WorldWideScience

Sample records for variable length coder

  1. Variable Rate Characteristic Waveform Interpolation Speech Coder Based on Phonetic Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; KUANG Jing-ming; ZHAO Sheng-hui

    2007-01-01

    A variable-bit-rate characteristic waveform interpolation (VBR-CWI) speech codec with about 1.8kbit/s average bit rate which integrates phonetic classification into characteristic waveform (CW) decomposition is proposed.Each input frame is classified into one of 4 phonetic classes.Non-speech frames are represented with Bark-band noise model.The extracted CWs become rapidly evolving waveforms (REWs) or slowly evolving waveforms (SEWs) in the cases of unvoiced or stationary voiced frames respectively, while mixed voiced frames use the same CW decomposition as that in the conventional CWI.Experimental results show that the proposed codec can eliminate most buzzy and noisy artifacts existing in the fixed-bit-rate characteristic waveform interpolation (FBR-CWI) speech codec, the average bit rate can be much lower, and its reconstructed speech quality is much better than FS 1016 CELP at 4.8kbit/s and similar to G.723.1 ACELP at 5.3kbit/s.

  2. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  3. Lossless medical image compression with a hybrid coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Jing-Dar; Cheng, Po-Yuen

    1998-10-01

    The volume of medical image data is expected to increase dramatically in the next decade due to the large use of radiological image for medical diagnosis. The economics of distributing the medical image dictate that data compression is essential. While there is lossy image compression, the medical image must be recorded and transmitted lossless before it reaches the users to avoid wrong diagnosis due to the image data lost. Therefore, a low complexity, high performance lossless compression schematic that can approach the theoretic bound and operate in near real-time is needed. In this paper, we propose a hybrid image coder to compress the digitized medical image without any data loss. The hybrid coder is constituted of two key components: an embedded wavelet coder and a lossless run-length coder. In this system, the medical image is compressed with the lossy wavelet coder first, and the residual image between the original and the compressed ones is further compressed with the run-length coder. Several optimization schemes have been used in these coders to increase the coding performance. It is shown that the proposed algorithm is with higher compression ratio than run-length entropy coders such as arithmetic, Huffman and Lempel-Ziv coders.

  4. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    primitive in computational biology applications. Let m and n be the lengths of P and T, respectively, and let k be the number of strings in P. We present a new algorithm achieving time O(nlogk+m+α) and space O(m+A), where A is the sum of the lower bounds of the lengths of the gaps in P and α is the total...... number of occurrences of the strings in P within T. Compared to the previous results this bound essentially achieves the best known time and space complexities simultaneously. Consequently, our algorithm obtains the best known bounds for almost all combinations of m, n, k, A, and α. Our algorithm...

  5. Roughness Length Variability over Heterogeneous Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    2004), the influence of variable roughness reaches its maximum at the height of local 0z and vanishes at the so- called blending height (Wieringa...the distribution of visibility restrictors such as low clouds, fog, haze, dust, and pollutants . An improved understanding of ABL structure...R. D., B. H. Lynn, A. Boone, W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, 2001: The influence of soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land-breeze circulations on

  6. Picture data compression coder using subband/transform coding with a Lempel-Ziv-based coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Daniel R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Digital data coders/decoders are used extensively in video transmission. A digitally encoded video signal is separated into subbands. Separating the video into subbands allows transmission at low data rates. Once the data is separated into these subbands it can be coded and then decoded by statistical coders such as the Lempel-Ziv based coder.

  7. Coder period - amplitude; Codeur periode - amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa Viera, D; Mourchou, R; Calvet, A; Pacchiani, L; Tattegrain, A

    1966-07-01

    For some flowmeters on nuclear reactors, apparatus which deliver an ac signal proportional to the flow, are usually used. This frequency information is converted into a continuous voltage with a coder. The described coder was studied for the Cabri reactor which was requiring a short response delay. (A.L.B.)

  8. An Assessment of the Length and Variability of Mercury's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Slavin, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    We employ Mariner 10 measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field in the vicinity of Mercury to estimate the rate of magnetic reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field and the Hermean magnetosphere. We derive a time-series of the open magnetic flux in Mercury's magnetosphere. from which we can deduce the length of the magnetotail The length of the magnetotail is shown to be highly variable. with open field lines stretching between 15R(sub H) and 8S0R(sub H) downstream of the planet (median 150R(sub H)). Scaling laws allow the tail length at perihelion to be deduced from the aphelion Mariner 10 observations.

  9. Joint source-channel coding using variable length codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakirsky, V.B.

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of joint source-channel coding when variable-length codes are used for information transmission over a discrete memoryless channel. Data transmitted over the channel are interpreted as pairs (m k ,t k ), where m k is a message generated by the source and t k is a time instant

  10. Chaotic behaviour of a pendulum with variable length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartuccelli, M; Christiansen, P L; Muto, V; Soerensen, M P; Pedersen, N F

    1987-08-01

    The Melnikov function for the prediction of Smale horseshoe chaos is applied to a driven damped pendulum with variable length. Depending on the parameters, it is shown that this dynamical system undertakes heteroclinic bifurcations which are the source of the unstable chaotic motion. The analytical results are illustrated by new numerical simulations. Furthermore, using the averaging theorem, the stability of the subharmonics is studied.

  11. Components of genetic variability of ear length of silage maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate following parameters of the ear length of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and genetic components of variability and habitability on the basis of a diallel set. The analysis of genetic variance shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variances, while the frequency of dominant genes (u for this trait was greater than the frequency of recessive genes (v Furthermore, this is also confirmed by the dominant to recessive genes ratio in parental inbreeds for the ear length (Kd/Kr> 1, which is greater than unity during both investigation years. The calculated value of the average degree of dominance √H1/D is greater than unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation, which is also confirmed by the results of Vr/Wr regression analysis of inheritance of the ear length. As a presence of the non-allelic interaction was established it is necessary to study effects of epitasis as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high broad-sense habitability for ear length in both investigation years.

  12. Detecting Scareware by Mining Variable Length Instruction Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad, Raja Khurram; Lavesson, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Scareware is a recent type of malicious software that may pose financial and privacy-related threats to novice users. Traditional countermeasures, such as anti-virus software, require regular updates and often lack the capability of detecting novel (unseen) instances. This paper presents a scareware detection method that is based on the application of machine learning algorithms to learn patterns in extracted variable length opcode sequences derived from instruction sequences of binary files....

  13. Lossless quantum data compression and variable-length coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Kim; Felbinger, Timo

    2002-01-01

    In order to compress quantum messages without loss of information it is necessary to allow the length of the encoded messages to vary. We develop a general framework for variable-length quantum messages in close analogy to the classical case and show that lossless compression is only possible if the message to be compressed is known to the sender. The lossless compression of an ensemble of messages is bounded from below by its von-Neumann entropy. We show that it is possible to reduce the number of qbits passing through a quantum channel even below the von Neumann entropy by adding a classical side channel. We give an explicit communication protocol that realizes lossless and instantaneous quantum data compression and apply it to a simple example. This protocol can be used for both online quantum communication and storage of quantum data

  14. Context Tree Estimation in Variable Length Hidden Markov Models

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    We address the issue of context tree estimation in variable length hidden Markov models. We propose an estimator of the context tree of the hidden Markov process which needs no prior upper bound on the depth of the context tree. We prove that the estimator is strongly consistent. This uses information-theoretic mixture inequalities in the spirit of Finesso and Lorenzo(Consistent estimation of the order for Markov and hidden Markov chains(1990)) and E.Gassiat and S.Boucheron (Optimal error exp...

  15. Variable-length code construction for incoherent optical CDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Yung; Jhou, Jhih-Syue; Wen, Jyh-Horng

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the multirate transmission in fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. In this article, we propose a variable-length code construction for any existing optical orthogonal code to implement a multirate optical CDMA system (called as the multirate code system). For comparison, a multirate system where the lower-rate user sends each symbol twice is implemented and is called as the repeat code system. The repetition as an error-detection code in an ARQ scheme in the repeat code system is also investigated. Moreover, a parallel approach for the optical CDMA systems, which is proposed by Marić et al., is also compared with other systems proposed in this study. Theoretical analysis shows that the bit error probability of the proposed multirate code system is smaller than other systems, especially when the number of lower-rate users is large. Moreover, if there is at least one lower-rate user in the system, the multirate code system accommodates more users than other systems when the error probability of system is set below 10 -9.

  16. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  17. Time coder for slow neutron time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Ofengenden, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Time coder for slow neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described. The time coder is of modular structure, is performed in the CAMAC standard and operates on line with DVK-2 computer. The main coder units include supporting generator, timers, time-to-digital converter, memory unit and crate controller. Method for measuring background symmetrically to the effect is proposed for a more correct background accounting. 4 refs.; 1 fig

  18. Assessing the Value of Professional Coders in Ambulatory Healthcare Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drish, Edward

    2002-01-01

    .... Samples of Evaluation and Management codes applied by providers and coders were categorized into frequency distributions and the average standard deviations of these distributions were compared...

  19. An Amplitude Spectral Capon Estimator with a Variable Filter Length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Smaragdis, Paris; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    The filter bank methods have been a popular non-parametric way of computing the complex amplitude spectrum. So far, the length of the filters in these filter banks has been set to some constant value independently of the data. In this paper, we take the first step towards considering the filter...

  20. Variability of interconnected wind plants: correlation length and its dependence on variability time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. But how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer ‘how far is far enough,’ we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25-2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high

  1. Joint variable frame rate and length analysis for speech recognition under adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Kraljevski, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method that combines variable frame length and rate analysis for speech recognition in noisy environments, together with an investigation of the effect of different frame lengths on speech recognition performance. The method adopts frame selection using an a posteriori signal......-to-noise (SNR) ratio weighted energy distance and increases the length of the selected frames, according to the number of non-selected preceding frames. It assigns a higher frame rate and a normal frame length to a rapidly changing and high SNR region of a speech signal, and a lower frame rate and an increased...... frame length to a steady or low SNR region. The speech recognition results show that the proposed variable frame rate and length method outperforms fixed frame rate and length analysis, as well as standalone variable frame rate analysis in terms of noise-robustness....

  2. Coder for radioisotopic scanning and radiometry of a man's radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, G.A.; Mukhin, V.I.; Kosterev, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    Considered are problems of theoretical and practical application of the integral method of obtaining differential information at radiometry of ionizing radiations. A design of a man's radiation spectrometer (MRS) with plastic scintillators is proposed. One-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional coders used in MRS are described. Usage of coders in MRS with organic scintillators allows one to obtain additional data on the activity distribution in the objects studied

  3. The effect of word length and other sublexical, lexical, and semantic variables on developmental reading deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Maria; Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2008-12-01

    To examine the effect of word length and several sublexical, and lexico-semantic variables on the reading of Italian children with a developmental reading deficit. Previous studies indicated the role of word length in transparent orthographies. However, several factors that may interact with word length were not controlled for. Seventeen impaired and 34 skilled sixth-grade readers were presented words of different lengths, matched for initial phoneme, bigram frequency, word frequency, age of acquisition, and imageability. Participants were asked to read aloud, as quickly and as accurately as possible. Reaction times at the onset of pronunciation and mispronunciations were recorded. Impaired readers' reaction times indicated a marked effect of word length; in skilled readers, there was no length effect for short words but, rather, a monotonic increase from 6-letter words on. Regression analyses confirmed the role of word length and indicated the influence of word frequency (similar in impaired and skilled readers). No other variables predicted reading latencies. Word length differentially influenced word recognition in impaired versus skilled readers, irrespective of the action of (potentially interfering) sublexical, lexical, and semantic variables. It is proposed that the locus of the length effect is at a perceptual level of analysis. The independent influence of word frequency on the reading performance of both groups of participants indicates the sparing of lexical activation in impaired readers.

  4. An efficient chaotic source coding scheme with variable-length blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qiu-Zhen; Wong Kwok-Wo; Chen Jian-Yong

    2011-01-01

    An efficient chaotic source coding scheme operating on variable-length blocks is proposed. With the source message represented by a trajectory in the state space of a chaotic system, data compression is achieved when the dynamical system is adapted to the probability distribution of the source symbols. For infinite-precision computation, the theoretical compression performance of this chaotic coding approach attains that of optimal entropy coding. In finite-precision implementation, it can be realized by encoding variable-length blocks using a piecewise linear chaotic map within the precision of register length. In the decoding process, the bit shift in the register can track the synchronization of the initial value and the corresponding block. Therefore, all the variable-length blocks are decoded correctly. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs well with high efficiency and minor compression loss when compared with traditional entropy coding. (general)

  5. P-Link: A method for generating multicomponent cytochrome P450 fusions with variable linker length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsare, Ketaki D.; Ruff, Anna Joelle; Martinez, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Fusion protein construction is a widely employed biochemical technique, especially when it comes to multi-component enzymes such as cytochrome P450s. Here we describe a novel method for generating fusion proteins with variable linker lengths, protein fusion with variable linker insertion (P...

  6. Design and performance of an analysis-by-synthesis class of predictive speech coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Richard C.; Barnwell, Thomas P., III

    1990-01-01

    The performance of a broad class of analysis-by-synthesis linear predictive speech coders is quantified experimentally. The class of coders includes a number of well-known techniques as well as a very large number of speech coders which have not been named or studied. A general formulation for deriving the parametric representation used in all of the coders in the class is presented. A new coder, named the self-excited vocoder, is discussed because of its good performance with low complexity, and because of the insight this coder gives to analysis-by-synthesis coders in general. The results of a study comparing the performances of different members of this class are presented. The study takes the form of a series of formal subjective and objective speech quality tests performed on selected coders. The results of this study lead to some interesting and important observations concerning the controlling parameters for analysis-by-synthesis speech coders.

  7. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  8. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-01-01

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction

  9. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A. [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  10. Convolutional Encoder and Viterbi Decoder Using SOPC For Variable Constraint Length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkarni, Anuradha; Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2013-01-01

    Convolution encoder and Viterbi decoder are the basic and important blocks in any Code Division Multiple Accesses (CDMA). They are widely used in communication system due to their error correcting capability But the performance degrades with variable constraint length. In this context to have...... detailed analysis, this paper deals with the implementation of convolution encoder and Viterbi decoder using system on programming chip (SOPC). It uses variable constraint length of 7, 8 and 9 bits for 1/2 and 1/3 code rates. By analyzing the Viterbi algorithm it is seen that our algorithm has a better...

  11. Variability and trends in dry day frequency and dry event length in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Legates, David R.; Lins, Harry F.

    2010-01-01

    Daily precipitation from 22 National Weather Service first-order weather stations in the southwestern United States for water years 1951 through 2006 are used to examine variability and trends in the frequency of dry days and dry event length. Dry events with minimum thresholds of 10 and 20 consecutive days of precipitation with less than 2.54 mm are analyzed. For water years and cool seasons (October through March), most sites indicate negative trends in dry event length (i.e., dry event durations are becoming shorter). For the warm season (April through September), most sites also indicate negative trends; however, more sites indicate positive trends in dry event length for the warm season than for water years or cool seasons. The larger number of sites indicating positive trends in dry event length during the warm season is due to a series of dry warm seasons near the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. Overall, a large portion of the variability in dry event length is attributable to variability of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, especially for water years and cool seasons. Our results are consistent with analyses of trends in discharge for sites in the southwestern United States, an increased frequency in El Niño events, and positive trends in precipitation in the southwestern United States.

  12. Construction and performance research on variable-length codes for multirate OCDMA multimedia networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-qi; Yang, Meng-jie; Luo, De-jun; Lu, Ye; Kong, Yi-pu; Zhang, Dong-chuang

    2014-09-01

    A new kind of variable-length codes with good correlation properties for the multirate asynchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) multimedia networks is proposed, called non-repetition interval (NRI) codes. The NRI codes can be constructed by structuring the interval-sets with no repetition, and the code length depends on the number of users and the code weight. According to the structural characteristics of NRI codes, the formula of bit error rate (BER) is derived. Compared with other variable-length codes, the NRI codes have lower BER. A multirate OCDMA multimedia simulation system is designed and built, the longer codes are assigned to the users who need slow speed, while the shorter codes are assigned to the users who need high speed. It can be obtained by analyzing the eye diagram that the user with slower speed has lower BER, and the conclusion is the same as the actual demand in multimedia data transport.

  13. Research On Variable-Length Transfer Delay and Delayed Signal Cancellation Based PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    large frequency drifts are anticipated and a high accuracy is required. To the best of authors' knowledge, the small-signal modeling of a variable-length delay-based PLL has not yet been conducted. The main aim of this paper is to cover this gap. The tuning procedure and analysis of these PLLs...

  14. Improved theory of time domain reflectometry with variable coaxial cable length for electrical conductivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although empirical models have been developed previously, a mechanistic model is needed for estimating electrical conductivity (EC) using time domain reflectometry (TDR) with variable lengths of coaxial cable. The goals of this study are to: (1) derive a mechanistic model based on multisection tra...

  15. Design of a new SI engine intake manifold with variable length plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceviz, M.A.; Akin, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of intake plenum length/volume on the performance characteristics of a spark-ignited engine with electronically controlled fuel injectors. Previous work was carried out mainly on the engine with carburetor producing a mixture desirable for combustion and dispatching the mixture to the intake manifold. The more stringent emission legislations have driven engine development towards concepts based on electronic-controlled fuel injection rather than the use of carburetors. In the engine with multipoint fuel injection system using electronically controlled fuel injectors has an intake manifold in which only the air flows and, the fuel is injected onto the intake valve. Since the intake manifolds transport mainly air, the supercharging effects of the variable length intake plenum will be different from carbureted engine. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of constituting a base study to design a new variable length intake manifold plenum. Engine performance characteristics such as brake torque, brake power, thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption were taken into consideration to evaluate the effects of the variation in the length of intake plenum. The results showed that the variation in the plenum length causes an improvement on the engine performance characteristics especially on the fuel consumption at high load and low engine speeds which are put forward the system using for urban roads. According to the test results, plenum length must be extended for low engine speeds and shortened as the engine speed increases. A system taking into account the results of the study was developed to adjust the intake plenum length.

  16. Variable Frame Rate and Length Analysis for Data Compression in Distributed Speech Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraljevski, Ivan; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of data compression in distributed speech recognition on the basis of a variable frame rate and length analysis method. The method first conducts frame selection by using a posteriori signal-to-noise ratio weighted energy distance to find the right time resolution...... length for steady regions. The method is applied to scalable source coding in distributed speech recognition where the target bitrate is met by adjusting the frame rate. Speech recognition results show that the proposed approach outperforms other compression methods in terms of recognition accuracy...... for noisy speech while achieving higher compression rates....

  17. The development of speech coding and the first standard coder for public mobile telephony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes in its core chapter (Chapter 4) the original algorithmic and design features of the ??rst coder for public mobile telephony, the GSM full-rate speech coder, as standardized in 1988. It has never been described in so much detail as presented here. The coder is put in a

  18. A 7MeV S-Band 2998MHz Variable Pulse Length Linear Accelerator System

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Michael; Mishin, Andrey V; Saverskiy, Aleksandr J; Skowbo, Dave; Smith, Richard

    2005-01-01

    American Science and Engineering High Energy Systems Division (AS&E HESD) has designed and commissioned a variable pulse length 7 MeV electron accelerator system. The system is capable of delivering a 7 MeV electron beam with a pulse length of 10 nS FWHM and a peak current of 1 ampere. The system can also produce electron pulses with lengths of 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 nS and 3 uS FWHM with corresponding lower peak currents. The accelerator system consists of a gridded electron gun, focusing coil, an electrostatic deflector system, Helmholtz coils, a standing wave side coupled S-band linac, a 2.6 MW peak power magnetron, an RF circulator, a fast toroid, vacuum system and a PLC/PC control system. The system has been operated at repetition rates up to 250pps. The design, simulations and experimental results from the accelerator system are presented in this paper.

  19. Broadcasting a Common Message with Variable-Length Stop-Feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Yang, Wei; Durisi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the maximum coding rate achievable over a two-user broadcast channel for the scenario where a common message is transmitted using variable-length stop-feedback codes. Specifically, upon decoding the common message, each decoder sends a stop signal to the encoder, which transmits...... itself in the absence of a square-root penalty in the asymptotic expansion of the maximum coding rate for large blocklengths, a result also known as zero dispersion. In this paper, we show that this speed-up does not necessarily occur for the broadcast channel with common message. Specifically...... continuously until it receives both stop signals. For the point-to-point case, Polyanskiy, Poor, and Verdú (2011) recently demonstrated that variable-length coding combined with stop feedback significantly increases the speed at which the maximum coding rate converges to capacity. This speed-up manifests...

  20. Variability in word reading performance of dyslexic readers: effects of letter length, phoneme length and digraph presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinus, E.; de Jong, P.F.

    2010-01-01

    The marked word-length effect in dyslexic children suggests the use of a letter-by-letter reading strategy. Such a strategy should make it more difficult to infer the sound of digraphs. Our main aim was to disentangle length and digraph-presence effects in word and pseudoword reading. In addition,

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic variability of disc flower corolla length and nectar content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Jovan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nectar content and disc flower corolla length are the two most important parameters of attractiveness to pollinators in sunflower. The phenotypic and genotypic variability of these two traits was studied in four commercially important hybrids and their parental components in a trial with three fertilizer doses over two years. The results showed that, looking at individual genotypes, the variability of disc flower corolla length was affected the most by year (85.38-97.46%. As the study years were extremely different, the phenotypic variance of the hybrids and parental components was calculated for each year separately. In such conditions, looking at all of the crossing combinations, the largest contribution to phenotypic variance of the corolla length was that of genotype: 57.27-61.11% (NS-H-45 64.51-84.84% (Velja; 96.74-97.20% (NS-H-702 and 13.92-73.17% (NS-H-111. A similar situation was observed for the phenotypic variability of nectar content, where genotype also had the largest influence, namely 39.77-48.25% in NS-H-45; 39.06-42.51% in Velja; 31.97-72.36% in NS-H-702; and 62.13-94.96% in NS-H-111.

  2. A Bit Stream Scalable Speech/Audio Coder Combining Enhanced Regular Pulse Excitation and Parametric Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Palou, Felip; den Brinker, Albertus C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper introduces a new audio and speech broadband coding technique based on the combination of a pulse excitation coder and a standardized parametric coder, namely, MPEG-4 high-quality parametric coder. After presenting a series of enhancements to regular pulse excitation (RPE) to make it suitable for the modeling of broadband signals, it is shown how pulse and parametric codings complement each other and how they can be merged to yield a layered bit stream scalable coder able to operate at different points in the quality bit rate plane. The performance of the proposed coder is evaluated in a listening test. The major result is that the extra functionality of the bit stream scalability does not come at the price of a reduced performance since the coder is competitive with standardized coders (MP3, AAC, SSC).

  3. A Bit Stream Scalable Speech/Audio Coder Combining Enhanced Regular Pulse Excitation and Parametric Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus C. den Brinker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new audio and speech broadband coding technique based on the combination of a pulse excitation coder and a standardized parametric coder, namely, MPEG-4 high-quality parametric coder. After presenting a series of enhancements to regular pulse excitation (RPE to make it suitable for the modeling of broadband signals, it is shown how pulse and parametric codings complement each other and how they can be merged to yield a layered bit stream scalable coder able to operate at different points in the quality bit rate plane. The performance of the proposed coder is evaluated in a listening test. The major result is that the extra functionality of the bit stream scalability does not come at the price of a reduced performance since the coder is competitive with standardized coders (MP3, AAC, SSC.

  4. Paraxial design of an optical element with variable focal length and fixed position of principal planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš, Antonín; Novák, Pavel

    2018-05-10

    In this article, we analyze the problem of the paraxial design of an active optical element with variable focal length, which maintains the positions of its principal planes fixed during the change of its optical power. Such optical elements are important in the process of design of complex optical systems (e.g., zoom systems), where the fixed position of principal planes during the change of optical power is essential for the design process. The proposed solution is based on the generalized membrane tunable-focus fluidic lens with several membrane surfaces.

  5. Entropy coders of the H.264/AVC standard

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Xiaohua; Lian, Yong

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a collection of algorithms and VLSI architectures of entropy (or statistical) codecs of recent video compression standards, with focus on the H.264/AVC standard. For any visual data compression scheme, there exists a combination of two, or all of the following three stages: spatial, temporal, and statistical compression. General readers are first introduced with the various algorithms of the statistical coders. The VLSI implementations are also reviewed and discussed. Readers with limited hardware design background are also introduced with a design methodology starting from

  6. Practical Qualitative Research Strategies: Training Interviewers and Coders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, L Suzanne; Stage, Virginia C; Cooke, Natalie K

    2016-09-01

    The increased emphasis on incorporating qualitative methodologies into nutrition education development and evaluation underscores the importance of using rigorous protocols to enhance the trustworthiness of the findings. A 5-phase protocol for training qualitative research assistants (data collectors and coders) was developed as an approach to increase the consistency of the data produced. This training provides exposure to the core principles of qualitative research and then asks the research assistant to apply those principles through practice in a setting structured on critical reflection. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An algorithm for the design and tuning of RF accelerating structures with variable cell lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shankar; Pant, K. K.

    2018-05-01

    An algorithm is proposed for the design of a π mode standing wave buncher structure with variable cell lengths. It employs a two-parameter, multi-step approach for the design of the structure with desired resonant frequency and field flatness. The algorithm, along with analytical scaling laws for the design of the RF power coupling slot, makes it possible to accurately design the structure employing a freely available electromagnetic code like SUPERFISH. To compensate for machining errors, a tuning method has been devised to achieve desired RF parameters for the structure, which has been qualified by the successful tuning of a 7-cell buncher to π mode frequency of 2856 MHz with field flatness algorithm and tuning method have demonstrated the feasibility of developing an S-band accelerating structure for desired RF parameters with a relatively relaxed machining tolerance of ∼ 25 μm. This paper discusses the algorithm for the design and tuning of an RF accelerating structure with variable cell lengths.

  8. Astronomical Image Compression Techniques Based on ACC and KLT Coder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a compression of image data in applications in astronomy. Astronomical images have typical specific properties — high grayscale bit depth, size, noise occurrence and special processing algorithms. They belong to the class of scientific images. Their processing and compression is quite different from the classical approach of multimedia image processing. The database of images from BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System has been chosen as a source of the testing signal. BOOTES is a Czech-Spanish robotic telescope for observing AGN (active galactic nuclei and the optical transient of GRB (gamma ray bursts searching. This paper discusses an approach based on an analysis of statistical properties of image data. A comparison of two irrelevancy reduction methods is presented from a scientific (astrometric and photometric point of view. The first method is based on a statistical approach, using the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT with uniform quantization in the spectral domain. The second technique is derived from wavelet decomposition with adaptive selection of used prediction coefficients. Finally, the comparison of three redundancy reduction methods is discussed. Multimedia format JPEG2000 and HCOMPRESS, designed especially for astronomical images, are compared with the new Astronomical Context Coder (ACC coder based on adaptive median regression.

  9. Variable RF capacitor based on a-Si:H (P-doped) multi-length cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y Q; Milne, S B; Luo, J K; Flewitt, A J; Wang, L; Miao, J M; Milne, W I

    2006-01-01

    A variable RF capacitor with a-Si:H (doped with phosphine) cantilevers as the top electrode were designed and fabricated. Because the top multi-cantilever electrodes have different lengths, increasing the applied voltage pulled down the cantilever beams sequentially, thus realizing a gradual increase of the capacitance with the applied voltage. A high-k material, H f O 2 , was used as an insulating layer to increase the tuning range of the capacitance. The measured capacitance from the fabricated capacitor was much lower and the pull-in voltage was much higher than those from theoretical analysis because of incomplete contact of the two electrodes, existence of film differential stresses and charge injection effect. Increase of sweeping voltage rate could significantly shift the pull-in voltage to higher values due to the charge injection mechanisms

  10. Variable-Length Coding with Stop-Feedback for the Common-Message Broadcast Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Yang, Wei; Durisi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the maximum coding rate over a K-user discrete memoryless broadcast channel for the scenario where a common message is transmitted using variable-length stop-feedback codes. Specifically, upon decoding the common message, each decoder sends a stop signal to the encoder...... of these bounds reveal that---contrary to the point-to-point case---the second-order term in the asymptotic expansion of the maximum coding rate decays inversely proportional to the square root of the average blocklength. This holds for certain nontrivial common-message broadcast channels, such as the binary......, which transmits continuously until it receives all K stop signals. We present nonasymptotic achievability and converse bounds for the maximum coding rate, which strengthen and generalize the bounds previously reported in Trillingsgaard et al. (2015) for the two-user case. An asymptotic analysis...

  11. Best Hiding Capacity Scheme for Variable Length Messages Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Ruchika; Bedi, Punam; Pal, S. K.

    Steganography is an art of hiding information in such a way that prevents the detection of hidden messages. Besides security of data, the quantity of data that can be hidden in a single cover medium, is also very important. We present a secure data hiding scheme with high embedding capacity for messages of variable length based on Particle Swarm Optimization. This technique gives the best pixel positions in the cover image, which can be used to hide the secret data. In the proposed scheme, k bits of the secret message are substituted into k least significant bits of the image pixel, where k varies from 1 to 4 depending on the message length. The proposed scheme is tested and results compared with simple LSB substitution, uniform 4-bit LSB hiding (with PSO) for the test images Nature, Baboon, Lena and Kitty. The experimental study confirms that the proposed method achieves high data hiding capacity and maintains imperceptibility and minimizes the distortion between the cover image and the obtained stego image.

  12. A Study of Nonlinear Variable Viscosity in Finite-Length Tube with Peristalsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Abd Elmaboud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peristaltic motion of an incompressible Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity induced by periodic sinusoidal traveling wave propagating along the walls of a finite-length tube has been investigated. A perturbation method of solution is sought. The viscosity parameter α (α << 1 is chosen as a perturbation parameter and the governing equations are developed up to the first-order in the viscosity parameter (α. The analytical solution has been derived for the radial velocity at the tube wall, the axial pressure gradient across the length of the tube, and the wall shear stress under the assumption of low Reynolds number and long wavelength approximation. The impacts of physical parameters such as the viscosity and the parameter determining the shape of the constriction on the pressure distribution and on the wall shear stress for integral and non-integral number of waves are illustrated. The main conclusion that can be drawn out of this study is that the peaks of pressure fluctuate with time and attain different values with non-integral numbers of peristaltic waves. The considered problem is very applicable in study of biological flow and industrial flow.

  13. Highly variable aerodynamic roughness length (z0) for a hummocky debris-covered glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Evan S.; Steiner, Jakob F.; Brun, Fanny

    2017-08-01

    The aerodynamic roughness length (z0) is an essential parameter in surface energy balance studies, but few literature values exist for debris-covered glaciers. We use microtopographic and aerodynamic methods to assess the spatial variability of z0 for Lirung Glacier, Nepal. We apply structure from motion to produce digital elevation models for three nested domains: five 1 m2 plots, a 21,300 m2 surface depression, and the lower 550,000 m2 of the debris-mantled tongue. Wind and temperature sensor towers were installed in the vicinity of the plots within the surface depression in October 2014. We calculate z0 according to a variety of transect-based microtopographic parameterizations for each plot, then develop a grid version of the algorithms by aggregating data from all transects. This grid approach is applied to the surface depression digital elevation model to characterize z0 spatial variability. The algorithms reproduce the same variability among transects and plots, but z0 estimates vary by an order of magnitude between algorithms. Across the study depression, results from different algorithms are strongly correlated. Using Monin-Obukov similarity theory, we derive z0 values from the meteorological data. Using different stability criteria, we derive median values of z0 between 0.03 m and 0.05 m, but with considerable uncertainty due to the glacier's complex topography. Considering estimates from these algorithms, results suggest that z0 varies across Lirung Glacier between ˜0.005 m (gravels) to ˜0.5 m (boulders). Future efforts should assess the importance of such variable z0 values in a distributed energy balance model.

  14. Optimizing x-ray mirror thermal performance using variable length cooling for second generation FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Corey L.; Srinivasan, Venkat N.; Amores, Lope; Kelez, Nicholas M.; Morton, Daniel S.; Stefan, Peter M.; Nicolas, Josep; Zhang, Lin; Cocco, Daniele

    2016-09-01

    The success of the LCLS led to an interest across a number of disciplines in the scientific community including physics, chemistry, biology, and material science. Fueled by this success, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is developing a new high repetition rate free electron laser, LCLS-II, a superconducting linear accelerator capable of a repetition rate up to 1 MHz. Undulators will be optimized for 200 to 1300 eV soft X-rays, and for 1000 to 5000 eV hard X-rays. To absorb spontaneous radiation, higher harmonic energies and deflect the x-ray beam to various end stations, the transport and diagnostics system includes grazing incidence plane mirrors on both the soft and Hard X-ray beamline. To deliver the FEL beam with minimal power loss and wavefront distortion, we need mirrors of height errors below 1nm rms in operational conditions. We need to mitigate the thermal load effects due to the high repetition rate. The absorbed thermal profile is highly dependent on the beam divergence, and this is a function of the photon energy. To address this complexity, we developed a mirror cradle with variable length cooling and first order curve correction. Mirror figure error is minimized using variable length water-cooling through a gallium-indium eutectic bath. Curve correction is achieved with an off-axis bender that will be described in details. We present the design features, mechanical analysis and results from optical and mechanical tests of a prototype assembly, with particular regards to the figure sensitivity to bender corrections.

  15. Analysis of the land surface heterogeneity and its impact on atmospheric variables and the aerodynamic and thermodynamic roughness lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.M.; Menenti, M.; Feddes, R.A.; Wang, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The land surface heterogeneity has a very significant impact on atmospheric variables (air temperature T-a, wind speed u, and humidity q), the aerodynamic roughness length z(0m), thermodynamic roughness length z(0h), and the excess resistance to heat transfer kB(-1). First, in this study the land

  16. The clean coder a code of conduct for professional programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    rogrammers who endure and succeed amidst swirling uncertainty and nonstop pressure share a common attribute: They care deeply about the practice of creating software. They treat it as a craft. They are professionals. In The Clean Coder: A Code of Conduct for Professional Programmers, legendary software expert Robert C. Martin introduces the disciplines, techniques, tools, and practices of true software craftsmanship. This book is packed with practical advice–about everything from estimating and coding to refactoring and testing. It covers much more than technique: It is about attitude. Martin shows how to approach software development with honor, self-respect, and pride; work well and work clean; communicate and estimate faithfully; face difficult decisions with clarity and honesty; and understand that deep knowledge comes with a responsibility to act. Readers will learn What it means to behave as a true software craftsman How to deal with conflict, tight schedules, and unreasonable manager...

  17. Joint Source-Channel Decoding of Variable-Length Codes with Soft Information: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Siohan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia transmission over time-varying wireless channels presents a number of challenges beyond existing capabilities conceived so far for third-generation networks. Efficient quality-of-service (QoS provisioning for multimedia on these channels may in particular require a loosening and a rethinking of the layer separation principle. In that context, joint source-channel decoding (JSCD strategies have gained attention as viable alternatives to separate decoding of source and channel codes. A statistical framework based on hidden Markov models (HMM capturing dependencies between the source and channel coding components sets the foundation for optimal design of techniques of joint decoding of source and channel codes. The problem has been largely addressed in the research community, by considering both fixed-length codes (FLC and variable-length source codes (VLC widely used in compression standards. Joint source-channel decoding of VLC raises specific difficulties due to the fact that the segmentation of the received bitstream into source symbols is random. This paper makes a survey of recent theoretical and practical advances in the area of JSCD with soft information of VLC-encoded sources. It first describes the main paths followed for designing efficient estimators for VLC-encoded sources, the key component of the JSCD iterative structure. It then presents the main issues involved in the application of the turbo principle to JSCD of VLC-encoded sources as well as the main approaches to source-controlled channel decoding. This survey terminates by performance illustrations with real image and video decoding systems.

  18. Joint Source-Channel Decoding of Variable-Length Codes with Soft Information: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, Christine; Siohan, Pierre

    2005-12-01

    Multimedia transmission over time-varying wireless channels presents a number of challenges beyond existing capabilities conceived so far for third-generation networks. Efficient quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning for multimedia on these channels may in particular require a loosening and a rethinking of the layer separation principle. In that context, joint source-channel decoding (JSCD) strategies have gained attention as viable alternatives to separate decoding of source and channel codes. A statistical framework based on hidden Markov models (HMM) capturing dependencies between the source and channel coding components sets the foundation for optimal design of techniques of joint decoding of source and channel codes. The problem has been largely addressed in the research community, by considering both fixed-length codes (FLC) and variable-length source codes (VLC) widely used in compression standards. Joint source-channel decoding of VLC raises specific difficulties due to the fact that the segmentation of the received bitstream into source symbols is random. This paper makes a survey of recent theoretical and practical advances in the area of JSCD with soft information of VLC-encoded sources. It first describes the main paths followed for designing efficient estimators for VLC-encoded sources, the key component of the JSCD iterative structure. It then presents the main issues involved in the application of the turbo principle to JSCD of VLC-encoded sources as well as the main approaches to source-controlled channel decoding. This survey terminates by performance illustrations with real image and video decoding systems.

  19. DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium leprae strains using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) - fragment length analysis (FLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ronald W; Rivest, Jason; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2011-07-15

    The study of the transmission of leprosy is particularly difficult since the causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, cannot be cultured in the laboratory. The only sources of the bacteria are leprosy patients, and experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice. Thus, many of the methods used in modern epidemiology are not available for the study of leprosy. Despite an extensive global drug treatment program for leprosy implemented by the WHO, leprosy remains endemic in many countries with approximately 250,000 new cases each year. The entire M. leprae genome has been mapped and many loci have been identified that have repeated segments of 2 or more base pairs (called micro- and minisatellites). Clinical strains of M. leprae may vary in the number of tandem repeated segments (short tandem repeats, STR) at many of these loci. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis has been used to distinguish different strains of the leprosy bacilli. Some of the loci appear to be more stable than others, showing less variation in repeat numbers, while others seem to change more rapidly, sometimes in the same patient. While the variability of certain VNTRs has brought up questions regarding their suitability for strain typing, the emerging data suggest that analyzing multiple loci, which are diverse in their stability, can be used as a valuable epidemiological tool. Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) has been used to study leprosy evolution and transmission in several countries including China, Malawi, the Philippines, and Brazil. MLVA involves multiple steps. First, bacterial DNA is extracted along with host tissue DNA from clinical biopsies or slit skin smears (SSS). The desired loci are then amplified from the extracted DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fluorescently-labeled primers for 4-5 different loci are used per reaction, with 18 loci being amplified in a total of four reactions. The PCR products may be subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to verify the

  20. Adaptive variable-length coding for efficient compression of spacecraft television data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Plaunt, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    An adaptive variable length coding system is presented. Although developed primarily for the proposed Grand Tour missions, many features of this system clearly indicate a much wider applicability. Using sample to sample prediction, the coding system produces output rates within 0.25 bit/picture element (pixel) of the one-dimensional difference entropy for entropy values ranging from 0 to 8 bit/pixel. This is accomplished without the necessity of storing any code words. Performance improvements of 0.5 bit/pixel can be simply achieved by utilizing previous line correlation. A Basic Compressor, using concatenated codes, adapts to rapid changes in source statistics by automatically selecting one of three codes to use for each block of 21 pixels. The system adapts to less frequent, but more dramatic, changes in source statistics by adjusting the mode in which the Basic Compressor operates on a line-to-line basis. Furthermore, the compression system is independent of the quantization requirements of the pulse-code modulation system.

