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Sample records for variable class ix

  1. Variability of in vivo recovery of factor IX after infusion of monoclonal antibody purified factor IX concentrates in patients with hemophilia B. The Mononine Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, G C; Shapiro, A D; Kurczynski, E M; Kim, H C; Bergman, G E

    1995-05-01

    Monoclonal antibody purified factor IX concentrate, Mononine (Armour Pharmaceutical Company, Kankakee, Illinois, USA), is a recently developed replacement factor concentrate for the treatment of patients with hemophilia B. The pharmacokinetic properties of monoclonal antibody purified factor IX concentrate (MAb Factor IX concentrate) have been evaluated in only small samples of patients, and little is known about those factors that might influenced in vivo recovery of factor IX after infusion is a larger patient population. In vivo recovery of factor IX was therefore evaluated for 80 different indications in 72 patients who received MAb Factor IX concentrate for the management of spontaneous or trauma-induced bleeding, or as prophylaxis with surgery. The average recovery after infusions for presurgical pharmacokinetic analysis (mean +/- standard deviation) was 1.28 +/- 0.56 U/dl rise per U/kg infused (range 0.41-2.80), and the average recovery after all infusions for treatment was 1.23 +/- 0.49 U/dl rise per U/kg infused (range - 0.35-2.92). Recovery values for multiple MAb Factor IX doses in a given patient were also variable; the average recovery was 1.22 +/- 0.53 U/dl rise per U/kg given, and standard deviations ranged from 0.03 to 1.26. Patient age, weight, and MAb Factor IX concentrate dose minimally but significantly influenced factor IX recovery. There was no significant effect of either race, history of previous thrombotic complications during treatment with other replacement factor concentrates, or bleeding state on recovery. All of the patients treated with this preparation experienced excellent hemostasis, and no thrombotic complications were observed.

  2. Not Second-Class: Title IX, Equity, and Girls' High School Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.; Surface, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Title IX is designed to protect students from discrimination based on sex in any educational institution that receives financial assistance. This article focuses on Title IX as it applies to high school athletic programs by considering the trial of a high school district in California. A federal court found considerable inequalities between boys…

  3. An Analysis of Social Class Classification Based on Linguistic Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Xia-sha

    2016-01-01

    Since language is an influential tool in social interaction, the relationship of speech and social factors, such as social class, gender, even age is worth studying. People employ different linguistic variables to imply their social class, status and iden-tity in the social interaction. Thus the linguistic variation involves vocabulary, sounds, grammatical constructions, dialects and so on. As a result, a classification of social class draws people’s attention. Linguistic variable in speech interactions indicate the social relationship between people. This paper attempts to illustrate three main linguistic variables which influence the social class, and further sociolinguistic studies need to be more concerned about.

  4. EFFORTS TO INCREASE THE ABILITY TO CHOOSE A SCHOOL GROUP COUNSELING SERVICES THROUGH ADVANCED CLASS IX SMP NEGERI 2 METRO STATE IN 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohima Rohima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SMP Negeri 2 Metro In reality, there are many confused students choose a major program of advanced studies, especially for junior high school students. It is necessary to learn / coaching to the students to be able to choose the school accordingly. Researchers conduct action research through the Guidance Counseling Group in Class IX student of SMP Negeri 2 Metro. The experiment was conducted using two cycles. Recapitulation of data Selecting a program majoring in the process of learning / coaching from the first cycle to the second cycle, there is an increase of 57.06% to 86.35%. The results of the data summary portfolio also increased from 33.32% to 83.33%, and the recapitulation of learning outcomes of students who otherwise Completed Pass also risen from 54.54% increase to 96.96%. Thus concluded indicator of success is to reach the target / as are 95% or more. Keywords: guidance group, select schools, smp negeri 2 metro

  5. Motives and periods in Bianchi IX gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde

    2018-05-01

    We show that, when considering the anisotropic scaling factors and their derivatives as affine variables, the coefficients of the heat-kernel expansion of the Dirac-Laplacian on SU(2) Bianchi IX metrics are algebro-geometric periods of motives of complements in affine spaces of unions of quadrics and hyperplanes. We show that the motives are mixed Tate and we provide an explicit computation of their Grothendieck classes.

  6. Title IX Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX) prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities in federally funded schools at all levels. If any part of a school district or college receives any Federal funds for any purpose, all of the operations of the district or college are covered by Title IX. The essence…

  7. Variable-delay Polarization Modulators for the CLASS Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Marriage, T.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    The challenges of measuring faint polarized signals at microwave wavelengths have motivated the development of rapid polarization modulators. One scalable technique, called a Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), consists of a stationary wire array in front of a movable mirror. The mirror motion creates a changing phase difference between the polarization modes parallel and orthogonal to the wire array. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will use a VPM as the first optical element in a telescope array that will search for the signature of inflation through the “B-mode” pattern in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In the CLASS VPMs, parallel transport of the mirror is maintained by a voice-coil actuated flexure system which will translate the mirror in a repeatable manner while holding tight parallelism constraints with respect to the wire array. The wire array will use 51 μm diameter copper-plated tungsten wire with 160 μm pitch over a 60 cm clear aperture. We present the status of the construction and testing of the mirror transport mechanism and wire arrays for the CLASS VPMs.

  8. Internet Gamblers Differ on Social Variables: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Achab, Sophia; Monney, Gregoire; Thorens, Gabriel; Dufour, Magali; Zullino, Daniele; Rothen, Stephane

    2017-09-01

    Online gambling has gained popularity in the last decade, leading to an important shift in how consumers engage in gambling and in the factors related to problem gambling and prevention. Indebtedness and loneliness have previously been associated with problem gambling. The current study aimed to characterize online gamblers in relation to indebtedness, loneliness, and several in-game social behaviors. The data set was obtained from 584 Internet gamblers recruited online through gambling websites and forums. Of these gamblers, 372 participants completed all study assessments and were included in the analyses. Questionnaires included those on sociodemographics and social variables (indebtedness, loneliness, in-game social behaviors), as well as the Gambling Motives Questionnaire, Gambling Related Cognitions Scale, Internet Addiction Test, Problem Gambling Severity Index, Short Depression-Happiness Scale, and UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale. Social variables were explored with a latent class model. The clusters obtained were compared for psychological measures and three clusters were found: lonely indebted gamblers (cluster 1: 6.5%), not lonely not indebted gamblers (cluster 2: 75.4%), and not lonely indebted gamblers (cluster 3: 18%). Participants in clusters 1 and 3 (particularly in cluster 1) were at higher risk of problem gambling than were those in cluster 2. The three groups differed on most assessed variables, including the Problem Gambling Severity Index, the Short Depression-Happiness Scale, and the UPPS-P subscales (except the sensation seeking subscore). Results highlight significant between-group differences, suggesting that Internet gamblers are not a homogeneous group. Specific intervention strategies could be implemented for groups at risk.

