Many factors are involved including climate, soil, cultivar, human practices and all these factors interact manifold. The study area of Carnuntum is a small wine-growing region in the eastern part of Austria. It is rich of Roman remains which play a major role in tourism and the marketing strategies of the wines as well. An interdisciplinary study on the environmental characteristics particularly with regard to growing conditions of grapes was started in this region. The study is concerned with the description of the physiogeographic properties of the region and with the investigation of the dominating viticultural functions. Grape-vines depend on climatic conditions to a high extent. Compared to other influencing factors like soil, climate plays a significant role. In the framework of this interdisciplinary project climatic variability within the Carnuntum wine-growing region is investigated. On the one hand microclimatic variations are influenced by soil type and by canopy management. On the other hand the variability is a result of the topoclimate (altitude, aspect and slope) and therefore relief is a major terroir factor. Results of microclimatic measurements and variations are presented with focus on the interpretation of the relationship between relief, structure of the vineyards and the climatic conditions within the course of a full year period.

  19. Internal and external variability in regional simulations of the Iberian Peninsula climate over the last millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Gómez-Navarro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyse the role of internal variability in regional climate simulations through a comparison of two regional paleoclimate simulations for the last millennium. They share the same external forcings and model configuration, differing only in the initial condition used to run the driving global model simulation. A comparison of these simulations allows us to study the role of internal variability in climate models at regional scales, and how it affects the long-term evolution of climate variables such as temperature and precipitation. The results indicate that, although temperature is homogeneously sensitive to the effect of external forcings, the evolution of precipitation is more strongly governed by random unpredictable internal dynamics. There are, however, some areas where the role of internal variability is lower than expected, allowing precipitation to respond to the external forcings. In this respect, we explore the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for it. This study identifies areas, depending on the season, in which a direct comparison between model simulations of precipitation and climate reconstructions would be meaningful, but also other areas where good agreement between them should not be expected even if both are perfect.

  20. In situ analysis of the variable heavy chain gene of an IgM/IgG-expressing follicular lymphoma - Evidence for interfollicular trafficking of tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Wilhelmina M.; Bende, Richard J.; Vaandrager, Jan-Willem; Kluin, Philip M.; Langerak, Anton W.; Pals, Steven T.; van Noesel, Carel J. M.

    2002-01-01

    is generally assumed that follicular lymphomas (FL) not only morphologically resemble normal germinal centers but have retained some functional characteristics of their non-neoplastic counterparts as well. Recent IgV gene analyses on a panel of FLs however, strongly suggested that FLs do not retain

  1. Uncertainties in Future Regional Sea Level Trends: How to Deal with the Internal Climate Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Karpytchev, M.; Hu, A.; Deser, C.; Lennartz-Sassinek, S.

    2017-12-01

    Today, the Climate models (CM) are the main tools for forecasting sea level rise (SLR) at global and regional scales. The CM forecasts are accompanied by inherent uncertainties. Understanding and reducing these uncertainties is becoming a matter of increasing urgency in order to provide robust estimates of SLR impact on coastal societies, which need sustainable choices of climate adaptation strategy. These CM uncertainties are linked to structural model formulation, initial conditions, emission scenario and internal variability. The internal variability is due to complex non-linear interactions within the Earth Climate System and can induce diverse quasi-periodic oscillatory modes and long-term persistences. To quantify the effects of internal variability, most studies used multi-model ensembles or sea level projections from a single model ran with perturbed initial conditions. However, large ensembles are not generally available, or too small, and computationally expensive. In this study, we use a power-law scaling of sea level fluctuations, as observed in many other geophysical signals and natural systems, which can be used to characterize the internal climate variability. From this specific statistical framework, we (1) use the pre-industrial control run of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (NCAR-CCSM) to test the robustness of the power-law scaling hypothesis; (2) employ the power-law statistics as a tool for assessing the spread of regional sea level projections due to the internal climate variability for the 21st century NCAR-CCSM; (3) compare the uncertainties in predicted sea level changes obtained from a NCAR-CCSM multi-member ensemble simulations with estimates derived for power-law processes, and (4) explore the sensitivity of spatial patterns of the internal variability and its effects on regional sea level projections.

  2. Regional and landscape-scale variability of Landsat-observed vegetation dynamics in northwest Siberian tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E; Walker, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Widespread increases in Arctic tundra productivity have been documented for decades using coarse-scale satellite observations, but finer-scale observations indicate that changes have been very uneven, with a high degree of landscape- and regional-scale heterogeneity. Here we analyze time-series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observed by Landsat (1984–2012), to assess landscape- and regional-scale variability of tundra vegetation dynamics in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic, a little-studied region with varied soils, landscape histories, and permafrost attributes. We also estimate spatio-temporal rates of land-cover change associated with expansion of tall alder (Alnus) shrublands, by integrating Landsat time-series with very-high-resolution imagery dating to the mid-1960s. We compiled Landsat time-series for eleven widely-distributed landscapes, and performed linear regression of NDVI values on a per-pixel basis. We found positive net NDVI trends (‘greening’) in nine of eleven landscapes. Net greening occurred in alder shrublands in all landscapes, and strong greening tended to correspond to shrublands that developed since the 1960s. Much of the spatial variability of greening within landscapes was linked to landscape physiography and permafrost attributes, while between-landscape variability largely corresponded to differences in surficial geology. We conclude that continued increases in tundra productivity in the region are likely in upland tundra landscapes with fine-textured, cryoturbated soils; these areas currently tend to support discontinuous vegetation cover, but are highly susceptible to rapid increases in vegetation cover, as well as land-cover changes associated with the development of tall shrublands. (paper)

  3. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  4. Multi-region and single-cell sequencing reveal variable genomic heterogeneity in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingshan; Liu, Yang; Di, Jiabo; Su, Zhe; Yang, Hong; Jiang, Beihai; Wang, Zaozao; Zhuang, Meng; Bai, Fan; Su, Xiangqian

    2017-11-23

    Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with complex molecular subtypes. While colon cancer has been widely investigated, studies on rectal cancer are very limited. Here, we performed multi-region whole-exome sequencing and single-cell whole-genome sequencing to examine the genomic intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) of rectal tumors. We sequenced nine tumor regions and 88 single cells from two rectal cancer patients with tumors of the same molecular classification and characterized their mutation profiles and somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) at the multi-region and the single-cell levels. A variable extent of genomic heterogeneity was observed between the two patients, and the degree of ITH increased when analyzed on the single-cell level. We found that major SCNAs were early events in cancer development and inherited steadily. Single-cell sequencing revealed mutations and SCNAs which were hidden in bulk sequencing. In summary, we studied the ITH of rectal cancer at regional and single-cell resolution and demonstrated that variable heterogeneity existed in two patients. The mutational scenarios and SCNA profiles of two patients with treatment naïve from the same molecular subtype are quite different. Our results suggest each tumor possesses its own architecture, which may result in different diagnosis, prognosis, and drug responses. Remarkable ITH exists in the two patients we have studied, providing a preliminary impression of ITH in rectal cancer.

  5. Regional climate change: Precipitation variability in mountainous part of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Nina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of paper is to analyze temporal and spatial changes in monthly precipitation as well as extremely dry and wet months in mountainous part of Bulgaria. Study precipitation variability in mountainous part is very important because this part is the region where the rivers take its source from. Extreme values of monthly precipitation are important information for better understanding of the whole variability and trends in precipitation time series. The mean investigated period is 1951-2005 and the reference period is so called temporary climate - 1961- 1990. Extreme dry precipitation months are defined as a month whose monthly precipitation is lower than 10% of gamma distribution in the reference period 1961-1990. Extreme wet months are determined with respect to 90% percentiles of gamma distribution (monthly precipitation is higher than 90%. The result of the research show that in mountainous part of Bulgaria during 1950s and 1960s number of extremely wet months is higher than number of dry months. Decreasing of monthly precipitation is a feature for 1980s. This dry period continues till 2004. The years 2000 makes impression as driest year in high mountains with about 7 extremely dry months. The second dry year is 1993. The negative precipitation anomaly is most clearly determined during last decade at study area. The present research points out that fluctuation of precipitation in mountainous part of Bulgaria are coinciding with regional and global climate trends.

  6. Indocyanine Green Videoangiography in Negative: Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simal Julián, Juan Antonio; Miranda Lloret, Pablo; Sanromán Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez de San Román, Laila; Beltrán Giner, Andrés; Botella Asunción, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Introduction This work reports the first indocyanine green videoangiography (IGV) in negative published with video format support. This technique, so called because its first phase is performed with occlusion of the vessel suspected of being pathologic, is used for the diagnosis of spinal arteriovenous fistula (sDAVF). Case Report The authors present the case of a 68-year-old man with an sDAVF fed by the right T7 segmentary artery. IGV was initially performed with the presumptive fistula feeder occluded for less than 1 minute, which provided both diagnostic and postexclusion control in one procedure. This technique therefore is reversible by not prolonging vascular exclusion times. Discussion IGV in negative is an extremely visual and intuitive procedure that represents an improvement over conventional IGV. Conclusion Studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to determine whether IGV in negative can further reduce the need for postoperative digital subtraction angiography.

  7. Climatological variability in modeling of long-term regional transport and deposition of air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    In a growing number of emission policy analyses, regulatory proceedings, and cost/benefit assessments, numerical models of long-range transport and deposition of air pollutants have been exercised to estimate source-receptor (S-R) relationships--for the particular meteorological conditions input to the model. The representativeness of the meteorological conditions, or the variability of the model estimates with climatological input from different years or corresponding seasons from different years, is seldom evaluated. Here, two full years (1980 and 1981) of meteorological data, as well as data from January and July of 1978, are used in the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model (Shannon, 1981), one of the eight Memorandum of Intent (MOI) models, to estimate deposition for the S-R matrix combination of eleven source regions and nine receptors used in the MOI reports. (S-R matrices of dimensions 40 by 9 were also examined in the MOI reports.) Improvements in the ASTRAP model and in the emission inventory since the earlier work require recalculation of the two-month 1978 simulation in order for the comparison to isolate the effect of meteorological variability. The source regions are listed, and the receptor regions are provide. For completeness, an additional source region, the western states and provinces, has been added, as well as a total for the 48 contiguous states and 10 provinces. 4 references, 9 tables

  8. Interannual variability of mass transport in the Canary region from LADCP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Rodríguez, Isis; Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    The variability of the Canary Current is a widely studied topic regarding its role as eastern boundary of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. The Canary region provides indeed an interesting study area in terms of estimating variability scales of the Subtropical Gyre as well as the water masses dynamics. RAPROCAN (RAdial PROfunda de CANarias - Canary deep hydrographic section) is a project based on the reaching of these goals through the obtaining of hydrographic measures during cruises taking place approximately along 29°N, to the North of the Canary Archipelago, twice a year since 2006. The full depth sampling carried out allows the study of temperature and salinity distribution and the calculation of mass transports across the section. The transport estimates are compared to those obtained from previous measurements and estimates in the region. Therefore, transports and their variability through the last decade are quantified. The most significant advance made to previous works is the use of LADCP (Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) data informing the initial geostrophic calculations. Thus, corrections are applied to each geostrophic profile considering the reference velocity obtained from LADCP data. ADCP-referenced transport estimates are obtained, providing a successful comparison between the velocity fields obtained from the hydrographic measures. While this work shows the interannual variability observed in winter since 1997, preliminary results confirm previous hypotheses about the magnitude of the Canary Current. Those results including LADCP data also provide new aspects in the circulation distribution across the Canary Archipelago. Also moored current meter data were taken into account in the up close study of the Current through the Lanzarote Passage. Interesting conclusions were drawn that certify the usefulness of LADCP data in referencing geostrophic calculations, while corroborating the results obtained through this methodology. Hence

  9. Long term precipitation trends and variability within the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Philandras

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the trends and variability of annual precipitation totals and annual rain days over land within the Mediterranean region are analyzed. Long term ground-based observations concerning, on one hand, monthly precipitation totals (1900–2010 and rain days (1965–2010 from 40 meteorological stations within the Mediterranean region were obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and the World Climate Data and Monitoring Programme (WCDMP of the World Meteorological Organization. On the other hand, high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.5° gridded monthly data CRU TS 3.1 were acquired from the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, for the period 1901–2009. The two datasets were compared by means of trends and variability, while the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO in the Mediterranean precipitation was examined. In the process, the climatic changes in the precipitation regime between the period 1961–1990 (reference period and the period 2071–2100 (future climate were presented using climate model simulations (RACMO2.1/KNMI. The future climate projections were based on SRES A1B.

    The findings of the analysis showed that statistically significant (95% confidence level negative trends of the annual precipitation totals exist in the majority of Mediterranean regions during the period 1901–2009, with an exception of northern Africa, southern Italy and western Iberian peninsula, where slight positive trends (not statistically significant at 95% CL appear. Concerning the annual number of rain days, a pronounced decrease of 20 %, statistically significant (95% confidence level, appears in representative meteorological stations of east Mediterranean, while the trends are insignificant for west and central Mediterranean. Additionally, NAO index was found to be anticorrelated with the precipitation totals and the number of rain days mainly in Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece. These

  10. Climate change/variability science and adaptive strategies for state and regional transportation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to generate a baseline understanding of current policy responses to climate : change/variability at the state and regional transportation-planning and -decision levels. Specifically, : researchers were interested in th...

  11. Influence of Climate Variability on US Regional Homicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, R. D.; Karnauskas, K. B.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have found consistent evidence of a relationship between temperature and criminal behavior. However, despite agreement in the overall relationship, little progress has been made in distinguishing between two proposed explanatory theories. The General Affective Aggression Model (GAAM) suggests that high temperatures create periods of higher heat stress that enhance individual aggressiveness, whereas the Routine Activities Theory (RAT) theorizes that individuals are more likely to be outdoors interacting with others during periods of pleasant weather with a resulting increase in both interpersonal interactions and victim availability. Further, few studies have considered this relationship within the context of climate change in a quantitative manner. In an effort to distinguish between the two theories, and to examine the statistical relationships on a broader spatial scale than previously, we combined data from the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR—compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation) and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR—compiled by the National Centers for Environmental Protection, a branch of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). US homicide data described by the SHR was compared with seven relevant observed climate variables (temperature, dew point, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation, accumulated snowfall, snow cover, and snow depth) provided by the NARR atmospheric reanalysis. Relationships between homicide rates and climate variables, as well as reveal regional spatial patterns will be presented and discussed, along with the implications due to future climate change. This research lays the groundwork for the refinement of estimates of an oft-overlooked climate change impact, which has previously been estimated to cause an additional 22,000 murders between 2010 and 2099, including providing important constraints for empirical models of future violent crime incidences in the face of global

  12. Gastric Varices Bleed at Lower Portosystemic Pressure Gradients than Esophageal Varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Joseph D; Mendoza-Elias, Nasya; Lipnik, Andrew J; Lokken, R Peter; Bui, James T; Ray, Charles E; Gaba, Ron C

    2018-05-01

    To quantify and compare portosystemic pressure gradients (PSGs) between bleeding esophageal varices (EV) and gastric varices (GV). In a single-center, retrospective study, 149 patients with variceal bleeding (90 men, 59 women, mean age 52 y) with EV (n = 69; 46%) or GV (n = 80; 54%) were selected from 320 consecutive patients who underwent successful transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation from 1998 to 2016. GV were subcategorized using the Sarin classification as gastroesophageal varices (GEV) (n = 57) or isolated gastric varices (IGV) (n = 23). PSG before TIPS was measured from the main portal vein to the right atrium. PSGs were compared across EV, GEV, and IGV groups using 1-way analysis of variance. Overall mean baseline PSG was 21 mm Hg ± 6. PSG was significantly higher in patients with EV versus GV (23 mm Hg vs 19 mm Hg; P IGV (16 mm Hg); this difference was statistically significant (P IGV 17 mm Hg; P IGV bled versus 9% (5/57) of GEV and 3% (2/69) of EVs (P = .169). Mean final PSG after TIPS was 8 mm Hg (IGV 6 mm Hg vs EV and GEV 8 mm Hg; P = .005). GV bleed at lower PSGs than EV. EV, GEV, and IGV bleeding is associated with successively lower PSGs. These findings highlight distinct physiology, anatomy, and behavior of GV compared with EV. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biased Iglambda expression in hypermutated IgD multiple myelomas does not result from receptor revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, M.; Bende, R. J.; Aarts, W. M.; Langerak, A. W.; van Dongen, J. J. M.; van Noesel, C. J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Normal IgM(-)IgD(+) CD38(+) B cells and IgM(-)IgD(+) multiple myelomas (MM) are characterized by Cmu deletion, biased Iglambda expression and hypermutated IgV regions. The predominant Iglambda usage has been proposed as resulting from secondary Ig gene rearrangements during extensive clonal

  14. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed toward the Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2 Detect Antigenic Differences Modulated by the N-Terminal Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1), HVR2, and Intergenotypic Variable Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammad, Yousef; Gu, Jun; Boo, Irene; Harrison, David; McCaffrey, Kathleen; Vietheer, Patricia T; Edwards, Stirling; Quinn, Charles; Coulibaly, Fásseli; Poumbourios, Pantelis; Drummer, Heidi E

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 form a heterodimer and mediate receptor interactions and viral fusion. Both E1 and E2 are targets of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response and are candidates for the production of vaccines that generate humoral immunity. Previous studies demonstrated that N-terminal hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) can modulate the neutralization potential of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), but no information is available on the influence of HVR2 or the intergenotypic variable region (igVR) on antigenicity. In this study, we examined how the variable regions influence the antigenicity of the receptor binding domain of E2 spanning HCV polyprotein residues 384 to 661 (E2661) using a panel of MAbs raised against E2661 and E2661 lacking HVR1, HVR2, and the igVR (Δ123) and well-characterized MAbs isolated from infected humans. We show for a subset of both neutralizing and nonneutralizing MAbs that all three variable regions decrease the ability of MAbs to bind E2661 and reduce the ability of MAbs to inhibit E2-CD81 interactions. In addition, we describe a new MAb directed toward the region spanning residues 411 to 428 of E2 (MAb24) that demonstrates broad neutralization against all 7 genotypes of HCV. The ability of MAb24 to inhibit E2-CD81 interactions is strongly influenced by the three variable regions. Our data suggest that HVR1, HVR2, and the igVR modulate exposure of epitopes on the core domain of E2 and their ability to prevent E2-CD81 interactions. These studies suggest that the function of HVR2 and the igVR is to modulate antibody recognition of glycoprotein E2 and may contribute to immune evasion. This study reveals conformational and antigenic differences between the Δ123 and intact E2661 glycoproteins and provides new structural and functional data about the three variable regions and their role in occluding neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on the E2 core domain. The variable regions may therefore function to

  15. Integration of an Inter Turbine Burner to a Jet Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Technology AFRL = Air Force Research Laboratory EGV = Exit Guide Vane HPT = High-Pressure Turbine ID = Inner Diameter IGV = Inlet Guide Vane...been able to show computationally that the compressor exit guide vane (EGV) and the turbine inlet guide vane ( IGV ) could be combined into a single...turbine engine hot section. The red slashed out sections are, from left to right, the compressor exit vane, HPT IGV , and the stator between the HPT and

  16. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Performance Improvements of a Cross-Flow Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    volume xvi HPC h High-pressure cavity—referred to as “Secondary Vortex Cavity” in Ref [11] Enthalpy IGV Inlet guide vane k Turbulent kinetic...Cordero [13], the pressure ratio. Assuming constant mass flow rate with the use of the inlet guide vane ( IGV ), the increase in pressure means higher...exit velocity and so higher thrust. The concept of using IGVs did not have the desired results because of higher losses being induced and the

  17. Evaluating the Impact of Localized GCM Grid Refinement on Regional Tropical Cyclone Climatology and Synoptic Variability using Variable-Resolution CAM-SE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, C.; Jablonowski, C.

    2013-12-01

    Using General Circulation Models (GCMs) to resolve sub-synoptic features in climate simulations has traditionally been difficult due to a multitude of atmospheric processes operating at subgrid scales requiring significant parameterization. For example, at traditional GCM horizontal grid resolutions of 50-300 km, tropical cyclones are generally under-resolved. This paper explores a novel variable-resolution global modeling approach that allows for high spatial resolutions in areas of interest, such as low-latitude ocean basins where tropical cyclogenesis occurs. Such multi-resolution GCM designs allow for targeted use of computing resources at the regional level while maintaining a globally-continuous model domain and may serve to bridge the gap between GCMs with uniform grids and boundary-forced limited area models. A statically-nested, variable-resolution option has recently been introduced into the Community Atmosphere Model's (CAM) Spectral Element (SE) dynamical core. A 110 km CAM-SE grid with a 28 km nest over the Atlantic Ocean has been coupled to land, ocean, and ice components within the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We present the results of a multi-decadal climate simulation using Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) protocols, which force the model with historical sea surface temperatures and airborne chemical species. To investigate whether refinement improves the representation of tropical cyclones, we compare Atlantic storm statistics to observations with specific focus paid to intensity profiles and track densities. The resolution dependance of both cyclone structure and objective detection between refined and unrefined basins is explored. In addition, we discuss the potential impact of using variable-resolution grids on the large-scale synoptic interannual variability by comparing refined grid simulations to reanalysis data as well as an unrefined, globally-uniform CAM-SE simulation with identical forcing. We also evaluate the

  18. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  19. Climate variability and wine quality over Portuguese regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Gani, Érico A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2015-04-01

    characterized in each region by high/low quality wines. Finally, we also investigated how climate variability is related to DOC wine quality for different regions using North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Results reveal a strong dependence of wine quality for all regions on maximum temperature and precipitation during spring and summer (the growing season) as expected. However the role of temperature on wine quality seems to be distinct among the diverse regions probably due to their different climate zoning. Moreover, it is shown that the differences associated with high/low quality wine are in agreement with different synoptic fields patterns. Our results suggest that this type of analysis may be used in developing a tool that may help anticipating a vintage/high quality year, based on already available seasonal climate outlooks. Santo F.E., de Lima M.I.P., Ramos A.M., Trigo R.M., Trends in seasonal surface air temperature in mainland Portugal, since 1941, International Journal Climatolology, 34: 1814-1837, doi: 10.1002/joc.3803 (2014) de Lima M.I.P., Santo F.E., Ramos A.M. , Trigo, R.M., Trends and correlations in annual extreme precipitation indices for mainland Portugal, 1941-2007, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI:10.1007/s00704-013-1079-6 (2014) Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAGGLO/4155/2012).

  20. Isolated (localized) idiopathic granulomatous (giant cell) vasculitis in an intramuscular lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando Val-Bernal, J; Val, Daniel; Calvo, Ignacio; Francisca Garijo, M

    2006-01-01

    Isolated (localized) idiopathic granulomatous vasculitis (IGV) is an uncommon, heterogeneous, and poorly defined group of disorders characterized by infiltration of the arterial wall caused by compactly grouped mononuclear phagocytes, with or without giant cells, in segmental distribution. We report on a 55-year-old woman with IGV limited to an intramuscular lipoma of the left thigh. The vasculitis was identified incidentally upon microscopic examination of the removed tumor. The IGV was centered on two medium-sized arteries, accompanied by narrowing of the lumens, and not associated with secondary changes such as infart or postinfart fibrosis. The inflammatory infiltrate was rich in T-lymphocytes and macrophages, with the presence of giant cells. The patient was asymptomatic and well in a follow-up period of 2 months, during which she was not treated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of lipoma involvement in localized IGV. It is important to distinguish cases of isolated intratumorous IGV from systemic disease, because the latter implies a poor prognosis and requires an aggressive treatment.

  1. Some aspects of regional flow of variable-density groundwater in crystalline basement rock of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, C.I.; Andersson, Johan

    1991-12-01

    The distribution of saltwaters in the Baltic shield in Sweden is consistent with ongoing but incomplete Holocene flushing and depends on the geometry and connectivity of conductive structures at both regional and local scales, and on the surface topography. Numerical simulation of regional variable-density fluid flow during Holocene land-rise and coastal regression shows that the existence of any old saltwater, whether derived from submarine recharge in regions below Sweden's highest post-glacial coastline or geochemical processes, is an indication either of slow fluid movements through the bedrock over long times, or of long travel distances through fracture systems before arriving at measurement points. During the land-rise period, regional flow is not affected by the variable density of fluids in the upper few kilometers of the shield and the topography of the water table is the only driving force. The spatial distribution of meteoric flushing water and pre-Holocene waters may be complex, with the possibility of relatively fresh water in fracture zones below salty units even at depths of a few kilometers. The domination of the topographic driving force implies that deep saltwater is not necessarily stagnant, and significant saltwater flows may be expected to occur in well-connected horizons even at depth. Local topography variation and fracture zone location combine to create a complex flow field in which local topographic driving forces extend to considerable depth in some areas, whereas regional topographic forces predominate in others. Thus, a pattern may be difficult to discern in measurements of the regional saltwater distribution, although it is clear that the coastal region is the major zone of discharge for deeper pre-Holocene fluids. During the land-rise period, regional flow equilibrates with changing climatic conditions and coastal positions, while the distribution of flushing water and older waters lags and will perpetually change between successive

  2. Regional Community Climate Simulations with variable resolution meshes in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, C. M.; Gettelman, A.; Callaghan, P.

    2017-12-01

    Accurately predicting weather extremes such as precipitation (floods and droughts) and temperature (heat waves) requires high resolution to resolve mesoscale dynamics and topography at horizontal scales of 10-30km. Simulating such resolutions globally for climate scales (years to decades) remains computationally impractical. Simulating only a small region of the planet is more tractable at these scales for climate applications. This work describes global simulations using variable-resolution static meshes with multiple dynamical cores that target the continental United States using developmental versions of the Community Earth System Model version 2 (CESM2). CESM2 is tested in idealized, aquaplanet and full physics configurations to evaluate variable mesh simulations against uniform high and uniform low resolution simulations at resolutions down to 15km. Different physical parameterization suites are also evaluated to gauge their sensitivity to resolution. Idealized variable-resolution mesh cases compare well to high resolution tests. More recent versions of the atmospheric physics, including cloud schemes for CESM2, are more stable with respect to changes in horizontal resolution. Most of the sensitivity is due to sensitivity to timestep and interactions between deep convection and large scale condensation, expected from the closure methods. The resulting full physics model produces a comparable climate to the global low resolution mesh and similar high frequency statistics in the high resolution region. Some biases are reduced (orographic precipitation in the western United States), but biases do not necessarily go away at high resolution (e.g. summertime JJA surface Temp). The simulations are able to reproduce uniform high resolution results, making them an effective tool for regional climate studies and are available in CESM2.

  3. [Effects of land use and environmental factors on the variability of soil quality indicators in hilly Loess Plateau region of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming-Xiang; Liu, Guo-Bin; Zhao, Yun-Ge

    2011-02-01

    Classical statistics methods were adopted to analyze the soil quality variability, its affecting factors, and affecting degree at a regional scale (700 km2) in the central part of hilly Loess Plateau region of China. There existed great differences in the variability of test soil quality indicators. Soil pH, structural coefficient, silt content, specific gravity, bulk density, total porosity, capillary porosity, and catalase activity were the indicators with weak variability; soil nutrients (N, P, and K) contents, CaCO3 content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay content, micro-aggregate mean mass diameter, aggregate mean mass diameter, water-stable aggregates, respiration rate, microbial quotient, invertase and phosphatase activities, respiratory quotient, and microbial carbon and nitrogen showed medium variation; while soil labile organic carbon and phosphorus contents, erosion-resistance, permeability coefficient, and urease activity were the indicators with strong variability. The variability of soil CaCO3, total P and K, CEC, texture, and specific gravity, etc. was correlated with topography and other environmental factors, while the variability of dynamic soil quality indicators, including soil organic matter content, nitrogen content, water-stable aggregates, permeability, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, enzyme activities, and respiration rate, was mainly correlated with land use type. Overall, land use pattern explained 97% of the variability of soil quality indicators in the region. It was suggested that in the evaluation of soil quality in hilly Loess Plateau region, land use type and environmental factors should be fully considered.

  4. Changes of extreme precipitation and nonlinear influence of climate variables over monsoon region in China

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tao; Wang, Huixia Judy; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-01-01

    of precipitation extremes over monsoon regions in China (MRC). However, research on monsoon extremes in China and their associations with climate variables is limited. In this study, we examine the space-time variations of extreme precipitation across the MRC

  5. Investigation of Transitional Flows on Compressor Blades in Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    shedding at various off- design inlet flow angles and Re. B. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to refurbish the cascade Inlet Guide Vanes ( IGVs ...characteristics are listed in Table 1. To attain uniform inlet-flow the tunnel was brought to Re = 640K (See Section III.A for Re calculations) and the IGVs ...Prior to this study, all IGV trailing edges were machined down to a uniform thickness, re-pinned as needed, re-shimmed for clearance and their shafts

  6. Variability in the Water Footprint of Arable Crop Production across European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gobin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop growth and yield are affected by water use during the season: the green water footprint (WF accounts for rain water, the blue WF for irrigation and the grey WF for diluting agri-chemicals. We calibrated crop yield for FAO’s water balance model “Aquacrop” at field level. We collected weather, soil and crop inputs for 45 locations for the period 1992–2012. Calibrated model runs were conducted for wheat, barley, grain maize, oilseed rape, potato and sugar beet. The WF of cereals could be up to 20 times larger than the WF of tuber and root crops; the largest share was attributed to the green WF. The green and blue WF compared favourably with global benchmark values (R2 = 0.64–0.80; d = 0.91–0.95. The variability in the WF of arable crops across different regions in Europe is mainly due to variability in crop yield ( c v ¯ = 45% and to a lesser extent to variability in crop water use ( c v ¯ = 21%. The WF variability between countries ( c v ¯ = 14% is lower than the variability between seasons ( c v ¯ = 22% and between crops ( c v ¯ = 46%. Though modelled yields increased up to 50% under sprinkler irrigation, the water footprint still increased between 1% and 25%. Confronted with drainage and runoff, the grey WF tended to overestimate the contribution of nitrogen to the surface and groundwater. The results showed that the water footprint provides a measurable indicator that may support European water governance.

  7. Intraseasonal variability of organized convective systems in the Central Andes: Relationship to Regional Dynamical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, K. I.; Slayback, D. A.; Nicholls, S.; Yager, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes extend from the west coast of Colombia (10N) to the southern tip of Chile (53S). In southern Peru and Bolivia, the Central Andes is split into separate eastern and western cordilleras, with a high plateau (≥ 3000 m), the Altiplano, between them. Because 90% of the Earth's tropical mountain glaciers are located in the Central Andes, our study focuses on this region, defining its zonal extent as 7S-21S and the meridional extent as the terrain 1000 m and greater. Although intense convection occurs during the wet season in the Altiplano, it is not included in the lists of regions with frequent or the most intense convection. The scarcity of in-situ observations with sufficient density and temporal resolution to resolve individual storms or even mesoscale-organized cloud systems and documented biases in microwave-based rainfall products in poorly gauged mountainous regions have impeded the development of an extensive literature on convection and convective systems in this region. With the tropical glaciers receding at unprecedented rates, leaving seasonal precipitation as an increasingly important input to the water balance in alpine valley ecosystems and streams, understanding the nature and characteristics of the seasonal precipitation becomes increasingly important for the rural economies in this region. Previous work in analyzing precipitation in the Central Andes has emphasized interannual variability with respect to ENSO, this is the first study to focus on shorter scale variability with respect to organized convection. The present study took advantage of the University of Utah's Precipitation Features database compiled from 14 years of TRMM observations (1998-2012), supplemented by field observations of rainfall and streamflow, historical gauge data, and long-term WRF-simulations, to analyze the intraseasonal variability of precipitating systems and their relationship regional dynamical features such as the Bolivian High. Through time series and

  8. Transforming p21 ras protein: flexibility in the major variable region linking the catalytic and membrane-anchoring domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Hubbert, N

    1985-01-01

    or increasing it to 50 amino acids has relatively little effect on the capacity of the gene to induce morphological transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Assays of GTP binding, GTPase and autophosphorylating activities of such mutant v-rasH-encoded proteins synthesized in bacteria indicated that the sequences...... that is required for post-translational processing, membrane localization and transforming activity of the proteins. We have now used the viral oncogene (v-rasH) of Harvey sarcoma virus to study the major variable region by deleting or duplicating parts of the gene. Reducing this region to five amino acids...... that encode these biochemical activities are located upstream from the major variable region. In the context of transformation, we propose that the region of sequence heterogeneity serves principally to connect the N-terminal catalytic domain with amino acids at the C terminus that are required to anchor...

  9. Validation of EURO-CORDEX regional climate models in reproducing the variability of precipitation extremes in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Busuioc, Aristita

    2016-04-01

    EURO-CORDEX is the European branch of the international CORDEX initiative that aims to provide improved regional climate change projections for Europe. The main objective of this paper is to document the performance of the individual models in reproducing the variability of precipitation extremes in Romania. Here three EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) ensemble (scenario RCP4.5) are analysed and inter-compared: DMI-HIRHAM5, KNMI-RACMO2.2 and MPI-REMO. Compared to previous studies, when the RCM validation regarding the Romanian climate has mainly been made on mean state and at station scale, a more quantitative approach of precipitation extremes is proposed. In this respect, to have a more reliable comparison with observation, a high resolution daily precipitation gridded data set was used as observational reference (CLIMHYDEX project). The comparison between the RCM outputs and observed grid point values has been made by calculating three extremes precipitation indices, recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection Indices (ETCCDI), for the 1976-2005 period: R10MM, annual count of days when precipitation ≥10mm; RX5DAY, annual maximum 5-day precipitation and R95P%, precipitation fraction of annual total precipitation due to daily precipitation > 95th percentile. The RCMs capability to reproduce the mean state for these variables, as well as the main modes of their spatial variability (given by the first three EOF patterns), are analysed. The investigation confirms the ability of RCMs to simulate the main features of the precipitation extreme variability over Romania, but some deficiencies in reproducing of their regional characteristics were found (for example, overestimation of the mea state, especially over the extra Carpathian regions). This work has been realised within the research project "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania" (CLIMHYDEX), code PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, financed by the Romanian

  10. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation.

    In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period.

    Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis.

    The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index.

    Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of

  11. Near-surface wind variability over the broader Adriatic region: insights from an ensemble of regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belušić, Andreina; Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Güttler, Ivan; Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Schär, Christoph

    2018-06-01

    Over the past few decades the horizontal resolution of regional climate models (RCMs) has steadily increased, leading to a better representation of small-scale topographic features and more details in simulating dynamical aspects, especially in coastal regions and over complex terrain. Due to its complex terrain, the broader Adriatic region represents a major challenge to state-of-the-art RCMs in simulating local wind systems realistically. The objective of this study is to identify the added value in near-surface wind due to the refined grid spacing of RCMs. For this purpose, we use a multi-model ensemble composed of CORDEX regional climate simulations at 0.11° and 0.44° grid spacing, forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis, a COSMO convection-parameterizing simulation at 0.11° and a COSMO convection-resolving simulation at 0.02° grid spacing. Surface station observations from this region and satellite QuikSCAT data over the Adriatic Sea have been compared against daily output obtained from the available simulations. Both day-to-day wind and its frequency distribution are examined. The results indicate that the 0.44° RCMs rarely outperform ERA-Interim reanalysis, while the performance of the high-resolution simulations surpasses that of ERA-Interim. We also disclose that refining the grid spacing to a few km is needed to properly capture the small-scale wind systems. Finally, we show that the simulations frequently yield the accurate angle of local wind regimes, such as for the Bora flow, but overestimate the associated wind magnitude. Finally, spectral analysis shows good agreement between measurements and simulations, indicating the correct temporal variability of the wind speed.

  12. Analysis of source regions and meteorological factors for the variability of spring PM10 concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangho; Kim, Kwang-Yul

    2018-02-01

    CSEOF analysis is applied for the springtime (March, April, May) daily PM10 concentrations measured at 23 Ministry of Environment stations in Seoul, Korea for the period of 2003-2012. Six meteorological variables at 12 pressure levels are also acquired from the ERA Interim reanalysis datasets. CSEOF analysis is conducted for each meteorological variable over East Asia. Regression analysis is conducted in CSEOF space between the PM10 concentrations and individual meteorological variables to identify associated atmospheric conditions for each CSEOF mode. By adding the regressed loading vectors with the mean meteorological fields, the daily atmospheric conditions are obtained for the first five CSEOF modes. Then, HYSPLIT model is run with the atmospheric conditions for each CSEOF mode in order to back trace the air parcels and dust reaching Seoul. The K-means clustering algorithm is applied to identify major source regions for each CSEOF mode of the PM10 concentrations in Seoul. Three main source regions identified based on the mean fields are: (1) northern Taklamakan Desert (NTD), (2) Gobi Desert and (GD), and (3) East China industrial area (ECI). The main source regions for the mean meteorological fields are consistent with those of previous study; 41% of the source locations are located in GD followed by ECI (37%) and NTD (21%). Back trajectory calculations based on CSEOF analysis of meteorological variables identify distinct source characteristics associated with each CSEOF mode and greatly facilitate the interpretation of the PM10 variability in Seoul in terms of transportation route and meteorological conditions including the source area.

  13. Variant Review with the Integrative Genomics Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James T; Thorvaldsdóttir, Helga; Wenger, Aaron M; Zehir, Ahmet; Mesirov, Jill P

    2017-11-01

    Manual review of aligned reads for confirmation and interpretation of variant calls is an important step in many variant calling pipelines for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. Visual inspection can greatly increase the confidence in calls, reduce the risk of false positives, and help characterize complex events. The Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV) was one of the first tools to provide NGS data visualization, and it currently provides a rich set of tools for inspection, validation, and interpretation of NGS datasets, as well as other types of genomic data. Here, we present a short overview of IGV's variant review features for both single-nucleotide variants and structural variants, with examples from both cancer and germline datasets. IGV is freely available at https://www.igv.org Cancer Res; 77(21); e31-34. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YSOs IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION GGD12-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Günther, H. Moritz; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Forbrich, J. [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-5 Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [Department of Physics Astronomy and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA 98225-9164 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: swolk@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We present an IR-monitoring survey with the Spitzer Space Telescope of the star-forming region GGD 12-15. More than 1000 objects were monitored, including about 350 objects within the central 5′, which is found to be especially dense in cluster members. The monitoring took place over 38 days and is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability project. The region was also the subject of a contemporaneous 67 ks Chandra observation. The field includes 119 previously identified pre-main sequence star candidates. X-rays are detected from 164 objects, 90 of which are identified with cluster members. Overall, we find that about half the objects in the central 5′ are young stellar objects (YSOs) based on a combination of their spectral energy distribution, IR variability, and X-ray emission. Most of the stars with IR excess relative to a photosphere show large amplitude (>0.1 mag) mid-infrared (mid-IR) variability. There are 39 periodic sources, and all but one is found to be a cluster member. Almost half of the periodic sources do not show IR excesses. Overall, more than 85% of the Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II sources are found to vary. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Most of the Class I/II objects exhibit redder colors in a fainter state, which is compatible with time-variable extinction. A few become bluer when fainter, which can be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. A search for changes in the IR due to X-ray events is carried out, but the low number of flares prevented an analysis of the direct impact of X-ray flares on the IR light curves. However, we find that X-ray detected Class II sources have longer timescales for change in the MIR than a similar set of non-X-ray detected Class IIs.

  15. Understanding Short-Term Nonmigrating Tidal Variability in the Ionospheric Dynamo Region from SABER Using Information Theory and Bayesian Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, K.; Oberheide, J.

    2017-12-01

    Nonmigrating tidal diagnostics of SABER temperature observations in the ionospheric dynamo region reveal a large amount of variability on time-scales of a few days to weeks. In this paper, we discuss the physical reasons for the observed short-term tidal variability using a novel approach based on Information theory and Bayesian statistics. We diagnose short-term tidal variability as a function of season, QBO, ENSO, and solar cycle and other drivers using time dependent probability density functions, Shannon entropy and Kullback-Leibler divergence. The statistical significance of the approach and its predictive capability is exemplified using SABER tidal diagnostics with emphasis on the responses to the QBO and solar cycle. Implications for F-region plasma density will be discussed.

  16. Climate variability and land cover change over the North American monsoon region (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X.; Scheftic, W. D.; Broxton, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    The North American Monsoon System over Mexico and southwestern United States represents a weather/climate and ecosystem coupled "macrosystem". The weather and climate affect the seasonal and interannual variability of ecosystem, while the ecosystem change affects surface energy, water, and carbon fluxes that, in turn, affect weather and climate. Furthermore, long-term weather/climate data have a much coarser horizontal resolution than the satellite land cover data. Here the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data at 32 km grid spacing will be combined with various satellite remote sensing products at 1 km and/or 8 km resolution from AVHRR, MODIS, and SPOT for the period of 1982 to present. Our analysis includes: a) precipitation, wind, and precipitable water data from NARR to characterize the North American monsoon; b) land cover type, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green vegetation fraction, and leaf-area index (LAI) data to characterize the seasonal and interannual variability of ecosystem; c) assessing the consistency of various satellite products; and d) testing the coherence in the weather/climate and ecosystem variability.

  17. Structural model and trans-interaction of the entire ectodomain of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Ole; Rasmussen, Kim K

    2011-01-01

    of six recombinant proteins corresponding to different regions of the ectodomain. The model is the longest experimentally based composite structural model of an entire IgCAM ectodomain. It displays an essentially linear arrangement of IgI-V, followed by bends between IgV and Fn3I and between Fn3I and Fn3...

  18. Regional regression models of percentile flows for the contiguous United States: Expert versus data-driven independent variable selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Fouad

    2018-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: A set of three variables selected based on an expert assessment of factors that influence percentile flows performed similarly to larger sets of variables selected using a data-driven method. Expert assessment variables included mean annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and baseflow index. Larger sets of up to 37 variables contributed little, if any, additional predictive information. Variables used to describe the distribution of basin data (e.g. standard deviation were not useful, and average values were sufficient to characterize physical and climatic basin conditions. Effectiveness of the expert assessment variables may be due to the high degree of multicollinearity (i.e. cross-correlation among additional variables. A tool is provided in the Supplementary material to predict percentile flows based on the three expert assessment variables. Future work should develop new variables with a strong understanding of the processes related to percentile flows.

  19. Vortex Whistle in Radial Intake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tse, Man-Chun

    2004-01-01

    In a radial-to-axial intake with inlet guide vanes (IGV) at the entry, a strong flow circulation Gamma can be generated from the tangential flow components created by the IGVs when their setting exceed about halfclosing (approx. 45 deg...