  1. Alignment-free Transcriptomic and Metatranscriptomic Comparison Using Sequencing Signatures with Variable Length Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Weinan; Ren, Jie; Wang, Kun; Wang, Shun; Zeng, Feng; Wang, Ying; Sun, Fengzhu

    2016-11-23

    The comparison between microbial sequencing data is critical to understand the dynamics of microbial communities. The alignment-based tools analyzing metagenomic datasets require reference sequences and read alignments. The available alignment-free dissimilarity approaches model the background sequences with Fixed Order Markov Chain (FOMC) yielding promising results for the comparison of microbial communities. However, in FOMC, the number of parameters grows exponentially with the increase of the order of Markov Chain (MC). Under a fixed high order of MC, the parameters might not be accurately estimated owing to the limitation of sequencing depth. In our study, we investigate an alternative to FOMC to model background sequences with the data-driven Variable Length Markov Chain (VLMC) in metatranscriptomic data. The VLMC originally designed for long sequences was extended to apply to high-throughput sequencing reads and the strategies to estimate the corresponding parameters were developed. The flexible number of parameters in VLMC avoids estimating the vast number of parameters of high-order MC under limited sequencing depth. Different from the manual selection in FOMC, VLMC determines the MC order adaptively. Several beta diversity measures based on VLMC were applied to compare the bacterial RNA-Seq and metatranscriptomic datasets. Experiments show that VLMC outperforms FOMC to model the background sequences in transcriptomic and metatranscriptomic samples. A software pipeline is available at https://d2vlmc.codeplex.com.

  2. Performance and emission characteristics of LPG powered four stroke SI engine under variable stroke length and compression ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Hakan; Yamin, Jehad A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A computer simulation of a variable stroke length, LPG fuelled, four stroke, single cylinder, water cooled spark ignition engine was done. The engine capacity was varied by varying the stroke length of the engine, which also changed its compression ratio. The simulation model developed was verified with experimental results from the literature for both constant and variable stroke engines. The performance of the engine was simulated at each stroke length/compression ratio combination. The simulation results clearly indicate the advantages and utility of variable stroke engines in fuel economy and power issues. Using the variable stroke technique has significantly improved the engine's performance and emission characteristics within the range studied. The brake torque and power have registered an increase of about 7-54% at low speed and 7-57% at high speed relative to the original engine design and for all stroke lengths and engine speeds studied. The brake specific fuel consumption has registered variations from a reduction of about 6% to an increase of about 3% at low speed and from a reduction of about 6% to an increase of about 8% at high speed relative to the original engine design and for all stroke lengths and engine speeds studied. On the other hand, an increase of pollutants of about 0.65-2% occurred at low speed. Larger stroke lengths resulted in a reduction of the pollutants level of about 1.5% at higher speeds. At lower stroke lengths, on the other hand, an increase of about 2% occurred. Larger stroke lengths resulted in increased exhaust temperature and, hence, make the exhaust valve work under high temperature

  3. Topology optimization of a flexible multibody system with variable-length bodies described by ALE–ANCF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jialiang; Tian, Qiang; Hu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the application of topology optimization to flexible multibody systems (FMBS) so as to enhance their dynamic performances. In this study, an explicit topology optimization approach is proposed for an FMBS with variable-length bodies via the moving morphable components...... (MMC). Using the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) formulation, the thin plate elements of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) are used to describe the platelike bodies with variable length. For the thin plate element of ALE–ANCF, the elastic force and additional inertial force, as well...

  4. Importance of Viral Sequence Length and Number of Variable and Informative Sites in Analysis of HIV Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitsky, Vlad; Moyo, Sikhulile; Lei, Quanhong; DeGruttola, Victor; Essex, M

    2015-05-01

    To improve the methodology of HIV cluster analysis, we addressed how analysis of HIV clustering is associated with parameters that can affect the outcome of viral clustering. The extent of HIV clustering and tree certainty was compared between 401 HIV-1C near full-length genome sequences and subgenomic regions retrieved from the LANL HIV Database. Sliding window analysis was based on 99 windows of 1,000 bp and 45 windows of 2,000 bp. Potential associations between the extent of HIV clustering and sequence length and the number of variable and informative sites were evaluated. The near full-length genome HIV sequences showed the highest extent of HIV clustering and the highest tree certainty. At the bootstrap threshold of 0.80 in maximum likelihood (ML) analysis, 58.9% of near full-length HIV-1C sequences but only 15.5% of partial pol sequences (ViroSeq) were found in clusters. Among HIV-1 structural genes, pol showed the highest extent of clustering (38.9% at a bootstrap threshold of 0.80), although it was significantly lower than in the near full-length genome sequences. The extent of HIV clustering was significantly higher for sliding windows of 2,000 bp than 1,000 bp. We found a strong association between the sequence length and proportion of HIV sequences in clusters, and a moderate association between the number of variable and informative sites and the proportion of HIV sequences in clusters. In HIV cluster analysis, the extent of detectable HIV clustering is directly associated with the length of viral sequences used, as well as the number of variable and informative sites. Near full-length genome sequences could provide the most informative HIV cluster analysis. Selected subgenomic regions with a high extent of HIV clustering and high tree certainty could also be considered as a second choice.

  5. Reliability and short-term intra-individual variability of telomere length measurement using monochrome multiplexing quantitative PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Kim

    Full Text Available Studies examining the association between telomere length and cancer risk have often relied on measurement of telomere length from a single blood draw using a real-time PCR technique. We examined the reliability of telomere length measurement using sequential samples collected over a 9-month period.Relative telomere length in peripheral blood was estimated using a single tube monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR assay in blood DNA samples from 27 non-pregnant adult women (aged 35 to 74 years collected in 7 visits over a 9-month period. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the components of variance for telomere length measurements attributed to variation among women and variation between time points within women. Mean telomere length measurement at any single visit was not significantly different from the average of 7 visits. Plates had a significant systematic influence on telomere length measurements, although measurements between different plates were highly correlated. After controlling for plate effects, 64% of the remaining variance was estimated to be accounted for by variance due to subject. Variance explained by time of visit within a subject was minor, contributing 5% of the remaining variance.Our data demonstrate good short-term reliability of telomere length measurement using blood from a single draw. However, the existence of technical variability, particularly plate effects, reinforces the need for technical replicates and balancing of case and control samples across plates.

  6. Do coder characteristics influence validity of ICD-10 hospital discharge data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Cynthia A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administrative data are widely used to study health systems and make important health policy decisions. Yet little is known about the influence of coder characteristics on administrative data validity in these studies. Our goal was to describe the relationship between several measures of validity in coded hospital discharge data and 1 coders' volume of coding (≥13,000 vs. Methods This descriptive study examined 6 indicators of face validity in ICD-10 coded discharge records from 4 hospitals in Calgary, Canada between April 2002 and March 2007. Specifically, mean number of coded diagnoses, procedures, complications, Z-codes, and codes ending in 8 or 9 were compared by coding volume and employment status, as well as hospital type. The mean number of diagnoses was also compared across coder characteristics for 6 major conditions of varying complexity. Next, kappa statistics were computed to assess agreement between discharge data and linked chart data reabstracted by nursing chart reviewers. Kappas were compared across coder characteristics. Results 422,618 discharge records were coded by 59 coders during the study period. The mean number of diagnoses per record decreased from 5.2 in 2002/2003 to 3.9 in 2006/2007, while the number of records coded annually increased from 69,613 to 102,842. Coders at the tertiary hospital coded the most diagnoses (5.0 compared with 3.9 and 3.8 at other sites. There was no variation by coder or site characteristics for any other face validity indicator. The mean number of diagnoses increased from 1.5 to 7.9 with increasing complexity of the major diagnosis, but did not vary with coder characteristics. Agreement (kappa between coded data and chart review did not show any consistent pattern with respect to coder characteristics. Conclusions This large study suggests that coder characteristics do not influence the validity of hospital discharge data. Other jurisdictions might benefit from

  7. A low-delay 8 Kb/s backward-adaptive CELP coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, L. G.; Leblanc, W. P.; Mahmoud, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Code excited linear prediction coding is an efficient technique for compressing speech sequences. Communications quality of speech can be obtained at bit rates below 8 Kb/s. However, relatively large coding delays are necessary to buffer the input speech in order to perform the LPC analysis. A low delay 8 Kb/s CELP coder is introduced in which the short term predictor is based on past synthesized speech. A new distortion measure that improves the tracking of the formant filter is discussed. Formal listening tests showed that the performance of the backward adaptive coder is almost as good as the conventional CELP coder.

  8. How mechanical context and feedback jointly determine the use of mechanical variables in length perception by dynamic touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, Rudmer; Withagen, Rob

    Earlier studies have revealed that both mechanical context and feedback determine what mechanical invariant is used to perceive length by dynamic touch. In the present article, the authors examined how these two factors jointly constrain the informational variable that is relied upon. Participants

  9. How mechanical context and feedback jointly determine the use of mechanical variables in length perception by dynamic touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, Rudmer; Withagen, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed that both mechanical context and feedback determine what mechanical invariant is used to perceive length by dynamic touch. In the present article, the authors examined how these two factors jointly constrain the informational variable that is relied upon. Participants

  10. Frames for exact inversion of the rank order coder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Khaled; Antonini, Marc; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    Our goal is to revisit rank order coding by proposing an original exact decoding procedure for it. Rank order coding was proposed by Thorpe et al. who stated that the order in which the retina cells are activated encodes for the visual stimulus. Based on this idea, the authors proposed in [1] a rank order coder/decoder associated to a retinal model. Though, it appeared that the decoding procedure employed yields reconstruction errors that limit the model bit-cost/quality performances when used as an image codec. The attempts made in the literature to overcome this issue are time consuming and alter the coding procedure, or are lacking mathematical support and feasibility for standard size images. Here we solve this problem in an original fashion by using the frames theory, where a frame of a vector space designates an extension for the notion of basis. Our contribution is twofold. First, we prove that the analyzing filter bank considered is a frame, and then we define the corresponding dual frame that is necessary for the exact image reconstruction. Second, to deal with the problem of memory overhead, we design a recursive out-of-core blockwise algorithm for the computation of this dual frame. Our work provides a mathematical formalism for the retinal model under study and defines a simple and exact reverse transform for it with over than 265 dB of increase in the peak signal-to-noise ratio quality compared to [1]. Furthermore, the framework presented here can be extended to several models of the visual cortical areas using redundant representations.

  11. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  12. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch (Gastropoda: Pulmonata shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FS. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm. The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  13. Torsion of the bar of the round transverse section from the variable on length and the transverse section porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlyakhov S.M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is devoted to the task of finding of level of the secondary tangent voltages arising in sections because of a variable on porosity length. The decision of such task will allow to consider secondary tangent voltages in case of determination of bearing capacity of a porous bar. Distribution of porosity on a transverse section is set rationally - pro-ceeding from early the solved tasks on selection of porosity in case of torsion of a bar of a round transverse section, on bar length – under the linear law. A research objective is to determine the level of secondary tangent voltages and to evaluate from value.

  14. Photoluminescence Enhancement of Poly(3-methylthiophene Nanowires upon Length Variable DNA Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of low-dimensional inorganic or organic nanomaterials has advantages for DNA and protein recognition due to their sensitivity, accuracy, and physical size matching. In this research, poly(3-methylthiophene (P3MT nanowires (NWs are electrochemically prepared with dopant followed by functionalization with probe DNA (pDNA sequence through electrostatic interaction. Various lengths of pDNA sequences (10-, 20- and 30-mer are conjugated to the P3MT NWs respectively followed with hybridization with their complementary target DNA (tDNA sequences. The nanoscale photoluminescence (PL properties of the P3MT NWs are studied throughout the whole process at solid state. In addition, the correlation between the PL enhancement and the double helix DNA with various lengths is demonstrated.

  15. Electric Arc Furnace Modeling with Artificial Neural Networks and Arc Length with Variable Voltage Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Garcia-Segura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc furnaces (EAFs contribute to almost one third of the global steel production. Arc furnaces use a large amount of electrical energy to process scrap or reduced iron and are relevant to study because small improvements in their efficiency account for significant energy savings. Optimal controllers need to be designed and proposed to enhance both process performance and energy consumption. Due to the random and chaotic nature of the electric arcs, neural networks and other soft computing techniques have been used for modeling EAFs. This study proposes a methodology for modeling EAFs that considers the time varying arc length as a relevant input parameter to the arc furnace model. Based on actual voltages and current measurements taken from an arc furnace, it was possible to estimate an arc length suitable for modeling the arc furnace using neural networks. The obtained results show that the model reproduces not only the stable arc conditions but also the unstable arc conditions, which are difficult to identify in a real heat process. The presented model can be applied for the development and testing of control systems to improve furnace energy efficiency and productivity.

  16. Coding OSICS sports injury diagnoses in epidemiological studies: does the background of the coder matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Orchard, John W; Twomey, Dara M; Saad Saleem, Muhammad; Ekegren, Christina L; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C

    2014-04-01

    To compare Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS-10) sports medicine diagnoses assigned by a clinical and non-clinical coder. Assessment of intercoder agreement. Community Australian football. 1082 standardised injury surveillance records. Direct comparison of the four-character hierarchical OSICS-10 codes assigned by two independent coders (a sports physician and an epidemiologist). Adjudication by a third coder (biomechanist). The coders agreed on the first character 95% of the time and on the first two characters 86% of the time. They assigned the same four-digit OSICS-10 code for only 46% of the 1082 injuries. The majority of disagreements occurred for the third character; 85% were because one coder assigned a non-specific 'X' code. The sports physician code was deemed correct in 53% of cases and the epidemiologist in 44%. Reasons for disagreement included the physician not using all of the collected information and the epidemiologist lacking specific anatomical knowledge. Sports injury research requires accurate identification and classification of specific injuries and this study found an overall high level of agreement in coding according to OSICS-10. The fact that the majority of the disagreements occurred for the third OSICS character highlights the fact that increasing complexity and diagnostic specificity in injury coding can result in a loss of reliability and demands a high level of anatomical knowledge. Injury report form details need to reflect this level of complexity and data management teams need to include a broad range of expertise.

  17. The relationship between length of vocational disability, psychiatric illness, life stressors and sociodemographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, P; Jackson, T; Kohr, R; Iezzi, T

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational disability, psychiatric illness, life stressors and sociodemographic factors. Information on a variety of variables was obtained from insurance files of 147 subjects who had submitted claims for monetary compensation on grounds of psychiatric symptoms. The majority of subjects received a diagnosis of mood disorder or anxiety disorder. Extended vocational disability was associated with longer duration of psychiatric illness, rating of poorer prognosis by the treating physician, and lower income and occupational levels. Individuals with recent onset of disability reported more stressors than those experiencing extended disability. Although longer duration of psychiatric illness was associated with vocational disability, other variables play an important role in accounting for extended vocational disability.

  18. Clustering and artificial neural networks: classification of variable lengths of Helminth antigens in set of domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Souza Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme for representing proteins of different lengths in number of amino acids that can be presented to a fixed number of inputs Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs speel-out classification is described. K-Means's clustering of the new vectors with subsequent classification was then possible with the dimension reduction technique Principal Component Analysis applied previously. The new representation scheme was applied to a set of 112 antigens sequences from several parasitic helminths, selected in the National Center for Biotechnology Information and classified into fourth different groups. This bioinformatic tool permitted the establishment of a good correlation with domains that are already well characterized, regardless of the differences between the sequences that were confirmed by the PFAM database. Additionally, sequences were grouped according to their similarity, confirmed by hierarchical clustering using ClustalW.

  19. Length and GC content variability of introns among teleostean genomes in the light of the metabolic rate hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Chaurasia

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of five teleostean genomes, namely zebrafish, medaka, three-spine stickleback, fugu and pufferfish was performed with the aim to highlight the nature of the forces driving both length and base composition of introns (i.e., bpi and GCi. An inter-genome approach using orthologous intronic sequences was carried out, analyzing independently both variables in pairwise comparisons. An average length shortening of introns was observed at increasing average GCi values. The result was not affected by masking transposable and repetitive elements harbored in the intronic sequences. The routine metabolic rate (mass specific temperature-corrected using the Boltzmann's factor was measured for each species. A significant correlation held between average differences of metabolic rate, length and GC content, while environmental temperature of fish habitat was not correlated with bpi and GCi. Analyzing the concomitant effect of both variables, i.e., bpi and GCi, at increasing genomic GC content, a decrease of bpi and an increase of GCi was observed for the significant majority of the intronic sequences (from ∼ 40% to ∼ 90%, in each pairwise comparison. The opposite event, concomitant increase of bpi and decrease of GCi, was counter selected (from <1% to ∼ 10%, in each pairwise comparison. The results further support the hypothesis that the metabolic rate plays a key role in shaping genome architecture and evolution of vertebrate genomes.

  20. Effects of Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS) on Bdnf DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in the Adult Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, A.; Moyer, E. L.; Roth, T. L.; Ronca, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to stress can shape neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring, producing vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. Animal models of prenatal stress likewise have demonstrated long-­-term alterations in brain function and behavioral deficits in offspring. For example, using a rodent model of unpredictable variable prenatal stress (UVPS), in which dams are exposed to unpredictable, variable stress across pregnancy, we have found increased body weight and anxiety-­-like behavior in adult male, but not female, offspring. DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could be responsible for the long-­-term effects of UVPS. Here, we measured methylation of brain-­-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult offspring from the UVPS model. Results indicate that prenatally stressed adult males have greater methylation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to non-­-stressed controls, while females have greater methylation in the ventral hippocampus compared to controls. Further, prenatally stressed males had shorter telomeres than controls in the mPFC. These findings demonstrate the ability of UVPS to produce epigenetic alterations and changes in telomere length across behaviorally-­-relevant brain regions, which may have linkages to the phenotypic outcomes.

  1. Length and GC content variability of introns among teleostean genomes in the light of the metabolic rate hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Ankita; Tarallo, Andrea; Bernà, Luisa; Yagi, Mitsuharu; Agnisola, Claudio; D'Onofrio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis of five teleostean genomes, namely zebrafish, medaka, three-spine stickleback, fugu and pufferfish was performed with the aim to highlight the nature of the forces driving both length and base composition of introns (i.e., bpi and GCi). An inter-genome approach using orthologous intronic sequences was carried out, analyzing independently both variables in pairwise comparisons. An average length shortening of introns was observed at increasing average GCi values. The result was not affected by masking transposable and repetitive elements harbored in the intronic sequences. The routine metabolic rate (mass specific temperature-corrected using the Boltzmann's factor) was measured for each species. A significant correlation held between average differences of metabolic rate, length and GC content, while environmental temperature of fish habitat was not correlated with bpi and GCi. Analyzing the concomitant effect of both variables, i.e., bpi and GCi, at increasing genomic GC content, a decrease of bpi and an increase of GCi was observed for the significant majority of the intronic sequences (from ∼ 40% to ∼ 90%, in each pairwise comparison). The opposite event, concomitant increase of bpi and decrease of GCi, was counter selected (from hypothesis that the metabolic rate plays a key role in shaping genome architecture and evolution of vertebrate genomes.

  2. The Simple Video Coder: A free tool for efficiently coding social video data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Hamilton, Derek A; Fink, Brandi C

    2017-08-01

    Videotaping of experimental sessions is a common practice across many disciplines of psychology, ranging from clinical therapy, to developmental science, to animal research. Audio-visual data are a rich source of information that can be easily recorded; however, analysis of the recordings presents a major obstacle to project completion. Coding behavior is time-consuming and often requires ad-hoc training of a student coder. In addition, existing software is either prohibitively expensive or cumbersome, which leaves researchers with inadequate tools to quickly process video data. We offer the Simple Video Coder-free, open-source software for behavior coding that is flexible in accommodating different experimental designs, is intuitive for students to use, and produces outcome measures of event timing, frequency, and duration. Finally, the software also offers extraction tools to splice video into coded segments suitable for training future human coders or for use as input for pattern classification algorithms.

  3. Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coder-Based Image Feature and Segmentation in the Compressed Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Chin Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Image compression is necessary in various applications, especially for efficient transmission over a band-limited channel. It is thus desirable to be able to segment an image in the compressed domain directly such that the burden of decompressing computation can be avoided. Motivated by the adaptive binary arithmetic coder (MQ coder of JPEG2000, we propose an efficient scheme to segment the feature vectors that are extracted from the code stream of an image. We modify the Compression-based Texture Merging (CTM algorithm to alleviate the influence of overmerging problem by making use of the rate distortion information. Experimental results show that the MQ coder-based image segmentation is preferable in terms of the boundary displacement error (BDE measure. It has the advantage of saving computational cost as the segmentation results even at low rates of bits per pixel (bpp are satisfactory.

  4. Supplemental Dietary Inulin of Variable Chain Lengths Alters Intestinal Bacterial Populations in Young Pigs123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jannine K.; Yasuda, Koji; Welch, Ross M.; Miller, Dennis D.; Lei, Xin Gen

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we showed that supplementation of diets with short-chain inulin (P95), long-chain inulin (HP), and a 50:50 mixture of both (Synergy 1) improved body iron status and altered expression of the genes involved in iron homeostasis and inflammation in young pigs. However, the effects of these 3 types of inulin on intestinal bacteria remain unknown. Applying terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we determined the abundances of luminal and adherent bacterial populations from 6 segments of the small and large intestines of pigs (n = 4 for each group) fed an iron-deficient basal diet (BD) or the BD supplemented with 4% of P95, Synergy 1, or HP for 5 wk. Compared with BD, all 3 types of inulin enhanced (P inulin on bacterial populations in the lumen contents were found. Meanwhile, all 3 types of inulin suppressed the less desirable bacteria Clostridium spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae in the lumen and mucosa of various gut segments. Our findings suggest that the ability of dietary inulin to alter intestinal bacterial populations may partially account for its iron bioavailability-promoting effect and possibly other health benefits. PMID:20980641

  5. Estimating the hemodynamic influence of variable main body-to-iliac limb length ratios in aortic endografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Xenakis, Antonios; Georgiadis, George S

    2018-02-01

    We conducted a computational study to assess the hemodynamic impact of variant main body-to-iliac limb length (L1/L2) ratios on certain hemodynamic parameters acting on the endograft (EG) either on the normal bifurcated (Bif) or the cross-limb (Cx) fashion. A customary bifurcated 3D model was computationally created and meshed using the commercially available ANSYS ICEM (Ansys Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA) software. The total length of the EG, was kept constant, while the L1/L2 ratio ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 in the Bif and Cx reconstructed EG models. The compliance of the graft was modeled using a Fluid Structure Interaction method. Important hemodynamic parameters such as pressure drop along EG, wall shear stress (WSS) and helicity were calculated. The greatest pressure decrease across EG was calculated in the peak systolic phase. With increasing L1/L2 it was found that the Pressure Drop was increasing for the Cx configuration, while decreasing for the Bif. The greatest helicity (4.1 m/s2) was seen in peak systole of Cx with ratio of 1.5 whereas its greatest value (2 m/s2) was met in peak systole in the Bif with the shortest L1/L2 ratio (0.3). Similarly, the maximum WSS value was highest (2.74Pa) in the peak systole for the 1.5 L1/L2 of the Cx configuration, while the maximum WSS value equaled 2 Pa for all length ratios of the Bif modification (with the WSS found for L1/L2=0.3 being marginally higher). There was greater discrepancy in the WSS values for all L1/L2 ratios of the Cx bifurcation compared to Bif. Different L1/L2 rations are shown to have an impact on the pressure distribution along the entire EG while the length ratio predisposing to highest helicity or WSS values is also determined by the iliac limbs pattern of the EG. Since current custom-made EG solutions can reproduce variability in main-body/iliac limbs length ratios, further computational as well as clinical research is warranted to delineate and predict the hemodynamic and clinical effect of variable

  6. VARIABILITY OF VALUES OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL WATER QUALITY INDICES ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE IWONICZANKA STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bogdał

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presentation of the effect of changes in the catchment area management on the value of water quality physicochemical indices along the length of the Iwoniczanka stream, which flows through Iwonicz-Zdrój, one of the oldest health resorts in Poland. Analyses of 14 water quality indices were conducted from November 2013 to May 2014 in five measurement points: two situated in the upper course of the stream – in forest areas, two located in the area of Iwonicz-Zdrój town, and one below the rural built-up area. On the basis of the conducted data analysis it was found that the mean values of pH, electrolytic conductivity, sulphates, calcium, total iron and manganese were increasing with the course of flowing water, as evidenced by the water enrichment in substances which had their sources in built-up areas. On average, the highest values of biogenic indices and chlorides but the lowest values of oxygen indices were registered immediately below the location of drain collector from the closed sewage treatment plant, which resulted in pollution of the analysed stream bed with the substances previously drained from the treatment plant. Water flowing through the forest areas had the maximum ecological potential in the built-up areas and due to phosphate concentrations it was classified to class II and then, due to self-purification, returned to the physicochemical parameters appropriate for class I water. The conducted hydro-chemical tests confirmed a significant negative effect of built-up areas on the quality of the flowing waters.

  7. Compaction Filter as an Optimum Solution for Multirate Subband Coder of Cyclostationary Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kula

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A consistent theory of optimum subband coding of zero meanwide-sense cyclostationary signals with N-periodic statistics ispresented in this paper. Blocked polyphase representation of theanalysis and synthesis filter banks is introduced as an effective wayof multirate subband coder description. Optimum energy compaction usingNyquist-M process is presented as a solution for maximizing the codinggain of the coder. In two definitions and four theorems the authorproves that Nyquist-M filters fulfill necessary and sufficientconditions imposed on subband signals. Results from Matlab simulationsare presented to support theoretical conclusions.

  8. A highly efficient SDRAM controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Junzheng

    2016-03-01

    A highly efficient Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads is proposed in this paper. Based on the Principle of Locality, command First In First Out (FIFO) and address range detector are designed within this controller to accelerate its responses to discrete read requests, which dramatically improves the average Effective Bus Utilization Ratio (EBUR) of SDRAM. Our controller is finally verified by driving the Micron 256-Mb SDRAM MT48LC16M16A2. Successful simulation and verification results show that our controller exhibits much higher EBUR than do most existing designs in case of discrete reads.

  9. Using Variable-Length Aligned Fragment Pairs and an Improved Transition Function for Flexible Protein Structure Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hu; Lu, Yonggang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid growth of known protein 3D structures in number, how to efficiently compare protein structures becomes an essential and challenging problem in computational structural biology. At present, many protein structure alignment methods have been developed. Among all these methods, flexible structure alignment methods are shown to be superior to rigid structure alignment methods in identifying structure similarities between proteins, which have gone through conformational changes. It is also found that the methods based on aligned fragment pairs (AFPs) have a special advantage over other approaches in balancing global structure similarities and local structure similarities. Accordingly, we propose a new flexible protein structure alignment method based on variable-length AFPs. Compared with other methods, the proposed method possesses three main advantages. First, it is based on variable-length AFPs. The length of each AFP is separately determined to maximally represent a local similar structure fragment, which reduces the number of AFPs. Second, it uses local coordinate systems, which simplify the computation at each step of the expansion of AFPs during the AFP identification. Third, it decreases the number of twists by rewarding the situation where nonconsecutive AFPs share the same transformation in the alignment, which is realized by dynamic programming with an improved transition function. The experimental data show that compared with FlexProt, FATCAT, and FlexSnap, the proposed method can achieve comparable results by introducing fewer twists. Meanwhile, it can generate results similar to those of the FATCAT method in much less running time due to the reduced number of AFPs.

  10. GapCoder automates the use of indel characters in phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nelson D; Healy, John

    2003-02-19

    Several ways of incorporating indels into phylogenetic analysis have been suggested. Simple indel coding has two strengths: (1) biological realism and (2) efficiency of analysis. In the method, each indel with different start and/or end positions is considered to be a separate character. The presence/absence of these indel characters is then added to the data set. We have written a program, GapCoder to automate this procedure. The program can input PIR format aligned datasets, find the indels and add the indel-based characters. The output is a NEXUS format file, which includes a table showing what region each indel characters is based on. If regions are excluded from analysis, this table makes it easy to identify the corresponding indel characters for exclusion. Manual implementation of the simple indel coding method can be very time-consuming, especially in data sets where indels are numerous and/or overlapping. GapCoder automates this method and is therefore particularly useful during procedures where phylogenetic analyses need to be repeated many times, such as when different alignments are being explored or when various taxon or character sets are being explored. GapCoder is currently available for Windows from http://www.home.duq.edu/~youngnd/GapCoder.

  11. PatternCoder: A Programming Support Tool for Learning Binary Class Associations and Design Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, J. H.; Cheng, K. F.; Haddow, J.

    2009-01-01

    PatternCoder is a software tool to aid student understanding of class associations. It has a wizard-based interface which allows students to select an appropriate binary class association or design pattern for a given problem. Java code is then generated which allows students to explore the way in which the class associations are implemented in a…

  12. Coder and decoder of fractal signals of comb-type structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Politanskyi R. L.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a coder and decoder of fractal signals of comb-type structure (FSCS based on microcontrollers (MC. The coder and decoder consist of identical control modules, while their managed modules have different schematic constructions. The control module performs forming or recognition of signals, and also carries out the function of information exchange with a computer. The basic element of the control module is a PIC18F2550 microcontroller from MicroChip. The coder of the system forms fractal signals of a given order according to the information bits coming from the computer. Samples of the calculated values of the amplitudes of elementary rectangular pulses that constitute the structure of fractal pulses are stored in the memory of the microcontroller as a table. Minimum bit capacity of the DAC necessary for the generation of FSCS of fourth order is four bits. The operation algorithm, "wired" into the controller of the program, provides for encoding of the transmitted information by two-bit symbols. Recognition of the start of transmission of each byte in communication channel is performed by the transmission of the timing signal. In a decoder the microcontroller carries out reception and decoding of the received fractal signals which are then transmitted to the computer. The developed algorithm of the program for the microcontroller of the decoder is carried out by determination of order of fractal impulse after the value of sum of amplitudes of elementary impulses, constituents fractal signal. The programs for coder and decoder are written in "C". In the most critical places of the program influencing on the fast-acting of chart “assembler” insertions are done. The blocks of the coder and decoder were connected with a coaxial 10 meters long cable with an impendance of 75 Ohm. The signals generated by the developed coder of FSCS, were studied using a digital oscillograph. On the basis of the obtained spectrums, it is possible

  13. Coding OSICS sports injury diagnoses in epidemiological studies: does the background of the coder matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Orchard, John W; Twomey, Dara M; Saad Saleem, Muhammad; Ekegren, Christina L; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS-10) sports medicine diagnoses assigned by a clinical and non-clinical coder. Design Assessment of intercoder agreement. Setting Community Australian football. Participants 1082 standardised injury surveillance records. Main outcome measurements Direct comparison of the four-character hierarchical OSICS-10 codes assigned by two independent coders (a sports physician and an epidemiologist). Adjudication by a third coder (biomechanist). Results The coders agreed on the first character 95% of the time and on the first two characters 86% of the time. They assigned the same four-digit OSICS-10 code for only 46% of the 1082 injuries. The majority of disagreements occurred for the third character; 85% were because one coder assigned a non-specific ‘X’ code. The sports physician code was deemed correct in 53% of cases and the epidemiologist in 44%. Reasons for disagreement included the physician not using all of the collected information and the epidemiologist lacking specific anatomical knowledge. Conclusions Sports injury research requires accurate identification and classification of specific injuries and this study found an overall high level of agreement in coding according to OSICS-10. The fact that the majority of the disagreements occurred for the third OSICS character highlights the fact that increasing complexity and diagnostic specificity in injury coding can result in a loss of reliability and demands a high level of anatomical knowledge. Injury report form details need to reflect this level of complexity and data management teams need to include a broad range of expertise. PMID:22919021

  14. VLSI Design of a Variable-Length FFT/IFFT Processor for OFDM-Based Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chih Kuo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique of {orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM} is famous for its robustness against frequency-selective fading channel. This technique has been widely used in many wired and wireless communication systems. In general, the {fast Fourier transform (FFT} and {inverse FFT (IFFT} operations are used as the modulation/demodulation kernel in the OFDM systems, and the sizes of FFT/IFFT operations are varied in different applications of OFDM systems. In this paper, we design and implement a variable-length prototype FFT/IFFT processor to cover different specifications of OFDM applications. The cached-memory FFT architecture is our suggested VLSI system architecture to design the prototype FFT/IFFT processor for the consideration of low-power consumption. We also implement the twiddle factor butterfly {processing element (PE} based on the {{coordinate} rotation digital computer (CORDIC} algorithm, which avoids the use of conventional multiplication-and-accumulation unit, but evaluates the trigonometric functions using only add-and-shift operations. Finally, we implement a variable-length prototype FFT/IFFT processor with TSMC 0.35 μm 1P4M CMOS technology. The simulations results show that the chip can perform (64-2048-point FFT/IFFT operations up to 80 MHz operating frequency which can meet the speed requirement of most OFDM standards such as WLAN, ADSL, VDSL (256∼2K, DAB, and 2K-mode DVB.

  15. Quality Variation Control for Three-Dimensional Wavelet-Based Video Coders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya Seran

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The fluctuation of quality in time is a problem that exists in motion-compensated-temporal-filtering (MCTF- based video coding. The goal of this paper is to design a solution for overcoming the distortion fluctuation challenges faced by wavelet-based video coders. We propose a new technique for determining the number of bits to be allocated to each temporal subband in order to minimize the fluctuation in the quality of the reconstructed video. Also, the wavelet filter properties are explored to design suitable scaling coefficients with the objective of smoothening the temporal PSNR. The biorthogonal 5/3 wavelet filter is considered in this paper and experimental results are presented for 2D+t and t+2D MCTF wavelet coders.

  16. Quality Variation Control for Three-Dimensional Wavelet-Based Video Coders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seran Vidhya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluctuation of quality in time is a problem that exists in motion-compensated-temporal-filtering (MCTF- based video coding. The goal of this paper is to design a solution for overcoming the distortion fluctuation challenges faced by wavelet-based video coders. We propose a new technique for determining the number of bits to be allocated to each temporal subband in order to minimize the fluctuation in the quality of the reconstructed video. Also, the wavelet filter properties are explored to design suitable scaling coefficients with the objective of smoothening the temporal PSNR. The biorthogonal 5/3 wavelet filter is considered in this paper and experimental results are presented for 2D+t and t+2D MCTF wavelet coders.

  17. Cryptanalysis of a chaos-based cryptosystem with an embedded adaptive arithmetic coder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Xie Yi-Xin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse a new chaos-based cryptosystem with an embedded adaptive arithmetic coder, which was proposed by Li Heng-Jian and Zhang J S (Li H J and Zhang J S 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 050508). Although this new method has a better compression performance than its original version, it is found that there are some problems with its security and decryption processes. In this paper, it is shown how to obtain a great deal of plain text from the cipher text without prior knowledge of the secret key. After discussing the security and decryption problems of the Li Heng-Jian et al. algorithm, we propose an improved chaos-based cryptosystem with an embedded adaptive arithmetic coder that is more secure. (general)

  18. Design and co-simulation of depth estimation using simulink HDL coder and modelsim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, F.; Memon, A.H.; Talpur, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a novel VHDL design procedure of depth estimation algorithm using HDL (Hardware Description Language) Coder is presented. A framework is developed that takes depth estimation algorithm described in MATLAB as input and generates VHDL code, which dramatically decreases the time required to implement an application on FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays). In the first phase, design is carried out in MATLAB. Using HDL Coder, MATLAB floating- point design is converted to an efficient fixed-point design and generated VHDL Code and test-bench from fixed point MATLAB code. Further, the generated VHDL code of design is verified with co-simulation using Mentor Graphic ModelSim 10.3d software. Simulation results are presented which indicate that VHDL simulations match with the MATLAB simulations and confirm the efficiency of presented methodology. (author)

  19. Interannual variations in length-of-day (LOD) as a tool to assess climate variability and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.

    2016-12-01

    On interannual time scales the atmosphere affects significantly fluctuations in the geodetic quantity of length-of-day (LOD). This effect is directly proportional to perturbations in the relative angular momentum of the atmosphere (AAM) computed from zonal winds. During El Niño events tropospheric westerlies increase due to elevated sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Pacific inducing peak anomalies in relative AAM and correspondingly, in LOD. However, El Niño events affect LOD variations differently strong and the causes of this varying effect are yet not clear. Here, we investigate the LOD-El Niño relationship in the 20th and 21st century (1982-2100) whether the quantity of LOD can be used as a geophysical tool to assess variability and change in a future climate. In our analysis we applied a windowed discrete Fourier transform on all de-seasonalized data to remove climatic signals outside of the El Niño frequency band. LOD (data: IERS) was related in space and time to relative AAM and SSTs (data: ERA-40 reanalysis, IPCC ECHAM05-OM1 20C, A1B). Results from mapped Pearson correlation coefficients and time frequency behavior analysis identified a teleconnection pattern that we term the EN≥65%-index. The EN≥65%-index prescribes a significant change in variation in length-of-day of +65% and more related to (1) SST anomalies of >2° in the Pacific Niño region (160°E-80°W, 5°S-5°N), (2) corresponding stratospheric warming anomalies of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and (3) strong westerly winds in the lower equatorial stratosphere. In our analysis we show that the coupled atmosphere-ocean conditions prescribed in the EN≥65%-index apply to the extreme El Niño events of 19982/83 and 1997/98, and to 75% of all El Niño events in the last third of the 21st century. At that period of time the EN≥65%-index describes a projected altered base state of the equatorial Pacific that shows almost continuous El Niño conditions under climate warming.

  20. Describing the interannual variability of precipitation with the derived distribution approach: effects of record length and resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Meier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interannual variability of precipitation is traditionally described by fitting a probability model to yearly precipitation totals. There are three potential problems with this approach: a long record (at least 25–30 years is required in order to fit the model, years with missing rainfall data cannot be used, and the data need to be homogeneous, i.e., one has to assume stationarity. To overcome some of these limitations, we test an alternative methodology proposed by Eagleson (1978, based on the derived distribution (DD approach. It allows estimation of the probability density function (pdf of annual rainfall without requiring long records, provided that continuously gauged precipitation data are available to derive external storm properties. The DD approach combines marginal pdfs for storm depths and inter-arrival times to obtain an analytical formulation of the distribution of annual precipitation, under the simplifying assumptions of independence between events and independence between storm depth and time to the next storm. Because it is based on information about storms and not on annual totals, the DD can make use of information from years with incomplete data; more importantly, only a few years of rainfall measurements should suffice to estimate the parameters of the marginal pdfs, at least at locations where it rains with some regularity. For two temperate locations in different climates (Concepción, Chile, and Lugano, Switzerland, we randomly resample shortened time series to evaluate in detail the effects of record length on the DD, comparing the results with the traditional approach of fitting a normal (or lognormal distribution. Then, at the same two stations, we assess the biases introduced in the DD when using daily totalized rainfall, instead of continuously gauged data. Finally, for randomly selected periods between 3 and 15 years in length, we conduct full blind tests at 52 high-quality gauging stations in Switzerland

  1. Real-time monitoring of ischemic and contralateral brain pO2 during stroke by variable length multisite resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huagang; Li, Hongbin; Dong, Ruhong; Khan, Nadeem; Swartz, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry using variable length multi-probe implantable resonator (IR), was used to investigate the temporal changes in the ischemic and contralateral brain pO2 during stroke in rats. The EPR signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the IR with four sensor loops at a depth of up to 11 mm were compared with direct implantation of lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc, oximetry probe) deposits in vitro. These IRs were used to follow the temporal changes in pO2 at two sites in each hemisphere during ischemia induced by left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats breathing 30% O2 or 100% O2. The S/N ratios of the IRs were significantly greater than the LiPc deposits. A similar pO2 at two sites in each hemisphere prior to the onset of ischemia was observed in rats breathing 30% O2. However, a significant decline in the pO2 of the left cortex and striatum occurred during ischemia, but no change in the pO2 of the contralateral brain was observed. A significant increase in the pO2 of only the contralateral non-ischemic brain was observed in the rats breathing 100% O2. No significant difference in the infarct volume was evident between the animals breathing 30% O2 or 100% O2 during ischemia. EPR oximetry with IRs can repeatedly assess temporal changes in the brain pO2 at four sites simultaneously during stroke. This oximetry approach can be used to test and develop interventions to rescue ischemic tissue by modulating cerebral pO2 during stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic variability of the length of postpartum anoestrus in Charolais cows and its relationship with age at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ménissier François

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fertility records (n = 1 802 were collected from 615 Charolais primiparous and multiparous cows managed in an experimental herd over an 11-year period. The objectives of the study were to describe the genetic variability of the re-establishment of postpartum reproductive activity and the relationship with body weight (BW and body condition score (BCS at calving and age at puberty. The length of postpartum anoestrus was estimated based on weekly blood progesterone assays and on twice daily detection of oestrus behaviour. The first oestrus behaviour was observed 69 days (± 25 days s.d. post-calving and the first positive progesterone measurement (≥ 1 ng mL-1 was observed at 66 days (± 22 days s.d. for the group of easy-calving multiparous suckling cows. Estimates of heritability and repeatability were h2 = 0.12 and r = 0.38 respectively, for the interval from calving to first oestrus (ICO. Corresponding values were h2 = 0.35 and r = 0.60 for the interval from calving to the first positive progesterone test (ICP. The genetic correlation between both criteria was high (rg = 0.98. The genetic relationships between postpartum intervals and BW and BCS of the female at calving were negative: the genetic aptitude to be heavier at calving and to have high body reserves was related to shorter postpartum intervals. A favourable genetic correlation between age at puberty and postpartum intervals was found (rg between 0.45 and 0.70. The heifers which were genetically younger at puberty also had shorter postpartum intervals.