  9. Comparative field study: impact of laboratory assay variability on the assessment of recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein (rFIXFc) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Jurg M; Buyue, Yang; Bardan, Sara; Peters, Robert T; Jiang, Haiyan; Kamphaus, George D; Gray, Elaine; Pierce, Glenn F

    2014-11-01

    Due to variability in the one-stage clotting assay, the performance of new factor IX (FIX) products should be assessed in this assay. The objective of this field study was to evaluate the accuracy of measuring recombinant FIX Fc fusion protein (rFIXFc) activity in clinical haemostasis laboratories using the one-stage clotting assay. Human haemophilic donor plasma was spiked with rFIXFc or BeneFIX® at 0.80, 0.20, or 0.05 IU/ml based on label potency. Laboratories tested blinded samples using their routine one-stage assay and in-house FIX plasma standard. The mean spike recoveries for BeneFIX (n=30 laboratories) were 121 %, 144 %, and 168 % of expected at nominal 0.80, 0.20, and 0.05 IU/ml concentrations, respectively. Corresponding rFIXFc spike recoveries were 88 %, 107 %, and 132 % of expected, respectively. All BeneFIX concentrations were consistently overestimated by most laboratories. rFIXFc activity was reagent-dependent; ellagic acid and silica gave higher values than kaolin, which underestimated rFIXFc. BeneFIX demonstrated significantly reduced chromogenic assay activity relative to one-stage assay results and nominal activity, while rFIXFc activity was close to nominal activity at three concentrations with better dilution linearity than the typical one-stage assay. In conclusion, laboratory- and reagent-specific assay variabilities were revealed, with progressively higher variability at lower FIX concentrations. Non-parallelism against the FIX plasma standard was observed in all one-stage assays with rFIXFc and BeneFIX, leading to significant overestimation of FIX activity at lower levels and generally high inter-laboratory variability. Compared to the accuracy currently achieved in clinical laboratories when measuring other rFIX products, most laboratories measured rFIXFc activity with acceptable accuracy and reliability using routine one-stage assay methods and commercially available plasma standards.

  10. Factor IX assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  11. Correlations between Learners' Initial EFL Proficiency and Variables of Clicker-Aided Flipped EFL Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhonggen; Yu, Liheng

    2017-01-01

    Although the flipped class has been hotly discussed, the clicker-aided flipped EFL class (CFEC) still remains a mystery for most scholars. This study aims to determine the correlations between the initial EFL proficiency and other variables of the clicker-aided EFL flipped class. The sample was made up of randomly selected 79 participants (Female…

  12. Regions of variability for a class of analytic and locally univalent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    f ′′(0) whenever f varies over the class C(A,B). Keywords. Janowski class; univalent functions; variability regions. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 30C45. 1. Introduction and preliminary results. Let C be the complex plane. We use the following notations for open and closed discs with center c and radius r in the ...

  13. poLCA: An R Package for Polytomous Variable Latent Class Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew A. Linzer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available poLCA is a software package for the estimation of latent class and latent class regression models for polytomous outcome variables, implemented in the R statistical computing environment. Both models can be called using a single simple command line. The basic latent class model is a finite mixture model in which the component distributions are assumed to be multi-way cross-classification tables with all variables mutually independent. The latent class regression model further enables the researcher to estimate the effects of covariates on predicting latent class membership. poLCA uses expectation-maximization and Newton-Raphson algorithms to find maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters.

  14. Micro-macro multilevel latent class models with multiple discrete individual-level variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, M.; Croon, M.A.; Kroon, B.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    An existing micro-macro method for a single individual-level variable is extended to the multivariate situation by presenting two multilevel latent class models in which multiple discrete individual-level variables are used to explain a group-level outcome. As in the univariate case, the

  15. The effects of dogmatism and social class variables on consumer ethnocentrism in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, Albert; Magri, Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    Explores the effects of dogmatism and social class variables on consumer ethnocentrism and formulates hypotheses linking these variables. Also considers the effects of a number of classificatory variables on consumer ethnocentrism. Reports the findings from a survey of consumers in Malta which show not only that dogmatism and age are positively related to consumer ethnocentrism but also that consumer ethnocentrism is lower among consumers with higher levels of education. Discusses the implica...

  16. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Cranial Nerves IX and X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Martins, Melina P; Moreira, Ana Lucila; Martins, Carlos R; Kimaid, Paulo A T; França, Marcondes C

    2018-01-01

    The cranial nerves IX and X emerge from medulla oblongata and have motor, sensory, and parasympathetic functions. Some of these are amenable to neurophysiological assessment. It is often hard to separate the individual contribution of each nerve; in fact, some of the techniques are indeed a composite functional measure of both nerves. The main methods are the evaluation of the swallowing function (combined IX and X), laryngeal electromyogram (predominant motor vagal function), and heart rate variability (predominant parasympathetic vagal function). This review describes, therefore, the techniques that best evaluate the major symptoms presented in IX and X cranial nerve disturbance: dysphagia, dysphonia, and autonomic parasympathetic dysfunction.

  17. A latent class distance association model for cross-classified data with a categorical response variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, José Fernando; de Rooij, Mark; Heiser, Willem J

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we propose a latent class distance association model for clustering in the predictor space of large contingency tables with a categorical response variable. The rows of such a table are characterized as profiles of a set of explanatory variables, while the columns represent a single outcome variable. In many cases such tables are sparse, with many zero entries, which makes traditional models problematic. By clustering the row profiles into a few specific classes and representing these together with the categories of the response variable in a low-dimensional Euclidean space using a distance association model, a parsimonious prediction model can be obtained. A generalized EM algorithm is proposed to estimate the model parameters and the adjusted Bayesian information criterion statistic is employed to test the number of mixture components and the dimensionality of the representation. An empirical example highlighting the advantages of the new approach and comparing it with traditional approaches is presented. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  18. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives. Derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    A general framework for deriving and using a class of constitutive laws incorporating spatial gradients of internal variables is presented. It uses two basic ingredients: a derivation of such models by homogenization techniques and a reformulation of the evolution equation at the scale of the whole structure. (orig.)

  19. Behavior of physiological variables during a water gymnastics class in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Micheline Olkoski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of physiological variables and rating of perceived exertion (RPE during the different phases of a water gymnastics class. Seventeen female university students (age: 23 ± 3.5 years were evaluated in two steps: 1 incremental treadmill test (peak VO2 and HRmax; 2 assessment of body composition and achievement in the water gymnastics class (HR, VO2, [lac], and RPE. Descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOVA with the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls were used (p< 0.05. The results showed that both HR and VO2 differed significantly (p=0.000 between the three phases of the class. Blood lactate only differed significantly (p=0.001 between the early (1.55 mM and the main phase (3.58 mM. The mean RPE was 11 and total calorie expenditure was 262.10 kcal. In conclusion, the physiological variables studied and RPE vary significantly according to the phase of the water gymnastics class. In addition, the intensity of effort (HR, VO2 and [lac] obtained for the main phase is within the parameters established in the literature for aerobic exercise. Thus, regular water gymnastics classes with this structure may improve the physical condition of young adult women.

  20. Phase-space dynamics of Bianchi IX cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, I.D.

    1985-01-01

    The complex phase-space dynamical behaviour of a class of Biachi IX cosmological models is discussed, as the chaotic gravitational collapse due Poincare's homoclinic phenomena, and the n-furcation of periodic orbits and tori in the phase space of the models. Poincare maps which show this behaviour are constructed merically and applications are discussed. (Author) [pt

  1. A Study on Variables that Affect Class Scores of Primary Education Students in Placement Test

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the variables that predict class scores which are obtained by adding 70 % of the Placement Test (PT) scores of the primary education sixth and seventh grade students who took it for the first time in the 2007-2008 academic year within the framework of the system of passing to secondary education reorganized by the MNE, 25 % of their end-of-the-year passing grades. The study is of general survey model. The study group consists of students who took the PT in the 200...