  20. Intraseasonal variability in the far-east pacific: investigation of the role of air-sea coupling in a regional coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, R.J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Jacobs Technology, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States); University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Center, POST 401, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Center, POST 401, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of Hawaii, Department of Meteorology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Maloney, Eric D. [Colorado State University, Department of Atmospheric Science, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Szoeke, Simon P. de [Oregon State University, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Corvallis, OR (United States); Miyama, Toru [Frontier Research for Global Change, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Intraseasonal variability in the eastern Pacific warm pool in summer is studied, using a regional ocean-atmosphere model, a linear baroclinic model (LBM), and satellite observations. The atmospheric component of the model is forced by lateral boundary conditions from reanalysis data. The aim is to quantify the importance to atmospheric deep convection of local air-sea coupling. In particular, the effect of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on surface heat fluxes is examined. Intraseasonal (20-90 day) east Pacific warm-pool zonal wind and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) variability in the regional coupled model are correlated at 0.8 and 0.6 with observations, respectively, significant at the 99% confidence level. The strength of the intraseasonal variability in the coupled model, as measured by the variance of outgoing longwave radiation, is close in magnitude to that observed, but with a maximum located about 10 further west. East Pacific warm pool intraseasonal convection and winds agree in phase with those from observations, suggesting that remote forcing at the boundaries associated with the Madden-Julian oscillation determines the phase of intraseasonal convection in the east Pacific warm pool. When the ocean model component is replaced by weekly reanalysis SST in an atmosphere-only experiment, there is a slight improvement in the location of the highest OLR variance. Further sensitivity experiments with the regional atmosphere-only model in which intraseasonal SST variability is removed indicate that convective variability has only a weak dependence on the SST variability, but a stronger dependence on the climatological mean SST distribution. A scaling analysis confirms that wind speed anomalies give a much larger contribution to the intraseasonal evaporation signal than SST anomalies, in both model and observations. A LBM is used to show that local feedbacks would serve to amplify intraseasonal convection and the large-scale circulation. Further

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF THOSE VARIABLES THAT HAVE A SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE ON THE EXPECTED NUMBER OF DAYS OF STAYING IN THE CENTRE DEVELOPMENT REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available I started from the assumption that there are more variables that have a significant influence on the expected number of days of staying in the Centre Development Region. To identify those variables this paper includes the analysis of variance with two variables that are not interacting, in this case the dependent variable is the question "How many days did you plan to stay in Centre Development Region?" and the independent variables are: "What is the purpose of your stay?" "What is the highest level of education?". Given that there are cases when interactions occur between variables, I also analyzed the interaction effects between the two independent variables. The paper also includes an ANOVA analysis with three variables between which interactions relationships occur. After identifying the dependency relations between the variables I found that the inclusion of the third variable, namely the "Marital status" of respondents, adds value to the model. Following the results obtained by ANOVA analysis, I identified those socio-demographic characteristics that, in my opinion, companies that operate on tourist market in the Center Development Region should consider when fundamenting marketing strategies in tourism.

  2. Exploring the Links in Monthly to Decadal Variability of the Atmospheric Water Balance Over the Wettest Regions in ERA-20C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, M.

    2017-10-01

    Monthly-to-decadal variability of the regional precipitation over Intertropical Convergence Zone and north-Atlantic and north-Pacific storm tracks was investigated using ERA-20C reanalysis. Satellite-based precipitation (P) and evaporation (E) climatological patterns were well reproduced by ERA-20C. Regional P and E monthly time series displayed 20% differences, but these decreased rapidly with time scale ( 10% at yearly time scales). Spectral analysis showed good scale-by-scale statistical agreement between ERA-20C and observations. Using ERA-Interim showed no improvement despite the much wider range of information assimilated (including satellites). Remarkably high Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis coefficients (ρDCCA > 0.7 and often ρDCCA > 0.9) revealed tight links between the nonperiodic variability of P, moisture divergence (DIV), and pressure velocity (ω) at monthly-to-decadal time scales over all the wet regions. In contrast, ρDCCA was essentially nonsignificant between nonperiodic P and E or sea surface temperature (SST). Thus, the nonperiodic monthly-to-decadal variability of precipitation in these regions is almost fully controlled by dynamics and not by local E or SST (suggested by Clausius-Clapeyron relation). Analysis of regional nonperiodic standard deviations and power spectra (and respective spectral exponents, β) provided further robustness to this conclusion. Finally, clear transitions in β for P, DIV, and ω between tropical and storm track regions were found. The latter is dominated by transient storms, with energy accumulation at synoptic scales and β β values (0.2 to 0.4) were found in the tropics, implying longer-range autocorrelations and slower decreasing variability and information creation with time scale, consistent with the important forcing from internal modes of variability (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation).

  3. Climate related diseases. Current regional variability and projections to the year 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażejczyk Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The health of individuals and societies depends on different factors including atmospheric conditions which influence humans in direct and indirect ways. The paper presents regional variability of some climate related diseases (CRD in Poland: salmonellosis intoxications, Lyme boreliosis, skin cancers (morbidity and mortality, influenza, overcooling deaths, as well as respiratory and circulatory mortality. The research consisted of two stages: 1 statistical modelling basing on past data and 2 projections of CRD for three SRES scenarios of climate change (A1B, A2, B1 to the year 2100. Several simple and multiply regression models were found for the relationships between climate variables and CRD. The models were applied to project future levels of CRD. At the end of 21st century we must expect increase in: circulatory mortality, Lyme boreliosis infections and skin cancer morbidity and mortality. There is also projected decrease in: respiratory mortality, overcooling deaths and influenza infections.

  4. Collaborative Research: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-12-28

    This project developed and applied a regional Arctic System model for enhanced decadal predictions. It built on successful research by four of the current PIs with support from the DOE Climate Change Prediction Program, which has resulted in the development of a fully coupled Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM) consisting of atmosphere, land-hydrology, ocean and sea ice components. An expanded RACM, a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), has been set up to include ice sheets, ice caps, mountain glaciers, and dynamic vegetation to allow investigation of coupled physical processes responsible for decadal-scale climate change and variability in the Arctic. RASM can have high spatial resolution (~4-20 times higher than currently practical in global models) to advance modeling of critical processes and determine the need for their explicit representation in Global Earth System Models (GESMs). The pan-Arctic region is a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification. However, a system-level understanding of critical arctic processes and feedbacks needs further development. Rapid climate change has occurred in a number of Arctic System components during the past few decades, including retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, increased surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet, acceleration and thinning of outlet glaciers, reduced snow cover, thawing permafrost, and shifts in vegetation. Such changes could have significant ramifications for global sea level, the ocean thermohaline circulation and heat budget, ecosystems, native communities, natural resource exploration, and commercial transportation. The overarching goal of the RASM project has been to advance understanding of past and present states of arctic climate and to improve seasonal to decadal predictions. To do this the project has focused on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The three foci of this research are: - Changes

  5. The spread amongst ENSEMBLES regional scenarios: regional climate models, driving general circulation models and interannual variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deque, M.; Somot, S. [Meteo-France, Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, CNRS/GAME, Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Sanchez-Gomez, E. [Cerfacs/CNRS, SUC URA1875, Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Goodess, C.M. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom); Jacob, D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Lenderink, G. [KNMI, Postbus 201, De Bilt (Netherlands); Christensen, O.B. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen Oe (Denmark)

    2012-03-15

    Various combinations of thirteen regional climate models (RCM) and six general circulation models (GCM) were used in FP6-ENSEMBLES. The response to the SRES-A1B greenhouse gas concentration scenario over Europe, calculated as the difference between the 2021-2050 and the 1961-1990 means can be viewed as an expected value about which various uncertainties exist. Uncertainties are measured here by variance explained for temperature and precipitation changes over eight European sub-areas. Three sources of uncertainty can be evaluated from the ENSEMBLES database. Sampling uncertainty is due to the fact that the model climate is estimated as an average over a finite number of years (30) despite a non-negligible interannual variability. Regional model uncertainty is due to the fact that the RCMs use different techniques to discretize the equations and to represent sub-grid effects. Global model uncertainty is due to the fact that the RCMs have been driven by different GCMs. Two methods are presented to fill the many empty cells of the ENSEMBLES RCM x GCM matrix. The first one is based on the same approach as in FP5-PRUDENCE. The second one uses the concept of weather regimes to attempt to separate the contribution of the GCM and the RCM. The variance of the climate response is analyzed with respect to the contribution of the GCM and the RCM. The two filling methods agree that the main contributor to the spread is the choice of the GCM, except for summer precipitation where the choice of the RCM dominates the uncertainty. Of course the implication of the GCM to the spread varies with the region, being maximum in the South-western part of Europe, whereas the continental parts are more sensitive to the choice of the RCM. The third cause of spread is systematically the interannual variability. The total uncertainty about temperature is not large enough to mask the 2021-2050 response which shows a similar pattern to the one obtained for 2071-2100 in PRUDENCE. The uncertainty

  6. SysBioCube: A Data Warehouse and Integrative Data Analysis Platform Facilitating Systems Biology Studies of Disorders of Military Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    include interactive gene and methylation profiles, interactive heatmaps, cytoscape network views, integrative genomics viewer ( IGV ), and protein-protein...single chart. The website also provides an option to include multiple genes. Integrative Genomics Viewer ( IGV )1, is a high-performance desktop tool for

  7. Sensitivity of extreme precipitation to temperature: the variability of scaling factors from a regional to local perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Kirchengast, G.

    2018-06-01

    Potential increases in extreme rainfall induced hazards in a warming climate have motivated studies to link precipitation intensities to temperature. Increases exceeding the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate of 6-7%/°C-1 are seen in short-duration, convective, high-percentile rainfall at mid latitudes, but the rates of change cease or revert at regionally variable threshold temperatures due to moisture limitations. It is unclear, however, what these findings mean in term of the actual risk of extreme precipitation on a regional to local scale. When conditioning precipitation intensities on local temperatures, key influences on the scaling relationship such as from the annual cycle and regional weather patterns need better understanding. Here we analyze these influences, using sub-hourly to daily precipitation data from a dense network of 189 stations in south-eastern Austria. We find that the temperature sensitivities in the mountainous western region are lower than in the eastern lowlands. This is due to the different weather patterns that cause extreme precipitation in these regions. Sub-hourly and hourly intensities intensify at super-CC and CC-rates, respectively, up to temperatures of about 17 °C. However, we also find that, because of the regional and seasonal variability of the precipitation intensities, a smaller scaling factor can imply a larger absolute change in intensity. Our insights underline that temperature precipitation scaling requires careful interpretation of the intent and setting of the study. When this is considered, conditional scaling factors can help to better understand which influences control the intensification of rainfall with temperature on a regional scale.

  8. Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Synthetic Jet Fuel Analysis in the Ultra Compact Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Performance Turbine Engine Technology ICCD Intensifying Charge Couple Device IGV Inlet guide vanes ISSI Innovative Scientific Solutions Inc. ITB...centerbody in Fig. 5 simulate inlet guide vanes ( IGV ) or stator blades. In each airfoil, there is a radial vane cavity (RVC) establishing an intermediate

  9. Climate and climate variability of the wind power resources in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Li; S. Zhong; X. Bian; W.E. Heilman

    2010-01-01

    The climate and climate variability of low-level winds over the Great Lakes region of the United States is examined using 30 year (1979-2008) wind records from the recently released North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), a three-dimensional, high-spatial and temporal resolution, and dynamically consistent climate data set. The analyses focus on spatial distribution...

  10. Using non-systematic surveys to investigate effects of regional climate variability on Australasian gannets in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mridula; Dassis, Mariela; Benn, Emily; Stockin, Karen A.; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have investigated regional and natural climate variability on seabird populations using ocean reanalysis datasets (e.g. Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA)) that integrate atmospheric information to supplement ocean observations and provide improved estimates of ocean conditions. Herein we use a non-systematic dataset on Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) from 2001 to 2009 to identify potential connections between Gannet Sightings Per Unit Effort (GSPUE) and climate and oceanographic variability in a region of known importance for breeding seabirds, the Hauraki Gulf (HG), New Zealand. While no statistically significant relationships between GSPUE and global climate indices were determined, there was a significant correlation between GSPUE and regional SST anomaly for HG. Also, there appears to be a strong link between global climate indices and regional climate in the HG. Further, based on cross-correlation function coefficients and lagged multiple regression models, we identified potential leading and lagging climate variables, and climate variables but with limited predictive capacity in forecasting future GSPUE. Despite significant inter-annual variability and marginally cooler SSTs since 2001, gannet sightings appear to be increasing. We hypothesize that at present underlying physical changes in the marine ecosystem may be insufficient to affect supply of preferred gannet main prey (pilchard Sardinops spp.), which tolerate a wide thermal range. Our study showcases the potential scientific value of lengthy non-systematic data streams and when designed properly (i.e., contain abundance, flock size, and spatial data), can yield useful information in climate impact studies on seabirds and other marine fauna. Such information can be invaluable for enhancing conservation measures for protected species in fiscally constrained research environments.

  11. Representing major soil variability at regional scale by constrained Latin Hypercube Sampling of remote sensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.; Bruin, de S.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sparse, remote sensing-based sampling approach making use of conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) to assess variability in soil properties at regional scale. The method optimizes the sampling scheme for a defined spatial population based on selected covariates, which are

  12. Increased topographical variability of task-related activation in perceptive and motor associative regions in adult autistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pier Poulin-Lord

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Different and possibly unique strategies are used by each autistic individual. That enhanced variability in localization of activations in the autistic group is found in regions typically more variable in non-autistics raises the possibility that autism involves an enhancement and/or an alteration of typical plasticity mechanisms. The current study also highlights the necessity to verify, in fMRI studies involving autistic people, that hypoactivation at the group level does not result from each individual successfully completing a task using a unique brain allocation, even by comparison to his own group.

  13. Rainfall variability, climate change and regionalization in the African monsoon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Bernard; Roucou, Pascal; Vigaud, Nicolas; Camara, Moctar; Konare, Abdourahamane; Sanda, Seidou Ibrah; Diedhiou, Arona; Janicot, Serge

    2012-01-01

    This summary recalls some results at the end of the AMMA international experiment (2003-2010) in terms of variability of the African monsoon at the intra-seasonal to multi-decadal scales and of climate prospective. The results confirmed the weight of surface temperatures and marine tele-connections for inter-annual and decadal fluctuations and stressed the importance of atmospheric variability. They also described the dominant modes of intra-seasonal variability as their interactions with the surface. Several hypotheses involving memory effects related to soil water and vegetation, particularly in boreal spring and autumn have also been made. Prospective analysis from model output suggests rainfall surplus around 2050 over the Eastern-central Sahel and relative deficit to the West. Phase 2 of AMMA (2010-2020) will focus more on aspects that have a high social impact in direct collaboration with meteorological services predictability, prediction scores, operational indicators, evaluation of the part of anthropogenic forcing in the current and future variations. (authors)

  14. Variability of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the southern hemisphere: a regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H.; Hendon, H. H.; Lim, E.-P.; Boschat, G.; Maloney, E.; Timbal, B.

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the regional impacts of variations in the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere, regional Hadley circulations are defined in three sectors centered on the main tropical heat sources over Africa, Asia-Pacific (Maritime Continent) and the Americas. These regional circulations are defined by computing a streamfunction from the divergent component of the meridional wind. A major finding from this study is that year-to-year variability in the extent of the hemispheric Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is primarily governed by variations of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Asia-Pacific sector, especially during austral spring and summer when there is little co-variability with the African sector, and the American sector exhibits an out of phase behavior. An expanded Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (both hemispherically and in the Asia-Pacific sector) is associated with La Niña conditions and a poleward expansion of the tropical wet zone in the Asia-Pacific sector. While La Niña also promotes expansion in the American and African sectors during austral winter, these tropical conditions tend to promote contraction in the two sectors during austral summer as a result of compensating convergence over the Americas and Africa sectors: a process driven by variations in the Walker circulation and Rossby wave trains emanating from the tropical Indian Ocean.

  15. Improving plot- and regional-scale crop models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, F.; Rötter, R.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies on global climate report that climate variability is increasing with more frequent and intense extreme events1. There are quite large uncertainties from both the plot- and regional-scale models in simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes on crop development, growth and productivity2,3. One key to reducing the uncertainties is better exploitation of experimental data to eliminate crop model deficiencies and develop better algorithms that more adequately capture the impacts of extreme events, such as high temperature and drought, on crop performance4,5. In the present study, in a first step, the inter-annual variability in wheat yield and climate from 1971 to 2012 in Finland was investigated. Using statistical approaches the impacts of climate variability and extremes on wheat growth and productivity were quantified. In a second step, a plot-scale model, WOFOST6, and a regional-scale crop model, MCWLA7, were calibrated and validated, and applied to simulate wheat growth and yield variability from 1971-2012. Next, the estimated impacts of high temperature stress, cold damage, and drought stress on crop growth and productivity based on the statistical approaches, and on crop simulation models WOFOST and MCWLA were compared. Then, the impact mechanisms of climate extremes on crop growth and productivity in the WOFOST model and MCWLA model were identified, and subsequently, the various algorithm and impact functions were fitted against the long-term crop trial data. Finally, the impact mechanisms, algorithms and functions in WOFOST model and MCWLA model were improved to better simulate the impacts of climate variability and extremes, particularly high temperature stress, cold damage and drought stress for location-specific and large area climate impact assessments. Our studies provide a good example of how to improve, in parallel, the plot- and regional-scale models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes, as needed for

  16. Variability in large-scale wind power generation: Variability in large-scale wind power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiviluoma, Juha [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Weir, David [Energy Department, Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo Norway; Scharff, Richard [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electric Power Systems, Stockholm Sweden; Söder, Lennart [Royal Institute of Technology, Electric Power Systems, Stockholm Sweden; Menemenlis, Nickie [Institut de recherche Hydro-Québec, Montreal Canada; Cutululis, Nicolaos A. [DTU, Wind Energy, Roskilde Denmark; Danti Lopez, Irene [Electricity Research Centre, University College Dublin, Dublin Ireland; Lannoye, Eamonn [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto California USA; Estanqueiro, Ana [LNEG, Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia, UESEO, Lisbon Spain; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [Renewable Energy Research Institute and DIEEAC/EDII-AB, Castilla-La Mancha University, Albacete Spain; Zhang, Qin [State Grid Corporation of China, Beijing China; Bai, Jianhua [State Grid Energy Research Institute Beijing, Beijing China; Wan, Yih-Huei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Transmission and Grid Integration Group, Golden Colorado USA; Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Transmission and Grid Integration Group, Golden Colorado USA

    2015-10-25

    The paper demonstrates the characteristics of wind power variability and net load variability in multiple power systems based on real data from multiple years. Demonstrated characteristics include probability distribution for different ramp durations, seasonal and diurnal variability and low net load events. The comparison shows regions with low variability (Sweden, Spain and Germany), medium variability (Portugal, Ireland, Finland and Denmark) and regions with higher variability (Quebec, Bonneville Power Administration and Electric Reliability Council of Texas in North America; Gansu, Jilin and Liaoning in China; and Norway and offshore wind power in Denmark). For regions with low variability, the maximum 1 h wind ramps are below 10% of nominal capacity, and for regions with high variability, they may be close to 30%. Wind power variability is mainly explained by the extent of geographical spread, but also higher capacity factor causes higher variability. It was also shown how wind power ramps are autocorrelated and dependent on the operating output level. When wind power was concentrated in smaller area, there were outliers with high changes in wind output, which were not present in large areas with well-dispersed wind power.

  17. Santa Ana Winds of Southern California: Their Climatology and Variability Spanning 6.5 Decades from Regional Dynamical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Morales, J.; Gershunov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana Winds (SAWs) are an integral feature of the regional climate of Southern California/Northern Baja California region. In spite of their tremendous episodic impacts on the health, economy and mood of the region, climate-scale behavior of SAW is poorly understood. In the present work, we identify SAWs in mesoscale dynamical downscaling of a global reanalysis product and construct an hourly SAW catalogue spanning 65 years. We describe the long-term SAW climatology at relevant time-space resolutions, i.e, we developed local and regional SAW indices and analyse their variability on hourly, daily, annual, and multi-decadal timescales. Local and regional SAW indices are validated with available anemometer observations. Characteristic behaviors are revealed, e.g. the SAW intensity-duration relationship. At interdecadal time scales, we find that seasonal SAW activity is sensitive to prominent large-scale low-frequency modes of climate variability rooted in the tropical and north Pacific ocean-atmosphere system that are also known to affect the hydroclimate of this region. Lastly, we do not find any long-term trend in SAW frequency and intensity as previously reported. Instead, we identify a significant long-term trend in SAW behavior whereby contribution of extreme SAW events to total seasonal SAW activity has been increasing at the expense of moderate events. These findings motivate further investigation on SAW evolution in future climate and its impact on wildfires.

  18. Multi-Site and Multi-Variables Statistical Downscaling Technique in the Monsoon Dominated Region of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Firdos; Pilz, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    South Asia is under the severe impacts of changing climate and global warming. The last two decades showed that climate change or global warming is happening and the first decade of 21st century is considered as the warmest decade over Pakistan ever in history where temperature reached 53 0C in 2010. Consequently, the spatio-temporal distribution and intensity of precipitation is badly effected and causes floods, cyclones and hurricanes in the region which further have impacts on agriculture, water, health etc. To cope with the situation, it is important to conduct impact assessment studies and take adaptation and mitigation remedies. For impact assessment studies, we need climate variables at higher resolution. Downscaling techniques are used to produce climate variables at higher resolution; these techniques are broadly divided into two types, statistical downscaling and dynamical downscaling. The target location of this study is the monsoon dominated region of Pakistan. One reason for choosing this area is because the contribution of monsoon rains in this area is more than 80 % of the total rainfall. This study evaluates a statistical downscaling technique which can be then used for downscaling climatic variables. Two statistical techniques i.e. quantile regression and copula modeling are combined in order to produce realistic results for climate variables in the area under-study. To reduce the dimension of input data and deal with multicollinearity problems, empirical orthogonal functions will be used. Advantages of this new method are: (1) it is more robust to outliers as compared to ordinary least squares estimates and other estimation methods based on central tendency and dispersion measures; (2) it preserves the dependence among variables and among sites and (3) it can be used to combine different types of distributions. This is important in our case because we are dealing with climatic variables having different distributions over different meteorological

  19. Changes of extreme precipitation and nonlinear influence of climate variables over monsoon region in China

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tao

    2017-07-19

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) are well understood to be major drivers for the variability of precipitation extremes over monsoon regions in China (MRC). However, research on monsoon extremes in China and their associations with climate variables is limited. In this study, we examine the space-time variations of extreme precipitation across the MRC, and assess the time-varying influences of the climate drivers using Bayesian dynamic linear regression and their combined nonlinear effects through fitting generalized additive models. Results suggest that the central-east and south China is dominated by less frequent but more intense precipitation. Extreme rainfalls show significant positive trends, coupled with a significant decline of dry spells, indicating an increasing chance of occurrence of flood-induced disasters in the MRC during 1960–2014. Majority of the regional indices display some abrupt shifts during the 1990s. The influences of climate variables on monsoon extremes exhibit distinct interannual or interdecadal variations. IOD, ENSO and AMO have strong impacts on monsoon and extreme precipitation, especially during the 1990s, which is generally consistent with the abrupt shifts in precipitation regimes around this period. Moreover, ENSO mainly affects moderate rainfalls and dry spells, while IOD has a more significant impact on precipitation extremes. These findings could be helpful for improving the forecasting of monsoon extremes in China and the evaluations of climate models.

  20. Figure 1 from Integrative Genomics Viewer: Visualizing Big Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A screenshot of the IGV user interface at the chromosome view. IGV user interface showing five data types (copy number, methylation, gene expression, and loss of heterozygosity; mutations are overlaid with black boxes) from approximately 80 glioblastoma multiforme samples. Adapted from Figure S1; Robinson et al. 2011

  1. Molecular Targeted Therapies of Childhood Choroid Plexus Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Copy number analysis was performed using Partek Genomics Suite (PGS, Partek Inc. St. Louis, MO) and visualized using Integrative Genomic Viewer ( IGV ...http://www.broad.mit.edu/ igv /) ● Normalization of all data was then performed with SNP 6.0 files created for the third phase of the International

  2. Glomerular hypertrophy in subjects with low nephron number: contributions of sex, body size and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Zimanyi, Monika A; Armitage, James A; Hughson, Michael D; Kerr, Peter G; Bertram, John F

    2014-09-01

    We have shown that low nephron number (Nglom) is a strong determinant of individual glomerular volume (IGV) in male Americans. However, whether the same pattern is present in female Americans remains unclear. The contributions of body surface area (BSA) and race to IGV in the context of Nglom also require further evaluation. Kidneys without overt renal disease were collected at autopsy in Mississippi, USA. The extremes of female Nglom were used to define high and low Nglom for both sexes. Nglom and IGV were estimated by design-based stereology. A total of 24 African and Caucasian American females (n = 12 per race; 6 per Nglom extreme) were included. These subjects were subsequently matched to 24 comparable males by age and Nglom and to 18 additional males by age, Nglom and BSA. IGV average and variance were very similar in female African and Caucasian Americans with high and low Nglom. Males with low Nglom from both races showed greater IGV average and variance than comparable females matched by age and Nglom. These differences in IGV between sexes were not observed in Caucasian Americans with low Nglom that were matched by age, Nglom and BSA. In contrast, glomeruli from African Americans were larger than those from Caucasian Americans, especially in subjects with high Nglom. While female Americans with low Nglom did not show glomerular hypertrophy, comparable males with low Nglom showed marked glomerular hypertrophy that was closely associated with high BSA. Glomerular size in African Americans may be confounded by multiple additional factors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of volumes of individual glomeruli in kidneys at autopsy: association with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, W E; Hughson, M D; Zimanyi, M; Samuel, T; Douglas-Denton, R; Holden, L; Mott, S; Bertram, J F

    2010-11-01

    Glomerular hypertrophy occurs in a number of normal and pathological states. Glomerular volume in kidneys at autopsy is usually indirectly derived from estimates of total glomerular mass and nephron number, and provides only a single value per kidney, with no indication of the range of volumes of glomeruli within the kidney of any given subject. We review findings of the distribution of volumes of different glomeruli within subjects without kidney disease, and their correlations with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index (BMI). The study describes findings from autopsy kidneys of selected adult white males from the Southeast USA who had unexpected deaths, and who did not have renal scarring or renal disease. Total glomerular (nephron) number and total glomerular volume were estimated using the disector/fractionator combination, and mean glomerular volume (Vglom) was derived. The volumes of 30 individual glomeruli (IGV) in each subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri method. IGV values were compared by categories of age, nephron number, birth weight and BMI. There was substantial variation in IGV within subjects. Older age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight and gross obesity were associated with higher mean IGV and with greater IGV heterogeneity. High Vglom and high IGVs were associated with more glomerulosclerosis. However, amongst the generally modest numbers of sclerosed glomeruli, the pattern was uniformly of ischemic collapse of the glomerular tuft. There was no detectable focal segmental glomerular tuft injury. In this series of people without overt renal disease, greater age, nephron deficit, lower birth weight and obesity were marked by glomerular enlargement and greater glomerular volume heterogeneity within individuals.

  4. Quantifying uncertainty due to internal variability using high-resolution regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, E. D.; Ikeda, K.; Deser, C.; Rasmussen, R.; Clark, M. P.; Arnold, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The uncertainty in future climate predictions is as large or larger than the mean climate change signal. As such, any predictions of future climate need to incorporate and quantify the sources of this uncertainty. One of the largest sources comes from the internal, chaotic, variability within the climate system itself. This variability has been approximated using the 30 ensemble members of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) large ensemble. Here we examine the wet and dry end members of this ensemble for cool-season precipitation in the Colorado Rocky Mountains with a set of high-resolution regional climate model simulations. We have used the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to simulate the periods 1990-2000, 2025-2035, and 2070-2080 on a 4km grid. These simulations show that the broad patterns of change depicted in CESM are inherited by the high-resolution simulations; however, the differences in the height and location of the mountains in the WRF simulation, relative to the CESM simulation, means that the location and magnitude of the precipitation changes are very different. We further show that high-resolution simulations with the Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research model (ICAR) predict a similar spatial pattern in the change signal as WRF for these ensemble members. We then use ICAR to examine the rest of the CESM Large Ensemble as well as the uncertainty in the regional climate model due to the choice of physics parameterizations.

  5. Assessing Regional Scale Variability in Extreme Value Statistics Under Altered Climate Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsell, Nathaniel [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Mechem, David [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Ma, Chunsheng [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Recent studies have suggested that low-frequency modes of climate variability can significantly influence regional climate. The climatology associated with extreme events has been shown to be particularly sensitive. This has profound implications for droughts, heat waves, and food production. We propose to examine regional climate simulations conducted over the continental United States by applying a recently developed technique which combines wavelet multi–resolution analysis with information theory metrics. This research is motivated by two fundamental questions concerning the spatial and temporal structure of extreme events. These questions are 1) what temporal scales of the extreme value distributions are most sensitive to alteration by low-frequency climate forcings and 2) what is the nature of the spatial structure of variation in these timescales? The primary objective is to assess to what extent information theory metrics can be useful in characterizing the nature of extreme weather phenomena. Specifically, we hypothesize that (1) changes in the nature of extreme events will impact the temporal probability density functions and that information theory metrics will be sensitive these changes and (2) via a wavelet multi–resolution analysis, we will be able to characterize the relative contribution of different timescales on the stochastic nature of extreme events. In order to address these hypotheses, we propose a unique combination of an established regional climate modeling approach and advanced statistical techniques to assess the effects of low-frequency modes on climate extremes over North America. The behavior of climate extremes in RCM simulations for the 20th century will be compared with statistics calculated from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) and simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). This effort will serve to establish the baseline behavior of climate extremes, the

  6. Structures of Preferred Human IgV Genes-Based Protective Antibodies Identify How Conserved Residues Contact Diverse Antigens and Assign Source of Specificity to CDR3 Loop Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Steve; Thomson, Christy A; Risnes, Louise F; Dasgupta, Somnath; Smith, Kenneth; Schrader, John W; Pai, Emil F

    2016-06-01

    The human Ab response to certain pathogens is oligoclonal, with preferred IgV genes being used more frequently than others. A pair of such preferred genes, IGVK3-11 and IGVH3-30, contributes to the generation of protective Abs directed against the 23F serotype of the pneumonococcal capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae and against the AD-2S1 peptide of the gB membrane protein of human CMV. Structural analyses of Fab fragments of mAbs 023.102 and pn132p2C05 in complex with portions of the 23F polysaccharide revealed five germline-encoded residues in contact with the key component, l-rhamnose. In the case of the AD-2S1 peptide, the KE5 Fab fragment complex identified nine germline-encoded contact residues. Two of these germline-encoded residues, Arg91L and Trp94L, contact both the l-rhamnose and the AD-2S1 peptide. Comparison of the respective paratopes that bind to carbohydrate and protein reveals that stochastic diversity in both CDR3 loops alone almost exclusively accounts for their divergent specificity. Combined evolutionary pressure by human CMV and the 23F serotype of S. pneumoniae acted on the IGVK3-11 and IGVH3-30 genes as demonstrated by the multiple germline-encoded amino acids that contact both l-rhamnose and AD-2S1 peptide. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Figure 2 from Integrative Genomics Viewer: Visualizing Big Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouping and sorting genomic data in IGV. The IGV user interface displaying 202 glioblastoma samples from TCGA. Samples are grouped by tumor subtype (second annotation column) and data type (first annotation column) and sorted by copy number of the EGFR locus (middle column). Adapted from Figure 1; Robinson et al. 2011

  8. Functional Assessment of the Role of BORIS in Ovarian Cancer Using a Novel in Vivo Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Relevant genetic alterations in HGSOC cell lines. Data were retrieved from CCLE and copy number alterations were visualized with IGV as described in...OVSAHO, COV362, COV318 and OVCAR4 were visualized using the Integrative Genomics Viewer ( IGV , version 1.4.2.) [65]. Cell culture COV362 and COV318

  9. Miniature Rotorcraft Flight Control Stabilization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-30

    forgetting factor g = Magnitude of earth’s gravity Bgv , = gravity vector expressed in the body and inertial frames Igv intlon, intlat = lateral and...algorithm and QUEST on an example small rotorcraft a set of data was generated as shown in Fig. 1. Using the known Euler angles, Igv , and measurement data

  10. Magnetic Field Diagnostics and Spatio-Temporal Variability of the Solar Transition Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, H.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic field diagnostics of the transition region from the chromosphere to the corona faces us with the problem that one has to apply extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectro-polarimetry. While for the coronal diagnostics techniques already exist in the form of infrared coronagraphy above the limb and radio observations on the disk, one has to investigate EUV observations for the transition region. However, so far the success of such observations has been limited, but various current projects aim to obtain spectro-polarimetric data in the extreme UV in the near future. Therefore it is timely to study the polarimetric signals we can expect from these observations through realistic forward modeling. We employ a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) forward model of the solar corona and synthesize the Stokes I and Stokes V profiles of C iv (1548 Å). A signal well above 0.001 in Stokes V can be expected even if one integrates for several minutes to reach the required signal-to-noise ratio, and despite the rapidly changing intensity in the model (just as in observations). This variability of the intensity is often used as an argument against transition region magnetic diagnostics, which requires exposure times of minutes. However, the magnetic field is evolving much slower than the intensity, and therefore the degree of (circular) polarization remains rather constant when one integrates in time. Our study shows that it is possible to measure the transition region magnetic field if a polarimetric accuracy on the order of 0.001 can be reached, which we can expect from planned instrumentation.

  11. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas; Banta, John

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3−) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3− in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3− stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3− concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3− concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3− concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3−. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3− contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3−than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously

  12. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  13. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in the Tocantins-Araguaia hydrographic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Epifanio Loureiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current paper examines the space-time dynamics of yearly rainfall of the Tocantins-Araguaia Hydrographic Region (TAHR, foregrounded on rainfall volume from isohyet maps and interpolated by Kriging geo-statistical method.  Rainfall space dynamics was undertaken by the analysis of descriptive statistics, Index of Meteorological Irregularity (IMI and Variation Coefficient. Temporal dynamics was analyzed through the distribution of total annual volume precipitation for each TAHR sub-basin by the Standardized Anomaly Index, trend and magnitude test provided by Mann-Kendall and Sen Tests. Results correlated with meteorological anomalies of the Atlantic (Dipole and Pacific (ENOS Oceans show a highly heterogeneous rainfall behavior with temporal variability. Or rather, a decrease of rainfall extensiveness during years of intense meteorological anomaly with a rainfall increase south of the High Tocantins and Araguaia sub-basins and a decrease of rainfall in the Lower Tocantins sub-basin, with El Niño features. Although the Mann-Kendall test does not show statistically a significant trend for rainfall in the TAHR region, Sen’s estimator reveals a decrease in rainfall in the High Tocantins (-1.24 km³ year-1 and Araguaia (-1.13 km³ year-1 sub-basins and a rainfall increase in the Lower Tocantins sub-basin (0.53 km³ year-1 and in the TAHR region (-1.5 km³ year-1.

  14. Contributions of internal climate variability to mitigation of projected future regional sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, A.; Bates, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Observations indicate that the global mean surface temperature is rising, so does the global mean sea level. Sea level rise (SLR) can impose significant impacts on island and coastal communities, especially when SLR is compounded with storm surges. Here, via analyzing results from two sets of ensemble simulations from the Community Earth System Model version 1, we investigate how the potential SLR benefits through mitigating the future emission scenarios from business as usual to a mild-mitigation over the 21st Century would be affected by internal climate variability. Results show that there is almost no SLR benefit in the near term due to the large SLR variability due to the internal ocean dynamics. However, toward the end of the 21st century, the SLR benefit can be as much as a 26±1% reduction of the global mean SLR due to seawater thermal expansion. Regionally, the benefits from this mitigation for both near and long terms are heterogeneous. They vary from just a 11±5% SLR reduction in Melbourne, Australia to a 35±6% reduction in London. The processes contributing to these regional differences are the coupling of the wind-driven ocean circulation with the decadal scale sea surface temperature mode in the Pacific and Southern Oceans, and the changes of the thermohaline circulation and the mid-latitude air-sea coupling in the Atlantic.

  15. Comparing the potential for identification of lactobacillus spp. of 16s rDNA variable regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riano Pachon, Diego Mauricio; Vanegas Lopez, Maria Consuelo; Gonzalez Garcia, Laura Natalia

    2013-01-01

    16s rDNA is used for bacterial identification because its variation rate between species allows differentiation. The gene for this ribosomal subunit has 9 variable regions and some of them give more information than others. We were interested in evaluating the potential for species identification of each region and their combinations. We extracted the V1 to V8 regions of 16s rDNA from different strains and species of Lactobacillus and analyzed them using STAP (ss-RNA Taxonomy Assigning Pipeline) and RDP (Ribosomal Database Project) multiclassifier packages. Phylogenetic trees obtained by maximum likelihood analyses were compared. Classification results show that many regions give the correct genus classification using RDP and STAP; however they are not enough to classify up to the level of species. V5V6 region presents the highest quantity of informative fragments but also present the highest rate of false negatives. V1V3 region presents the highest rate of true positives (species) using STAP and the region V5V8 in RDP (genus).The phylogenetic result shows that the reference topology could be obtained using different combination of regions as V1V3 and V1V8.The experimental validation was done using commercial strains from a probiotic tampon. Sequencing analysis show that the V1V3 region gives the same information and result as the complete 16s rDNA; the three isolated strains correspond to the strains indicated in the product. We conclude that the V1V3 region is the minimum required region to classify Lactobacillus spp. in the correct way and this region is useful in metagenomics to analyze probiotics samples.

  16. Antarctic climate variability on regional and continental scales over the last 2000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stenni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate trends in the Antarctic region remain poorly characterized, owing to the brevity and scarcity of direct climate observations and the large magnitude of interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. Here, within the framework of the PAGES Antarctica2k working group, we build an enlarged database of ice core water stable isotope records from Antarctica, consisting of 112 records. We produce both unweighted and weighted isotopic (δ18O composites and temperature reconstructions since 0 CE, binned at 5- and 10-year resolution, for seven climatically distinct regions covering the Antarctic continent. Following earlier work of the Antarctica2k working group, we also produce composites and reconstructions for the broader regions of East Antarctica, West Antarctica and the whole continent. We use three methods for our temperature reconstructions: (i a temperature scaling based on the δ18O–temperature relationship output from an ECHAM5-wiso model simulation nudged to ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalyses from 1979 to 2013, and adjusted for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet region to borehole temperature data, (ii a temperature scaling of the isotopic normalized anomalies to the variance of the regional reanalysis temperature and (iii a composite-plus-scaling approach used in a previous continent-scale reconstruction of Antarctic temperature since 1 CE but applied to the new Antarctic ice core database. Our new reconstructions confirm a significant cooling trend from 0 to 1900 CE across all Antarctic regions where records extend back into the 1st millennium, with the exception of the Wilkes Land coast and Weddell Sea coast regions. Within this long-term cooling trend from 0 to 1900 CE, we find that the warmest period occurs between 300 and 1000 CE, and the coldest interval occurs from 1200 to 1900 CE. Since 1900 CE, significant warming trends are identified for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, the Dronning Maud Land coast and the

  17. Spatiotemporal Variability and Covariability of Temperature, Precipitation, Soil Moisture, and Vegetation in North America for Regional Climate Model Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, C. L.; Beltran-Przekurat, A. B.; Pielke, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    Previous work has established that the dominant modes of Pacific SSTs influence the summer climate of North America through large-scale forcing, and this effect is most pronounced during the early part of the season. It is hypothesized, then, that land surface influences become more dominant in the latter part of the season as remote teleconnection influences diminish. As a first step toward investigation of this hypothesis in a regional climate model (RCM) framework, the statistically signficant spatiotemporal patterns of variability and covariability in North American precipitation (specified by the standardized precipitation index, or SPI), soil moisture, and vegetation are determined for timescales from a month to six months. To specify these respective data we use: CPC gauge- derived precipitation (1950-2000), Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model and NOAH Model NLDAS soil moisture and temperature, and the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GIMMS-NDVI). The principal statistical tool used is multiple taper frequency singular value decomposition (MTM-SVD), and this is supplemented by wavelet analysis for specific areas of interest. The significant interannual variability in all of these data occur at a timescale of about 7 to 9 years and appears to be the integrated effect of remote SST forcing from the Pacific. Considering the entire year, the spatial pattern for precipitation resembles the typical ENSO winter signature. If the summer season is considered seperately, the out of phase relationship between precipitation anomalies in the central U.S. and core monsoon region is apparent. The largest soil moisture anomalies occur in the central U.S., since precipitation in this region has a consistent relationship to Pacific SSTs for the entire year. This helps to explain the approximately 20 year periodicity in drought conditions there. Unlike soil moisture, the largest anomalies in vegetation occur in the

  18. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrove, M., E-mail: mmusgrov@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Opsahl, S.P. [U.S. Geological Survey, 5563 DeZavala, Ste. 290, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Mahler, B.J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Herrington, C. [City of Austin Watershed Protection Department, Austin, TX 78704 (United States); Sample, T.L. [U.S. Geological Survey, 19241 David Memorial Dr., Ste. 180, Conroe, TX 77385 (United States); Banta, J.R. [U.S. Geological Survey, 5563 DeZavala, Ste. 290, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO{sub 3}{sup −} in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO{sub 3}{sup −} stable isotopes (δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 18}O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO{sub 3}{sup −}. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO{sub 3}{sup −} contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −} than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates

  19. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, M.; Opsahl, S.P.; Mahler, B.J.; Herrington, C.; Sample, T.L.; Banta, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO 3 − ) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO 3 − in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO 3 − stable isotopes (δ 15 N and δ 18 O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO 3 − concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO 3 − concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO 3 − concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO 3 − . These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO 3 − contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO 3 − than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a

  20. Flow control in axial fan inlet guide vanes by synthetic jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurst P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tested high pressure axial flow fan with hub/tip ratio of 0.70 and external diameter of 600 mm consisted of inlet guide vanes (IGV, rotor and stator blade rows. Fan peripheral velocity was 47 m/s. Air volume flow rate was changed by turning of rear part of the inlet guide vanes. At turning of 20 deg the flow was separated on the IGV profiles. The synthetic jets were introduced through radial holes in machine casing in the location before flow separation origin. Synthetic jet actuator was designed with the use of a speaker by UT AVCR. Its membrane had diameter of 63 mm. Excitation frequency was chosen in the range of 500 Hz – 700 Hz. Synthetic jets favourably influenced separated flow on the vane profiles in the distance of (5 – 12 mm from the casing surface. The reduction of flow separation area caused in the region near the casing the decrease of the profile loss coefficient approximately by 20%.

  1. Flow control in axial fan inlet guide vanes by synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, V.; Trávníček, Z.; Wurst, P.; Kordík, J.

    2013-04-01

    Tested high pressure axial flow fan with hub/tip ratio of 0.70 and external diameter of 600 mm consisted of inlet guide vanes (IGV), rotor and stator blade rows. Fan peripheral velocity was 47 m/s. Air volume flow rate was changed by turning of rear part of the inlet guide vanes. At turning of 20 deg the flow was separated on the IGV profiles. The synthetic jets were introduced through radial holes in machine casing in the location before flow separation origin. Synthetic jet actuator was designed with the use of a speaker by UT AVCR. Its membrane had diameter of 63 mm. Excitation frequency was chosen in the range of 500 Hz - 700 Hz. Synthetic jets favourably influenced separated flow on the vane profiles in the distance of (5 - 12) mm from the casing surface. The reduction of flow separation area caused in the region near the casing the decrease of the profile loss coefficient approximately by 20%.

  2. Tim-4 inhibition of T-cell activation and T helper type 17 differentiation requires both the immunoglobulin V and mucin domains and occurs via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cao, Wei

    2011-06-01

    Emerging experimental data suggest an important role for the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1):Tim-4 pathway in autoimmune and alloimmune responses in vivo. Using a Tim-4 ectodomain human IgG Fc fusion protein we studied the role of Tim-4 in T-cell activation, signalling and differentiation responses in vitro. We demonstrate that Tim-4Fc can inhibit naive and pre-activated T-cell activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion via a Tim-1-independent pathway. Tim-4 contains immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and mucin domains; to identify which domain accounts for the inhibitory effect novel Tim-4 fusion proteins containing either the IgV or mucin domain were generated. We demonstrate that both IgV and mucin domains are required for the inhibitory effects and that they are mediated at least in part by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity. Given the emerging interest in the role of the Tim family in T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which play an important role in autoimmune disease and transplantation tolerance, our data show that Tim-4Fc can prevent polarization of CD4(+) T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Collectively, our results highlight an inhibitory role for Tim-4Fc in vitro, which we propose is mediated by a receptor other than Tim-1. In addition, this study provides new insights into the role of Tim-4Fc in regulating Th17 immune responses and may open a new avenue for autoimmune therapy.