  3. 1×4 Optical packet switching of variable length 640 Gbit/s data packets using in-band optical notch-filter labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros; Kamchevska, Valerija; Galili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally perform 1×4 optical packet switching of variable length 640 Gbit/s OTDM data packets using in-band notch-filter labeling with only 2.7-dB penalty. Up to 8 notches are employed to demonstrate scalability of the labeling scheme to 1×256 switching operation.......We experimentally perform 1×4 optical packet switching of variable length 640 Gbit/s OTDM data packets using in-band notch-filter labeling with only 2.7-dB penalty. Up to 8 notches are employed to demonstrate scalability of the labeling scheme to 1×256 switching operation....

  4. Buccal telomere length and its associations with cortisol, heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to an acute social evaluative stressor in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Livitz, Irina E; Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between stress and telomere length (a marker of cellular aging) is of great interest for reducing aging-related disease and death. One important aspect of acute stress exposure that may underlie detrimental effects on health is physiological reactivity to the stressor. This study tested the relationship between buccal telomere length and physiological reactivity (salivary cortisol reactivity and total output, heart rate (HR) variability, blood pressure, and HR) to an acute psychosocial stressor in a sample of 77 (53% male) healthy young adults. Consistent with predictions, greater reductions in HR variability (HRV) in response to a stressor and greater cortisol output during the study session were associated with shorter relative buccal telomere length (i.e. greater cellular aging). However, the relationship between cortisol output and buccal telomere length became non-significant when adjusting for medication use. Contrary to past findings and study hypotheses, associations between cortisol, blood pressure, and HR reactivity and relative buccal telomere length were not significant. Overall, these findings may indicate there are limited and mixed associations between stress reactivity and telomere length across physiological systems.

  5. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M.N.; Kremer, K.; Lan, N.T.; Buu, T.N.; Cobelens, F.G.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Haas, P. de; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard

  6. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, Mai N. T.; Kremer, Kristin; Lan, Nguyen T. N.; Buu, Tran N.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Tiemersma, Edine W.; de Haas, Petra; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard in typing of

  7. Method of Storing Raster Image in Run Lengths Having Variable Numbers of Bytes and Medium with Raster Image Thus Stored

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The invention implements a run-length file format with improved space-sav qualities. The file starts with a header in ASCII format and includes information such as...

  8. VARIABILITY OF LENGTH OF STEM OF DETERMINATE AND INDETERMINATE CULTIVARS OF COMMON VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L. SSP. SATIVA AND ITS IMPACT ON SELECTED CROPPING FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga ANDRZEJEWSKA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2001 and 2002, the study was conducted in six experiments in order to examine the conditioning of the length of stem variability and its impact on cropping features of determinate and indeterminate cultivars of common vetch. Rainfall in June and July as well as during the whole growing season was positively correlated with length of stem, but negatively correlated with seed yield, to a larger extent in the group of indeterminate cultivars than in the determinate one. Duration of blooming stage, length of stem, and seed yield showed the largest variability in both groups. Increase in length of stem of plants of indeterminate cultivars led to the delay in maturation, to less even maturation, and to the decrease in the thousand seed weight and seed yield. Increase in length of stem of plants of determinate cultivars delayed reaching the phase of technical maturation and decreased evenness of plant maturation. Determinate growth of common vetch did not lead to the reduction of lodging.

  9. Investigating the Effect of Recruitment Variability on Length-Based Recruitment Indices for Antarctic Krill Using an Individual-Based Population Dynamics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanassekos, Stéphane; Cox, Martin J.; Reid, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba; herein krill) is monitored as part of an on-going fisheries observer program that collects length-frequency data. A krill feedback management programme is currently being developed, and as part of this development, the utility of data-derived indices describing population level processes is being assessed. To date, however, little work has been carried out on the selection of optimum recruitment indices and it has not been possible to assess the performance of length-based recruitment indices across a range of recruitment variability. Neither has there been an assessment of uncertainty in the relationship between an index and the actual level of recruitment. Thus, until now, it has not been possible to take into account recruitment index uncertainty in krill stock management or when investigating relationships between recruitment and environmental drivers. Using length-frequency samples from a simulated population – where recruitment is known – the performance of six potential length-based recruitment indices is assessed, by exploring the index-to-recruitment relationship under increasing levels of recruitment variability (from ±10% to ±100% around a mean annual recruitment). The annual minimum of the proportion of individuals smaller than 40 mm (F40 min, %) was selected because it had the most robust index-to-recruitment relationship across differing levels of recruitment variability. The relationship was curvilinear and best described by a power law. Model uncertainty was described using the 95% prediction intervals, which were used to calculate coverage probabilities and assess model performance. Despite being the optimum recruitment index, the performance of F40 min degraded under high (>50%) recruitment variability. Due to the persistence of cohorts in the population over several years, the inclusion of F40 min values from preceding years in the relationship used to estimate recruitment in a given year improved its

  10. Non-tables look-up search algorithm for efficient H.264/AVC context-based adaptive variable length coding decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yishi; Luo, Zhixiao; Wang, Jianhua; Min, Zhixuan; Qin, Xinyu; Sun, Yunlong

    2014-09-01

    In general, context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) decoding in H.264/AVC standard requires frequent access to the unstructured variable length coding tables (VLCTs) and significant memory accesses are consumed. Heavy memory accesses will cause high power consumption and time delays, which are serious problems for applications in portable multimedia devices. We propose a method for high-efficiency CAVLC decoding by using a program instead of all the VLCTs. The decoded codeword from VLCTs can be obtained without any table look-up and memory access. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves 100% memory access saving and 40% decoding time saving without degrading video quality. Additionally, the proposed algorithm shows a better performance compared with conventional CAVLC decoding, such as table look-up by sequential search, table look-up by binary search, Moon's method, and Kim's method.

  11. Motion of variable-length MreB filaments at the bacterial cell membrane influences cell morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Reimold, Christian; Defeu Soufo, Herve Joel; Dempwolff, Felix; Graumann, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of rod-cell shape in many bacteria depends on actin-like MreB proteins and several membrane proteins that interact with MreB. Using superresolution microscopy, we show that at 50-nm resolution, Bacillus subtilis MreB forms filamentous structures of length up to 3.4 ?m underneath the cell membrane, which run at angles diverging up to 40? relative to the cell circumference. MreB from Escherichia coli forms at least 1.4-?m-long filaments. MreB filaments move along various tracks ...

  12. Motion of variable-length MreB filaments at the bacterial cell membrane influences cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, Christian; Defeu Soufo, Herve Joel; Dempwolff, Felix; Graumann, Peter L

    2013-08-01

    The maintenance of rod-cell shape in many bacteria depends on actin-like MreB proteins and several membrane proteins that interact with MreB. Using superresolution microscopy, we show that at 50-nm resolution, Bacillus subtilis MreB forms filamentous structures of length up to 3.4 μm underneath the cell membrane, which run at angles diverging up to 40° relative to the cell circumference. MreB from Escherichia coli forms at least 1.4-μm-long filaments. MreB filaments move along various tracks with a maximal speed of 85 nm/s, and the loss of ATPase activity leads to the formation of extended and static filaments. Suboptimal growth conditions lead to formation of patch-like structures rather than extended filaments. Coexpression of wild-type MreB with MreB mutated in the subunit interface leads to formation of shorter MreB filaments and a strong effect on cell shape, revealing a link between filament length and cell morphology. Thus MreB has an extended-filament architecture with the potential to position membrane proteins over long distances, whose localization in turn may affect the shape of the cell wall.

  13. Nutritional assessment: comparison of clinical assessment and objective variables for the prediction of length of hospital stay and readmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed N; Keller, Heather; Gramlich, Leah; Allard, Johane P; Laporte, Manon; Duerksen, Donald R; Payette, Helene; Bernier, Paule; Vesnaver, Elisabeth; Davidson, Bridget; Teterina, Anastasia; Lou, Wendy

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional assessment commonly includes multiple nutrition indicators (NIs). To promote efficiency, a minimum set is needed for the diagnosis of malnutrition in the acute care setting. The objective was to compare the ability of different NIs to predict outcomes of length of hospital stay and readmission to refine the detection of malnutrition in acute care. This was a prospective cohort study of 1022 patients recruited from 18 acute care hospitals (academic and community), from 8 provinces across Canada, between 1 July 2010 and 28 February 2013. Participants were patients aged ≥18 y admitted to medical and surgical wards. NIs measured at admission were subjective global assessment (SGA; SGA A = well nourished, SGA B = mild or moderate malnutrition, and SGA C = severe malnutrition), Nutrition Risk Screening (2002), body weight, midarm and calf circumference, serum albumin, handgrip strength (HGS), and patient-self assessment of food intake. Logistic regression determined the independent effect of NIs on the outcomes of length of hospital stay (available for analysis. After we controlled for age, sex, and diagnosis, only SGA C (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.75), HGS (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 0.99 per kg of increase), and reduced food intake during the first week of hospitalization (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.11) were independent predictors of length of stay. SGA C (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.24, 3.93) and HGS (OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94, 0.98) but not food intake were independent predictors of 30-d readmission. SGA, HGS, and food intake were independent predictors of outcomes for malnutrition. Because food intake in this study was judged days after admission and HGS has a wide range of normal values, SGA is the single best predictor and should be advocated as the primary measure for diagnosis of malnutrition. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02351661. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Length of Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeats in the Carboxyl Ester Lipase (CEL) Gene May Confer Susceptibility to Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis but Not Alcoholic Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeld, Karianne; Beer, Sebastian; Johnstone, Marianne; Zimmer, Constantin; Mössner, Joachim; Ruffert, Claudia; Krehan, Mario; Zapf, Christian; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Johansson, Stefan; Bugert, Peter; Miyajima, Fabio; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Brown, Laura J; Winn, Simon A; Davies, Kelly; Latawiec, Diane; Gunson, Bridget K; Criddle, David N; Pirmohamed, Munir; Grützmann, Robert; Michl, Patrick; Greenhalf, William; Molven, Anders; Sutton, Robert; Rosendahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) contributes to fatty acid ethyl ester metabolism, which is implicated in alcoholic pancreatitis. The CEL gene harbours a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) region in exon 11. Variation in this VNTR has been linked to monogenic pancreatic disease, while conflicting results were reported for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Here, we aimed to investigate a potential association of CEL VNTR lengths with alcoholic CP. Overall, 395 alcoholic CP patients, 218 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) serving as controls with a comparable amount of alcohol consumed, and 327 healthy controls from Germany and the United Kingdom (UK) were analysed by determination of fragment lengths by capillary electrophoresis. Allele frequencies and genotypes of different VNTR categories were compared between the groups. Twelve repeats were overrepresented in UK ACP patients (P = 0.04) compared to controls, whereas twelve repeats were enriched in German ALC compared to alcoholic CP patients (P = 0.03). Frequencies of CEL VNTR lengths of 14 and 15 repeats differed between German ALC patients and healthy controls (P = 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). However, in the genotype and pooled analysis of VNTR lengths no statistical significant association was depicted. Additionally, the 16-16 genotype as well as 16 repeats were more frequent in UK ALC than in alcoholic CP patients (P = 0.034 and 0.02, respectively). In all other calculations, including pooled German and UK data, allele frequencies and genotype distributions did not differ significantly between patients and controls or between alcoholic CP and ALC. We did not obtain evidence that CEL VNTR lengths are associated with alcoholic CP. However, our results suggest that CEL VNTR lengths might associate with ALC, a finding that needs to be clarified in larger cohorts.

  15. 2D hydrodynamic simulations of a variable length gas target for density down-ramp injection of electrons into a laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kononenko, O., E-mail: olena.kononenko@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Lopes, N.C.; Cole, J.M.; Kamperidis, C.; Mangles, S.P.D.; Najmudin, Z. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2BZ UK (United Kingdom); Osterhoff, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Poder, K. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2BZ UK (United Kingdom); Rusby, D.; Symes, D.R. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Warwick, J. [Queens University Belfast, North Ireland (United Kingdom); Wood, J.C. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2BZ UK (United Kingdom); Palmer, C.A.J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    In this work, two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic simulations of a variable length gas cell were performed using the open source fluid code OpenFOAM. The gas cell was designed to study controlled injection of electrons into a laser-driven wakefield at the Astra Gemini laser facility. The target consists of two compartments: an accelerator and an injector section connected via an aperture. A sharp transition between the peak and plateau density regions in the injector and accelerator compartments, respectively, was observed in simulations with various inlet pressures. The fluid simulations indicate that the length of the down-ramp connecting the sections depends on the aperture diameter, as does the density drop outside the entrance and the exit cones. Further studies showed, that increasing the inlet pressure leads to turbulence and strong fluctuations in density along the axial profile during target filling, and consequently, is expected to negatively impact the accelerator stability.

  16. Analysis of Causes of Non-Uniform Flow Distribution in Manifold Systems with Variable Flow Rate along Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyanaya, N. V.; Gulyakin, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The uniformity of flow distribution in perforated manifolds is a relevant task. The efficiency of water supply, sewerage and perflation systems is determined by hydraulics of the flow with a variable mass. The extensive study of versatile available information showed that achieving a uniform flow distribution through all of the outlets is almost impossible. The analysis of the studies conducted by other authors and our numerical experiments performed with the help of the software package ANSYS 16.1 were made in this work. The results allowed us to formulate the main causes of non-uniform flow distribution. We decided to suggest a hypothesis to explain the static pressure rise problem at the end of a perforated manifold.

  17. Recombination events and variability among full-length genomes of co-circulating molluscum contagiosum virus subtypes 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bueno, Alberto; Parras-Moltó, Marcos; López-Barrantes, Olivia; Belda, Sylvia; Alejo, Alí

    2017-05-01

    Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is the sole member of the Molluscipoxvirus genus and causes a highly prevalent human disease of the skin characterized by the formation of a variable number of lesions that can persist for prolonged periods of time. Two major genotypes, subtype 1 and subtype 2, are recognized, although currently only a single complete genomic sequence corresponding to MCV subtype 1 is available. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we report the complete genomic sequence of four new MCV isolates, including the first one derived from a subtype 2. Comparisons suggest a relatively distant evolutionary split between both MCV subtypes. Further, our data illustrate concurrent circulation of distinct viruses within a population and reveal the existence of recombination events among them. These results help identify a set of MCV genes with potentially relevant roles in molluscum contagiosum epidemiology and pathogenesis.

  18. Estimation of genetic variability and selection response for clutch length in dwarf brown-egg layers carrying or not the naked neck gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tixier-Boichard Michèle

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the possibility of using the dwarf gene for egg production, two dwarf brown-egg laying lines were selected for 16 generations on average clutch length; one line (L1 was normally feathered and the other (L2 was homozygous for the naked neck gene NA. A control line from the same base population, dwarf and segregating for the NA gene, was maintained during the selection experiment under random mating. The average clutch length was normalized using a Box-Cox transformation. Genetic variability and selection response were estimated either with the mixed model methodology, or with the classical methods for calculating genetic gain, as the deviation from the control line, and the realized heritability, as the ratio of the selection response on cumulative selection differentials. Heritability of average clutch length was estimated to be 0.42 ± 0.02, with a multiple trait animal model, whereas the estimates of the realized heritability were lower, being 0.28 and 0.22 in lines L1 and L2, respectively. REML estimates of heritability were found to decline with generations of selection, suggesting a departure from the infinitesimal model, either because a limited number of genes was involved, or their frequencies were changed. The yearly genetic gains in average clutch length, after normalization, were estimated to be 0.37 ± 0.02 and 0.33 ± 0.04 with the classical methods, 0.46 ± 0.02 and 0.43 ± 0.01 with animal model methodology, for lines L1 and L2 respectively, which represented about 30% of the genetic standard deviation on the transformed scale. Selection response appeared to be faster in line L2, homozygous for the NA gene, but the final cumulated selection response for clutch length was not different between the L1 and L2 lines at generation 16.

  19. Toward enhancing the distributed video coder under a multiview video codec framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jiann-Jone; Tsai, Yao-Hong; Chen, Chin-Hua

    2016-11-01

    The advance of video coding technology enables multiview video (MVV) or three-dimensional television (3-D TV) display for users with or without glasses. For mobile devices or wireless applications, a distributed video coder (DVC) can be utilized to shift the encoder complexity to decoder under the MVV coding framework, denoted as multiview distributed video coding (MDVC). We proposed to exploit both inter- and intraview video correlations to enhance side information (SI) and improve the MDVC performance: (1) based on the multiview motion estimation (MVME) framework, a categorized block matching prediction with fidelity weights (COMPETE) was proposed to yield a high quality SI frame for better DVC reconstructed images. (2) The block transform coefficient properties, i.e., DCs and ACs, were exploited to design the priority rate control for the turbo code, such that the DVC decoding can be carried out with fewest parity bits. In comparison, the proposed COMPETE method demonstrated lower time complexity, while presenting better reconstructed video quality. Simulations show that the proposed COMPETE can reduce the time complexity of MVME to 1.29 to 2.56 times smaller, as compared to previous hybrid MVME methods, while the image peak signal to noise ratios (PSNRs) of a decoded video can be improved 0.2 to 3.5 dB, as compared to H.264/AVC intracoding.

  20. An investigation into the variables associated with length of hospital stay related to primary cleft lip and palate surgery and alveolar bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, N; Haers, P E

    2012-10-01

    This retrospective study evaluated variables associated with length of stay (LOS) in hospital for 406 admissions of primary cleft lip and palate and alveolus surgery between January 2007 and April 2009. Three patients were treated as day cases, 343 (84%) stayed one night, 48 (12%) stayed 2 nights and 12 (3%) stayed > 2 nights. Poisson regression analysis showed that there was no association between postoperative LOS and age, distance travelled, diagnosis and type of operation, with a p value > 0.2 for all variables. 60/406 patients stayed 2 nights or more postoperatively mostly due to poor pain control and inadequate oral intake. Patients with palate repair were more likely to have postoperative LOS > 1 night, compared to patients with lip repair, p value = 0.011. Four patients (1%), all of whom had undergone cleft palate surgery, were readmitted within 4 weeks of the operation due to respiratory obstruction or haemorrhage. Using logistic regression, evidence showed that these readmissions were related to a longer original postoperative LOS. This study shows that length of stay for primary cleft lip, palate and alveolus surgery can in most cases be limited to one night postoperatively, provided that adequate support can be provided at home. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SpeciesGeoCoder: Fast Categorization of Species Occurrences for Analyses of Biodiversity, Biogeography, Ecology, and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpel, Mats; Zizka, Alexander; Calió, Maria Fernanda; Scharn, Ruud; Silvestro, Daniele; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the patterns and processes underlying the uneven distribution of biodiversity across space constitutes a major scientific challenge in systematic biology and biogeography, which largely relies on effectively mapping and making sense of rapidly increasing species occurrence data. There is thus an urgent need for making the process of coding species into spatial units faster, automated, transparent, and reproducible. Here we present SpeciesGeoCoder, an open-source software package written in Python and R, that allows for easy coding of species into user-defined operational units. These units may be of any size and be purely spatial (i.e., polygons) such as countries and states, conservation areas, biomes, islands, biodiversity hotspots, and areas of endemism, but may also include elevation ranges. This flexibility allows scoring species into complex categories, such as those encountered in topographically and ecologically heterogeneous landscapes. In addition, SpeciesGeoCoder can be used to facilitate sorting and cleaning of occurrence data obtained from online databases, and for testing the impact of incorrect identification of specimens on the spatial coding of species. The various outputs of SpeciesGeoCoder include quantitative biodiversity statistics, global and local distribution maps, and files that can be used directly in many phylogeny-based applications for ancestral range reconstruction, investigations of biome evolution, and other comparative methods. Our simulations indicate that even datasets containing hundreds of millions of records can be analyzed in relatively short time using a standard computer. We exemplify the use of SpeciesGeoCoder by inferring the historical dispersal of birds across the Isthmus of Panama, showing that lowland species crossed the Isthmus about twice as frequently as montane species with a marked increase in the number of dispersals during the last 10 million years. [ancestral area reconstruction; biodiversity

  2. [Reproductive effort, fattening index and yield of Arca zebra (Filibranchia: Arcidae) by length and its association with environmental variables, Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, María; Velásquez, Carlos; Prieto, Antulio; Longart, Yelipza

    2016-06-01

    Arca zebra is a mollusk of commercial value and a major socioeconomic fishery in Northeastern Venezuela. The present study aimed to evaluate the reproductive effort (RE), fattening index (FI) and yield (Y) in different size groups of A. zebra from the morro Chacopata, Venezuela. For this, monthly samplings from June 2008 and June 2009, were undertaken, and the bivalves obtained were distributed in three length groups: I (30.1 to 50.0 mm), II (50.1 to 70.0 mm) and III (> 70.0 mm). Monthly RE, FI and Y were determined based on bivalve changes in volume of fresh meat (VFM), intervalvar volume (IV), dry gonad biomass (DW), dry biomass of the organism without gonad (DWs), fresh biomass of meat (FBM) and total biomass including shell (TBIS). Besides, environmental variables such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total organic and inorganic seston and chlorophyll a were measured monthly. There was great variation in the DW between length groups (relevant for II and III): increased from June until late September 2008, was followed by a marked decrease in October 2008, recovered in the following months, and decreased in January 2009, with a slight increase until May 2009; these changes were associated with variations in sea temperature. The weight of the gonad (DW) influenced the RE, FI and Y, as these reached their peaks in the months where there was higher gonadal production, indicating the influence of temperature on A. zebra reproduction.

  3. Cytomegalovirus sequence variability, amplicon length, and DNase-sensitive non-encapsidated genomes are obstacles to standardization and commutability of plasma viral load results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, Klaudia; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Gosert, Rainer; Loginov, Raisa; Bir, Katia; Helanterä, Ilkka; Schaub, Stefan; Khanna, Nina; Hirsch, Hans H

    2018-04-22

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) management post-transplantation relies on quantification in blood, but inter-laboratory and inter-assay variability impairs commutability. An international multicenter study demonstrated that variability is mitigated by standardizing plasma volumes, automating DNA extraction and amplification, and calibration to the 1st-CMV-WHO-International-Standard as in the FDA-approved Roche-CAP/CTM-CMV. However, Roche-CAP/CTM-CMV showed under-quantification and false-negative results in a quality assurance program (UK-NEQAS-2014). To evaluate factors contributing to quantification variability of CMV viral load and to develop optimized CMV-UL54-QNAT. The UL54 target of the UK-NEQAS-2014 variant was sequenced and compared to 329 available CMV GenBank sequences. Four Basel-CMV-UL54-QNAT assays of 361 bp, 254 bp, 151 bp, and 95 bp amplicons were developed that only differed in reverse primer positions. The assays were validated using plasmid dilutions, UK-NEQAS-2014 sample, as well as 107 frozen and 69 prospectively collected plasma samples from transplant patients submitted for CMV QNAT, with and without DNase-digestion prior to nucleic acid extraction. Eight of 43 mutations were identified as relevant in the UK-NEQAS-2014 target. All Basel-CMV-UL54 QNATs quantified the UK-NEQAS-2014 but revealed 10-fold increasing CMV loads as amplicon size decreased. The inverse correlation of amplicon size and viral loads was confirmed using 1st-WHO-International-Standard and patient samples. DNase pre-treatment reduced plasma CMV loads by >90% indicating the presence of unprotected CMV genomic DNA. Sequence variability, amplicon length, and non-encapsidated genomes obstruct standardization and commutability of CMV loads needed to develop thresholds for clinical research and management. Besides regular sequence surveys, matrix and extraction standardization, we propose developing reference calibrators using 100 bp amplicons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. CodeRAnts: A recommendation method based on collaborative searching and ant colonies, applied to reusing of open source code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Caicedo-Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents CodeRAnts, a new recommendation method based on a collaborative searching technique and inspired on the ant colony metaphor. This method aims to fill the gap in the current state of the matter regarding recommender systems for software reuse, for which prior works present two problems. The first is that, recommender systems based on these works cannot learn from the collaboration of programmers and second, outcomes of assessments carried out on these systems present low precision measures and recall and in some of these systems, these metrics have not been evaluated. The work presented in this paper contributes a recommendation method, which solves these problems.

  5. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyen Mai NT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard in typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, some reports indicated that VNTR typing may be less suitable for Beijing genotype isolates. We therefore compared the performance of internationally standardized RFLP and 24 loci VNTR typing to discriminate among 100 Beijing genotype isolates from the Southern Vietnam. Methods Hundred Beijing genotype strains defined by spoligotyping were randomly selected and typed by RFLP and VNTR typing. The discriminatory power of VNTR and RFLP typing was compared using the Bionumerics software. Results Among 95 Beijing strains available for analysis, 14 clusters were identified comprising 34 strains and 61 unique profiles in 24 loci VNTR typing ((Hunter Gaston Discrimination Index (HGDI = 0.994. 13 clusters containing 31 strains and 64 unique patterns in RFLP typing (HGDI = 0.994 were found. Nine RFLP clusters were subdivided by VNTR typing and 12 VNTR clusters were split by RFLP. Five isolates (5% revealing double alleles or no signal in two or more loci in VNTR typing could not be analyzed. Conclusions Overall, 24 loci VNTR typing and RFLP typing had similar high-level of discrimination among 95 Beijing strains from Southern Vietnam. However, loci VNTR 154, VNTR 2461 and VNTR 3171 had hardly added any value to the level of discrimination.

  6. A Heuristic T-S Fuzzy Model for the Pumped-Storage Generator-Motor Using Variable-Length Tree-Seed Algorithm-Based Competitive Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of artificial intelligence techniques, data-driven modeling approaches are becoming hotspots in both academic research and engineering practice. This paper proposes a novel data-driven T-S fuzzy model to precisely describe the complicated dynamic behaviors of pumped storage generator motor (PSGM. In premise fuzzy partition of the proposed T-S fuzzy model, a novel variable-length tree-seed algorithm based competitive agglomeration (VTSA-CA algorithm is presented to determine the optimal number of clusters automatically and improve the fuzzy clustering performances. Besides, in order to promote modeling accuracy of PSGM, the input and output formats in the T-S fuzzy model are selected by an economical parameter controlled auto-regressive (CAR model derived from a high-order transfer function of PSGM considering the distributed components in the water diversion system of the power plant. The effectiveness and superiority of the T-S fuzzy model for PSGM under different working conditions are validated by performing comparative studies with both practical data and the conventional mechanistic model.

  7. The impact of growing-season length variability on carbon assimilation and evapotranspiration over 88 years in the eastern US deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    White; Running; Thornton

    1999-02-01

    Recent research suggests that increases in growing-season length (GSL) in mid-northern latitudes may be partially responsible for increased forest growth and carbon sequestration. We used the BIOME-BGC ecosystem model to investigate the impacts of including a dynamically regulated GSL on simulated carbon and water balance over a historical 88-year record (1900-1987) for 12 sites in the eastern USA deciduous broadleaf forest. For individual sites, the predicted GSL regularly varied by more than 15 days. When grouped into three climatic zones, GSL variability was still large and rapid. There is a recent trend in colder, northern sites toward a longer GSL, but not in moderate and warm climates. The results show that, for all sites, prediction of a long GSL versus using the mean GSL increased net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), and evapotranspiration (ET); conversely a short GSL is predicted to decrease these parameters. On an absolute basis, differences in GPP between the dynamic and mean GSL simulations were larger than the differences in NEP. As a percentage difference, though, NEP was much more sensitive to changes in GSL than were either GPP or ET. On average, a 1-day change in GSL changed NEP by 1.6%, GPP by 0.5%, and ET by 0.2%. Predictions of NEP and GPP in cold climates were more sensitive to changes in GSL than were predictions in warm climates. ET was not similarly sensitive. First, our results strongly agree with field measurements showing a high correlation between NEP and dates of spring growth, and second they suggest that persistent increases in GSL may lead to long-term increases in carbon storage.

  8. Complementary Walsh-Hadamard coded optical CDMA coder/decoders structured over arrayed-waveguide grating routers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Fa; Yang, Chao-Chin; Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system with complementary Walsh-Hadamard coded optical encoder/decoder configuration structured over arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) routers is examined. In the proposed system, each network user requires only two AWG routers to accomplish spectral encoding and decoding for complementary keying, thus, resulting a simpler and low cost system. Performance of the proposed system is analyzed by taking the effect of phase-induced intensity noise into account. The result indicates that the established system not only preserves the capability of suppressing multiple-access interference (MAI), but also improves bit-error-rate performance as compared to the conventional coders employing simple on-off keying.

  9. Sarah Sepulchre, dir. Décoder les séries télévisées.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Baetens

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Sarah Sepulchre, dir. coder les séries télévisées.

    Bruxelles: De Boeck, coll. InfoCom, 2011-06-22 ISBN 978-2-8041-6375-4

  10. Comparative Study of IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Netherlands, Based on a 5-Year Nationwide Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, J.L. de; Ingen, J. van; Vries, G. de; Erkens, C.; Sebek, M.; Mulder, A.; Sloot, R.; Brandt, A.M. van den; Enaimi, M.; Kremer, K.; Supply, P.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  11. Comparative study of IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism and variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the Netherlands, based on a 5-year nationwide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; van Ingen, Jakko; de Vries, Gerard; Erkens, Connie; Sebek, Maruschka; Mulder, Arnout; Sloot, Rosa; van den Brandt, Anne-Marie; Enaimi, Mimount; Kremer, Kristin; Supply, Philip; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  12. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  13. Empirical evaluation of humpback whale telomere length estimates; quality control and factors causing variability in the singleplex and multiplex qPCR methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Morten Tange; Bérubé, Martine; Robbins, Jooke

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Telomeres, the protective cap of chromosomes, have emerged as powerful markers of biological age and life history in model and non-model species. The qPCR method for telomere length estimation is one of the most common methods for telomere length estimation, but has received recent...... steps of qPCR. In order to evaluate the utility of the qPCR method for telomere length estimation in non-model species, we carried out four different qPCR assays directed at humpback whale telomeres, and subsequently performed a rigorous quality control to evaluate the performance of each assay. RESULTS...... to 40% depending on assay and quantification method, however this variation only affected telomere length estimates in the worst performing assays. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that seemingly well performing qPCR assays may contain biases that will only be detected by extensive quality control...

  14. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  15. Coder Training aplicado a la investigación sobre la publicidad de alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    González-Díaz, Cristina; Iglesias-García, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Tomando como punto de partida el manual de codificación (codebook), este estudio tiene como objetivo general plantear el proceso de trabajo y entrenamiento de los codificadores llevado a cabo para el abordaje de codificación y pilotaje de una plantilla de análisis, aplicado a un proyecto de investigación sobre la publicidad de alimentos. Los principales resultados apuntan a una modificación en la descripción de determinadas variables para ser mejor comprendidas por los codificadores, la neces...

  16. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  17. Non-stationary recruitment dynamics of rainbow smelt: the influence of environmental variables and variation in size structure and length-at-maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Zachary S.; Bunnell, David B.; Hook, Tomas O.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Warner, David M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2015-01-01

    Fish stock-recruitment dynamics may be difficult to elucidate because of nonstationary relationships resulting from shifting environmental conditions and fluctuations in important vital rates such as individual growth or maturation. The Great Lakes have experienced environmental stressors that may have changed population demographics and stock-recruitment relationships while causing the declines of several prey fish species, including rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). We investigated changes in the size and maturation of rainbow smelt in Lake Michigan and Lake Huron and recruitment dynamics of the Lake Michigan stock over the past four decades. Mean lengths and length-at-maturation of rainbow smelt generally declined over time in both lakes. To evaluate recruitment, we used both a Ricker model and a Kalman filter-random walk (KF-RW) model which incorporated nonstationarity in stock productivity by allowing the productivity term to vary over time. The KF-RW model explained nearly four times more variation in recruitment than the Ricker model, indicating the productivity of the Lake Michigan stock has increased. By accounting for this nonstationarity, we were able identify significant variations in stock productivity, evaluate its importance to rainbow smelt recruitment, and speculate on potential environmental causes for the shift. Our results suggest that investigating mechanisms driving nonstationary shifts in stock-recruit relationships can provide valuable insights into temporal variation in fish population dynamics.

  18. Ultra-fast analog-to-digital converter based on a nonlinear triplexer and an optical coder with a photonic crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Farhad; Soroosh, Mohammad; Alipour-Banaei, Hamed; Farshidi, Ebrahim

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose what we believe is a novel all-optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) based on photonic crystals. The proposed structure is composed of a nonlinear triplexer and an optical coder. The nonlinear triplexer is for creating discrete levels in the continuous optical input signal, and the optical coder is for generating a 2-bit standard binary code out of the discrete levels coming from the nonlinear triplexer. Controlling the resonant mode of the resonant rings through optical intensity is the main objective and working mechanism of the proposed structure. The maximum delay time obtained for the proposed structure was about 5 ps and the total footprint is about 1520  μm2.

  19. Cross-sectional study on the weight and length of infants in the interior of the State of São Paulo, Brazil: associations with sociodemographic variables and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Laura Delbue Bernardi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increasing obesity is starting to occur among Brazilians. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight and length of children under two years of age in relation to sociodemographic variables and according to whether they were breastfed. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional randomized study conducted in 2004-2005, based on the declaration of live births (SINASC in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: 2,857 mothers of newborns were interviewed and answered a questionnaire seeking socioeconomic and breastfeeding information. The newborns' weights and lengths were measured at the end of the interviews and the body mass index was calculated. Percentiles ( 85 and Z-scores ( +1 were used for classification based on the new growth charts recommended by WHO (2006. The log-rank test, multiple linear regression and binomial test (Z were used. The statistical significance level used was 5%. RESULTS: The predominant social level was class C. The median for exclusive breastfeeding was 90 days; 61.25% of the children were between P15 and P85 for body mass index and 61.12% for length, respectively. Children whose mothers studied for nine to eleven years and children whose mothers were unemployed presented lower weight. Children whose mothers worked in health-related professions presented lower length when correlated with breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: The breastfeeding, maternal schooling and maternal occupation levels had an influence on nutrition status and indicated that obesity is occurring in early childhood among the infants living in the municipality.

  20. Cross-sectional study on the weight and length of infants in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil: associations with sociodemographic variables and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Julia Laura Delbue; Jordão, Regina Esteves; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo

    2009-07-01

    Increasing obesity is starting to occur among Brazilians. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight and length of children under two years of age in relation to sociodemographic variables and according to whether they were breastfed. Cross-sectional randomized study conducted in 2004-2005, based on the declaration of live births (SINASC) in Campinas, Brazil. 2,857 mothers of newborns were interviewed and answered a questionnaire seeking socioeconomic and breastfeeding information. The newborns' weights and lengths were measured at the end of the interviews and the body mass index was calculated. Percentiles ( 85) and Z-scores ( +1) were used for classification based on the new growth charts recommended by WHO (2006). The log-rank test, multiple linear regression and binomial test (Z) were used. The statistical significance level used was 5%. The predominant social level was class C. The median for exclusive breastfeeding was 90 days; 61.25% of the children were between P15 and P85 for body mass index and 61.12% for length, respectively. Children whose mothers studied for nine to eleven years and children whose mothers were unemployed presented lower weight. Children whose mothers worked in health-related professions presented lower length when correlated with breastfeeding. The breastfeeding, maternal schooling and maternal occupation levels had an influence on nutrition status and indicated that obesity is occurring in early childhood among the infants living in the municipality.

  1. An inversion formula for the exponential Radon transform in spatial domain with variable focal-length fan-beam collimation geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Junhai; Liang Zhengrong

    2006-01-01

    Inverting the exponential Radon transform has a potential use for SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging in cases where a uniform attenuation can be approximated, such as in brain and abdominal imaging. Tretiak and Metz derived in the frequency domain an explicit inversion formula for the exponential Radon transform in two dimensions for parallel-beam collimator geometry. Progress has been made to extend the inversion formula for fan-beam and varying focal-length fan-beam (VFF) collimator geometries. These previous fan-beam and VFF inversion formulas require a spatially variant filtering operation, which complicates the implementation and imposes a heavy computing burden. In this paper, we present an explicit inversion formula, in which a spatially invariant filter is involved. The formula is derived and implemented in the spatial domain for VFF geometry (where parallel-beam and fan-beam geometries are two special cases). Phantom simulations mimicking SPECT studies demonstrate its accuracy in reconstructing the phantom images and efficiency in computation for the considered collimator geometries

  2. Comparison of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Markers typing and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprinting of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marttila Harri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mycobacterioses are regarded as a potential zoonotic risk and cause economical losses world wide. M. avium subsp. hominissuis is a slow-growing subspecies found in mycobacterial infected humans and pigs and therefore rapid and discriminatory typing methods are needed for epidemiological studies. The genetic similarity of M. avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins using two different typing methods have not been studied earlier. The objective of this study was to compare the IS1245 RFLP pattern and MIRU-VNTR typing to study the genetic relatedness of M. avium strains isolated from slaughter pigs and humans in Finland with regard to public health aspects. Methods A novel PCR-based genotyping method, variable number tandem repeat (VNTR typing of eight mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs, was evaluated for its ability to characterize Finnish Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis strains isolated from pigs (n = 16 and humans (n = 13 and the results were compared with those obtained by the conventional IS1245 RFLP method. Results The MIRU-VNTR results showed a discriminatory index (DI of 0,92 and the IS1245 RFLP resulted in DI 0,98. The combined DI for both methods was 0,98. The MIRU-VNTR test has the advantages of being simple, reproducible, non-subjective, which makes it suitable for large-scale screening of M. avium strains. Conclusions Both typing methods demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains of human and porcine origin. The parallel application of the methods adds epidemiological value to the comparison of the strains and their origins. The present approach and results support the hypothesis that there is a common source of M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection for pigs and humans or alternatively one species may be the infective source to the other.