  2. Title IX at 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilman, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    When Kristen Galles was a 7th grader in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, she wanted to enroll in shop class. But there was a problem. At Harding Junior High School, only boys could do that. It is just how things were in 1976, which might sound absurd to 7th graders today. It was a time when girls were discouraged from taking math and science classes, when…

  3. Self-Learning Variable Structure Control for a Class of Sensor-Actuator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sanfeng; Li, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Lou, Yuesheng; Liang, Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Variable structure strategy is widely used for the control of sensor-actuator systems modeled by Euler-Lagrange equations. However, accurate knowledge on the model structure and model parameters are often required for the control design. In this paper, we consider model-free variable structure control of a class of sensor-actuator systems, where only the online input and output of the system are available while the mathematic model of the system is unknown. The problem is formulated from an optimal control perspective and the implicit form of the control law are analytically obtained by using the principle of optimality. The control law and the optimal cost function are explicitly solved iteratively. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed method. PMID:22778633

  4. What Predicts Student Success in Introductory Data Management Classes? An Investigation of Demographic, Personality, Computer-Related, and Interaction Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kenneth J.; Harris, Ranida B.; Lambert, Alysa D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to data management classes are often times students' first exposure to advanced material in these areas. Many factors are likely to influence success in these classes, but empirical investigations have focused on relatively few variables. In this study, we extend this research by examining the relative contributions of the previously…

  5. Class Evolution Tree: A Graphical Tool to Support Decisions on the Number of Classes in Exploratory Categorical Latent Variable Modeling for Rehabilitation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriston, Levente; Melchior, Hanne; Hergert, Anika; Bergelt, Corinna; Watzke, Birgit; Schulz, Holger; von Wolff, Alessa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to develop a graphical tool that can be used in addition to standard statistical criteria to support decisions on the number of classes in explorative categorical latent variable modeling for rehabilitation research. Data from two rehabilitation research projects were used. In the first study, a latent profile analysis was…

  6. Pengaruh Pola Asuh Orang Tua Terhadap Agresivitas pada Persepsi Siswa Kelas IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    wening suko utami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how much the influence of the authoritarian, democratic, and permissive parenting to the aggressiveness of the students.In this study used a sample of students class IX in Kesatrian 2 Junior High School Semarang as many as 66 students of 228 students. The variables studied in this research were variable of parenting and aggressiveness. The data collection is done by using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and multiple regression technique. The results of this multiple regression analysis is Y = 21.836 + 1.073 X1 + 0.393 X2 + 0.963 X3. There is a simultaneous contribution of 62.7%. There was effect of positive correlation parenting authoritarian, democratic and permissive to partially aggressiveness. The conclusion of this study, there was positive corelation foster parents towards aggressiveness simultaneously or partially.

  7. Correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite in Class II Division 1 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric pattern of Class II Division 1 individuals with deep bite, and to determine possible correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite. Comparisons were also made between genders and cases that were to be treated both with and without premolar extraction. A total of 70 lateral cephalograms were used, from both male (n = 35 and female (n = 35 individuals with an average age of 11.6 years, who simultaneously presented with ANB > 5º and overbite > 4 mm. Statistical analysis involved parametric (t-test and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney tests for independent samples, as well as the Spearman correlation test (p < 0.05. The values of Go-Me, Ar-Pog, PM-1 and PM-CMI were higher in males (p < 0.05. However, no significant differences were found among the averages of the cephalometric measurements when the sample was divided by treatment with and without extraction. Deep bite was positively correlated to the PM-1 and SNA measurements, and negatively correlated to the Go-Me, Ar-Pog, SNB and SNGoMe measurements. The main factors associated with the determination of deep bite in Angle's Class II Division 1 cases were: greater lower anterior dentoalveolar growth and/or lower incisor extrusion, horizontal growth pattern, maxillary protrusion and mandibular retrusion.

  8. Characterizing a new class of variability in GRS 1915+105 with simultaneous INTEGRAL/RXTE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannikainen, D.C.; Rodriguez, J.; Vilhu, O.

    2005-01-01

    find that the rising phase is shorter and harder than the declining phase, which is opposite to what has been observed in other otherwise similar variability classes in this source. The position in the colour-colour diagram throughout the revolution corresponds to State A (Belloni et al. 2000, A&A, 355...

  9. Correlation between physiological variables and rate of perceived exertion during a water exercises classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Olkoski

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: HR and [Lac] are alternative measures because they are easily determined, in addition to being the most reliable parameters for prescribing and controlling the intensity in water exercise classes in young women.

  10. Synthesis of indium-111 mesoprotoporphyrin IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.M.; Marshall, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111 mesoprotoporphyrin IX has been prepared by refluxing suitable proportions of InCl 3 , sodium acetate, and mesoprotoporphyrin IX in glacial acetic acid. The labeled metalloporphyrin is sufficiently water-soluble for use as a scanning agent, and can also be incorporated into heme apoproteins for perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation measurements. (author)

  11. A Geographic Information-Assisted Temporal Mixture Analysis for Addressing the Issue of Endmember Class and Endmember Spectra Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spectral mixture analysis (SMA is a common approach for parameterizing biophysical fractions of urban environment and widely applied in many fields. For successful SMA, the selection of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been assumed as the most important step. Thanks to the spatial heterogeneity of natural and urban landscapes, the variability of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been widely considered as the profound error source in SMA. To address the challenging problems, we proposed a geographic information-assisted temporal mixture analysis (GATMA. Specifically, a logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the relationship between land use/land covers and surrounding socio-economic factors, and a classification tree method was used to identify the present status of endmember classes throughout the whole study area. Furthermore, an ordinary kriging analysis was employed to generate a spatially varying endmember spectra at all pixels in the remote sensing image. As a consequence, a fully constrained temporal mixture analysis was conducted for examining the fractional land use land covers. Results show that the proposed GATMA achieved a promising accuracy with an RMSE of 6.81%, SE of 1.29% and MAE of 2.6%. In addition, comparative analysis result illustrates that a significant accuracy improvement has been found in the whole study area and both developed and less developed areas, and this demonstrates that the variability of endmember class and endmember spectra is essential for unmixing analysis.

  12. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: effective dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison

    2017-01-01

    We study solutions to the effective equations for the Bianchi IX class of spacetimes within loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We consider Bianchi IX models whose matter content is a massless scalar field, by numerically solving the loop quantum cosmology effective equations, with and without inverse triad corrections. The solutions are classified using certain geometrically motivated classical observables. We show that both effective theories—with lapse N   =   V and N   =  1—resolve the big bang singularity and reproduce the classical dynamics far from the bounce. Moreover, due to the positive spatial curvature, there is an infinite number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large field momentum and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity. We implement a procedure to identify amongst the Bianchi IX solutions, those that behave like k   =  0,1 FLRW as well as Bianchi I, II, and VII 0 models. The effective solutions exhibit Bianchi I phases with Bianchi II transitions and also Bianchi VII 0 phases, which had not been studied before. We comment on the possible implications of these results for a quantum modification to the classical BKL behaviour. (paper)

  13. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: effective dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison

    2017-03-01

    We study solutions to the effective equations for the Bianchi IX class of spacetimes within loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We consider Bianchi IX models whose matter content is a massless scalar field, by numerically solving the loop quantum cosmology effective equations, with and without inverse triad corrections. The solutions are classified using certain geometrically motivated classical observables. We show that both effective theories—with lapse N  =  V and N  =  1—resolve the big bang singularity and reproduce the classical dynamics far from the bounce. Moreover, due to the positive spatial curvature, there is an infinite number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large field momentum and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity. We implement a procedure to identify amongst the Bianchi IX solutions, those that behave like k  =  0,1 FLRW as well as Bianchi I, II, and VII0 models. The effective solutions exhibit Bianchi I phases with Bianchi II transitions and also Bianchi VII0 phases, which had not been studied before. We comment on the possible implications of these results for a quantum modification to the classical BKL behaviour.