  3. The PD-1/PD-L1 complex resembles the antigen-binding Fv domains of antibodies and T cell receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, David Yin-wei; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Iwasaki, Masashi; Gittis, Apostolos G.; Su, Hua-Poo; Mikami, Bunzo; Okazaki, Taku; Honjo, Tasuku; Minato, Nagahiro; Garboczi, David N. (NIH); (Kyoto)

    2008-07-29

    Signaling through the programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitory receptor upon binding its ligand, PD-L1, suppresses immune responses against autoantigens and tumors and plays an important role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. Release from PD-1 inhibitory signaling revives 'exhausted' virus-specific T cells in chronic viral infections. Here we present the crystal structure of murine PD-1 in complex with human PD-L1. PD-1 and PD-L1 interact through the conserved front and side of their Ig variable (IgV) domains, as do the IgV domains of antibodies and T cell receptors. This places the loops at the ends of the IgV domains on the same side of the PD-1/PD-L1 complex, forming a surface that is similar to the antigen-binding surface of antibodies and T cell receptors. Mapping conserved residues allowed the identification of residues that are important in forming the PD-1/PD-L1 interface. Based on the structure, we show that some reported loss-of-binding mutations involve the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction but that others compromise protein folding. The PD-1/PD-L1 interaction described here may be blocked by antibodies or by designed small-molecule drugs to lower inhibitory signaling that results in a stronger immune response. The immune receptor-like loops offer a new surface for further study and potentially the design of molecules that would affect PD-1/PD-L1 complex formation and thereby modulate the immune response.

  4. Tim-4 inhibition of T-cell activation and T helper type 17 differentiation requires both the immunoglobulin V and mucin domains and occurs via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Ryan, Michelle; Buckley, Deirdre; O'Connor, Rosemary; Clarkson, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Emerging experimental data suggest an important role for the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1):Tim-4 pathway in autoimmune and alloimmune responses in vivo. Using a Tim-4 ectodomain human IgG Fc fusion protein we studied the role of Tim-4 in T-cell activation, signalling and differentiation responses in vitro. We demonstrate that Tim-4Fc can inhibit naive and pre-activated T-cell activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion via a Tim-1-independent pathway. Tim-4 contains immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and mucin domains; to identify which domain accounts for the inhibitory effect novel Tim-4 fusion proteins containing either the IgV or mucin domain were generated. We demonstrate that both IgV and mucin domains are required for the inhibitory effects and that they are mediated at least in part by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity. Given the emerging interest in the role of the Tim family in T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which play an important role in autoimmune disease and transplantation tolerance, our data show that Tim-4Fc can prevent polarization of CD4+ T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Collectively, our results highlight an inhibitory role for Tim-4Fc in vitro, which we propose is mediated by a receptor other than Tim-1. In addition, this study provides new insights into the role of Tim-4Fc in regulating Th17 immune responses and may open a new avenue for autoimmune therapy. PMID:21463297

  5. Coupled ocean-atmosphere surface variability and its climate impacts in the tropical Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, B.; Janicot, Serge; Roucou, P.

    This study examines time evolution and statistical relationships involving the two leading ocean-atmosphere coupled modes of variability in the tropical Atlantic and some climate anomalies over the tropical 120°W-60°W region using selected historical files (75-y near global SSTs and precipitation over land), more recent observed data (30-y SST and pseudo wind stress in the tropical Atlantic) and reanalyses from the US National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis System on the period 1968-1997: surface air temperature, sea level pressure, moist static energy content at 850 hPa, precipitable water and precipitation. The first coupled mode detected through singular value decomposition of the SST and pseudo wind-stress data over the tropical Atlantic (30°N-20°S) expresses a modulation in the thermal transequatorial gradient of SST anomalies conducted by one month leading wind-stress anomalies mainly in the tropical north Atlantic during northern winter and fall. It features a slight dipole structure in the meridional plane. Its time variability is dominated by a quasi-decadal signal well observed in the last 20-30 ys and, when projected over longer-term SST data, in the 1920s and 1930s but with shorter periods. The second coupled mode is more confined to the south-equatorial tropical Atlantic in the northern summer and explains considerably less wind-stress/SST cross-covariance. Its time series features an interannual variability dominated by shorter frequencies with increased variance in the 1960s and 1970s before 1977. Correlations between these modes and the ENSO-like Nino3 index lead to decreasing amplitude of thermal anomalies in the tropical Atlantic during warm episodes in the Pacific. This could explain the nonstationarity of meridional anomaly gradients on seasonal and interannual time scales. Overall the relationships between the oceanic component of the coupled modes and the climate anomaly patterns denote thermodynamical

  6. Observed Regional Climate Variability during the Last 50 Years in Reindeer Herding Cooperatives of Finnish Fell Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Lépy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Finnish Lapland, reindeer herders’ activity is strongly dependent on the surrounding natural environment, which is directly exposed to environmental changes and climatic variations. By assessing whether there is any evidence of change in climate in Fell Lapland over the last 50 years, this paper attempts to link global climatic trends with local conditions and respond to the need of information at the local level. It aims at assessing the changes in temperature, precipitation and snow cover at a regional and local scale, as well as determining the climatic trends for the period 1960–2011. Statistical methods were used to conduct analyses of the regional homogeneity, the annual and seasonal variability, and the cold intensity. The results show that the regional climate is not homogeneous and differences exist between locations. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that, in general, a warming trend is discernible for the period 1960–2011, frost and thaw cycles slightly increase, and variations in mean temperatures are more important in the winter. Precipitation is more variable according to the site but, in general, precipitation is increasing with time, especially in the winter, and the snow cover does not seem to contain any discernible trend.

  7. Using a predictive model to evaluate spatiotemporal variability in streamflow permanence across the Pacific Northwest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed the PRObability Of Streamflow PERmanence (PROSPER) model, a GIS-based empirical model that provides predictions of the annual probability of a stream channel having year-round flow (Streamflow permanence probability; SPP) for any unregulated and minimally-impaired stream channel in the Pacific Northwest (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana). The model provides annual predictions for 2004-2016 at a 30-m spatial resolution based on monthly or annually updated values of climatic conditions, and static physiographic variables associated with the upstream basin. Prediction locations correspond to the channel network consistent with the National Hydrography Dataset stream grid and are publicly available through the USGS StreamStats platform (https://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/). In snowmelt-driven systems, the most informative predictor variable was mean upstream snow water equivalent on May 1, which highlights the influence of late spring snow cover for supporting streamflow in mountain river networks. In non-snowmelt-driven systems, the most informative variable was mean annual precipitation. Streamflow permanence probabilities varied across the study area by geography and from year-to-year. Notably lower SPP corresponded to the climatically drier subregions of the study area. Higher SPP were concentrated in coastal and higher elevation mountain regions. In addition, SPP appeared to trend with average hydroclimatic conditions, which were also geographically coherent. The year-to-year variability lends support for the growing recognition of the spatiotemporal dynamism of streamflow permanence. An analysis of three focus basins located in contrasting geographical and hydroclimatic settings demonstrates differences in the sensitivity of streamflow permanence to antecedent climate conditions as a function of geography. Consequently, results suggest that PROSPER model can be a useful tool to evaluate regions of the

  8. Prevalence and variability of use of home mechanical ventilators, positive airway pressure and oxygen devices in the Lombardy region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacca, Michele; Barbano, Luca; Colombo, Daniele; Leoni, Olivia; Guffanti, Enrico

    2018-01-29

    Few studies have analyzed the prevalence and accessibility of home mechanical ventilation (HMV) in Italy. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and prescription variability of HMV as well as of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), in the Lombardy Region. Prescribing rates of HMV (both noninvasive and tracheostomies), CPAP (auto-CPAP, CPAP/other sleep machines) and LTOT (liquid-O2, O2-gas, concentrators) in the 15 Local Healthcare districts of Lombardy were gathered from billing data for 2012 and compared. Crude rates (per 100,000 population) and rates for the different healthcare districts were calculated. In 2012, 6325 patients were on HMV (crude prescription rate: 63/100,000) with a high variation across districts (8/100,000 in Milano 1 vs 150/100,000 in Pavia). There were 14,237 patients on CPAP (crude prescription rate: 142/100,000; CPAP/other sleep machines 95.3% vs auto-CPAP 4.7%) with also high intra-regional variation (56/100,000 in Mantova vs. 260/100,000 in Pavia). There were 21,826 patients on LTOT (prescription rate: 217/100,000 rate; liquid-O2 94%, O2-gas 2.08%, O2-concentrators 3.8%), with again high intra-regional variation (100/100,000 in Bergamo vs 410/100,000 in Valle Camonica). The crude rate of HMV prescriptions in Lombardy is very high, with a high intra-regional variability in prescribing HMV, LTOT and CPAP which is partly explainable by the accessibility to specialist centers with HMV/sleep-study facilities. Analysis of administrative data and variability mapping can help identify areas of reduced access for an improved standardization of services. An audit among Health Payer and prescribers to interpret the described huge variability could be welcomed.

  9. In situ study of the impact of inter- and intra-reader variability on region of interest (ROI) analysis in preclinical molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Frezghi; Budhiraja, Shradha; Keren, Shay; Doyle, Timothy C; Levin, Craig S; Paik, David S

    2013-01-01

    We estimated reader-dependent variability of region of interest (ROI) analysis and evaluated its impact on preclinical quantitative molecular imaging. To estimate reader variability, we used five independent image datasets acquired each using microPET and multispectral fluorescence imaging (MSFI). We also selected ten experienced researchers who utilize molecular imaging in the same environment that they typically perform their own studies. Nine investigators blinded to the data type completed the ROI analysis by drawing ROIs manually that delineate the tumor regions to the best of their knowledge and repeated the measurements three times, non-consecutively. Extracted mean intensities of voxels within each ROI are used to compute the coefficient of variation (CV) and characterize the inter- and intra-reader variability. The impact of variability was assessed through random samples iterated from normal distributions for control and experimental groups on hypothesis testing and computing statistical power by varying subject size, measured difference between groups and CV. The results indicate that inter-reader variability was 22.5% for microPET and 72.2% for MSFI. Additionally, mean intra-reader variability was 10.1% for microPET and 26.4% for MSFI. Repeated statistical testing showed that a total variability of CV variability has been observed mainly due to differences in the ROI placement and geometry drawn between readers, which may adversely affect statistical power and erroneously lead to negative study outcomes.

  10. Identification and verification of hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibody variable region sequences using recombinant DNA technology and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibody engineering requires the identification of antigen binding domains or variable regions (VR) unique to each antibody. It is the VR that define the unique antigen binding properties and proper sequence identification is essential for functional evaluation and performance of recombinant antibo...

  11. Use of variability modes to evaluate AR4 climate models over the Euro-Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado, M.J.; Pastor, M.A. [Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    This paper analyzes the ability of the multi-model simulations from the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to simulate the main leading modes of variability over the Euro-Atlantic region in winter: the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Scandinavian mode (SCAND), the East/Atlantic Oscillation (EA) and the East Atlantic/Western Russia mode (EA/WR). These modes of variability have been evaluated both spatially, by analyzing the intensity and location of their anomaly centres, as well as temporally, by focusing on the probability density functions and e-folding time scales. The choice of variability modes as a tool for climate model assessment can be justified by the fact that modes of variability determine local climatic conditions and their likely change may have important implications for future climate changes. It is found that all the models considered are able to simulate reasonably well these four variability modes, the SCAND being the mode which is best spatially simulated. From a temporal point of view the NAO and SCAND modes are the best simulated. UKMO-HadGEM1 and CGCM3.1(T63) are the models best at reproducing spatial characteristics, whereas CCSM3 and CGCM3.1(T63) are the best ones with regard to the temporal features. GISS-AOM is the model showing the worst performance, in terms of both spatial and temporal features. These results may bring new insight into the selection and use of specific models to simulate Euro-Atlantic climate, with some models being clearly more successful in simulating patterns of temporal and spatial variability than others. (orig.)

  12. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC): Intra- and Interobserver Variability in Standardized Drawing of Regions of Interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiderius, C.J.; Tjoernstrand, J.; Aakeson, P.; Soedersten, K.; Dahlberg, L.; Leander, P.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the reproducibility of a standardized region of interest (ROI) drawing procedure in delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC). Material and Methods: A large ROI in lateral and medial femoral weight-bearing cartilage was drawn in images of 12 healthy male volunteers by 6 investigators with different skills in MRI. The procedure was done twice, with a 1-week interval. Calculated T1-values were evaluated for intra- and interobserver variability. Results: The mean interobserver variability for both compartments ranged between 1.3% and 2.3% for the 6 different investigators without correlation to their experience in MRI. Post-contrast intra-observer variability was low in both the lateral and the medial femoral cartilage, 2.6% and 1.5%, respectively. The larger variability in lateral than in medial cartilage was related to slightly longer and thinner ROIs. Conclusion: Intra-observer variability and interobserver variability are both low when a large standardized ROI is used in dGEMRIC. The experience of the investigator does not affect the variability, which further supports a clinical applicability of the method

  13. Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihiko, Takaya; Morioka, Yushi; Behera, Swadhin K.

    2014-07-01

    The death toll by heatstroke in Japan, especially in Kanto region, has sharply increased since 1994 together with large interannual variability. The surface air temperature and humidity observed during boreal summers of 1980-2010 were examined to understand the role of climate in the death toll. The extremely hot days, when the daily maximum temperature exceeds 35°C, are more strongly associated with the death toll than the conventional Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index. The extremely hot days tend to be associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation or the Indian Ocean Dipole, suggesting a potential link with tropical climate variability to the heatstroke related deaths. Also, the influence of these climate modes on the death toll has strengthened since 1994 probably related to global warming. It is possible to develop early warning systems based on seasonal climate predictions since recent climate models show excellent predictability skills for those climate modes.

  14. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni applying flaA short variable region sequencing, multilocus sequencing and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Bonnichsen, Lise; Larsson, Jonas

    flaA short variable region sequencing and phenetic Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was applied on a collection of 102 Campylobacter jejuni isolated from continuous sampling of organic, free range geese and chickens. FTIR has been shown to serve as a valuable tool in typing...

  15. The Tokar Gap Jet: Regional Circulation, Diurnal Variability, and Moisture Transport Based on Numerical Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Shannon R.

    2015-05-14

    The structure, variability, and regional connectivity of the Tokar Gap jet (TGJ) are described using WRF Model analyses and supporting atmospheric datasets from the East African–Red Sea–Arabian Peninsula (EARSAP) region during summer 2008. Sources of the TGJ’s unique quasi-diurnal nature and association with atypically high atmospheric moisture transport are traced back to larger-scale atmospheric dynamics influencing its forcing. These include seasonal shifts in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), variability of the monsoon and North African wind regimes, and ties to other orographic flow patterns. Strong modulation of the TGJ by regional processes such as the desert heating cycle, wind convergence at the ITCZ surface front, and the local land–sea breeze cycle are described. Two case studies present the interplay of these influences in detail. The first of these was an “extreme” gap wind event on 12 July, in which horizontal velocities in the Tokar Gap exceeded 26 m s−1 and the flow from the jet extended the full width of the Red Sea basin. This event coincided with development of a large mesoscale convective complex (MCC) and precipitation at the entrance of the Tokar Gap as well as smaller gaps downstream along the Arabian Peninsula. More typical behavior of the TGJ during the 2008 summer is discussed using a second case study on 19 July. Downwind impact of the TGJ is evaluated using Lagrangian model trajectories and analysis of the lateral moisture fluxes (LMFs) during jet events. These results suggest means by which TGJ contributes to large LMFs and has potential bearing upon Sahelian rainfall and MCC development.

  16. Observations of regional and local variability in the optical properties of maritime clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.B. [Univ. of Colorado at Boulder/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W. [Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    White and Fairall (1995) calculated the optical properties of the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds observed during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) and compared their results with the results obtained by Fairall et al. for the MBL clouds observed during the First International Satellite Climatology Program (ISSCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE). They found a factor of two difference in the optical depth versus liquid water relationship that applies to the clouds observed in each case. In the present study, we present evidence to support this difference. We also investigate the local variability exhibited in the ASTEX optical properties using measurements of the boundary layer aerosol concentration.

  17. Local-scale models reveal ecological niche variability in amphibian and reptile communities from two contrasting biogeographic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Muñoz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological Niche Models (ENMs are widely used to describe how environmental factors influence species distribution. Modelling at a local scale, compared to a large scale within a high environmental gradient, can improve our understanding of ecological species niches. The main goal of this study is to assess and compare the contribution of environmental variables to amphibian and reptile ENMs in two Spanish national parks located in contrasting biogeographic regions, i.e., the Mediterranean and the Atlantic area. The ENMs were built with maximum entropy modelling using 11 environmental variables in each territory. The contributions of these variables to the models were analysed and classified using various statistical procedures (Mann–Whitney U tests, Principal Components Analysis and General Linear Models. Distance to the hydrological network was consistently the most relevant variable for both parks and taxonomic classes. Topographic variables (i.e., slope and altitude were the second most predictive variables, followed by climatic variables. Differences in variable contribution were observed between parks and taxonomic classes. Variables related to water availability had the larger contribution to the models in the Mediterranean park, while topography variables were decisive in the Atlantic park. Specific response curves to environmental variables were in accordance with the biogeographic affinity of species (Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean species and taxonomy (amphibians and reptiles. Interestingly, these results were observed for species located in both parks, particularly those situated at their range limits. Our findings show that ecological niche models built at local scale reveal differences in habitat preferences within a wide environmental gradient. Therefore, modelling at local scales rather than assuming large-scale models could be preferable for the establishment of conservation strategies for herptile species in natural

  18. Local-scale models reveal ecological niche variability in amphibian and reptile communities from two contrasting biogeographic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Xavier; Felicísimo, Ángel M.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) are widely used to describe how environmental factors influence species distribution. Modelling at a local scale, compared to a large scale within a high environmental gradient, can improve our understanding of ecological species niches. The main goal of this study is to assess and compare the contribution of environmental variables to amphibian and reptile ENMs in two Spanish national parks located in contrasting biogeographic regions, i.e., the Mediterranean and the Atlantic area. The ENMs were built with maximum entropy modelling using 11 environmental variables in each territory. The contributions of these variables to the models were analysed and classified using various statistical procedures (Mann–Whitney U tests, Principal Components Analysis and General Linear Models). Distance to the hydrological network was consistently the most relevant variable for both parks and taxonomic classes. Topographic variables (i.e., slope and altitude) were the second most predictive variables, followed by climatic variables. Differences in variable contribution were observed between parks and taxonomic classes. Variables related to water availability had the larger contribution to the models in the Mediterranean park, while topography variables were decisive in the Atlantic park. Specific response curves to environmental variables were in accordance with the biogeographic affinity of species (Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean species) and taxonomy (amphibians and reptiles). Interestingly, these results were observed for species located in both parks, particularly those situated at their range limits. Our findings show that ecological niche models built at local scale reveal differences in habitat preferences within a wide environmental gradient. Therefore, modelling at local scales rather than assuming large-scale models could be preferable for the establishment of conservation strategies for herptile species in natural parks. PMID

  19. Accounting for CO2 variability over East Asia with a regional joint inversion system and its preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xingxia; Tian, Xiangjun; Zhang, Meigen; Peng, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2017-10-01

    A regional surface carbon dioxide (CO2) flux inversion system, the Tan-Tracker-Region, was developed by incorporating an assimilation scheme into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional chemical transport model to resolve fine-scale CO2 variability over East Asia. The proper orthogonal decomposition-based ensemble four-dimensional variational data assimilation approach (POD-4DVar) is the core algorithm for the joint assimilation framework, and simultaneous assimilations of CO2 concentrations and surface CO2 fluxes are applied to help reduce the uncertainty in initial CO2 concentrations. A persistence dynamical model was developed to describe the evolution of the surface CO2 fluxes and help avoid the "signal-to-noise" problem; thus, CO2 fluxes could be estimated as a whole at the model grid scale, with better use of observation information. The performance of the regional inversion system was evaluated through a group of single-observation-based observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). The results of the experiments suggest that a reliable performance of Tan-Tracker-Region is dependent on certain assimilation parameter choices, for example, an optimized window length of approximately 3 h, an ensemble size of approximately 100, and a covariance localization radius of approximately 320 km. This is probably due to the strong diurnal variation and spatial heterogeneity in the fine-scale CMAQ simulation, which could affect the performance of the regional inversion system. In addition, because all observations can be artificially obtained in OSSEs, the performance of Tan-Tracker-Region was further evaluated through different densities of the artificial observation network in different CO2 flux situations. The results indicate that more observation sites would be useful to systematically improve the estimation of CO2 concentration and flux in large areas over the model domain. The work presented here forms a foundation for future research in which a

  20. Aerosol and rainfall variability over the Indian monsoon region: distributions, trends and coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gautam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol solar absorption over the Indian monsoon region has a potential role of modulating the monsoon circulation and rainfall distribution as suggested by recent studies based on model simulations. Prior to the onset of the monsoon, northern India is influenced by significant dust transport that constitutes the bulk of the regional aerosol loading over the Gangetic-Himalayan region. In this paper, a multi-sensor characterization of the increasing pre-monsoon aerosol loading over northern India, in terms of their spatial, temporal and vertical distribution is presented. Aerosol transport from the northwestern arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains and over the foothills of the Himalayas is found to be vertically extended to elevated altitudes (up to 5 km as observed from the space-borne lidar measurements (CALIPSO. In relation with the enhanced pre-monsoon aerosol loading and the associated solar absorption effects on tropospheric temperature anomalies, this paper investigates the monsoon rainfall variability over India in recent past decades from an observational viewpoint. It is found that the early summer monsoon rainfall over India is on the rise since 1950s, as indicated by historical rainfall data, with over 20% increase for the period 1950–2004. This large sustained increase in the early summer rainfall is led by the observed strengthening of the pre-monsoon tropospheric land-sea thermal gradient over the Indian monsoon region as indicated by microwave satellite measurements (MSU of tropospheric temperatures from 1979–2007. Combined analysis of changes in tropospheric temperatures and summer monsoon rainfall in the past three decades, suggest a future possibility of an emerging rainfall pattern of a wetter monsoon over South Asia in early summer followed by a drier period.

  1. Continental and Marine Environmental changes in Europe induced by Global Climate variability and Regional Paleogeography Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu , Speranta - Maria

    2008-01-01

    version originale; My PhD and post-doctorate researches have focused on paleoclimatic, paleogeographical and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Mediterranean Basin and its adjacent seas (i.e. the residual former Paratethys) since 11 Ma. During this time-interval the Mediterranean marine and continental environments were affected by significant paleogeographic changes, forced by global climate and sea-level variability, plate tectonics and regional uplift of Alps s.l. and Carpathians. Tw...

  2. Tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability at the northern shelf of the Brazilian Northeast Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frota, Felipe F; Truccolo, Eliane C; Schettini, Carlos A F

    2016-09-01

    A characterization of the sea level variability at tidal and sub-tidal frequencies at the northern shore of the Brazilian Northeast shelf for the period 2009-2011 is presented. The sea level data used was obtained from the Permanent Geodetic Tide Network from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the Fortaleza gauge station. Local wind data was also used to assess its effects on the low-frequency sea level variability. The variability of the sea level was investigated by classical harmonic analysis and by morphology assessment over the tidal signal. The low frequencies were obtained by low-pass filtering. The tidal range oscillated with the highest value of 3.3 m during the equinox and the lowest value of 0.7 m during the solstice. Differences between the spring and neap tides were as high as 1 m. A total of 59 tidal constituents were obtained from harmonic analysis, and the regional tide was classified as semi-diurnal pure with a form number of 0.11. An assessment of the monthly variability of the main tidal constituents (M2, S2, N2, O1, and K1) indicated that the main semi-diurnal solar S2 presented the highest variability, ranging from 0.21 to 0.41 m; it was the main element altering the form number through the years. The low frequency sea-level variability is negligible, although there is a persistent signal with an energy peak in the 10-15 day period, and it cannot be explained by the effects of local winds.

  3. visPIG--a web tool for producing multi-region, multi-track, multi-scale plots of genetic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Scales

    Full Text Available We present VISual Plotting Interface for Genetics (visPIG; http://vispig.icr.ac.uk, a web application to produce multi-track, multi-scale, multi-region plots of genetic data. visPIG has been designed to allow users not well versed with mathematical software packages and/or programming languages such as R, Matlab®, Python, etc., to integrate data from multiple sources for interpretation and to easily create publication-ready figures. While web tools such as the UCSC Genome Browser or the WashU Epigenome Browser allow custom data uploads, such tools are primarily designed for data exploration. This is also true for the desktop-run Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV. Other locally run data visualisation software such as Circos require significant computer skills of the user. The visPIG web application is a menu-based interface that allows users to upload custom data tracks and set track-specific parameters. Figures can be downloaded as PDF or PNG files. For sensitive data, the underlying R code can also be downloaded and run locally. visPIG is multi-track: it can display many different data types (e.g association, functional annotation, intensity, interaction, heat map data,…. It also allows annotation of genes and other custom features in the plotted region(s. Data tracks can be plotted individually or on a single figure. visPIG is multi-region: it supports plotting multiple regions, be they kilo- or megabases apart or even on different chromosomes. Finally, visPIG is multi-scale: a sub-region of particular interest can be 'zoomed' in. We describe the various features of visPIG and illustrate its utility with examples. visPIG is freely available through http://vispig.icr.ac.uk under a GNU General Public License (GPLv3.

  4. Indocyanine green videoangiography "in negative": definition and usefulness in spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simal Julián, Juan Antonio; Miranda Lloret, Pablo; López González, Antonio; Evangelista Zamora, Rocío; Botella Asunción, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Indocyanine green videoangiography (IGV) has proven its effectiveness in the field of exovascular neurosurgery, both in the intracranial and spinal compartment, but is necessary to define a systematic process for the performance of the IGV to facilitate its interpretation during the procedure. We have defined and applied the concept of videoangiography "in negative" (INIGV) to spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVF) for the detection and treatment of arteriovenous shunts, so called because the first phase is performed with the vessel suggestive of being pathological occluded. A Pentero-operating microscope with near-infrared IGV-integrated system (Carl Zeiss Co., Germany) was used. At our institution, 24 patients were treated for a spinal dAVF between 1995 and 2011, only in the last 4 cases, INIGV was performed. We describe the IGV in negative procedure and show the most illustrative cases. In all cases, the fistula occlusion was confirmed by postoperative selective digital subtraction angiography (DSA). INIGV demonstrate its capacity in detecting vessels not actually arterialized that should be respected and avoid some of the main limitations of the conventional IGV. This is a technical description about an Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiographic procedure modification that is superior to merely performing ICG before and after clipping of a dAVF. The INIGV results are rapid and easy to interpret procedure and provide great advantages to the dAVF treatment. Nevertheless, further studies are needed with a larger sample size to determine if INIGV may reduce the need to perform immediate postoperative DSA.

  5. Late Holocene climate variability in the southwestern Mediterranean region: an integrated marine and terrestrial geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín-Puertas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A combination of marine (Alboran Sea cores, ODP 976 and TTR 300 G and terrestrial (Zoñar Lake, Andalucia, Spain geochemical proxies provides a high-resolution reconstruction of climate variability and human influence in the southwestern Mediterranean region for the last 4000 years at inter-centennial resolution. Proxies respond to changes in precipitation rather than temperature alone. Our combined terrestrial and marine archive documents a succession of dry and wet periods coherent with the North Atlantic climate signal. A dry period occurred prior to 2.7 cal ka BP – synchronously to the global aridity crisis of the third-millennium BC – and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1.4–0.7 cal ka BP. Wetter conditions prevailed from 2.7 to 1.4 cal ka BP. Hydrological signatures during the Little Ice Age are highly variable but consistent with more humidity than the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, Pb anomalies in sediments at the end of the Bronze Age suggest anthropogenic pollution earlier than the Roman Empire development in the Iberian Peninsula. The Late Holocene climate evolution of the in the study area confirms the see-saw pattern between the eastern and western Mediterranean regions and the higher influence of the North Atlantic dynamics in the western Mediterranean.

  6. Intra-seasonal and Inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio over rain-shadow region of North peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2017-05-01

    Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio (BR) have been studied over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during summer monsoon season. Daily grid point data of latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for the period 1970-2014 have been used to compute daily area-mean BR. Daily grid point rainfall data at a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° from APHRODITE's Water Resources for the available period 1970-2007 have been used to study the association between rainfall and BR. The study revealed that BR rapidly decreases from 4.1 to 0.29 in the month of June and then remains nearly constant at the same value (≤0.1) in the rest of the season. High values of BR in the first half of June are indicative of intense thermals and convective clouds with higher bases. Low values of BR from July to September period are indicative of weak thermals and convective clouds with lower bases. Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of BR is found to be inversely related to precipitation over the region. BR analysis indicates that the land surface characteristics of the study region during July-September are similar to that over oceanic regions as far as intensity of thermals and associated cloud microphysical properties are concerned. Similar variation of BR is found in El Nino and La Nina years. During June, an increasing trend is observed in SHF and BR and decreasing trend in LHF from 1976 to 2014. Increasing trend in the SHF is statistically significant.

  7. Features of ozone intraannual variability in polar regions based on ozone sounding data obtained at the Resolute and Amundsen-Scott stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, A.N.; Sitnov, S.A. (AN SSSR, Institut Fiziki Atmosfery, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Ozone sounding data obtained at the Resolute and Amundsen-Scott stations are used to analyze ozone intraannual variability in Southern and Northern polar regions. For the Arctic, in particular, features associated with winter stratospheric warmings, stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, and the isolated evolution of surface ozone are noted. Correlative connections between ozone and temperature making it possible to concretize ozone variability mechanisms are analyzed. 31 refs.

  8. Enhancement of hypermutation frequency in the chicken B cell line DT40 for efficient diversification of the antibody repertoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magari, Masaki; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Todo, Kagefumi; Ikeda, Mika; Kanayama, Naoki, E-mail: nkanayama@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Ohmori, Hitoshi

    2010-05-28

    Chicken B cell line DT40 continuously accumulates mutations in the immunoglobulin variable region (IgV) gene by gene conversion and point mutation, both of which are mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), thereby producing an antibody (Ab) library that is useful for screening monoclonal Abs (mAbs) in vitro. We previously generated an engineered DT40 line named DT40-SW, whose AID expression can be reversibly switched on or off, and developed an in vitro Ab generation system using DT40-SW cells. To efficiently create an Ab library with sufficient diversity, higher hypermutation frequency is advantageous. To this end, we generated a novel cell line DT40-SW{Delta}C, which conditionally expresses a C-terminus-truncated AID mutant lacking the nuclear export signal. The transcription level of the mutant AID gene in DT40-SW{Delta}C cells was similar to that of the wild-type gene in DT40-SW cells. However, the protein level of the truncated AID mutant was less than that of the wild type. The mutant protein was enriched in the nuclei of DT40-SW{Delta}C cells, although the protein might be highly susceptible to degradation. In DT40-SW{Delta}C cells, both gene conversion and point mutation occurred in the IgV gene with over threefold higher frequency than in DT40-SW cells, suggesting that a lower level of the mutant AID protein was sufficient to increase mutation frequency. Thus, DT40-SW{Delta}C cells may be useful for constructing Ab libraries for efficient screening of mAbs in vitro.

  9. Glycosylation Alters Dimerization Properties of a Cell-surface Signaling Protein, Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (CEACAM1)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, You; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Moremen, Kelley W.; Prestegard, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (C?/Au: EACAM1) is a cell-surface signaling molecule involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, and immune response. It is also implicated in cancer angiogenesis, progression, and metastasis. This diverse set of effects likely arises as a result of the numerous homophilic and heterophilic interactions that CEACAM1 can have with itself and other molecules. Its N-terminal Ig variable (IgV) domain has been suggested to be a principal player in these interactions. Previous crystal structures of the β-sandwich-like IgV domain have been produced using Escherichia coli-expressed material, which lacks native glycosylation. These have led to distinctly different proposals for dimer interfaces, one involving interactions of ABED β-strands and the other involving GFCC′C″ β-strands, with the former burying one prominent glycosylation site. These structures raise questions as to which form may exist in solution and what the effect of glycosylation may have on this form. Here, we use NMR cross-correlation measurements to examine the effect of glycosylation on CEACAM1-IgV dimerization and use residual dipolar coupling (RDC) measurements to characterize the solution structure of the non-glycosylated form. Our findings demonstrate that even addition of a single N-linked GlcNAc at potential glycosylation sites inhibits dimer formation. Surprisingly, RDC data collected on E. coli expressed material in solution indicate that a dimer using the non-glycosylated GFCC′C″ interface is preferred even in the absence of glycosylation. The results open new questions about what other factors may facilitate dimerization of CEACAM1 in vivo, and what roles glycosylation may play in heterophylic interactions. PMID:27471271

  10. Variable-density ground-water flow and paleohydrology in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) region, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Variable-density groundwater flow was studied near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico. An analysis of the relative magnitude of pressure-related and density-related flow-driving forces indicates that density-related gravity effects are not significant at the plant and to the west but are significant in areas to the north, northeast, and south. A regional-scale model of variable-density groundwater flow in the Culebra Dolomite member of the Rustler Formation indicates that the flow velocities are relatively rapid west of the site and extremely slow east and northeast of the site. In the transition zone between those two extremes, which includes the plant, velocities are highly variable. Sensitivity simulations indicates that the central and western parts of the region, including the plant, are fairly well isolated from the eastern and northeastern boundaries. Vertical-flux simulations indicate that as much as 25% of total inflow to the Culebra could be entering as vertical flow, with most of this flow occurring west of the plant. A simple cross-sectional model was developed to examine the flow system as it drains through time following recharge during a past glacial pluvial. This model indicates that the system as a whole drains very slowly and that it apparently could have sustained flow from purely transient drainage following recharge of the system during the Pleistocene

  11. Changes of regional climate variability in central Europe during the past 250 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, R.

    2012-05-01

    The paper uses the data potential of very long and homogenized instrumental climate time series in the south central Europe for analyzing one feature which is very dominant in the climate change debate --whether anthropogenic climate warming causes or goes along with an increase of climate extremes. The monthly resolved data of the HISTALP data collection provide 58 single series for the three climate elements, air pressure, air temperature and precipitation, that start earlier than 1831 and extend back to 1760 in some cases. Trends and long-term low frequent climate evolution is only shortly touched in the paper. The main goal is the analysis of trends or changes of high frequent interannual and interseasonal variability. In other words, it is features like extremely hot summers, very cold winters, excessively dry or wet seasons which the study aims at. The methods used are based on detrended highpass series whose variance is analyzed in discrete 30-year windows moving over the entire instrumental period. The analysis of discrete subintervals relies on the unique number of 8 (for precipitation 7) such "normal periods". The second approach is based on the same subintervals though not in fixed but moving windows over the entire instrumental period. The first result of the study is the clear evidence that there has been no increase of variability during the past 250 years in the region. The second finding is similar but concentrates on the recent three decades which are of particular interest because they are the first 30 years with dominating anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. We can show that also this recent anthropogenic normal period shows no widening of the PDF (probability density function) compared to the preceding ones. The third finding is based on the moving window technique. It shows that interannual variability changes show a clear centennial oscillating structure for all three climate elements in the region. For the time being we have no explanation

  12. Sensitivity of Sahelian Precipitation to Desert Dust under ENSO variability: a regional modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dust is estimated to comprise over half the total global aerosol burden, with a majority coming from the Sahara and Sahel region. Bounded by the Sahara Desert to the north and the Sahelian Savannah to the south, the Sahel experiences high interannual rainfall variability and a short rainy season during the boreal summer months. Observation-based data for the past three decades indicates a reduced dust emission trend, together with an increase in greening and surface roughness within the Sahel. Climate models used to study regional precipitation changes due to Saharan dust yield varied results, both in sign convention and magnitude. Inconsistency of model estimates drives future climate projections for the region that are highly varied and uncertain. We use the NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model to quantify the interaction and feedback between desert dust aerosol and Sahelian precipitation. Using nested domains at fine spatial resolution we resolve changes to mesoscale atmospheric circulation patterns due to dust, for representative phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The NU-WRF regional earth system model offers both advanced land surface data and resolvable detail of the mechanisms of the impact of Saharan dust. Results are compared to our previous work assessed over the Western Sahel using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) CM2Mc global climate model, and to other previous regional climate model studies. This prompts further research to help explain the dust-precipitation relationship and recent North African dust emission trends. This presentation will offer a quantitative analysis of differences in radiation budget, energy and moisture fluxes, and atmospheric dynamics due to desert dust aerosol over the Sahel.

  13. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Oceanography; Cassano, John J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gutowski, Jr., William J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Lipscomb, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nijssen, Bart [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Roberts, Andrew [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Oceanography; Robertson, William [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Tulaczyk, Slawek [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Zeng, Xubin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The primary outcome of the project was the development of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) and evaluation of its individual model components, coupling among them and fully coupled model results. Overall, we have demonstrated that RASM produces realistic mean and seasonal surface climate as well as its interannual and decadal variability and trends.

  14. Temporal and spatial variability of frost-free seasons in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman; Jeffrey A. Andresen

    2014-01-01

    The frequency and timing of frost events and the length of the growing season are critical limiting factors in many human and natural ecosystems. This study investigates the temporal and spatial variability of the date of last spring frost (LSF), the date of first fall frost (FFF), and the length of the frost-free season (FFS) in the Great Lakes region of the United...

  15. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    2016-10-17

    This project aims to develop, apply and evaluate a regional Arctic System model (RASM) for enhanced decadal predictions. Its overarching goal is to advance understanding of the past and present states of arctic climate and to facilitate improvements in seasonal to decadal predictions. In particular, it will focus on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The project will also address modes of natural climate variability as well as extreme and rapid climate change in a region of the Earth that is: (i) a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification and (ii) which is undergoing environmental transitions not seen in instrumental records. RASM will readily allow the addition of other earth system components, such as ecosystem or biochemistry models, thus allowing it to facilitate studies of climate impacts (e.g., droughts and fires) and of ecosystem adaptations to these impacts. As such, RASM is expected to become a foundation for more complete Arctic System models and part of a model hierarchy important for improving climate modeling and predictions.

  16. A Study of Precipitation Climatology and Its Variability over Europe Using an Advanced Regional Model (WRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Dasari, Hari Prasad

    2015-03-06

    In recent years long-term precipitation trends on a regional scale have been given emphasis due to the impacts of global warming on regional hydrology. In this study, regional precipitation trends are simulated over the Europe continent for a 60-year period in 1950-2010 using an advanced regional model, WRF, to study extreme precipitation events over Europe. The model runs continuously for each year during the period at a horizontal resolution of 25 km with initial/ boundary conditions derived from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 2.5 degree reanalysis data sets. The E-OBS 0.25 degree rainfall observation analysis is used for model validation. Results indicate that the model could reproduce the spatial annual rainfall pattern over Europe with low amounts (250 - 750 mm) in Iberian Peninsula, moderate to large amounts (750 - 1500 mm) in central, eastern and northeastern parts of Europe and extremely heavy falls (1500 - 2000 mm) in hilly areas of Alps with a slight overestimation in Alps and underestimation in other parts of Europe. The regional model integrations showed increasing errors (mean absolute errors) and decreasing correlations with increasing time scale (daily to seasonal). Rainfall is simulated relatively better in Iberian Peninsula, northwest and central parts of Europe. A large spatial variability with the highest number of wet days over eastern, central Europe and Alps (~200 days/year) and less number of wet days over Iberian Peninsula (≤150 days/year) is also found in agreement with observations. The model could simulate the spatial rainfall climate variability reasonably well with low rainfall days (1 - 10 mm/days) in almost all zones, heavy rainfall events in western, northern, southeastern hilly and coastal zones and extremely heavy rainfall events in northern coastal zones. An increasing trend of heavy rainfall in central, southern and southeastern parts, a decreasing trend in Iberian Peninsula and a steady trend in other

  17. Multiresponse semiparametric regression for modelling the effect of regional socio-economic variables on the use of information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Wahyu; Wene, Chatrien; Budiantara, I. Nyoman; Permatasari, Erma Oktania

    2017-03-01

    Multiresponse semiparametric regression is simultaneous equation regression model and fusion of parametric and nonparametric model. The regression model comprise several models and each model has two components, parametric and nonparametric. The used model has linear function as parametric and polynomial truncated spline as nonparametric component. The model can handle both linearity and nonlinearity relationship between response and the sets of predictor variables. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the regression model for modeling of effect of regional socio-economic on use of information technology. More specific, the response variables are percentage of households has access to internet and percentage of households has personal computer. Then, predictor variables are percentage of literacy people, percentage of electrification and percentage of economic growth. Based on identification of the relationship between response and predictor variable, economic growth is treated as nonparametric predictor and the others are parametric predictors. The result shows that the multiresponse semiparametric regression can be applied well as indicate by the high coefficient determination, 90 percent.

  18. ESA STSE Project “Sea Surface Temperature Diurnal Variability: Regional Extend – Implications in Atmospheric Modelling”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    of the vertical extend of diurnal signals. Drifting buoys provide measurements close to the surface but are not always available. Moored buoys are generally not able to resolve the daily SST signal, which strongly weakens with depth within the upper water column. For such reasons, the General Ocean Turbulence......, atmospheric and oceanic modelling, bio-chemical processes and oceanic CO2 studies. The diurnal variability of SST, driven by the coincident occurrence of low enough wind and solar heating, is currently not properly understood. Atmospheric, oceanic and climate models are currently not adequately resolving...... the daily SST variability, resulting in biases of the total heat budget estimates and therefore, demised model accuracies. The ESA STSE funded project SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M. aimed at characterising the regional extend of diurnal SST signals and their impact in atmospheric modelling. This study will briefly...