  3. Pseudo-polyprotein translated from the full-length ORF1 of capillovirus is important for pathogenicity, but a truncated ORF1 protein without variable and CP regions is sufficient for replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hisae; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Komatsu, Ken; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Oshima, Kenro; Okano, Yukari; Takahashi, Shuichiro; Ugaki, Masashi; Namba, Shigetou

    2010-09-01

    The first open-reading frame (ORF) of the genus Capillovirus encodes an apparently chimeric polyprotein containing conserved regions for replicase (Rep) and coat protein (CP), while other viruses in the family Flexiviridae have separate ORFs encoding these proteins. To investigate the role of the full-length ORF1 polyprotein of capillovirus, we generated truncation mutants of ORF1 of apple stem grooving virus by inserting a termination codon into the variable region located between the putative Rep- and CP-coding regions. These mutants were capable of systemic infection, although their pathogenicity was attenuated. In vitro translation of ORF1 produced both the full-length polyprotein and the smaller Rep protein. The results of in vivo reporter assays suggested that the mechanism of this early termination is a ribosomal -1 frame-shift occurring downstream from the conserved Rep domains. The mechanism of capillovirus gene expression and the very close evolutionary relationship between the genera Capillovirus and Trichovirus are discussed. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  5. Comparative Study of IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Netherlands, Based on a 5-Year Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; van Ingen, Jakko; de Vries, Gerard; Erkens, Connie; Sebek, Maruschka; Mulder, Arnout; Sloot, Rosa; van den Brandt, Anne-Marie; Enaimi, Mimount; Kremer, Kristin; Supply, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a detailed evaluation on discriminatory power and agreement with findings in a cluster investigation was performed on 3,975 tuberculosis cases during the period of 2004 to 2008. The level of discrimination of the two typing methods did not differ substantially: RFLP typing yielded 2,733 distinct patterns compared to 2,607 in VNTR typing. The global concordance, defined as isolates labeled unique or identically distributed in clusters by both methods, amounted to 78.5% (n = 3,123). Of the remaining 855 cases, 12% (n = 479) of the cases were clustered only by VNTR, 7.7% (n = 305) only by RFLP typing, and 1.8% (n = 71) revealed different cluster compositions in the two approaches. A cluster investigation was performed for 87% (n = 1,462) of the cases clustered by RFLP. For the 740 cases with confirmed or presumed epidemiological links, 92% were concordant with VNTR typing. In contrast, only 64% of the 722 cases without an epidemiological link but clustered by RFLP typing were also clustered by VNTR typing. We conclude that VNTR typing has a discriminatory power equal to IS6110 RFLP typing but is in better agreement with findings in a cluster investigation performed on an RFLP-clustering-based cluster investigation. Both aspects make VNTR typing a suitable method for tuberculosis surveillance systems. PMID:23363841

  6. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  7. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  8. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  9. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  10. Comparison of a Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) Method for Typing Mycobacterium avium with Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-VNTR and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, Takayuki; Nishimori, Kei; Yagi, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Moriyama, Makoto; Nakagawa, Taku; Shibayama, Takami; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Nikai, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections are increasing annually in various countries, including Japan, but the route of transmission and pathophysiology of the infection remain unclear. Currently, a variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing method using the Mycobacterium avium tandem repeat (MATR) loci (MATR-VNTR) is employed in Japan for epidemiological studies using clinical isolates of M. avium. In this study, the usefulness of this MATR-VNTR typing method was compared with that of ...

  11. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  12. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  15. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  16. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  17. Full length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    ABSTRACT. This paper considered contamination of aquifer resulting from petroleum spillage, which is a common phenomenal in the. Niger Delta area of Nigeria. We used the model given by. Bestman (1987) and assumed that some endogenous variables are built into the system. To achieve a level of desirable state, we ...

  18. Development of the Heated Length Correction Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ho-Young; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Nahm, Kee-Yil; Jung, Yil-Sup; Park, Eung-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a nuclear fuel is defined by the function of flow channel geometry and flow condition. According to the selection of the explanatory variable, there are three hypotheses to explain CHF at uniformly heated vertical rod (inlet condition hypothesis, exit condition hypothesis, local condition hypothesis). For inlet condition hypothesis, CHF is characterized by function of system pressure, rod diameter, rod length, mass flow and inlet subcooling. For exit condition hypothesis, exit quality substitutes for inlet subcooling. Generally the heated length effect on CHF in exit condition hypothesis is smaller than that of other variables. Heated length is usually excluded in local condition hypothesis to describe the CHF with only local fluid conditions. Most of commercial plants currently use the empirical CHF correlation based on local condition hypothesis. Empirical CHF correlation is developed by the method of fitting the selected sensitive local variables to CHF test data using the multiple non-linear regression. Because this kind of method can not explain physical meaning, it is difficult to reflect the proper effect of complex geometry. So the recent CHF correlation development strategy of nuclear fuel vendor is making the basic CHF correlation which consists of basic flow variables (local fluid conditions) at first, and then the geometrical correction factors are compensated additionally. Because the functional forms of correction factors are determined from the independent test data which represent the corresponding geometry separately, it can be applied to other CHF correlation directly only with minor coefficient modification

  19. Performance of RC columns with partial length corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Liang Fayun

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with partial length corrosion are presented, where only a fraction of the column length was corroded. Twelve simply supported columns were eccentrically loaded. The primary variables were partial length corrosion in tensile or compressive zone and the corrosion level within this length. The failure of the corroded column occurs in the partial length, mainly developed from or located nearby or merged with the longitudinal corrosion cracks. For RC column with large eccentricity, load capacity of the column is mainly influenced by the partial length corrosion in tensile zone; while for RC column with small eccentricity, load capacity of the column greatly decreases due to the partial length corrosion in compressive zone. The destruction of the longitudinally mechanical integrality of the column in the partial length leads to this great reduction of the load capacity of the RC column

  20. Variable Length Inflatable Ramp Launch and Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-22

    May 2017 The below identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests for information should be addressed to: TECHNOLOGY...royalties thereon or therefor. CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention...architectures are recommended in accordance with United States Patent No. 8,555,472 and the progeny of this referenced patent . The air beams 20

  1. Learning Path Recommendation Based on Modified Variable Length Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Pragya; Kant, Vibhor; Bharadwaj, Kamal K.

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid advancement of information and communication technologies, e-learning has gained a considerable attention in recent years. Many researchers have attempted to develop various e-learning systems with personalized learning mechanisms for assisting learners so that they can learn more efficiently. In this context, curriculum sequencing…

  2. Chaotic orbits of a pendulum with variable length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Furi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this investigation is to show that a pendulum, whose pivot oscillates vertically in a periodic fashion, has uncountably many chaotic orbits. The attribute chaotic is given according to the criterion we now describe. First, we associate to any orbit a finite or infinite sequence as follows. We write 1 or $-1$ every time the pendulum crosses the position of unstable equilibrium with positive (counterclockwise or negative (clockwise velocity, respectively. We write 0 whenever we find a pair of consecutive zero's of the velocity separated only by a crossing of the stable equilibrium, and with the understanding that different pairs cannot share a common time of zero velocity. Finally, the symbol $omega$, that is used only as the ending symbol of a finite sequence, indicates that the orbit tends asymptotically to the position of unstable equilibrium. Every infinite sequence of the three symbols ${1,-1,0}$ represents a real number of the interval $[0,1]$ written in base 3 when $-1$ is replaced with 2. An orbit is considered chaotic whenever the associated sequence of the three symbols ${1,2,0}$ is an irrational number of $[0,1]$. Our main goal is to show that there are uncountably many orbits of this type.

  3. Ultrasonographic assessment of renal length in 310 Turkish children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive modality that can be used to measure RL.[2] ... cases were selected for inclusion in the study. Ultrasonography was ... Linear regression equations for predicting a variable (renal length) from independent ...

  4. Generation of Length Distribution, Length Diagram, Fibrogram, and Statistical Characteristics by Weight of Cotton Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Azzouz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile fibre mixture as a multicomponent blend of variable fibres imposes regarding the proper method to predict the characteristics of the final blend. The length diagram and the fibrogram of cotton are generated. Then the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram of a blend of different categories of cotton are determined. The length distributions by weight of five different categories of cotton (Egyptian, USA (Pima, Brazilian, USA (Upland, and Uzbekistani are measured by AFIS. From these distributions, the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram by weight of four binary blends are expressed. The length parameters of these cotton blends are calculated and their variations are plotted against the mass fraction x of one component in the blend .These calculated parameters are compared to those of real blends. Finally, the selection of the optimal blends using the linear programming method, based on the hypothesis that the cotton blend parameters vary linearly in function of the components rations, is proved insufficient.

  5. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... variously described as determined by the ocular biometric variables. There have been many studies on the relationship between refractive error and ocular axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth, corneal radius of curvature (CR), keratometric readings as well as other ocular biometric variables such as ...

  6. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    -growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect...... the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...... predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust...

  7. Correcting length-frequency distributions for imperfect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, André R.; Hawkins, John A.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling gear selects for specific sizes of fish, which may bias length-frequency distributions that are commonly used to assess population size structure, recruitment patterns, growth, and survival. To properly correct for sampling biases caused by gear and other sources, length-frequency distributions need to be corrected for imperfect detection. We describe a method for adjusting length-frequency distributions when capture and recapture probabilities are a function of fish length, temporal variation, and capture history. The method is applied to a study involving the removal of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu by boat electrofishing from a 38.6-km reach on the Yampa River, Colorado. Smallmouth Bass longer than 100 mm were marked and released alive from 2005 to 2010 on one or more electrofishing passes and removed on all other passes from the population. Using the Huggins mark–recapture model, we detected a significant effect of fish total length, previous capture history (behavior), year, pass, year×behavior, and year×pass on capture and recapture probabilities. We demonstrate how to partition the Huggins estimate of abundance into length frequencies to correct for these effects. Uncorrected length frequencies of fish removed from Little Yampa Canyon were negatively biased in every year by as much as 88% relative to mark–recapture estimates for the smallest length-class in our analysis (100–110 mm). Bias declined but remained high even for adult length-classes (≥200 mm). The pattern of bias across length-classes was variable across years. The percentage of unadjusted counts that were below the lower 95% confidence interval from our adjusted length-frequency estimates were 95, 89, 84, 78, 81, and 92% from 2005 to 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions are widely used in fisheries science and management. Our simple method for correcting length-frequency estimates for imperfect detection could be widely applied when mark–recapture data

  8. Increased length of inpatient stay and poor clinical coding: audit of patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daultrey, Harriet; Gooday, Catherine; Dhatariya, Ketan

    2011-11-01

    People with diabetes stay in hospital for longer than those without diabetes for similar conditions. Clinical coding is poor across all specialties. Inpatients with diabetes often have unrecognized foot problems. We wanted to look at the relationships between these factors. A single day audit, looking at the prevalence of diabetes in all adult inpatients. Also looking at their feet to find out how many were high-risk or had existing problems. A 998-bed university teaching hospital. All adult inpatients. (a) To see if patients with diabetes and foot problems were in hospital for longer than the national average length of stay compared with national data; (b) to see if there were people in hospital with acute foot problems who were not known to the specialist diabetic foot team; and (c) to assess the accuracy of clinical coding. We identified 110 people with diabetes. However, discharge coding data for inpatients on that day showed 119 people with diabetes. Length of stay (LOS) was substantially higher for those with diabetes compared to those without (± SD) at 22.39 (22.26) days, vs. 11.68 (6.46) (P coding was poor with some people who had been identified as having diabetes on the audit, who were not coded as such on discharge. Clinical coding - which is dependent on discharge summaries - poorly reflects diagnoses. Additionally, length of stay is significantly longer than previous estimates. The discrepancy between coding and diagnosis needs addressing by increasing the levels of awareness and education of coders and physicians. We suggest that our data be used by healthcare planners when deciding on future tariffs.

  9. Cycle length maximization in PWRs using empirical core models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okafor, K.C.; Aldemir, T.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of maximizing cycle length in nuclear reactors through optimal fuel and poison management has been addressed by many investigators. An often-used neutronic modeling technique is to find correlations between the state and control variables to describe the response of the core to changes in the control variables. In this study, a set of linear correlations, generated by two-dimensional diffusion-depletion calculations, is used to find the enrichment distribution that maximizes cycle length for the initial core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These correlations (a) incorporate the effect of composition changes in all the control zones on a given fuel assembly and (b) are valid for a given range of control variables. The advantage of using such correlations is that the cycle length maximization problem can be reduced to a linear programming problem

  10. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  11. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  12. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  13. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  14. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  15. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  16. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  17. Study and development of amplitude coder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripon, M.

    1987-06-01

    The lengthening door aimed to the memorization of the analog impulse peak delivered by the detectors has been developed in two versions. A converter with successive approximation was chosen whose very bad differential linearity has been corrected by the gliding scale method: a computer simulation allowed to characterize the correction efficiency. Two versions with eight impulse channel have been studied and developed [fr

  18. Most common usability mistakes coders make

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    This presentation contains an overview of bad practises in interface design. Though real-life screenshots elements like ‘setting up your page’, ‘forms’, ‘navigation and interactions’ and ‘colours’ will be covered. It’s easy to point out the negative aspects so a solution on how to make the examples will be given in addition.

  19. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  1. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  2. Variabilidade do risco do tempo de permanência ajustado para lactentes de muito baixo peso ao nascer entre centros da Neocosur South American Network Center variability in risk of adjusted length of stay for very low birth weight infants in the Neocosur South American Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Marshall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Desenvolver um modelo de predição para o tempo de permanência hospitalar (TPH em lactentes de muito baixo peso ao nascer (MBPN e comparar esse resultado entre 20 centros de uma rede neonatal, visto que o TPH é utilizado como uma medida da qualidade da assistência em lactentes de MBPN. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos dados coletados prospectivamente de 7.599 lactentes com peso ao nascer entre 500 e 1.500 g no período entre os anos de 2001 a 2008. O modelo de regressão de Cox foi empregado para desenvolver dois modelos de predição: um modelo prévio com dados do nascimento e outro posterior, que acrescenta morbidades relevantes dos primeiros 30 dias de vida. RESULTADOS: A mediana do TPH estimado e ajustado a partir do nascimento foi de 59 dias; 28 dias depois do tempo de sobrevida de 30 dias. Houve uma alta correlação entre os modelos (r = 0,92. O TPH esperado e o TPH observado variaram bastante entre os centros, mesmo depois de correção para as morbidades relevantes após 30 dias. O TPH mediano (variação: 45-70 dias e a idade concepcional na alta hospitalar (variação: 36,4-39,9 semanas refletem uma variabilidade alta entre centros. CONCLUSÃO: Um modelo simples, com fatores apresentados no nascimento, pode predizer o TPH de um lactente de MBPN em uma rede neonatal. Observou-se uma variabilidade nos TPHs considerável entre unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal. Especulamos que os resultados sejam provenientes das diferenças entre as práticas dos centros.OBJECTIVES: To develop a prediction model for hospital length of stay (LOS in very low birth weight (VLBW infants and to compare this outcome among 20 centers within a neonatal network. METHODS: Data from 7,599 infants with birth weights of 500-1,500 g born between the years 2001-2008 were prospectively collected. The Cox regression model was employed to develop two prediction models: an early model based upon variables present at birth, and a late one that adds relevant

  3. Optimization of fracture length in gas/condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, J.; Sharma, M.M.; Pope, G.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A common practice that improves the productivity of gas-condensate reservoirs is hydraulic fracturing. Two important variables that determine the effectiveness of hydraulic fractures are fracture length and fracture conductivity. Although there are no simple guidelines for the optimization of fracture length and the factors that affect it, it is preferable to have an optimum fracture length for a given proppant volume in order to maximize productivity. An optimization study was presented in which fracture length was estimated at wells where productivity was maximized. An analytical expression that takes into account non-Darcy flow and condensate banking was derived. This paper also reviewed the hydraulic fracturing process and discussed previous simulation studies that investigated the effects of well spacing and fracture length on well productivity in low permeability gas reservoirs. The compositional simulation study and results and discussion were also presented. The analytical expression for optimum fracture length, analytical expression with condensate dropout, and equations for the optimum fracture length with non-Darcy flow in the fracture were included in an appendix. The Computer Modeling Group's GEM simulator, an equation-of-state compositional simulator, was used in this study. It was concluded that for cases with non-Darcy flow, the optimum fracture lengths are lower than those obtained with Darcy flow. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 22 figs., 1 appendix.

  4. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  5. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  6. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  7. πK-scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  8. Sperm length, sperm storage and mating system characteristics in bumblebees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2003-01-01

    -term storage of sperm, using three bumblebee species with different mating systems as models. We show that individual males produce only one size-class of sperm, but that sperm length is highly variable among brothers, among unrelated conspecific males, and among males of different species. Males of Bombus...

  9. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  10. [Myopia: frequency of lattice degeneration and axial length].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, M D; Roldán Pallarés, M

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between lattice retinal degeneration and axial length of the eye in different grades of myopia. A sample of 200 eyes from 124 myopic patients was collected by chance. The average age was 34.8 years (20-50 years) and the myopia was between 0.5 and 20 diopters (D). The eyes were grouped according to the degree of refraction defect, the mean axial length of each group (Scan A) and the frequency of lattice retinal degeneration and the relationship between these variables was studied. The possible influence of age on our results was also considered. For the statistical analysis, the SAS 6.07 program with the variance analysis for quantitative variables, and chi(2) test for qualitative variables with a 5% significance were used. A multivariable linear regression model was also adjusted. The highest frequency of lattice retinal degeneration occurred in those myopia patients having more than 15 D, and also in the group of myopia patients between 3 and 6 D, but this did not show statistical significance when compared with the other myopic groups. If the axial length is assessed, a greater frequency of lattice retinal degeneration is also found when the axial length is 25-27 mm and 29-30 mm, which correspond, respectively, to myopias between 3-10 D and more than 15 D. When the multivariable linear regression model was adjusted, the axial length showed the existence of lattice retinal degeneration (beta 0.41 mm; p=0.08) adjusted by the number of diopters (beta 0.38 mm; plattice retinal degeneration was found for myopias with axial eye length between 29-30 mm (more than 15 D), and 25-27 mm (between 3-10 D).

  11. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  12. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... Ethiopian infants obtained at birth and at 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 mo of age. We derived WLZs by using 2006 WHO growth standards. We derived length-adjusted FM and FFM values as unexplained residuals after regressing each FM and FFM against length. We used a correlation analysis to assess associations...... between length, FFM, and FM (adjusted and nonadjusted for length) and the MUAC and WLZ and a multivariable regression analysis to assess the independent variability of length and length-adjusted FM and FFM with either the MUAC or the WLZ as the outcome. RESULTS: At all ages, length showed consistently...

  13. Telomere length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadile, Casey D; Kitchell, Barbara E; Newman, Rebecca G; Biller, Barbara J; Hetler, Elizabeth R

    2007-12-01

    To determine the mean telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues. 57 solid-tissue tumor specimens collected from client-owned dogs, 40 samples of normal tissue collected from 12 clinically normal dogs, and blood samples collected from 4 healthy blood donor dogs. Tumor specimens were collected from client-owned dogs during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures at the University of Illinois Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, whereas 40 normal tissue samples were collected from 12 control dogs. Telomere restriction fragment length was determined by use of an assay kit. A histologic diagnosis was provided for each tumor by personnel at the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Illinois. Mean of the mean TRF length for 44 normal samples was 19.0 kilobases (kb; range, 15.4 to 21.4 kb), and the mean of the mean TRF length for 57 malignant tumors was 19.0 kb (range, 12.9 to 23.5 kb). Although the mean of the mean TRF length for tumors and normal tissues was identical, tumor samples had more variability in TRF length. Telomerase, which represents the main mechanism by which cancer cells achieve immortality, is an attractive therapeutic target. The ability to measure telomere length is crucial to monitoring the efficacy of telomerase inhibition. In contrast to many other mammalian species, the length of canine telomeres and the rate of telomeric DNA loss are similar to those reported in humans, making dogs a compelling choice for use in the study of human anti-telomerase strategies.

  14. In vivo myograph measurement of muscle contraction at optimal length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Aminul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current devices for measuring muscle contraction in vivo have limited accuracy in establishing and re-establishing the optimum muscle length. They are variable in the reproducibility to determine the muscle contraction at this length, and often do not maintain precise conditions during the examination. Consequently, for clinical testing only semi-quantitative methods have been used. Methods We present a newly developed myograph, an accurate measuring device for muscle contraction, consisting of three elements. Firstly, an element for adjusting the axle of the device and the physiological axis of muscle contraction; secondly, an element to accurately position and reposition the extremity of the muscle; and thirdly, an element for the progressive pre-stretching and isometric locking of the target muscle. Thus it is possible to examine individual in vivo muscles in every pre-stretched, specified position, to maintain constant muscle-length conditions, and to accurately re-establish the conditions of the measurement process at later sessions. Results In a sequence of experiments the force of contraction of the muscle at differing stretching lengths were recorded and the forces determined. The optimum muscle length for maximal force of contraction was established. In a following sequence of experiments with smaller graduations around this optimal stretching length an increasingly accurate optimum muscle length for maximal force of contraction was determined. This optimum length was also accurately re-established at later sessions. Conclusion We have introduced a new technical solution for valid, reproducible in vivo force measurements on every possible point of the stretching curve. Thus it should be possible to study the muscle contraction in vivo to the same level of accuracy as is achieved in tests with in vitro organ preparations.

  15. Otolith Length-Fish Length Relationships of Eleven US Arctic Fish Species and Their Application to Ice Seal Diet Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K. L.; Norcross, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Arctic ecosystem has moved into the spotlight of scientific research in recent years due to increased climate change and oil and gas exploration. Arctic fishes and Arctic marine mammals represent key parts of this ecosystem, with fish being a common part of ice seal diets in the Arctic. Determining sizes of fish consumed by ice seals is difficult because otoliths are often the only part left of the fish after digestion. Otolith length is known to be positively related to fish length. By developing species-specific otolith-body morphometric relationships for Arctic marine fishes, fish length can be determined for fish prey found in seal stomachs. Fish were collected during ice free months in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas 2009 - 2014, and the most prevalent species captured were chosen for analysis. Otoliths from eleven fish species from seven families were measured. All species had strong linear relationships between otolith length and fish total length. Nine species had coefficient of determination values over 0.75, indicating that most of the variability in the otolith to fish length relationship was explained by the linear regression. These relationships will be applied to otoliths found in stomachs of three species of ice seals (spotted Phoca largha, ringed Pusa hispida, and bearded Erignathus barbatus) and used to estimate fish total length at time of consumption. Fish lengths can in turn be used to calculate fish weight, enabling further investigation into ice seal energetic demands. This application will aid in understanding how ice seals interact with fish communities in the US Arctic and directly contribute to diet comparisons among and within ice seal species. A better understanding of predator-prey interactions in the US Arctic will aid in predicting how ice seal and fish species will adapt to a changing Arctic.

  16. Utility of telomere length measurements for age determination of humpback whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tange Olsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the applicability of telomere length measurements by quantitative PCR as a tool for minimally invasive age determination of free-ranging cetaceans. We analysed telomere length in skin samples from 28 North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, ranging from 0 to 26 years of age. The results suggested a significant correlation between telomere length and age in humpback whales. However, telomere length was highly variable among individuals of similar age, suggesting that telomere length measured by quantitative PCR is an imprecise determinant of age in humpback whales. The observed variation in individual telomere length was found to be a function of both experimental and biological variability, with the latter perhaps reflecting patterns of inheritance, resource allocation trade-offs, and stochasticity of the marine environment.

  17. Leukocyte Telomere Length and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Frith

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the specific association between leukocyte telomere length and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. older adult population. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used to identify 1,722 adults, between 60-85 years, with complete data on selected study variables. DNA was extracted from whole blood via the LTL assay, which is administered using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to measure telomere length relative to standard reference DNA (T/S ratio. Average telomere length was recorded, with two to three assays performed to control for individual variability. The DSST (Digit Symbol Substitution Test was used to assess participant executive cognitive functioning tasks of pairing and free recall. Individuals were excluded if they had been diagnosed with coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, heart attack or stroke at the baseline assessment. Leukocyte telomere length was associated with higher cognitive performance, independent of gender, race-ethnicity, physical activity status, body mass index and other covariates. In this sample, there was a strong association between LTL and cognition; for every 1 T/S ratio increase in LTL, there was a corresponding 9.9 unit increase in the DSST (β = 9.9; 95% CI: 5.6-14.2; P [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 14-18

  18. The impact of precise robotic lesion length measurement on stent length selection: ramifications for stent savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Paul T; Kruse, Kevin R; Kroll, Christopher R; Patterson, Janet Y; Esposito, Michele J

    2015-09-01

    Coronary stent deployment outcomes can be negatively impacted by inaccurate lesion measurement and inappropriate stent length selection (SLS). We compared visual estimate of these parameters to those provided by the CorPath 200® Robotic PCI System. Sixty consecutive patients who underwent coronary stent placement utilizing the CorPath System were evaluated. The treating physician assessed orthogonal images and provided visual estimates of lesion length and SLS. The robotic system was then used for the same measures. SLS was considered to be accurate when visual estimate and robotic measures were in agreement. Visual estimate SLSs were considered to be "short" or "long" if they were below or above the robotic-selected stents, respectively. Only 35% (21/60) of visually estimated lesions resulted in accurate SLS, whereas 33% (20/60) and 32% (19/60) of the visually estimated SLSs were long and short, respectively. In 5 cases (8.3%), 1 less stent was placed based on the robotic lesion measurement being shorter than the visual estimate. Visual estimate assessment of lesion length and SLS is highly variable with 65% of the cases being inaccurately measured when compared to objective measures obtained from the robotic system. The 32% of the cases where lesions were visually estimated to be short represents cases that often require the use of extra stents after the full lesion is not covered by 1 stent [longitudinal geographic miss (LGM)]. Further, these data showed that the use of the robotic system prevented the use of extra stents in 8.3% of the cases. Measurement of lesions with robotic PCI may reduce measurement errors, need for extra stents, and LGM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  20. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  1. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments

  2. [Renal length measured by ultrasound in adult mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyuela-Carrasco, J; Rodríguez-Castellanos, F; Kimura, E; Delgado-Hernández, R; Herrera-Félix, J P

    2009-01-01

    Renal length estimation by ultrasound is an important parameter in clinical evaluation of kidney disease and healthy donors. Changes in renal volume may be a sign of kidney disease. Correct interpretation of renal length requires the knowledge of normal limits, these have not been described for Latin American population. To describe normal renal length (RL) by ultrasonography in a group of Mexican adults. Ultrasound measure of RL in 153 healthy Mexican adults stratified by age. Describe the association of RL to several anthropometric variables. A total of 77 males and 76 females were scanner. The average age for the group was 44.12 +/- 15.44 years. The mean weight, body mass index (BMI) and height were 68.87 +/- 11.69 Kg, 26.77 +/- 3.82 kg/m2 and 160 +/- 8.62 cm respectively. Dividing the population by gender, showed a height of 166 +/- 6.15 cm for males and 154.7 +/- 5.97 cm for females (p =0.000). Left renal length (LRL) in the whole group was 105.8 +/- 7.56 mm and right renal length (RRL) was 104.3 +/- 6.45 mm (p = 0.000.) The LRL for males was 107.16 +/- 6.97 mm and for females was 104.6 +/- 7.96 mm. The average RRL for males was 105.74 +/- 5.74 mm and for females 102.99 +/- 6.85 mm (p = 0.008.) We noted that RL decreased with age and the rate of decline accelerates alter 60 years of age. Both lengths correlated significantly and positively with weight, BMI and height. The RL was significantly larger in males than in females in both kidneys (p = 0.036) in this Mexican population. Renal length declines after 60 years of age and specially after 70 years.

  3. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  4. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  5. Biopsychosocial determinants of pregnancy length and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Laurent, Jennifer; De Wals, Philippe; Moutquin, Jean-Marie; Niyonsenga, Theophile; Noiseux, Manon; Czernis, Loretta

    2008-05-01

    The causes and mechanisms related to preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction are poorly understood. Our objective was to assess the direct and indirect effects of psychosocial and biomedical factors on the duration of pregnancy and fetal growth. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to pregnant women attending prenatal ultrasound clinics in nine hospitals in the Montérégie region in the province of Quebec, Canada, from November 1997 to May 1998. Prenatal questionnaires were linked with birth certificates. Theoretical models explaining pregnancy length and fetal growth were developed and tested, using path analysis. In order to reduce the number of variables from the questionnaire, a principal component analysis was performed, and the three most important new dimensions were retained as explanatory variables in the final models. Data were available for 1602 singleton pregnancies. The biophysical score, covering both maternal age and the pre-pregnancy body mass index, was the only variable statistically associated with pregnancy length. Smoking, obstetric history, maternal health and biophysical indices were direct predictors of fetal growth. Perceived stress, social support and self-esteem were not directly related to pregnancy outcomes, but were determinants of smoking and the above-mentioned biomedical variables. More studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which adverse psychosocial factors are translated into adverse biological effects.

  6. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  7. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  8. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  9. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  10. [Length of stay in patients admitted for acute heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Carbajosa, Virginia; Llorens, Pere; Herrero, Pablo; Jacob, Javier; Miró, Òscar; Fernández, Cristina; Bueno, Héctor; Calvo, Elpidio; Ribera Casado, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To identify the factors associated with prolonged length of hospital stay in patients admitted for acute heart failure. Multipurpose observational cohort study including patients from the EAHFE registry admitted for acute heart failure in 25 Spanish hospitals. Data were collected on demographic and clinical variables and on the day and place of admission. The primary outcome was length of hospital stay longer than the median. We included 2,400 patients with a mean age of 79.5 (9.9) years; of these, 1,334 (55.6%) were women. Five hundred and ninety (24.6%) were admitted to the short stay unit (SSU), 606 (25.2%) to cardiology, and 1,204 (50.2%) to internal medicine or gerontology. The mean length of hospital stay was 7.0 (RIC 4-11) days. Fifty-eight (2.4%) patients died and 562 (23.9%) were readmitted within 30 days after discharge. The factors associated with prolonged length of hospital stay were chronic pulmonary disease; being a device carrier; having an unknown or uncommon triggering factor; the presence of renal insufficiency, hyponatremia and anaemia in the emergency department; not being admitted to an SSU or the lack of this facility in the hospital; and being admitted on Monday, Tuesday or Wednesday. The factors associated with length of hospital stay≤7days were hypertension, having a hypertensive episode, or a lack of treatment adherence. The area under the curve of the mixed model adjusted to the center was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.76-0.80; p<0.001). A series of factors is associated with prolonged length of hospital stay and should be taken into account in the management of acute heart failure. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  12. Length scale for configurational entropy in microemulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, H.; Kegel, W.K.; Groenewold, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the length scale that must be used in evaluating the mixing entropy in a microemulsion. The central idea involves the choice of a length scale in configuration space that is consistent with the physical definition of entropy in phase space. We show that this scale may be

  13. Proofs of Contracted Length Non-covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Different proofs of contracted length non covariance are discussed. The way based on the establishment of interval inconstancy (dependence on velocity) seems to be the most convincing one. It is stressed that the known non covariance of the electromagnetic field energy and momentum of a moving charge ('the problem 4/3') is a direct consequence of contracted length non covariance. 8 refs

  14. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  15. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  16. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women

  17. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  18. Roentgenologic investigations for the anterior tooth length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author measured the length of crown, root and tooth on the films which was taken by intraoral bisecting technic with mesh plate on the films. The films were taken from the dry skulls, dentiform, same patients who had to be removed their upper incisors, and the other patients who admitted for dental care. From this serial experiment the results were made as follows: 1. By using the film and mesh plate in the oral cavity, the real tooth length can be measured easily on the film surfaces. 2. The film distortion in the oral cavity can be avoided when taking the film using the mesh plate and film together. 3. When measuring the film, length of crown was elongated and length of root was shortened. 4. When using the well-trained bisecting technic, the real tooth length can be measured directly on the intraoral film.

  19. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  20. Microcomputer system for controlling fuel rod length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.R.; Bouldin, D.W.; Bolfing, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to automatically measure and control the length of fuel rods for use in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The system utilizes an LSI-11 microcomputer for monitoring fuel rod length and for adjusting the primary factor affecting length. Preliminary results indicate that the automated system can maintain fuel rod length within the specified limits of 1.940 +- 0.040 in. This system provides quality control documentation and eliminates the dependence of the current fuel rod molding process on manual length control. In addition, the microcomputer system is compatible with planned efforts to extend control to fuel rod fissile and fertile material contents

  1. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  2. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  3. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  4. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  5. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  6. Umbilical cord length in singleton gestations: a Finnish population-based retrospective register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, L; Keski-Nisula, L; Harju, M; Räisänen, S; Georgiadis, S; Hannila, M-L; Heinonen, S

    2014-04-01

    Many complications of pregnancy and delivery are associated with umbilical cord length. It is important to examine the variation in length, in order to identify normal and abnormal conditions. Moreover, the factors influencing cord growth and development are not precisely known. The main objectives were to provide updated reference charts for umbilical cord length in singleton pregnancies and to evaluate potential factors affecting cord length. Birth register data of 47,284 singleton pregnant women delivering in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland was collected prospectively. Gender-specific centile charts for cord length from 22 to 44 gestational weeks were obtained using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). Gestational, fetal, and maternal factors were studied for their potential influence on cord length with single variable analysis and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Cord length increased according to gestational age, while the growth decelerated post-term. Birth weight, placental weight, pregravid maternal body mass index, parity, and maternal age correlated to cord length. Gestational diabetes and previous miscarriages were associated with longer cords, while female gender and placental abruption were associated with shorter cords. Girls had shorter cords throughout gestation although there was substantial variation in length in both genders. Cord length associated significantly with birth weight, placental weight, and gestational age. Significantly shorter cords were found in women with placental abruption. This important finding requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of random edge failure on the average path length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Dongchao; Liang Mangui; Li Dandan; Jiang Zhongyuan, E-mail: mgliang58@gmail.com, E-mail: 08112070@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Information Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, 100044, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-14

    We study the effect of random removal of edges on the average path length (APL) in a large class of uncorrelated random networks in which vertices are characterized by hidden variables controlling the attachment of edges between pairs of vertices. A formula for approximating the APL of networks suffering random edge removal is derived first. Then, the formula is confirmed by simulations for classical ER (Erdoes and Renyi) random graphs, BA (Barabasi and Albert) networks, networks with exponential degree distributions as well as random networks with asymptotic power-law degree distributions with exponent {alpha} > 2. (paper)

  8. The benefits of longer fuel cycle lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Longer fuel cycle lengths have been found to increase generation and improve outage management. A study at Duke Power Company has shown that longer fuel cycles offer both increased scheduling flexibility and increased capacity factors

  9. Atomic frequency-time-length standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, O.C.; Mandache, C.

    1987-01-01

    The principles of operative of atomic frequency-time-length standards and their principle characteristics are described. The role of quartz crystal oscillators which are sloved to active or passive standards is presented. (authors)

  10. The analysis of projected fission track lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laslett, G.M.; Galbraith, R.F.; Green, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how features of the thermal history can be estimated from projected track length measurements, i.e. lengths of the remaining parts of tracks that have intersected a surface, projected onto that surface. The appropriate mathematical theory is described and used to provide a sound basis both for understanding the nature of projected length measurements and for analysing observed data. The estimation of thermal history parameters corresponding to the current temperature, the maximum palaeotemperature and the time since cooling, is studied using laboratory data and simulations. In general the information contained in projected track lengths and angles is fairly limited, compared, for example, with that from a much smaller number of confined tracks, though we identify some circumstances when such measurements may be useful. Also it is not straightforward to extract the information and simple ad hoc estimation methods are generally inadequate. (author)

  11. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  12. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  13. Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(−N/N K ), where the estimates of parameter N K are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius r ex , i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA. (paper)

  14. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  15. Study on the Connecting Length of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongfei; Li, Yue; Li, Zhanguo

    2018-05-01

    The paper studied the varying mode of shear stress in the connecting zone of CFRP. Using epoxy resin (EP) as bond material, performance of specimens with different connecting length of CFRP was tested to obtain the conclusion. CFRP-confined concrete column was tested subsequently to verify the conclusion. The results show that: (1) The binding properties of modified epoxy resin with CFRP is good; (2) As the connecting length increased, the ultimate tensile strength of CFRP increased as well in the range of the experiment parameters; (3) Tensile strength of CFRP can reach the ultimate strength when the connecting length is 90mm;(4) The connecting length of 90mm of CFRP meet the reinforcement requirements.

  16. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  17. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  18. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  19. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)

  20. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.

  1. Variable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, J.B.; McBride, T.R.; Covic, J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes an automatic variable collimator which controls the width and thickness of X-ray beams in X-ray diagnostic medical equipment, and which is particularly adapted for use with computerized axial tomographic scanners. A two-part collimator is provided which shapes an X-ray beam both prior to its entering an object subject to radiographic analysis and after the attenuated beam has passed through the object. Interposed between a source of radiation and the object subject to radiographic analysis is a first or source collimator. The source collimator causes the X-ray beam emitted by the source of radiation to be split into a plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams. Disposed within the source collimator is a movable aperture plate which may be used to selectively vary the thickness of the plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams transmitted through the source collimator. A second or receiver collimator is interposed between the object subject to radiographic analysis and a series of radiation detectors. The receiver collimator is disposed to receive the attenuated X-ray beams passing through the object subject to radiographic analysis. Located within the receiver collimator are a plurality of movable aperture plates adapted to be displaced relative to a plurality of fixed aperture plates for the purpose of varying the width and thickness of the attenuated X-ray beams transmitted through the object subject to radiographic analysis. The movable aperture plates of the source and receiver collimators are automatically controlled by circuitry which is provided to allow remote operation of the movable aperture plates

  2. length-weight relationhip of freshwater wild fish species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Naeem

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Length-weight (LWR) and length-length relationships (LLR) were determined for a freshwater catfish ... Key words: Mystus bleekeri, length-weight relationship, length-length relationship, predictive equations. INTRODUCTION. Mystus bleekeri (freshwater catfish Day, 1877), locally ..... fish farmers, Aquacult.

  3. In vivo metacarpophalanageal joint collateral ligament length changes during flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y C; Sheng, X M; Chen, J; Qian, Z W

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the in vivo length changes of the collateral ligaments of metacarpophalangeal joint during flexion. We obtained computed tomography scans of index, middle, ring and little fingers at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of joint flexion from six hands of six healthy adult volunteers. Three of them had their dominant right hand studied, and the other three had their non-dominant left hand studied. We measured and analysed the radial and ulnar collateral ligaments of each metacarpophalangeal joint from the reconstructed images. We found that the dorsal and middle portions of the both radial and ulnar collateral ligament lengthened progressively during digital flexion and reached the maximum at 90° flexion. The length of the volar portion increased from 0° to 30° flexion and then decreased from 30° to 60° flexion, reaching the minimum at 90°. In conclusion, three portions of collateral ligaments on both sides of the metacarpophalangeal joint have variable length changes during flexion, which act to stabilize the joint through its flexion arc.

  4. Comparison of reconfigurable structures for flexible word-length multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pfänder

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Binary multiplication continues to be one of the essential arithmetic operations in digital circuits. Even though field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are becoming more and more powerful these days, the vendors cannot avoid implementing multiplications with high word-lengths using embedded blocks instead of configurable logic. But on the other hand, the circuit's efficiency decreases if the provided word-length of the hard-wired multipliers exceeds the precision requirements of the algorithm mapped into the FPGA. Thus it is beneficial to use multiplier blocks with configurable word-length, optimized for area, speed and power dissipation, e.g. regarding digital signal processing (DSP applications.