  14. Componentes principais como preditores no mapeamento digital de classes de solos Principal components as predictor variables in digital mapping of soil classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre ten Caten

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tecnologias disponíveis para a observação da Terra oferecem uma grande gama de informações sobre componentes ambientais que, por estarem relacionadas com a formação dos solos, podem ser usadas como variáveis preditoras no Mapeamento Digital de Solos (MDS. No entanto, modelos com um grande número de preditores, bem como a existência de multicolinearidade entre os dados, podem ser ineficazes no mapeamento de classes e propriedades do solo. O objetivo deste estudo foi empregar a Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP visando a selecionar e diminuir o número de preditores na regressão logística múltipla multinomial (RLMM utilizada no mapeamento de classes de solos. Nove covariáveis ambientais, ligadas ao fator de formação relevo, foram derivadas de um Modelo Digital de Elevação e denominadas variáveis originais, estas foram submetidas à ACP e transformadas em Componentes Principais (CP. As RLMM foram desenvolvidas utilizando-se atributos de terreno e as CP como variáveis explicativas. O mapa de solos gerado a partir de três CP (65,6% da variância original obteve um índice kappa de 37,3%, inferior aos 48,5% alcançado pelo mapa de solos gerado a partir de todas as nove variáveis originais.Available technologies for Earth observation offer a wide range of predictors relevant to Digital Soil Mapping (DSM. However, models with a large number of predictors, as well as, the existence of multicollinearity among the data, may be ineffective in the mapping of classes and soil properties. The aim of this study was to use the Principal Component Analysis (PCA to reduce the number of predictors in the multinomial logistic regression (MLR used in soil mapping. Nine environmental covariates, related to the relief factor of soil formation, were derived from a digital elevation model and named the original variables, which were submitted to PCA and transformed into principal components (PC. The MLR were developed using the terrain

  15. Near-IR spectroscopic monitoring of CLASS I protostars: Variability of accretion and wind indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelley, Michael S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Greene, Thomas P. [NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present the results of a program that monitored the near-IR spectroscopic variability of a sample of 19 embedded protostars. Spectra were taken on time intervals from 2 days to 3 yr, over a wavelength range from 0.85 μm to 2.45 μm, for 4-9 epochs of observations per target. We found that the spectra of all targets are variable and that every emission feature observed is also variable (although not for all targets). With one exception, there were no drastic changes in the continua of the spectra, nor did any line completely disappear, nor did any line appear that was not previously apparent. This analysis focuses on understanding the connection between accretion (traced by H Br γ and CO) and the wind (traced by He I, [Fe II], and sometimes H{sub 2}). For both accretion and wind tracers, the median variability was constant versus the time interval between observations; however, the maximum variability that we observed increased with the time interval between observations. Extinction is observed to vary within the minimum sampling time of 2 days, suggesting extinguishing material within a few stellar radii at high disk latitudes. The variability of [Fe II] and H{sub 2} were correlated for most (but not all) of the 7 young stellar objects showing both features, and the amplitude of the variability depends on the veiling. Although the occurrence of CO and Br γ emission are connected, their variability is uncorrelated, suggesting that these emissions originate in separate regions near the protostar (e.g., disk and wind). The variability of Br γ and wind tracers were found to be positively correlated, negatively correlated, or uncorrelated, depending on the target. The variability of Br γ, [Fe II], and H{sub 2} always lies on a plane, although the orientation of the plane in three dimensions depends on the target. While we do not understand all interactions behind the variability that we observed, we have shown that spectroscopic variability is a powerful tool

  16. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives: derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    When they are subjected to excessive loads, some materials may exhibit a softening behaviour resulting from the deterioration of their mechanical properties. To idealize such behaviours, constitutive relations with softening are introduced, for which the size of the domain of reversibility in the stress-space decreases. These models feature a strain localization within the material, in agreement with experiments, but cannot predict the subsequent behaviour because they lead to shear bands the width of which is equal to zero, physically unacceptable and numerically troublesome. It has been proposed in the literature to overcome these difficulties by adding to the list of internal variable the spatial gradients of some of them. This procedure suffers from lack of firm methodological basis. Although, some quantitative justification have been advanced relying on some kind of microscopic analysis. Therefore, we propose to extend the classical (local) models by introducing the internal state variable first gradients. Given local model within the framework of standard generalized materials, consistent homogenization procedure is put forward to derive macroscopic free energy and dissipation potentials. The standard generalized character is preserved, with an extended set of state variables, containing not only the strain and the internal variables but also the internal variable derivatives. Nevertheless, when dealing with the whole structure, the independence between the new state variables is lost. We propose then to generalize the constitutive relations, leading to a new variational principle that ensures the Clausius-Duhem inequality at the structure scale. (authors)

  17. Enumeration of Combinatorial Classes of Single Variable Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    A vector field in the space of degree d monic, centered single variable complex polynomial vector fields has a combinatorial structure which can be fully described by a combinatorial data set consisting of an equivalence relation and a marked subset on the integers mod 2d-2, satisfying certain...

  18. The JCMT Transient Survey: Detection of Submillimeter Variability in a Class I Protostar EC 53 in Serpens Main

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyunju; Cho, Jungyeon [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-Daero, Giheung-gu Yongin-shi, Gyunggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Mairs, Steve; Johnstone, Doug [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Herczeg, Gregory J. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yiheyuan 5, Haidian Qu, 100871 Beijing (China); Kang, Sung-ju; Kang, Miju, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: JCMT Transient Team

    2017-11-01

    During the protostellar phase of stellar evolution, accretion onto the star is expected to be variable, but this suspected variability has been difficult to detect because protostars are deeply embedded. In this paper, we describe a submillimeter luminosity burst of the Class I protostar EC 53 in Serpens Main, the first variable found during our dedicated JCMT/SCUBA-2 monitoring program of eight nearby star-forming regions. EC 53 remained quiescent for the first six months of our survey, from 2016 February to August. The submillimeter emission began to brighten in 2016 September, reached a peak brightness of 1.5 times the faint state, and has been decaying slowly since 2017 February. The change in submillimeter brightness is interpreted as dust heating in the envelope, generated by a luminosity increase of the protostar of a factor of ≥4. The 850 μ m light curve resembles the historical K -band light curve, which varies by a factor of ∼6 with a 543 period and is interpreted as accretion variability excited by interactions between the accretion disk and a close binary system. The predictable detections of accretion variability observed at both near-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths make the system a unique test-bed, enabling us to capture the moment of the accretion burst and to study the consequences of the outburst on the protostellar disk and envelope.