  19. Variability among the Most Rapidly Evolving Plastid Genomic Regions is Lineage-Specific: Implications of Pairwise Genome Comparisons in Pyrus (Rosaceae) and Other Angiosperms for Marker Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Voskanyan, Hasmik; Allgaier, Martin; Borsch, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Plastid genomes exhibit different levels of variability in their sequences, depending on the respective kinds of genomic regions. Genes are usually more conserved while noncoding introns and spacers evolve at a faster pace. While a set of about thirty maximum variable noncoding genomic regions has been suggested to provide universally promising phylogenetic markers throughout angiosperms, applications often require several regions to be sequenced for many individuals. Our project aims to illuminate evolutionary relationships and species-limits in the genus Pyrus (Rosaceae)—a typical case with very low genetic distances between taxa. In this study, we have sequenced the plastid genome of Pyrus spinosa and aligned it to the already available P. pyrifolia sequence. The overall p-distance of the two Pyrus genomes was 0.00145. The intergenic spacers between ndhC–trnV, trnR–atpA, ndhF–rpl32, psbM–trnD, and trnQ–rps16 were the most variable regions, also comprising the highest total numbers of substitutions, indels and inversions (potentially informative characters). Our comparative analysis of further plastid genome pairs with similar low p-distances from Oenothera (representing another rosid), Olea (asterids) and Cymbidium (monocots) showed in each case a different ranking of genomic regions in terms of variability and potentially informative characters. Only two intergenic spacers (ndhF–rpl32 and trnK–rps16) were consistently found among the 30 top-ranked regions. We have mapped the occurrence of substitutions and microstructural mutations in the four genome pairs. High AT content in specific sequence elements seems to foster frequent mutations. We conclude that the variability among the fastest evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific and thus cannot be precisely predicted across angiosperms. The often lineage-specific occurrence of stem-loop elements in the sequences of introns and spacers also governs lineage-specific mutations

  20. Variability among the most rapidly evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific: implications of pairwise genome comparisons in Pyrus (Rosaceae and other angiosperms for marker choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Korotkova

    Full Text Available Plastid genomes exhibit different levels of variability in their sequences, depending on the respective kinds of genomic regions. Genes are usually more conserved while noncoding introns and spacers evolve at a faster pace. While a set of about thirty maximum variable noncoding genomic regions has been suggested to provide universally promising phylogenetic markers throughout angiosperms, applications often require several regions to be sequenced for many individuals. Our project aims to illuminate evolutionary relationships and species-limits in the genus Pyrus (Rosaceae-a typical case with very low genetic distances between taxa. In this study, we have sequenced the plastid genome of Pyrus spinosa and aligned it to the already available P. pyrifolia sequence. The overall p-distance of the two Pyrus genomes was 0.00145. The intergenic spacers between ndhC-trnV, trnR-atpA, ndhF-rpl32, psbM-trnD, and trnQ-rps16 were the most variable regions, also comprising the highest total numbers of substitutions, indels and inversions (potentially informative characters. Our comparative analysis of further plastid genome pairs with similar low p-distances from Oenothera (representing another rosid, Olea (asterids and Cymbidium (monocots showed in each case a different ranking of genomic regions in terms of variability and potentially informative characters. Only two intergenic spacers (ndhF-rpl32 and trnK-rps16 were consistently found among the 30 top-ranked regions. We have mapped the occurrence of substitutions and microstructural mutations in the four genome pairs. High AT content in specific sequence elements seems to foster frequent mutations. We conclude that the variability among the fastest evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific and thus cannot be precisely predicted across angiosperms. The often lineage-specific occurrence of stem-loop elements in the sequences of introns and spacers also governs lineage-specific mutations. Sequencing

  1. Quantifying the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff for Kaidu River Basin in arid region of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Chen, Yaning; Li, Baofu

    2013-02-01

    Much attention has recently been focused on the effects that climate variability and human activities have had on runoff. In this study, data from the Kaidu River Basin in the arid region of northwest China were analyzed to investigate changes in annual runoff during the period of 1960-2009. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and the Mann-Kendall-Sneyers test were used to identify trend and step change point in the annual runoff. It was found that the basin had a significant increasing trend in annual runoff. Step change point in annual runoff was identified in the basin, which occurred in the year around 1993 dividing the long-term runoff series into a natural period (1960-1993) and a human-induced period (1994-2009). Then, the hydrologic sensitivity analysis method was employed to evaluate the effects of climate variability and human activities on mean annual runoff for the human-induced period based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. In 1994-2009, climate variability was the main factor that increased runoff with contribution of 90.5 %, while the increasing percentage due to human activities only accounted for 9.5 %, showing that runoff in the Kaidu River Basin is more sensitive to climate variability than human activities. This study quantitatively distinguishes the effects between climate variability and human activities on runoff, which can do duty for a reference for regional water resources assessment and management.

  2. Altering the spectrum of immunoglobulin V gene somatic hypermutation by modifying the active site of AID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Rada, Cristina; Neuberger, Michael S

    2010-01-18

    High-affinity antibodies are generated by somatic hypermutation with nucleotide substitutions introduced into the IgV in a semirandom fashion, but with intrinsic mutational hotspots strategically located to optimize antibody affinity maturation. The process is dependent on activation-induced deaminase (AID), an enzyme that can deaminate deoxycytidine in DNA in vitro, where its activity is sensitive to the identity of the 5'-flanking nucleotide. As a critical test of whether such DNA deamination activity underpins antibody diversification and to gain insight into the extent to which the antibody mutation spectrum is dependent on the intrinsic substrate specificity of AID, we investigated whether it is possible to change the IgV mutation spectrum by altering AID's active site such that it prefers a pyrimidine (rather than a purine) flanking the targeted deoxycytidine. Consistent with the DNA deamination mechanism, B cells expressing the modified AID proteins yield altered IgV mutation spectra (exhibiting a purine-->pyrimidine shift in flanking nucleotide preference) and altered hotspots. However, AID-catalyzed deamination of IgV targets in vitro does not yield the same degree of hotspot dominance to that observed in vivo, indicating the importance of features beyond AID's active site and DNA local sequence environment in determining in vivo hotspot dominance.

  3. Radial polar histogram: obstacle avoidance and path planning for robotic cognition and motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Jen; Keyawa, Nicholas R.; Euler, Craig

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve highly accurate motion control and path planning for a mobile robot, an obstacle avoidance algorithm that provided a desired instantaneous turning radius and velocity was generated. This type of obstacle avoidance algorithm, which has been implemented in California State University Northridge's Intelligent Ground Vehicle (IGV), is known as Radial Polar Histogram (RPH). The RPH algorithm utilizes raw data in the form of a polar histogram that is read from a Laser Range Finder (LRF) and a camera. A desired open block is determined from the raw data utilizing a navigational heading and an elliptical approximation. The left and right most radii are determined from the calculated edges of the open block and provide the range of possible radial paths the IGV can travel through. In addition, the calculated obstacle edge positions allow the IGV to recognize complex obstacle arrangements and to slow down accordingly. A radial path optimization function calculates the best radial path between the left and right most radii and is sent to motion control for speed determination. Overall, the RPH algorithm allows the IGV to autonomously travel at average speeds of 3mph while avoiding all obstacles, with a processing time of approximately 10ms.

  4. Physical linkage of a human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene segment to diversity and joining region elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.W. Jr.; Walter, M.A.; Hofker, M.H.; Ebens, A.; Van Dijk, K.W.; Liao, L.C.; Cox, D.W.; Milner, E.C.B.; Perlmutter, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Antibody genes are assembled from a series of germ-line gene segments that are juxtaposed during the maturation of B lymphocytes. Although diversification of the adult antibody repertoire results in large part from the combinatorial joining of these gene segments, a restricted set of antibody heavy chain variable (V H ), diversity (D H ), and joining (J H ) region gene segments appears preferentially in the human fetal repertoire. The authors report here that one of these early-expressed V H elements (termed V H 6) is the most 3' V H gene segment, positioned 77 kilobases on the 5' side of the J H locus and immediately adjacent to a set of previously described D H sequences. In addition to providing a physical map linking human V H , D H , and J H elements, these results support the view that the programmed development of the antibody V H repertoire is determined in part by the chromosomal position of these gene segments

  5. Computer-assisted orthognathic surgery: waferless maxillary positioning, versatility, and accuracy of an image-guided visualisation display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Max J; Mischkowski, Robert A; Dreiseidler, Timo; Thamm, Oliver C; Rothamel, Daniel; Zöller, Joachim E

    2013-12-01

    There may well be a shift towards 3-dimensional orthognathic surgery when virtual surgical planning can be applied clinically. We present a computer-assisted protocol that uses surgical navigation supplemented by an interactive image-guided visualisation display (IGVD) to transfer virtual maxillary planning precisely. The aim of this study was to analyse its accuracy and versatility in vivo. The protocol consists of maxillofacial imaging, diagnosis, planning of virtual treatment, and intraoperative surgical transfer using an IGV display. The advantage of the interactive IGV display is that the virtually planned maxilla and its real position can be completely superimposed during operation through a video graphics array (VGA) camera, thereby augmenting the surgeon's 3-dimensional perception. Sixteen adult class III patients were treated with by bimaxillary osteotomy. Seven hard tissue variables were chosen to compare (ΔT1-T0) the virtual maxillary planning (T0) with the postoperative result (T1) using 3-dimensional cephalometry. Clinically acceptable precision for the surgical planning transfer of the maxilla (orthognathic planning. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low numbers of repeat units in variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) regions of white spot syndrome virus are correlated with disease outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen in shrimp farming systems worldwide including the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The genome of WSSV is characterized by the presence of two major 'indel regions' found at ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 (WSSV-Thailand) and three regions with variable

  7. Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) co-transcriptional scanning at single-molecule resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senavirathne, Gayan; Bertram, Jeffrey G.; Jaszczur, Malgorzata; Chaurasiya, Kathy R.; Pham, Phuong; Mak, Chi H.; Goodman, Myron F.; Rueda, David

    2015-12-01

    Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) generates antibody diversity in B cells by initiating somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) during transcription of immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and switch region (IgS) DNA. Using single-molecule FRET, we show that AID binds to transcribed dsDNA and translocates unidirectionally in concert with RNA polymerase (RNAP) on moving transcription bubbles, while increasing the fraction of stalled bubbles. AID scans randomly when constrained in an 8 nt model bubble. When unconstrained on single-stranded (ss) DNA, AID moves in random bidirectional short slides/hops over the entire molecule while remaining bound for ~5 min. Our analysis distinguishes dynamic scanning from static ssDNA creasing. That AID alone can track along with RNAP during transcription and scan within stalled transcription bubbles suggests a mechanism by which AID can initiate SHM and CSR when properly regulated, yet when unregulated can access non-Ig genes and cause cancer.

  8. Protection against syphilis correlates with specificity of antibodies to the variable regions of Treponema pallidum repeat protein K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Cecilia A; Lukehart, Sheila A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2003-10-01

    Syphilis has been recognized as a disease since the late 1400s, yet there is no practical vaccine available. One impediment to the development of a vaccine is the lack of understanding of multiple reinfections in humans despite the development of robust immune responses during the first episode. It has been shown that the Treponema pallidum repeat protein K (TprK) differs in seven discrete variable (V) regions in isolates and that the antibody response during infection is directed to these V regions. Immunization with TprK confers significant protection against infection with the homologous strain. We hypothesize that the antigenic diversity of TprK is involved in immune evasion, which contributes to the lack of heterologous protection. Here, using the rabbit model, we show a correlation between limited heterologous protection and tprK diversity in the challenge inoculum. We demonstrate that antibody responses to the V regions of one TprK molecule show limited cross-reactivity with heterologous TprK V regions.

  9. Interannual Variability of Regional Hadley Circulation Intensity Over Western Pacific During Boreal Winter and Its Climatic Impact Over Asia-Australia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruping; Chen, Shangfeng; Chen, Wen; Hu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates interannual variability of boreal winter regional Hadley circulation over western Pacific (WPHC) and its climatic impacts. A WPHC intensity index (WPHCI) is defined as the vertical shear of the divergent meridional winds. It shows that WPHCI correlates well with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To investigate roles of the ENSO-unrelated part of WPHCI (WPHCIres), variables that are linearly related to the Niño-3 index have been removed. It reveals that meridional sea surface temperature gradient over the western Pacific plays an essential role in modulating the WPHCIres. The climatic impacts of WPHCIres are further investigated. Below-normal (above-normal) precipitation appears over south China (North Australia) when WPHCIres is stronger. This is due to the marked convergence (divergence) anomalies at the upper troposphere, divergence (convergence) at the lower troposphere, and the accompanied downward (upward) motion over south China (North Australia), which suppresses (enhances) precipitation there. In addition, a pronounced increase in surface air temperature (SAT) appears over south and central China when WPHCIres is stronger. A temperature diagnostic analysis suggests that the increase in SAT tendency over central China is primarily due to the warm zonal temperature advection and subsidence-induced adiabatic heating. In addition, the increase in SAT tendency over south China is primarily contributed by the warm meridional temperature advection. Further analysis shows that the correlation of WPHCIres with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is weak. Thus, this study may provide additional sources besides EAWM and ENSO to improve understanding of the Asia-Australia climate variability.

  10. Characterizing isotopic variability of primary production and consumers in Great Plains ecosystems during protracted regional drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveles, A. W.; Fox-Dobbs, K.; Talmadge, K. A.; Fetrow, A.; Fox, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last few years (2010-2012), the Great Plains of the central USA experienced protracted drought conditions, including historically severe drought during Summer, 2011. Drought severity in the region generally decreases with increasing latitude, but episodic drought is a fundamental trait of grassland ecosystems. Documenting above ground energy and nutrient flow with current drought is critical to understanding responses of grassland ecosystems in the region to predicted increased episodicity of rainfall and recurrence of drought due to anthropogenic climate change. Characterization of biogeochemical variability of modern ecosystems at the microhabitat, local landscape, and regional scales is also necessary to interpret biogeochemical records of ancient grasslands based on paleosols and fossil mammals. Here, we characterize three grassland ecosystems that span the drought gradient in the Great Plains (sites in the Texas panhandle, southwest Kansas, and northwest Nebraska). We measured δ13C and δ15N values of plants and consumers to characterize the biogeochemical variability within each ecosystem. Vegetation at each site is a mix of trees, shrubs, herbs, and cool- and warm-growing season grasses (C3 and C4, respectively). Thus, consumers have access to isotopically distinct sources of forage that vary in abundance with microhabitat (e.g., open grassland, shrub thicket, riparian woodland). Observations indicate herbivorous arthropod (grasshoppers and crickets) abundance follows drought severity, with high abundance of many species in Texas, and low abundance of few species in Nebraska. Small mammal (rodents) abundance follows the inverse pattern with 0.8%, 3.2% and 17.2% capture success in Texas, Kansas and Nebraska, respectively. The inverse abundance patterns of consumer groups may result from greater sensitivity of small mammal consumers with high metabolic needs to lower local net primary productivity and forage quality under drought conditions. As a

  11. Influence of soil physical and chemical variables on species composition and richness of plants in the arid region of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mutairi Khalid Awadh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the effect of soil physical and chemical variables on the species richness and the floristic composition in four sites (Alwaz, Alqan, Sharma and Zetah of Tabuk region in the Northwestern part of Arabian Peninsula. Only organic matter (OM, pH and calcium (Ca showed significant differences (P < 0.05 amongst the four studied sites. Only magnesium and sodium were selected in the forward regression model and showed to be strong drivers of species richness of plants in Tabuk region (Adj-R2 = 0.438, F2,13 = 6.85, P = 0.009. The multivariate analysis of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA was applied to reveal the effect of the physical and chemical variables on the species composition of the plants. The CCA classifies the plant species into three groups based on their preference to the environmental variables. The first group of plant species (Group 1 is characterised by positive preference to the chloride (Cl and negative relationship with OM and pH. The second group (Group 2 is positively correlated with most of the soil variables such as OM, calcium (Ca, potassium (K, bicarbonate (HCO3, electrical conductivity (EC, sulphate (SO4 and sodium (Na. The third group (Group 3 has positive relationship with carbonate (CO3 and negative relationship with EC and magnesium (Mg. The chloride, sodium, sulphate, EC and carbonate are the main environmental factors influencing the plant species composition in Tabuk region. The cluster analysis based on the Euclidian measure shows that Alqan and Zetah have closer species composition compared to Sharma.

  12. Regional variability of nitrate fluxes in the unsaturated zone and groundwater, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Liao, Lixia; Nolan, Bernard T.; Juckem, Paul F.; Shope, Christopher L.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Jurgens, Bryant

    2018-01-01

    Process-based modeling of regional NO3− fluxes to groundwater is critical for understanding and managing water quality, but the complexity of NO3− reactive transport processes make implementation a challenge. This study introduces a regional vertical flux method (VFM) for efficient estimation of reactive transport of NO3− in the vadose zone and groundwater. The regional VFM was applied to 443 well samples in central-eastern Wisconsin. Chemical measurements included O2, NO3−, N2 from denitrification, and atmospheric tracers of groundwater age including carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, and tritiogenic helium. VFM results were consistent with observed chemistry, and calibrated parameters were in-line with estimates from previous studies. Results indicated that (1) unsaturated zone travel times were a substantial portion of the transit time to wells and streams (2) since 1945 fractions of applied N leached to groundwater have increased for manure-N, possibly due to increased injection of liquid manure, and decreased for fertilizer-N, and (3) under current practices and conditions, approximately 60% of the shallow aquifer will eventually be affected by downward migration of NO3−, with denitrification protecting the remaining 40%. Recharge variability strongly affected the unsaturated zone lag times and the eventual depth of the NO3− front. Principal components regression demonstrated that VFM parameters and predictions were significantly correlated with hydrogeochemical landscape features. The diverse and sometimes conflicting aspects of N management (e.g. limiting N volatilization versus limiting N losses to groundwater) warrant continued development of large-scale holistic strategies to manage water quality and quantity.

  13. Regional Variability of Nitrate Fluxes in the Unsaturated Zone and Groundwater, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Liao, Lixia; Nolan, Bernard T.; Juckem, Paul F.; Shope, Christopher L.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2018-01-01

    Process-based modeling of regional NO3- fluxes to groundwater is critical for understanding and managing water quality, but the complexity of NO3- reactive transport processes makes implementation a challenge. This study introduces a regional vertical flux method (VFM) for efficient estimation of reactive transport of NO3- in the vadose zone and groundwater. The regional VFM was applied to 443 well samples in central-eastern Wisconsin. Chemical measurements included O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, and atmospheric tracers of groundwater age including carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, and tritiogenic helium. VFM results were consistent with observed chemistry, and calibrated parameters were in-line with estimates from previous studies. Results indicated that (1) unsaturated zone travel times were a substantial portion of the transit time to wells and streams, (2) since 1945 fractions of applied N leached to groundwater have increased for manure-N, possibly due to increased injection of liquid manure, and decreased for fertilizer-N, and (3) under current practices and conditions, approximately 60% of the shallow aquifer will eventually be affected by downward migration of NO3-, with denitrification protecting the remaining 40%. Recharge variability strongly affected the unsaturated zone lag times and the eventual depth of the NO3- front. Principal components regression demonstrated that VFM parameters and predictions were significantly correlated with hydrogeochemical landscape features. The diverse and sometimes conflicting aspects of N management (e.g., limiting N volatilization versus limiting N losses to groundwater) warrant continued development of large-scale holistic strategies to manage water quality and quantity.

  14. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  15. Finding stability regions for preserving efficiency classification of variable returns to scale technology in data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, P.; Borzouei, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses issue of sensitivity of efficiency classification of variable returns to scale (VRS) technology for enhancing the credibility of data envelopment analysis (DEA) results in practical applications when an additional decision making unit (DMU) needs to be added to the set being considered. It also develops a structured approach to assisting practitioners in making an appropriate selection of variation range for inputs and outputs of additional DMU so that this DMU be efficient and the efficiency classification of VRS technology remains unchanged. This stability region is simply specified by the concept of defining hyperplanes of production possibility set of VRS technology and the corresponding halfspaces. Furthermore, this study determines a stability region for the additional DMU within which, in addition to efficiency classification, the efficiency score of a specific inefficient DMU is preserved and also using a simulation method, a region in which some specific efficient DMUs become inefficient is provided.

  16. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    OpenAIRE

    W. Anderson; A. Gnanadesikan; A. Wittenberg

    2009-01-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly se...

  17. Regional variability among nonlinear chlorophyll-phosphorus relationships in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filstrup, Christopher T.; Wagner, Tyler; Soranno, Patricia A.; Stanley, Emily H.; Stow, Craig A.; Webster, Katherine E.; Downing, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between chlorophyll a (Chl a) and total phosphorus (TP) is a fundamental relationship in lakes that reflects multiple aspects of ecosystem function and is also used in the regulation and management of inland waters. The exact form of this relationship has substantial implications on its meaning and its use. We assembled a spatially extensive data set to examine whether nonlinear models are a better fit for Chl a—TP relationships than traditional log-linear models, whether there were regional differences in the form of the relationships, and, if so, which regional factors were related to these differences. We analyzed a data set from 2105 temperate lakes across 35 ecoregions by fitting and comparing two different nonlinear models and one log-linear model. The two nonlinear models fit the data better than the log-linear model. In addition, the parameters for the best-fitting model varied among regions: the maximum and lower Chl aasymptotes were positively and negatively related to percent regional pasture land use, respectively, and the rate at which chlorophyll increased with TP was negatively related to percent regional wetland cover. Lakes in regions with more pasture fields had higher maximum chlorophyll concentrations at high TP concentrations but lower minimum chlorophyll concentrations at low TP concentrations. Lakes in regions with less wetland cover showed a steeper Chl a—TP relationship than wetland-rich regions. Interpretation of Chl a—TP relationships depends on regional differences, and theory and management based on a monolithic relationship may be inaccurate.

  18. Impacts of Present and Future Climate Variability on Agriculture and Forestry in the Temperate Regions. Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracchi, G.; Sirotenko, O.; Bindi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Agriculture and forestry will be particularly sensitive to changes in mean climate and climate variability in the northern and southern regions of Europe. Agriculture may be positively affected by climate change in the northern areas through the introduction of new crop species and varieties, higher crop production and expansion of suitable areas for crop cultivation. The disadvantages may be determined by an increase in need for plant protection, risk of nutrient leaching and accelerated breakdown of soil organic matter. In the southern areas the benefits of the projected climate change will be limited, while the disadvantages will be predominant. The increased water use efficiency caused by increasing CO2 will compensate for some of the negative effects of increasing water limitation and extreme weather events, but lower harvestable yields, higher yield variability and reduction in suitable areas of traditional crops are expected for these areas. Forestry in the Mediterranean region may be mainly affected by increases in drought and forest fires. In northern Europe, the increased precipitation is expected to be large enough to compensate for the increased evapotranspiration. On the other hand, however, increased precipitation, cloudiness and rain days and the reduced duration of snow cover and soil frost may negatively affect forest work and timber logging determining lower profitability of forest production and a decrease in recreational possibilities. Adaptation management strategies should be introduced, as effective tools, to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on agricultural and forestry sectors

  19. Phase Variability of the Recent Climate in the North Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, Ilya; Anisimov, Mikhail; Byshev, Vladimir; Neiman, Victor; Romanov, Juri; Sidorova, Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric pressure and near-surface temperature differences between the Azores High and the Icelandic Low for the period of 1900-2012 within the spatial-temporal average-out (20º latitude, 20º longitude and 12 years) were considered. The secular term of phase states of the system under consideration was found to divide into three non-intersecting subsets. Each of that was put in consequence with one of three climatic scenarios related to the periods of 1905-1935 (relatively warm phase), 1940-1970 (colder phase) and 1980-2000 (warmer phase). A life time of such a scenario lasted about 20-35 years, and the transition from one scenario to another covered 4-6 years, i.e. it run comparatively quickly. The revealed non-overlapping sub-aggregates of the thermodynamic indices related to each particular climate scenario gave an idea to follow the circulation peculiarities and the interrelated temperature differences within the limits of the Northern Atlantic ocean-atmosphere regional system. The results of this analysis bear evidence that the most probable intermittent strengthening and weakening of Hadley and Ferrell circulations occurred there in coincided phase. The analogous character of the climate system behavior was also detected in some other regional atmospheric activity centers that can be considered as a witness on the global nature of the detected phase type of modern climate inter-decadal variability. Hence, we have the grounds to suppose that mentioned above the short-period inter-decadal excitations of the modern climate have a global nature and appears everywhere. Finally, the attention was paid to the fact that at the early XXI century the thermodynamic state of the Northern Atlantic regional climate system has shown a tendency to face towards the situation, similar to the cooler scenario of the 1940-1970. We used the heat content of upper 700m Atlantic Ocean layer data from NODC to calculate its anomalies for the periods of 1955-1970, 1980-2000 and

  20. Climate Variability and Change in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionello, Piero; Özsoy, Emin; Planton, Serge; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    This special issue collects new research results on the climate of the Mediterranean region. It covers traditional topics of the MedCLIVAR programme (www.medclivar.eu, Lionello et al. 2006, Lionello et al. 2012b) being devoted to papers addressing on-going and future climate changes in the Mediterranean region and their impacts on its environment.

  1. Self-organizing map network-based precipitation regionalization for the Tibetan Plateau and regional precipitation variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nini; Yin, Jianchuan

    2017-12-01

    A precipitation-based regionalization for the Tibetan Plateau (TP) was investigated for regional precipitation trend analysis and frequency analysis using data from 1113 grid points covering the period 1900-2014. The results utilizing self-organizing map (SOM) network suggest that four clusters of precipitation coherent zones can be identified, including the southwestern edge, the southern edge, the southeastern region, and the north central region. Regionalization results of the SOM network satisfactorily represent the influences of the atmospheric circulation systems such as the East Asian summer monsoon, the south Asian summer monsoon, and the mid-latitude westerlies. Regionalization results also well display the direct impacts of physical geographical features of the TP such as orography, topography, and land-sea distribution. Regional-scale annual precipitation trend as well as regional differences of annual and seasonal total precipitation were investigated by precipitation index such as precipitation concentration index (PCI) and Standardized Anomaly Index (SAI). Results demonstrate significant negative long-term linear trends in southeastern TP and the north central part of the TP, indicating arid and semi-arid regions in the TP are getting drier. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method shows an evolution of the main cycle with 4 and 12 months for all the representative grids of four sub-regions. The cross-wavelet analysis suggests that predominant and effective period of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on monthly precipitation is around ˜12 months, except for the representative grid of the northwestern region.

  2. Synoptic meteorological modes of variability for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality in major metropolitan regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Danny M.; Tai, Amos P. K.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Moch, Jonathan M.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Shen, Lu; Martin, Randall V.

    2018-05-01

    In his study, we use a combination of multivariate statistical methods to understand the relationships of PM2.5 with local meteorology and synoptic weather patterns in different regions of China across various timescales. Using June 2014 to May 2017 daily total PM2.5 observations from ˜ 1500 monitors, all deseasonalized and detrended to focus on synoptic-scale variations, we find strong correlations of daily PM2.5 with all selected meteorological variables (e.g., positive correlation with temperature but negative correlation with sea-level pressure throughout China; positive and negative correlation with relative humidity in northern and southern China, respectively). The spatial patterns suggest that the apparent correlations with individual meteorological variables may arise from common association with synoptic systems. Based on a principal component analysis of 1998-2017 meteorological data to diagnose distinct meteorological modes that dominate synoptic weather in four major regions of China, we find strong correlations of PM2.5 with several synoptic modes that explain 10 to 40 % of daily PM2.5 variability. These modes include monsoonal flows and cold frontal passages in northern and central China associated with the Siberian High, onshore flows in eastern China, and frontal rainstorms in southern China. Using the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region as a case study, we further find strong interannual correlations of regionally averaged satellite-derived annual mean PM2.5 with annual mean relative humidity (RH; positive) and springtime fluctuation frequency of the Siberian High (negative). We apply the resulting PM2.5-to-climate sensitivities to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections to predict future PM2.5 by the 2050s due to climate change, and find a modest decrease of ˜ 0.5 µg m-3 in annual mean PM2.5 in the BTH region due to more frequent cold frontal ventilation

  3. Change features and regional distribution of temperature trend and variability joint mode in mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhengtao; Feng, Jieling; Wang, Ye

    2018-05-01

    Adaption for temperature should be suitable to local conditions for regional differences in temperature change features. This paper proposed to utilize nine temperature modes that joint the trend (increasing/decreasing/unchanged) with variability (intensifying/weakening/unchanged) to investigate features of temperature change in mainland China. Monthly temperature data over the period 1960-2013 were obtained from 522 national basic and reference meteorological stations. Here, temperature trend (TT) was reflected by the trend of mean annual temperature (MAT) and the uptrend (downtrend) of inter-monthly sliding standard deviation (SSD) series with a sliding length of 29 years (348 months) was used for representing the intensification (weakening) of temperature variability (TV). The Mann-Kendall method and the least squares method were applied to assess the significance and quantify the magnitude of trend in MAT and SSD time series, respectively. The results show that there is a consistent warming trend throughout the country except for only three stations in which a cooling trend is identified. Moreover, the overall increasing rate in the north of 35° N is the highest, over 0.4 °C/decade for most stations. TV is weakened for almost 98% of the stations, indicating the low instability of temperature at a national scale. Finally, temperature mode (TM), for more than 90% of the stations, is the combination of an increasing TT with a weakened TV (mode 8). So, it is more important for people to adapt to the increasing temperature in these regions. Compared to using annual temperature data to calculate SSD, monthly data can accurately reflect the inter-monthly change of temperature and reserve more initial characteristics of temperature.

  4. Role of the B-cell receptor in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Franco; Bruno, Silvia; Ghiotto, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    The past 15 years have witnessed an enormous effort in studying B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. A great number of researches brought significant novel information and a better understanding of the natural history of this disease. This mini review will focus on the studies related to the Immunoglobulin variable (IgV) genes rearrangements that compose the B-cell receptor (BcR) of the leukemic clones. These studies have defined a role for the antigen(s) in the paths that lead to leukemic clone generation/expansion and underscore the informative value represented by BcR analyses.

  5. Regional softwood sawmill processing variables as influenced by productive capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. H. Steele; F. G. Wagner; K. E. Skog

    The relationship between annual softwood sawmill production and lumber processing variables was examined using data from Sawmill Improvement Program (SIP) studies of 650 softwood mills. The variables were lumber recovery factor (LRF); headrig and resaw kerf width; total sawing variation, rough green size, and oversizing-undersizing for 4/4 and 8/4 lumber; planer...

  6. N-linked glycosylation of the immunoglobulin variable region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, Fleur S.; Derksen, Ninotska I. L.; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni; van Schie, Karin A.; Kruithof, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena A.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Ijspeert, Hanna; van der Burg, Mirjam; Gils, Ann; Hafkenscheid, Lise; Toes, René E. M.; Rombouts, Yoann; Plomp, Rosina; Wuhrer, Manfred; van Ham, S. Marieke; Vidarsson, Gestur; Rispens, Theo

    2018-01-01

    N-glycosylation sites are introduced at positions in which glycans can affect antigen binding as a result of a specific clustering of progenitor glycosylation sites in the germline sequences of variable domain genes. By analyzing multiple human monoclonal and polyclonal (auto)antibody responses, we

  7. Off-design performance of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) combined cycle: effects of ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jinling; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Shijie; Xiao, Yunhan

    2010-02-01

    The present work investigates the influence of ambient temperature on the steady-state off-design thermodynamic performance of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) combined cycle. A sensitivity analysis of the CLC reactor system was conducted, which shows that the parameters that influence the temperatures of the CLC reactors most are the flow rate and temperature of air entering the air reactor. For the ambient temperature variation, three off-design control strategies have been assumed and compared: 1) without any Inlet Guide Vane (IGV) control, 2) IGV control to maintain air reactor temperature and 3) IGV control to maintain constant fuel reactor temperature, aside from fuel flow rate adjusting. Results indicate that, compared with the conventional combined cycle, due to the requirement of pressure balance at outlet of the two CLC reactors, CLC combined cycle shows completely different off-design thermodynamic characteristics regardless of the control strategy adopted. For the first control strategy, temperatures of the two CLC reactors both rise obviously as ambient temperature increases. IGV control adopted by the second and the third strategy has the effect to maintain one of the two reactors' temperatures at design condition when ambient temperature is above design point. Compare with the second strategy, the third would induce more severe decrease of efficiency and output power of the CLC combined cycle.

  8. Behavior of variable V3 region from 16S rDNA of lactic acid bacteria in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolini, D; Moschetti, G; Blaiotta, G; Coppola, S

    2001-03-01

    Separation of amplified V3 region from 16S rDNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was tested as a tool for differentiation of lactic acid bacteria commonly isolated from food. Variable V3 regions of 21 reference strains and 34 wild strains referred to species belonging to the genera Pediococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Streptococcus were analyzed. DGGE profiles obtained were species-specific for most of the cultures tested. Moreover, it was possible to group the remaining LAB reference strains according to the migration of their 16S V3 region in the denaturing gel. The results are discussed with reference to their potential in the analysis of LAB communities in food, besides shedding light on taxonomic aspects.

  9. Variability of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) during the early phase of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo Cortés, K; Laskus, T; Bukowska-Ośko, I; Pawełczyk, A; Berak, H; Horban, A; Fic, M; Radkowski, M

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered to be an important factor defining viral pathogenesis, persistence and resistance to treatment. The aim of the present study was to characterize HCV genetic heterogeneity within a hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) before and during the early period of pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFN-α) and ribavirin treatment in correlation with treatment outcome. The study involved 24 patients treated with PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin whose sera were collected before (baseline) and at 7, 14, 21 28 and 56 day of treatment. HCV HVR-1 region was amplified by nested RT- PCR and subjected to SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) analysis. SSCP changes of HCV HVR-1 over time in each patient were compared to treatment outcome results. In 2/11 (18%) SVR+ and 8/13 (62%) SVR- treated patients, HVR-1 genetic changes manifested by new SSCP bands (new genetic variants) and were significantly more frequent in nonresponders (P HVR-1 variability during the early phase of PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin therapy may be predictive of treatment outcome.

  10. Comparison of seasonal variability in European domestic radon measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves-Kirkby, C. J.; Denman, A. R.; Phillips, P. S.; Crockett, R. G. M.; Sinclair, J. M.

    2010-03-01

    Analysis of published data characterising seasonal variability of domestic radon concentrations in Europe and elsewhere shows significant variability between different countries and between regions where regional data is available. Comparison is facilitated by application of the Gini Coefficient methodology to reported seasonal variation data. Overall, radon-rich sedimentary strata, particularly high-porosity limestones, exhibit high seasonal variation, while radon-rich igneous lithologies demonstrate relatively constant, but somewhat higher, radon concentrations. High-variability regions include the Pennines and South Downs in England, Languedoc and Brittany in France, and especially Switzerland. Low-variability high-radon regions include the granite-rich Cornwall/Devon peninsula in England, and Auvergne and Ardennes in France, all components of the Devonian-Carboniferous Hercynian belt.

  11. Peucedanum ostruthium (L. Koch: Morphological and phytochemical variability of twelve accessions from the Swiss alpine region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCardell, Jessica Heather

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ostruthin, a natural bioactive compound mainly occurring in the roots of Peucedanum ostruthium, is the focus of this study. P. ostruthium was collected from twelve locations in the Swiss alpine region and reared in an experimental field, subdivided into twelve lots over two years. In the spring and fall, a portion of each of the twelve accessions was harvested and separated into above and below ground plant parts. The dried plants were then extracted with 60 % ethanol using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE and analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC.The above and below ground plant parts were then analyzed concerning their dry matter yield (DMY, their ostruthin concentration and their ostruthin yield. Focusing on ostruthin, it was found that the below ground plant parts harvested in the fall rendered the highest ostruthin yield. Furthermore, a variability concerning ostruthin among the twelve accessions was found. This variability among the accessions is of interest with regards to a breeding program used to develop a cultivar with a high ostruthin yield.

  12. Ultrafast 2-dimensional image monitoring and array-based passive cavitation detection for ultrasound contrast agent destruction in a variably sized region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanshan; Hu, Hong; Jiang, Hujie; Xu, Zhi'an; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-11-01

    A combined approach was proposed, based on programmable ultrasound equipment, to simultaneously monitor surviving microbubbles and detect cavitation activity during microbubble destruction in a variably sized region for use in ultrasound contrast agent (UCA)-enhanced therapeutic ultrasound applications. A variably sized focal region wherein the acoustic pressure was above the UCA fragmentation threshold was synthesized at frequencies of 3, 4, 5, and 6 MHz with a linear broadband imaging probe. The UCAs' temporal and spatial distribution during the microbubbles' destruction was monitored in a 2-dimensional imaging plane at 5 MHz and a frame rate of 400 Hz, and simultaneously, broadband noise emissions during the microbubbles' fragmentation were extracted by using the backscattered signals produced by the focused release bursts (ie, destruction pulses) themselves. Afterward, the temporal evolution of broadband noise emission, the surviving microbubbles in a region of interest (ROI), and the destruction area in a static UCA suspension were computed. Then the inertial cavitation dose, destruction rate of microbubbles in the ROI, and area of the destruction region were determined. It was found that an increasing pulse length and a decreasing transmit aperture and excitation frequency were correlated with an increased inertial cavitation dose, microbubble destruction rate, and destruction area. Furthermore, it was obvious that the microbubble destruction rate was significantly correlated with the inertial cavitation dose (P cavitation dose could be regulated by manipulating the transmission parameters. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Providing a non-deterministic representation of spatial variability of precipitation in the Everest region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eeckman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new representation of the effect of altitude on precipitation that represents spatial and temporal variability in precipitation in the Everest region. Exclusive observation data are used to infer a piecewise linear function for the relation between altitude and precipitation and significant seasonal variations are highlighted. An original ensemble approach is applied to provide non-deterministic water budgets for middle and high-mountain catchments. Physical processes at the soil–atmosphere interface are represented through the Interactions Soil–Biosphere–Atmosphere (ISBA surface scheme. Uncertainties associated with the model parametrization are limited by the integration of in situ measurements of soils and vegetation properties. Uncertainties associated with the representation of the orographic effect are shown to account for up to 16 % of annual total precipitation. Annual evapotranspiration is shown to represent 26 % ± 1 % of annual total precipitation for the mid-altitude catchment and 34% ± 3 % for the high-altitude catchment. Snowfall contribution is shown to be neglectable for the mid-altitude catchment, and it represents up to 44 % ± 8 % of total precipitation for the high-altitude catchment. These simulations on the local scale enhance current knowledge of the spatial variability in hydroclimatic processes in high- and mid-altitude mountain environments.

  14. Ecosystem stability in space: α, β and γ variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopeng; Loreau, Michel

    2014-08-01

    The past two decades have seen great progress in understanding the mechanisms of ecosystem stability in local ecological systems. There is, however, an urgent need to extend existing knowledge to larger spatial scales to match the scale of management and conservation. Here, we develop a general theoretical framework to study the stability and variability of ecosystems at multiple scales. Analogously to the partitioning of biodiversity, we propose the concepts of alpha, beta and gamma variability. Gamma variability at regional (metacommunity) scale can be partitioned into local alpha variability and spatial beta variability, either multiplicatively or additively. On average, variability decreases from local to regional scales, which creates a negative variability-area relationship. Our partitioning framework suggests that mechanisms of regional ecosystem stability can be understood by investigating the influence of ecological factors on alpha and beta variability. Diversity can provide insurance effects at the various levels of variability, thus generating alpha, beta and gamma diversity-stability relationships. As a consequence, the loss of biodiversity and habitat impairs ecosystem stability at the regional scale. Overall, our framework enables a synthetic understanding of ecosystem stability at multiple scales and has practical implications for landscape management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Primer sets for cloning the human repertoire of T cell Receptor Variable regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boria, Ilenia; Cotella, Diego; Dianzani, Irma; Santoro, Claudio; Sblattero, Daniele

    2008-08-29

    Amplification and cloning of naïve T cell Receptor (TR) repertoires or antigen-specific TR is crucial to shape immune response and to develop immuno-based therapies. TR variable (V) regions are encoded by several genes that recombine during T cell development. The cloning of expressed genes as large diverse libraries from natural sources relies upon the availability of primers able to amplify as many V genes as possible. Here, we present a list of primers computationally designed on all functional TR V and J genes listed in the IMGT, the ImMunoGeneTics information system. The list consists of unambiguous or degenerate primers suitable to theoretically amplify and clone the entire TR repertoire. We show that it is possible to selectively amplify and clone expressed TR V genes in one single RT-PCR step and from as little as 1000 cells. This new primer set will facilitate the creation of more diverse TR libraries than has been possible using currently available primer sets.

  16. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  17. Comparison of seasonal variability in European domestic radon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Groves-Kirkby

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of published data characterising seasonal variability of domestic radon concentrations in Europe and elsewhere shows significant variability between different countries and between regions where regional data is available. Comparison is facilitated by application of the Gini Coefficient methodology to reported seasonal variation data. Overall, radon-rich sedimentary strata, particularly high-porosity limestones, exhibit high seasonal variation, while radon-rich igneous lithologies demonstrate relatively constant, but somewhat higher, radon concentrations. High-variability regions include the Pennines and South Downs in England, Languedoc and Brittany in France, and especially Switzerland. Low-variability high-radon regions include the granite-rich Cornwall/Devon peninsula in England, and Auvergne and Ardennes in France, all components of the Devonian-Carboniferous Hercynian belt.

  18. Protection against Syphilis Correlates with Specificity of Antibodies to the Variable Regions of Treponema pallidum Repeat Protein K

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Cecilia A.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2003-01-01

    Syphilis has been recognized as a disease since the late 1400s, yet there is no practical vaccine available. One impediment to the development of a vaccine is the lack of understanding of multiple reinfections in humans despite the development of robust immune responses during the first episode. It has been shown that the Treponema pallidum repeat protein K (TprK) differs in seven discrete variable (V) regions in isolates and that the antibody response during infection is directed to these V ...

  19. Seasonal Variability in European Radon Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves-Kirkby, C. J.; Denman, A. R.; Phillips, P. S.; Crockett, R. G. M.; Sinclair, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    In temperate climates, domestic radon concentration levels are generally seasonally dependent, the level in the home reflecting the convolution of two time-dependent functions. These are the source soil-gas radon concentration itself, and the principal force driving radon into the building from the soil, namely the pressure-difference between interior and exterior environment. While the meteorological influence can be regarded as relatively uniform on a European scale, its variability being defined largely by the influence of North-Atlantic weather systems, soil-gas radon is generally more variable as it is essentially geologically dependent. Seasonal variability of domestic radon concentration can therefore be expected to exhibit geographical variability, as is indeed the case. To compensate for the variability of domestic radon levels when assessing the long term radon health risks, the results of individual short-term measurements are generally converted to equivalent mean annual levels by application of a Seasonal Correction Factor (SCF). This is a multiplying factor, typically derived from measurements of a large number of homes, applied to the measured short-term radon concentration to provide a meaningful annual mean concentration for dose-estimation purposes. Following concern as to the universal applicability of a single SCF set, detailed studies in both the UK and France have reported location-specific SCF sets for different regions of each country. Further results indicate that SCFs applicable to the UK differ significantly from those applicable elsewhere in Europe and North America in both amplitude and phase, supporting the thesis that seasonal variability in indoor radon concentration cannot realistically be compensated for by a single national or international SCF scheme. Published data characterising the seasonal variability of European national domestic radon concentrations, has been collated and analysed, with the objective of identifying

  20. The impacts of aerosol loading, composition, and water uptake on aerosol extinction variability in the Baltimore–Washington, D.C. region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Beyersdorf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize satellite-based aerosol measurements for the determination of air quality, the relationship between aerosol optical properties (wavelength-dependent, column-integrated extinction measured by satellites and mass measurements of aerosol loading (PM2.5 used for air quality monitoring must be understood. This connection varies with many factors including those specific to the aerosol type – such as composition, size, and hygroscopicity – and to the surrounding atmosphere, such as temperature, relative humidity (RH, and altitude, all of which can vary spatially and temporally. During the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality project, extensive in situ atmospheric profiling in the Baltimore, MD–Washington, D.C. region was performed during 14 flights in July 2011. Identical flight plans and profile locations throughout the project provide meaningful statistics for determining the variability in and correlations between aerosol loading, composition, optical properties, and meteorological conditions. Measured water-soluble aerosol mass was composed primarily of ammonium sulfate (campaign average of 32 % and organics (57 %. A distinct difference in composition was observed, with high-loading days having a proportionally larger percentage of sulfate due to transport from the Ohio River Valley. This composition shift caused a change in the aerosol water-uptake potential (hygroscopicity such that higher relative contributions of inorganics increased the bulk aerosol hygroscopicity. These days also tended to have higher relative humidity, causing an increase in the water content of the aerosol. Conversely, low-aerosol-loading days had lower sulfate and higher black carbon contributions, causing lower single-scattering albedos (SSAs. The average black carbon concentrations were 240 ng m−3 in the lowest 1 km, decreasing to 35

  1. Hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for Sengan region in Japan using multivariate statistical techniques and geostatistical interpolation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinyong; Balasingham, P.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Kulatilake, Pinnaduwa H. S. W.