    In this contribution, we present different approaches and structures for the realization of a multiplication with variable precision and perform an objective comparison. This includes one approach based on a modified Baugh and Wooley algorithm and three structures using Booth's arithmetic operand recoding with different array structures. All modules have the option to compute signed two's complement fix-point numbers either as an individual computing unit or interconnected to a superior array. Therefore, a high throughput at low precision through parallelism, or a high precision through concatenation can be achieved.

  5. Study on the Workspace of a 6-DOF Parallel Topology Robot Related to Binary Link Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Octavian Miclosina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the workspace of a parallel topology robot with the structure FP3+6•SPS+MP3. The variable parameters are the binary link lengths, from both upper and lower levels, and the driving kinematical joint strokes. The workspace boundary is determined by SolidWorks software simulations. For different binary link lengths, workspace volume is determined and sections through the workspace are presented.

  6. Length expectation values in quantum Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Regge calculus configuration superspace can be embedded into a more general superspace where the length of any edge is defined ambiguously depending on the 4-tetrahedron containing the edge. Moreover, the latter superspace can be extended further so that even edge lengths in each the 4-tetrahedron are not defined, only area tensors of the 2-faces in it are. We make use of our previous result concerning quantization of the area tensor Regge calculus which gives finite expectation values for areas. Also our result is used showing that quantum measure in the Regge calculus can be uniquely fixed once we know quantum measure on (the space of the functionals on) the superspace of the theory with ambiguously defined edge lengths. We find that in this framework quantization of the usual Regge calculus is defined up to a parameter. The theory may possess nonzero (of the order of Planck scale) or zero length expectation values depending on whether this parameter is larger or smaller than a certain value. Vanishing length expectation values means that the theory is becoming continuous, here dynamically in the originally discrete framework

  7. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease. (paper)

  8. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  9. Effect of altering starting length and activation timing of muscle on fiber strain and muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Timothy A; Herzog, Walter

    2006-05-01

    Muscle strain injuries are some of the most frequent injuries in sports and command a great deal of attention in an effort to understand their etiology. These injuries may be the culmination of a series of subcellular events accumulated through repetitive lengthening (eccentric) contractions during exercise, and they may be influenced by a variety of variables including fiber strain magnitude, peak joint torque, and starting muscle length. To assess the influence of these variables on muscle injury magnitude in vivo, we measured fiber dynamics and joint torque production during repeated stretch-shortening cycles in the rabbit tibialis anterior muscle, at short and long muscle lengths, while varying the timing of activation before muscle stretch. We found that a muscle subjected to repeated stretch-shortening cycles of constant muscle-tendon unit excursion exhibits significantly different joint torque and fiber strains when the timing of activation or starting muscle length is changed. In particular, measures of fiber strain and muscle injury were significantly increased by altering activation timing and increasing the starting length of the muscle. However, we observed differential effects on peak joint torque during the cyclic stretch-shortening exercise, as increasing the starting length of the muscle did not increase torque production. We conclude that altering activation timing and muscle length before stretch may influence muscle injury by significantly increasing fiber strain magnitude and that fiber dynamics is a more important variable than muscle-tendon unit dynamics and torque production in influencing the magnitude of muscle injury.

  10. Nuclear reactor with scrammable part length rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new part length rod is provided. It may be used to control xenon induced power oscillations but to contribute to shutdown reactivity when a rapid shutdown of the reactor is required. The part length rod consists of a control rod with three regions. The lower control region is a longer weaker active portion separated from an upper stronger shorter poison section by an intermediate section which is a relative non-absorber of neutrons. The combination of the longer weaker control section with the upper high worth poison section permits the part length rod of this to be scrammed into the core when a reactor shutdown is required but also permits the control rod to be used as a tool to control power distribution in both the axial and radial directions during normal operation

  11. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-/angstrom/ wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  12. Aminophylline increases seizure length during electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L; Dannon, P N; Hirschmann, S; Schriber, S; Amytal, D; Dolberg, O T; Grunhaus, L

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for patients with major depression and persistent psychosis. Seizure characteristics probably determine the therapeutic effect of ECT; as a consequence, short seizures are accepted as one of the factors of poor outcome. During most ECT courses seizure threshold increases and seizure duration decreases. Methylxanthine preparations, caffeine, and theophylline have been used to prolong seizure duration. The use of aminophylline, more readily available than caffeine, has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to test the effects of aminophylline on seizure length. Fourteen drug-free patients with diagnoses of affective disorder or psychotic episode receiving ECT participated in this study. Seizure length was assessed clinically and per EEG. Statistical comparisons were done using paired t tests. A significant increase (p < 0.04) in seizure length was achieved and maintained on three subsequent treatments with aminophylline. No adverse events were noted from the addition of aminophylline.

  13. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  14. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    VBGF (soVBGF) requires a more intensive search due to two additional parameters. This work describes the implementation of two optimisation approaches ("simulated annealing" and "genetic algorithm") for growth function fitting using the open-source software "R." Using a generated LFQ data set......Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...... of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment....

  15. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-angstrom wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs

  16. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  17. Stride length: measuring its instantaneous value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, G C; Mazzeo, J R

    2007-01-01

    Human gait has been studied from different viewpoints: kinematics, dynamics, sensibility and others. Many of its characteristics still remain open to research, both for normal gait and for pathological gait. Objective measures of some of its most significant spatial/temporal parameters are important in this context. Stride length, one of these parameters, is defined as the distance between two consecutive contacts of one foot with ground. On this work we present a device designed to provide automatic measures of stride length. Its features make it particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pathological gait

  18. Word length, set size, and lexical factors: Re-examining what causes the word length effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Gabel, Andrew J; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Surprenant, Aimée M; Neath, Ian

    2018-04-19

    The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that when the short and long words are equated on more dimensions, concurrent articulation abolishes the word length effect for large stimulus sets. Experiment 3 shows a standard word length effect when output time is equated, but Experiments 4-6 show no word length effect when short and long words are equated on increasingly more dimensions that previous demonstrations have overlooked. Finally, Experiment 7 compared recall of a small and large neighborhood words that were equated on all the dimensions used in Experiment 6 (except for those directly related to neighborhood size) and a neighborhood size effect was still observed. We conclude that lexical factors, rather than word length per se, are better predictors of when the word length effect will occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  20. Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Shani Aoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly   for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term  flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.

  1. Neutron scattering lengths of 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Akopian, G.G.; Wierzbicki, J.; Govorov, A.M.; Pikelner, L.B.; Sharapov, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The total neutron scattering cross-section of 3 He has been measured in the neutron energy range from 20 meV to 2 eV. Together with the known value of coherent scattering amplitude it leads to the two sts of n 3 He scattering lengths

  2. Phonological length, phonetic duration and aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbers, D.G.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; van der Linde, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study discusses an error type that is expected to occur in aphasics suffering from a phonological disorder, i.e. Wernicke's and conduction aphasics, but not in aphasics suffering from a phonetic disorder, i.e. Broca's aphasics. The critical notion is 'phonological length'. It will be argued

  3. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  4. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols....

  5. Asymptotic Translation Length in the Curve Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01

    We show that when the genus and punctures of a surface are directly proportional by some rational number the minimal asymptotic translation length in the curve complex has behavior inverse to the square of the Euler characteristic. We also show that when the genus is fixed and the number of punctures varies the behavior is inverse to the Euler characteristic.

  6. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...

  7. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  8. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Length. 658.13 Section 658.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE... Network or in transit between these highways and terminals or service locations pursuant to § 658.19. (b...

  9. Link lengths and their growth powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Youngsik; No, Sungjong; Oh, Seungsang; Rawdon, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    For a certain infinite family F of knots or links, we study the growth power ratios of their stick number, lattice stick number, minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength compared with their minimum crossing number c(K) for every K∈F. It is known that the stick number and lattice stick number grow between the (1/2) and linear power of the crossing number, and minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow with at least the (3/4) power of crossing number (which is called the four-thirds power law). Furthermore, the minimal lattice length and minimum ropelength grow at most as O (c(K)[ln(c(K))] 5 ), but it is unknown whether any family exhibits superlinear growth. For any real number r between (1/2) and 1, we give an infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the stick number and lattice stick number grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. Furthermore for any real number r between (3/4) and 1, we give another infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. (paper)

  10. Exciton diffusion length in narrow bandgap polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhnenko, O.V.; Azimi, H.; Morana, M.; Blom, P.W.M.; Loi, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new method to accurately extract the singlet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors by blending them with a low concentration of methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) decay time on the fullerene

  11. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    thin disk density scale length, hR, is rather short (2.7 ± 0.1 kpc). Key words. ... The 2MASS near infrared data provide, for the first time, deep star counts on a ... peaks allows to adjust the spatial extinction law in the model. ... probability that fi.

  12. The effects of session length on demand functions generated using FR schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T Mary; Kinloch, Jennifer; Poling, Alan

    2011-05-01

    In comparing open and closed economies, researchers often arrange shorter sessions under the former condition than under the latter. Several studies indicate that session length per se can affect performance and there are some data that indicate that this variable can influence demand functions. To provide further data, the present study exposed domestic hens to series of increasing fixed-ratio schedules with the length of the open-economy sessions varied over 10, 40, 60, and 120 min. Session time affected the total-session response rates and pause lengths. The shortest session gave the greatest response rates and shortest pauses and the longest gave the lowest response rates and longest pauses. The total-session demand functions also changed with session length: The shortest session gave steeper initial slopes (i.e., the functions were more elastic at small ratios) and smaller rates of change of elasticity than the longest session. Response rates, pauses, and demand functions were, however, similar for equivalent periods of responding taken from within sessions of different overall lengths (e.g., total-session data for 10-min sessions and the data for the first 10 min of 120-min sessions). These findings suggest that differences in session length can confound the results of studies comparing open and closed economies when those economies are arranged in sessions that differ substantially in length, hence data for equivalent-length periods of responding, rather than total-session data, should be of primary interest under these conditions.

  13. Modeling Wood Fibre Length in Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. BSP Based on Ecological Land Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Townshend

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective planning to optimize the forest value chain requires accurate and detailed information about the resource; however, estimates of the distribution of fibre properties on the landscape are largely unavailable prior to harvest. Our objective was to fit a model of the tree-level average fibre length related to ecosite classification and other forest inventory variables depicted at the landscape scale. A series of black spruce increment cores were collected at breast height from trees in nine different ecosite groups within the boreal forest of northeastern Ontario, and processed using standard techniques for maceration and fibre length measurement. Regression tree analysis and random forests were used to fit hierarchical classification models and find the most important predictor variables for the response variable area-weighted mean stem-level fibre length. Ecosite group was the best predictor in the regression tree. Longer mean fibre-length was associated with more productive ecosites that supported faster growth. The explanatory power of the model of fitted data was good; however, random forests simulations indicated poor generalizability. These results suggest the potential to develop localized models linking wood fibre length in black spruce to landscape-level attributes, and improve the sustainability of forest management by identifying ideal locations to harvest wood that has desirable fibre characteristics.

  14. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  15. Investigations on quantum mechanics with minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargui, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    We consider a modified quantum mechanics where the coordinates and momenta are assumed to satisfy a non-standard commutation relation of the form( X i , P j ) = iℎ(δ ij (1+βP 2 )+β'P i P j ). Such an algebra results in a generalized uncertainty relation which leads to the existence of a minimal observable length. Moreover, it incorporates an UV/IR mixing and non commutative position space. We analyse the possible representations in terms of differential operators. The latter are used to study the low energy effects of the minimal length by considering different quantum systems : the harmonic oscillator, the Klein-Gordon oscillator, the spinless Salpeter Coulomb problem, and the Dirac equation with a linear confining potential. We also discuss whether such effects are observable in precision measurements on a relativistic electron trapped in strong magnetic field.

  16. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirpanah, Nadia; Verhagen, Fleurieke H; Rothova, Anna; Missotten, Tom O A R; van Velthoven, Mirjam; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Hoyng, Carel B; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Broen, Jasper C A; Kuiper, Jonas J W

    2017-01-01

    Birdshot Uveitis (BU) is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes. To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls. Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL) = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair) compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair) in unaffected controls (PRTEL1. These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  17. Length quantization of DNA partially expelled from heads of a bacteriophage T3 mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serwer, Philip, E-mail: serwer@uthscsa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900 (United States); Wright, Elena T. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900 (United States); Liu, Zheng; Jiang, Wen [Markey Center for Structural Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    DNA packaging of phages phi29, T3 and T7 sometimes produces incompletely packaged DNA with quantized lengths, based on gel electrophoretic band formation. We discover here a packaging ATPase-free, in vitro model for packaged DNA length quantization. We use directed evolution to isolate a five-site T3 point mutant that hyper-produces tail-free capsids with mature DNA (heads). Three tail gene mutations, but no head gene mutations, are present. A variable-length DNA segment leaks from some mutant heads, based on DNase I-protection assay and electron microscopy. The protected DNA segment has quantized lengths, based on restriction endonuclease analysis: six sharp bands of DNA missing 3.7–12.3% of the last end packaged. Native gel electrophoresis confirms quantized DNA expulsion and, after removal of external DNA, provides evidence that capsid radius is the quantization-ruler. Capsid-based DNA length quantization possibly evolved via selection for stalling that provides time for feedback control during DNA packaging and injection. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: • We implement directed evolution- and DNA-sequencing-based phage assembly genetics. • We purify stable, mutant phage heads with a partially leaked mature DNA molecule. • Native gels and DNase-protection show leaked DNA segments to have quantized lengths. • Native gels after DNase I-removal of leaked DNA reveal the capsids to vary in radius. • Thus, we hypothesize leaked DNA quantization via variably quantized capsid radius.

  18. Quark ensembles with infinite correlation length

    OpenAIRE

    Molodtsov, S. V.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    By studying quark ensembles with infinite correlation length we formulate the quantum field theory model that, as we show, is exactly integrable and develops an instability of its standard vacuum ensemble (the Dirac sea). We argue such an instability is rooted in high ground state degeneracy (for 'realistic' space-time dimensions) featuring a fairly specific form of energy distribution, and with the cutoff parameter going to infinity this inherent energy distribution becomes infinitely narrow...

  19. Summary of coherent neutron scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.

    1981-07-01

    Experimental values of neutron-nuclei bound scattering lengths for some 354 isotopes and elements and the various spin-states are compiled in a uniform way together with their error bars as quoted in the original literature. Recommended values are also given. The definitions of the relevant quantities presented in the data tables and the basic principles of measurements are explained in the introductory chapters. The data is also available on a magnetic tape

  20. Asymptotic safety, emergence and minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percacci, Roberto; Vacca, Gian Paolo

    2010-01-01

    There seems to be a common prejudice that asymptotic safety is either incompatible with, or at best unrelated to, the other topics in the title. This is not the case. In fact, we show that (1) the existence of a fixed point with suitable properties is a promising way of deriving emergent properties of gravity, and (2) there is a sense in which asymptotic safety implies a minimal length. In doing so we also discuss possible signatures of asymptotic safety in scattering experiments.

  1. Minimal length uncertainty relation and ultraviolet regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Achim; Mangano, Gianpiero

    1997-06-01

    Studies in string theory and quantum gravity suggest the existence of a finite lower limit Δx0 to the possible resolution of distances, at the latest on the scale of the Planck length of 10-35 m. Within the framework of the Euclidean path integral we explicitly show ultraviolet regularization in field theory through this short distance structure. Both rotation and translation invariance can be preserved. An example is studied in detail.

  2. Technical design study. BESSY VSR. Variable pulse length Storage Ring. Upgrade of BESSY II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    BESSY-VSR is a novel approach to create in the Storage Ring BESSY II long and short photon pulses simultaneously for all beam lines through a pair of superconducting bunch compression cavities. Pulse-picking schemes will allow each individual user to freely switch between high average flux for X-ray spectroscopy, microscopy and scattering and picosecond pulses up to 500 MHz repetition rate for dynamic studies. Thus BESSY-VSR preserves the present average brilliance of BESSY II and adds the new capability of user accessible picosecond pulses at high repetition rate. In addition, high intensities for THz radiation with intrinsic synchronization of THz and X-ray pulses can be extracted from BESSY-VSR. For the scientific challenges of quantum materials for energy, future information technologies and basic energy science BESSY-VSR is the multi-user Synchrotron Radiation facility that allows with the flexible switching between high repetition rate for picosecond dynamics and high average brightness to move classical 3rd generation Synchrotron Radiation science from the observation of static properties and their quantum mechanical description towards the function and the control of materials properties, technologically relevant switching processes and chemical dynamics and kinetics on the picosecond time scale. Strategic relevance of BESSY-VSR for science with photons BESSY-VSR creates for the highly productive Synchrotron Radiation community a uniquely attractive multi user storage ring adding the soft X-ray picosecond dynamics at MHz repetition rate. In particular investigations on reversible dynamics and switching in molecular systems and materials are accessible in a non destructive way. The investigations with X-rays from BESSY-VSR are highly complementary and compatible to dynamic studies conducted by users with optical lasers at their home universities and laboratories. Technologically, the employed superconducting bunch compression cavities in BESSY-VSR are a direct synergy to the CW superconducting cavities developed for bERLinPro. Unique science opportunities by BESSY-VSR for quantum materials for energy, future information technologies and basic energy science BESSY-VSR users will excel to correlate chemical function with molecular dynamics on multidimensional potential energy surfaces and to determine principles underlying functional materials for reversible processes such as switching. The ability to determine through high quality Synchrotron Radiation Spectroscopy, Scattering and Microscopy the geometric and electronic structure as well as the nanoscale composition is the first step to then create and investigate transient states and their picosecond dynamics that govern materials' function. Here both X-ray probes and IR/ THz pulses from BESSY-VSR uniquely enable THz-EPR experiments with picosecond time resolution to reveal the structure-dynamic-function relationship of functional molecular systems.

  3. Using the Variable-Length Arithmetic for an Accurate Poles-Zeros Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michal

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a reduction algorithm for transforming the generaleigenvalue problem to the standard one is presented for both classicalfull-matrix methods and a sparse-matrix technique appropriate forlarge-scale circuits. An optimal pivoting strategy for the two methodsis proposed to increase the precision of the computations. The accuracyof the algorithms is furthermore increased using longer numerical data.First, a ORQJ.GRXEOH precision sparse algorithm is compared with theGRXEOH precision sparse and full-matrix ones. Finally, the applicationof a suitable multiple-precision arithmetic library is evaluated.

  4. FRC formation studies in a field reversed theta pinch with a variable length coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqueda, R.; Sobehart, J.; Rodrigo, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The formation phase of field reversed configurations (FRC) produced using a theta pinch has received considerable attention lately in connection with the possibility of developing formation methods in time scales longer than the Alven radial time, which would permit the use of low-voltage technology and represent an important engineering simplification in the trend towards larger scale machines sup (1)). The mechanisms leading to the loss of trapped reversed flux during the preheating 2 ) and formation sup (3,4)) stages, looking for maximization of this quantity in order to improve on the stability and transport properties of the configuration in its final equilibrium state are investigated. As a result, semi-emperical scaling laws have been obtained relating the reversed flux loss with experimental operating parameters during the early stages of the formation process 1 ). (author) [pt

  5. Technical design study. BESSY VSR. Variable pulse length Storage Ring. Upgrade of BESSY II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    BESSY-VSR is a novel approach to create in the Storage Ring BESSY II long and short photon pulses simultaneously for all beam lines through a pair of superconducting bunch compression cavities. Pulse-picking schemes will allow each individual user to freely switch between high average flux for X-ray spectroscopy, microscopy and scattering and picosecond pulses up to 500 MHz repetition rate for dynamic studies. Thus BESSY-VSR preserves the present average brilliance of BESSY II and adds the new capability of user accessible picosecond pulses at high repetition rate. In addition, high intensities for THz radiation with intrinsic synchronization of THz and X-ray pulses can be extracted from BESSY-VSR. For the scientific challenges of quantum materials for energy, future information technologies and basic energy science BESSY-VSR is the multi-user Synchrotron Radiation facility that allows with the flexible switching between high repetition rate for picosecond dynamics and high average brightness to move classical 3rd generation Synchrotron Radiation science from the observation of static properties and their quantum mechanical description towards the function and the control of materials properties, technologically relevant switching processes and chemical dynamics and kinetics on the picosecond time scale. Strategic relevance of BESSY-VSR for science with photons BESSY-VSR creates for the highly productive Synchrotron Radiation community a uniquely attractive multi user storage ring adding the soft X-ray picosecond dynamics at MHz repetition rate. In particular investigations on reversible dynamics and switching in molecular systems and materials are accessible in a non destructive way. The investigations with X-rays from BESSY-VSR are highly complementary and compatible to dynamic studies conducted by users with optical lasers at their home universities and laboratories. Technologically, the employed superconducting bunch compression cavities in BESSY-VSR are a direct synergy to the CW superconducting cavities developed for bERLinPro. Unique science opportunities by BESSY-VSR for quantum materials for energy, future information technologies and basic energy science BESSY-VSR users will excel to correlate chemical function with molecular dynamics on multidimensional potential energy surfaces and to determine principles underlying functional materials for reversible processes such as switching. The ability to determine through high quality Synchrotron Radiation Spectroscopy, Scattering and Microscopy the geometric and electronic structure as well as the nanoscale composition is the first step to then create and investigate transient states and their picosecond dynamics that govern materials' function. Here both X-ray probes and IR/ THz pulses from BESSY-VSR uniquely enable THz-EPR experiments with picosecond time resolution to reveal the structure-dynamic-function relationship of functional molecular systems.

  6. Variable retinal presentations in nanophthalmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Zafar, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Nanophthalmos is an uncommon developmental ocular disorder characterized by a small eye with short axial length, high hyperopia and high lens/eye volume ratio due to arrested development of the globe in all directions. Different types of fundus changes can rarely occur with nanophthalmos. We describe five cases of nanophthalmos, each of them presenting with a different fundus appearance. Our case series highlights variability of pigmentary changes from retinal flecks to bone spicules and bull's eye maculopathy, which are rare in the combinations described here. (author)

  7. The Effective Coherence Length in Anisotropic Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Nesher, O

    1999-01-01

    If electrons are transmitted from a normal conductor(N) into a superconductor(S), common wisdom has it that the electrons are converted into Cooper pairs within a coherence length from the interface. This is true in conventional superconductors with an isotropic order parameter. We have established experimentally that the situation is rather different in high Tc superconductors having an anisotropic order parameter. We used epitaxial thin film S/N bilayers having different interface orientations in order to inject carriers from S into N along different directions. The distance to which these carriers penetrate were determined through their effect on the Tc of the bilayers. We found that the effective coherence length is 20A only along the a or b directions, while in other directions we find a length of 250dr20A out of plane, and an even larger value for in-plane, off high symmetry directions. These observations can be explained using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model adapted to anisotropic superconductivity. Several implications of our results on outstanding problems with high Tc junctions will be discussed

  8. FTO associations with obesity and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuling; Hambly, Brett D; McLachlan, Craig S

    2017-09-01

    This review examines the biology of the Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO), and the implications of genetic association of FTO SNPs with obesity and genetic aging. Notably, we focus on the role of FTO in the regulation of methylation status as possible regulators of weight gain and genetic aging. We present a theoretical review of the FTO gene with a particular emphasis on associations with UCP2, AMPK, RBL2, IRX3, CUX1, mTORC1 and hormones involved in hunger regulation. These associations are important for dietary behavior regulation and cellular nutrient sensing via amino acids. We suggest that these pathways may also influence telomere regulation. Telomere length (TL) attrition may be influenced by obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress, and FTO gene-involved pathways. There is additional emerging evidence to suggest that telomere length and obesity are bi-directionally associated. However, the role of obesity risk-related genotypes and associations with TL are not well understood. The FTO gene may influence pathways implicated in regulation of TL, which could help to explain some of the non-consistent relationship between weight phenotype and telomere length that is observed in population studies investigating obesity.

  9. Slip length crossover on a graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhi, E-mail: liangz3@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel, E-mail: keplip@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.

  10. Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Colson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.

  11. Fabrication of ultrashort niobium variable-thickness bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.

    1982-01-01

    A simple technique for the fabrication of niobium variable-thickness bridges of length approx.0.1 μm is described. The bridges are found to operate as ideal Josephson junctions over a wide temperature range

  12. Variability and correlations between characteristics in pumpkin varieties (Cucurbita maxima Duch. ex Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Emina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability and correlations among morphological features of eight ornamental pumpkin varieties were studied under field conditions. The variability of plant height, fruit length, fruit width, fruith weight, fruit peel thickness, length and circumference of handle grip, leaf length, leaf width, seed length, seed width, seed thickness and number of fruits per plant in the examined material was high. The highest variability was related to the fruit properties. This variability represents a good source for future breeding programs. Correlations between the traits indicated a significant influence of leaf and seed characteristics on fruit properties. Multivariate statistical analysis provided differentiation of varieties on two phenotypically different groups.

  13. Appointment length, psychiatrists' communication behaviors, and medication management appointment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mario; Roter, Debra L; Cruz, Robyn F; Wieland, Melissa; Larson, Susan; Cooper, Lisa A; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-09-01

    The authors explored the relationship between critical elements of medication management appointments (appointment length, patient-centered talk, and positive nonverbal affect among providers) and patient appointment adherence. The authors used an exploratory, cross-sectional design employing quantitative analysis of 83 unique audio recordings of split treatment medication management appointments for 46 African-American and 37 white patients with 24 psychiatrists at four ambulatory mental health clinics. All patients had a diagnosis of depression. Data collected included demographic information; Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores for depression severity; psychiatrist verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors during medication management appointments, identified by the Roter Interaction Analysis System during analysis of audio recordings; and appointment adherence. Bivariate analyses were employed to identify covariates that might influence appointment adherence. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were employed to assess the relationship between appointment length, psychiatrist patient-centered talk, and positive voice tone ratings and patient appointment adherence, while adjusting for covariates and the clustering of observations within psychiatrists. Wald chi square analyses were used to test whether all or some variables significantly influenced appointment adherence. GEE revealed a significant relationship between positive voice tone ratings and appointment adherence (p=.03). Chi square analyses confirmed the hypothesis of a positive and significant relationship between appointment adherence and positive voice tone ratings (p=.03) but not longer visit length and more patient-centered communication. The nonverbal conveyance of positive affect was associated with greater adherence to medication management appointments by depressed patients. These findings potentially have important implications for communication skills training and adherence research.

  14. Analysing the length of care episode after hip fracture: a nonparametric and a parametric Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, Jaakko; Sund, Reijo; Vehtari, Aki

    2010-06-01

    Effective utilisation of limited resources is a challenge for health care providers. Accurate and relevant information extracted from the length of stay distributions is useful for management purposes. Patient care episodes can be reconstructed from the comprehensive health registers, and in this paper we develop a Bayesian approach to analyse the length of care episode after a fractured hip. We model the large scale data with a flexible nonparametric multilayer perceptron network and with a parametric Weibull mixture model. To assess the performances of the models, we estimate expected utilities using predictive density as a utility measure. Since the model parameters cannot be directly compared, we focus on observables, and estimate the relevances of patient explanatory variables in predicting the length of stay. To demonstrate how the use of the nonparametric flexible model is advantageous for this complex health care data, we also study joint effects of variables in predictions, and visualise nonlinearities and interactions found in the data.

  15. Graph run-length matrices for histopathological image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Akif Burak; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2011-03-01

    The histopathological examination of tissue specimens is essential for cancer diagnosis and grading. However, this examination is subject to a considerable amount of observer variability as it mainly relies on visual interpretation of pathologists. To alleviate this problem, it is very important to develop computational quantitative tools, for which image segmentation constitutes the core step. In this paper, we introduce an effective and robust algorithm for the segmentation of histopathological tissue images. This algorithm incorporates the background knowledge of the tissue organization into segmentation. For this purpose, it quantifies spatial relations of cytological tissue components by constructing a graph and uses this graph to define new texture features for image segmentation. This new texture definition makes use of the idea of gray-level run-length matrices. However, it considers the runs of cytological components on a graph to form a matrix, instead of considering the runs of pixel intensities. Working with colon tissue images, our experiments demonstrate that the texture features extracted from "graph run-length matrices" lead to high segmentation accuracies, also providing a reasonable number of segmented regions. Compared with four other segmentation algorithms, the results show that the proposed algorithm is more effective in histopathological image segmentation.

  16. The expression of the skeletal muscle force-length relationship in vivo: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Samantha L; Challis, John H

    2010-02-21

    The force-length relationship is one of the most important mechanical characteristics of skeletal muscle in humans and animals. For a physiologically realistic joint range of motion and therefore range of muscle fibre lengths only part of the force-length curve may be used in vivo, i.e. only a section of the force-length curve is expressed. A generalised model of a mono-articular muscle-tendon complex was used to examine the effect of various muscle architecture parameters on the expressed section of the force-length relationship for a 90 degrees joint range of motion. The parameters investigated were: the ratio of tendon resting length to muscle fibre optimum length (L(TR):L(F.OPT)) (varied from 0.5 to 11.5), the ratio of muscle fibre optimum length to average moment arm (L(F.OPT):r) (varied from 0.5 to 5), the normalised tendon strain at maximum isometric force (c) (varied from 0 to 0.08), the muscle fibre pennation angle (theta) (varied from 0 degrees to 45 degrees) and the joint angle at which the optimum muscle fibre length occurred (phi). The range of values chosen for each parameter was based on values reported in the literature for five human mono-articular muscles with different functional roles. The ratios L(TR):L(F.OPT) and L(F.OPT):r were important in determining the amount of variability in the expressed section of the force-length relationship. The modelled muscle operated over only one limb at intermediate values of these two ratios (L(TR):L(F.OPT)=5; L(F.OPT):r=3), whether this was the ascending or descending limb was determined by the precise values of the other parameters. It was concluded that inter-individual variability in the expressed section of the force-length relationship is possible, particularly for muscles with intermediate values of L(TR):L(F.OPT) and L(F.OPT):r such as the brachialis and vastus lateralis. Understanding the potential for inter-individual variability in the expressed section is important when using muscle models to

  17. Vocal tract length and formant frequency dispersion correlate with body size in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W T

    1997-08-01

    Body weight, length, and vocal tract length were measured for 23 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of various sizes using radiographs and computer graphic techniques. linear predictive coding analysis of tape-recorded threat vocalizations were used to determine vocal tract resonance frequencies ("formants") for the same animals. A new acoustic variable is proposed, "formant dispersion," which should theoretically depend upon vocal tract length. Formant dispersion is the averaged difference between successive formant frequencies, and was found to be closely tied to both vocal tract length and body size. Despite the common claim that voice fundamental frequency (F0) provides an acoustic indication of body size, repeated investigations have failed to support such a relationship in many vertebrate species including humans. Formant dispersion, unlike voice pitch, is proposed to be a reliable predictor of body size in macaques, and probably many other species.

  18. Correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between the pectoral module (the pectoral girdle and limbs and the pelvic module (the pelvic girdle and limbs plays a key role in shaping avian evolution, but prior empirical studies on trait covariation between the two modules are limited. Here we empirically test whether (size-corrected sternal keel length and ilium length are correlated during avian evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our analyses on extant birds and Mesozoic birds both recover a significantly positive correlation. The results provide new evidence regarding the integration between the pelvic and pectoral modules. The correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length may serve as a mechanism to cope with the effect on performance caused by a tradeoff in muscle mass between the pectoral and pelvic modules, via changing moment arms of muscles that function in flight and in terrestrial locomotion.

  19. Geographical variation and sexual differences of body length and age composition in Rana temporaria: the ontogenetic development and phenotypic trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapkov Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of literature data on the mean values of age and body length of adult individuals of widespread species Rana temporaria from about 70 spatially separated populations, including our published data, was conducted. The evident trend in population mean age increase with the decrease of the of activity season length was revealed as well as the absence of that trend in the mean body length, with the maximal mean value in body length being near central part of the range. Our explanation of non-linear trend in the mean values of body length does not contradict other models of geographic variability explaining the correspondence and discrepance with the Bergman rule. In addition our explanation corresponds to the revealed features of interpopulation variation in growth rate. The revealed trend of variation in the mean body length is resulted from both growth rate decrease and mean age increase with the decrease in the length of activity season. The relatively low mean values of body length in populations from south and southern-west borders of the range are explained not only by low mean age but by lower growth rate despite high length of activity season. The interpopulation variation in body length is determined not only by body length but by age composition differences both between and within population. Therefore, the direction and intensity of sexual differences have not distinct trends, and the correspondence to Rensch rule (in contrast to Bergman rule is rarely observed.

  20. Blood and dried blood spot telomere length measurement by qPCR: assay considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeAnna L Zanet

    Full Text Available Measurement of telomere length is crucial for the study of telomere maintenance and its role in molecular pathophysiology of diseases and in aging. Several methods are used to measure telomere length, the choice of which usually depends on the type and size of sample to be assayed, as well as cost and throughput considerations. The goal of this study was to investigate the factors that may influence the reliability of qPCR-based relative telomere length measurements in whole blood. Day to day intra-individual variability, types of blood anticoagulant, sample storage conditions, processing and site of blood draw were investigated. Two qPCR-based methods to measure telomere length (monoplex vs. multiplex were also investigated and showed a strong correlation between them. Freezing and thawing of the blood and storage of the blood at 4°C for up to 4 days did not affect telomere length values. Telomere lengths in dried blood spots were significantly higher than both whole blood and peripheral mononuclear blood cells, and were highly correlated with both. We found that telomere length measurements were significantly higher in dried blood spots collected directly from fingertip prick compared to dried blood spots prepared with anticoagulated whole blood collected from the finger, and non-blotted whole blood taken from both finger and arm venipuncture. This suggests that DNA from cells blotted on paper is not equivalent to that collected from venipuncture whole blood, and caution should be taken when comparing between blood sample types.

  1. Variational lower bound on the scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering length A characterizes the zero-energy scattering of one system by another. It was shown some time ago that a variational upper bound on A could be obtained using methods, of the Rayleigh-Ritz type, which are commonly employed to obtain upper bounds on energy eigenvalues. Here we formulate a method for obtaining a variational lower bound on A. Once again the essential idea is to express the scattering length as a variational estimate plus an error term and then to reduce the problem of bounding the error term to one involving bounds on energy eigenvalues. In particular, the variational lower bound on A is rigorously established provided a certin modified Hamiltonian can be shown to have no discrete states lying below the level of the continuum threshold. It is unfortunately true that necessary conditions for the existence of bound states are not available for multiparticle systems in general. However, in the case of positron-atom scattering the adiabatic approximation can be introduced as an (essentially) solvable comparison problem to rigorously establish the nonexistence of bound states of the modified Hamiltonian. It has recently been shown how the validity of the variational upper bound on A can be maintained when the target ground-state wave function is imprecisely known. Similar methods can be used to maintain the variational lower bound on A. Since the bound is variational, the error in the calculated scattering length will be of second order in the error in the wave function. The use of the adiabatic approximation in the present context places no limitation in principle on the accuracy achievable

  2. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESVELT, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the maintenance requirements of the Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) trailers and provide a basis for the maintenance frequencies selected. This document is applicable to the LLCE Receiver trailer and Transport trailer assembled by Mobilized Systems Inc. (MSI). Equipment used in conjunction with, or in support of, these trailers is not included. This document does not provide the maintenance requirements for checkout and startup of the equipment following the extended lay-up status which began in the mid 1990s. These requirements will be specified in other documentation

  3. Track length estimation applied to point detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rief, H.; Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of the track length estimator is applied to the uncollided point flux estimator (UCF) leading to a new algorithm of calculating fluxes at a point. It consists essentially of a line integral of the UCF, and although its variance is unbounded, the convergence rate is that of a bounded variance estimator. In certain applications, involving detector points in the vicinity of collimated beam sources, it has a lower variance than the once-more-collided point flux estimator, and its application is more straightforward

  4. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  5. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gh.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1–16 (2012] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule, mesoscopic (Simpson rule, and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision. Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  6. Neutron chain length distributions in subcritical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, S.D.; Spriggs, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of the chain-length distribution as a function of k in subcritical systems. These results were obtained from a point Monte Carlo code and a three-dimensional Monte Carlo code, MC++. Based on these results, they then attempt to explain why several of the common neutron noise techniques, such as the Rossi-α and Feynman's variance-to-mean techniques, are difficult to perform in highly subcritical systems using low-efficiency detectors

  7. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave length) and 240.6 ...

  8. Cellular Mechanisms of Ciliary Length Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Keeling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound, microtubule-based organelles on the surface of most eukaryotic cells. They play important roles in coordinating a variety of signaling pathways during growth, development, cell mobility, and tissue homeostasis. Defects in ciliary structure or function are associated with multiple human disorders called ciliopathies. These diseases affect diverse tissues, including, but not limited to the eyes, kidneys, brain, and lungs. Many processes must be coordinated simultaneously in order to initiate ciliogenesis. These include cell cycle, vesicular trafficking, and axonemal extension. Centrioles play a central role in both cell cycle progression and ciliogenesis, making the transition between basal bodies and mitotic spindle organizers integral to both processes. The maturation of centrioles involves a functional shift from cell division toward cilium nucleation which takes place concurrently with its migration and fusion to the plasma membrane. Several proteinaceous structures of the distal appendages in mother centrioles are required for this docking process. Ciliary assembly and maintenance requires a precise balance between two indispensable processes; so called assembly and disassembly. The interplay between them determines the length of the resulting cilia. These processes require a highly conserved transport system to provide the necessary substances at the tips of the cilia and to recycle ciliary turnover products to the base using a based microtubule intraflagellar transport (IFT system. In this review; we discuss the stages of ciliogenesis as well as mechanisms controlling the lengths of assembled cilia.

  9. Turbulence closure for mixing length theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermyn, Adam S.; Lesaffre, Pierre; Tout, Christopher A.; Chitre, Shashikumar M.

    2018-05-01

    We present an approach to turbulence closure based on mixing length theory with three-dimensional fluctuations against a two-dimensional background. This model is intended to be rapidly computable for implementation in stellar evolution software and to capture a wide range of relevant phenomena with just a single free parameter, namely the mixing length. We incorporate magnetic, rotational, baroclinic, and buoyancy effects exactly within the formalism of linear growth theories with non-linear decay. We treat differential rotation effects perturbatively in the corotating frame using a novel controlled approximation, which matches the time evolution of the reference frame to arbitrary order. We then implement this model in an efficient open source code and discuss the resulting turbulent stresses and transport coefficients. We demonstrate that this model exhibits convective, baroclinic, and shear instabilities as well as the magnetorotational instability. It also exhibits non-linear saturation behaviour, and we use this to extract the asymptotic scaling of various transport coefficients in physically interesting limits.

  10. Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1990-12-01

    A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)

  11. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  12. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts ...

  13. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  14. Variability in classroom social communication: performance of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a 2-week period. Coders documented classroom social communication during situations of Cooperation and following School Rules by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (SCCS). The SCCS consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking). The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension were recorded. These measures were then used to examine variability in performance within and across days (changeability and stability, respectively). Independent of classroom situation, children with FASD were more variable than their typically developing peers in terms of changing behavioral dimensions more often (changeability) and varying their behavior more from day to day (stability). Documenting performance variability may provide a clearer understanding of the classroom social communication difficulties of the child with mild FASD.