  19. Major histocompatibility complex class III genes and susceptibility to immunoglobulin A deficiency and common variable immunodeficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Volanakis, J E; Zhu, Z B; Schaffer, F M; Macon, K J; Palermos, J; Barger, B O; Go, R; Campbell, R D; Schroeder, H W; Cooper, M D

    1992-01-01

    We have proposed that significant subsets of individuals with IgA deficiency (IgA-D) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) may represent polar ends of a clinical spectrum reflecting a single underlying genetic defect. This proposal was supported by our finding that individuals with these immunodeficiencies have in common a high incidence of C4A gene deletions and C2 rare gene alleles. Here we present our analysis of the MHC haplotypes of 12 IgA-D and 19 CVID individuals from 21 families...

  20. A new class of variable capacitance generators based on the dielectric fluid transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranti, Mattia; Righi, Michele; Vertechy, Rocco; Fontana, Marco

    2017-11-01

    This paper introduces the novel concept of dielectric fluid transducer (DFT), which is an electrostatic variable capacitance transducer made by compliant electrodes, solid dielectrics and a dielectric fluid with variable volume and/or shape. The DFT can be employed in actuator mode and generator mode. In this work, DFTs are studied as electromechanical generators able to convert oscillating mechanical energy into direct current electricity. Beside illustrating the working principle of dielectric fluid generators (DFGs), we introduce different architectural implementations and provide considerations on limitations and best practices for their design. Additionally, the proposed concept is demonstrated in a preliminary experimental test campaign conducted on a first DFG prototype. During experimental tests a maximum energy per cycle of 4.6 {mJ} and maximum power of 0.575 {mW} has been converted, with a conversion efficiency up to 30%. These figures correspond to converted energy densities of 63.8 {mJ} {{{g}}}-1 with respect to the displaced dielectric fluid and 179.0 {mJ} {{{g}}}-1 with respect to the mass of the solid dielectric. This promising performance can be largely improved through the optimization of device topology and dimensions, as well as by the adoption of more performing conductive and dielectric materials.

  1. In vivo wide-field multispectral dosimeter for use in ALA-PpIX based photodynamic therapy of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRochelle, Ethan P. M.; Davis, Scott C.; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Pogue, Brian W.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for Actinic Kertoses (AK) using aminoluvelinic acid (ALA) is an FDA-approved treatment, which is generally effective, yet response rates vary. The origin of the variability is not well characterized, but may be related to inter-patient variability in the production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). While fiber-based point probe systems provide a method for measuring PpIX production, these measurements have demonstrated large spatial and inter-operator variability. Thus, in an effort to improve patient-specific dosimetry and treatment it is important to develop a robust system that accounts for spatial variability and reduces the chance of operator errors. To address this need, a wide-field multispectral imaging system was developed that is capable of quantifying maps of PpIX in both liquid phantoms and in vivo experiments, focusing on high sensitivity light signals. The system uses both red and blue excitation to elicit a fluorescent response at varying skin depths. A ten-position filter wheel with bandpass filters ranging from 635nm to 710nm are used to capture images along the emission band. A linear least-square spectral fitting algorithm provides the ability to decouple background autofluorescence from PpIX fluorescence, which has improved the system sensitivity by an order of magnitude, detecting nanomolar PpIX concentrations in liquid phantoms in the presence of 2% whole blood and 2% intralipid.

  2. Supervised pre-processing approaches in multiple class variables classification for fish recruitment forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, José Antonio

    2013-02-01

    A multi-species approach to fisheries management requires taking into account the interactions between species in order to improve recruitment forecasting of the fish species. Recent advances in Bayesian networks direct the learning of models with several interrelated variables to be forecasted simultaneously. These models are known as multi-dimensional Bayesian network classifiers (MDBNs). Pre-processing steps are critical for the posterior learning of the model in these kinds of domains. Therefore, in the present study, a set of \\'state-of-the-art\\' uni-dimensional pre-processing methods, within the categories of missing data imputation, feature discretization and feature subset selection, are adapted to be used with MDBNs. A framework that includes the proposed multi-dimensional supervised pre-processing methods, coupled with a MDBN classifier, is tested with synthetic datasets and the real domain of fish recruitment forecasting. The correctly forecasting of three fish species (anchovy, sardine and hake) simultaneously is doubled (from 17.3% to 29.5%) using the multi-dimensional approach in comparison to mono-species models. The probability assessments also show high improvement reducing the average error (estimated by means of Brier score) from 0.35 to 0.27. Finally, these differences are superior to the forecasting of species by pairs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Robust Exponential Synchronization for a Class of Master-Slave Distributed Parameter Systems with Spatially Variable Coefficients and Nonlinear Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the exponential synchronization problem of a class of master-slave distributed parameter systems (DPSs with spatially variable coefficients and spatiotemporally variable nonlinear perturbation, modeled by a couple of semilinear parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs. With a locally Lipschitz constraint, the perturbation is a continuous function of time, space, and system state. Firstly, a sufficient condition for the robust exponential synchronization of the unforced semilinear master-slave PDE systems is investigated for all admissible nonlinear perturbations. Secondly, a robust distributed proportional-spatial derivative (P-sD state feedback controller is desired such that the closed-loop master-slave PDE systems achieve exponential synchronization. Using Lyapunov’s direct method and the technique of integration by parts, the main results of this paper are presented in terms of spatial differential linear matrix inequalities (SDLMIs. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods applied to the robust exponential synchronization problem of master-slave PDE systems with nonlinear perturbation.

  4. Title IX: With New Opportunities, Girls' Interest Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporek, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    On June 23, 1972, President Richard M. Nixon signed into law Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prohibits gender discrimination in any federally financed education program or activity. Title IX is far-reaching, but the law is most often associated with school and college athletics. Title IX allows schools to prove their athletic…

  5. 77 FR 64401 - Order of Succession for HUD Region IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [FR-5550-D-12] Order of Succession for HUD Region IX... Field Offices (Region IX). This Order of Succession supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for HUD Region IX. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lawrence D. Reynolds...

  6. High Variability in Cellular Stoichiometry of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Within Classes of Marine Eukaryotic Phytoplankton Under Sufficient Nutrient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nathan S; Sexton, Julie; Riggins, Tracey; Brown, Jeff; Lomas, Michael W; Martiny, Adam C

    2018-01-01

    Current hypotheses suggest that cellular elemental stoichiometry of marine eukaryotic phytoplankton such as the ratios of cellular carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) vary between phylogenetic groups. To investigate how phylogenetic structure, cell volume, growth rate, and temperature interact to affect the cellular elemental stoichiometry of marine eukaryotic phytoplankton, we examined the C:N:P composition in 30 isolates across 7 classes of marine phytoplankton that were grown with a sufficient supply of nutrients and nitrate as the nitrogen source. The isolates covered a wide range in cell volume (5 orders of magnitude), growth rate (temperature (2-24°C). Our analysis indicates that C:N:P is highly variable, with statistical model residuals accounting for over half of the total variance and no relationship between phylogeny and elemental stoichiometry. Furthermore, our data indicated that variability in C:P, N:P, and C:N within Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) was as high as that among all of the isolates that we examined. In addition, a linear statistical model identified a positive relationship between diatom cell volume and C:P and N:P. Among all of the isolates that we examined, the statistical model identified temperature as a significant factor, consistent with the temperature-dependent translation efficiency model, but temperature only explained 5% of the total statistical model variance. While some of our results support data from previous field studies, the high variability of elemental ratios within Bacillariophyceae contradicts previous work that suggests that this cosmopolitan group of microalgae has consistently low C:P and N:P ratios in comparison with other groups.