    2004-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, under contract to Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO), is performing research on regional classification of given sites in Japan with respect to potential volcanic disruption using multivariate statistics and geo-statistical interpolation techniques. This report provides results obtained for hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for the Sengan region in Japan by applying multivariate statistical techniques and geostatistical interpolation techniques on the geologic data provided by NUMO. A workshop report produced in September 2003 by Sandia National Laboratories (Arnold et al., 2003) on volcanism lists a set of most important geologic variables as well as some secondary information related to volcanism. Geologic data extracted for the Sengan region in Japan from the data provided by NUMO revealed that data are not available at the same locations for all the important geologic variables. In other words, the geologic variable vectors were found to be incomplete spatially. However, it is necessary to have complete geologic variable vectors to perform multivariate statistical analyses. As a first step towards constructing complete geologic variable vectors, the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) zone 54 projected coordinate system and a 1 km square regular grid system were selected. The data available for each geologic variable on a geographic coordinate system were transferred to the aforementioned grid system. Also the recorded data on volcanic activity for Sengan region were produced on the same grid system. Each geologic variable map was compared with the recorded volcanic activity map to determine the geologic variables that are most important for volcanism. In the regionalized classification procedure, this step is known as the variable selection step. The following variables were determined as most important for volcanism: geothermal gradient, groundwater temperature, heat discharge, groundwater

  2. Drought Variability and Land Degradation in Semiarid Regions: Assessment Using Remote Sensing Data and Drought Indices (1982–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed potential land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide using long time series of remote sensing images and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI for the period 1981 to 2011. The objectives of the study were to identify semiarid regions showing a marked decrease in potential vegetation activity, indicative of the occurrence of land degradation processes, and to assess the possible influence of the observed drought trends quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. We found that the NDVI values recorded during the period of maximum vegetation activity (NDVImax predominantly showed a positive evolution in the majority of the semiarid regions assessed, but NDVImax was highly correlated with drought variability, and the trends of drought events influenced trends in NDVImax at the global scale. The semiarid regions that showed most increase in NDVImax (the Sahel, northern Australia, South Africa were characterized by a clear positive trend in the SPEI values, indicative of conditions of greater humidity and lesser drought conditions. While changes in drought severity may be an important driver of NDVI trends and land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide, drought did not apparently explain some of the observed changes in NDVImax. This reflects the complexity of vegetation activity processes in the world’s semiarid regions, and the difficulty of defining a universal response to drought in these regions, where a number of factors (natural and anthropogenic may also affect on land degradation.

  3. Drought Variability and Land Degradation in Semiarid Regions: Assessment Using Remote Sensing Data and Drought Indices (1982–2011)

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio

    2015-04-14

    We analyzed potential land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide using long time series of remote sensing images and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the period 1981 to 2011. The objectives of the study were to identify semiarid regions showing a marked decrease in potential vegetation activity, indicative of the occurrence of land degradation processes, and to assess the possible influence of the observed drought trends quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We found that the NDVI values recorded during the period of maximum vegetation activity (NDVImax) predominantly showed a positive evolution in the majority of the semiarid regions assessed, but NDVImax was highly correlated with drought variability, and the trends of drought events influenced trends in NDVImax at the global scale. The semiarid regions that showed most increase in NDVImax (the Sahel, northern Australia, South Africa) were characterized by a clear positive trend in the SPEI values, indicative of conditions of greater humidity and lesser drought conditions. While changes in drought severity may be an important driver of NDVI trends and land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide, drought did not apparently explain some of the observed changes in NDVImax. This reflects the complexity of vegetation activity processes in the world’s semiarid regions, and the difficulty of defining a universal response to drought in these regions, where a number of factors (natural and anthropogenic) may also affect on land degradation.

  4. Drought Variability and Land Degradation in Semiarid Regions: Assessment Using Remote Sensing Data and Drought Indices (1982–2011)

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio; Cabello, Daniel; Tomá s-Burguera, Miquel; Martí n-Herná ndez, Natalia; Beguerí a, Santiago; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Kenawy, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed potential land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide using long time series of remote sensing images and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the period 1981 to 2011. The objectives of the study were to identify semiarid regions showing a marked decrease in potential vegetation activity, indicative of the occurrence of land degradation processes, and to assess the possible influence of the observed drought trends quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We found that the NDVI values recorded during the period of maximum vegetation activity (NDVImax) predominantly showed a positive evolution in the majority of the semiarid regions assessed, but NDVImax was highly correlated with drought variability, and the trends of drought events influenced trends in NDVImax at the global scale. The semiarid regions that showed most increase in NDVImax (the Sahel, northern Australia, South Africa) were characterized by a clear positive trend in the SPEI values, indicative of conditions of greater humidity and lesser drought conditions. While changes in drought severity may be an important driver of NDVI trends and land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide, drought did not apparently explain some of the observed changes in NDVImax. This reflects the complexity of vegetation activity processes in the world’s semiarid regions, and the difficulty of defining a universal response to drought in these regions, where a number of factors (natural and anthropogenic) may also affect on land degradation.

  5. Study of blade aspect ratio on a compressor front stage aerodynamic and mechanical design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, G. D.; Lee, D.; Snow, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    A single stage compressor was designed with the intent of demonstrating that, for a tip speed and hub-tip ratio typical of an advanced core compressor front stage, the use of low aspect ratio can permit high levels of blade loading to be achieved at an acceptable level of efficiency. The design pressure ratio is 1.8 at an adiabatic efficiency of 88.5 percent. Both rotor and stator have multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections. Variable IGV and stator vanes permit low speed matching adjustments. The design incorporates an inlet duct representative of an engine transition duct between fan and high pressure compressor.

  6. Interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 rectification over a boreal forest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M.; Worthy, Douglas E. J.

    2005-08-01

    Ecosystem CO2 exchange with the atmosphere and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics are correlated diurnally and seasonally. The strength of this kind of covariation is quantified as the rectifier effect, and it affects the vertical gradient of CO2 and thus the global CO2 distribution pattern. An 11-year (1990-1996, 1999-2002), continuous CO2 record from Fraserdale, Ontario (49°52'29.9″N, 81°34'12.3″W), along with a coupled vertical diffusion scheme (VDS) and ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), are used to investigate the interannual variability of the rectifier effect over a boreal forest region. The coupled model performed well (r2 = 0.70 and 0.87, at 40 m at hourly and daily time steps, respectively) in simulating CO2 vertical diffusion processes. The simulated annual atmospheric rectifier effect varies from 3.99 to 5.52 ppm, while the diurnal rectifying effect accounted for about a quarter of the annual total (22.8˜28.9%).The atmospheric rectification of CO2 is not simply influenced by terrestrial source and sink strengths, but by seasonal and diurnal variations in the land CO2 flux and their interaction with PBL dynamics. Air temperature and moisture are found to be the dominant climatic factors controlling the rectifier effect. The annual rectifier effect is highly correlated with annual mean temperature (r2 = 0.84), while annual mean air relative humidity can explain 51% of the interannual variation in rectification. Seasonal rectifier effect is also found to be more sensitive to climate variability than diurnal rectifier effect.

  7. Genetic variability of watermelon accessions based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Gama, R N C; Santos, C A F; de C S Dias, R

    2013-03-13

    We analyzed the genetic variability of 40 watermelon accessions collected from 8 regions of Northeastern Brazil using microsatellite markers, in order to suggest strategies of conservation and utilization of genetic variability in this species. These accessions are not commercial cultivars. They were sampled in areas of traditional farmers that usually keep their own seeds for future plantings year after year. An UPGMA dendrogram was generated from a distance matrix of the Jaccard coefficient, based on 41 alleles of 13 microsatellite loci. Analysis of molecular variance was made by partitioning between and within geographical regions. The similarity coefficient between accessions ranged from 37 to 96%; the dendrogram gave a co-phenetic value of 0.80. The among population genetic variability was high ( (^)ϕST = 0.319). Specific clusters of accessions sampled in 3 regions of Maranhão were observed while the other 5 regions did not presented specific clusters by regions. We conclude that watermelon genetic variability is not uniformly dispersed in the regions analyzed, indicating that geographical barriers or edaphoclimatic conditions have limited open mating. We suggest sampling a greater number of populations, so regional species diversity will be better represented and preserved in the germplasm bank.

  8. Suppression of Aggrus/podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation and pulmonary metastasis by a single-chain antibody variable region fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Kenichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Sato, Shigeo; Morioka, Hiroshi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Minamisawa, Tamiko; Takami, Miho; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Almost all highly metastatic tumor cells possess high platelet aggregating abilities, thereby form large tumor cell-platelet aggregates in the microvasculature. Embolization of tumor cells in the microvasculature is considered to be the first step in metastasis to distant organs. We previously identified the platelet aggregation-inducing factor expressed on the surfaces of highly metastatic tumor cells and named as Aggrus. Aggrus was observed to be identical to the marker protein podoplanin (alternative names, T1α, OTS-8, and others). Aggrus is frequently overexpressed in several types of tumors and enhances platelet aggregation by interacting with the platelet receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). Here, we generated a novel single-chain antibody variable region fragment (scFv) by linking the variable regions of heavy and light chains of the neutralizing anti-human Aggrus monoclonal antibody MS-1 with a flexible peptide linker. Unfortunately, the generated KM10 scFv failed to suppress Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Therefore, we performed phage display screening and finally obtained a high-affinity scFv, K-11. K-11 scFv was able to suppress Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Moreover, K-11 scFv prevented the formation of pulmonary metastasis in vivo. These results suggest that K-11 scFv may be useful as metastasis inhibitory scFv and is expected to aid in the development of preclinical and clinical examinations of Aggrus-targeted cancer therapies

  9. Genetic variability and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations from different malaria ecological regions of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingasia, Luicer A; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Andagalu, Ben; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    Transmission intensity, movement of human and vector hosts, biogeographical features, and malaria control measures are some of the important factors that determine Plasmodium falciparum parasite genetic variability and population structure. Kenya has different malaria ecologies which might require different disease intervention methods. Refined parasite population genetic studies are critical for informing malaria control and elimination strategies. This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure of P. falciparum parasites from the different malaria ecological zones in Kenya. Twelve multi-locus microsatellite (MS) loci previously described were genotyped in 225 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2012 and 2013 from five sites; three in lowland endemic regions (Kisumu, Kombewa, and Malindi) and two in highland, epidemic regions (Kisii and Kericho). Parasites from the lowland endemic and highland epidemic regions of western Kenya had high genetic diversity compared to coastal lowland endemic region of Kenya [Malindi]. The Kenyan parasites had a mean genetic differentiation index (FST) of 0.072 (p=0.011). The multi-locus genetic analysis of the 12 MS revealed all the parasites had unique haplotypes. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed in all the five parasite populations. Kisumu had the most significant index of association values (0.16; pKenya after introduction of the artemether-lumefantrine is important in refining the spread of drug resistant strains and malaria transmission for more effective control and eventual elimination of malaria in Kenya. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Primer sets for cloning the human repertoire of T cell Receptor Variable regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Claudio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amplification and cloning of naïve T cell Receptor (TR repertoires or antigen-specific TR is crucial to shape immune response and to develop immuno-based therapies. TR variable (V regions are encoded by several genes that recombine during T cell development. The cloning of expressed genes as large diverse libraries from natural sources relies upon the availability of primers able to amplify as many V genes as possible. Results Here, we present a list of primers computationally designed on all functional TR V and J genes listed in the IMGT®, the ImMunoGeneTics information system®. The list consists of unambiguous or degenerate primers suitable to theoretically amplify and clone the entire TR repertoire. We show that it is possible to selectively amplify and clone expressed TR V genes in one single RT-PCR step and from as little as 1000 cells. Conclusion This new primer set will facilitate the creation of more diverse TR libraries than has been possible using currently available primer sets.

  11. Understanding resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability in the Southern Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluken Mekuyie

    Full Text Available Change in climate and climate extremes are acknowledged as a vital challenge to pastoral production systems. Alternative systems that are accessible to a household in order to make a living could determine the household’s resilience at a given point in time. This study was conducted in the Southern Afar region in Ethiopia to understand the resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability. A household questionnaire survey and focus group discussions were employed to collect primary data at household level. A total of 250 pastoral households were sampled using stratified random sampling. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics and principal component analysis. The resilience of households to climate shocks and stresses was determined using a two-step modelling approach by clustering households into livelihood groups, gender and districts. The results indicated that agro-pastoral households were more resilient than pastoralists to climate-induced shock. Furthermore, households in the Gewane district were more resilient than those in the Amibara district. Female-headed households were less resilient than male-headed households. Enhancing livestock assets and productivity, social safety nets, access to market, credit, extension services and education, improving irrigation crop farming, and providing farm inputs significantly enhanced the resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability. Keywords: Asset, Livelihood, Climate shock, Pastoralist, Resilience

  12. Cloning and molecular characterization of the cDNAs encoding the variable regions of an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanehbandi, Dariush; Majidi, Jafar; Kazemi, Tohid; Baradaran, Behzad; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili

    2017-01-01

    CD20-based targeting of B-cells in hematologic malignancies and autoimmune disorders is associated with outstanding clinical outcomes. Isolation and characterization of VH and VL cDNAs encoding the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) is necessary to produce next generation MAbs and their derivatives such as bispecific antibodies (bsAb) and single-chain variable fragments (scFv). This study was aimed at cloning and characterization of the VH and VL cDNAs from a hybridoma cell line producing an anti-CD20 MAb. VH and VL fragments were amplified, cloned and characterized. Furthermore, amino acid sequences of VH, VL and corresponding complementarity-determining regions (CDR) were determined and compared with those of four approved MAbs including Rituximab (RTX), Ibritumomab tiuxetan, Ofatumumab and GA101. The cloned VH and VL cDNAs were found to be functional and follow a consensus pattern. Amino acid sequences corresponding to the VH and VL fragments also indicated noticeable homologies to those of RTX and Ibritumomab. Furthermore, amino acid sequences of the relating CDRs had remarkable similarities to their counterparts in RTX and Ibritumomab. Successful recovery of VH and VL fragments encourages the development of novel CD20 targeting bsAbs, scFvs, antibody conjugates and T-cells armed with chimeric antigen receptors.

  13. The Climate Variability & Predictability (CVP) Program at NOAA - Observing and Understanding Processes Affecting the Propagation of Intraseasonal Oscillations in the Maritime Continent Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Climate Variability & Predictability (CVP) Program supports research aimed at providing process-level understanding of the climate system through observation, modeling, analysis, and field studies. This vital knowledge is needed to improve climate models and predictions so that scientists can better anticipate the impacts of future climate variability and change. To achieve its mission, the CVP Program supports research carried out at NOAA and other federal laboratories, NOAA Cooperative Institutes, and academic institutions. The Program also coordinates its sponsored projects with major national and international scientific bodies including the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the International and U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR/US CLIVAR) Program, and the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The CVP program sits within NOAA's Climate Program Office (http://cpo.noaa.gov/CVP). In 2017, the CVP Program had a call for proposals focused on observing and understanding processes affecting the propagation of intraseasonal oscillations in the Maritime Continent region. This poster will present the recently funded CVP projects, the expected scientific outcomes, the geographic areas of their work in the Maritime Continent region, and the collaborations with the Office of Naval Research, Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) and other partners.

  14. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions and quality of primary care: their relation with socioeconomic and health care variables in the Madrid regional health service (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magán, Purificación; Alberquilla, Angel; Otero, Angel; Ribera, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSH) have been proposed as an indirect indicator of the effectiveness and quality of care provided by primary health care. To investigate the association of ACSH rates with population socioeconomic factors and with characteristics of primary health care. Cross-sectional, ecologic study. Using hospital discharge data, ACSH were selected from the list of conditions validated for Spain. All 34 health districts in the Region of Madrid, Spain. Individuals aged 65 years or older residing in the region of Madrid between 2001 and 2003, inclusive. Age- and gender-adjusted ACSH rates in each health district. The adjusted ACSH rate per 1000 population was 35.37 in men and 20.45 in women. In the Poisson regression analysis, an inverse relation was seen between ACSH rates and the socioeconomic variables. Physician workload was the only health care variable with a statistically significant relation (rate ratio of 1.066 [95% CI; 1.041-1.091]). These results were similar in the analyses disaggregated by gender. In the multivariate analyses that included health care variables, none of the health care variables were statistically significant. ACSH may be more closely related with socioeconomic variables than with characteristics of primary care activity. Therefore, other factors outside the health system must be considered to improve health outcomes in the population.

  15. OptMAVEn--a new framework for the de novo design of antibody variable region models targeting specific antigen epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    Full Text Available Antibody-based therapeutics provides novel and efficacious treatments for a number of diseases. Traditional experimental approaches for designing therapeutic antibodies rely on raising antibodies against a target antigen in an immunized animal or directed evolution of antibodies with low affinity for the desired antigen. However, these methods remain time consuming, cannot target a specific epitope and do not lead to broad design principles informing other studies. Computational design methods can overcome some of these limitations by using biophysics models to rationally select antibody parts that maximize affinity for a target antigen epitope. This has been addressed to some extend by OptCDR for the design of complementary determining regions. Here, we extend this earlier contribution by addressing the de novo design of a model of the entire antibody variable region against a given antigen epitope while safeguarding for immunogenicity (Optimal Method for Antibody Variable region Engineering, OptMAVEn. OptMAVEn simulates in silico the in vivo steps of antibody generation and evolution, and is capable of capturing the critical structural features responsible for affinity maturation of antibodies. In addition, a humanization procedure was developed and incorporated into OptMAVEn to minimize the potential immunogenicity of the designed antibody models. As case studies, OptMAVEn was applied to design models of neutralizing antibodies targeting influenza hemagglutinin and HIV gp120. For both HA and gp120, novel computational antibody models with numerous interactions with their target epitopes were generated. The observed rates of mutations and types of amino acid changes during in silico affinity maturation are consistent with what has been observed during in vivo affinity maturation. The results demonstrate that OptMAVEn can efficiently generate diverse computational antibody models with both optimized binding affinity to antigens and reduced

  16. Seasonal variability in virtual height of ionospheric f/sub 2/ layer at the pakistan atmospheric region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilani, A.A.; Afridi, F.A.K.; Mian, K.; Zai, M.A.K.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal variability in virtual height of ionospheric F/sub 2/ layer for Pakistan's atmospheric region (PAR). In this communication virtual height variations have been analyzed by the descriptive statistical techniques. These methodologies comprise an autoregressive strategy, linear regression and polynomial regression. The relevance of these models has been illuminated using predicted values of different parameters under the seasonal variation of ionospheric F/sub 2/ layer in virtual height that affect the radio wave propagation through the ionosphere. These techniques are implemented to theorize the physical process of varying the virtual heights that leads this study towards formulating the variations due to interaction of radio wave propagation with this ionospheric layer. (author)

  17. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the association with socioeconomic variables in adolescents from low-income region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento-Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius; De Moraes, Augusto Cesar F; Carvalho, Heraclito B; Moreno, Luis A; Gomes Carneiro, André Luiz; dos Reis, Victor Manuel M; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of obesity, overweight, abdominal obesity and high blood pressure in a sample of adolescents from a low-income city in Brazil and to estimate the relationship with the socioeconomic status of the family, the education level of the family provider and the type of school. This cross-sectional study randomly sampled 1,014 adolescents (54.8% girls), between 14-19 years of age, attending high school from Imperatriz (MA). The outcomes of this study were: obesity and overweight, abdominal obesity and high blood pressure (systolic and/ or diastolic). The independent variables were: socioeconomic status (SES) of the family, education level of the family provider (ELFP) and type of school. The confounding variables were: gender, age and physical activity level. Prevalence was estimated, and the association between the endpoints and the independent variables was analyzed using a prevalence ratio (PR), with a 95% confidence interval, estimated by Poisson regression. The overall prevalence of obesity was 3.8%, overweight, 13.1%, abdominal obesity, 22.7% and high blood pressure, 21.3%. The adjusted analysis indicated that girls with high SES showed an increased likelihood to be overweight (PR=1.71 [95% IC: 1.13-2.87]), while private school boys had an increased likelihood of obesity (PR=1.79 [95% CI: 1.04-3.08]) and abdominal obesity (PR =1.64 [95% CI: 1.06-2.54]). The prevalence of CVDR is high in adolescents from this low-income region. Boys from private schools are more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity, and girls with high SES are more likely to be overweight. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. [Identification of new conserved and variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene of acetic acid bacteria and acetobacteraceae family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, S; Sarkar, S; Gachhui, R

    2015-01-01

    The Acetobacteraceae family of the class Alpha Proteobacteria is comprised of high sugar and acid tolerant bacteria. The Acetic Acid Bacteria are the economically most significant group of this family because of its association with food products like vinegar, wine etc. Acetobacteraceae are often hard to culture in laboratory conditions and they also maintain very low abundances in their natural habitats. Thus identification of the organisms in such environments is greatly dependent on modern tools of molecular biology which require a thorough knowledge of specific conserved gene sequences that may act as primers and or probes. Moreover unconserved domains in genes also become markers for differentiating closely related genera. In bacteria, the 16S rRNA gene is an ideal candidate for such conserved and variable domains. In order to study the conserved and variable domains of the 16S rRNA gene of Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Acetobacteraceae family, sequences from publicly available databases were aligned and compared. Near complete sequences of the gene were also obtained from Kombucha tea biofilm, a known Acetobacteraceae family habitat, in order to corroborate the domains obtained from the alignment studies. The study indicated that the degree of conservation in the gene is significantly higher among the Acetic Acid Bacteria than the whole Acetobacteraceae family. Moreover it was also observed that the previously described hypervariable regions V1, V3, V5, V6 and V7 were more or less conserved in the family and the spans of the variable regions are quite distinct as well.

  19. Advances in Understanding Decadal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a joint Brazil-France-U.S. program, known as PIRATA (Pilot Research moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic), was proposed to begin the deployment of moored measurement platforms in the tropical Atlantic in order to enhance the existing observational data base and subsequent understanding of the processes by which the ocean and atmosphere couple in key regions of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Empirical studies have suggested that there are strong relationships between tropical Atlantic upper ocean variability, SST, ocean-atmosphere coupling and regional climate variability. During the early 1980's a coordinated set of surface wind, subsurface thermal structure, and subsurface current observations were obtained as part of the U.S.-France SEQUAL-FOCAL process experiment designed to observe the seasonal response of the tropical Atlantic Ocean to surface forcing. Since that time, however, the observational data base for the tropical Atlantic Ocean has disintegrated to a few ship-tracks measuring ocean temperatures and a small collection of tide gauge stations measuring sea level. A more comprehensive set of observations, modeling and empirical studies is now in order to make progress on understanding the regional climate variability. The proposed PIRATA program will use mooring platforms similar to the tropical Pacific Ocean TAO array to measure surface fluxes of momentum and heat and the corresponding changes in the upper ocean thermal structure. It is anticipated that the oceanic data from this monitoring array will also be used in a predictive mode for initialization studies of regional coupled climate models. Of particular interest are zonal and meridional modes of ocean-atmosphere variability within the tropical Atlantic basin that have significant impacts on the regional climate of the bordering continents.

  20. High-resolution spatial databases of monthly climate variables (1961-2010) over a complex terrain region in southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, An-Ding; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Climate data in gridded format are critical for understanding climate change and its impact on eco-environment. The aim of the current study is to develop spatial databases for three climate variables (maximum, minimum temperatures, and relative humidity) over a large region with complex topography in southwestern China. Five widely used approaches including inverse distance weighting, ordinary kriging, universal kriging, co-kriging, and thin-plate smoothing spline were tested. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) showed that thin-plate smoothing spline with latitude, longitude, and elevation outperformed other models. Average RMSE, MAE, and MAPE of the best models were 1.16 °C, 0.74 °C, and 7.38 % for maximum temperature; 0.826 °C, 0.58 °C, and 6.41 % for minimum temperature; and 3.44, 2.28, and 3.21 % for relative humidity, respectively. Spatial datasets of annual and monthly climate variables with 1-km resolution covering the period 1961-2010 were then obtained using the best performance methods. Comparative study showed that the current outcomes were in well agreement with public datasets. Based on the gridded datasets, changes in temperature variables were investigated across the study area. Future study might be needed to capture the uncertainty induced by environmental conditions through remote sensing and knowledge-based methods.

  1. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Jesbin, G.

    –885, 2016 www.ann-geophys.net/34/871/2016/ doi:10.5194/angeo-34-871-2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea V. Sanil Kumar and Jesbin... of the period. The annual average value is ∼ 1.5 m (Anoop et al., 2015). During the non-monsoon period, the land and sea breeze has a signif- icant influence on the wave climate of eastern AS (Glejin Ann. Geophys., 34, 871–885, 2016 www.ann-geophys.net/34...

  2. Variability in the sensitivity among model simulations of permafrost and carbon dynamics in the permafrost region between 1960 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A. David; Koven, Charles; Lawrence, David M.; Clein, Joy S.; Xia, Jiangyang; Beer, Christian; Burke, Eleanor J.; Chen, Guangsheng; Chen, Xiaodong; Delire, Christine; Jafarov, Elchin; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Marchenko, Sergey S.; Nicolsky, Dmitry J.; Peng, Shushi; Rinke, Annette; Saito, Kazuyuki; Zhang, Wenxin; Alkama, Ramdane; Bohn, Theodore J.; Ciais, Philippe; Decharme, Bertrand; Ekici, Altug; Gouttevin, Isabelle; Hajima, Tomohiro; Hayes, Daniel J.; Ji, Duoying; Krinner, Gerhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Luo, Yiqi; Miller, Paul A.; Moore, John C.; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Schädel, Christina; Schaefer, Kevin; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Smith, Benjamin; Sueyoshi, Tetsuo; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2016-01-01

    A significant portion of the large amount of carbon (C) currently stored in soils of the permafrost region in the Northern Hemisphere has the potential to be emitted as the greenhouse gases CO2and CH4 under a warmer climate. In this study we evaluated the variability in the sensitivity of permafrost and C in recent decades among land surface model simulations over the permafrost region between 1960 and 2009. The 15 model simulations all predict a loss of near-surface permafrost (within 3 m) area over the region, but there are large differences in the magnitude of the simulated rates of loss among the models (0.2 to 58.8 × 103 km2 yr−1). Sensitivity simulations indicated that changes in air temperature largely explained changes in permafrost area, although interactions among changes in other environmental variables also played a role. All of the models indicate that both vegetation and soil C storage together have increased by 156 to 954 Tg C yr−1between 1960 and 2009 over the permafrost region even though model analyses indicate that warming alone would decrease soil C storage. Increases in gross primary production (GPP) largely explain the simulated increases in vegetation and soil C. The sensitivity of GPP to increases in atmospheric CO2 was the dominant cause of increases in GPP across the models, but comparison of simulated GPP trends across the 1982–2009 period with that of a global GPP data set indicates that all of the models overestimate the trend in GPP. Disturbance also appears to be an important factor affecting C storage, as models that consider disturbance had lower increases in C storage than models that did not consider disturbance. To improve the modeling of C in the permafrost region, there is the need for the modeling community to standardize structural representation of permafrost and carbon dynamics among models that are used to evaluate the permafrost C feedback and for the modeling and observational communities to

  3. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 μm - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle

  4. SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN THE MUDPRAWN UPOGEBIA AFRICANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nested sampling design was used to examine the variability in density, biomass, sex ratio and size of the estuarine mudprawn Upogebia africana in six estuaries on the south-east coast of South Africa. The objectives were to test the general hypothesis that there is variability in these variables at the scales of regions, ...

  5. Singular vector decomposition of the internal variability of the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconescu, Emilia Paula; Laprise, Rene [University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM), Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Canadian Network for Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics, P.O. Box 8888, Montreal, QC (Canada); Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Montreal, QC (Canada); Zadra, Ayrton [University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM), Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Canadian Network for Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics, P.O. Box 8888, Montreal, QC (Canada); Environment Canada, Meteorological Research Division, Montreal, QC (Canada); Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that Regional Climate Models (RCM) internal variability (IV) fluctuates in time depending on synoptic events. This study focuses on the physical understanding of episodes with rapid growth of IV. An ensemble of 21 simulations, differing only in their initial conditions, was run over North America using version 5 of the Canadian RCM (CRCM). The IV is quantified in terms of energy of CRCM perturbations with respect to a reference simulation. The working hypothesis is that IV is arising through rapidly growing perturbations developed in dynamically unstable regions. If indeed IV is triggered by the growth of unstable perturbations, a large proportion of the CRCM perturbations must project onto the most unstable singular vectors (SVs). A set of ten SVs was computed to identify the orthogonal set of perturbations that provide the maximum growth with respect to the dry total-energy norm during the course of the CRCM ensemble of simulations. CRCM perturbations were then projected onto the subspace of SVs. The analysis of one episode of rapid growth of IV is presented in detail. It is shown that a large part of the IV growth is explained by initially small-amplitude unstable perturbations represented by the ten leading SVs, the SV subspace accounting for over 70% of the CRCM IV growth in 36 h. The projection on the leading SV at final time is greater than the projection on the remaining SVs and there is a high similarity between the CRCM perturbations and the leading SV after 24-36 h tangent-linear model integration. The vertical structure of perturbations revealed that the baroclinic conversion is the dominant process in IV growth for this particular episode. (orig.)

  6. Seasonal and Intraseasonal Variability of Mesoscale Convective Systems over the South Asian Monsoon Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virts, Katrina S.; Houze, Robert A.

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal and intraseasonal differences in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over South Asia are examined using A-Train satellites, a ground-based lightning network, and reanalysis fields. Pre-monsoon (April-May) MCSs occur primarily over Bangladesh and the eastern Bay of Bengal. During the monsoon (June-September), small MCSs occur over the Meghalaya Plateau and northeast Himalayan notch, while large and connected MCSs are most widespread over the Bay of Bengal. Monsoon MCSs produce less lightning and exhibit more extensive stratiform and anvil reflectivity structures in CloudSat observations than do pre-monsoon MCSs. During the monsoon season, Bay of Bengal and Meghalaya Plateau MCSs vary with the 30-60 day northward-propagating intraseasonal oscillation, while northeast Himalayan notch MCSs are associated with weak large-scale anomalies but locally enhanced CAPE. During intraseasonal active periods, a zone of enhanced large and connected MCSs, precipitation, and lightning extends from the northeastern Arabian Sea southeast over India and the Bay of Bengal, flanked by suppressed anomalies. Spatial variability is observed within this enhancement zone: lightning is most enhanced where MCSs are less enhanced, and vice versa. Reanalysis composites indicate that Bay of Bengal MCSs are associated with monsoon depressions, which are frequent during active monsoon periods, while Meghalaya Plateau MCSs are most frequent at the end of break periods, as anomalous southwesterly winds strengthen moist advection toward the terrain. Over both regions, MCSs exhibit more extensive stratiform and anvil regions and less lightning when the large-scale environment is moister, and vice versa.

  7. Adaptive antibody diversification through N-linked glycosylation of the immunoglobulin variable region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Fleur S; Derksen, Ninotska I L; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni; van Schie, Karin A; Kruithof, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena A; van der Schoot, C Ellen; IJspeert, Hanna; van der Burg, Mirjam; Gils, Ann; Hafkenscheid, Lise; Toes, René E M; Rombouts, Yoann; Plomp, Rosina; Wuhrer, Manfred; van Ham, S Marieke; Vidarsson, Gestur; Rispens, Theo

    2018-02-20

    A hallmark of B-cell immunity is the generation of a diverse repertoire of antibodies from a limited set of germline V(D)J genes. This repertoire is usually defined in terms of amino acid composition. However, variable domains may also acquire N -linked glycans, a process conditional on the introduction of consensus amino acid motifs ( N -glycosylation sites) during somatic hypermutation. High levels of variable domain glycans have been associated with autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, as well as certain follicular lymphomas. However, the role of these glycans in the humoral immune response remains poorly understood. Interestingly, studies have reported both positive and negative effects on antibody affinity. Our aim was to elucidate the role of variable domain glycans during antigen-specific antibody responses. By analyzing B-cell repertoires by next-generation sequencing, we demonstrate that N -glycosylation sites are introduced at positions in which glycans can affect antigen binding as a result of a specific clustering of progenitor glycosylation sites in the germline sequences of variable domain genes. By analyzing multiple human monoclonal and polyclonal (auto)antibody responses, we subsequently show that this process is subject to selection during antigen-specific antibody responses, skewed toward IgG4, and positively contributes to antigen binding. Together, these results highlight a physiological role for variable domain glycosylation as an additional layer of antibody diversification that modulates antigen binding.

  8. Hillslope terracing effects on the spatial variability of plant development as assessed by NDVI in vineyards of the Priorat region (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casasnovas, José A; Ramos, María Concepción; Espinal-Utgés, Sílvia

    2010-04-01

    The availability of heavy machinery and the vineyard restructuring and conversion plans of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy (Commission Regulation EC no. 1227/2000 of 31 May 2000) have encouraged the restructuring of many vineyards on hillslopes of Mediterranean Europe, through the creation of terraces to favor the mechanization of agricultural work. Terrace construction requires cutting and filling operations that create soil spatial variability, which affects soil properties and plant development. In the present paper, we study the effects of hillslope terracing on the spatial variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in fields of the Priorat region (NE Spain) during 2004, 2005, and 2006. This index was computed from high-resolution remote sensing data (Quickbird-2). Detailed digital terrain models before and after terrace construction were used to assess the earth movements. The results indicate that terracing by heavy machinery induced high variability on the NDVI values over the years, showing significant differences as effect of the cut and fill operations.

  9. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR COROTATING INTERACTION REGIONS IN APPARENTLY SINGLE GALACTIC WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. A GLOBAL VIEW OF THE WIND VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chene, A.-N.; St-Louis, N.

    2011-01-01

    This study is the second part of a survey searching for large-scale spectroscopic variability in apparently single Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. In a previous paper (Paper I), we described and characterized the spectroscopic variability level of 25 WR stars observable from the northern hemisphere and found 3 new candidates presenting large-scale wind variability, potentially originating from large-scale structures named corotating interaction regions (CIRs). In this second paper, we discuss an additional 39 stars observable from the southern hemisphere. For each star in our sample, we obtained 4-5 high-resolution spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼100 and determined its variability level using the approach described in Paper I. In total, 10 new stars are found to show large-scale spectral variability of which 7 present CIR-type changes (WR 8, WR 44, WR55, WR 58, WR 61, WR 63, WR 100). Of the remaining stars, 20 were found to show small-amplitude changes and 9 were found to show no spectral variability as far as can be concluded from the data on hand. Also, we discuss the spectroscopic variability level of all single galactic WR stars that are brighter than v ∼ 12.5, and some WR stars with 12.5 < v ≤ 13.5, i.e., all the stars presented in our two papers and four more stars for which spectra have already been published in the literature. We find that 23/68 stars (33.8%) present large-scale variability, but only 12/54 stars (∼22.1%) are potentially of CIR type. Also, we find that 31/68 stars (45.6%) only show small-scale variability, most likely due to clumping in the wind. Finally, no spectral variability is detected based on the data on hand for 14/68 (20.6%) stars. Interestingly, the variability with the highest amplitude also has the widest mean velocity dispersion.

  10. High interannual variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxon, Seymour; Peacock, Neil; Smith, Doug

    2003-10-30

    Possible future changes in Arctic sea ice cover and thickness, and consequent changes in the ice-albedo feedback, represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of future temperature rise. Knowledge of the natural variability of sea ice thickness is therefore critical for its representation in global climate models. Numerical simulations suggest that Arctic ice thickness varies primarily on decadal timescales owing to changes in wind and ocean stresses on the ice, but observations have been unable to provide a synoptic view of sea ice thickness, which is required to validate the model results. Here we use an eight-year time-series of Arctic ice thickness, derived from satellite altimeter measurements of ice freeboard, to determine the mean thickness field and its variability from 65 degrees N to 81.5 degrees N. Our data reveal a high-frequency interannual variability in mean Arctic ice thickness that is dominated by changes in the amount of summer melt, rather than by changes in circulation. Our results suggest that a continued increase in melt season length would lead to further thinning of Arctic sea ice.

  11. Genetic variability and health of Norway spruce stands in the Regional Directorate of the State Forests in Krosno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska Justyna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2015 in six spruce stands situated in different forest districts administratively belonging to the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Krosno. Each spruce population was represented by 30 trees and assessed in terms of their current health status. Genetic analyses were performed on shoot samples from each tree using nine nuclear DNA markers and one mitochondrial DNA marker (nad1. The health status of the trees was described according to the classification developed by Szczepkowski and Tarasiuk (2005 and the correlation between health classes and the level of genetic variability was computed with STATISTICA (α = 0.05.

  12. Analysis of Three-dimension Viscous Flow in the Model Axial Compressor Stage K1002L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribunskaia, K.; Kozhukhov, Y. V.

    2017-08-01

    The main investigation subject considered in this paper is axial compressor model stage K1002L. Three simulation models were designed: Scheme 1 - inlet stage model consisting of IGV (Inlet Guide Vane), rotor and diffuser; Scheme 2 - two-stage model: IGV, first-stage rotor, first-stage diffuser, second-stage rotor, EGV (Exit Guide Vane); Scheme 3 - full-round model: IGV, rotor, diffuser. Numerical investigation of the model stage was held for four circumferential velocities at the outer diameter (Uout=125,160,180,210 m/s) within the range of flow coefficient: ϕ = 0.4 - 0.6. The computational domain was created with ANSYS CFX Workbench. According to simulation results, there were constructed aerodynamic characteristic curves of adiabatic efficiency and the adiabatic head coefficient calculated for total parameters were compared with data from the full-scale test received at the Central Boiler and Turbine Institution (CBTI), thus, verification of the calculated data was carried out. Moreover, there were conducted the following studies: comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of the schemes 1, 2; comparison of the sector and full-round models. The analysis and conclusions are supplemented by gas-dynamic method calculation for axial compressor stages.

  13. The impact of an urban-industrial region on the magnitude and variability of persistent organic pollutant deposition to Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Keri C; Green, Mark L

    2003-09-01

    A predictive model for gas-phase PCBs and trans-nonachlor over Lake Michigan has been constructed and the resulting data examined for trends. In this paper, we describe the model results to show how the magnitude and variability of a plume of contaminants from the Chicago area contributes to a highly variable region of net contaminant deposition over the entire lake. For the whole lake, gross annual deposition of PCBs is approximately 3200 kg, although the net annual gas exchange is not significantly different from zero. The data-driven model illustrates that on a daily basis, the net exchange of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can change from net deposition to net volatilization depending on the area of plume impact. These findings suggest that i) control of urban areas can accelerate the rate of volatilization from lakes; and ii) release of POPs from urban areas is largely a result of volatilization processes.

  14. IRAS variables as galactic structure tracers - Classification of the bright variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. E.; Kleinmann, S. G.; Weinberg, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of the 'bright infrared variables' (BIRVs), a sample consisting of the 300 brightest stars in the IRAS Point Source Catalog with IRAS variability index VAR of 98 or greater, are investigated with the purpose of establishing which of IRAS variables are AGB stars (e.g., oxygen-rich Miras and carbon stars, as was assumed by Weinberg (1992)). Results of the analysis of optical, infrared, and microwave spectroscopy of these stars indicate that, out of 88 stars in the BIRV sample identified with cataloged variables, 86 can be classified as Miras. Results of a similar analysis performed for a color-selected sample of stars, using the color limits employed by Habing (1988) to select AGB stars, showed that, out of 52 percent of classified stars, 38 percent are non-AGB stars, including H II regions, planetary nebulae, supergiants, and young stellar objects, indicating that studies using color-selected samples are subject to misinterpretation.

  15. Characteristics of aggregation of daily rainfall in a middle-latitudes region during a climate variability in annual rainfall amount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Omar A.; Rozas, Daniel

    Climate variability in annual rainfall occurs because the aggregation of daily rainfall changes. A topic open to debate is whether that change takes place because rainfall becomes more intense, or because it rains more often, or a combination of both. The answer to this question is of interest for water resources planning, hydrometeorological design, and agricultural management. Change in the number of rainy days can cause major disruptions in hydrological and ecological systems, with important economic and social effects. Furthermore, the characteristics of daily rainfall aggregation in ongoing climate variability provide a reference to evaluate the capability of GCM to simulate changes in the hydrologic cycle. In this research, we analyze changes in the aggregation of daily rainfall producing a climate positive trend in annual rainfall in central Argentina, in the southern middle-latitudes. This state-of-the-art agricultural region has a semiarid climate with dry and wet seasons. Weather effects in the region influence world-market prices of several crops. Results indicate that the strong positive trend in seasonal and annual rainfall amount is produced by an increase in number of rainy days. This increase takes place in the 3-month periods January-March (summer) and April-June (autumn). These are also the 3-month periods showing a positive trend in the mean of annual rainfall. The mean of the distribution of annual number of rainy day (ANRD) increased in 50% in a 36-year span (starting at 44 days/year). No statistically significant indications on time changes in the probability distribution of daily rainfall amount were found. Non-periodic fluctuations in the time series of annual rainfall were analyzed using an integral wavelet transform. Fluctuations with a time scale of about 10 and 20 years construct the trend in annual rainfall amount. These types of non-periodic fluctuations have been observed in other regions of the world. This suggests that results of

  16. Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I.

    2012-04-01

    The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in

  17. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994--1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K S; Wang, T J; Wang, T; Tang, J; Kajii, Y; Liu, C M; Shim, S G

    2004-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was measured at Oki Island (Japan), Cheju Island (South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D'Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994--December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9+/-15.8, 48.1+/-17.9, 30.2+/-16.4, 31.6+/-17.5, 36.3+/-17.5, 34.8+/-11.5 and 48.2+/-9.5 ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D'Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season. Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin'an report high-level O3 in autumn and low level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remains-high in autumn and low in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific.

  18. Isotopic source signatures: Impact of regional variability on the δ13CH4 trend and spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Aryeh I.; Coulon, Ancelin; Stenke, Andrea; Schwietzke, Stefan; Peter, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The atmospheric methane growth rate has fluctuated over the past three decades, signifying variations in methane sources and sinks. Methane isotopic ratios (δ13CH4) differ between emission categories, and can therefore be used to distinguish which methane sources have changed. However, isotopic modelling studies have mainly focused on uncertainties in methane emissions rather than uncertainties in isotopic source signatures. We simulated atmospheric δ13CH4 for the period 1990-2010 using the global chemistry-climate model SOCOL. Empirically-derived regional variability in the isotopic signatures was introduced in a suite of sensitivity simulations. These simulations were compared to a baseline simulation with commonly used global mean isotopic signatures. We investigated coal, natural gas/oil, wetland, livestock, and biomass burning source signatures to determine whether regional variations impact the observed isotopic trend and spatial distribution. Based on recently published source signature datasets, our calculated global mean isotopic signatures are in general lighter than the commonly used values. Trends in several isotopic signatures were also apparent during the period 1990-2010. Tropical livestock emissions grew during the 2000s, introducing isotopically heavier livestock emissions since tropical livestock consume more C4 vegetation than midlatitude livestock. Chinese coal emissions, which are isotopically heavy compared to other coals, increase during the 2000s leading to higher global values of δ13CH4 for coal emissions. EDGAR v4.2 emissions disagree with the observed atmospheric isotopic trend for almost all simulations, confirming past doubts about this emissions inventory. The agreement between the modelled and observed δ13CH4 interhemispheric differences improves when regional source signatures are used. Even though the simulated results are highly dependent on the choice of methane emission inventories, they emphasize that the commonly used

  19. Immunoglobulin variable region sequences of two human monoclonal antibodies directed to an onco-developmental carbohydrate antigen, lactotetraosylceramide (LcOse4Cer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yago, K; Zenita, K; Ohwaki, I; Harada, R; Nozawa, S; Tsukazaki, K; Iwamori, M; Endo, N; Yasuda, N; Okuma, M

    1993-11-01

    A human monoclonal antibody, 11-50, was generated and was shown to recognize an onco-developmental carbohydrate antigen, LcOse4Cer. The isotype of this antibody was IgM, lambda, similar to the previously known human anti-LcOse4 antibodies, such as IgMWOO and HMST-1. We raised a murine anti-idiotypic antibody G3 (IgG1, kappa) against 11-50, and tested its reactivity towards the affinity purified human polyclonal anti-LcOse4 antibodies prepared from pooled human sera using a Gal beta 1-->3GlcNAc beta-immobilized column. The results indicated that at least a part of the human polyclonal anti-LcOse4 antibodies shared the G3 idiotype with 11-50. We further analyzed the sequence of variable regions of the two anti-LcOse4 antibodies, 11-50 and HMST-1. Sequence analysis of the heavy chain variable regions indicated that the VH regions of these two antibodies were highly homologous to each other (93.5% at the nucleic acid level), and these antibodies utilized the germline genes VH1.9III and hv3005f3 as the VH segments, which are closely related germline genes of the VHIII family. It was noted that these germline VH genes are frequently utilized in fetal B cells. The JH region of both antibodies was encoded by the JH4 gene. For the light chain, the V lambda segments of the two antibodies were 96.3% homologous to each other at the nucleic acid level. The V lambda segments of both antibodies showed the highest homology to the rearranged V lambda gene called V lambda II.DS among reported V lambda genes, while the exact germline V lambda genes encoding the two antibodies were not yet registered in available sequence databanks. The amino acid sequences of the J lambda segments of both antibodies were identical. These results indicate that the two human antibodies recognizing the onco-developmental carbohydrate antigen Lc4 are encoded by the same or very homologous germline genes.