  15. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people.We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire.547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity.In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  16. Effective Debye length in closed nanoscopic systems: a competition between two length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Frédéric; Slater, Gary W

    2006-02-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely employed in fields where the thermal motion of free ions is relevant, in particular in situations involving electrolytes in the vicinity of charged surfaces. The applications of this non-linear differential equation usually concern open systems (in osmotic equilibrium with an electrolyte reservoir, a semi-grand canonical ensemble), while solutions for closed systems (where the number of ions is fixed, a canonical ensemble) are either not appropriately distinguished from the former or are dismissed as a numerical calculation exercise. We consider herein the PBE for a confined, symmetric, univalent electrolyte and quantify how, in addition to the Debye length, its solution also depends on a second length scale, which embodies the contribution of ions by the surface (which may be significant in high surface-to-volume ratio micro- or nanofluidic capillaries). We thus establish that there are four distinct regimes for such systems, corresponding to the limits of the two parameters. We also show how the PBE in this case can be formulated in a familiar way by simply replacing the traditional Debye length by an effective Debye length, the value of which is obtained numerically from conservation conditions. But we also show that a simple expression for the value of the effective Debye length, obtained within a crude approximation, remains accurate even as the system size is reduced to nanoscopic dimensions, and well beyond the validity range typically associated with the solution of the PBE.

  17. Skeletal height estimation from regression analysis of sternal lengths in a Northwest Indian population of Chandigarh region: a postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmahender; Pathak, R K; Chavali, Krishnadutt H

    2011-03-20

    Skeletal height estimation from regression analysis of eight sternal lengths in the subjects of Chandigarh zone of Northwest India is the topic of discussion in this study. Analysis of eight sternal lengths (length of manubrium, length of mesosternum, combined length of manubrium and mesosternum, total sternal length and first four intercostals lengths of mesosternum) measured from 252 male and 91 female sternums obtained at postmortems revealed that mean cadaver stature and sternal lengths were more in North Indians and males than the South Indians and females. Except intercostal lengths, all the sternal lengths were positively correlated with stature of the deceased in both sexes (P regression analysis of sternal lengths was found more useful than the linear regression for stature estimation. Using multivariate regression analysis, the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum in both sexes and the length of manubrium along with 2nd and 3rd intercostal lengths of mesosternum in males were selected as best estimators of stature. Nonetheless, the stature of males can be predicted with SEE of 6.66 (R(2) = 0.16, r = 0.318) from combination of MBL+BL_3+LM+BL_2, and in females from MBL only, it can be estimated with SEE of 6.65 (R(2) = 0.10, r = 0.318), whereas from the multiple regression analysis of pooled data, stature can be known with SEE of 6.97 (R(2) = 0.387, r = 575) from the combination of MBL+LM+BL_2+TSL+BL_3. The R(2) and F-ratio were found to be statistically significant for almost all the variables in both the sexes, except 4th intercostal length in males and 2nd to 4th intercostal lengths in females. The 'major' sternal lengths were more useful than the 'minor' ones for stature estimation The universal regression analysis used by Kanchan et al. [39] when applied to sternal lengths, gave satisfactory estimates of stature for males only but female stature was comparatively better estimated from simple linear regressions. But they are not proposed for the

  18. Length and elasticity of side reins affect rein tension at trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Hilary M; Larson, Britt; Kaiser, LeeAnn J; Lavagnino, Michael

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the horse's contribution to tension in the reins. The experimental hypotheses were that tension in side reins (1) increases biphasically in each trot stride, (2) changes inversely with rein length, and (3) changes with elasticity of the reins. Eight riding horses trotted in hand at consistent speed in a straight line wearing a bit and bridle and three types of side reins (inelastic, stiff elastic, compliant elastic) were evaluated in random order at long, neutral, and short lengths. Strain gauge transducers (240 Hz) measured minimal, maximal and mean rein tension, rate of loading and impulse. The effects of rein type and length were evaluated using ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests. Rein tension oscillated in a regular pattern with a peak during each diagonal stance phase. Within each rein type, minimal, maximal and mean tensions were higher with shorter reins. At neutral or short lengths, minimal tension increased and maximal tension decreased with elasticity of the reins. Short, inelastic reins had the highest maximal tension and rate of loading. Since the tension variables respond differently to rein elasticity at different lengths, it is recommended that a set of variables representing different aspects of rein tension should be reported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acculturation Predicts Negative Affect and Shortened Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, R Jeanne; Trzeciakowski, Jerome; Moore, Tiffany; Ayers, Kimberly S; Pickler, Rita H

    2016-10-12

    Chronic stress may accelerate cellular aging. Telomeres, protective "caps" at the end of chromosomes, modulate cellular aging and may be good biomarkers for the effects of chronic stress, including that associated with acculturation. The purpose of this analysis was to examine telomere length (TL) in acculturating Hispanic Mexican American women and to determine the associations among TL, acculturation, and psychological factors. As part of a larger cross-sectional study of 516 pregnant Hispanic Mexican American women, we analyzed DNA in blood samples (N = 56) collected at 22-24 weeks gestation for TL as an exploratory measure using monochrome multiplex quantitative telomere polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We measured acculturation with the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, depression with the Beck Depression Inventory, discrimination with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale, and stress with the Perceived Stress Scale. TL was negatively moderately correlated with two variables of acculturation: Anglo orientation and greater acculturation-level scores. We combined these scores for a latent variable, acculturation, and we combined depression, stress, and discrimination scores in another latent variable, "negative affectivity." Acculturation and negative affectivity were bidirectionally correlated. Acculturation significantly negatively predicted TL. Using structural equation modeling, we found the model had an excellent fit with the root mean square error of approximation estimate = .0001, comparative fit index = 1.0, Tucker-Lewis index = 1.0, and standardized root mean square residual = .05. The negative effects of acculturation on the health of Hispanic women have been previously demonstrated. Findings from this analysis suggest a link between acculturation and TL, which may indicate accelerated cellular aging associated with overall poor health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Predictors of length of stay in a ward for demented elderly: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Toshiyuki; Tamai, Akira; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Tamai, Yuzuru; Iseki, Hidenori; Fukushima, Hiromi; Kasahara, Sumie

    2010-09-01

    In our previous studies, we found both gender differences among care recipients and predictors that influenced outcomes after discharge from a ward for demented elderly. Here, we investigate predictors that influence the length of stay for each sex. We studied the data of 390 patients with dementia who were hospitalized in a ward for demented elderly between 1 April 2000 and 31 March 2008, and treated until 31 March 2009. The patients were divided into groups classified by gender. We analyzed the gender differences of characteristics and evaluated the predictors that influenced the length of stay in the ward for demented elderly using Cox's proportional hazards model. A model using the initial scores of the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R), Assessment Scale for Symptoms of Dementia (ASSD) and Nishimura's activity of daily living scale (N-ADL), which were examined on admission, was named Model 1. In Model 1, we checked the effect of each patient's characteristics, except for complications and destinations, on their length of stay. Model 2 used the final scores of HDS-R, ASSD and N-ADL including complications and destinations. There was a clear gender difference in the length of stay. The length of stay of women was longer than that of men. It was difficult to predict the length of stay in Model 1. Age was the only predictor in women and no predictor was identified in men. In Model 2, complications and the final HDS-R and N-ADL scores were predictors of the length of stay in men. Age, complications and destinations were predictors of the length of stay in women. It was observed that there were gender differences among predictors of the length of stay. However, it was difficult to predict the length of stay on admission. Retrospectively, the length of stay was determined by physical and psychological conditions, not by the social variables in men. In women, it was supposed that the caregiver's wish to give care at home reduced the length of stay. Besides

  1. Factors related to axial length elongation and myopia progression in orthokeratology practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate which baseline factors are predictive for axial length growth over an average period of 2.5 years in a group of children wearing orthokeratology (OK contact lenses.In this retrospective study, the clinical records of 249 new OK wearers between January 2012 and December 2013 from the contact lens clinic at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were reviewed. The primary outcome measure was axial length change from baseline to the time of review (July-August 2015. Independent variables included baseline measures of age at initiation of OK wear, gender, refractive error (spherical equivalent, astigmatism, average keratometry, corneal toricity, central corneal thickness, white-to-white corneal diameter, pupil size, corneal topography eccentricity value (e-value, intraocular pressure (IOP and total time in follow-up (months total. The contributions of all independent variables on axial length change at the time of review were assessed using univariate and multivariable regression analyses.Univariate analyses of the right eyes of 249 OK patients showed that smaller increases in axial length were associated with older age at the onset of OK lens wear, greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error, less time in follow-up and a smaller e-value. Multivariable analyses of the significant right eye variables showed that the factors associated with smaller axial length growth were older age at the onset of OK lens wear (p<0.0001, greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error (p = 0.0046 and less time in follow-up (p<0.0001.The baseline factors demonstrating the greatest correlation with reduced axial length elongation during OK lens wear in myopic children included greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error and older age at the onset of OK lens wear.

  2. Influence of ultraviolet ray irradiation on length of egg hatchability and on length of incubation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of irradiation of White Leghorn eggs with ultraviolet rays on their embryonal development, egg hatchability, viability of hatched chicks and their liveweight, is studied. Irradiation length was 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40 and 60 min in two experiments and 2, 4, 16 and 256 min in one trial. It was established that egg irradiation with ultraviolet rays affected positively egg hatchability and viability of the chicks, the irradiation effect being strongest in the range of 2 to 40 min. No significant difference was established between liveweight of chicks obtained from irradiated and nonirradiated eggs. It was further found that the length of incubation period was shortened by 2 to 5 hrs with increase in irradiation length over 5 min. (author)

  3. Subband coder of speech signal | Sharma | Botswana Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This paper explores the implementation of the system by utilizing filter bands separation at the transmitting end and reconstructing data through the interpolation of filter bands at the receiving end. A formulated approach is employed to ...

  4. Evaluation of the wavelet image two-line coder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Stephan Alexander; Fitzek, Frank Hanns Paul; Gühmann, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the wavelet image two-line (Wi2l) coding algorithm for low complexity compression of images. The algorithm recursively encodes an image backwards reading only two lines of a wavelet subband, which are read in blocks of 512 bytes from flash memory. It thus only requires very ...

  5. MEDICAL IMAGE COMPRESSION USING HYBRID CODER WITH FUZZY EDGE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vidhya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging techniques produce prohibitive amounts of digitized clinical data. Compression of medical images is a must due to large memory space required for transmission and storage. This paper presents an effective algorithm to compress and to reconstruct medical images. The proposed algorithm first extracts edge information of medical images by using fuzzy edge detector. The images are decomposed using Cohen-Daubechies-Feauveau (CDF wavelet. The hybrid technique utilizes the efficient wavelet based compression algorithms such as JPEG2000 and Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT. The wavelet coefficients in the approximation sub band are encoded using tier 1 part of JPEG2000. The wavelet coefficients in the detailed sub bands are encoded using SPIHT. Consistent quality images are produced by this method at a lower bit rate compared to other standard compression algorithms. Two main approaches to assess image quality are objective testing and subjective testing. The image quality is evaluated by objective quality measures. Objective measures correlate well with the perceived image quality for the proposed compression algorithm.

  6. Coder’s Manual: A Guide to TEPIAC Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    Po Polonium Am Americium Hg Mercury Pr Praseodymium *Ar Argon (Hydrargyrum) Pt Platinum (also A) Ho Holmium Pu Plutonium *As Arsenic *1 Iodine Ra...Er 20 3 208 D ChD2 110 F F 2 Fe (FeF 21 209 E C 6H1 5ErO1 2S 3[Er(C 2 HSO 4)3] III G GaO4P [GaPO4] 210 F CH3 F 112 H 1iNO 212 G C8 H20Ge [Ge(C 2 H 5...Fluidity, 69 Heat conductance (contact), 62 Fluidized bed, 27 Heat conduction, 57 Fluorescence, 125 Heat conductivity, 57 Food products, 31 Heat content

  7. MANAGING PARAMETERIZED PARTS WITH VARIABLE CUT DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMAZAN Valentina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The design of the custom cut parts, in order to cumulate the lengths of all inserted variations in an assembly is solved, using a case study of a threaded extruded bar, commonly used in mechanical design, and purchased as long bars, of fixed length. Using the facilities offered by the iPart concept in Autodesk Inventor, the main member definition parameters are defined and linked for the automation of design data usage in assemblies. Further, a more complex case study is developed, for multi customized cut dimensions and variable pattern features.

  8. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results......: In the validation study, EI/BMR was significantly lower on 1st, 2nd and 3rd consecutive recording days compared to 4-7 recording days (P food items...

  9. Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.

    1988-05-01

    Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. The results showed that, although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the 'capacitive' component had also decreased relative to the 'inductive'--to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded 'capacitor' cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained. 7 refs., 6 figs

  10. Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.

    1988-01-01

    Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. This paper shows that although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the capacitive component had also decreased relative to the inductive - to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded capacitor cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained

  11. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinov'ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  12. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble

  13. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinov’ev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogoliubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  14. Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuijer, J

    1990-01-01

    With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation.

  15. Burnout among physiotherapists and length of service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Śliwiński

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the development of burnout among physiotherapists with different length of service in physiotherapy. Material and Methods: The following research tools were used to study burnout: the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ, based on FLZ (Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit by Frahrenberg, Myrtek, Schumacher, and Brähler; the Burnout Scale Inventory (BSI by Steuden and Okła; and an ad hoc questionnaire to collect socio-demographic data. The survey was anonymous and voluntary and involved a group of 200 active physiotherapists working in Poland. Results: A statistical analysis revealed significant differences in overall life satisfaction between length-of-service groups (p = 0.03. Physiotherapists with more than 15 years of service reported greater satisfaction than those with less than 5 years and between 5 and 15 years of service. The results suggest that burnout in those with 5-15 years of service is higher in physiotherapists working in health care centers and increases with age and greater financial satisfaction, while it decreases with greater satisfaction with friend and family relations and greater satisfaction with one's work and profession. In those with more than 15 years of service, burnout increases in the case of working in a setting other than a health care or educational center and decreases with greater satisfaction with one's work and profession. Conclusions: Job satisfaction and a satisfying family life prevent burnout among physiotherapists with 5-15 years of service in the profession. Financial satisfaction, age and being employed in health care may cause burnout among physiotherapists with 5-15 years of service. Physiotherapists with more than 15 years of service experience more burnout if they work in a setting other than a health care or educational center and less burnout if they are satisfied with their profession.

  16. Father Loss and Child Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colter; McLanahan, Sara; Schneper, Lisa; Garfinkel, Irv; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Notterman, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Father loss during childhood has negative health and behavioral consequences, but the biological consequences are unknown. Our goal was to examine how father loss (because of separation and/or divorce, death, or incarceration) is associated with cellular function as estimated by telomere length. Data come from the 9-year follow-up of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of children in 20 large American cities ( N = 2420). Principal measures are as follows: salivary telomere length (sTL), mother reports of father loss, and polymorphisms in genes related to serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling. At 9 years of age, children with father loss have significantly shorter telomeres (14% reduction). Paternal death has the largest association (16%), followed by incarceration (10%), and separation and/or divorce (6%). Changes in income partially mediate these associations (95% mediation for separation and/or divorce, 30% for incarceration, and 25% for death). Effects are 40% greater for boys and 90% greater for children with the most reactive alleles of the serotonin transporter genes when compared with those with the least reactive alleles. No differences were found by age at father loss or a child's race/ethnicity. Father loss has a significant association with children's sTL, with the death of a father showing the largest effect. Income loss explains most of the association between child sTL and separation and/or divorce but much less of the association with incarceration or death. This underscores the important role of fathers in the care and development of children and supplements evidence of the strong negative effects of parental incarceration. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Concept of formation length in radiation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The features of electromagnetic processes are considered which connected with finite size of space region in which final particles (photon, electron-positron pair) are formed. The longitudinal dimension of the region is known as the formation length. If some external agent is acting on an electron while traveling this distance the emission process can be disrupted. There are different agents: multiple scattering of projectile, polarization of a medium, action of external fields, etc. The theory of radiation under influence of the multiple scattering, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect, is presented. The probability of radiation is calculated with an accuracy up to 'next to leading logarithm' and with the Coulomb corrections taken into account. The integral characteristics of bremsstrahlung are given, it is shown that the effective radiation length increases due to the LPM effect at high energy. The LPM effect for pair creation is also presented. The multiple scattering influences also on radiative corrections in a medium (and an external field too) including the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron and the polarization tensor as well as coherent scattering of a photon in a Coulomb field. The polarization of a medium alters the radiation probability in soft part of spectrum. Specific features of radiation from a target of finite thickness include: the boundary photon emission, interference effects for thin target, multi-photon radiation. The theory predictions are compared with experimental data obtained at SLAC and CERN SPS. For electron-positron colliding beams following items are discussed: the separation of coherent and incoherent mechanisms of radiation, the beam-size effect in bremsstrahlung, coherent radiation and mechanisms of electron-positron creation

  18. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asgharian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.

  19. Length of Stay and Tourism Facility Assessment: The Viewpoint of Malaysian Tourists at Langkawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Mastura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation employed partial least square analysis to scrutinize factors influencing the social perceptions of Malaysian tourists of tourism facilities at an island tourism destination. It focuses on the effect of one particular socio-demographic variable, length of stay, on consumer satisfaction. Data was collected from a major tourism destination at Langkawi, Malaysia. The results indicate that length of stay has an effect on tourists’ social perceptions and contributes to their dissatisfaction with the destination. Tourists who stayed more than 10 days were less satisfaction than those who stayed for less than 10 days. The implications of this finding and recommendations for further study are discussed as well.

  20. Variable importance in latent variable regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvalheim, O.M.; Arneberg, R.; Bleie, O.; Rajalahti, T.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and practical usefulness of a regression model are a function of both interpretability and prediction performance. This work presents some new graphical tools for improved interpretation of latent variable regression models that can also assist in improved algorithms for variable

  1. The comparison between the length of vertical dimension of occlusion and the length of thumb on undergraduate Mongoloid students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Li Teng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Thumb Rule of Leonardo da Vinci states that many proportions of the face show relationship with the length of thumb which is measured from the proximal tip of the proximal phalanx to the distal tip of the distal phalanx. Previous studies have shown that the length of the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is similar to the length of thumb of the Caucasoid race. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the length of VDO have correlations with the length of thumb among those of the Mongoloid race. This study took a survey method with the analytical cross-sectional approach. A total of 80 students of Faculty of Dentistry who have fulfilled all population criteria were randomly chosen to measure the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. Results analyzed with Student's t-test statistic revealed that there was a significant difference between males and females in the length of VDO and the length of the thumb, however, there was no significant difference between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. There were very strong correlations (P<0.05 between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. As a conclusion, the length of thumb can be suggested as an objective method to determine the length of VDO in this population.

  2. Length bias correction in one-day cross-sectional assessments - The nutritionDay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantal, Sophie; Pernicka, Elisabeth; Hiesmayr, Michael; Schindler, Karin; Bauer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A major problem occurring in cross-sectional studies is sampling bias. Length of hospital stay (LOS) differs strongly between patients and causes a length bias as patients with longer LOS are more likely to be included and are therefore overrepresented in this type of study. To adjust for the length bias higher weights are allocated to patients with shorter LOS. We determined the effect of length-bias adjustment in two independent populations. Length-bias correction is applied to the data of the nutritionDay project, a one-day multinational cross-sectional audit capturing data on disease and nutrition of patients admitted to hospital wards with right-censoring after 30 days follow-up. We applied the weighting method for estimating the distribution function of patient baseline variables based on the method of non-parametric maximum likelihood. Results are validated using data from all patients admitted to the General Hospital of Vienna between 2005 and 2009, where the distribution of LOS can be assumed to be known. Additionally, a simplified calculation scheme for estimating the adjusted distribution function of LOS is demonstrated on a small patient example. The crude median (lower quartile; upper quartile) LOS in the cross-sectional sample was 14 (8; 24) and decreased to 7 (4; 12) when adjusted. Hence, adjustment for length bias in cross-sectional studies is essential to get appropriate estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Is increased residual shank length a competitive advantage for elite transtibial amputee long jumpers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Lee; Patritti, Benjamin L; Stana, Laura; Tweedy, Sean M

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which residual shank length affects long jump performance of elite athletes with a unilateral transtibial amputation. Sixteen elite, male, long jumpers with a transtibial amputation were videoed while competing in major championships (World Championships 1998, 2002 and Paralympic Games, 2004). The approach, take-off, and landing of each athlete's best jump was digitized to determine residual and intact shank lengths, jump distance, and horizontal and vertical velocity of center of mass at touchdown. Residual shank length ranged from 15 cm to 38 cm. There were weak, nonsignificant relationships between residual shank length and (a) distance jumped (r = 0.30), (b) horizontal velocity (r = 0.31), and vertical velocity (r = 0.05). Based on these results, residual shank length is not an important determinant of long jump performance, and it is therefore appropriate that all long jumpers with transtibial amputation compete in the same class. The relationship between residual shank length and key performance variables was stronger among athletes that jumped off their prosthetic leg (N = 5), and although this result must be interpreted cautiously, it indicates the need for further research.

  4. Lifetime and Path Length of the Virtual Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyuboshitz, V.L.; Lyuboshitz, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of the lifetime and path length of a virtual particle are introduced. It is shown that, near the mass surface of the real particle, these quantities constitute a 4-vector. At very high energies, the virtual particle can propagate over considerable (even macroscopic) distances. The formulas for the lifetime and path length of an ultrarelativistic virtual electron in the process of bremsstrahlung in the Coulomb field of a nucleus are obtained. The lifetime and path length of the virtual photon at its conversion into an electron-positron pair are discussed. The connection between the path length of the virtual particle and the coherence length (formation length) is analyzed

  5. Length Matters: Informational Load in Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hemforth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will compare prosodic and pragmatic approaches to the role of constituent length in attachment ambiguities. Lengthening a constituent affects its informativity: longer constituents are usually less predictable (Levy & Florian, 2007 and demand a higher processing load than shorter ones (Almor, 1999. Following neo-Gricean accounts (Levinson, 1987 and 1991, increased informational load needs to be justified. This justification is achieved more easily when the long constituent conveys new information and when it relates to central elements of the utterance. Informational load is, however, not a simple question of length in numbers of characters or syllables but more likely a question of amount of information. In three off-line experiments using a cloze task, we will compare the effect of lengthening ambiguous prepositional phrases as in [1a/b/c] either by lengthening a city name or by adding information about the city. We will show that only lengthening by adding information increases attachment to a more central element of the utterance. These results will be discussed based on prosodic and pragmatic factors explaining the role of constituent length for attachment ambiguities.[1] Peter met the doctor of the lawyer from a. Apt. / b. Aix-en-Provence / c. the beautiful city of Apt.Dans cet article, nous comparons une approche prosodique avec une approche pragmatique pour rendre compte des effets de la longueur des constituants dans les ambigüités d’attachement. Augmenter la longueur d’un constituant a des conséquences sur l’information qu’il véhicule : plus un constituant est long et moins il est prédictible (Levy et Florian, 2007 et plus son coût de traitement augmente (Almor, 1999. Suivant les principes néo-gricéens (Levinson, 1987 et 1991, augmenter le poids informationnel doit être justifié. Cette justification est plus facilement satisfaite lorsqu’un constituant long véhicule une information

  6. Effect of canal length and curvature on working length alteration with WaveOne reciprocating files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berutti, Elio; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Paolino, Davide Salvatore; Scotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Pasqualini, Damiano

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the working length (WL) modification after instrumentation with WaveOne Primary (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) reciprocating files and the incidence of overinstrumentation in relation to the initial WL. Thirty-two root canals of permanent teeth were used. The angles of curvature of the canals were calculated on digital radiographs. The initial WL with K-files was transferred to the matched WaveOne Primary reciprocating files. After glide paths were established with PathFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), canals were shaped with WaveOne Primary referring to the initial WL. The difference between the postinstrumentation canal length and the initial canal length was analyzed by using a fiberoptic inspection microscope. Data were analyzed with a balanced 2-way factorial analysis of variance (P < .05). Referring to the initial WL, 24 of 32 WaveOne Primary files projected beyond the experimental apical foramen (minimum-maximum, 0.14-0.76 mm). A significant decrease in the canal length after instrumentation (95% confidence interval ranging from -0.34 mm to -0.26 mm) was detected. The canal curvature significantly influenced the WL variation (F(1) = 30.65, P < .001). The interaction between the initial canal length and the canal curvature was statistically significant (F(2) = 4.38, P = .014). Checking the WL before preparation of the apical third of the root canal is recommended when using the new WaveOne NiTi single-file system. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The length of stay determinants for sun-and-sand tourism: An application for the Region of Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez García, Juan Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available While tourist arrivals increase annually in Spain, tourist average real expenditure has decreased significantly over the last few years, with important effects on tourism revenues. The process is clearly driven by the reduction of the length of stay of tourists at destinations, but surprisingly this variable has received little attention in the literature. We estimate a length of stay function for sun-and-sand tourists visiting the Region of Murcia over the period 2002-2006 using count data models. Our results show that both tourists’ personal and family characteristics together with economic variables (budget restrictions, income and prices are key factors in determining the duration of the stay. Quantitative identification of the determinants of a tourist’s length of stay could provide important guidelines for designing policies aimed at influencing length of stay in tourist‘s seaside destinations.

  8. Spectral interferometric length measurement and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkl, W.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents a new method for optical length measurement using the principles of spectral interferometry. Results of thickness measurements on glass plates, the human cornea in vivo and human finger and toe nails in vivo and in vitro are discussed. It could be demonstrated that the absorption coefficient of red and green ink can be measured depth sensitive. Another chapter describes a new technique to measure a thickness profile of a sample within the illuminating beam. It could be demonstrated that a thickness profile over a distance of a few millimeters can be measured with one single measurement. At the Institute of Medical Physics of the University of Vienna a method to measure intraocular distances by the means of interferometry has been developed during the last ten years. Basing on this method (dual beam interferometry) an optical in vivo tomography experiment could be established. A thickness map of the retina of a human eye in vivo can be easily measured. The dual beam technique uses a Michelson interferometer with a moving mirror to adjust the length of the interferometer arms. The mirror is moved by a stepper motor. This movement induces vibrations, misalignment and other disadvantages. So mechanically moved parts as reasons for possible errors should be eliminated. This work shows one possible solution - using the principle of spectral interferometry. A spectral interferometry experiment is a static experiment, no moving parts are used. A spectral interferometry experiment has been used to measure the thickness of glass plates and stacks of glass plates. Using two light sources of different wavelengths spectral absorption properties of a sample can be measured depth sensitive. This could be demonstrated with stacks of glass plates and the use of red and green ink between two plates. The obtained results are compared to the results of a computer simulation. To demonstrate the ability of spectral interferometry to measure the thickness of biologic

  9. The accuracy of axial length measurements in cases of macula-off retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Shousha, Mohsen; Helaly, Hany Ahmed; Osman, Ihab Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    To assess the accuracy of axial length measurements in cases of macula-off retinal detachment using different methods (optical biometry, A-scan ultrasound, and combined applanation vector-A/B-scan biometry). This prospective clinical study included 100 eyes of 100 patients who underwent vitrectomy alone or phacovitrectomy for macula-off retinal detachment. All patients included signed an informed consent. Preoperative examination of the patients included recording the axial length measurements using optical biometry, A-scan ultrasound, and combined applanation vector-A/B-scan biometry. The mean postoperative IOLMaster axial length after macular reattachment was 26.11 ± 2.91 mm. The mean preoperative IOLMaster axial length with macula-off was 25.32 ± 2.72 mm. The mean preoperative A-scan axial length with macula-off was 25.29 ± 2.80 mm. The mean preoperative vector-A/B-scan axial length with macula-off was 26.03 ± 2.90 mm. The preoperative vector-A/B-scan mean absolute error was 0.59 ± 0.48 D (range, 0.10-2.25 D). Regular methods (optical biometry and A-scan biometry) of measuring the axial length in cases with a detached macula proved to be variable and less accurate. The vector-A/B-scan offered good measurements of the actual axial length in the patients. This was reflected on more accurate postoperative refractive outcome. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gutynska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath.

    We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.

  11. Telomere length maintenance--an ALTernative mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, N J; Foxon, J; Jeyapalan, J N; Mendez-Bermudez, A; Novo, C L; Williams, J; Cotton, V E

    2008-01-01

    The Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanism is utilised by approximately 10% of human tumours and a higher proportion of some types of sarcomas. ALT+ cell lines and tumours show heterogeneous telomere length, extra-chromosomal circular and linear telomeric DNA, ALT associated promyelocytic bodies (APBs), a high frequency of post-replication exchanges in telomeres (designated as telomere-sister chromatid exchanges, T-SCE) and high instability at a GC-rich minisatellite, MS32 (D1S8). It is clear that there is a link between the minisatellite instability and the mechanism that underpins ALT, however currently the nature of this relationship is uncertain. Single molecule analysis of telomeric DNA from ALT+ cell lines and tumours has revealed complex telomere mutations that have not been seen in cell lines or tumours that express telomerase. These complex telomere mutations cannot be explained by T-SCE but must arise by another inter-molecular process. The break-induced replication (BIR) model that may explain the observed high frequency of T-SCE and the presence of complex telomere mutations is reviewed. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Full length prototype SSC dipole test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from tests of the first full length prototype SSC dipole magnet. The cryogenic behavior of the magnet during a slow cooldown to 4.5K and a slow warmup to room temperature has been measured. Magnetic field quality was measured at currents up to 2000 A. Averaged over the body field all harmonics with the exception of b 2 and b 8 are at or within the tolerances specified by the SSC Central Design Group. (The values of b 2 and b 8 result from known design and construction defects which will be be corrected in later magnets.) Using an NMR probe the average body field strength is measured to be 10.283 G/A with point to point variations on the order of one part in 1000. Data are presented on quench behavior of the magnet up to 3500 A (approximately 55% of full field) including longitudinal and transverse velocities for the first 250 msec of the quench

  13. Relation between axial length and ocular parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiu Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.

  14. Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gutynska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath. We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.

  15. Information Cost, Memory Length and Market Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diks, Cees; Li, Xindan; Wu, Chengyao

    2018-07-01

    In this article, we study the instability of a stock market with a modified version of Diks and Dindo's (2008) model where the market is characterized by nonlinear interactions between informed traders and uninformed traders. In the interaction of heterogeneous agents, we replace the replicator dynamics for the fractions by logistic strategy switching. This modification makes the model more suitable for describing realistic price dynamics, as well as more robust with respect to parameter changes. One goal of our paper is to use this model to explore if the arrival of new information (news) and investor behavior have an effect on market instability. A second, related, goal is to study the way markets absorb new information, especially when the market is unstable and the price is far from being fully informative. We find that the dynamics become locally unstable and prices may deviate far from the fundamental price, routing to chaos through bifurcation, with increasing information costs or decreasing memory length of the uninformed traders.

  16. Molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular markers (AFLPs has been developed combining procedures of RFLPs and RAPDs molekular markers, i.e. the first step is restriction digestion of the genomic DNA that is followed by selective amplification of the restricted fragments. The advantage of the AFLP technique is that it allows rapid generation of a large number of reproducible markers. The reproducibility of AFLPs markers is assured by the use of restriction site-specific adapters and adapter-specific primers for PCR reaction. Only fragments containing the restriction site sequence plus the additional nucleotides will be amplified and the more selected nucleotides added on the primer sequence the fewer the number of fragments amplified by PCR. The amplified products are normally separated on a sequencing gel and visualized after exposure to X-ray film or by using fluorescent labeled primers. AFLP shave proven to be extremely proficient in revealing diversity at below the species level. A disadvantage of AFLP technique is that AFLPs are essentially a dominant marker system and not able to identify heterozygotes.

  17. Debye screening length effects of nanostructured materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2014-01-01

    This monograph solely investigates the Debye Screening Length (DSL) in semiconductors and their nano-structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, Bismuth, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V and Bismuth Telluride respectively. The DSL in opto-electronic materials and their quantum confined counterparts is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determination of 2D and 3D DSL and the importance of measurement of band gap in optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) have also been discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the DSL and the DSL in heavily doped ...

  18. Systematic correlation of environmental exposure and physiological and self-reported behaviour factors with leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag J; Manrai, Arjun K; Corona, Erik; Kohane, Isaac S

    2017-02-01

    It is hypothesized that environmental exposures and behaviour influence telomere length, an indicator of cellular ageing. We systematically associated 461 indicators of environmental exposures, physiology and self-reported behaviour with telomere length in data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999-2002. Further, we tested whether factors identified in the NHANES participants are also correlated with gene expression of telomere length modifying genes. We correlated 461 environmental exposures, behaviours and clinical variables with telomere length, using survey-weighted linear regression, adjusting for sex, age, age squared, race/ethnicity, poverty level, education and born outside the USA, and estimated the false discovery rate to adjust for multiple hypotheses. We conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the correlation between identified environmental variables and gene expression levels of telomere-associated genes in publicly available gene expression samples. After correlating 461 variables with telomere length, we found 22 variables significantly associated with telomere length after adjustment for multiple hypotheses. Of these varaibales, 14 were associated with longer telomeres, including biomarkers of polychlorinated biphenyls([PCBs; 0.1 to 0.2 standard deviation (SD) increase for 1 SD increase in PCB level, P  environmental exposures and chronic disease-related risk factors may play a role in telomere length. Our secondary analysis found no evidence of association between PCBs/smoking and gene expression of telomere-associated genes. All correlations between exposures, behaviours and clinical factors and changes in telomere length will require further investigation regarding biological influence of exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  19. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  20. Imprisonment length and post-prison employment prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Anke; Apel, Robert; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Dirkzwager, Anja; Van Wilsem, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the relationship between imprisonment length and employment outcomes. The data are a unique prospective, longitudinal study of Dutch pretrial detainees (N = 702). All subjects thus experience prison confinement of varying lengths, although the durations are relatively short

  1. Optical Arc-Length Sensor For TIG Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew A.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed subsystem of tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding system measures length of welding arc optically. Viewed by video camera, in one of three alternative optical configurations. Length of arc measured instead of inferred from voltage.

  2. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  3. The length-weight and length-length relationships of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766) from Samsun, middle Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Özpiçak, Melek; Saygın, Semra; Polat, Nazmi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR) and length-length relationship (LLR) of bluefish,Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, themiddle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected fromcommercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125) weremeasured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W)was recorded to the nearest 0.01 ...

  4. The length-weight and length-length relationships of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766 from Samsun, middle Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Özpiçak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR and length-length relationship (LLR of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, the middle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected from commercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125 were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W was recorded to the nearest 0.01 g. According to results of analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between sexes in term of length and weight (P˃0.05. The minimum and maximum total, fork and standard lengths of bluefish ranged between 13.5-23.6 cm, 12.50-21.80 cm and 10.60-20.10 cm, respectively. The equation of length-weight relationship were calculated as W=0.008TL3.12 (r2>0.962. Positive allometric growth was observed for bluefish (b>3. Length-length relationship was also highly significant (P<0.001 with coefficient of determination (r2 ranging from 0.916 to 0.988.

  5. Post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia: Impact on length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Joe; Ahmed, Mohammed; Gama, Rousseau; Liew, Leonard; Buch, Harit; Cullen, Ronald J

    2015-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a recognized complication following thyroid surgery. Variability in the definition of hypocalcemia and different opinions on its management can lead to unnecessary patient morbidity and longer hospital stays as a result of inappropriate or untimely treatment. Therefore, we developed a management guideline for the recognition and treatment of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia, and we conducted a retrospective study to assess its impact on length of stay (LOS). Between April 1, 2007, and March 31, 2009, 29 adults had undergone a total or completion thyroidectomy at our large district general hospital. Of this group, postoperative hypocalcemia (defined as a serum calcium level of effect on July 1, 2009, and from that date through June 30, 2010, 18 more adults had undergone a total or completion thyroidectomy. Of that group, hypocalcemia developed in 7 patients (38.9%); the guideline was actually followed in 5 of these 7 cases (71.4%). In the preguideline group, the development of hypocalcemia increased the mean LOS from 2.0 days to 7.0 days (p hypocalcemia in these cases was highly variable and was dictated by variations in practice rather than patient needs. In the postguideline group, postoperative hypocalcemia increased the mean LOS from 2.7 days to only 3.7 days (p = 0.07). While the difference between LOS in the two hypocalcemic groups did not reach statistical significance, we believe it merely reflects the relatively small number of patients rather than any lack of guideline efficacy. The implementation of a simple flowchart guideline for the management of postoperative hypocalcemia in our hospital has resulted in more uniform management and a reduced LOS.

  6. Caffeine and length dependence of staircase potentiation in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassier, D E; Tubman, L A; MacIntosh, B R

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle sensitivity to Ca2+ is greater at long lengths, and this results in an optimal length for twitch contractions that is longer than optimal length for tetanic contractions. Caffeine abolishes this length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity. Muscle length (ML) also affects the degree of staircase potentiation. Since staircase potentiation is apparently caused by an increased Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments, we tested the hypothesis that caffeine depresses the length dependence of staircase potentiation. In situ isometric twitch contractions of rat gastrocnemius muscle before and after 10 s of 10-Hz stimulation were analyzed at seven different lengths to evaluate the length dependence of staircase potentiation. In the absence of caffeine, length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity was observed, and the degree of potentiation after 10-Hz stimulation showed a linear decrease with increased length (DT = 1.47 - 0.05 ML, r2 = 0.95, where DT is developed tension). Length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity was decreased by caffeine when caffeine was administered in amounts estimated to result in 0.5 and 0.75 mM concentrations. Furthermore, the negative slope of the relationship between staircase potentiation and muscle length was diminished at the lower caffeine dose, and the slope was not different from zero after the higher dose (DT = 1.53 - 0.009 ML, r2 = 0.43). Our study shows that length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity in intact skeletal muscle is diminished by caffeine. Caffeine also suppressed the length dependence of staircase potentiation, suggesting that the mechanism of this length dependence may be closely related to the mechanism for length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity.

  7. Critical lengths of error events in convolutional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    1994-01-01

    If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes......If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes...

  8. Critical Lengths of Error Events in Convolutional Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes......If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes...

  9. Cartas de control para monitorear variables multinomiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marcela Restrepo-Tamayo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The control as a tool for monitoring the quality of a product, allows to study the stability of processes over time, contrasting two hypothesis, which states that the process is in stable condition and the other denies it. Its use has been massive for continuous variables but not for categorical variables, why it is imperative to design such tools for such variables. Objective: To propose two (2 control charts for variables multinomial processes based on the p-value test result for homogeneity of proportions using the chi square test for uniform processing variables and approximation Wilson - Hilferty for variables chi square. Methods: The performance of proposed charts via simulation is estimated considering a Phase II process and considering the first category increments of 2%, 4% and 6% in the control stage. Results: The multinomial control chart using Wilson-Hilferty approximation for variables chi square, from the transformation of value-p, has poor performance compared to the control charts using p-value processing and using chi-square p-value, as they have less ability to detect small changes. Conclusion: We propose two control charts to monitor multinomial variables and once studied via simulation, based on the average run length (ARL and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of equal proportions, we recommend the control chart using value-p, or equivalently, the control chart processing using chi square p-value.

  10. The Effects of Two Different Deficit Irrigation Managements on the Root Length of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gheysari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of root to water stress is one of the most important parameters for researchers. Study of growth and distribution of root under different irrigation managements helpsresearchersto a better understanding of soil water content, and the availability of water and nutrition in water stress condition. To investigate the effects of four levels of irrigation under two different deficit irrigation managements on the root length of maize, a study was conducted in 2009. Irrigation managements included fixed irrigation interval-variable irrigation depth (M1 and variable irrigation interval-fixed irrigation depth (M2. Maize plants were planted in 120 large 110-liter containers in a strip-plot design in a randomized complete block with three replications. Root data sampling was done after root washing in five growth stages. The results showed that the effect of irrigation levels on root length was significant (P

  11. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for inflorescence length traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet is an ancient legume species whose immature pods serve as a vegetable in south and south-east Asia. The objective of this study is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with quantitative traits such as inflorescence length, peduncle length from branch to axil, peduncle length from ...