  7. Providing Transparency to the Title IX Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Terry

    2017-01-01

    When U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos announced Sept. 7, 2017, that her department would revisit how Title IX rules are enforced with respect to campus sexual assault, she said the first step would be a "transparent notice and comment process" to replace the 2011 "guidance" (and follow up 2014 guidance) that has been…

  8. Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    provide a unique microenvironment supporting the accumulation of more platelets and the elaboration of a fibrin - rich network produced by coagulation...process and can initiate the formation of a platelet - rich thrombus by tethering the platelet to a thrombogenic surface. Several ligands binding to GP Ib... Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jerry Ware, Ph.D

  9. Factor IX gene haplotypes in Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, R F; Araújo, A G; Zago, M A; Guerreiro, J F; Figueiredo, M S

    1997-02-01

    We have determined the haplotypes of the factor IX gene for 95 Indians from 5 Brazilian Amazon tribes: Wayampí, Wayana-Apalaí, Kayapó, Arára, and Yanomámi. Eight polymorphisms linked to the factor IX gene were investigated: MseI (at 5', nt -698), BamHI (at 5', nt -561), DdeI (intron 1), BamHI (intron 2), XmnI (intron 3), TaqI (intron 4), MspI (intron 4), and HhaI (at 3', approximately 8 kb). The results of the haplotype distribution and the allele frequencies for each of the factor IX gene polymorphisms in Amerindians were similar to the results reported for Asian populations but differed from results for other ethnic groups. Only five haplotypes were identified within the entire Amerindian study population, and the haplotype distribution was significantly different among the five tribes, with one (Arára) to four (Wayampí) haplotypes being found per tribe. These findings indicate a significant heterogeneity among the Indian tribes and contrast with the homogeneous distribution of the beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes but agree with our recent findings on the distribution of alpha-globin gene cluster haplotypes and the allele frequencies for six VNTRs in the same Amerindian tribes. Our data represent the first study of factor IX-associated polymorphisms in Amerindian populations and emphasizes the applicability of these genetic markers for population and human evolution studies.

  10. Parametri, Variabili e altro: Un ripensamento su come questi concetti sono presentati in classe (Variable Parameters and Other Issues: A Review of How These Concepts Are Presented in Class).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Ivana; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of variables, in particular parameters, analyzes how these concepts are presented in textbooks, comments on paradigms of exercises in which parameters intervene, and points out difficulties encountered by students. Discusses results of teacher interviews concerning their dealing with parameters in class.…

  11. Investigation of Predictive Power of Mathematics Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement in Terms of Gender and Class Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa İLHAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to explore predictive power of mathematics anxiety in terms of gender and class variables. For this purpose relational model was used in the study. Working group of the research consists of 348 secondary school second stage students, 175 of whom are girls and 175 are boys, having education in four elementary schools in central district of Diyarbakır province, during 2011-2012 Academic Year, first Semester. “Math Anxiety Scale for Primary School Students” to determine students’ mathematics anxiety was used. Averages of students’ mathematics notes in the first term of 2011- 2012 academic year are taken as the achievement scores of mathematics. The collected data has been analyzed by SPSS 17.0. The relationship between mathematics achievement and math anxiety was analyzed with pearson correlation. The predictor power of math anxiety for mathematics achievement was determined by the regression analysis. According the research findings %17 of the total variance of mathematics achievement can be explained by math anxiety. It has been determined that predictive power of mathematics anxiety on mathematics success is higher in girls than boys. Furthermore, it has been determined in the research that predictive power of mathematics anxiety on mathematics success increases, as students proceed towards the next grade.

  12. PROFIL PERTANYAAN SISWA TUNANETRA KELAS IX SMPLB YKAB SURAKARTA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN MATEMATIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Khoiriyah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thinking can be drilled to the student by developing question skill during teaching process. Personal life quality is determined from question quality; the more qualified a question the more success a person in life. Therefore, this study analyzed the students question to find out the students question quality. The subject of this study is IX class of SMPLB YKAB students Surakarta. The data was found by observation with handy cam. The data analysis was conducted through data reductio...

  13. Evaluation of a Class of Simple and Effective Uncertainty Methods for Sparse Samples of Random Variables and Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonney, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schroeder, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weirs, V. Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    When very few samples of a random quantity are available from a source distribution of unknown shape, it is usually not possible to accurately infer the exact distribution from which the data samples come. Under-estimation of important quantities such as response variance and failure probabilities can result. For many engineering purposes, including design and risk analysis, we attempt to avoid under-estimation with a strategy to conservatively estimate (bound) these types of quantities -- without being overly conservative -- when only a few samples of a random quantity are available from model predictions or replicate experiments. This report examines a class of related sparse-data uncertainty representation and inference approaches that are relatively simple, inexpensive, and effective. Tradeoffs between the methods' conservatism, reliability, and risk versus number of data samples (cost) are quantified with multi-attribute metrics use d to assess method performance for conservative estimation of two representative quantities: central 95% of response; and 10-4 probability of exceeding a response threshold in a tail of the distribution. Each method's performance is characterized with 10,000 random trials on a large number of diverse and challenging distributions. The best method and number of samples to use in a given circumstance depends on the uncertainty quantity to be estimated, the PDF character, and the desired reliability of bounding the true value. On the basis of this large data base and study, a strategy is proposed for selecting the method and number of samples for attaining reasonable credibility levels in bounding these types of quantities when sparse samples of random variables or functions are available from experiments or simulations.

  14. Optimalisasi Prestasi Belajar Materi Elektromagnet dengan Menggunakan Pendekatan Eksperimen dalam Pembelajaran IPA pada Peserta Didik Kelas IX A SMP Negeri 3 Teras Semester Gasal Kabupaten Boyolali Tahun Pelajaran 2011/2012

    OpenAIRE

    Budiharjo Budiharjo

    2015-01-01

    This research purpose is to describe about effort to increase learning achievement giving task autonomous structure in learning electromagnet material of the student’s class IX A SMP Negeri 3 Teras Boyolali regency semester 2011/2012. Subject and data source of the research the students class IX A sum 40 students. Collecting data method uses observation, documentation and test. Analysis data uses critic and comparative. Reaching indicator uses KKM 63 and complete target 100%. Research procedu...

  15. Variabilidade espacial de classes de textura, salinidade e condutividade hidráulica de solos em planície aluvial Spatial variability of textural classes, salinity and hydraulic conductivity of soil in an alluvial plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo A. A. Montenegro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando-se avaliar a distribuição de classes texturais e sua correlação espacial com a infiltrabilidade e salinidade de uma área aluvial, no Agreste de Pernambuco, utilizou-se a geoestatística indicadora segundo uma distribuição binária baseada na presença/ausência de solos francos. Considerando-se pontos de amostragem e de testes de infiltração dispostos ao longo do eixo principal do aluvião, e aleatoriamente distribuídos, analisou-se a variabilidade espacial das classes de solo predominantes, da velocidade de infiltração básica (condutividade hidráulica saturada e da condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação da camada subsuperficial, cujos alcances dos semi-variogramas ajustados foram de 333, 320 e 520 m, respectivamente. Verificou-se que a geoestatística indicadora preservou a correlação espacial entre a textura e a condutividade hidráulica, e entre a textura e a condutividade elétrica. Deste modo, as classes de solo predominantes podem ser usadas para representar distintos padrões no tocante ao potencial de lixiviação e à susceptibilidade de salinização. A metodologia indicadora mostra-se promissora para estudo da variabilidade espacial de propriedades físicas de solos aluviais onde predominam classes contrastantes.Aiming to evaluate the soil textural classes distribution and the spatial correlation between the soil textural classes and both infiltration rate and salinity in an alluvial area, in Pernambuco State "agreste" region, indicator geostatistics has been applied, adopting a binary distribution based on the presence/absence of loam soils. Considering sampling points and test locations along the main longitudinal transect in the valley, as well as randomly distributed locations, the spatial variability of the main soil classes, the infiltration rate, and the electrical conductivity of the saturated extract have been analyzed, for the subsurface soil layer. The fitted semivariogram ranges were 333