  20. Data sets used in the analysis presented in the manuscript “Regional and Hemispheric Influences on Temporal Variability in Baseline Carbon Monoxide and Ozone over the Northeast US”

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset documents that all of the data analyzed in the manuscript "Regional and Hemispheric Influences on Temporal Variability in Baseline Carbon Monoxide and...

  1. Searching for I-band variability in stars in the M/L spectral transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Gavin; Hakala, Pasi; Doyle, J. Gerry

    2015-10-01

    We report on I-band photometric observations of 21 stars with spectral types between M8 and L4 made using the Isaac Newton Telescope. The total amount of time for observations which had a cadence of test for photometric variability using the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and find that four sources (2MASS J10224821+5825453, 2MASS J07464256+2000321, 2MASS J16262034+3925190 and 2MASS J12464678+4027150) were found to be significantly variable at least on one epoch. Three of these sources are reported as photometrically variable for the first time. If we include sources which were deemed marginally variable, the number of variable sources is 6 (29 per cent). No flares were detected from any source. The percentage of sources which we found were variable is similar to previous studies. We summarize the mechanisms which have been put forward to explain the light curves of brown dwarfs.

  2. Evolution of variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    Throughout the domain of the H R diagram lie groupings of stars whose luminosity varies with time. These variable stars can be classified based on their observed properties into distinct types such as β Cephei stars, δ Cephei stars, and Miras, as well as many other categories. The underlying mechanism for the variability is generally felt to be due to four different causes: geometric effects, rotation, eruptive processes, and pulsation. In this review the focus will be on pulsation variables and how the theory of stellar evolution can be used to explain how the various regions of variability on the H R diagram are populated. To this end a generalized discussion of the evolutionary behavior of a massive star, an intermediate mass star, and a low mass star will be presented. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Wages and Subjective Assessments of Regional Labour Market Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre

    2002-01-01

    We utilise a rich set of regional labour market variables to explain regional variation in Norwegian manufacturing wages. In particular, regional indicators of labour market pressure are computed from survey data in which respondents are asked to evaluate local job prospects. We find that average reported satisfaction with local job prospects and other survey-based indicators perform better in regional wage equations than traditional labour market variables, including the regional unemploymen...

  4. Are revised models better models? A skill score assessment of regional interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Participating AMIP Modelling Groups

    1999-05-01

    Various skill scores are used to assess the performance of revised models relative to their original configurations. The interannual variability of all-India, Sahel and Nordeste rainfall and summer monsoon windshear is examined in integrations performed under the experimental design of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. For the indices considered, the revised models exhibit greater fidelity at simulating the observed interannual variability. Interannual variability of all-India rainfall is better simulated by models that have a more realistic rainfall climatology in the vicinity of India, indicating the beneficial effect of reducing systematic model error.

  5. NEAR-INFRARED PERIODIC AND OTHER VARIABLE FIELD STARS IN THE FIELD OF THE CYGNUS OB7 STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We present a subset of the results of a three-season, 124 night, near-infrared monitoring campaign of the dark clouds Lynds 1003 and Lynds 1004 in the Cygnus OB7 star-forming region. In this paper, we focus on the field star population. Using three seasons of UKIRT J, H, and K-band observations spanning 1.5 years, we obtained high-quality photometry on 9200 stars down to J = 17 mag, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.04 mag. After excluding known disk-bearing stars we identify 149 variables-1.6% of the sample. Of these, about 60 are strictly periodic, with periods predominantly <2 days. We conclude this group is dominated by eclipsing binaries. A few stars have long period signals of between 20 and 60 days. About 25 stars have weak modulated signals, but it was not clear if these were periodic. Some of the stars in this group may be diskless young stellar objects with relatively large variability due to cool starspots. The remaining {approx}60 stars showed variations which appear to be purely stochastic.

  6. ANALYSIS AND PLANNING OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES TO DEVELOP A MODEL FOR MONITORING FINANCIAL INDICATORS AT REGIONAL LEVEL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRIS TINA GRADEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of quantitative techniques in regional analysis can provide an understanding of both the change in time of regional economic performance and the interdependencies between economic sectors, including the use of projections to test the potential future development of the region. Qualitative techniques allow also the explanation of the reason for regional development patterns occurring in a region and the improvement of analysts' ability to reflect on the results and economic opportunities for a future based on collective experience, wisdom and judgment of the actors in region economies.

  7. Characteristic time series and operation region of the system of two tank reactors (CSTR) with variable division of recirculation stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merta, Henryk

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with a system of a cascade of two tank reactors, being characterized by the variable stream of recirculating fluid at each stage. The assumed mathematical model enables one to determine the system's dynamics for the case when there is no time delay and for the opposite case. The time series of the conversion degree and of the dimensionless fluid temperature, characteristic for the system considered as well as the operation regions-the latter-basing on Feingenbaum diagrams with respect to the division ratio of the recirculating stream are presented

  8. Bacterial and Archaeal Communities Variability Associated with Upwelling and Anthropogenic Pressures in the Protection Area of Arraial do Cabo (Cabo Frio region - RJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A; Araújo, Fábio V; Cury, Juliano C; Jesus, Hugo E; Pereira, Gilberto C; Guimarães, Jean R D; Peixoto, Raquel S; Dávila, Alberto M R; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-09-01

    Upwelling systems contain a high diversity of pelagic microorganisms and their composition and activity are defined by factors like temperature and nutrient concentration. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique was used to verify the spatial and temporal genetic variability of Bacteria and Archaea in two stations of the Arraial do Cabo coastal region, one under upwelling pressure and another under anthropogenic pressure. In addition, biotic and abiotic variables were measured in surface and deep waters from three other stations between these stations. Six samplings were done during a year and adequately represented the degrees of upwelling and anthropogenic pressures to the system. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed negative correlations between the concentrations of ammonia and phosphorous with prokaryotic secondary production and the total heterotrophic bacteria. PCA also showed negative correlation between temperature and the abundance of prokaryotic cells. Bacterial and archaeal compositions were changeable as were the oceanographic conditions, and upwelling had a regional pressure while anthropogenic pressure was punctual. We suggest that the measurement of prokaryotic secondary production was associated with both Bacteria and Archaea activities, and that substrate availability and temperature determine nutrients cycling.

  9. Surfing wave climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Iñigo J.; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2014-10-01

    International surfing destinations are highly dependent on specific combinations of wind-wave formation, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. Surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, and analyses of surf quality require the consideration of the seasonal, interannual and long-term variability of surf conditions on a global scale. A multivariable standardized index based on expert judgment is proposed for this purpose. This index makes it possible to analyze surf conditions objectively over a global domain. A summary of global surf resources based on a new index integrating existing wave, wind, tides and sea surface temperature databases is presented. According to general atmospheric circulation and swell propagation patterns, results show that west-facing low to middle-latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Month-to-month analysis reveals strong seasonal variations in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing the frequency of such events in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. Interannual variability was investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional modes of low-frequency climate variability such as El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, revealing their strong influence at both the global and the regional scale. Results of the long-term trends demonstrate an increase in the probability of surfable events on west-facing coasts around the world in recent years. The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers, the surf tourism industry and surf-related coastal planners and stakeholders.

  10. Variabilidade local e regional da evapotranspiração estimada pelo algoritmo SEBAL Local and regional variability of evapotranspiration estimated by SEBAL algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. J. Moreira

    2010-12-01

    balance. The hourly evapotranspiration values obtained were greater than 0.60 mm h-1 in irrigated or dense native vegetation areas, from 0.35 to 0.60 mm h-1 in sparse vegetation areas and almost null in degradated areas. The analysis of hourly evapotranspiration means by Tukey test at 5% probability level showed not only a significant variability locally but also at a regional scale in the state of Ceará.

  11. Regional Variability of Agriculturally-Derived Nitrate-Nitrogen in Shallow Groundwater in China, 2004–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of groundwater has long been a major environmental and health concern in China, but little is known about the spatial and temporal variability of nitrate concentrations in groundwater at regional scales. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial distribution and variation of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N concentrations in groundwater. We used groundwater quality monitoring data and soil physical characteristics from 21 agro-ecosystems in China for years 2004 to 2014. The results indicated that NO3−-N concentrations were highly variable in shallow groundwater across the landscape. Over the study period, most of the NO3−-N concentrations were below the World Health Organization permissible limit for drinking water (<10 mg N·L. NO3−-N concentrations in groundwater neither significantly increased nor decreased in most agro-ecosystems, but fluctuated with seasons. In addition, groundwater NO3−-N under purple soil (6.81 mg·L−1 and Aeolian sandy soil (6.02 mg·L−1 were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that under other soil types, and it was medium-high (4.49 mg·L−1 under aquic cinnamon soil. Elevated nitrate concentrations occurred mainly in oasis agricultural areas of northwestern China, where farmlands with coarse-textured soils use flood irrigation. Therefore, arid and semi-arid areas are expected to sustain high NO3−-N concentrations in groundwater. Mitigation strategies can prevent this problem, and include control of N fertilizer input, balanced fertilization, proper rotation system, adoption of improved irrigation methods, and establishment of environmental policies.

  12. Adaptation of rainfed agriculture to climatic variability in the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogé, P.; Friedman, A. R.; Astier, M.; Altieri, M.

    2015-12-01

    The traditional management systems of the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico offer historical lessons about resilience to climatic variability. We interviewed small farmers to inquire about the dynamics of abandonment and persistence of a traditional management systems. We interpret farmers' narratives from a perspective of general agroecological resilience. In addition, we facilitated workshops in small farmers described their adaptation to past climate challenges and identified 14 indicators that they subsequently used to evaluate the condition of their agroecosystems. The most recent years presented increasingly extreme climatic and socioeconomic hardships: increased temperatures, delayed rainy seasons, reduced capacity of soils to retain soil moisture, changing cultural norms, and reduced rural labor. Farmers reported that their cropping systems were changing for multiple reasons: more drought, later rainfall onset, decreased rural labor, and introduced labor-saving technologies. Examination of climate data found that farmers' climate narratives were largely consistent with the observational record. There have been increases in temperature and rainfall intensity, and an increase in rainfall seasonality that may be perceived as later rainfall onset. Farmers ranked landscape-scale indicators as more marginal than farmer management or soil quality indicators. From this analysis, farmers proposed strategies to improve the ability of their agroecosystems to cope with climatic variability. Notably, they recognized that social organizing and education are required for landscape-level indicators to be improved. Transformative change is required to develop novel cropping systems and complementary activities to agriculture that will allow for farming to be sustained in the face of these challenges. Climate change adaptation by small farmers involves much more than just a set of farming practices, but also community action to tackle collective problems.

  13. The transfer of seasonal isotopic variability between precipitation and drip water at eight caves in the monsoon regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wuhui; Ruan, Jiaoyang; Luo, Weijun; Li, Tingyong; Tian, Lijun; Zeng, Guangneng; Zhang, Dezhong; Bai, Yijun; Li, Jilong; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Pingzhong; Baker, Andy; Tan, Ming

    2016-06-01

    This study presents new stable isotope data for precipitation (δ18Op) and drip water (δ18Od) from eight cave sites in the monsoon regions of China (MRC), with monthly to bi-monthly sampling intervals from May-2011 to April-2014, to investigate the regional-scale climate forcing on δ18Op and how the isotopic signals are transmitted to various drip sites. The monthly δ18Op values show negative correlation with surface air temperature at all the cave sites except Shihua Cave, which is opposite to that expected from the temperature effect. In addition, although the monthly δ18Op values are negatively correlated with precipitation at all the cave sites, only three sites are significant at the 95% level. These indicate that, due to the various vapor sources, a large portion of variability in δ18Op in the MRC cannot be explained simply by either temperature or precipitation alone. All the thirty-four drip sites are classified into three types based on the δ18Od variability. About 82% of them are static drips with little discernable variation in δ18Od through the whole study period, but the drip rates of these drips are not necessary constant. Their discharge modes are site-specific and the oxygen isotopic composition of the stalagmites growing from them may record the average of multi-year climatic signals, which are modulated by the seasonality of recharge and potential effects of evaporation, and in some cases infiltration from large rainfall events. About 12% of the thirty-four drip sites are seasonal drips, although the amplitude of δ18Od is narrower than that of δ18Op, the monthly response of δ18Od to coeval precipitation is not completely damped, and some of them follow the seasonal trend of δ18Op very well. These drips may be mainly recharged by present-day precipitation, mixing with some stored water. Thus, the stalagmites growing under them may record portions of the seasonal climatic signals embedded in δ18Op. About 6% of the thirty-four drip sites

  14. Preliminary results from the ESA STSE project on SST diurnal variability, its regional extent and implications in atmospheric modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents some preliminary results of the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). Comparisons of SEVIRI SST with AATSR...

  15. Application of Regional Drought and Crop Yield Information System to enhance drought monitoring and forecasting in Lower Mekong region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S.; Dutta, R.; Basnayake, S. B.; Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K. M.; Das, N.; Markert, K. N.; Cutter, P. G.; Towashiraporn, P.; Anderson, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Lower Mekong Region has been experiencing frequent and prolonged droughts resulting in severe damage to agricultural production leading to food insecurity and impacts on livelihoods of the farming communities. Climate variability further complicates the situation by making drought harder to forecast. The Regional Drought and Crop Yield Information System (RDCYIS), developed by SERVIR-Mekong, helps decision makers to take effective measures through monitoring, analyzing and forecasting of drought conditions and providing early warnings to farmers to make adjustments to cropping calendars. The RDCYIS is built on regionally calibrated Regional Hydrologic Extreme Assessment System (RHEAS) framework that integrates the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT) models, allowing both nowcast and forecast of drought. The RHEAS allows ingestion of numerus freely available earth observation and ground observation data to generate and customize drought related indices, variables and crop yield information for better decision making. The Lower Mekong region has experienced severe drought in 2016 encompassing the region's worst drought in 90 years. This paper presents the simulation of the 2016 drought event using RDCYIS based on its hindcast and forecast capabilities. The regionally calibrated RDCYIS can help capture salient features of drought through a variety of drought indices, soil variables, energy balance variables and water balance variables. The RDCYIS is capable of assimilating soil moisture data from different satellite products and perform ensemble runs to further reduce the uncertainty of it outputs. The calibrated results have correlation coefficient around 0.73 and NSE between 0.4-0.5. Based on the acceptable results of the retrospective runs, the system has the potential to generate reliable drought monitoring and forecasting information to improve decision-makings at operational, technological and

  16. On the mid-infrared variability of candidate eruptive variables (exors): A comparison between Spitzer and WISE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniucci, S.; Giannini, T.; Li Causi, G.; Lorenzetti, D., E-mail: simone.antoniucci@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: teresa.giannini@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: gianluca.licausi@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: dario.lorenzetti@oa-roma.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio (Italy)

    2014-02-10

    Aiming to statistically study the variability in the mid-IR of young stellar objects, we have compared the 3.6, 4.5, and 24 μm Spitzer fluxes of 1478 sources belonging to the C2D (Cores to Disks) legacy program with the WISE fluxes at 3.4, 4.6, and 22 μm. From this comparison, we have selected a robust sample of 34 variable sources. Their variations were classified per spectral Class (according to the widely accepted scheme of Class I/flat/II/III protostars), and per star forming region. On average, the number of variable sources decreases with increasing Class and is definitely higher in Perseus and Ophiuchus than in Chamaeleon and Lupus. According to the paradigm Class ≡ Evolution, the photometric variability can be considered to be a feature more pronounced in less evolved protostars, and, as such, related to accretion processes. Moreover, our statistical findings agree with the current knowledge of star formation activity in different regions. The 34 selected variables were further investigated for similarities with known young eruptive variables, namely the EXors. In particular, we analyzed (1) the shape of the spectral energy distribution, (2) the IR excess over the stellar photosphere, (3) magnitude versus color variations, and (4) output parameters of model fitting. This first systematic search for EXors ends up with 11 bona fide candidates that can be considered as suitable targets for monitoring or future investigations.

  17. Predicting superdeformed rotational band-head spin in A ∼ 190 mass region using variable moment of inertia model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma, V.S.; Goel, Alpana; Yadav, Archana; Jain, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The band-head spin (I 0 ) of superdeformed (SD) rotational bands in A ∼ 190 mass region is predicted using the variable moment of inertia (VMI) model for 66 SD rotational bands. The superdeformed rotational bands exhibited considerably good rotational property and rigid behaviour. The transition energies were dependent on the prescribed band-head spins. The ratio of transition energies over spin Eγ/ 2 I (RTEOS) vs. angular momentum (I) have confirmed the rigid behaviour, provided the band-head spin value is assigned correctly. There is a good agreement between the calculated and the observed transition energies. This method gives a very comprehensive interpretation for spin assignment of SD rotational bands which could help in designing future experiments for SD bands. (author)

  18. Efecto del fotoperiodo y la temperatura sobre la composición bioquímica en reproductores silvestres de cabrilla sardinera, Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets, 1877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Estrada-Godínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó el factor de condición (K, el índice gonadosomático (IGS, hepatosomático (IHS y de grasa visceral (IGV, así como la composición bioquímica en diferentes tejidos de reproductores silvestres de cabrilla sardinera, Mycteroperca rosacea, para evaluarlos a lo largo de un ciclo reproductivo y ver la relación que presentan los cambios con respecto a la temperatura del agua y fotoperiodo de la zona de muestreo. Se capturaron 187 reproductores, 146 hembras y 41 machos en el golfo de California, México. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P < 0,005 en los IGS, IHS e IGV; en el caso de K no se encontraron diferencias. También, se observaron variaciones significativas (P < 0,05 en la mayoría de los parámetros bioquímicos, encontrándose los valores más altos durante la etapa de desove, mientras que los más bajos durante la etapa de reposo. Todos los índices estimados y los parámetros bioquímicos determinados, se correlacionaron significativamente (P < 0,05 con el fotoperiodo, mientras que solo se encontraron correlaciones significativas (P < 0,05 entre el IGS e IGV con respecto a la temperatura del agua.

  19. Experimental investigation about the effect of non-axisymmetric wake impact on a low speed axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianyong; Lu, Yajun; Li, Zhiping

    2010-05-01

    Non-axisymmetric wake impact experiments were carried out after the best exciting frequency for a low speed axial compressor had been found by axisymmetric wake impact experiments. When the number and circumferential distribution of inlet guide vanes (IGV) are logical the wakes of non-axisymmetric IGVs can exert beneficial unsteady exciting effect on their downstream rotor flow fields and improve the compressor’s performance. In the present paper, four non-axisymmetric wake impact plans were found working better than the axisymmetric wake impact plan. Compared with the base plan, the best non-axisymmetric plan increased the compressor’s peak efficiency, and the total pressure rise by 1.1 and 2%, and enhanced the stall margin by 4.4%. The main reason why non-axisymmetric plans worked better than the axisymmetric plan was explained as the change of the unsteady exciting signal arising from IGV wakes. Besides the high-frequency components, the non-axisymmetric plan generated a beneficial low-frequency square-wave exciting signal and other secondary frequency components. Compared with the axisymmetric plan, multi-frequency exciting wakes arising from the non-axisymmetric plans are easier to get coupling relation with complex vortices such as clearance vortices, passage vortices and shedding vortices.

  20. Low-frequency variability of surface air temperature over the Barents Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Eveline C.; Bintanja, Richard; Hazeleger, Wilco; Graversen, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    The predominant decadal to multidecadal variability in the Arctic region is a feature that is not yet well-understood. It is shown that the Barents Sea is a key region for Arctic-wide variability. This is an important topic because low-frequency changes in the ocean might lead to large variations

  1. Technical Note: An operational landslide early warning system at regional scale based on space-time-variable rainfall thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segoni, S.; Battistini, A.; Rossi, G.; Rosi, A.; Lagomarsino, D.; Catani, F.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2015-04-01

    We set up an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides in Tuscany (23 000 km2). The system is based on a set of state-of-the-art intensity-duration rainfall thresholds (Segoni et al., 2014b) and makes use of LAMI (Limited Area Model Italy) rainfall forecasts and real-time rainfall data provided by an automated network of more than 300 rain gauges. The system was implemented in a WebGIS to ease the operational use in civil protection procedures: it is simple and intuitive to consult, and it provides different outputs. When switching among different views, the system is able to focus both on monitoring of real-time data and on forecasting at different lead times up to 48 h. Moreover, the system can switch between a basic data view where a synoptic scenario of the hazard can be shown all over the region and a more in-depth view were the rainfall path of rain gauges can be displayed and constantly compared with rainfall thresholds. To better account for the variability of the geomorphological and meteorological settings encountered in Tuscany, the region is subdivided into 25 alert zones, each provided with a specific threshold. The warning system reflects this subdivision: using a network of more than 300 rain gauges, it allows for the monitoring of each alert zone separately so that warnings can be issued independently. An important feature of the warning system is that the visualization of the thresholds in the WebGIS interface may vary in time depending on when the starting time of the rainfall event is set. The starting time of the rainfall event is considered as a variable by the early warning system: whenever new rainfall data are available, a recursive algorithm identifies the starting time for which the rainfall path is closest to or overcomes the threshold. This is considered the most hazardous condition, and it is displayed by the WebGIS interface. The early warning system is used to forecast and monitor the landslide hazard in the whole region

  2. Multiannual runoff variability in the upper Danube region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekarova, P.

    2009-05-01

    The development of mankind has depended on availability of water resources. Already the first agricultural civilizations noticed the temporal variability of water resources and oscillation of the multi-annual dry and wet periods. The presented thesis summarizes results of more than fifteen years research activities of the author in the field of long-term runoff prediction. Statistical analysis of the runoff oscillations depends on availability of long time series of data. Systematic measurements of discharge in modern era started relatively late. The longest time series are available in Europe, but they do not exceed 200 years. Such long series are exceptional and in most parts of the world only much shorter series exist. Since studies dealing with the natural runoff oscillation and NAO phenomenon recently absent in Slovakia, there is the one aim of the thesis to fill in the gap in the long-term runoff fluctuation analysis and long-term discharge prediction methods development. The thesis focuses on the natural runoff cyclicity identification. In stochastic models, the climate changes scenarios caused by atmosphere warming are not involved however the runoff tele-connection around the Earth is studied. Scientific objectives of the thesis: 1. To reconstruct the Danube daily discharge series at Bratislava (1876-1890) based upon the Bratislava gauge daily water level observations; 2. to analyze variability and long term trends of the selected discharge Danube series characteristics for its Bratislava gauge; 3. to propose and develop the combined periodogram method for more exact spectral density identification in discharge time series; to analyze trends and periodicity in discharge long term series; to identify occurrence of the wet and dry periods over the world, to identify the influence of the NAO/AO/ENSO/QBO phenomena and the Sun activity on the runoff variability. 4. to present some long term stochastic prediction methods; to use two of them, the classical

  3. Temperature variability over the tropical middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanakumar

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on the variability of temperature in the tropical middle atmosphere over Thumba (8 32' N, 76 52' E, located at the southern part of India, has been carried out based on rocket observations for a period of 20 years, extending from 1970 to 1990. The rocketsonde-derived mean temperatures over Thumba are corrected prior to 1978 and then compared with the middle atmospheric reference model developed from satellite observations and Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME satellite data. Temperature variability at every 1 km interval in the 25-75 km region was analysed. The tropical stratosphere is found to be highly stable, whereas considerable variability is noted in the middle mesosphere. The effect of seasonal cycle is least in the lower stratosphere. Annual and semi-annual oscillations in temperature are the primary oscillations in the tropical middle atmosphere. Annual temperature oscillations are dominant in the mesosphere and semi-annual oscillations are strong in the stratosphere. The stratopause region is noted to be the part of the middle atmosphere least sensitive to the changes in solar activity and long-term variability.

  4. Neural, electrophysiological and anatomical basis of brain-network variability and its characteristic changes in mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Zhaowen; Zhang, Kai; Lei, Xu; Yao, Ye; Becker, Benjamin; Liu, Yicen; Kendrick, Keith M; Lu, Guangming; Feng, Jianfeng

    2016-08-01

    SEE MATTAR ET AL DOI101093/AWW151 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Functional brain networks demonstrate significant temporal variability and dynamic reconfiguration even in the resting state. Currently, most studies investigate temporal variability of brain networks at the scale of single (micro) or whole-brain (macro) connectivity. However, the mechanism underlying time-varying properties remains unclear, as the coupling between brain network variability and neural activity is not readily apparent when analysed at either micro or macroscales. We propose an intermediate (meso) scale analysis and characterize temporal variability of the functional architecture associated with a particular region. This yields a topography of variability that reflects the whole-brain and, most importantly, creates an analytical framework to establish the fundamental relationship between variability of regional functional architecture and its neural activity or structural connectivity. We find that temporal variability reflects the dynamical reconfiguration of a brain region into distinct functional modules at different times and may be indicative of brain flexibility and adaptability. Primary and unimodal sensory-motor cortices demonstrate low temporal variability, while transmodal areas, including heteromodal association areas and limbic system, demonstrate the high variability. In particular, regions with highest variability such as hippocampus/parahippocampus, inferior and middle temporal gyrus, olfactory gyrus and caudate are all related to learning, suggesting that the temporal variability may indicate the level of brain adaptability. With simultaneously recorded electroencephalography/functional magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion tensor imaging data, we also find that variability of regional functional architecture is modulated by local blood oxygen level-dependent activity and α-band oscillation, and is governed by the

  5. Interdecadal variability of the tropospheric biennial oscillation in the western North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Bin; Lin Ailan; Gu Dejun; Li Chunhui

    2008-01-01

    The observed tropospheric biennial oscillation (TBO) in the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon region has an interdecadal variability with a period of 40–50 yr. That suggests a weaker effect of the TBO on the East Asia followed by a stronger one. A simple analytic model was designed to investigate the mechanism of the interdecadal variability of the TBO. The results indicated that a local TBO air-sea system not only supports the TBO variability in the WNP monsoon region but also produces an interdecadal variability of the TBO

  6. Monetary policy and regional output in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rockenbach da Silva Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of whether the effects of the Brazilian monetary policy on regional outputs are symmetric. The strategy developed combines the techniques of principal component analysis (PCA to decompose the variables that measure regional economic activity into common and region-specific components and vector autoregressions (VAR to observe the behavior of these variables in response to monetary policy shocks. The common component responds to monetary policy as expected. Additionally, the idiosyncratic components of the regions showed no impact of monetary policy. The main finding of this paper is that the monetary policy responses on regional output are symmetrical when the regional output decomposition is performed, and the responses are asymmetrical when this decomposition is not performed. Therefore, performing the regional output decomposition corroborates the economic intuition that monetary policy has no impact on region-specific issues. Once monetary policy affects the common component of the regional economic activity and does not impact its idiosyncratic components, it can be considered symmetrical.

  7. Observations of fast variable objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    A problem on studying fast variable astronomic objects is considered. The basis of the method used in the experiment is a detailed photoelectric study of a fast variableness along with spectroscopy of a high time resolution. Power spectrum of the SS Cyg brightness oscillations and autocorrelation function of the AX Mon brightness are analyzed as an example. To provide a reliable identification of parameters of star active regions responsible for the fast variableness, an experiment is proposed, the ''synchronous spectroscopy'' method being used. The method is based on the supposition about temporary stationarity of occasional processes within the limits of the time scale of several hours. The block diagram of the experiment is described

  8. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  9. Variability in the growth and nodulation of soybean in response to elevation and soil properties in the himalayan region of kashmir-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, N.; Abbasi, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the variability of soybean nodulation and growth in relation to elevation and soil properties across the slopping uplands of the Himalayan region of Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan in order to find efficient native N2 fixing bacteria adapted to local soil and climatic characteristics. Soils from twenty two different sites with variable altitude were collected and analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics including the quantitative estimation of rhizobium population through most probable number (MPN) technique. Soybean cultivar William-82 was grown in these soils under greenhouse condition for determining the nodulation potential (number and mass) and plant growth characteristics. Morphology of the nodules were observed through optical and transmission electron microscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Biplot graph were used to jointly interpret the relationship between variables and soils (treatments). Soil altitude ranged from 855 m to 3000 m while organic matter content varied between 0.8% to 3.5% and pH from 6.0 to 8.1. The indigenous rhizobia population varied between 5.0 x104 to 8.0 x106 CFU g-1 showing the existence of a substantial rhizobial population in these soils. The number of nodules per plant varied from 7 to 40 (CV 38%) suggesting site/location as an important factor contributing towards rhizobia population and impacting root nodulation. The electron microscopy of green plant nodules showed densely populated bacteria in these cells and nodule tissue cells were completely infected with bacteria. The growth characteristics of soybean i.e. shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight, root length, root fresh and dry weight varied among the sites but in general a vigorous and healthy plant growth was observed reflecting N assimilation from native soils. Results showed a substantial variability between sites and this is likely to be due to inter/intra species diversity, as well as

  10. Predictive Models of Primary Tropical Forest Structure from Geomorphometric Variables Based on SRTM in the Tapajós Region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Polyanna da Conceição; Dos Santos, João Roberto; Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro; Balzter, Heiko; França, Helena; Bispo, Pitágoras da Conceição

    2016-01-01

    Surveying primary tropical forest over large regions is challenging. Indirect methods of relating terrain information or other external spatial datasets to forest biophysical parameters can provide forest structural maps at large scales but the inherent uncertainties need to be evaluated fully. The goal of the present study was to evaluate relief characteristics, measured through geomorphometric variables, as predictors of forest structural characteristics such as average tree basal area (BA) and height (H) and average percentage canopy openness (CO). Our hypothesis is that geomorphometric variables are good predictors of the structure of primary tropical forest, even in areas, with low altitude variation. The study was performed at the Tapajós National Forest, located in the Western State of Pará, Brazil. Forty-three plots were sampled. Predictive models for BA, H and CO were parameterized based on geomorphometric variables using multiple linear regression. Validation of the models with nine independent sample plots revealed a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 3.73 m2/ha (20%) for BA, 1.70 m (12%) for H, and 1.78% (21%) for CO. The coefficient of determination between observed and predicted values were r2 = 0.32 for CO, r2 = 0.26 for H and r2 = 0.52 for BA. The models obtained were able to adequately estimate BA and CO. In summary, it can be concluded that relief variables are good predictors of vegetation structure and enable the creation of forest structure maps in primary tropical rainforest with an acceptable uncertainty.

  11. Groundwater Variability Across Temporal and Spatial Scales in the Central and Northeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailing; Rodell, Matthew; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Depth-to-water measurements from 181 monitoring wells in unconfined or semi-confined aquifers in nine regions of the central and northeastern U.S. were analyzed. Groundwater storage exhibited strong seasonal variations in all regions, with peaks in spring and lows in autumn, and its interannual variability was nearly unbounded, such that the impacts of droughts, floods, and excessive pumping could persist for many years. We found that the spatial variability of groundwater storage anomalies (deviations from the long term mean) increases as a power function of extent scale (square root of area). That relationship, which is linear on a log-log graph, is common to other hydrological variables but had never before been shown with groundwater data. We describe how the derived power function can be used to determine the number of wells needed to estimate regional mean groundwater storage anomalies with a desired level of accuracy, or to assess uncertainty in regional mean estimates from a set number of observations. We found that the spatial variability of groundwater storage anomalies within a region often increases with the absolute value of the regional mean anomaly, the opposite of the relationship between soil moisture spatial variability and mean. Recharge (drainage from the lowest model soil layer) simulated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was compatible with observed monthly groundwater storage anomalies and month-to-month changes in groundwater storage.

  12. A quantitative magnetic resonance histology atlas of postnatal rat brain development with regional estimates of growth and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Watson, Charles; Johnson, G Allan

    2013-05-01

    There has been growing interest in the role of postnatal brain development in the etiology of several neurologic diseases. The rat has long been recognized as a powerful model system for studying neuropathology and the safety of pharmacologic treatments. However, the complex spatiotemporal changes that occur during rat neurodevelopment remain to be elucidated. This work establishes the first magnetic resonance histology (MRH) atlas of the developing rat brain, with an emphasis on quantitation. The atlas comprises five specimens at each of nine time points, imaged with eight distinct MR contrasts and segmented into 26 developmentally defined brain regions. The atlas was used to establish a timeline of morphometric changes and variability throughout neurodevelopment and represents a quantitative database of rat neurodevelopment for characterizing rat models of human neurologic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Bøttcher, L M; Weber, Tom

    1992-01-01

    departments, especially between departments far apart. It is concluded that we still need a scientific clarification of which specific heart rate changes are the best predictors of fetal stress. Artificial intelligence programs for interpreting fetal cardiotocograms and ECG signals constitute one promising......At 10 Danish obstetrical departments, 116 residents (42 senior and 74 junior) participated in a study to assess inter-observer and regional variability in the description and evaluation of and clinical decision regarding 11 fetal heart rate patterns. The 11 traces included normal as well...... as pathological patterns, and normal as well as clinically asphyxiated babies. Five antepartum and six intrapartum patterns were included. A total of 1,276 descriptions and evaluations were obtained. The degree of agreement in description of fetal heart rate changes was high regarding the baseline...

  14. Spatial variability of the response to climate change in regional groundwater systems -- examples from simulations in the Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Michael S.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Chang, Heejun; Hulbe, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the spatial variability of the response of aquifer systems to climate change in and adjacent to the Cascade Range volcanic arc in the Deschutes Basin, Oregon using downscaled global climate model projections to drive surface hydrologic process and groundwater flow models. Projected warming over the 21st century is anticipated to shift the phase of precipitation toward more rain and less snow in mountainous areas in the Pacific Northwest, resulting in smaller winter snowpack and in a shift in the timing of runoff to earlier in the year. This will be accompanied by spatially variable changes in the timing of groundwater recharge. Analysis of historic climate and hydrologic data and modeling studies show that groundwater plays a key role in determining the response of stream systems to climate change. The spatial variability in the response of groundwater systems to climate change, particularly with regard to flow-system scale, however, has generally not been addressed in the literature. Here we simulate the hydrologic response to projected future climate to show that the response of groundwater systems can vary depending on the location and spatial scale of the flow systems and their aquifer characteristics. Mean annual recharge averaged over the basin does not change significantly between the 1980s and 2080s climate periods given the ensemble of global climate models and emission scenarios evaluated. There are, however, changes in the seasonality of groundwater recharge within the basin. Simulation results show that short-flow-path groundwater systems, such as those providing baseflow to many headwater streams, will likely have substantial changes in the timing of discharge in response changes in seasonality of recharge. Regional-scale aquifer systems with flow paths on the order of many tens of kilometers, in contrast, are much less affected by changes in seasonality of recharge. Flow systems at all spatial scales, however, are likely to reflect

  15. Sequence variability is correlated with weak immunogenicity in Streptococcus pyogenes M protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannergård, Jonas; Kristensen, Bodil M; Gustafsson, Mattias C U; Persson, Jenny J; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Stålhammar-Carlemalm, Margaretha; Lindahl, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes, a major bacterial virulence factor, has an amino-terminal hypervariable region (HVR) that is a target for type-specific protective antibodies. Intriguingly, the HVR elicits a weak antibody response, indicating that it escapes host immunity by two mechanisms, sequence variability and weak immunogenicity. However, the properties influencing the immunogenicity of regions in an M protein remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the antibody response to different regions of the classical M1 and M5 proteins, in which not only the HVR but also the adjacent fibrinogen-binding B repeat region exhibits extensive sequence divergence. Analysis of antisera from S. pyogenes-infected patients, infected mice, and immunized mice showed that both the HVR and the B repeat region elicited weak antibody responses, while the conserved carboxy-terminal part was immunodominant. Thus, we identified a correlation between sequence variability and weak immunogenicity for M protein regions. A potential explanation for the weak immunogenicity was provided by the demonstration that protease digestion selectively eliminated the HVR-B part from whole M protein-expressing bacteria. These data support a coherent model, in which the entire variable HVR-B part evades antibody attack, not only by sequence variability but also by weak immunogenicity resulting from protease attack. PMID:26175306

  16. Unsteady Aerodynamics & Aeromechanics of Multi-Stage Turbomachinery Blading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleeter, Sanford

    2002-01-01

    .... A benchmark-standard multistage transonic research compressor was developed by modifying the Purdue High-Speed Axial Compressor to feature new IGV and stator rows representative of modern high pressure compressors...

  17. Seven year satellite observations of the mean structures and variabilities in the regional aerosol distribution over the oceanic areas around the Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Nair

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol distribution over the oceanic regions around the Indian subcontinent and its seasonal and interannual variabilities are studied using the aerosol optical depth (AOD derived from NOAA-14 and NOAA-16 AVHRR data for the period of November 1995–December 2003. The air-mass types over this region during the Asian summer monsoon season (June–September are significantly different from those during the Asian dry season (November–April. Hence, the aerosol loading and its properties over these oceanic regions are also distinctly different in these two periods. During the Asian dry season, the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal are dominated by the transport of aerosols from Northern Hemispheric landmasses, mainly the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Arabia. This aerosol transport is rather weak in the early part of the dry season (November–January compared to that in the later period (February–April. Large-scale transport of mineral dust from Arabia and the production of sea-salt aerosols, due to high surface wind speeds, contribute to the high aerosol loading over the Arabian Sea region during the summer monsoon season. As a result, the monthly mean AOD over the Arabian Sea shows a clear annual cycle with the highest values occurring in July. The AOD over the Bay of Bengal and the Southern Hemisphere Indian Ocean also displays an annual cycle with maxima during March and October, respectively. The amplitude of the annual variation is the largest in coastal Arabia and the least in the Southern Hemisphere Indian Ocean. The interannual variability in AOD is the largest over the Southeast Arabian Sea (seasonal mean AOD varies from 0.19 to 0.42 and the northern Bay of Bengal (seasonal mean AOD varies from 0.24 to 0.39 during the February–April period and is the least over the Southern Hemisphere Indian Ocean. This study also investigates the altitude regions and pathways of dominant aerosol transport by combining the AOD distribution with

  18. A Fiji multi-coral δ18O composite approach to obtaining a more accurate reconstruction of the last two-centuries of the ocean-climate variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassié, Emilie P.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Corrège, Thierry; Wu, Henry C.; Lemley, Gavin M.; Howe, Steve; Cabioch, Guy

    2014-12-01

    The limited availability of oceanographic data in the tropical Pacific Ocean prior to the satellite era makes coral-based climate reconstructions a key tool for extending the instrumental record back in time, thereby providing a much needed test for climate models and projections. We have generated a unique regional network consisting of five Porites coral δ18O time series from different locations in the Fijian archipelago. Our results indicate that using a minimum of three Porites coral δ18O records from Fiji is statistically sufficient to obtain a reliable signal for climate reconstruction, and that application of an approach used in tree ring studies is a suitable tool to determine this number. The coral δ18O composite indicates that while sea surface temperature (SST) variability is the primary driver of seasonal δ18O variability in these Fiji corals, annual average coral δ18O is more closely correlated to sea surface salinity (SSS) as previously reported. Our results highlight the importance of water mass advection in controlling Fiji coral δ18O and salinity variability at interannual and decadal time scales despite being located in the heavy rainfall region of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Fiji δ18O composite presents a secular freshening and warming trend since the 1850s coupled with changes in both interannual (IA) and decadal/interdecadal (D/I) variance. The changes in IA and D/I variance suggest a re-organization of climatic variability in the SPCZ region beginning in the late 1800s to period of a more dominant interannual variability, which could correspond to a southeast expansion of the SPCZ.

  19. Italian regional health system structure and expected cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelli, Marina; Lillini, Roberto; Quaglia, Alberto; Capocaccia, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Few studies deal with the association of socioeconomic and health system resource variables with cancer survival at the Italian regional level, where the greatest number of decisions about social and health policies and resource allocations are taken. The present study aimed to describe the causal relationships between socioeconomic and health system resource factors and regional cancer survival and to compute the expected cancer survival at provincial, regional and area levels. Age-standardized relative survival at 5 years from diagnosis of cases incident in 1995-1998 and followed up to 2004 were derived by gender for 11 sites from the Italian Association of Cancer Registries data bank. The socioeconomic and health system resource variables, describing at a regional level the macro-economy, demography, labor market, and health resources for 1995-2005, came from the Health for All database. A principal components factor analysis was applied to the socioeconomic and health system resource variables. For every site, linear regression models were computed considering the relative survival at 5 years as a dependent variable and the principal components factor analysis factors as independent variables. The factors described the socioeconomic and health-related features of the regional systems and were causally related to the characteristics of the patient taken in charge. The models built by the factors allowed computation of the expected relative survival at 5 years with very good concordance with those observed at regional, macro-regional and national levels. In the regions without any cancer registry, survival was coherent with that of neighboring regions with similar socioeconomic and health system resources characteristics. The models highlighted the causal correlations between socioeconomic and health system resources and cancer survival, suggesting that they could be good evaluation tools for the efficiency of the resources allocation and use.

  20. Propagation of inertial-gravity waves on an island shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondur, V. G.; Sabinin, K. D.; Grebenyuk, Yu. V.

    2015-09-01

    The propagation of inertial-gravity waves (IGV) at the boundary of the Pacific shelf near the island of Oahu (Hawaii), whose generation was studied in the first part of this work [1], is analyzed. It is shown that a significant role there is played by the plane oblique waves; whose characteristics were identified by the method of estimating 3D wave parameters for the cases when the measurements are available only for two verticals. It is established that along with the descending propagation of energy that is typical of IGVs, wave packets ascend from the bottom to the upper layers, which is caused by the emission of waves from intense jets of discharged waters flowing out of a diffusor located at the bottom.

  1. Geographical and temporal variation of regional development and innovation in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Inkinen, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    Variations in regional development are basically carried forward by technological development together with spatial concentrations of production and finance. The main argument behind this paper is that innovation and regional development variables have temporal variations in a spatial context....... Analysis was conducted using principal component indices from the years 1995–2007 to provide a temporal trend perspective of the most successful locations in innovation activity and regional development. Availability of an extensive workforce, income and higher education have steadily been the most...... “distinct” variables corresponding to regional development in Finland, whereas innovation occupies a stable middling position among explanative variables. Regional development and innovation activity is still concentrated in the core urban regions, but this tendency has lost at least some of its importance....