  12. How does harvest size vary with hunting season length?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Asferg, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    season length (population management/ethical/other). In non-sedentary species, changes in bag size correlated positively with changes in season length (overall response: b = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.14-0.95): reducing the hunting season to 50% of its initial length would on average result in a 31% reduction (95...

  13. Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor (K constant) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Length-weight relationships and condition factors of Sparidae along the. Kenyan coast are unknown. This study investigated the length-weight relationship and condition factor of Dentex maroccanus Valenciennes, 1830, a sparid, found in. Malindi, Kenya, from June to August 2008. The length-weight coefficients ...

  14. Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panday, V.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle,

  15. Advantages and risks in increasing cyclone separator length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, AC; de Groot, M; Peng, W; Dries, HWA; Kater, J

    The effect of cyclone length on separation efficiency and pressure drop has been investigated experimentally and theoretically by varying the length of the cylindrical segment of a cylinder-on-cone cyclone. Experimental results based on cyclone lengths from 2.65 to 6.15 cyclone diameters showed a

  16. LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND CONDITION FACTOR OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data Collection and Analysis. The measurements of length (cm), weight (g) and the condition factor of individual fish sampled were recorded. The relationship between length and weight of the fish was examined by simple linear regression using WINKS software. The variations in the length-weight represented by 'b' were.

  17. Estimation of ocular volume from axial length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S

    2014-12-01

    To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Anatomic variables affecting interdental papilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna A. Mahale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anatomic variables affecting the interdental papilla. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult patients were evaluated. Papilla score (PS, tooth form/shape, gingival thickness, crest bone height and keratinized gingiva/attached gingiva were recorded for 150 inter proximal sites. Data were analyzed using SPSS software package (version 7.0 and the significance level was set at 95% confidence interval. Pearson′s correlation was applied to correlate the relationship between the factors and the appearance of the papilla. Results: Competent papillae (complete fill interdentally were associated with: (1 Crown width (CW: length ≥0.87; (2 bone crest-contact point ≤5 mm; and (3 inter proximal gingival tissue thickness ≥1.5 mm. Gingival thickness correlated negatively with PS (r = −0.37 to −0.54 and positively with tissue height (r = 0.23-0.43. Tooth form (i.e., CW to length ratio correlated negatively with PS (r = −0.37 to −0.61. Conclusion: Gingival papilla appearance was associated significantly with tooth form/shape, crestal bone height and interproximal gingival thickness.

  19. Finite-Length Diocotron Modes in a Non-neutral Plasma Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel; Dubin, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Diocotron modes are 2D distortions of a non-neutral plasma column that propagate azimuthally via E × B drifts. While the infinite-length theory of diocotron modes is well-understood for arbitrary azimuthal mode number l, the finite-length mode frequency is less developed (with some exceptions), and is naturally of relevance to experiments. In this poster, we present an approach to address finite length effects, such as temperature dependence of the mode frequency. We use a bounce-averaged solution to the Vlasov Equation, in which the Vlasov Equation is solved using action-angle variables of the unperturbed Hamiltonian. We write the distribution function as a Fourier series in the bounce-angle variable ψ, keeping only the bounce-averaged term. We demonstrate a numerical solution to this equation for a realistic plasma with a finite Debye Length, compare to the existing l = 1 theory, and discuss possible extensions of the existing theory to l ≠ 1 . Supported by NSF/DOE Partnership Grants PHY1414570 and DESC0002451.

  20. The influence of spring length on the physical parameters of simple harmonic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana, C A; Fajardo, F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of spring length on the simple harmonic motion of a spring-mass system. In particular, we study the effect of changing the spring length on the elastic constant k, the angular frequency ω and the damping factor γ of the oscillations. To characterize the behaviour of these variables we worked with a series of springs of seven different lengths, in which the elastic constant was found by means of the spring-elongation measurement and ω was obtained from the measurement of the oscillation period T of a suspended mass. The oscillatory movement was recorded using a force sensor and the γ value was determined by the fit of the envelope oscillations. Graphical analysis of the results shows that k, ω and γ decrease when the natural spring length increases. This experiment can be performed with equipment normally found in undergraduate physics laboratories. In addition, through graphical analysis students can deduce some relationships between variables that determine the simple harmonic motion behaviour. (paper)

  1. The Supermarket Model with Bounded Queue Lengths in Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, Graham; Fairthorne, Marianne; Luczak, Malwina J.

    2018-04-01

    In the supermarket model, there are n queues, each with a single server. Customers arrive in a Poisson process with arrival rate λ n , where λ = λ (n) \\in (0,1) . Upon arrival, a customer selects d=d(n) servers uniformly at random, and joins the queue of a least-loaded server amongst those chosen. Service times are independent exponentially distributed random variables with mean 1. In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of the supermarket model in the regime where λ (n) = 1 - n^{-α } and d(n) = \\lfloor n^β \\rfloor , where α and β are fixed numbers in (0, 1]. For suitable pairs (α , β ) , our results imply that, in equilibrium, with probability tending to 1 as n → ∞, the proportion of queues with length equal to k = \\lceil α /β \\rceil is at least 1-2n^{-α + (k-1)β } , and there are no longer queues. We further show that the process is rapidly mixing when started in a good state, and give bounds on the speed of mixing for more general initial conditions.

  2. The determinants of visitor length of stay at the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinette Kruger

    2014-06-01

    Conservation implications: The northern and southern regions of the Kruger National Park differ significantly in terms of ecosystems, rainfall, climate and wildlife. From a tourism perspective, these regions should be managed separately taking the distinct differences of the two regions into consideration. Different variables influence visitors’ length of stay in these two regions. Conservation practitioners can use the results of this study to manage visitors to these areas.

  3. Sequence determinants of human microsatellite variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsson Mattias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite loci are frequently used in genomic studies of DNA sequence repeats and in population studies of genetic variability. To investigate the effect of sequence properties of microsatellites on their level of variability we have analyzed genotypes at 627 microsatellite loci in 1,048 worldwide individuals from the HGDP-CEPH cell line panel together with the DNA sequences of these microsatellites in the human RefSeq database. Results Calibrating PCR fragment lengths in individual genotypes by using the RefSeq sequence enabled us to infer repeat number in the HGDP-CEPH dataset and to calculate the mean number of repeats (as opposed to the mean PCR fragment length, under the assumption that differences in PCR fragment length reflect differences in the numbers of repeats in the embedded repeat sequences. We find the mean and maximum numbers of repeats across individuals to be positively correlated with heterozygosity. The size and composition of the repeat unit of a microsatellite are also important factors in predicting heterozygosity, with tetra-nucleotide repeat units high in G/C content leading to higher heterozygosity. Finally, we find that microsatellites containing more separate sets of repeated motifs generally have higher heterozygosity. Conclusions These results suggest that sequence properties of microsatellites have a significant impact in determining the features of human microsatellite variability.

  4. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  5. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  6. Memory for tonal pitches: a music-length effect hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Vecchi, Tomaso; Granot, Roni; Basso, Demis; Schön, Daniele

    2009-07-01

    One of the most studied effects of verbal working memory (WM) is the influence of the length of the words that compose the list to be remembered. This work aims to investigate the nature of musical WM by replicating the word length effect in the musical domain. Length and rate of presentation were manipulated in a recognition task of tone sequences. Results showed significant effects for both factors (length and presentation rate) as well as their interaction, suggesting the existence of different strategies (e.g., chunking and rehearsal) for the immediate memory of musical information, depending upon the length of the sequences.

  7. Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaspers, O. P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Amelink, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 mu m to 1000 mu m. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering

  8. Correlation length estimation in a polycrystalline material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the correlation length estimated from a mesoscopic model of a polycrystalline material. The correlation length can be used in some macroscopic material models as a material parameter that describes the internal length. It can be estimated directly from the strain and stress fields calculated from a finite-element model, which explicitly accounts for the selected mesoscopic features such as the random orientation, shape and size of the grains. A crystal plasticity material model was applied in the finite-element analysis. Different correlation lengths were obtained depending on the used set of crystallographic orientations. We determined that the different sets of crystallographic orientations affect the general level of the correlation length, however, as the external load is increased the behaviour of correlation length is similar in all the analyzed cases. The correlation lengths also changed with the macroscopic load. If the load is below the yield strength the correlation lengths are constant, and are slightly higher than the average grain size. The correlation length can therefore be considered as an indicator of first plastic deformations in the material. Increasing the load above the yield strength creates shear bands that temporarily increase the values of the correlation lengths calculated from the strain fields. With a further load increase the correlation lengths decrease slightly but stay above the average grain size. (author)

  9. Dividing the Force Concept Inventory into two equivalent half-length tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Force Concept Inventory (FCI is a 30-question multiple-choice assessment that has been a building block for much of the physics education research done today. In practice, there are often concerns regarding the length of the test and possible test-retest effects. Since many studies in the literature use the mean score of the FCI as the primary variable, it would be useful then to have different shorter tests that can produce FCI-equivalent scores while providing the benefits of being quicker to administer and overcoming the test-retest effects. In this study, we divide the 1995 version of the FCI into two half-length tests; each contains a different subset of the original FCI questions. The two new tests are shorter, still cover the same set of concepts, and produce mean scores equivalent to those of the FCI. Using a large quantitative data set collected at a large midwestern university, we statistically compare the assessment features of the two half-length tests and the full-length FCI. The results show that the mean error of equivalent scores between any two of the three tests is within 3%. Scores from all tests are well correlated. Based on the analysis, it appears that the two half-length tests can be a viable option for score based assessment that need to administer tests quickly or need to measure short-term gains where using identical pre- and post-test questions is a concern.

  10. Morphometric Characteristics and Length-Weight Relationship of Russian Sturgeon Juveniles Fed with Different Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Cristina ANDREI(GURIENCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze some morphometric characteristics and the correlation between them for Russian sturgeon juveniles (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii reared in a recirculating aquaculture system fed at different fed with different ratio: 1% body weight (BW, 1.5% BW, 2% BW and ad libitum feeding (which was around 2.8% BW.Fish, with an average body mass around 248.194 ± 1.59 g. Following biometric measurements were made for each fish, including weight (W, total length (TL, standard length (SL, fork length (FL, maximum body depth (last depth of caudal peduncle, H; preanal distance (AD, predorsal distance (PD, length of head (C, preorbital distance (PO, length of pectoral fin (LPF, interorbital distance (ID, maximum width of head (MH, width of mouth (WM, width of the head at the level of the mouth (WHM. The obtained results showed significant differences between all morphometric measurements (p<0.05 for all the experimental variants, emphasizing that in the ad libitum feeding all morphometric measurements were significantly higher than in the other experimental variants. In order to highlight more eloquent these differences, were developed some linear regressions between the morphometric measurements and significant positive correlation (p<0.05 between dependent and independent variables were found.

  11. Automated path length and M56 measurements at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.; Tang, J.; Legg, R.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate measurement of path length and path length changes versus momentum (M 56 ) are critical for maintaining minimum beam energy spread in the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The relative path length for each circuit of the beam (1256m) must be equal within 1.5 degrees of 1497 MHz RF phase. A relative path length measurement is made by measuring the relative phases of RF signals from a cavity that is separately excited for each pass of a 4.2 μs pulsed beam. This method distinguishes the path length to less than 0.5 path length error. The development of a VME based automated measurement system for path length and M 56 has contributed to faster machine setup time and has the potential for use as a feedback parameter for automated control

  12. Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Virjanand; Tiest, Wouter M Bergmann; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2014-01-24

    We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle, or anti-correlated. We found that when both length and curvature are present, performance is significantly better than when only one of the two cues is available. Therefore, we conclude that there is integration of length and curvature. Moreover, if the two cues are correlated in a circular cross-section instead of in an anti-correlated way, performance is better than predicted by a combination of two independent cues. We conclude that integration of curvature and length is highly efficient when the cues in the object are combined as in a circle, which is the most common combination of curvature and length in daily life.

  13. Telomere length in alcohol dependence: A role for impulsive choice and childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jee In; Hwang, Syung Shick; Choi, Jong Rak; Lee, Seung-Tae; Kim, Jieun; Hwang, In Sik; Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Kim, Se Joo

    2017-09-01

    Telomere shortening, a marker of cellular aging, has been considered to be linked with psychosocial stress as well as with chronic alcohol consumption, possibly mediated by oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Recent findings suggested that early life adversity on telomere dynamics may be related to impulsive choice. To further our understanding of the association of impulsive choice and childhood trauma on telomere length, we examined whether delayed discounting and childhood trauma or their interaction is related to leukocyte telomere length, while controlling for multiple potential confounding variables, in patients with alcohol dependence who are considered to have higher impulsive choice and shorter telomere length. We recruited 253 male patients with chronic alcohol dependence. All participants performed the delay discounting task, and the area under curve was used as a measure of delay discounting. Steeper delay discounting represents more impulsive choices. The modified Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale was used to measure childhood maltreatment. In addition, confounding factors, including socio-demographic characteristics, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Resilience Quotient, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, were also assessed. Hierarchical regression analyses showed a significant main effect of delay discounting (β=0.161, t=2.640, p=0.009), and an interaction effect between delay discounting and childhood maltreatment on leukocyte telomere length (β=0.173, t=2.138, p=0.034). In subsequent analyses stratified by childhood maltreatment, patients with alcohol dependence and high childhood trauma showed a significant relationship between delay discounting and leukocyte telomere length (β=0.279, t=3.183, p=0.002), while those with low trauma showed no association between them. Our findings suggest that higher impulsive choice is associated with shorter telomere

  14. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pointer Marie A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face

  15. Paediatric renal length measurements from ultrasound and DMSA scans: does clinical practice reflect theoretical normal values?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.; Hassan, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Renal length measurement is a routine part of ultrasound examination in children and those results are plotted on a normogram style graph, so that each child's results are compared to a normal range (mean ± 2 S.D.). Renal length measurements from the posterior oblique views of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans in our department have not always correlated well with the ultrasound measurements on the same patients. Renal lengths from the DMSA scans of 120 patients with apparently normal kidneys were recorded and used to generate a normogram of renal length at different ages (0.5-7 years). This DMSA normogram was compared to the ultrasound (US) normogram used in the Paediatric Radiology Department, and it showed slight differences in renal lengths (3-8 mm), but that the US normogram had smaller coefficients of variation (US = 6.6%, NM 8.3%), implying a 'tighter' normal range. 39 of these patients had DMSA and ultrasound measurements of renal length within 3 months, and these were studied first by calculating the mean and CV values for different age groups, and then by plotting individual renal lengths on the appropriate normograms. The measured data produced much greater variability in the ultrasound measurements than the DTPA measurements, and the individual points produced 4/78 (5.1%) abnormal results for DMSA, but 21/78 (26.9%) abnormal results for ultrasound. Thus, in routine clinical use, using patients with apparently normal kidneys, ultrasound was unable to match the 'normal range' set by their current normogram, but the nuclear medicine showed 5.1% of values outside the normal (DMSA) range, which was completely appropriate for a range of ± 2 standard deviations

  16. Length of stay after vaginal birth: sociodemographic and readiness-for-discharge factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marianne; Ryan, Polly; Lokken, Lisa; Nelson, Magdalen

    2004-06-01

    The impact of reductions in postpartum length of stay have been widely reported, but factors influencing length of hospital stay after vaginal birth have received less attention. The study purpose was to compare the sociodemographic characteristics and readiness for discharge of new mothers and their newborns at 3 discharge time intervals, and to determine which variables were associated with postpartum length of stay. The study sample comprised 1,192 mothers who were discharged within 2 postpartum days after uncomplicated vaginal birth at a tertiary perinatal center in the midwestern United States. The sample was divided into 3 postpartum length-of-stay groups: group 1 (18-30 hr), group 2 (31-42 hr), and group 3 (43-54 hr). Sociodemographic and readiness-for-discharge data were collected by self-report and from a computerized hospital information system. Measures of readiness for discharge included perceived readiness (single item and Readiness for Discharge After Birth Scale), documented maternal and neonatal clinical problems, and feeding method. Compared with other groups, the longest length-of-stay group was older; of higher socioeconomic status and education; and with more primiparous, breastfeeding, white, married mothers who were living with the baby's father, had adequate home help, and had a private payor source. This group also reported greater readiness for discharge, but their newborns had more documented clinical problems during the postbirth hospitalization. In logistic regression modeling, earlier discharge was associated with young age, multiparity, public payor source, low socioeconomic status, lack of readiness for discharge, bottle-feeding, and absence of a neonatal clinical problem. Sociodemographic characteristics and readiness for discharge (clinical and perceived) were associated with length of postpartum hospital stay. Length of stay is an outcome of a complex interface between patient, provider, and payor influences on discharge timing

  17. Variable mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  18. Bedform response to flow variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.M.; Logan, B.L.; Kinzel, P.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Giri, S.; Shreve, R.L.; McLean, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory observations and computational results for the response of bedform fields to rapid variations in discharge are compared and discussed. The simple case considered here begins with a relatively low discharge over a flat bed on which bedforms are initiated, followed by a short high-flow period with double the original discharge, during which the morphology of the bedforms adjusts, followed in turn by a relatively long period of the original low discharge. For the grain size and hydraulic conditions selected, the Froude number remains subcritical during the experiment, and sediment moves predominantly as bedload. Observations show rapid development of quasi-two-dimensional bedforms during the initial period of low flow with increasing wavelength and height over the initial low-flow period. When the flow increases, the bedforms rapidly increase in wavelength and height, as expected from other empirical results. When the flow decreases back to the original discharge, the height of the bedforms quickly decreases in response, but the wavelength decreases much more slowly. Computational results using an unsteady two-dimensional flow model coupled to a disequilibrium bedload transport model for the same conditions simulate the formation and initial growth of the bedforms fairly accurately and also predict an increase in dimensions during the high-flow period. However, the computational model predicts a much slower rate of wavelength increase, and also performs less accurately during the final low-flow period, where the wavelength remains essentially constant, rather than decreasing. In addition, the numerical results show less variability in bedform wavelength and height than the measured values; the bedform shape is also somewhat different. Based on observations, these discrepancies may result from the simplified model for sediment particle step lengths used in the computational approach. Experiments show that the particle step length varies spatially and

  19. The WFCAM multiwavelength Variable Star Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Dékány, I.; Catelan, M.; Cross, N. J. G.; Angeloni, R.; Leão, I. C.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Stellar variability in the near-infrared (NIR) remains largely unexplored. The exploitation of public science archives with data-mining methods offers a perspective for a time-domain exploration of the NIR sky. Aims: We perform a comprehensive search for stellar variability using the optical-NIR multiband photometric data in the public Calibration Database of the WFCAM Science Archive (WSA), with the aim of contributing to the general census of variable stars and of extending the current scarce inventory of accurate NIR light curves for a number of variable star classes. Methods: Standard data-mining methods were applied to extract and fine-tune time-series data from the WSA. We introduced new variability indices designed for multiband data with correlated sampling, and applied them for preselecting variable star candidates, i.e., light curves that are dominated by correlated variations, from noise-dominated ones. Preselection criteria were established by robust numerical tests for evaluating the response of variability indices to the colored noise characteristic of the data. We performed a period search using the string-length minimization method on an initial catalog of 6551 variable star candidates preselected by variability indices. Further frequency analysis was performed on positive candidates using three additional methods in combination, in order to cope with aliasing. Results: We find 275 periodic variable stars and an additional 44 objects with suspected variability with uncertain periods or apparently aperiodic variation. Only 44 of these objects had been previously known, including 11 RR Lyrae stars on the outskirts of the globular cluster M 3 (NGC 5272). We provide a preliminary classification of the new variable stars that have well-measured light curves, but the variability types of a large number of objects remain ambiguous. We classify most of the new variables as contact binary stars, but we also find several pulsating stars, among which

  20. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  1. Marital disruption is associated with shorter salivary telomere length in a probability sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Robustelli, Briana L; Sbarra, David A

    2016-05-01

    Marital disruption (i.e., marital separation, divorce) is associated with a wide range of poor mental and physical health outcomes, including increased risk for all-cause mortality. One biological intermediary that may help explain the association between marital disruption and poor health is accelerated cellular aging. This study examines the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length in a United States probability sample of adults ≥50 years of age. Participants were 3526 individuals who participated in the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. Telomere length assays were performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on DNA extracted from saliva samples. Health and lifestyle factors, traumatic and stressful life events, and neuroticism were assessed via self-report. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between predictor variables and salivary telomere length. Based on their marital status data in the 2006 wave, people who were separated or divorced had shorter salivary telomeres than people who were continuously married or had never been married, and the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length was not moderated by gender or neuroticism. Furthermore, the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, neuroticism, cigarette use, body mass, traumatic life events, and other stressful life events. Additionally, results revealed that currently married adults with a history of divorce evidenced shorter salivary telomeres than people who were continuously married or never married. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere shortening, may be one pathway through which marital disruption is associated with morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Zen meditation, Length of Telomeres, and the Role of Experiential Avoidance and Compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Marta; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Rodero, Baltasar; Demarzo, Marcelo; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Roca, Miquel; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    Mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally focusing on the present experience in a nonjudgmental or evaluative manner. Evidence regarding its efficacy has been increasing exponentially, and recent research suggests that the practice of meditation is associated with longer leukocyte telomere length. However, the psychological mechanisms underlying this potential relationship are unknown. We examined the telomere lengths of a group of 20 Zen meditation experts and another 20 healthy matched comparison participants who had not previously meditated. We also measured multiple psychological variables related to meditation practice. Genomic DNA was extracted for telomere measurement using a Life Length proprietary program. High-throughput quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (HT-Q-FISH) was used to measure the telomere length distribution and the median telomere length (MTL). The meditators group had a longer MTL ( p  = 0.005) and a lower percentage of short telomeres in individual cells ( p  = 0.007) than those in the comparison group. To determine which of the psychological variables contributed more to telomere maintenance, two regression analyses were conducted. In the first model, which applied to the MTL, the following three factors were significant: age, absence of experiential avoidance, and Common Humanity subscale of the Self Compassion Scale. Similarly, in the model that examined the percentage of short telomeres, the same factors were significant: age, absence of experiential avoidance, and Common Humanity subscale of the Self Compassion Scale. Although limited by a small sample size, these results suggest that the absence of experiential avoidance of negative emotions and thoughts is integral to the connection between meditation and telomeres.

  3. THE CHANDRA VARIABLE GUIDE STAR CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Joy S.; Lauer, Jennifer L.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Henden, Arne A.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Martin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Variable stars have been identified among the optical-wavelength light curves of guide stars used for pointing control of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We present a catalog of these variable stars along with their light curves and ancillary data. Variability was detected to a lower limit of 0.02 mag amplitude in the 4000-10000 A range using the photometrically stable Aspect Camera on board the Chandra spacecraft. The Chandra Variable Guide Star Catalog (VGUIDE) contains 827 stars, of which 586 are classified as definitely variable and 241 are identified as possibly variable. Of the 586 definite variable stars, we believe 319 are new variable star identifications. Types of variables in the catalog include eclipsing binaries, pulsating stars, and rotating stars. The variability was detected during the course of normal verification of each Chandra pointing and results from analysis of over 75,000 guide star light curves from the Chandra mission. The VGUIDE catalog represents data from only about 9 years of the Chandra mission. Future releases of VGUIDE will include newly identified variable guide stars as the mission proceeds. An important advantage of the use of space data to identify and analyze variable stars is the relatively long observations that are available. The Chandra orbit allows for observations up to 2 days in length. Also, guide stars were often used multiple times for Chandra observations, so many of the stars in the VGUIDE catalog have multiple light curves available from various times in the mission. The catalog is presented as both online data associated with this paper and as a public Web interface. Light curves with data at the instrumental time resolution of about 2 s, overplotted with the data binned at 1 ks, can be viewed on the public Web interface and downloaded for further analysis. VGUIDE is a unique project using data collected during the mission that would otherwise be ignored. The stars available for use as Chandra guide stars are

  4. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  5. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  6. Thermal significance of fission-track length distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    The semi-analytical solution of an equation describing the production and shortening of fission tracks in apatite suggests that certain thermal histories have unique length-distribution 'signatures'. Isothermal-heating histories should be characterized by flattened, length-shortened distributions; step-heating histories should be characterized by bimodal track length distributions; and linear-cooling histories should be characterized by negatively skewed, length-shortened distributions. The model formulated here to investigate track length distributions can be used to constrain the thermal histories of natural samples for which unbiased track length data are available - provided that the geologic history of the system of interest can be used to partially constrain one of the unknowns in the model equations, time or temperature. (author)

  7. Bond-Length Distortions in Strained Semiconductor Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woicik, J.C.; Pellegrino, J.G.; Steiner, B.; Miyano, K.E.; Bompadre, S.G.; Sorensen, L.B.; Lee, T.; Khalid, S.

    1997-01-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements performed at In-K edge have resolved the outstanding issue of bond-length strain in semiconductor-alloy heterostructures. We determine the In-As bond length to be 2.581±0.004 Angstrom in a buried, 213 Angstrom thick Ga 0.78 In 0.22 As layer grown coherently on GaAs(001). This bond length corresponds to a strain-induced contraction of 0.015±0.004 Angstrom relative to the In-As bond length in bulk Ga 1-x In x As of the same composition; it is consistent with a simple model which assumes a uniform bond-length distortion in the epilayer despite the inequivalent In-As and Ga-As bond lengths. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Upper bound for the length of commutative algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, Ol'ga V

    2009-01-01

    By the length of a finite system of generators for a finite-dimensional associative algebra over an arbitrary field one means the least positive integer k such that the words of length not exceeding k span this algebra (as a vector space). The maximum length for the systems of generators of an algebra is referred to as the length of the algebra. In the present paper, an upper bound for the length of a commutative algebra in terms of a function of two invariants of the algebra, the dimension and the maximal degree of the minimal polynomial for the elements of the algebra, is obtained. As a corollary, a formula for the length of the algebra of diagonal matrices over an arbitrary field is obtained. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  9. Relation between Tolman length and isothermal compressibility for simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Song; Zhu Ru-Zeng

    2013-01-01

    The Tolman length δ 0 of a liquid with a plane surface has attracted increasing theoretical attention in recent years, but the expression of Tolman length in terms of observable quantities is still not very clear. In 2001, Bartell gave a simple expression of Tolman length δ 0 in terms of isothermal compressibility. However, this expression predicts that Tolman length is always negative, which is contrary to the results of molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) for simple liquids. In this paper, this contradiction is analyzed and the reason for the discrepancy in the sign is found. In addition, we introduce a new expression of Tolman length in terms of isothermal compressibility for simple fluids not near the critical points under some weak restrictions. The Tolman length of simple liquids calculated by using this formula is consistent with that obtained using MDS regarding the sign

  10. The nebular variables

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    1974-01-01

    The Nebular Variables focuses on the nebular variables and their characteristics. Discussions are organized by type of nebular variable, namely, RW Aurigae stars, T Orionis stars, T Tauri stars, and peculiar nebular objects. Topics range from light variations of the stars to their spectroscopic and physical characteristics, spatial distribution, interaction with nebulosity, and evolutionary features. This volume is divided into four sections and consists of 25 chapters, the first of which provides general information on nebular variables, including their stellar associations and their classifi

  11. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  12. Finite fission chain length and symmetry around prompt-criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Qilin; Yin Yanpeng; Gao Hui; Huang Po; Fang Xiaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Probability distribution of finite fission chain length was derived by assuming that all neutrons behave identically. Finite fission chain length was also calculated using a zero-dimension Monte-Carlo method based on point kinetics. Then symmetry of finite fission chain length probability distribution around prompt-criticality was deduced, which helps understanding the emission rate of delayed neutrons and initiation of fission chain in super-prompt-critical system. (authors)

  13. Cervical length measurement: comparison of transabdominal and transvaginal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerway, Sue C; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Hyett, Jon

    2015-01-01

    to external cervical os. Bland- Altman plots and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to evaluate differences between TA and TV measurements. Results: The validity of the TA method depended on cervical length. Although the TA method underestimated cervical length by 2.0 mm on average (P ... plots showed an inverse trend with shorter cervixes. In women with a cervix test to detect cervical length

  14. Potts ferromagnet correlation length in hypercubic lattices: Renormalization - group approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curado, E.M.F.; Hauser, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Through a real space renormalization group approach, the q-state Potts ferromagnet correlation length on hierarchical lattices is calculated. These hierarchical lattices are build in order to simulate hypercubic lattices. The high-and-low temperature correlation length asymptotic behaviours tend (in the Ising case) to the Bravais lattice correlation length ones when the size of the hierarchical lattice cells tends to infinity. It is conjectured that the asymptotic behaviours several values of q and d (dimensionality) so obtained are correct. Numerical results are obtained for the full temperature range of the correlation length. (Author) [pt

  15. Bunch length measurements in the SLC damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.; Ross, M.

    1993-05-01

    The synchrotron light of the SLC damping ring was used to measure the bunch length with a streak camera at different times in the damping cycle. There are bunch length oscillations after injection, different equilibrium length during the cycle due to rf manipulations to avoid microwave instability oscillations, and just before extraction there is a longitudinal phase space rotation (bunch muncher) to shorten the bunch length. Measurements under these different conditions are presented and compared with BPM pulse height signals. Calibration and adjustment issues and the connection of the streak camera to the SLC control system are also discussed

  16. Universal and idiosyncratic characteristic lengths in bacterial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junier, Ivan; Frémont, Paul; Rivoire, Olivier

    2018-05-01

    In condensed matter physics, simplified descriptions are obtained by coarse-graining the features of a system at a certain characteristic length, defined as the typical length beyond which some properties are no longer correlated. From a physics standpoint, in vitro DNA has thus a characteristic length of 300 base pairs (bp), the Kuhn length of the molecule beyond which correlations in its orientations are typically lost. From a biology standpoint, in vivo DNA has a characteristic length of 1000 bp, the typical length of genes. Since bacteria live in very different physico-chemical conditions and since their genomes lack translational invariance, whether larger, universal characteristic lengths exist is a non-trivial question. Here, we examine this problem by leveraging the large number of fully sequenced genomes available in public databases. By analyzing GC content correlations and the evolutionary conservation of gene contexts (synteny) in hundreds of bacterial chromosomes, we conclude that a fundamental characteristic length around 10–20 kb can be defined. This characteristic length reflects elementary structures involved in the coordination of gene expression, which are present all along the genome of nearly all bacteria. Technically, reaching this conclusion required us to implement methods that are insensitive to the presence of large idiosyncratic genomic features, which may co-exist along these fundamental universal structures.

  17. The relationship of protein conservation and sequence length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchenko Anna R

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, the length of a protein sequence is determined by its function and the wide variance in the lengths of an organism's proteins reflects the diversity of specific functional roles for these proteins. However, additional evolutionary forces that affect the length of a protein may be revealed by studying the length distributions of proteins evolving under weaker functional constraints. Results We performed sequence comparisons to distinguish highly conserved and poorly conserved proteins from the bacterium Escherichia coli, the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and the eukaryotes Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. For all organisms studied, the conserved and nonconserved proteins have strikingly different length distributions. The conserved proteins are, on average, longer than the poorly conserved ones, and the length distributions for the poorly conserved proteins have a relatively narrow peak, in contrast to the conserved proteins whose lengths spread over a wider range of values. For the two prokaryotes studied, the poorly conserved proteins approximate the minimal length distribution expected for a diverse range of structural folds. Conclusions There is a relationship between protein conservation and sequence length. For all the organisms studied, there seems to be a significant evolutionary trend favoring shorter proteins in the absence of other, more specific functional constraints.

  18. Newborn Length of Stay and Risk of Readmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Katie; Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; Oddie, Sam; van der Meulen, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Evidence on the association between newborn length of hospital stay (LOS) and risk of readmission is conflicting. We compared methods for modelling this relationship, by gestational age, using population-level hospital data on births in England between 2005-14. The association between LOS and unplanned readmission within 30 days of postnatal discharge was explored using four approaches: (i) modelling hospital-level LOS and readmission rates; (ii) comparing trends over time in LOS and readmission; (iii) modelling individual LOS and adjusted risk of readmission; and (iv) instrumental variable analyses (hospital-level mean LOS and number of births on the same day). Of 4 667 827 babies, 5.2% were readmitted within 30 days. Aggregated data showed hospitals with longer mean LOS were not associated with lower readmission rates for vaginal (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66, 1.13), or caesarean (aRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72, 1.12) births. LOS fell by an average 2.0% per year for vaginal births and 3.4% for caesarean births, while readmission rates increased by 4.4 and 5.1% per year respectively. Approaches (iii) and (iv) indicated that longer LOS was associated with a reduced risk of readmission, but only for late preterm, vaginal births (34-36 completed weeks' gestation). Longer newborn LOS may benefit late preterm babies, possibly due to increased medical or psychosocial support for those at greater risk of potentially preventable readmissions after birth. Research based on observational data to evaluate relationships between LOS and readmission should use methods to reduce the impact of unmeasured confounding. © 2017 The Authors Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The effect of epoch length on estimated EEG functional connectivity and brain network organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschini, Matteo; Demuru, Matteo; Crobe, Alessandra; Marrosu, Francesco; Stam, Cornelis J.; Hillebrand, Arjan

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Graph theory and network science tools have revealed fundamental mechanisms of functional brain organization in resting-state M/EEG analysis. Nevertheless, it is still not clearly understood how several methodological aspects may bias the topology of the reconstructed functional networks. In this context, the literature shows inconsistency in the chosen length of the selected epochs, impeding a meaningful comparison between results from different studies. Approach. The aim of this study was to provide a network approach insensitive to the effects that epoch length has on functional connectivity and network reconstruction. Two different measures, the phase lag index (PLI) and the amplitude envelope correlation (AEC) were applied to EEG resting-state recordings for a group of 18 healthy volunteers using non-overlapping epochs with variable length (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 s). Weighted clustering coefficient (CCw), weighted characteristic path length (L w) and minimum spanning tree (MST) parameters were computed to evaluate the network topology. The analysis was performed on both scalp and source-space data. Main results. Results from scalp analysis show a decrease in both mean PLI and AEC values with an increase in epoch length, with a tendency to stabilize at a length of 12 s for PLI and 6 s for AEC. Moreover, CCw and L w show very similar behaviour, with metrics based on AEC more reliable in terms of stability. In general, MST parameters stabilize at short epoch lengths, particularly for MSTs based on PLI (1-6 s versus 4-8 s for AEC). At the source-level the results were even more reliable, with stability already at 1 s duration for PLI-based MSTs. Significance. The present work suggests that both PLI and AEC depend on epoch length and that this has an impact on the reconstructed network topology, particularly at the scalp-level. Source-level MST topology is less sensitive to differences in epoch length, therefore enabling the comparison of brain

  20. Length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-jebory, Taymaa A.; Das, Simon K.; Usup, Gires; Bakar, Y.; Al-saadi, Ali H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces were determined. Fish specimens were procured from seven provinces from July to December, 2015. A negative and positive allometric growth pattern was obtained, where the total length (TL) ranged from 25.60 cm to 33.53 cm, and body weight (BW) ranged from 700 g to 1423 g. Meanwhile, the lowest of 1.03 and highest of 3.54 in "b" value was recorded in group F and group C, respectively. Therefore, Fulton condition factor (K) range from 2.57 to 4.94. While, relative condition factor (Kn) was in the ranged of 0.95 to 1.01. A linear relationship between total length (TL) and standard length (SL) among the provinces for fish groups was obtained. The variances in "b" value ranged from 0.10 to 0.93 with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.02 to 0.97. This research could be used as a guide to study the ecology and biology of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces.

  1. A comparison of locked versus nonlocked Enders rods for length unstable pediatric femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Henry Bone; Ho, Christine A; Podeszwa, David A; Wilson, Philip L

    2011-12-01

    Stainless steel flexible Enders rods have been used for intramedullary fixation of pediatric femur fractures with good success. Despite intraoperative anatomic alignment, length unstable femur fractures can present postoperatively with fracture shortening. The purpose of this study was to review all length unstable pediatric femoral shaft fractures in which Enders rods were used and compare those that were locked to those that were not locked. A retrospective clinical and radiographic review of all patients at a single institution undergoing flexible intramedullary fixation for length unstable femoral shaft fractures from 2001 to 2008. A length unstable fracture was defined as either a comminuted fracture or a spiral fracture longer than twice the diameter of the femoral shaft. A total of 107 length unstable femoral shaft fractures fixed with Enders rods were identified, of which 37 cases (35%) had both Enders rods "locked" through the eyelet in the distal femur with a 2.7 mm fully threaded cortical screw. Patient demographics, clinical course, complications, fracture characteristics, and radiographic outcomes were compared for the locked and nonlocked groups. There were no statistical differences between the groups in demographic data, operative variables, fracture pattern, fracture location, time to union, femoral alignment, or major complications. Shortening of the femur and nail migration measured at 1 to 6 weeks postoperatively was significantly greater for the nonlocked cases. The medial and lateral locked Enders rods moved 1.3 and 1.9 mm, respectively, and the unlocked Enders each moved 12.1 mm (P < 0.05). At final follow-up there were significantly more (P < 0.05) clinical complaints in nonlocked group, including limp, clinical shortening, and painful palpable rods. Locking Enders rods for length unstable pediatric fractures is an excellent option to prevent shortening and resulted in no additional complications, added surgical time, or increased blood loss

  2. Effects of Pedal Speed and Crank Length on Pedaling Mechanics during Submaximal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRATT, PAUL RICHARD; MARTIN, JAMES C.; ELMER, STEVE J.; KORFF, THOMAS

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During submaximal cycling, the neuromuscular system has the freedom to select different intermuscular coordination strategies. From both a basic science and an applied perspective, it is important to understand how the central nervous system adjusts pedaling mechanics in response to changes in pedaling conditions. Purpose To determine the effect of changes in pedal speed (a marker of muscle shortening velocity) and crank length (a marker of muscle length) on pedaling mechanics during submaximal cycling. Methods Fifteen trained cyclists performed submaximal isokinetic cycling trials (90 rpm, 240 W) using pedal speeds of 1.41 to 1.61 m·s−1 and crank lengths of 150 to 190 mm. Joint powers were calculated using inverse dynamics. Results Increases in pedal speed and crank length caused large increases knee and hip angular excursions and velocities (P 0.05). Joint moments and joint powers were less affected by changes in the independent variables, but some interesting effects and trends were observed. Most noteworthy, knee extension moments and powers tended to decrease, whereas hip extension power tended to increase with an increase in crank length. Conclusions The distribution of joint moments and powers is largely maintained across a range of pedaling conditions. The crank length induced differences in knee extension moments, and powers may represent a trade-off between the central nervous system’s attempts to simultaneously minimize muscle metabolic and mechanical stresses. These results increase our understanding of the neural and mechanical mechanisms underlying multi-joint task performance, and they have practical relevance to coaches, athletes, and clinicians. PMID:26559455

  3. Quantitative relationship between nanotube length and anodizing current during constant current anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yulian; Cheng, Weijie; Du, Fei; Zhang, Shaoyu; Ma, Weihua; Li, Dongdong; Song, Ye; Zhu, Xufei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ti anodization was performed by constant current rather than constant voltage. • The nanotube length was controlled by ionic current rather than dissolution current. • Electronic current can be estimated by the nanotube length and the anodizing current. • Dissolution reaction hardly contributes electric current across the barrier layer. - Abstract: The growth kinetics of anodic TiO 2 nanotubes (ATNTs) still remains unclear. ATNTs are generally fabricated under potentiostatic conditions rather than galvanostatic ones. The quantitative relationship between nanotube length and anodizing current (J total ) is difficult to determine, because the variable J total includes ionic current (J ion ) (also called oxide growth current J grow =J ion ) and electronic current (J e ), which cannot be separated from each other. One successful approach to achieve this objective is to use constant current anodization rather than constant voltage anodization, that is, through quantitative comparison between the nanotube length and the known J total during constant current anodization, we can estimate the relative magnitudes of J grow and J e . The nanotubes with lengths of 1.24, 2.23, 3.51 and 4.70 μm, were formed under constant currents (J total ) of 15, 20, 25 and 30 mA, respectively. The relationship between nanotube length (y) and anodizing current (x =J total =J grow +J e ) can be expressed by a fitting equation: y=0.23(x-10.13), from which J grow (J grow = x -10.13) and J e (∼10.13 mA) could be inferred under the present conditions. Meanwhile, the same conclusion could also be deduced from the oxide volume data. These results indicate that the nanotube growth is attributed to the oxide growth current rather than the dissolution current.