  16. Behavior of physiological variables during a water gymnastics class in women DOI:10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n1p43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Micheline Olkoski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of physiological variables and rating of perceived exertion (RPE during the different phases of a water gymnastics class. Seventeen female university students (age: 23 ± 3.5 years were evaluated in two steps: 1 incremental treadmill test (peak VO2 and HRmax; 2 assessment of body composition and achievement in the water gymnastics class (HR, VO2, [lac], and RPE. Descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOVA with the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls were used (p< 0.05. The results showed that both HR and VO2 differed significantly (p=0.000 between the three phases of the class. Blood lactate only differed significantly (p=0.001 between the early (1.55 mM and the main phase (3.58 mM. The mean RPE was 11 and total calorie expenditure was 262.10 kcal. In conclusion, the physiological variables studied and RPE vary significantly according to the phase of the water gymnastics class. In addition, the intensity of effort (HR, VO2 and [lac] obtained for the main phase is within the parameters established in the literature for aerobic exercise. Thus, regular water gymnastics classes with this structure may improve the physical condition of young adult women.

  17. Evaluation of factor IX deficiency by interdigitated electrode (IDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Hashim, Uda; Uda, M. N. A.

    2017-03-01

    Factor IX deficiency is the main cause of hemophilia A and B. This a severe excessive bleeding disorder that can even kill the patient if not treated with the right prescription of Factor IX hormone to stop the bleeding. The bleeding can be caused by an injury or even a sudden bleeding in some very rare cases. To find the Factor IX effectiveness and to understand the deficiency more carefully for the future of medicine, experiments are conducted to test the Factor IX using the Interdigitated Electrode (IDE) and gold Nanoparticle with the help of Nanoelectrical technology.

  18. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) mediates tumor cell interactions with microenvironment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závadová, Zuzana; Závada, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2005), s. 977-982 ISSN 1021-335X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : carbonic anhydrase IX * cell adhesion * microenvironment Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.572, year: 2005

  19. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  20. Title IX--Beyond Compliance to Personal Commitment and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Barbara

    1976-01-01

    In order to move beyond legal compliance to real equality of opportunity, every educational leader must develop some systematic means of extending his or her personal knowledge and skills with respect to Title IX. Provides a check list for self evaluation of educational leaders and a guide for developing an implementation plan for Title IX.…

  1. A License for Bias: Sex Discrimination, Schools, and Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Susan Ed.

    This report discusses non-sports-related Title IX complaints filed with the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) from 1993-1997. Its purpose is to dispel the popular belief that Title IX is a sports-equity law and to determine the effectiveness of the legislation. The document examines the kinds of complaints filed, the status…

  2. Tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, I.; Muragaki, Y.; Ninomiya, Y.; Olsen, B.R.; Hayashi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen, a major component of cartilage fibrils. It contains molecules with three genetically distinct subunits. The subunits form three triple-helical (CO) domains separated by non-triple-helical (NC) sequences. One of the subunits in cartilage, α1(IX), contains a large amino-terminal globular domain, NC4, while a second subunit, α2(IX), contains a covalently attached chondroitin sulfate chain. The site of attachment for this chain is located within the non-triple-helical sequence NC3, which separates the amino-terminal and central triple-helical domains of the type IX molecules. The NC3 region is 5 amino acid residues longer in the α2(IX) chain than in the α1(IX) and α3(IX) chains. This may explain why type IX molecules tend to show a sharp angle in the NC3 region, and why monoclonal antibody molecules that are specific for the stub left after chondroitinase ABC digestion of the chondroitin sulfate side chain always are located on the outside of the angle

  3. The History, Uses, and Abuses of Title IX. 2016 Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Professors, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report, an evaluation of the history and current uses of Title IX, is the result of a joint effort by a subcommittee that included members of the AAUP's Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure and the Committee on Women in the Academic Profession. The report identifies tensions between current interpretations of Title IX and the academic…

  4. Intrinsic thermodynamics of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkuvienė, Vaida; Matulienė, Jurgita; Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Michailovienė, Vilma; Jachno, Jelena; Matulis, Daumantas

    2016-04-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase 9th isoform (CA IX) is an important marker of numerous cancers and is increasingly interesting as a potential anticancer drug target. Various synthetic aromatic sulfonamide-bearing compounds are being designed as potent inhibitors of CA IX. However, sulfonamide compound binding to CA IX is linked to several reactions, the deprotonation of the sulfonamide amino group and the protonation of the CA active site Zn(II)-bound hydroxide. These linked reactions significantly affect the affinities and other thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpies and entropies of binding. The observed and intrinsic affinities of compound binding to CA IX were determined by the fluorescent thermal shift assay. The enthalpies and entropies of binding were determined by the isothermal titration calorimetry. The pKa of CA IX was determined to be 6.8 and the enthalpy of CA IX-Zn(II)-bound hydroxide protonation was -24 kJ/mol. These values enabled the analysis of intrinsic thermodynamics of a library of compounds binding to CA IX. The most strongly binding compounds exhibited the intrinsic affinity of 0.01 nM and the observed affinity of 2 nM. The intrinsic thermodynamic parameters of compound binding to CA IX helped to draw the compound structure to thermodynamics relationship. It is important to distinguish the intrinsic from observed parameters of any disease target protein interaction with its inhibitors as drug candidates when drawing detailed compound structure to thermodynamics correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Labeled factor IX kinetics in patients with hemophilia-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.J.; Thompson, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Labeled factor IX was infused five time into four patients with hemophilia-B. Ten-minute plasma recovery average 35% (SD +/- 2) and the mean T 1/2 beta-phase elimination was 23 hr (+/- 5). No alteration in the postinfusion 125I-factor-IX could be detected by radioautography of plasma samples run on polyacrylamide gels or on crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Label was excreted into the urine as free 125I-iodide. Kinetics were similar when the labeled preparation was infused alone or with a commercial concentrate containing unlabeled factor IX. Infusion of factor IX in man is best described by a two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model where factor IX is distributed in a space larger than the plasma volume

  6. Comparing the attitudes toward obese persons of the students in Physical Education and Sports school in terms of classes and some variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren ULUÖZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes toward obese persons scale (ATOP scores of the students in Physical Education and Sports School in terms of classes and some variables. Materials and Methods: Causal comparative Research method was used in this study. The study was performed 330 students (age:22.33±2.31 including 117 female and 213 male. In order to determine the attitudes toward obese persons ATOP scale developed by Alison et al. (1991 and validated for Turkish population (T-ATOP by Dedeli et al. (2014 was used. All result was summarised by means of descriptive statistical techniques. Independent Sample T Test, Anova Test and Pearson Correlation Test were used for the suitable situation (Accepted significance level: p0.05. As a result of the Anova test, the T-ATOP scores of the four classes showed significant differences F(3, 326=6.51, p<0.05. In relation to this result the T-ATOP scores of 4. class students was significantly higher than the other classes. This shows that 4. Class students have more positive attitudes towards obese than the other class. Conclusion: The main significant result of this study was that as the classes get higher, the attitude towards overweight and obese people changed positively. It can be considered that the students of Physical Education and Sports School have positive attitudes towards overweight and obese persons by being informed about the mechanism of obesity through their courses which directly or indirectly related to obesity during their undergraduate education. In addition to this courses, it can be thought that in the last year of undergraduate education, such as the practice of collective service application, internship, coaching practice, it is possible to create a chance to practice the theoretical knowledge practically, which may lead to students becoming more understanding of overweight obese persons they meet and to explain the sudden change of attitude in the