  2. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  3. Galactic models with variable spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.; Sellwood, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A series of three-dimensional computer simulations of disc galaxies has been run in which the self-consistent potential of the disc stars is supplemented by that arising from a small uniform Population II sphere. The models show variable spiral structure, which is more pronounced for thin discs. In addition, the thin discs form weak bars. In one case variable spiral structure associated with this bar has been seen. The relaxed discs are cool outside resonance regions. (author)

  4. Modeling actual evapotranspiration with routine meteorological variables in the data-scarce region of the Tibetan Plateau: Comparisons and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Zhang, Yinsheng; Xu, Chong-Yu; Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative estimation of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) by in situ measurements and mathematical modeling is a fundamental task for physical understanding of ETa as well as the feedback mechanisms between land and the ambient atmosphere. However, the ETa information in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been greatly impeded by the extremely sparse ground observation network in the region. Approaches for estimating ETa solely from routine meteorological variables are therefore important for investigating spatiotemporal variations of ETa in the data-scarce region of the TP. Motivated by this need, the complementary relationship (CR) and Penman-Monteith approaches were evaluated against in situ measurements of ETa on a daily basis in an alpine steppe region of the TP. The former includes the Nonlinear Complementary Relationship (Nonlinear-CR) as well as the Complementary Relationship Areal Evapotranspiration (CRAE) models, while the latter involves the Katerji-Perrier and the Todorovic models. Results indicate that the Nonlinear-CR, CRAE, and Katerji-Perrier models are all capable of efficiently simulating daily ETa, provided their parameter values were appropriately calibrated. The Katerji-Perrier model performed best since its site-specific parameters take the soil water status into account. The Nonlinear-CR model also performed well with the advantage of not requiring the user to choose between a symmetric and asymmetric CR. The CRAE model, even with a relatively low Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) value, is also an acceptable approach in this data-scarce region as it does not need information of wind speed and ground surface conditions. In contrast, application of the Todorovic model was found to be inappropriate in the dry regions of the TP due to its significant overestimation of ETa as it neglects the effect of water stress on the bulk surface resistance. Sensitivity analysis of the parameter values demonstrated the relative importance of each parameter in the

  5. Maps of mesoscale wind variability over the North Sea region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Badger, Jake

    Mesoscale wind fluctuations affect the operation of wind farms, particularly as the number of geographically concentrated wind farms in the North Sea increases (Akhmatov et al. 2007). The frequency and intensity of wind fluctuations could be considered as a new siting criterion, together with exi...... for a 1 year period. The model was run with a horizontal grid spacing of 2 km. The variability maps are created by integrating the average 24 hour spectra at every grid point over different time-scales....

  6. Impact of catchment geophysical characteristics and climate on the regional variability of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Geneviève; Lebel, Alexandre; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2014-08-15

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a recognized indicator of natural organic matter (NOM) in surface waters. The aim of this paper is twofold: to evaluate the impact of geophysical characteristics, climate and ecological zones on DOC concentrations in surface waters and, to develop a statistical model to estimate the regional variability of these concentrations. In this study, multilevel statistical analysis was used to achieve three specific objectives: (1) evaluate the influence of climate and geophysical characteristics on DOC concentrations in surface waters; (2) compare the influence of geophysical characteristics and ecological zones on DOC concentrations in surface waters; and (3) develop a model to estimate the most accurate DOC concentrations in surface waters. The case study involved 115 catchments from surface waters in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Results showed that mean temperatures recorded 60 days prior to sampling, total precipitation 10 days prior to sampling and percentages of wetlands, coniferous forests and mixed forests have a significant positive influence on DOC concentrations in surface waters. The catchment mean slope had a significant negative influence on DOC concentrations in surface waters. Water type (lake or river) and deciduous forest variables were not significant. The ecological zones had a significant influence on DOC concentrations. However, geophysical characteristics (wetlands, forests and slope) estimated DOC concentrations more accurately. A model describing the variability of DOC concentrations was developed and can be used, in future research, for estimating DBPs in drinking water as well evaluating the impact of climate change on the quality of surface waters and drinking water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-site study of diffusion metric variability: effects of site, vendor, field strength, and echo time on regions-of-interest and histogram-bin analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, K G; Chou, M-C; Preciado, R I; Gimi, B; Rollins, N K; Song, A; Turner, J; Mori, S

    2016-02-27

    It is now common for magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) based multi-site trials to include diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as part of the protocol. It is also common for these sites to possess MR scanners of different manufacturers, different software and hardware, and different software licenses. These differences mean that scanners may not be able to acquire data with the same number of gradient amplitude values and number of available gradient directions. Variability can also occur in achievable b-values and minimum echo times. The challenge of a multi-site study then, is to create a common protocol by understanding and then minimizing the effects of scanner variability and identifying reliable and accurate diffusion metrics. This study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two diffusion metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA) using two common analyses (region-of-interest and mean-bin value of whole brain histograms). The goal of the study was to identify sources of variability in diffusion-sensitized imaging and their influence on commonly reported metrics. The results demonstrate that the site, vendor, field strength, and echo time all contribute to variability in FA and MD, though to different extent. We conclude that characterization of the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time is a worthwhile step in the construction of multi-center trials.

  8. Sequence variability is correlated with weak immunogenicity in Streptococcus pyogenes M protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannergård, Jonas; Kristensen, Bodil M; Gustafsson, Mattias C U; Persson, Jenny J; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Stålhammar-Carlemalm, Margaretha; Lindahl, Gunnar

    2015-10-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes, a major bacterial virulence factor, has an amino-terminal hypervariable region (HVR) that is a target for type-specific protective antibodies. Intriguingly, the HVR elicits a weak antibody response, indicating that it escapes host immunity by two mechanisms, sequence variability and weak immunogenicity. However, the properties influencing the immunogenicity of regions in an M protein remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the antibody response to different regions of the classical M1 and M5 proteins, in which not only the HVR but also the adjacent fibrinogen-binding B repeat region exhibits extensive sequence divergence. Analysis of antisera from S. pyogenes-infected patients, infected mice, and immunized mice showed that both the HVR and the B repeat region elicited weak antibody responses, while the conserved carboxy-terminal part was immunodominant. Thus, we identified a correlation between sequence variability and weak immunogenicity for M protein regions. A potential explanation for the weak immunogenicity was provided by the demonstration that protease digestion selectively eliminated the HVR-B part from whole M protein-expressing bacteria. These data support a coherent model, in which the entire variable HVR-B part evades antibody attack, not only by sequence variability but also by weak immunogenicity resulting from protease attack. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Description and assessment of regional sea-level trends and variability from altimetry and tide gauges at the northern Australian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharineiat, Zahra; Deng, Xiaoli

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims at providing a descriptive view of the low-frequency sea-level changes around the northern Australian coastline. Twenty years of sea-level observations from multi-mission satellite altimetry and tide gauges are used to characterize sea-level trends and inter-annual variability over the study region. The results show that the interannual sea-level fingerprint in the northern Australian coastline is closely related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events, with the greatest influence on the Gulf Carpentaria, Arafura Sea, and the Timor Sea. The basin average of 14 tide-gauge time series is in strong agreement with the basin average of the altimeter data, with a root mean square difference of 18 mm and a correlation coefficient of 0.95. The rate of the sea-level trend over the altimetry period (6.3 ± 1.4 mm/yr) estimated from tide gauges is slightly higher than that (6.1 ± 1.3 mm/yr) from altimetry in the time interval 1993-2013, which can vary with the length of the time interval. Here we provide new insights into examining the significance of sea-level trends by applying the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test is applied to assess if the trends are significant (upward or downward). Apart from a positive rate of sea-level trends are not statistically significant in this region due to the effects of natural variability. The findings suggest that altimetric trends are not significant along the coasts and some parts of the Gulf Carpentaria (14°S-8°S), where geophysical corrections (e.g., ocean tides) cannot be estimated accurately and altimeter measurements are contaminated by reflections from the land.

  10. Cross-Regional Assessment Of Coupling And Variability In Precipitation-Runoff Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Buttle, J. M.; Laudon, H.; McDonnell, J. J.; McGuire, K. J.; Seibert, J.; Shanley, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    The higher mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere are particularly sensitive to change due to the important role the zero-degree isotherm plays in the phase of precipitation and intermediate storage as snow. An international inter-catchment comparison program North-Watch seeks to improve our understanding of the sensitivity of northern catchments to change by examining their hydrological and biogeochemical variability and response. The catchments are located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the United States (Sleepers River, Hubbard Brook and HJ Andrews) and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek). For this study, 8 catchments with 10 continuous years of daily precipitation and runoff data were selected to assess the seasonal coupling of rainfall and runoff and the memory effect of runoff events on the hydrograph at different time scales. To assess the coupling and synchroneity of precipitation, continuous wavelet transforms and wavelet coherence were used. Wavelet spectra identified the relative importance of both annual versus seasonal flows while wavelet coherence was applied to identify over different time scales along the 10-year window how well precipitation and runoff were coupled. For example, while on a given day, precipitation may be closely coupled to runoff, a wet year may not necessarily be a high runoff year in catchments with large storage. Assessing different averaging periods in the variation of daily flows highlights the importance of seasonality in runoff response and the relative influence of rain versus snowmelt on flow magnitude and variability. Wet catchments with limited seasonal precipitation variability (Strontian, Girnock) have precipitation signals more closely coupled with runoff, whereas dryer catchments dominated by snow (Wolf Creek, Krycklan) have strongly coupling only during freshet. Most catchments with highly seasonal precipitation show strong intermittent coupling during their wet season. At

  11. Geographical and temporal variation of regional development and innovation in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Makkonen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Variations in regional development are basically carried forward by technological development together with spatial concentrations of production and finance. The main argument behind this paper is that innovation and regional development variables have temporal variations in a spatial context. Analysis was conducted using principal component indices from the years 1995–2007 to provide a temporal trend perspective of the most successful locations in innovation activity and regional development. Availability of an extensive workforce, income and higher education have steadily been the most “distinct” variables corresponding to regional development in Finland, whereas innovation occupies a stable middling position among explanative variables. Regional development and innovation activity is still concentrated in the core urban regions, but this tendency has lost at least some of its importance.

  12. Seychelles Dome variability in a high resolution ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyadjro, E. S.; Jensen, T.; Richman, J. G.; Shriver, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    The Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR; 5ºS-10ºS, 50ºE-80ºE) in the tropical Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) has been recognized as a region of prominence with regards to climate variability in the Indian Ocean. Convective activities in this region have regional consequences as it affect socio-economic livelihood of the people especially in the countries along the Indian Ocean rim. The SCTR is characterized by a quasi-permanent upwelling that is often associated with thermocline shoaling. This upwelling affects sea surface temperature (SST) variability. We present results on the variability and dynamics of the SCTR as simulated by the 1/12º high resolution HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). It is observed that locally, wind stress affects SST via Ekman pumping of cooler subsurface waters, mixing and anomalous zonal advection. Remotely, wind stress curl in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean generates westward-propagating Rossby waves that impacts the depth of the thermocline which in turn impacts SST variability in the SCTR region. The variability of the contributions of these processes, especially with regard to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are further examined. In a typical positive IOD (PIOD) year, the net vertical velocity in the SCTR is negative year-round as easterlies along the region are intensified leading to a strong positive curl. This vertical velocity is caused mainly by anomalous local Ekman downwelling (with peak during September-November), a direct opposite to the climatology scenario when local Ekman pumping is positive (upwelling favorable) year-round. The anomalous remote contribution to the vertical velocity changes is minimal especially during the developing and peak stages of PIOD events. In a typical negative IOD (NIOD) year, anomalous vertical velocity is positive almost year-round with peaks in May and October. The remote contribution is positive, in contrast to the climatology and most of the PIOD years.

  13. Regional welfare disparities and regional economic growth in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Huy Hoang,

    2009-01-01

    This study had multiple objectives. First, it aimed at examining regional inequality
    in several welfare variables, such as health and education during the 1998-2004 period, and
    per capita income over time from 1990 to 2006. The first objective of the study was to gain
    a better

  14. Interannual variability of sea surface temperature and circulation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local surface heat flux exchanges driven by the anomalous shortwave radiation dominated the interannual SST variability in the Tanzanian shelf region, with some contribution by the advection of heat anomalies from the North-East Madagascar Current. Farther offshore, the interannual variability of the SST was dominated ...

  15. Small-scale variability in tropical tropopause layer humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E. J.; Ueyama, R.; Pfister, L.; Karcher, B.; Podglajen, A.; Diskin, G. S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Thornberry, T. D.; Rollins, A. W.; Bui, T. V.; Woods, S.; Lawson, P.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in statistical parameterizations of cirrus cloud processes for use in global models are highlighting the need for information about small-scale fluctuations in upper tropospheric humidity and the physical processes that control the humidity variability. To address these issues, we have analyzed high-resolution airborne water vapor measurements obtained in the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment over the tropical Pacific between 14 and 20 km. Using accurate and precise 1-Hz water vapor measurements along approximately-level aircraft flight legs, we calculate structure functions spanning horizontal scales ranging from about 0.2 to 50 km, and we compare the water vapor variability in the lower (about 14 km) and upper (16-19 km) Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). We also compare the magnitudes and scales of variability inside TTL cirrus versus in clear-sky regions. The measurements show that in the upper TTL, water vapor concentration variance is stronger inside cirrus than in clear-sky regions. Using simulations of TTL cirrus formation, we show that small variability in clear-sky humidity is amplified by the strong sensitivity of ice nucleation rate to supersaturation, which results in highly-structured clouds that subsequently drive variability in the water vapor field. In the lower TTL, humidity variability is correlated with recent detrainment from deep convection. The structure functions indicate approximately power-law scaling with spectral slopes ranging from about -5/3 to -2.

  16. Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

  17. Internal variability of a 3-D ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Büchmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Defence Centre for Operational Oceanography runs operational forecasts for the Danish waters. The core setup is a 60-layer baroclinic circulation model based on the General Estuarine Transport Model code. At intervals, the model setup is tuned to improve ‘model skill’ and overall performance. It has been an area of concern that the uncertainty inherent to the stochastical/chaotic nature of the model is unknown. Thus, it is difficult to state with certainty that a particular setup is improved, even if the computed model skill increases. This issue also extends to the cases, where the model is tuned during an iterative process, where model results are fed back to improve model parameters, such as bathymetry.An ensemble of identical model setups with slightly perturbed initial conditions is examined. It is found that the initial perturbation causes the models to deviate from each other exponentially fast, causing differences of several PSUs and several kelvin within a few days of simulation. The ensemble is run for a full year, and the long-term variability of salinity and temperature is found for different regions within the modelled area. Further, the developing time scale is estimated for each region, and great regional differences are found – in both variability and time scale. It is observed that periods with very high ensemble variability are typically short-term and spatially limited events.A particular event is examined in detail to shed light on how the ensemble ‘behaves’ in periods with large internal model variability. It is found that the ensemble does not seem to follow any particular stochastic distribution: both the ensemble variability (standard deviation or range as well as the ensemble distribution within that range seem to vary with time and place. Further, it is observed that a large spatial variability due to mesoscale features does not necessarily correlate to large ensemble variability. These findings bear

  18. Comparison of the spatial and temporal variability of drought indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Churchill

    variability of regional water resources. Lake Chad for ... and water resources management question in drought prone regions of Africa .... implementation of contingency plans during the drought .... management (IWRM) by the Lake Chad Basin.

  19. Variability of Mediterranean aerosols properties at three regional background sites in the western Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Michaël.; Totems, Julien; Barragan, Rubén.; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Comerón, Adolfo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Augustin, Patrick; Chazette, Patrick; Léon, Jean-François; Olmo-Reyes, Francisco José; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Rocadenbosch, Francesc

    2014-10-01

    In the framework of the project ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), the variability of aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties is examined in three regional background sites on a southwest - northeast (SW-NE) straight line in the middle of the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The three sites are on the northward transport pathway of African dust: - Ersa, Corsica Island, France (43.00ºN, 9.36ºW, 80 m a.s.l), - Palma de Mallorca, Mallorca Island, Spain (39.55ºN, 2.62ºE, 10 m a.s.l) and - Alborán, Alboran Island, Spain (35.94ºN, 3.04ºW, 15 m a.s.l). AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun-photometer products are mainly used. A preliminary analysis shows that at Ersa and Palma sites the annual aerosol optical depth (AOD) has a similar trend with a peak around 0.2 in July. The winter/spring AOD is lower in Palma than in Ersa, while it is reverse in summer/autumn. The aerosol particle size distribution (and the coarse mode fraction) shows clearly the SW-NE gradient with a decreasing coarse mode peak (and a decreasing coarse mode fraction from 0.5 - 0.35 - 0.2 in July) along the axis Alborán - Palma de Mallorca - Ersa. In addition to the seasonal and annual variability analysis, the analysis of AERONET products is completed with a large variety of ground-based and sounding balloons remote sensing and in situ instruments during the Special Observation Period (SOP) of the ADRIMED campaign in June 2013. The second part of the presentation will focus on the comparison of the observations at Palma de Mallorca and Ersa of the same long-range transported airmasses. The observations include lidar vertical profiles, balloon borne OPC (Optical Particle Counter) and MSG/SEVIRI AOD, among others.

  20. Unveiling the pan-genome of the SXT/R391 family of ICEs: molecular characterisation of new variable regions of SXT/R391-like ICEs detected in Pseudoalteromonas sp. and Vibrio scophthalmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Blanco, Arturo; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

    2016-08-01

    Integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family have been identified in fish-isolated bacterial strains collected from marine aquaculture environments of the northwestern Iberian Peninsula. Here we analysed the variable regions of two ICEs, one preliminarily characterised in a previous study (ICEVscSpa3) and one newly identified (ICEPspSpa1). Bacterial strains harboring these ICEs were phylogenetically assigned to Vibrio scophthalmi and Pseudoalteromonas sp., thus constituting the first evidence of SXT/R391-like ICEs in the genus Pseudoalteromonas to date. Variable DNA regions, which confer element-specific properties to ICEs of this family, were characterised. Interestingly, the two ICEs contained 29 genes not found in variable DNA insertions of previously described ICEs. Most notably, variable gene content for ICEVscSpa3 showed similarity to genes potentially involved in housekeeping functions of replication, nucleotide metabolism and transcription. For these genes, closest homologues were found clustered in the genome of Pseudomonas psychrotolerans L19, suggesting a transfer as a block to ICEVscSpa3. Genes encoding antibiotic resistance, restriction modification systems and toxin/antitoxin systems were absent from hotspots of ICEVscSpa3. In contrast, the variable gene content of ICEPspSpa1 included genes involved in restriction/modification functions in two different hotspots and genes related to ICE maintenance. The present study unveils a relatively large number of novel genes in SXT/R391-ICEs, and demonstrates the major role of ICE elements as contributors to horizontal gene transfer.

  1. Comparing farmers' perception of climate change and variability with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception of climate change and variability supported by local knowledge has helped to advance understanding of climate change and its impacts on agricultural land-use systems. This study compares farmers' perception of climate change and variability in four communities of the Upper East Region of Ghana. Using a ...

  2. Analysis of the variability of extra-tropical cyclones at the regional scale for the coasts of Northern Germany and investigation of their coastal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Benjamin; Feser, Frauke

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of long-term changes in wind speeds is very important for the coastal areas and the protection measures. Therefor the wind variability at the regional scale for the coast of Northern Germany shall be analysed. In order to derive changes in storminess it is essential to analyse long, homogeneous meteorological time series. Wind measurements often suffer from inconsistencies which arise from changes in instrumentation, observation method, or station location. Reanalysis data take into account such inhomogeneities of observation data and convert these measurements into a consistent, gridded data set with the same grid spacing and time intervals. This leads to a smooth, homogeneous data set, but with relatively low resolution (about 210 km for the longest reanalysis data set, the NCEP reanalysis starting in 1948). Therefore a high-resolution regional atmospheric model will be used to bring these reanalyses to a higher resolution, using in addition to a dynamical downscaling approach the spectral nudging technique. This method 'nudges' the large spatial scales of the regional climate model towards the reanalysis, while the smaller spatial scales are left unchanged. It was applied successfully in a number of applications, leading to realistic atmospheric weather descriptions of the past. With the regional climate model COSMO-CLM a very high-resolution data set was calculated for the last 67 years, the period from 1948 until now. The model area is North Germany with the coastal area of the North sea and parts of the Baltic sea. This is one of the first model simulations on climate scale with a very high resolution of 2.8 km, so even small scale effects can be detected. With this hindcast-simulation there are numerous options of evaluation. One can create wind climatologies for regional areas such as for the metropolitan region of Hamburg. Otherwise one can investigate individual storms in a case study. With a filtering and tracking program the course of

  3. Rotor-generated unsteady aerodynamic interactions in a 1½ stage compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, John J.

    Because High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) remains the predominant surprise failure mode in gas turbine engines, HCF avoidance design systems are utilized to identify possible failures early in the engine development process. A key requirement of these analyses is accurate determination of the aerodynamic forcing function and corresponding airfoil unsteady response. The current study expands the limited experimental database of blade row interactions necessary for calibration of predictive HCF analyses, with transonic axial-flow compressors of particular interest due to the presence of rotor leading edge shocks. The majority of HCF failures in aircraft engines occur at off-design operating conditions. Therefore, experiments focused on rotor-IGV interactions at off-design are conducted in the Purdue Transonic Research Compressor. The rotor-generated IGV unsteady aerodynamics are quantified when the IGV reset angle causes the vane trailing edge to be nearly aligned with the rotor leading edge shocks. A significant vane response to the impulsive static pressure perturbation associated with a shock is evident in the point measurements at 90% span, with details of this complex interaction revealed in the corresponding time-variant vane-to-vane flow field data. Industry wide implementation of Controlled Diffusion Airfoils (CDA) in modern compressors motivated an investigation of upstream propagating CDA rotor-generated forcing functions. Whole field velocity measurements in the reconfigured Purdue Transonic Research Compressor along the design speedline reveal steady loading had a considerable effect on the rotor shock structure. A detached rotor leading edge shock exists at low loading, with an attached leading edge and mid-chord suction surface normal shock present at nominal loading. These CDA forcing functions are 3--4 times smaller than those generated by the baseline NACA 65 rotor at their respective operating points. However, the IGV unsteady aerodynamic response to the CDA

  4. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawicki Kacper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February. The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 – 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 – 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method, three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3 and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  5. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawicki, Kacper; Czarnecka, Małgorzata; Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February). The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 - 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 - 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method), three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3) and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  6. Pulsation properties of Mira long period variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    A matter of great interest to variable star students concerns the mode of pulsation of Mira long period variables. In this report we first give observational evidence for the pulsation constant Q. We then compare the observations with calculations. Next, we review two interesting groups of papers dealing with hydrodynamic properties of long period variables. In the first, a fully dynamic nonlinear calculation maps out the Mira instability domain. In the second, special attention is paid to shock propagation beyond the photosphere which in large measure accounts for the complex spectra from this region. (orig./WL)

  7. Dynamical and biogeochemical control on the decadal variability of ocean carbon fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Séférian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several recent observation-based studies suggest that ocean anthropogenic carbon uptake has slowed down due to the impact of anthropogenic forced climate change. However, it remains unclear whether detected changes over the recent time period can be attributed to anthropogenic climate change or rather to natural climate variability (internal plus naturally forced variability alone. One large uncertainty arises from the lack of knowledge on ocean carbon flux natural variability at the decadal time scales. To gain more insights into decadal time scales, we have examined the internal variability of ocean carbon fluxes in a 1000 yr long preindustrial simulation performed with the Earth System Model IPSL-CM5A-LR. Our analysis shows that ocean carbon fluxes exhibit low-frequency oscillations that emerge from their year-to-year variability in the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, and the Southern Ocean. In our model, a 20 yr mode of variability in the North Atlantic air-sea carbon flux is driven by sea surface temperature variability and accounts for ~40% of the interannual regional variance. The North Pacific and the Southern Ocean carbon fluxes are also characterised by decadal to multi-decadal modes of variability (10 to 50 yr that account for 20–40% of the interannual regional variance. These modes are driven by the vertical supply of dissolved inorganic carbon through the variability of Ekman-induced upwelling and deep-mixing events. Differences in drivers of regional modes of variability stem from the coupling between ocean dynamics variability and the ocean carbon distribution, which is set by large-scale secular ocean circulation.

  8. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  9. Socio-ecological Typologies for Understanding Adaptive Capacity of a Region to Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran Nair, S.; Preston, B. L.; King, A. W.; Mei, R.

    2015-12-01

    It is expected that the frequency and magnitude of extreme climatic events will increase in coming decades with an anticipated increase in losses from climate hazards. In the Gulf Coastal region of the United States, climate hazards/disasters are common including hurricanes, drought and flooding. However, the capacity to adapt to extreme climatic events varies across the region. This adaptive capacity is linked to the magnitude of the extreme event, exposed infrastructure, and the socio-economic conditions across the region. This study uses hierarchical clustering to quantitatively integrates regional socioeconomic and biophysical factors and develop socio-ecological typologies (SET). The biophysical factors include climatic and topographic variables, and the socio-economic variables include human capital, social capital and man-made resources (infrastructure) of the region. The types of the SET are independent variables in a statistical model of a regional variable of interest. The methodology was applied to US Gulf States to evaluate the social and biophysical determinants of the regional variation in social vulnerability and economic loss to climate hazards. The results show that the SET explains much of the regional variation in social vulnerability, effectively capturing its determinants. In addition, the SET also explains of the variability in economic loss to hazards across of the region. The approach can thus be used to prioritize adaptation strategies to reduce vulnerability and loss across the region.

  10. Regional and depth variability of porcine meniscal mechanical properties through biaxial testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, A; Hurtig, M B; Gordon, K D

    2015-01-01

    The menisci in the knee joint undergo complex loading in-vivo resulting in a multidirectional stress distribution. Extensive mechanical testing has been conducted to investigate the tissue properties of the knee meniscus, but the testing conditions do not replicate this complex loading regime. Biaxial testing involves loading tissue along two different directions simultaneously, which more accurately simulates physiologic loading conditions. The purpose of this study was to report mechanical properties of meniscal tissue resulting from biaxial testing, while simultaneously investigating regional variations in properties. Ten left, fresh porcine joints were obtained, and the medial and lateral menisci were harvested from each joint (twenty menisci total). Each menisci was divided into an anterior, middle and posterior region; and three slices (femoral, deep and tibial layers) were obtained from each region. Biaxial and constrained uniaxial testing was performed on each specimen, and Young's moduli were calculated from the resulting stress strain curves. Results illustrated significant differences in regional mechanical properties, with the medial anterior (Young's modulus (E)=11.14 ± 1.10 MPa), lateral anterior (E=11.54 ± 1.10 MPa) and lateral posterior (E=9.0 ± 1.2 MPa) regions exhibiting the highest properties compared to the medial central (E=5.0 ± 1.22 MPa), medial posterior (E=4.16 ± 1.13 MPa) and lateral central (E=5.6 ± 1.20 MPa) regions. Differences with depth were also significant on the lateral meniscus, with the femoral (E=12.7 ± 1.22 MPa) and tibial (E=8.6 ± 1.22 MPa) layers exhibiting the highest Young's moduli. This data may form the basis for future modeling of meniscal tissue, or may aid in the design of synthetic replacement alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ensemble-based Regional Climate Prediction: Political Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, E.; Dykema, J.; Satyanath, S.; Anderson, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate forecasts of regional climate, including temperature and precipitation, have significant implications for human activities, not just economically but socially. Sub Saharan Africa is a region that has displayed an exceptional propensity for devastating civil wars. Recent research in political economy has revealed a strong statistical relationship between year to year fluctuations in precipitation and civil conflict in this region in the 1980s and 1990s. To investigate how climate change may modify the regional risk of civil conflict in the future requires a probabilistic regional forecast that explicitly accounts for the community's uncertainty in the evolution of rainfall under anthropogenic forcing. We approach the regional climate prediction aspect of this question through the application of a recently demonstrated method called generalized scalar prediction (Leroy et al. 2009), which predicts arbitrary scalar quantities of the climate system. This prediction method can predict change in any variable or linear combination of variables of the climate system averaged over a wide range spatial scales, from regional to hemispheric to global. Generalized scalar prediction utilizes an ensemble of model predictions to represent the community's uncertainty range in climate modeling in combination with a timeseries of any type of observational data that exhibits sensitivity to the scalar of interest. It is not necessary to prioritize models in deriving with the final prediction. We present the results of the application of generalized scalar prediction for regional forecasts of temperature and precipitation and Sub Saharan Africa. We utilize the climate predictions along with the established statistical relationship between year-to-year rainfall variability in Sub Saharan Africa to investigate the potential impact of climate change on civil conflict within that region.

  12. Wind speed change regionalization in China (1961–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jun Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research quantitatively recognized the wind speed change using wind speed trend and trend of wind speed variability from 1961 to 2012 and regionalized the wind speed change on a county-level basis. The mean wind speed observation data and linear fitting method were used. The findings suggested that level-I regionalization includes six zones according to wind speed trend value in different regions, viz. Northeast China–North China substantial declining zone, East–Central China declining zone, Southeast China slightly declining zone, Southwest China very slightly declining zone, Northwest China declining zone, and Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau slightly declining zone. Level-II regionalization divides China into twelve regions based on trend of wind speed variability and the level-I regionalization results.

  13. Idiotypes as immunogens: facing the challenge of inducing strong therapeutic immune responses against the variable region of immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Requena, Alejandro; Burrone, Oscar R.; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Idiotype (Id)-based immunotherapy has been exploited as cancer treatment option. Conceived as therapy for malignancies bearing idiotypic antigens, it has been also extended to solid tumors because of the capacity of anti-idiotypic antibodies to mimic Id-unrelated antigens. In both these two settings, efforts are being made to overcome the poor immune responsiveness often experienced when using self immunoglobulins as immunogens. Despite bearing a unique gene combination, and thus particular epitopes, it is normally difficult to stimulate the immune response against antibody variable regions. Different strategies are currently used to strengthen Id immunogenicity, such as concomitant use of immune-stimulating molecules, design of Id-containing immunogenic recombinant proteins, specific targeting of relevant immune cells, and genetic immunization. This review focuses on the role of anti-Id vaccination in cancer management and on the current developments used to foster anti-idiotypic B and T cell responses.

  14. Idiotypes as immunogens: facing the challenge of inducing strong therapeutic immune responses against the variable region of immunoglobulins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Requena, Alejandro [Molecular Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy); Immunobiology Division, Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana (Cuba); Bioengineering Research Institute, Biotech Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Beijing (China); Burrone, Oscar R.; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela, E-mail: cescogaspere@gmail.com [Molecular Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-11-09

    Idiotype (Id)-based immunotherapy has been exploited as cancer treatment option. Conceived as therapy for malignancies bearing idiotypic antigens, it has been also extended to solid tumors because of the capacity of anti-idiotypic antibodies to mimic Id-unrelated antigens. In both these two settings, efforts are being made to overcome the poor immune responsiveness often experienced when using self immunoglobulins as immunogens. Despite bearing a unique gene combination, and thus particular epitopes, it is normally difficult to stimulate the immune response against antibody variable regions. Different strategies are currently used to strengthen Id immunogenicity, such as concomitant use of immune-stimulating molecules, design of Id-containing immunogenic recombinant proteins, specific targeting of relevant immune cells, and genetic immunization. This review focuses on the role of anti-Id vaccination in cancer management and on the current developments used to foster anti-idiotypic B and T cell responses.

  15. Gastroesophageal Variceal Filling and Drainage Pathways: An Angiographic Description of Afferent and Efferent Venous Anatomic Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron C Gaba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Varices commonly occur in liver cirrhosis patients and are classified as esophageal (EV, gastroesophageal (GEV, or isolated gastric (IGV varices. These vessels may be supplied and drained by several different afferent and efferent pathways. A working knowledge of variceal anatomy is imperative for Interventional Radiologists performing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and embolization/obliteration procedures. This pictorial essay characterizes the angiographic anatomy of varices in terms of type and frequency of venous filling and drainage, showing that different varices have distinct vascular anatomy. EVs typically show left gastric vein filling and “uphill” drainage, and GEVs and IGVs exhibit additional posterior/short gastric vein contribution and “downhill” outflow. An understanding of these variceal filling and drainage pathways can facilitate successful portal decompression and embolization/obliteration procedures.

  16. Regional climate services: A regional partnership between NOAA and USDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate services in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions have been enhanced by a recent addition of the USDA Climate Hubs to NOAA’s existing network of partners. This new partnership stems from the intrinsic variability of intra and inter-annual climatic conditions, which makes decision-making fo...

  17. Altered phenotypic expression of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region (VH) genes in Alicia rabbits probably reflects a small deletion in the VH genes closest to the joining region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrucci, M; Newman, B A; Young-Cooper, G O; Alexander, C B; Meier, D; Kelus, A S; Mage, R G

    1990-07-01

    Rabbits of the Alicia strain have a mutation (ali) that segregates with the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (lgh) locus and has a cis effect upon the expression of heavy-chain variable-region (VH) genes encoding the a2 allotype. In heterozygous a1/ali or a3/ali rabbits, serum immunoglobulins are almost entirely the products of the normal a1 or a3 allele and only traces of a2 immunoglobulin are detectable. Adult homozygous ali/ali rabbits likewise have normal immunoglobulin levels resulting from increased production of a-negative immunoglobulins and some residual ability to produce the a2 allotype. By contrast, the majority of the immunoglobulins of wild-type a2 rabbits are a2-positive and only a small percentage are a-negative. Genomic DNAs from homozygous mutant and wild-type animals were indistinguishable by Southern analyses using a variety of restriction enzyme digests and lgh probes. However, when digests with infrequently cutting enzymes were analyzed by transverse alternating-field electrophoresis, the ali DNA fragments were 10-15 kilobases smaller than the wild type. These fragments hybridized to probes both for VH and for a region of DNA a few kilobases downstream of the VH genes nearest the joining region. We suggest that this relatively small deletion affects a segment containing 3' VH genes with important regulatory functions, the loss of which leads to the ali phenotype. These results, and the fact that the 3' VH genes rearrange early in B-cell development, indicate that the 3' end of the VH locus probably plays a key role in regulation of VH gene expression.

  18. The double tragedy of agriculture vulnerability to climate variability in Africa: How vulnerable is smallholder agriculture to rainfall variability in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel K. Derbile

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analysed vulnerability of smallholder agriculture to climate variability, particularly the alternating incidences of drought and heavy precipitation events in Ghana. Although there is an unmet need for understanding the linkages between climate change and livelihoods, the urgent need for climate change adaptation planning (CCAP in response to climate change makes vulnerability assessment even more compelling in development research. The data for analysis were collected from two complementary studies. These included a regional survey in the Upper West Region and an in-depth study in three selected communities in the Sissala East District. The results showed that smallholder agriculture is significantly vulnerable to climate variability in the region and that three layers of vulnerability can be identified in a ladder of vulnerability. Firstly, farmers are confronted with the double tragedy of droughts and heavy precipitation events, which adversely affect both crops and livestock. Secondly, farmers have to decide on crops for adaptation, but each option – whether indigenous crops, new early-maturing crops or genetically modified crops – predisposes farmers to a different set of risks. Finally, the overall impact is a higher-level vulnerability, namely the risk of total livelihood failure and food insecurity. The article recommended CCAP and an endogenous development (ED approach to addressing agriculture vulnerability to climate variability within the framework of decentralisation and local governance in Ghana. Keywords: Climate variability; agriculture; vulnerability; endogenous development; Ghana

  19. Diversity and structure of microcrustacean assemblages (Cladocera and Copepoda and limnological variability in perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadson R. Simões

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary wetlands undergo recurrent drought due to the scarcity of water, which disrupts the hydrological connectivity with adjacent aquatic systems. However, some environments retain water for longer periods, allowing greater persistence of the community. The current study evaluated differences in the microcrustacean assemblages and limnological variability between perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The abiotic features (water temperature, pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity and depth of intermittent pools were affected more than perennial pools due to loss of water volume. This may have contributed to a higher average richness and diversity index in some intermittent pools and differences in the structure of the assemblages. The lowest species richness and diversity were recorded where physical factors, such as a large quantity of suspended solids and variability in the electrical conductivity of the water and pH, make the environment unsuitable for these organisms. These results suggest that community development in intermittent pools is interrupted by the dry season; when the water returns, due to rainfall or rising groundwater, each pond undergoes a different process of colonization. In these circumstances, the biological importance of temporary aquatic environments is clear, since such pools provide shelters and have an important role in the maintenance of the regional diversity of aquatic environments.

  20. E-Business, the impact of regional growth on the improvement of Information and Communication Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, MI; Hasyim, C.; Kurniasih, N.; Abdullah, D.; Napitupulu, D.; Rahim, R.; Sukoco, A.; Dhaniarti, I.; Suyono, J.; Sudapet, IN; Nasihien, RD; Wulandari, DAR; Reswanda; Mudjanarko, SW; Sugeng; Wajdi, MBN

    2018-04-01

    ICT becomes a key element to improve industrial infrastructure efficiency and sustainable economic productivity. This study aims to analysis the impact of regional improvement on information and communication development in Indonesia. This research is a correlational study. Population of this research include 151 regions in Indonesia. By using a total sampling, there were 151 sample regions. The results show there are the strong impact of regional growth on increasing Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) of information and communication. It can be seen from all regional improvement sub variables that have a high correlation in increasing GRDP of Information and Communication in Indonesia. Only two sub-variables that have low correlation to GRDP of Information and Communication variable i.e. GRDP of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (0.01) and GRDP of Mining and Quarrying (0.04). The correlation coefficient (R) is 0.981, means the variable of information and communication GRDP has a very strong correlation with regional growth variable. Thus the value of Adjusted R Square is 95.8%, means there are impact of regional growth variables in increasing GRDPof Information and Communication, while the increase of 4.2% of Information and Communication GRDP is influenced by other factors aside from regional improvement.

  1. Accounting for inter-annual and seasonal variability in regionalization of hydrologic response in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kult, J. M.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Methods for predicting streamflow in areas with limited or nonexistent measures of hydrologic response typically invoke the concept of regionalization, whereby knowledge pertaining to gauged catchments is transferred to ungauged catchments. In this study, we identify watershed physical characteristics acting as primary drivers of hydrologic response throughout the US portion of the Great Lakes basin. Relationships between watershed physical characteristics and hydrologic response are generated from 166 catchments spanning a variety of climate, soil, land cover, and land form regimes through regression tree analysis, leading to a grouping of watersheds exhibiting similar hydrologic response characteristics. These groupings are then used to predict response in ungauged watersheds in an uncertainty framework. Results from this method are assessed alongside one historical regionalization approach which, while simple, has served as a cornerstone of Great Lakes regional hydrologic research for several decades. Our approach expands upon previous research by considering multiple temporal characterizations of hydrologic response. Due to the substantial inter-annual and seasonal variability in hydrologic response observed over the Great Lakes basin, results from the regression tree analysis differ considerably depending on the level of temporal aggregation used to define the response. Specifically, higher levels of temporal aggregation for the response metric (for example, indices derived from long-term means of climate and streamflow observations) lead to improved watershed groupings with lower within-group variance. However, this perceived improvement in model skill occurs at the cost of understated uncertainty when applying the regression to time series simulations or as a basis for model calibration. In such cases, our results indicate that predictions based on long-term characterizations of hydrologic response can produce misleading conclusions when applied at shorter

  2. Region-to-area screening methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Crystalline Repository Project's (CRP) process for region-to-area screening of exposed and near-surface crystalline rock bodies in the three regions of the conterminous United States where crystalline rock is being evaluated as a potential host for the second nuclear waste repository (i.e., in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions). This document indicates how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960) were used to select and apply factors and variables for the region-to-area screening, explains how these factors and variable are to be applied in the region-to-area screening, and indicates how this methodology relates to the decision process leading to the selection of candidate areas. A brief general discussion of the screening process from the national survey through area screening and site recommendation is presented. This discussion sets the scene for detailed discussions which follow concerning the region-to-area screening process, the guidance provided by the DOE Siting Guidelines for establishing disqualifying factors and variables for screening, and application of the disqualifying factors and variables in the screening process. This document is complementary to the regional geologic and environmental characterization reports to be issued in the summer of 1985 as final documents. These reports will contain the geologic and environmental data base that will be used in conjunction with the methodology to conduct region-to-area screening

  3. Pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene climate variability in the Eifel region evaluated with stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Norbert; Moschen, Robert; Wagner, Stefanie

    2010-05-01

    Pollen as well as stable isotopes have great potential as climate proxy data. While variability in these proxy data is frequently assumed to reflect climate variability, other factors than climate, including human impact and statistical noise, can often not be excluded as primary cause for the observed variability. Multiproxy studies offer the opportunity to test different drivers by providing different lines of evidence for environmental change such as climate variability and human impact. In this multiproxy study we use pollen and peat humification to evaluate to which extent stable oxygen and carbon isotope series from the peat bog "Dürres Maar" reflect human impact rather than climate variability. For times before strong anthropogenic vegetation change, isotope series from Dürres Maar were used to validate quantitative reconstructions based on pollen. Our study site is the kettle hole peat bog "Dürres Maar" in the Eifel low mountain range, Germany (450m asl), which grew 12m during the last 10,000 years. Pollen was analysed with a sum of at least 1000 terrestrial pollen grains throughout the profile to minimize statistical effects on the reconstructions. A recently developed probabilistic indicator taxa method ("pdf-method") was used for the quantitative climate estimates (January and July temperature) based on pollen. For isotope analysis, attention was given to use monospecific Sphagnum leaves whenever possible, reducing the potential of a species effect and any potential artefact that can originate from selective degradation of different morphological parts of Sphagnum plants (Moschen et al., 2009). Pollen at "Dürres Maar" reflect the variable and partly strong human impact on vegetation during the last 4000 years. Stable isotope time series were apparently not influenced by human impact at this site. This highlights the potential of stable isotope investigations from peat for climatic interpretation, because stable isotope series from lacustrine

  4. Long-Term Variability of Surface Albedo and Its Correlation with Climatic Variables over Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minji Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The cryosphere is an essential part of the earth system for understanding climate change. Components of the cryosphere, such as ice sheets and sea ice, are generally decreasing over time. However, previous studies have indicated differing trends between the Antarctic and the Arctic. The South Pole also shows internal differences in trends. These phenomena indicate the importance of continuous observation of the Polar Regions. Albedo is a main indicator for analyzing Antarctic climate change and is an important variable with regard to the radiation budget because it can provide positive feedback on polar warming and is related to net radiation and atmospheric heating in the mainly snow- and ice-covered Antarctic. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed long-term temporal and spatial variability of albedo and investigated the interrelationships between albedo and climatic variables over Antarctica. We used broadband surface albedo data from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring and data for several climatic variables such as temperature and Antarctic oscillation index (AAO during the period of 1983 to 2009. Time series analysis and correlation analysis were performed through linear regression using albedo and climatic variables. The results of this research indicated that albedo shows two trends, west trend and an east trend, over Antarctica. Most of the western side of Antarctica showed a negative trend of albedo (about −0.0007 to −0.0015 year−1, but the other side showed a positive trend (about 0.0006 year−1. In addition, albedo and surface temperature had a negative correlation, but this relationship was weaker in west Antarctica than in east Antarctica. The correlation between albedo and AAO revealed different relationships in the two regions; west Antarctica had a negative correlation and east Antarctica showed a positive correlation. In addition, the correlation between albedo and AAO was weaker in the west. This

  5. Terrestrial climate variability and seasonality changes in the Mediterranean region between 15 000 and 4000 years BP deduced from marine pollen records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dormoy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollen-based climate reconstructions were performed on two high-resolution pollen marines cores from the Alboran and Aegean Seas in order to unravel the climatic variability in the coastal settings of the Mediterranean region between 15 000 and 4000 years BP (the Lateglacial, and early to mid-Holocene. The quantitative climate reconstructions for the Alboran and Aegean Sea records focus mainly on the reconstruction of the seasonality changes (temperatures and precipitation, a crucial parameter in the Mediterranean region. This study is based on a multi-method approach comprising 3 methods: the Modern Analogues Technique (MAT, the recent Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling/Generalized Additive Model method (NMDS/GAM and Partial Least Squares regression (PLS. The climate signal inferred from this comparative approach confirms that cold and dry conditions prevailed in the Mediterranean region during the Oldest and Younger Dryas periods, while temperate conditions prevailed during the Bølling/Allerød and the Holocene. Our records suggest a West/East gradient of decreasing precipitation across the Mediterranean region during the cooler Late-glacial and early Holocene periods, similar to present-day conditions. Winter precipitation was highest during warm intervals and lowest during cooling phases. Several short-lived cool intervals (i.e. Older Dryas, another oscillation after this one (GI-1c2, Gerzensee/Preboreal Oscillations, 8.2 ka event, Bond events connected to the North Atlantic climate system are documented in the Alboran and Aegean Sea records indicating that the climate oscillations associated with the successive steps of the deglaciation in the North Atlantic area occurred in both the western and eastern Mediterranean regions. This observation confirms the presence of strong climatic linkages between the North Atlantic and Mediterranean regions.