  4. Spatio-temporal Variability in Surface Ocean pCO2 Inferred from Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The variability of surface ocean pCO2 is examined on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Temporal autocorrelation analysis is used to examine pCO2 variability over multiple years. Spatial autocorrelation analysis describes pCO2 variability over multiple spatial scales. Spatial autocorrelation lengths range between

  5. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  6. Collective variables and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.

    1984-09-01

    This is an introduction to some basic concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We emphasize in particular the relevant entropy relative to a given set of collective variables, the meaning of the projection method in the Liouville space, its use to establish the generalized transport equations for these variables, and the interpretation of dissipation in the framework of information theory

  7. Variability: A Pernicious Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of greater male variability in test results is discussed in its historical context, and reasons feminists have objected to the hypothesis are considered. The hypothesis acquires political importance if it is considered that variability results from biological, rather than cultural, differences. (SLD)

  8. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  9. POVMs and hidden variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stairs, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Recent results by Paul Busch and Adan Cabello claim to show that by appealing to POVMs, non-contextual hidden variables can be ruled out in two dimensions. While the results of Busch and Cabello are mathematically correct, interpretive problems render them problematic as no hidden variable proofs

  10. Interdependence Among Organizational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The interrelationship between a set of organizational variables was investigated at 14 work organizations within a company. The variables were production, quality, costs, job satisfaction of operatives, job satisfaction of supervisors, work anxiety, accidents, absence, labor turnover, and industrial unrest. (Author)

  11. Compliant walking appears metabolically advantageous at extreme step lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Bertram, John E A

    2018-05-19

    Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases. 10 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill using progressively increasing step lengths (100%, 120%, 140% and 160% of preferred step length), in both normal and compliant leg walking as energy expenditure was recorded via indirect calorimetry. Leg compliance was controlled by lowering the center-of-mass trajectory during stance, forcing the leg to flex and extend as the body moved over the foot contact. For normal step lengths, compliant leg walking was more costly than normal walking gait, but compliant leg walking energetic cost did not increase as rapidly for longer step lengths. This led to an intersection between normal and compliant walking cost curves at 114% relative step length (regression analysis; r 2  = 0.92 for normal walking; r 2  = 0.65 for compliant walking). Compliant leg walking is less energetically demanding at longer step lengths where a spontaneous shift to compliant walking has been observed, suggesting the human motor control system is sensitive to energetic requirements and will employ alternate movement patterns if advantageous strategies are available. The transition could be attributed to the interplay between (i) leg work controlling body travel during single stance and (ii) leg work to control energy loss in the step-to-step transition. Compliant leg walking requires more stance leg work at normal step lengths, but involves less energy loss at the step-to-step transition for very long steps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  13. Differences in caregiver daily impression by sex, education and career length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ae, Ryusuke; Kojo, Takao; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Okayama, Masanobu; Kuwabara, Masanari; Makino, Nobuko; Aoyama, Yasuko; Sano, Takashi; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2017-03-01

    We previously proposed the concept of caregiver daily impression (CDI) as a practical tool for emergency triage. We herein assessed how CDI varies by sex, education and career length by determining CDI scores as quantitative outcome measures. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a self-reported questionnaire among caregivers in 20 long-term care facilities in Hyogo, Japan. A total of 10 CDI variables measured participants' previous experience of emergency transfers using a scale from 0-10. The resulting total was defined as the CDI score. We hypothetically considered that higher scores indicated greater caregiver focus. The CDI scores were compared by sex, education and career length using analysis of covariance. A total of 601 personal caregivers were evaluated (mean age 36.7 years; 36% men). The mean career length was 6.9 years, with the following groupings: 1-4 years (38%), 5-9 years (37%) and >10 years (24%). After adjustment for sex and education, the CDI scores for the variable, "poor eye contact," significantly differed between caregivers with ≥10 and Sex-related differences in CDI might also exist. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 17: 410-415. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Stability of measures from children's interviews: the effects of time, sample length, and topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, John; DeBrock, Lindsay; Riley-Tillman, T Chris

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of, and sources of variability in, language measures from interviews collected from young school-age children. Two 10-min interviews were collected from 20 at-risk kindergarten children by an examiner using a standardized set of questions. Test-retest reliability coefficients were calculated for 8 language measures. Generalizability theory (G-theory) analyses were completed to document the variability introduced into the measures from the child, session, sample length, and topic. Significant and strong reliability correlation coefficients were observed for most of the language sample measures. The G-theory analyses revealed that most of the variance in the language measures was attributed to the child. Session, sample length, and topic accounted for negligible amounts of variance in most of the language measures. Measures from interviews were reliable across sessions, and the sample length and topic did not have a substantial impact on the reliability of the language measures. Implications regarding the clinical feasibility of language sample analysis for assessment and progress monitoring are discussed.

  15. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  16. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  17. Spatial correlation length of normalized cone data in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Griffiths, D. V.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of this study is to assess the anisotropic spatial correlation lengths of a sand layer deposit based on cone penetration testing with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) data. Spatial correlation length can be an important factor in reliability analysis of geotechnical systems, yet it...

  18. The Influence of Presentation Method on Auditory Length Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length...

  19. The influence of presentation method on auditory length perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length...

  20. The impact of cultural distance on bilateral arm's length exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.H.L.; Beugelsdijk, S.; Hennart, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have argued and regularly found that cultural distance is negatively related to bilateral export flows, which are the sum of arm’s length and intra-firm exports. However, these macro-level studies overlook the firm-level insights that arm’s length exports are a substitute for arm’s

  1. Ultrasonographic assessment of renal length in 310 Turkish children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning was performed with a 3.5 MHz ultrasound probe in the supine position. The ultrasonographic appearance of the kidneys we measured was normal. The maximum length of each kidney was measured. The renal length was correlated with somatic parameters including age, body height and weight. Regression ...

  2. Design Matters: The Impact of CAPI on Interview Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nicole; Wilkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) offers many attractive benefits over paper-and-pencil interviewing. There is, however, mixed evidence on the impact of CAPI on interview "length," an important survey outcome in the context of length limits imposed by survey budgets and concerns over respondent burden. In this article,…

  3. length-weight relationship of hepsetus odoe in lapai - agaie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Usman

    biometric relationship so that data collected from the field can be transform into appropriate indices (Ecoutin et al., 2005). Length and weight are two useful parameters used especially in fisheries assessment. This relationship known as length-weight relationship (LWR), is commonly used in the analysis of fisheries data.

  4. Word Length Effects in Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Georgina Anne

    2007-01-01

    The word length effect has been a central feature of theorising about immediate memory. The notion that short-term memory traces rapidly decay unless refreshed by rehearsal is based primarily upon the finding that serial recall for short words is better than that for long words. The decay account of the word length effect has come under pressure…

  5. Assessing impact of climate change on season length in Karnataka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changes in seasons and season length are an indicator, as well as an effect, of climate change. Seasonal change profoundly affects the balance of life in ecosystems and impacts essential human activities such as agriculture and irrigation. This study investigates the uncertainty of season length in Karnataka state, India, ...

  6. A Small Crack Length Evaluation Technique by Electronic Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sang; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2009-01-01

    The results of crack evaluation by conventional UT(Ultrasonic Test)is highly depend on the inspector's experience or knowledge of ultrasound. Phased array UT system and its application methods for small crack length evaluation will be a good alternative method which overcome present UT weakness. This study was aimed at checking the accuracy of crack length evaluation method by electronic scanning and discuss about characteristics of electronic scanning for crack length evaluation. Especially ultrasonic phased array with electronic scan technique was used in carrying out both sizing and detect ability of crack as its length changes. The response of ultrasonic phased array was analyzed to obtain the special method of determining crack length without moving the transducer and detectability of crack minimal length and depth from the material. A method of crack length determining by electronic scanning for the small crack is very real method which has it's accuracy and verify the effectiveness of method compared to a conventional crack length determination

  7. EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON CYCLE LENGTH IN ATRIAL-FLUTTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, MP; CRIJNS, HJGM; SZABO, BM; BROUWER, J; LIE, KI

    Objective-To examine the effect of exercise on cycle length in atrial flutter. Patients-15 patients with chronic atrial flutter. Seven patients were taking digoxin and six verapamil; two were not taking medication. Methods-All patients underwent bicycle ergometry. Flutter cycle length was measured

  8. Accuracy of working length determination with root ZX apex locator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to clinically compare working length (WL) determination with root ZX apex locator and radiography, and then compare them with direct visualization method ex vivo. A total of 75 maxillary central and lateral incisors were selected. Working length determination was carried out using radiographic ...

  9. Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to record the length-weight relationship parameters and condition factors for some commercially important fish of Bushehr coastal waters of Persian Gulf. The length-weight relationships were calculated for five species caught during fishing surveys using different types of fishing gears (trawls, pots ...

  10. Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent Tooth: An In Vitro Study. A Diwanji, AS Rathore, R Arora, V Dhar, A Madhusudan, J Doshi. Abstract. Background: Determination of correct working length is one of the keys to success in endodontic therapy. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...

  11. Biophysics of filament length regulation by molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, M D

    2013-01-01

    Regulating physical size is an essential problem that biological organisms must solve from the subcellular to the organismal scales, but it is not well understood what physical principles and mechanisms organisms use to sense and regulate their size. Any biophysical size-regulation scheme operates in a noisy environment and must be robust to other cellular dynamics and fluctuations. This work develops theory of filament length regulation inspired by recent experiments on kinesin-8 motor proteins, which move with directional bias on microtubule filaments and alter microtubule dynamics. Purified kinesin-8 motors can depolymerize chemically-stabilized microtubules. In the length-dependent depolymerization model, the rate of depolymerization tends to increase with filament length, because long filaments accumulate more motors at their tips and therefore shorten more quickly. When balanced with a constant filament growth rate, this mechanism can lead to a fixed polymer length. However, the mechanism by which kinesin-8 motors affect the length of dynamic microtubules in cells is less clear. We study the more biologically realistic problem of microtubule dynamic instability modulated by a motor-dependent increase in the filament catastrophe frequency. This leads to a significant decrease in the mean filament length and a narrowing of the filament length distribution. The results improve our understanding of the biophysics of length regulation in cells. (paper)

  12. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-Weight relationship and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia Zillii were studiedin lake Alau and Monguno hatchery, both in Borno State of Nigeria, for a period of two weeks. A total of 98 C. gariepinus and 140. T. zillii were measured. The length-weight regression coefficient (b) for both fishes in lake Alau ...

  13. Reason for termination of breastfeeding and the length of breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare

    1996-01-01

    In third world countries the length of breastfeeding often has a major influence on child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status. When evaluating the impact of length of breastfeeding the reason why a mother terminates breastfeeding is usually not taken into consideration....

  14. Young Children's Understandings of Length Measurement: Evaluating a Learning Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Janka; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of length measurement ideas in students from prekindergarten through 2nd grade. The main purpose was to evaluate and elaborate the developmental progression, or levels of thinking, of a hypothesized learning trajectory for length measurement to ensure that the sequence of levels of thinking is consistent…

  15. Prediction of the mixing length in effluent transport in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpilowski, S.

    1983-01-01

    Studies have been performed on estimating the transverse mixing length of effluents discharged into rivers. The proposed method is based on measured values of the dispersion coefficient. Field investigations were carried out in the River Vistula in the Warsaw area using radiotracer methods. The procedure can be used for predicting the mixing length in designing sewage systems. (author)

  16. Climate reconstructions derived from global glacier length records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, E.J.; Oerlemans, J.

    2004-01-01

    As glacier length fluctuations provide useful information about past climate, we derived historic fluctuations in the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) on the basis of 19 glacier length records from different parts of the world. We used a model that takes into account the geometry of the glacier,

  17. Time step length versus efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan; Valtavirta, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Time step length largely affects efficiency of MC burnup calculations. • Efficiency of MC burnup calculations improves with decreasing time step length. • Results were obtained from SIE-based Monte Carlo burnup calculations. - Abstract: We demonstrate that efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations can be largely affected by the selected time step length. This study employs the stochastic implicit Euler based coupling scheme for Monte Carlo burnup calculations that performs a number of inner iteration steps within each time step. In a series of calculations, we vary the time step length and the number of inner iteration steps; the results suggest that Monte Carlo burnup calculations get more efficient as the time step length is reduced. More time steps must be simulated as they get shorter; however, this is more than compensated by the decrease in computing cost per time step needed for achieving a certain accuracy

  18. Impact of Cyclic Prefix length on OFDM system Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Christian; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a study on the impact of the Cyclic Prefix (CP) length on the downlink Capacity in a base-band synchronized SISO-OFDM context. To measure this impact, the capacity, measured in bits per second per hertz, is chosen as quality parameter. The study shows how the lengthening of the CP......) the useful OFDM symbol duration, 2) the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) at the receiver and 3) the channel Power Delay Profile (PDP). Depending on the values of these parameters different optimum CP lengths are obtained. For a system using only one value of CP length we suggest an optimum value to be 4us...... for an OFDM symbol length of 40us and 6us for an OFDM symbol length of 80us....

  19. Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Goodman, Brett Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Foot length is a functional parameter for assessment of height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-03-01

    Stature estimation is considered as an important parameter in the examination of unknown human remains and during the analysis of evidence in crime scene investigations. During mass disasters isolated foot can be found enclosed in the shoes while footprints may be recovered at the crime scenes. Foot length and footprint length can provide valuable estimates of stature. The present communication makes a few pertinent observations on a recently published article in 'The Foot' entitled 'Foot length-a functional parameter for assessment of height, The Foot 2012, 22(1):31-34' and presents an insight into the literature available on the subject which is likely to be of value to future researchers in the field of Forensic Podiatry. The foot length and the footprint length of individuals differ from each other and hence, the research observations made in a study on foot prints cannot be applied to foot dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2011-06-17

    Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  3. Length of urethra in the Indian adult male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The urethral length has not been measured in the Indian population. Even the international literature in this arena is very sparse. This paper is an attempt to develop a simple anatomical database for urethral length. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2011, the urethral lengths of 422 adult male patients who required catheterization as part of regular treatment at our hospital, were recorded after obtaining consent from the patients and from the scientific and ethics review boards of the institution. Patients with history of prostatic or urethral abnormalities were excluded. The balloon of a sterile Foley′s catheter was inflated using 10 cc of saline. The length from the junction of the balloon to the ′Y′ junction of the Foley was measured. The catheter was then passed into the bladder and re-inflated to same volume. The penis was gently straightened and the length of the catheter outside the penis was measured till the premarked point at the ′Y′ junction. Subtracting this from the original length gave the length of the urethra. Results: The mean length of the urethra was 17.55 + 1.42 cm with a range between 14 and 22.5 cm. Conclusions: Literature in which the length of the normal adult male urethra is recorded for a significant sample size is very scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra specific to the Indian population. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The non-linear regression analysis was employed to find the normative values of urethral length according to age class.

  4. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  5. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    OpenAIRE

    W. Anderson; A. Gnanadesikan; A. Wittenberg

    2009-01-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly se...

  6. Proportional hazards model with varying coefficients for length-biased data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feipeng; Chen, Xuerong; Zhou, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Length-biased data arise in many important applications including epidemiological cohort studies, cancer prevention trials and studies of labor economics. Such data are also often subject to right censoring due to loss of follow-up or the end of study. In this paper, we consider a proportional hazards model with varying coefficients for right-censored and length-biased data, which is used to study the interact effect nonlinearly of covariates with an exposure variable. A local estimating equation method is proposed for the unknown coefficients and the intercept function in the model. The asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators are established by using the martingale theory and kernel smoothing techniques. Our simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed estimators have an excellent finite-sample performance. The Channing House data is analyzed to demonstrate the applications of the proposed method.

  7. ESTIMATION OF BURSTS LENGTH AND DESIGN OF A FIBER DELAY LINE BASED OBS ROUTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHA AWASTHI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The demand for higher bandwidth is increasing day by day and this ever growing demand cannot be catered to with current electronic technology. Thus new communication technology like optical communication needs to be used. In the similar context OBS (optical burst switching is considered as next generation data transfer technology. In OBS information is transmitted in forms of optical bursts of variable lengths. However, contention among the bursts is a major problem in OBS system, and for contention resolution defection routing is mostly preferred. However, deflection routing increases delay. In this paper, it is shown that the arrival of very large bursts is rare event, and for moderate burst length the buffering of contending burst can provide very effective solution. However, in case of arrival of large bursts deflection can be used.

  8. Austenite Grain Size Estimtion from Chord Lengths of Logarithmic-Normal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear section of grains in polyhedral material microstructure is a system of chords. The mean length of chords is the linear grain size of the microstructure. For the prior austenite grains of low alloy structural steels, the chord length is a random variable of gamma- or logarithmic-normal distribution. The statistical grain size estimation belongs to the quantitative metallographic problems. The so-called point estimation is a well known procedure. The interval estimation (grain size confidence interval for the gamma distribution was given elsewhere, but for the logarithmic-normal distribution is the subject of the present contribution. The statistical analysis is analogous to the one for the gamma distribution.

  9. Eternity Variables to Simulate Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, WH; Boiten, EA; Moller, B

    2002-01-01

    Simulation of specifications is introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. Eternity variables are introduced as a more powerful alternative for prophecy variables and backward

  10. Characteristic length scale of input data in distributed models: implications for modeling grid size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, G. A.; Neale, C. M. U.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2000-01-01

    The appropriate spatial scale for a distributed energy balance model was investigated by: (a) determining the scale of variability associated with the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data; and (b) examining the effects of input data spatial aggregation on model response. The semi-variogram and the characteristic length calculated from the spatial autocorrelation were used to determine the scale of variability of the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data. The data were collected from two hillsides at Upper Sheep Creek, a sub-basin of the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, in southwest Idaho. The data were analyzed in terms of the semivariance and the integral of the autocorrelation. The minimum characteristic length associated with the variability of the data used in the analysis was 15 m. Simulated and observed radiometric surface temperature fields at different spatial resolutions were compared. The correlation between agreement simulated and observed fields sharply declined after a 10×10 m2 modeling grid size. A modeling grid size of about 10×10 m2 was deemed to be the best compromise to achieve: (a) reduction of computation time and the size of the support data; and (b) a reproduction of the observed radiometric surface temperature.

  11. Characteristic length scale of input data in distributed models: implications for modeling grain size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, Guleid A.; Neale, C. M. U.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2000-01-01

    The appropriate spatial scale for a distributed energy balance model was investigated by: (a) determining the scale of variability associated with the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data; and (b) examining the effects of input data spatial aggregation on model response. The semi-variogram and the characteristic length calculated from the spatial autocorrelation were used to determine the scale of variability of the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data. The data were collected from two hillsides at Upper Sheep Creek, a sub-basin of the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, in southwest Idaho. The data were analyzed in terms of the semivariance and the integral of the autocorrelation. The minimum characteristic length associated with the variability of the data used in the analysis was 15 m. Simulated and observed radiometric surface temperature fields at different spatial resolutions were compared. The correlation between agreement simulated and observed fields sharply declined after a 10×10 m2 modeling grid size. A modeling grid size of about 10×10 m2 was deemed to be the best compromise to achieve: (a) reduction of computation time and the size of the support data; and (b) a reproduction of the observed radiometric surface temperature.

  12. The length of teeth : A statistical analysis of the differences in length of human teeth for radiologic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, J.W.; Aken, J. van; Weerdt, G.P. van der

    Intraoral radiograms can be made according to the long tube paralleling technique utilizing aiming devices. An important factor in the design of these instruments is the length of the teeth to be radiographed. Reliable data regarding the length of the teeth in the different regions of the mouth are

  13. Validity of plant fiber length measurement : a review of fiber length measurement based on kenaf as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Theodore. Mianowski; Yi-yu. Lin

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of fiber length measurement techniques such as digitizing, the Kajaani procedure, and NIH Image are compared in order to determine the optimal tool. Kenaf bast fibers, aspen, and red pine fibers were collected from different anatomical parts, and the fiber lengths were compared using various analytical tools. A statistical analysis on the validity of the...

  14. Decomposing the queue length distribution of processor-sharing models into queue lengths of permanent customer queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    We obtain a decomposition result for the steady state queue length distribution in egalitarian processor-sharing (PS) models. In particular, for an egalitarian PS queue with $K$ customer classes, we show that the marginal queue length distribution for class $k$ factorizes over the number of other

  15. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  16. Several complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Topics discussed include the elementary of holomorphic functions of several complex variables; the Weierstrass preparation theorem; meromorphic functions, holomorphic line bundles and divisors; elliptic operators on compact manifolds; hermitian connections; the Hodge decomposition theorem. ( author)

  17. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  18. Variable Pricing Feasibility Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) and Willard Bishop Consulting (Barrington, IL) to evaluate the practicality of using a variable pricing system within DeCA to maintain an average of 30 percent customer savings and lower appropriated fund costs...

  19. Evolution of variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    Throughout the domain of the H R diagram lie groupings of stars whose luminosity varies with time. These variable stars can be classified based on their observed properties into distinct types such as β Cephei stars, δ Cephei stars, and Miras, as well as many other categories. The underlying mechanism for the variability is generally felt to be due to four different causes: geometric effects, rotation, eruptive processes, and pulsation. In this review the focus will be on pulsation variables and how the theory of stellar evolution can be used to explain how the various regions of variability on the H R diagram are populated. To this end a generalized discussion of the evolutionary behavior of a massive star, an intermediate mass star, and a low mass star will be presented. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Factors associated with changes in vaginal length and diameter during pelvic radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jumara; Vaz, Ana Francisca; Grion, Regina Celia; Esteves, Sérgio Carlos Barros; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Baccaro, Luiz Francisco

    2017-12-01

    This study reports the incidence and factors associated with vaginal stenosis and changes in vaginal dimensions after pelvic radiotherapy for cervical cancer. A descriptive longitudinal study with 139 women with cervical cancer was conducted from January 2013 to November 2015. The outcome variables were vaginal stenosis assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v3.0) and changes in vaginal diameter and length after the end of radiotherapy. Independent variables were the characteristics of the neoplasm, clinical and sociodemographic data. Bivariate analysis was carried out using χ 2 , Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney's test. Multiple analysis was carried out using Poisson regression and a generalized linear model. Most women (50.4%) had stage IIIB tumors. According to CTCAE v3.0 scale, 30.2% had no stenosis, 69.1% had grade 1 and 0.7% had grade 2 stenosis after radiotherapy. Regarding changes in vaginal measures, the mean variation in diameter was - 0.6 (± 1.7) mm and the mean variation in length was - 0.6 (± 1.3) cm. In the final statistical model, having tumoral invasion of the vaginal walls (coefficient + 0.73, p vaginal stenosis and lower reduction of vaginal dimensions. Advanced clinical stage (coefficient + 1.44; p = 0.02) and receiving brachytherapy/teletherapy (coefficient - 1.17, p vaginal dimensions. Most women had mild vaginal stenosis with slight reductions in both diameter and length of the vaginal canal. Women with tumoral invasion of the vagina have an increase in vaginal length soon after radiotherapy due to a reduction in tumoral volume.

  1. Meiotic gene-conversion rate and tract length variation in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhukasahasram, Badri; Rannala, Bruce

    2013-02-27

    Meiotic recombination occurs in the form of two different mechanisms called crossing-over and gene-conversion and both processes have an important role in shaping genetic variation in populations. Although variation in crossing-over rates has been studied extensively using sperm-typing experiments, pedigree studies and population genetic approaches, our knowledge of variation in gene-conversion parameters (ie, rates and mean tract lengths) remains far from complete. To explore variability in population gene-conversion rates and its relationship to crossing-over rate variation patterns, we have developed and validated using coalescent simulations a comprehensive Bayesian full-likelihood method that can jointly infer crossing-over and gene-conversion rates as well as tract lengths from population genomic data under general variable rate models with recombination hotspots. Here, we apply this new method to SNP data from multiple human populations and attempt to characterize for the first time the fine-scale variation in gene-conversion parameters along the human genome. We find that the estimated ratio of gene-conversion to crossing-over rates varies considerably across genomic regions as well as between populations. However, there is a great degree of uncertainty associated with such estimates. We also find substantial evidence for variation in the mean conversion tract length. The estimated tract lengths did not show any negative relationship with the local heterozygosity levels in our analysis.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 27 February 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.30.

  2. Impact of assimilation window length on diurnal features in a Mars atmospheric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjing Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective simulation of diurnal variability is an important aspect of many geophysical data assimilation systems. For the Martian atmosphere, thermal tides are particularly prominent and contribute much to the Martian atmospheric circulation, dynamics and dust transport. To study the Mars diurnal variability and Mars thermal tides, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Mars Global Climate Model with the 4D-local ensemble transform Kalman filter (4D-LETKF is used to perform an analysis assimilating spacecraft temperature retrievals. We find that the use of a ‘traditional’ 6-hr assimilation cycle induces spurious forcing of a resonantly enhanced semi-diurnal Kelvin waves represented in both surface pressure and mid-level temperature by forming a wave 4 pattern in the diurnal averaged analysis increment that acts as a ‘topographic’ stationary forcing. Different assimilation window lengths in the 4D-LETKF are introduced to remove the artificially induced resonance. It is found that short assimilation window lengths not only remove the spurious resonance, but also push the migrating semi-diurnal temperature variation at 50 Pa closer to the estimated ‘true’ tides even in the absence of a radiatively active water ice cloud parameterisation. In order to compare the performance of different assimilation window lengths, short-term to mid-range forecasts based on the hour 00 and 12 assimilation are evaluated and compared. Results show that during Northern Hemisphere summer, it is not the assimilation window length, but the radiatively active water ice clouds that influence the model prediction. A ‘diurnal bias correction’ that includes bias correction fields dependent on the local time is shown to effectively reduce the forecast root mean square differences between forecasts and observations, compensate for the absence of water ice cloud parameterisation and enhance Martian atmosphere prediction. The implications of these results for

  3. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  4. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  5. Suspended graphene variable capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelGhany, M.; Mahvash, F.; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Favron, A.; Martel, R.; Siaj, M.; Szkopek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tuning of electrical circuit resonance with a variable capacitor, or varactor, finds wide application with the most important being wireless telecommunication. We demonstrate an electromechanical graphene varactor, a variable capacitor wherein the capacitance is tuned by voltage controlled deflection of a dense array of suspended graphene membranes. The low flexural rigidity of graphene monolayers is exploited to achieve low actuation voltage in an ultra-thin structure. Large arrays compr...

  6. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  7. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand,  posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007.  The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  8. Information content versus word length in random typing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been claimed that a linear relationship between a measure of information content and word length is expected from word length optimization and it has been shown that this linearity is supported by a strong correlation between information content and word length in many languages (Piantadosi et al 2011 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108 3825). Here, we study in detail some connections between this measure and standard information theory. The relationship between the measure and word length is studied for the popular random typing process where a text is constructed by pressing keys at random from a keyboard containing letters and a space behaving as a word delimiter. Although this random process does not optimize word lengths according to information content, it exhibits a linear relationship between information content and word length. The exact slope and intercept are presented for three major variants of the random typing process. A strong correlation between information content and word length can simply arise from the units making a word (e.g., letters) and not necessarily from the interplay between a word and its context as proposed by Piantadosi and co-workers. In itself, the linear relation does not entail the results of any optimization process. (letter)

  9. Evaluating Multispectral Snowpack Reflectivity With Changing Snow Correlation Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Do Hyuk; Barros, Ana P.; Kim, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of multispectral reflectivity to changing snow correlation lengths. Matzler's ice-lamellae radiative transfer model was implemented and tested to evaluate the reflectivity of snow correlation lengths at multiple frequencies from the ultraviolet (UV) to the microwave bands. The model reveals that, in the UV to infrared (IR) frequency range, the reflectivity and correlation length are inversely related, whereas reflectivity increases with snow correlation length in the microwave frequency range. The model further shows that the reflectivity behavior can be mainly attributed to scattering rather than absorption for shallow snowpacks. The largest scattering coefficients and reflectivity occur at very small correlation lengths (approximately 10(exp -5 m) for frequencies higher than the IR band. In the microwave range, the largest scattering coefficients are found at millimeter wavelengths. For validation purposes, the ice-lamella model is coupled with a multilayer snow physics model to characterize the reflectivity response of realistic snow hydrological processes. The evolution of the coupled model simulated reflectivities in both the visible and the microwave bands is consistent with satellite-based reflectivity observations in the same frequencies. The model results are also compared with colocated in situ snow correlation length measurements (Cold Land Processes Field Experiment 2002-2003). The analysis and evaluation of model results indicate that the coupled multifrequency radiative transfer and snow hydrology modeling system can be used as a forward operator in a data-assimilation framework to predict the status of snow physical properties, including snow correlation length.

  10. Risk factors for prolonged length of stay after colorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe de Campos Lobato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Colorectal surgeons often struggle to explain to administrators/payers reasons for prolonged length of stay (LOS. This study aim was to identify factors associated with increased LOS after colorectal surgery. Design: The study population included patients from the 2007 American-College-of-Sur- geons-National-Surgical-Quality-Improvement-Program (ACS-NSQIP database undergoing ileocolic resection, segmental colectomy, or anterior resection. The study population was divided into normal (below 75th percentile and prolonged LOS (above the 75th percentile. A multivariate analysis was performed using prolonged LOS as dependent variable and ACS- NSQIP variables as predictive variables. P-value < 0.01 was considered significant. Results: 12,269 patients with a median LOS of 6 (inter-quartile range 4-9 days were includ- ed. There were 2,617 (21.3% patients with prolonged LOS (median 15 days, inter-quartile range 13-22. 1,308 (50% were female, and the median age was 69 (inter-quartile range 57-79 years. Risk factors for prolonged LOS were male gender, congestive heart failure, weight loss, Crohn's disease, preoperative albumin < 3.5 g/dL and hematocrit < 47%, base- line sepsis, ASA class ≥ 3, open surgery, surgical time ≥ 190 min, postoperative pneumonia, failure to wean from mechanical ventilation, deep venous thrombosis, urinary-tract in- fection, systemic sepsis, surgical site infection and reoperation within 30-days from the primary surgery. Conclusion: Multiple factors are associated with increased LOS after colorectal surgery. Our results are useful for surgeons to explain prolonged LOS to administrators/payers who are critical of this metric. Resumo: Objetivo: Os cirurgiões proctologistas muitas vezes enfrentam dificuldades para explicar aos administradores/contribuintes as razões para o prolongamento do tempo de interna- ção hospitalar (TIH. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os fatores associados ao aumen- to do TIH ap

  11. Evaluation of Efficient Line Lengths for Better Readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the major findings of a formal experiment about onscreen text line lengths are presented. The experiment examined the effects of four different line lengths on the reading speed and the reading efficiency. Efficiency is defined as a combination of reading speed and accuracy. Sixteen people between the age of 24 and 36 participated at the experiment. The subjects had to read four different texts with an average line length around 2000 characters. The texts contained substitution words, which had to be detected by the subjects to measure reading accuracy. Besides objective measures like reading speed and accuracy, the subjects were asked to subjectively vote on their reading experience. The results from our objective measures show strong similarities to those of the work done previously by different researchers. The absolute reading speed grows when the line length grows from CPL (Characters Per Line 30-120. The measured reading efficiency, however, doesn\\\\\\'t grow steadily, although a growing trend can be seen. This is due to the fact, that the test persons found in average more substitution words from the 60 CPL text than they did from the 30 and 90 CPL texts. The reading speed seems to increase while the line length increases but the overall comprehension seems to peak at medium line lengths. As in the previous studies, our test persons also prefer the medium (60 and 90 CPL line lengths, although they perform better when reading longer lines. In the overall subjective opinion 13 out of 16 test persons selected the 60 or 90 CPL line length as their favorite. The literature doesn\\\\\\'t truly provide a scientific explanation for the difference between the objective performance and the subjective preference. A natural hypothesis would be that the line length that is the fastest to read would also feel most comfortable to the readers but in the light of this and the earlier research it seems like this is not the case.

  12. Does neighborhood size really cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    In short-term serial recall, it is well-known that short words are remembered better than long words. This word length effect has been the cornerstone of the working memory model and a benchmark effect that all models of immediate memory should account for. Currently, there is no consensus as to what determines the word length effect. Jalbert and colleagues (Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, & Surprenant, 2011a; Jalbert, Neath, & Surprenant, 2011b) suggested that neighborhood size is one causal factor. In six experiments we systematically examined their suggestion. In Experiment 1, with an immediate serial recall task, multiple word lengths, and a large pool of words controlled for neighborhood size, the typical word length effect was present. In Experiments 2 and 3, with an order reconstruction task and words with either many or few neighbors, we observed the typical word length effect. In Experiment 4 we tested the hypothesis that the previous abolition of the word length effect when neighborhood size was controlled was due to a confounded factor: frequency of orthographic structure. As predicted, we reversed the word length effect when using short words with less frequent orthographic structures than the long words, as was done in both of Jalbert et al.'s studies. In Experiments 5 and 6, we again observed the typical word length effect, even if we controlled for neighborhood size and frequency of orthographic structure. Overall, the results were not consistent with the predictions of Jalbert et al. and clearly showed a large and reliable word length effect after controlling for neighborhood size.

  13. Dorsal Phalloplasty to Preserve Penis Length after Penile Prosthesis Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shaeer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Following penile prosthesis implantation (PPI, patients may complain of a decrease in visible penis length. A dorsal phalloplasty defines the penopubic junction by tacking pubic skin to the pubis, revealing the base of the penis. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a dorsal phalloplasty in increasing the visible penis length following PPI. Methods: An inflatable penile prosthesis was implanted in 13 patients with severe erectile dysfunction (ED at the Kamal Shaeer Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from January 2013 to May 2014. During the surgery, nonabsorbable tacking sutures were used to pin the pubic skin to the pubis through the same penoscrotal incision. Intraoperative penis length was measured before and after the dorsal phalloplasty. Overall patient satisfaction was measured on a 5-point rating scale and patients were requested to subjectively compare their postoperative penis length with memories of their penis length before the onset of ED. Results: Intraoperatively, the dorsal phalloplasty increased the visible length of the erect penis by an average of 25.6%. The average length before and after tacking was 10.2 ± 2.9 cm and 13.7 ± 2.8 cm, respectively (P <0.002. Postoperatively, seven patients (53.8% reported a longer penis, five patients (38.5% reported no change in length and one patient (7.7% reported a slightly shorter penis. The mean overall patient satisfaction score was 4.9 ± 0.3. None of the patients developed postoperative complications. Conclusion: A dorsal phalloplasty during PPI is an effective method of increasing visible penis length, therefore minimising the impression of a shorter penis after implantation.

  14. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  15. The impact of article length on the number of future citations: a bibliometric analysis of general medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Zarkali, Angeliki; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Bardakas, Vangelis; Mavros, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    The number of citations received is considered an index of study quality and impact. We aimed to examine the factors associated with the number of citations of published articles, focusing on the article length. Original human studies published in the first trimester of 2006 in 5 major General Medicine journals were analyzed with regard to the number of authors and of author-affiliated institutions, title and abstract word count, article length (number of print pages), number of bibliographic references, study design, and 2006 journal impact factor (JIF). A multiple linear regression model was employed to identify the variables independently associated with the number of article citations received through January 2012. On univariate analysis the JIF, number of authors, article length, study design (interventional/observational and prospective/retrospective), title and abstract word count, number of author-affiliated institutions, and number of references were all associated with the number of citations received. On multivariate analysis with the logarithm of citations as the dependent variable, only article length [regression coefficient: 14.64 (95% confidence intervals: (5.76-23.50)] and JIF [3.37 (1.80-4.948)] independently predicted the number of citations. The variance of citations explained by these parameters was 51.2%. In a sample of articles published in major General Medicine journals, in addition to journal impact factors, article length and number of authors independently predicted the number of citations. This may reflect a higher complexity level and quality of longer and multi-authored studies.

  16. Length Contraction Should not be Independent of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-10-01

    In Special Theory of Relativity it looks that the length contraction along the direction of the motion is independent of time, i.e. if a rocket flies one second, or the rocket flies one year the rocket's along-the-motion length contraction is the same, since the contraction factor C (v) =√{ 1 -v2/c2 } depends on the rocket's relativistic speed (v) and on the light speed in vacuum (c) only. We find this as unrealistic, incomplete. It is logical that flying more and more it should increase the length contraction. What about the cosmic bodies that continuously travel, do they contract only once or are they continuously contracting?

  17. Modes in a nonneutral plasma column of finite length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasband, S. Neil; Spencer, Ross L.

    2002-01-01

    A Galerkin, finite-element, nonuniform mesh computation of the mode equation for waves in a non-neutral plasma of finite length in a Cold-Fluid model gives an accurate calculation of the mode eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions. We report on studies of the following: (1) finite-length Trivelpiece-Gould modes with flat-top and realistic density profiles, (2) finite-length diocotron modes with flat density profiles. We compare with the frequency equation of Fine and Driscoll [Phys Plasmas 5, 601 (1998)

  18. Exploiting Universality in Atoms with Large Scattering Lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaten, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research project was atoms with scattering lengths that are large compared to the range of their interactions and which therefore exhibit universal behavior at sufficiently low energies. Recent dramatic advances in cooling atoms and in manipulating their scattering lengths have made this phenomenon of practical importance for controlling ultracold atoms and molecules. This research project was aimed at developing a systematically improvable method for calculating few-body observables for atoms with large scattering lengths starting from the universal results as a first approximation. Significant progress towards this goal was made during the five years of the project.

  19. Local-field refinement of neutron scattering lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, V F

    1985-06-01

    We examine the way in which local field effects in the neutron refractive index affect the values of coherent scattering lengths determined by various kinds of neutron optical measurements. We find that under typical experimental conditions these effects are negligible for interferometry measurements but that they are significant for gravity refractometry measurements, producing changes in the effective scattering length of as much as two or three standard deviations in some cases. Refined values of the scattering length are obtained for the thirteen elements for which data are presently available. The special role of local field effects in neutron transmission is also discussed.

  20. Local-field refinement of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1985-01-01

    We examine the way in which local field effects in the neutron refractive index affect the values of coherent scattering lengths determined by various kinds of neutron optical measurements. We find that under typical experimental conditions these effects are negligible for interferometry measurements but that they are significant for gravity refractometry measurements, producing changes in the effective scattering length of as much as two or three standard deviations in some cases. Refined values of the scattering length are obtained for the thirteen elements for which data are presently available. The special role of local field effects in neutron transmission is also discussed. (orig.)