  6. The VALUE perfect predictor experiment: evaluation of temporal variability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maraun, D.; Huth, Radan; Gutiérrez, J. M.; Martín, D. S.; Dubrovský, Martin; Fischer, A.; Hertig, E.; Soares, S. M. M.; Bartholy, J.; Pongrácz, R.; Widmann, M.; Casado, M. J.; Ramos, P.; Bedia, J.

    (2017) ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12029 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : regional climate * downscaling * evaluation * validation * temporal variability * spells * interannual variability * long-term trends Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.5222/abstract

  7. Mediterranean climate modelling: variability and climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, S.

    2005-12-01

    Air-sea fluxes, open-sea deep convection and cyclo-genesis are studied in the Mediterranean with the development of a regional coupled model (AORCM). It accurately simulates these processes and their climate variabilities are quantified and studied. The regional coupling shows a significant impact on the number of winter intense cyclo-genesis as well as on associated air-sea fluxes and precipitation. A lower inter-annual variability than in non-coupled models is simulated for fluxes and deep convection. The feedbacks driving this variability are understood. The climate change response is then analysed for the 21. century with the non-coupled models: cyclo-genesis decreases, associated precipitation increases in spring and autumn and decreases in summer. Moreover, a warming and salting of the Mediterranean as well as a strong weakening of its thermohaline circulation occur. This study also concludes with the necessity of using AORCMs to assess climate change impacts on the Mediterranean. (author)

  8. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets....... There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local...

  9. Variability or conservation of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the E2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly heterogeneous in its primary sequence and is responsible for significant inter- and intra-individual variation of the infecting virus, which may represent an important pathogenetic mechanism leading to immune escape and persistent ...

  10. Modulation of extremes in the Atlantic region by modes of climate variability/change: A mechanistic coupled regional model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, Ramalingam [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-01-09

    During the course of this project, we have accomplished the following: 1) Explored the parameter space of component models to minimize regional model bias 2) Assessed the impact of air-sea interaction on hurricanes, focusing in particular on the role of the oceanic barrier layer 3) Contributed to the activities of the U.S. CLIVAR Hurricane Working Group 4) Assessed the impact of lateral and lower boundary conditions on extreme flooding events in the U.S. Midwest in regional model simulations 5) Analyzed the concurrent impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Atlantic Meridional Mode on Atlantic Hurricane activity using observations and regional model simulations

  11. Landscape and Residential Variables Associated with Plague-Endemic Villages in the West Nile Region of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Katherine; Enscore, Russell E.; Ogen-Odoi, Asaph; Borchert, Jeff N.; Babi, Nackson; Amatre, Gerald; Atiku, Linda A.; Mead, Paul S.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, is a severe, often fatal disease. This study focuses on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda, where limited information is available regarding environmental and behavioral risk factors associated with plague infection. We conducted observational surveys of 10 randomly selected huts within historically classified case and control villages (four each) two times during the dry season of 2006 (N = 78 case huts and N = 80 control huts), which immediately preceded a large plague outbreak. By coupling a previously published landscape-level statistical model of plague risk with this observational survey, we were able to identify potential residence-based risk factors for plague associated with huts within historic case or control villages (e.g., distance to neighboring homestead and presence of pigs near the home) and huts within areas previously predicted as elevated risk or low risk (e.g., corn and other annual crops grown near the home, water storage in the home, and processed commercial foods stored in the home). The identified variables are consistent with current ecologic theories on plague transmission dynamics. This preliminary study serves as a foundation for future case control studies in the area. PMID:21363983

  12. Long-Term Variability of UV Irradiance in the Moscow Region according to Measurement and Modeling Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, N. E.; Pastukhova, A. S.; Galin, V. Ya.; Smyshlyaev, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    We have found distinct long-period changes in erythemal UV radiation ( Q er) characterized by a pronounced decrease at the end of the 1970s and a statistically significant positive trend of more than 5%/10 years since 1979 over the territory of the Moscow region according to the measurements and reconstruction model. The positive Q er trend is shown to be associated mainly with a decrease in the effective cloud amount and total ozone content (TOC). Due to these variations, UV resources have significantly changed in spring for the population with the most vulnerable skin type I, which means a transition from the UV optimum to UV moderate excess conditions. The simulation experiments using the INM-RSHU chemistry climate model (CCM) for several scenarios with and without anthropogenic factors have revealed that the variations in the anthropogenic emissions of halogens have the most significant impact on the variability of TOC and Q er. Among natural factors, noticeable effects are observed due to volcanic aerosol. The calculations of the cloud transmittance of Q er are generally consistent with the measurements; however, they do not reproduce the observed value of the positive trend.

  13. Source Regions of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Variability in Heavy-Ion Elemental Composition in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Dietrich, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events are those in which ions are accelerated to their observed energies by interactions with a shock driven by a fast coronal mass-ejection (CME). Previous studies have shown that much of the observed event-to-event variability can be understood in terms of shock speed and evolution in the shock-normal angle. But an equally important factor, particularly for the elemental composition, is the origin of the suprathermal seed particles upon which the shock acts. To tackle this issue, we (1) use observed solar-wind speed, magnetograms, and the PFSS model to map the Sun-L1 interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line back to its source region on the Sun at the time of the SEP observations; and (2) then look for correlation between SEP composition (as measured by Wind and ACE at approx. 2-30 MeV/nucleon) and characteristics of the identified IMF-source regions. The study is based on 24 SEP events, identified as a statistically-significant increase in approx. 20 MeV protons and occurring in 1998 and 2003-2006, when the rate of newly-emergent solar magnetic flux and CMEs was lower than in solar-maximum years and the field-line tracing is therefore more likely to be successful. We find that the gradual SEP Fe/O is correlated with the field strength at the IMF-source, with the largest enhancements occurring when the footpoint field is strong, due to the nearby presence of an active region. In these cases, other elemental ratios show a strong charge-to-mass (q/M) ordering, at least on average, similar to that found in impulsive events. These results lead us to suggest that magnetic reconnection in footpoint regions near active regions bias the heavy-ion composition of suprathermal seed ions by processes qualitatively similar to those that produce larger heavy-ion enhancements in impulsive SEP events. To address potential technical concerns about our analysis, we also discuss efforts to exclude impulsive SEP events from our event sample.

  14. Socioeconomic determinants of fertility: selected Mexican regions, 1976-1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, J B; Butler, E W; Pavgi, S

    1988-01-01

    Cumulative fertility is analyzed for 4 regions of Mexico, based on World Fertility Survey data of 1976-77; the state of Baja California, the Northwest region, the State of Jalisco, and the Northeast region. Based on stepwise regression methodology, the study compares results for 12 subsamples of married respondents, 3 age categories by 4 regions. The dependent variables are children ever born and children ever born in the last 5 years. Migration, urban, educational, and occupational variables are included as independent variables. Regression results reveal level of education is the major, and negative, influence on fertility. Other results include specific negative effects for prior occupation, size of place of residence, and childhood place of residence. Fertility effects appear different for migration origin and destination regions, but more similar for younger ages. Effects of migration on fertility are small. Mean fertility as measured by children ever born was 4.34 for the 1976-77 World Fertility Survey samples versus 3.69 for the Mexican census of 1980. Fertility varied somewhat by region with the highest and lowest values in Jalisco and the Northeast, respectively. Expected age-related changes in fertility were noted.

  15. Revised draft: Northeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northeastern and southeastern New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, northern New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wildlife lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  16. Revised draft: Southeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wild-life lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  17. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the States within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposd Federal-protected lands, components of National Forest Lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, existing State-protected lands, proximity to State-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, or to 1-mile-square areas with 1000 or more persons, national and State forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  18. Paleolimnological reconstruction of environmental variability during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in the south-east Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kublitskiy, Iurii; Subetto, Dmitriy; Druzhinina, Olga; Kulkova, Marianna; Arslanov, Khikmatula

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of our research is the high-resolution reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes in SE Baltic region since the Last Glacial Maximum by palaeolimnological data. The 6 objects - lakes and peat-bogs, were studied since 2009 in the Kaliningrad region, Russian Federation. According to palaeolimnological studies of bottom sediments of the Kamyshovoe Lake (N 54°22,6`; E22°42,8`, 189 m a.s.l.), located in the Vishtynets Highland, the south-east part of Kaliningrad district, the environmental and climatic changes after the late glacial have been reconstructed. At that moment the radiocarbon and loss-on-ignition (LOI) data, geochemistry and diatom analysis for the whole sediment core, and pollen analyze for the bottom part of the core have been completed. According to the pollen data the Alleröd interstadial starts at 13 200 cal. yrs BP and is marked by the rising of birch and pine pollen. The transition to the Younger Dryas around 12 700 cal. yrs BP corresponds with the development of patches of shrublands in which light-demanding species, such as juniper, flourished and communities of steppe herbs. The late Preboreal is marked by the appearance of Populus and an increase of the role of grasses in the vegetation cover 11 300-11 100 cal. yrs BP (Druzinina et al., 2015). The Holocene climatic zones have been identified by LOI and geochemistry analyses. The Boreal period started about 10 200 cal. yrs BP, Atlantic around 9100 cal. yrs BP, Subboreal 5800 cal. yrs BP, and Subatlantic 3200 cal. yrs BP (Kublitskiy et al., 2015). During the conference the new palaeolimnological data of environmental variability during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in SE Baltic region will be presented. Acknowledgements The investigations have been granted by the Russian Fund for Basic Research (12-05-33013, 13-05-41457, 15-35-50721). References Druzhinina, O., Subetto, D., Stančikaitė, M., Vaikutienė, G., Kublitsky, J., Arslanov, Kh., 2015. Sediment record from the

  19. Spatiotemporal Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterisation of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Based on the VP2 Hyper-Variable Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious and acute viral disease caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV; it affects all major poultry producing areas of the world. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the global phylogeographic dynamics of IBDV strains to gain insight into viral population expansion as well as the emergence, spread and pattern of the geographical structure of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV strains.Sequences of the hyper-variable region of the VP2 (HVR-VP2 gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. All sequences were analysed by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis, implemented in the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST, Bayesian Tip-association Significance testing (BaTS and Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics (SPREAD software packages. Selection pressure on the HVR-VP2 was also assessed. The phylogeographic association-trait analysis showed that viruses sampled from individual countries tend to cluster together, suggesting a geographic pattern for IBDV strains. Spatial analysis from this study revealed that strains carrying sequences that were linked to increased virulence of IBDV appeared in Iran in 1981 and spread to Western Europe (Belgium in 1987, Africa (Egypt around 1990, East Asia (China and Japan in 1993, the Caribbean Region (Cuba by 1995 and South America (Brazil around 2000. Selection pressure analysis showed that several codons in the HVR-VP2 region were under purifying selection.To our knowledge, this work is the first study applying the Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction approach to analyse the emergence and spread of vvIBDV strains worldwide.

  20. Spatiotemporal Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterisation of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Based on the VP2 Hyper-Variable Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Morales, Abdulahi; Martínez-Pérez, Orlando; Dolz, Roser; Valle, Rosa; Perera, Carmen L; Bertran, Kateri; Frías, Maria T; Majó, Natàlia; Ganges, Llilianne; Pérez, Lester J

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious and acute viral disease caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV); it affects all major poultry producing areas of the world. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the global phylogeographic dynamics of IBDV strains to gain insight into viral population expansion as well as the emergence, spread and pattern of the geographical structure of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strains. Sequences of the hyper-variable region of the VP2 (HVR-VP2) gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. All sequences were analysed by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis, implemented in the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST), Bayesian Tip-association Significance testing (BaTS) and Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics (SPREAD) software packages. Selection pressure on the HVR-VP2 was also assessed. The phylogeographic association-trait analysis showed that viruses sampled from individual countries tend to cluster together, suggesting a geographic pattern for IBDV strains. Spatial analysis from this study revealed that strains carrying sequences that were linked to increased virulence of IBDV appeared in Iran in 1981 and spread to Western Europe (Belgium) in 1987, Africa (Egypt) around 1990, East Asia (China and Japan) in 1993, the Caribbean Region (Cuba) by 1995 and South America (Brazil) around 2000. Selection pressure analysis showed that several codons in the HVR-VP2 region were under purifying selection. To our knowledge, this work is the first study applying the Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction approach to analyse the emergence and spread of vvIBDV strains worldwide.

  1. Wind and load variability in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Rissanen, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Larsen, X. [Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Lyngby (Denmark); Loevholm, A. L. [Kjeller Vindteknikk (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    This publication analysed the variability of wind production and load in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the Nordic region as a whole, based on real data measured from large-scale wind power during 2009-2011. The Nordic-wide wind power time series was scaled up such that Sweden had same amount of wind power production than Denmark, and Finland and Norway only 50% of the wind power production in Denmark. Wind power production in Denmark and Sweden is somewhat correlated (coefficient 0.7) but less correlation is found between the other countries. The variations from one hour to the next are only weakly correlated between all countries, even between Denmark and Sweden. Largest variations occur when the production is approximately 30-70% of installed capacity and variability is low during periods of light winds. The variability in shorter time scales was less than the hourly variations. During the three years analysed in this publication there were few storm incidents and they did not produce dramatic wind power ramps in the Nordic region. Wind and load variations are not correlated between the countries, which is beneficial from the viewpoint of wind integration. The smoothing effect is shown as reduction of variability from a single country to Nordic-wide wind power. The impact of wind power on the variability that the system experiences is evaluated by analysing the variability of net load with different wind power penetration levels. The Nordic-wide wind power production increases the highest hourly ramps by 2.4% (up) and -3.6% (down) of installed wind power capacity when there is 20% wind power penetration and by 2.7% (up) and -4.7% (down) for 30% wind penetration. These results assess the impacts of variability only. The next step will be assessing the uncertainty from forecast errors. The timing of ramp events, and occurrence of high-wind and low-load are studied. With current wind penetration, low production levels (2-5% of installed wind power) can occur in a

  2. Modelin the Transport and Chemical Evolution of Onshore and Offshore Emissions and Their Impact on Local and Regional Air Quality Using a Variable-Grid-Resolution Air Quality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel Hanna

    2008-10-16

    The overall objective of this research project was to develop an innovative modeling technique to adequately model the offshore/onshore transport of pollutants. The variable-grid modeling approach that was developed alleviates many of the shortcomings of the traditionally used nested regular-grid modeling approach, in particular related to biases near boundaries and the excessive computational requirements when using nested grids. The Gulf of Mexico region contiguous to the Houston-Galveston area and southern Louisiana was chosen as a test bed for the variable-grid modeling approach. In addition to the onshore high pollution emissions from various sources in those areas, emissions from on-shore and off-shore oil and gas exploration and production are additional sources of air pollution. We identified case studies for which to perform meteorological and air quality model simulations. Our approach included developing and evaluating the meteorological, emissions, and chemistry-transport modeling components for the variable-grid applications, with special focus on the geographic areas where the finest grid resolution was used. We evaluated the performance of two atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) schemes, and identified the best-performing scheme for simulating mesoscale circulations for different grid resolutions. Use of a newly developed surface data assimilation scheme resulted in improved meteorological model simulations. We also successfully ingested satellite-derived sea surface temperatures (SSTs) into the meteorological model simulations, leading to further improvements in simulated wind, temperature, and moisture fields. These improved meteorological fields were important for variable-grid simulations, especially related to capturing the land-sea breeze circulations that are critical for modeling offshore/onshore transport of pollutants in the Gulf region. We developed SMOKE-VGR, the variable-grid version of the SMOKE emissions processing model, and tested and

  3. Revised draft: North Central Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wildlife lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  4. Precipitation variability increases in a warmer climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Angeline G; Knutti, Reto; Lehner, Flavio; Deser, Clara; Sanderson, Benjamin M

    2017-12-21

    Understanding changes in precipitation variability is essential for a complete explanation of the hydrologic cycle's response to warming and its impacts. While changes in mean and extreme precipitation have been studied intensively, precipitation variability has received less attention, despite its theoretical and practical importance. Here, we show that precipitation variability in most climate models increases over a majority of global land area in response to warming (66% of land has a robust increase in variability of seasonal-mean precipitation). Comparing recent decades to RCP8.5 projections for the end of the 21 st century, we find that in the global, multi-model mean, precipitation variability increases 3-4% K -1 globally, 4-5% K -1 over land and 2-4% K -1 over ocean, and is remarkably robust on a range of timescales from daily to decadal. Precipitation variability increases by at least as much as mean precipitation and less than moisture and extreme precipitation for most models, regions, and timescales. We interpret this as being related to an increase in moisture which is partially mitigated by weakening circulation. We show that changes in observed daily variability in station data are consistent with increased variability.

  5. Seasonal Variability in Regional Ice Flow Due to Meltwater Injection Into the Shear Margins of Jakobshavn Isbræ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, J. P.; Lampkin, D. J.; Moon, T.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of meltwater injection into the shear margins of Jakobshavn Isbræ via drainage from water-filled crevasses on ice flow is examined. We use Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager panchromatic, high-resolution imagery to monitor the spatiotemporal variability of seven water-filled crevasse ponds during the summers of 2013 to 2015. The timing of drainage from water-filled crevasses coincides with an increase of 2 to 20% in measured ice velocity beyond Jakobshavn Isbræ shear margins, which we define as extramarginal ice velocity. Some water-filled crevasse groups demonstrate multiple drainage events within a single melt season. Numerical simulations show that hydrologic shear weakening due to water-filled crevasse drainage can accelerate extramarginal flow by as much as 35% within 10 km of the margins and enhance mass flux through the shear margins by 12%. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism through which surface melt can influence regional ice flow.

  6. Variability in Labrador Sea Water formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderloos, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) transports of a large amount of heat towards the North Atlantic region. Since this circulation is considered to have shown pronounced variability in the past, and a weakening is projected for the 21st century, it is very important to understand

  7. Regional Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines KERSAN-ŠKABIĆ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the factors that infuence the unequal distribution of FDI infows and that foreign investors identify as signifcant in making investment decisions regarding Croatian regions. Panel data analysis was applied: static (random effects and dynam-ic analysis. The results show that positive and signifcant infuences on FDI have: education, infrastructure, the manufacturing industry, dum-my variables for areas of special state concern and capital city region, while negative statistically signifcant infuences are: unemployment and dummy variable for border regions with the EU. The basic conclusion is that FDI infows follow the development path of the Croatian regions (with the highlighted agglomeration effect and that efforts in creating preconditions for econom-ic growth will, at the same time, have an impact on attractiveness of a particular region for foreign investments.

  8. Variability patterns of Rossby wave source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Marilia Harumi; Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Iracema Fonseca de [National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC), Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    Rossby waves (RW) propagation due to a local forcing is one of the mechanisms responsible for wave trains configurations known as teleconnections. The term teleconnection refers to anomalies patterns that are correlated in several regions of the world, causing large-scale changes in atmospheric waves patterns and temperature and precipitation regimes. The aim of teleconnections studies is to provide a better understanding of atmospheric variability and their mechanisms of action in order to identify patterns that can be tracked and predicted. The purpose of this study was to characterize seasonal and spatial variability of atmospheric RW sources. The RW source at 200 hPa was calculated for the four seasons with reanalysis data of zonal and meridional wind. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the RW sources were located on East Asia, North America, North Atlantic and Pacific. The main RW sources in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) were located over Intertropical, South Pacific, South Atlantic and South Indian Convergence Zones. Extratropical regions were also identified, mainly to the south of Australia. The vortex stretching term (S1) and the advection of absolute vorticity by the divergent wind (S2) were analyzed to discuss the physical mechanisms for RW generation. In the NH, the source at East Asia in DJF changed to a sink in JJA, related to the dominance of S1 term in DJF and S2 term in JJA. In the SH, the vortex stretching term had the dominant contribution for RW source located to the south of Australia. The main forcing for RW sources at east of Australia was the advection of absolute vorticity by divergent flow. Over South America, both terms contributed to the source in DJF. The main modes of RW source variability were discussed by using empirical orthogonal functions analysis. RW variability was characterized by wave trains configurations in both hemispheres over regions of jet streams and storm tracks, associated with favorable and unfavorable areas for RW

  9. Regional projection of climate impact indices over the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Ana; Frías, M.; Dolores; Herrera, Sixto; Bedia, Joaquín; San Martín, Daniel; Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Zaninovic, Ksenija

    2014-05-01

    Climate Impact Indices (CIIs) are being increasingly used in different socioeconomic sectors to transfer information about climate change impacts and risks to stakeholders. CIIs are typically based on different weather variables such as temperature, wind speed, precipitation or humidity and comprise, in a single index, the relevant meteorological information for the particular impact sector (in this study wildfires and tourism). This dependence on several climate variables poses important limitations to the application of statistical downscaling techniques, since physical consistency among variables is required in most cases to obtain reliable local projections. The present study assesses the suitability of the "direct" downscaling approach, in which the downscaling method is directly applied to the CII. In particular, for illustrative purposes, we consider two popular indices used in the wildfire and tourism sectors, the Fire Weather Index (FWI) and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), respectively. As an example, two case studies are analysed over two representative Mediterranean regions of interest for the EU CLIM-RUN project: continental Spain for the FWI and Croatia for the PET. Results obtained with this "direct" downscaling approach are similar to those found from the application of the statistical downscaling to the individual meteorological drivers prior to the index calculation ("component" downscaling) thus, a wider range of statistical downscaling methods could be used. As an illustration, future changes in both indices are projected by applying two direct statistical downscaling methods, analogs and linear regression, to the ECHAM5 model. Larger differences were found between the two direct statistical downscaling approaches than between the direct and the component approaches with a single downscaling method. While these examples focus on particular indices and Mediterranean regions of interest for CLIM-RUN stakeholders, the same study

  10. Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland extent influence variability of surface water connectivity in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Alexander, Laurie C.; Todd, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Context. Quantifying variability in landscape-scale surface water connectivity can help improve our understanding of the multiple effects of wetlands on downstream waterways. Objectives. We examined how wetland merging and the coalescence of wetlands with streams varied both spatially (among ecoregions) and interannually (from drought to deluge) across parts of the Prairie Pothole Region. Methods. Wetland extent was derived over a time series (1990-2011) using Landsat imagery. Changes in landscape-scale connectivity, generated by the physical coalescence of wetlands with other surface water features, were quantified by fusing static wetland and stream datasets with Landsat-derived wetland extent maps, and related to multiple wetness indices. The usage of Landsat allows for decadal-scale analysis, but limits the types of surface water connections that can be detected. Results. Wetland extent correlated positively with the merging of wetlands and wetlands with streams. Wetness conditions, as defined by drought indices and runoff, were positively correlated with wetland extent, but less consistently correlated with measures of surface water connectivity. The degree of wetland-wetland merging was found to depend less on total wetland area or density, and more on climate conditions, as well as the threshold for how wetland/upland was defined. In contrast, the merging of wetlands with streams was positively correlated with stream density, and inversely related to wetland density. Conclusions. Characterizing the degree of surface water connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region in North America requires consideration of 1) climate-driven variation in wetness conditions and 2) within-region variation in wetland and stream spatial arrangements.

  11. Variability or conservation of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    in an agammaglobulinemic patient; Gastroenterology 10. 1072–1075. Lesniewsky R R, Boardway K M, Casey J M, Desai S M,. Devare S G and Leung T K 1993 Hypervariable region 5′- terminus of hepatitis C virus E2/NS1 encodes antigenically distinct variants; J. Med. Virol. 40 150–156. Li C, Candotti D and Allain J-P ...

  12. The Variable Regions of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Genomes Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Metabolic and Host-Adaptation Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceapa, Corina; Davids, Mark; Ritari, Jarmo; Lambert, Jolanda; Wels, Michiel; Douillard, François P; Smokvina, Tamara; de Vos, Willem M; Knol, Jan; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-07-02

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a diverse Gram-positive species with strains isolated from different ecological niches. Here, we report the genome sequence analysis of 40 diverse strains of L. rhamnosus and their genomic comparison, with a focus on the variable genome. Genomic comparison of 40 L. rhamnosus strains discriminated the conserved genes (core genome) and regions of plasticity involving frequent rearrangements and horizontal transfer (variome). The L. rhamnosus core genome encompasses 2,164 genes, out of 4,711 genes in total (the pan-genome). The accessory genome is dominated by genes encoding carbohydrate transport and metabolism, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) biosynthesis, bacteriocin production, pili production, the cas system, and the associated clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci, and more than 100 transporter functions and mobile genetic elements like phages, plasmid genes, and transposons. A clade distribution based on amino acid differences between core (shared) proteins matched with the clade distribution obtained from the presence-absence of variable genes. The phylogenetic and variome tree overlap indicated that frequent events of gene acquisition and loss dominated the evolutionary segregation of the strains within this species, which is paralleled by evolutionary diversification of core gene functions. The CRISPR-Cas system could have contributed to this evolutionary segregation. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains contain the genetic and metabolic machinery with strain-specific gene functions required to adapt to a large range of environments. A remarkable congruency of the evolutionary relatedness of the strains' core and variome functions, possibly favoring interspecies genetic exchanges, underlines the importance of gene-acquisition and loss within the L. rhamnosus strain diversification. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Coral based-ENSO/IOD related climate variability in Indonesia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudawati Cahyarini, Sri; Henrizan, Marfasran

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is located in the prominent site to study climate variability as it lies between Pacific and Indian Ocean. It has consequences to the regional climate in Indonesia that its climate variability is influenced by the climate events in the Pacific oceans (e.g. ENSO) and in the Indian ocean (e.g. IOD), and monsoon as well as Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Northwestern monsoon causes rainfall in the region of Indonesia, while reversely Southwestern monsoon causes dry season around Indonesia. The ENSO warm phase called El Nino causes several droughts in Indonesian region, reversely the La Nina causes flooding in some regions in Indonesia. However, the impact of ENSO in Indonesia is different from one place to the others. Having better understanding on the climate phenomenon and its impact to the region requires long time series climate data. Paleoclimate study which provides climate data back into hundreds to thousands even to million years overcome this requirement. Coral Sr/Ca can provide information on past sea surface temperature (SST) and paired Sr/Ca and δ18O may be used to reconstruct variations in the precipitation balance (salinity) at monthly to annual interannual resolution. Several climate studies based on coral geochemical records in Indonesia show that coral Sr/Ca and δ18O from Indonesian records SST and salinity respectively. Coral Sr/Ca from inshore Seribu islands complex shows more air temperature rather than SST. Modern coral from Timor shows the impact of ENSO and IOD to the saliniy and SST is different at Timor sea. This result should be taken into account when interpreting Paleoclimate records over Indonesia. Timor coral also shows more pronounced low frequency SST variability compared to the SST reanalysis (model). The longer data of low frequency variability will improve the understanding of warming trend in this climatically important region.

  14. A pathophysiologic, gastroenterologic, and radiologic approach to the management of gastric varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara M; Stockbrugger, Reinhold W; Ryan, J Mark

    2004-04-01

    Gastric varices (GV) occur in 20% of patients with portal hypertension either in isolation or in combination with esophageal varices (EV). There is no consensus for optimum treatment of GV and because they comprise an inhomogeneous entity, accurate classification is vital to determine the appropriate management. Gastroesophageal varices (GOV) are classified as GOV1 (EV extending down to cardia or lesser curve) or GOV2 (esophageal and fundal varices). Isolated gastric varices (IGV) may be located in the fundus (IGV1) or elsewhere in the stomach (IGV2). GV possibly bleed less frequently than EV, but GV bleeding is typically difficult to control, associated with a high risk for rebleeding, and high mortality. Fundal varices, large GV (>5 mm), presence of a red spot, and Child's C liver status are associated with a high risk for bleeding. GOV1 have a much lower risk for bleeding. A portosystemic pressure gradient of > or =12 mm Hg is not necessary for GV bleeding, probably related to the high frequency of spontaneous gastrorenal shunts in these patients. GOV1 should be treated as for EV. First-line treatment of bleeding fundal varices is endoscopic variceal obturation. TIPS is currently second-line acute treatment and is used for prevention of rebleeding. The role of some newer interventional radiologic techniques requires further appraisal. This review describes the pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural history, endoscopic, and interventional radiologic treatment options for GV.

  15. Laparoscopic management of totally intra-thoracic stomach with chronic volvulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toydemir, Toygar; Çipe, Gökhan; Karatepe, Oğuzhan; Yerdel, Mehmet Ali

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of intra-thoracic gastric volvulus (IGV) and to assess the preoperative work-up. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of patient medical records identified 14 patients who underwent a laparoscopic repair of IGV. The procedure included reduction of the stomach into the abdomen, total sac excision, reinforced hiatoplasty with mesh and construction of a partial fundoplication. All perioperative data, operative details and complications were recorded. All patients had at least 6 mo of follow-up. RESULTS: There were 4 male and 10 female patients. The mean age and the mean body mass index were 66 years and 28.7 kg/m2, respectively. All patients presented with epigastric discomfort and early satiety. There was no mortality, and none of the cases were converted to an open procedure. The mean operative time was 235 min, and the mean length of hospitalization was 2 d. There were no intraoperative complications. Four minor complications occurred in 3 patients including pleural effusion, subcutaneous emphysema, dysphagia and delayed gastric emptying. All minor complications resolved spontaneously without any intervention. During the mean follow-up of 29 mo, one patient had a radiological wrap herniation without volvulus. She remains symptom free with daily medication. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic management of IGV is a safe but technically demanding procedure. The best outcomes can be achieved in centers with extensive experience in minimally invasive esophageal surgery. PMID:24124329

  16. Interannual and spatial variability of maple syrup yield as related to climatic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sugar maple syrup production is an important economic activity for eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Since annual variations in syrup yield have been related to climate, there are concerns about the impacts of climatic change on the industry in the upcoming decades. Although the temporal variability of syrup yield has been studied for specific sites on different time scales or for large regions, a model capable of accounting for both temporal and regional differences in yield is still lacking. In the present study, we studied the factors responsible for interregional and interannual variability in maple syrup yield over the 2001–2012 period, by combining the data from 8 Quebec regions (Canada) and 10 U.S. states. The resulting model explained 44.5% of the variability in yield. It includes the effect of climatic conditions that precede the sapflow season (variables from the previous growing season and winter), the effect of climatic conditions during the current sapflow season, and terms accounting for intercountry and temporal variability. Optimal conditions for maple syrup production appear to be spatially restricted by less favourable climate conditions occurring during the growing season in the north, and in the south, by the warmer winter and earlier spring conditions. This suggests that climate change may favor maple syrup production northwards, while southern regions are more likely to be negatively affected by adverse spring conditions. PMID:24949244

  17. Basin-scale heterogeneity in Antarctic precipitation and its impact on surface mass variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fyke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Annually averaged precipitation in the form of snow, the dominant term of the Antarctic Ice Sheet surface mass balance, displays large spatial and temporal variability. Here we present an analysis of spatial patterns of regional Antarctic precipitation variability and their impact on integrated Antarctic surface mass balance variability simulated as part of a preindustrial 1800-year global, fully coupled Community Earth System Model simulation. Correlation and composite analyses based on this output allow for a robust exploration of Antarctic precipitation variability. We identify statistically significant relationships between precipitation patterns across Antarctica that are corroborated by climate reanalyses, regional modeling and ice core records. These patterns are driven by variability in large-scale atmospheric moisture transport, which itself is characterized by decadal- to centennial-scale oscillations around the long-term mean. We suggest that this heterogeneity in Antarctic precipitation variability has a dampening effect on overall Antarctic surface mass balance variability, with implications for regulation of Antarctic-sourced sea level variability, detection of an emergent anthropogenic signal in Antarctic mass trends and identification of Antarctic mass loss accelerations.

  18. Spatial and temporal variability in urban fine particulate matter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Hanna, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of hot spots for urban fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations is complicated by the significant contributions from regional atmospheric transport and the dependence of spatial and temporal variability on averaging time. We focus on PM 2.5 patterns in New York City, which includes significant local sources, street canyons, and upwind contributions to concentrations. A literature synthesis demonstrates that long-term (e.g., one-year) average PM 2.5 concentrations at a small number of widely-distributed monitoring sites would not show substantial variability, whereas short-term (e.g., 1-h) average measurements with high spatial density would show significant variability. Statistical analyses of ambient monitoring data as a function of wind speed and direction reinforce the significance of regional transport but show evidence of local contributions. We conclude that current monitor siting may not adequately capture PM 2.5 variability in an urban area, especially in a mega-city, reinforcing the necessity of dispersion modeling and methods for analyzing high-resolution monitoring observations. - Highlights: →Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) hot spots are hard to identify in urban areas. → Literature conclusions about PM 2.5 hot spots depend on study design and methods. → Hot spots are more likely for short-term concentrations at high spatial density. → Statistical methods illustrate local source impacts beyond regional transport. → Dispersion models and high-resolution monitors are both needed to find hot spots. - Fine particulate matter can vary spatially within large urban areas, in spite of the significant contribution from regional atmospheric transport.

  19. Variability of sub-micrometer particle number size distributions and concentrations in the Western Mediterranean regional background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cusack

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the daily and seasonal variability of particle number size distributions and concentrations, performed at the Montseny (MSY regional background station in the western Mediterranean from October 2010 to June 2011. Particle number concentrations at MSY were shown to be within range of various other sites across Europe reported in literature, but the seasonality of the particle number size distributions revealed significant differences. The Aitken mode is the dominant particle mode at MSY, with arithmetic mean concentrations of 1698 cm3, followed by the accumulation mode (877 cm−3 and the nucleation mode (246 cm−3. Concentrations showed a strong seasonal variability with large increases in particle number concentrations observed from the colder to warmer months. The modality of median size distributions was typically bimodal, except under polluted conditions when the size distribution was unimodal. During the colder months, the daily variation of particle number size distributions are strongly influenced by a diurnal breeze system, whereby the Aitken and accumulation modes vary similarly to PM1 and BC mass concentrations, with nocturnal minima and sharp day-time increases owing to the development of a diurnal mountain breeze. Under clean air conditions, high levels of nucleation and lower Aitken mode concentrations were measured, highlighting the importance of new particle formation as a source of particles in the absence of a significant condensation sink. During the warmer months, nucleation mode concentrations were observed to be relatively elevated both under polluted and clean conditions due to increased photochemical reactions, with enhanced subsequent growth owing to elevated concentrations of condensable organic vapours produced from biogenic volatile organic compounds, indicating that nucleation at MSY does not exclusively occur under clean air conditions. Finally, mixing of air masses between polluted and non

  20. HLA-E regulatory and coding region variability and haplotypes in a Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Jaqueline; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana C; Donadi, Eduardo A; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Castelli, Erick C

    2017-11-01

    The HLA-E gene is characterized by low but wide expression on different tissues. HLA-E is considered a conserved gene, being one of the least polymorphic class I HLA genes. The HLA-E molecule interacts with Natural Killer cell receptors and T lymphocytes receptors, and might activate or inhibit immune responses depending on the peptide associated with HLA-E and with which receptors HLA-E interacts to. Variable sites within the HLA-E regulatory and coding segments may influence the gene function by modifying its expression pattern or encoded molecule, thus, influencing its interaction with receptors and the peptide. Here we propose an approach to evaluate the gene structure, haplotype pattern and the complete HLA-E variability, including regulatory (promoter and 3'UTR) and coding segments (with introns), by using massively parallel sequencing. We investigated the variability of 420 samples from a very admixed population such as Brazilians by using this approach. Considering a segment of about 7kb, 63 variable sites were detected, arranged into 75 extended haplotypes. We detected 37 different promoter sequences (but few frequent ones), 27 different coding sequences (15 representing new HLA-E alleles) and 12 haplotypes at the 3'UTR segment, two of them presenting a summed frequency of 90%. Despite the number of coding alleles, they encode mainly two different full-length molecules, known as E*01:01 and E*01:03, which corresponds to about 90% of all. In addition, differently from what has been previously observed for other non classical HLA genes, the relationship among the HLA-E promoter, coding and 3'UTR haplotypes is not straightforward because the same promoter and 3'UTR haplotypes were many times associated with different HLA-E coding haplotypes. This data reinforces the presence of only two main full-length HLA-E molecules encoded by the many HLA-E alleles detected in our population sample. In addition, this data does indicate that the distal HLA-E promoter is by

  1. Numerical investigation on pressure fluctuations in centrifugal compressor with different inlet guide vanes pre-whirl angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. C.; Shi, M.; Cao, S. L.; Li, Z. H.

    2013-12-01

    The pressure fluctuations in a centrifugal compressor with different inlet guide vanes (IGV) pre-whirl angles were investigated numerically, as well as the pre-stress model and static structural of blade. The natural frequency was evaluated by pre-stress model analysis. The results show that, the aero-dynamic pressure acting on blade surface is smaller than rotation pre-stress, which wouldn't result in large deformation of blade. The natural frequencies with rotation pre-stress are slightly higher than without rotation pre-stress. The leading mechanism of pressure fluctuations for normal conditions is the rotor-stator (IGVs) interaction, while is serious flow separations for conditions that are close to surge line. A few frequency components in spectra are close to natural frequency, which possibly result in resonant vibration if amplitude is large enough, which is dangerous for compressor working, and should be avoided.

  2. Scale-dependent spatial variability in peatland lead pollution in the southern Pennines, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, James J; Evans, Martin G; Lindsay, John B; Allott, Timothy E H

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, within-site and regional comparisons of peatland lead pollution have been undertaken using the inventory approach. The peatlands of the Peak District, southern Pennines, UK, have received significant atmospheric inputs of lead over the last few hundred years. A multi-core study at three peatland sites in the Peak District demonstrates significant within-site spatial variability in industrial lead pollution. Stochastic simulations reveal that 15 peat cores are required to calculate reliable lead inventories at the within-site and within-region scale for this highly polluted area of the southern Pennines. Within-site variability in lead pollution is dominant at the within-region scale. The study demonstrates that significant errors may be associated with peatland lead inventories at sites where only a single peat core has been used to calculate an inventory. Meaningful comparisons of lead inventories at the regional or global scale can only be made if the within-site variability of lead pollution has been quantified reliably.

  3. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995–2014) and near future (2015–2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses. PMID:27348224

  4. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995-2014) and near future (2015-2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses.

  5. Modeling the South American regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and surface shortwave flux perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rosário

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracers Transport model with the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS. Measurements of total and fine mode fraction (FMF AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon basin the model systematically underestimated total AOD, as expected, since smoke contribution is not dominant as it is in the southern portion and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Better agreement was obtained comparing the model results with observed FMF AOD, which pointed out the relevance of coarse mode aerosol emission in that region. Likewise, major discrepancies over cerrado during high AOD events were found to be associated with coarse mode aerosol omission in our model. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon was related to difficulties in predicting the smoke AOD field, which was discussed in the context of emissions shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable for both total and FMF AOD. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square error (RMSE between the model and observed FMF AOD decreased from 0.34 to 0.19 when extreme AOD events (FMF AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0 and Cuiabá were excluded from the analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extreme AOD were excluded

  6. Mesoscale variability in the Bransfield Strait region (Antarctica during Austral summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. García

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bransfield Strait is one the best-known areas of Antarctica's oceanic surroundings. In spite of this, the study of the mesoscale variability of its local circulation has been addressed only recently. This paper focuses on the mesoscale structure of local physical oceanographic conditions in the Bransfield Strait during the Austral summer as derived from the BIOANTAR 93 cruise and auxiliary remote sensing data. Moreover, data recovered from moored current meters allow identification of transient mesoscale phenomena.

  7. The macro-structural variability of the human neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruggel, Frithjof

    2018-05-15

    The human neocortex shows a considerable individual structural variability. While primary gyri and sulci are found in all normally developed brains and bear clear-cut gross structural descriptions, secondary structures are highly variable and not present in all brains. The blend of common and individual structures poses challenges when comparing structural and functional results from quantitative neuroimaging studies across individuals, and sets limits on the precision of location information much above the spatial resolution of current neuroimaging methods. This work aimed at quantifying structural variability on the neocortex, and at assessing the spatial relationship between regions common to all brains and their individual structural variants. Based on structural MRI data provided as the "900 Subjects Release" of the Human Connectome Project, a data-driven analytic approach was employed here from which the definition of seven cortical "communities" emerged. Apparently, these communities comprise common regions of structural features, while the individual variability is confined within a community. Similarities between the community structure and the state of the brain development at gestation week 32 lead suggest that communities are segregated early. Subdividing the neocortex into communities is suggested as anatomically more meaningful than the traditional lobar structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human heavy-chain variable region gene family nonrandomly rearranged in familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, A.; Humphries, C.; Tucker, P.; Blattner, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have identified a family of human immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region (V/sub H/) genes, one member of which is rearranged in two affected members of a family in which the father and four of five siblings developed chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cloning and sequencing of the rearranged V/sub H/ genes from leukemic lymphocytes of three affected siblings showed that two siblings had rearranged V/sub H/ genes (V/sub H/TS1 and V/sub H/WS1) that were 90% homologous. The corresponding germ-line gene, V/sub H/251, was found to part of a small (four gene) V/sub H/ gene family, which they term V/sub H/V. The DNA sequence homology to V/sub H/WS1 (95%) and V/sub H/TS1 (88%) and identical restriction sites on the 5' side of V/sub H/ confirm that rearrangement of V/sub H/251 followed by somatic mutation produced the identical V/sub H/ gene rearrangements in the two siblings. V/sub H/TS1 is not a functional V/sub H/ gene; a functional V/sub H/ rearrangement was found on the other chromosome of this patient. The other two siblings had different V/sub H/ gene rearrangements. All used different diversity genes. Mechanisms proposed for nonrandom selection of a single V/sub H/ gene include developmental regulation of this V/sub H/ gene rearrangement or selection of a subpopulation of B cells in which this V/sub H/ has been rearranged

  9. Polarimetry of magnetic catalysmic variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cropper, M

    1985-01-01

    The design and construction of an astronomical polarimeter is described and an evaluation made of its performance. Extensive observations of cataclysmic variables with emphasis on the AM Her and DQ Her classes are then presented. The polarimeter permitted simultaneous linear and circular polarisation measurements, or, by rearranging the order of the retarders in the beam, linear polarisation measurements alone, or circular polarisation measurements alone, with enhanced efficiency. Extensive sets of observations using the polarimeter were obtained for six of the ten AM Her variables. A comparison was made between the competing models for the cyclotron emission, showing that those which take into account the temperature structure of the accretion region provide the best results.

  10. Northeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northeastern and southeastern New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, northern New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania. For each of the States within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed Federal-protected lands, components of National Forest Lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, existing State-protected lands, proximity to State-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, or to 1-mile-square areas with 1000 or more persons, National and State forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  11. THE EVOLUTION OF ANNUAL MEAN TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION QUANTITY