  7. Rethinking Dental School Admission Criteria: Correlation Between Pre-Admission Variables and First-Year Performance for Six Classes at One Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Kevin C; Rieken, Susan

    2018-04-01

    Admissions committees in dental schools are charged with the responsibility of selecting candidates who will succeed in school and become successful members of the profession. Identifying students who will have academic difficulty is challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of pre-admission variables for the first-year performance of six classes at one U.S. dental school. The authors hypothesized that the variables undergraduate grade point average (GPA), undergraduate science GPA (biology, chemistry, and physics), and Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores would predict the level of performance achieved in the first year of dental school, measured by year-end GPA. Data were collected in 2015 from school records for all 297 students in the six cohorts who completed the first year (Classes of 2007 through 2013). In the results, statistically significant correlations existed between all pre-admission variables and first-year GPA, but the associations were only weak to moderate. Lower performing students at the end of the first year (lowest 10% of GPA) had, on average, lower pre-admission variables than the other students, but the differences were small (≤10.8% in all categories). When all the pre-admission variables were considered together in a multiple regression analysis, a significant association was found between pre-admission variables and first-year GPA, but the association was weak (adjusted R 2 =0.238). This weak association suggests that these students' first-year dental school GPAs were mostly determined by factors other than the pre-admission variables studied and has resulted in the school's placing greater emphasis on other factors for admission decisions.

  8. YOUNG STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MYStIX STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CANDIDATE PROTOSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romine, Gregory; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kuhn, Michael A. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Povich, Matthew S., E-mail: edf@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Ave., Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star-forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog and Chandra -based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star-forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few “false positives” from contaminating populations. But the limited sensitivity and sparse overlap among the infrared and X-ray subsamples indicate that the sample is very incomplete with many “false negatives.” Maps, tables, and source descriptions are provided to guide further study of star formation in these regions. In particular, the nature of ultrahard X-ray protostellar candidates without known infrared counterparts needs to be elucidated.

  9. YOUNG STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MYStIX STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CANDIDATE PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, Gregory; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Kuhn, Michael A.; Povich, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star-forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog and Chandra -based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star-forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few “false positives” from contaminating populations. But the limited sensitivity and sparse overlap among the infrared and X-ray subsamples indicate that the sample is very incomplete with many “false negatives.” Maps, tables, and source descriptions are provided to guide further study of star formation in these regions. In particular, the nature of ultrahard X-ray protostellar candidates without known infrared counterparts needs to be elucidated.

  10. Ares I-X Flight Test Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.

  11. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  12. Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: Association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Münzer, Annika; Ganser, Helene G; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Plener, Paul L

    2016-07-01

    Most victims of child abuse have experienced more than one type of maltreatment, yet there is a lack of understanding of the impact of specific combinations of types of maltreatment. This study aimed to identify meaningful classes of maltreatment profiles and to associate them with short-term clinical outcomes. A total of 358 German children and adolescents aged 4-17 with a known history of child maltreatment were included in the study. Through interviews and questionnaires, information was obtained from participants and their primary caregivers on history of maltreatment, sociodemographics, psychopathology, level of psychosocial functioning, and health-related quality of life. Types of abuse were categorized into six major groups: sexual abuse in general, sexual abuse with penetration, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to determine distinct multi-type maltreatment profiles, which were then assessed for their associations with the sociodemographic and clinical outcome variables. The LCA revealed that participants could be categorized into three meaningful classes according to history of maltreatment: (1) experience of multiple types of maltreatment excluding sexual abuse (63.1%), (2) experience of multiple types of maltreatment including sexual abuse (26.5%), and (3) experience of predominantly sexual abuse (10.3%). Members of Class 2 showed significantly worse short-term outcomes on psychopathology, level of functioning, and quality of life compared to the other classes. Three distinct profiles of multiple types of maltreatment were empirically identified in this sample. Exposure to multiple types of abuse was associated with poorer outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The method of separation of variables for the Frobenius-Perron operator associated to a class of two dimensional chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luevano, Jose-Ruben

    2011-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the invariant densities for a class of discrete two dimensional chaotic systems are given. The method of separation of variables for the associated Frobenius-Perron equation is introduced. These systems are related to nonlinear difference equations which are of the type x k+2 = T(x k ). The function T is a chaotic map of an interval whose chaotic behaviour is inherited to the two dimensional one. We work out in detail some examples, with T an expansive or intermittent map, in order to expose the method. Finally, we discuss how to generalize the method to higher dimensional maps.

  14. Legal Forum: Title IX: Does It Apply to Employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha

    1981-01-01

    Briefly reviews a number of Federal court cases that have dealt with Title IX, considering the issue of whether the 1974 regulations prohibiting sex discrimination in employment practices accurately reflect the intent of the 1972 law. (GC)

  15. Protoporphyrin IX-induced structural and functional changes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Drug-protein binding; haemoglobin; myoglobin; protoporphyrin IX; red blood cells ... haemoglobin and myoglobin are potentiated by the protein-porphyrin complexation. Possible ...... 1985 Uptake and delivery of the respiratory gases; in Best ...

  16. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  17. Satellite-observed variability of phytoplankton size classes associated with a cold eddy in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Wang, Guifen; Hu, Shuibo

    2014-06-15

    Ocean-color remote sensing has been used as a tool to detect phytoplankton size classes (PSCs). In this study, a three-component model of PSC was reparameterized using seven years of pigment measurements acquired in the South China Sea (SCS). The model was then used to infer PSC in a cyclonic eddy which was observed west of Luzon Island from SeaWiFS chlorophyll-a (chla) and sea-surface height anomaly (SSHA) products. Enhanced productivity and a shift in the PSC were observed, which were likely due to upwelling of nutrient-rich water into the euphotic zone. The supply of nutrients promoted the growth of larger cells (micro- and nanoplankton), and the PSC shifted to greater sizes. However, the picoplankton were still important and contributed ∼48% to total chla concentration. In addition, PSC time series revealed a lag period of about three weeks between maximum eddy intensity and maximum chlorophyll, which may have been related to phytoplankton growth rate and duration of eddy intensity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends in oral drug bioavailability following bariatric surgery: examining the variable extent of impact on exposure of different drug classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwich, Adam S; Henderson, Kathryn; Burgin, Angela; Ward, Nicola; Whittam, Janet; Ammori, Basil J; Ashcroft, Darren M; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2012-11-01

    Changes to oral drug bioavailability have been observed post bariatric surgery. However, the magnitude and the direction of changes have not been assessed systematically to provide insights into the parameters governing the observed trends. Understanding these can help with dose adjustments. Analysis of drug characteristics based on a biopharmaceutical classification system is not adequate to explain observed trends in altered oral drug bioavailability following bariatric surgery, although the findings suggest solubility to play an important role. To identify the most commonly prescribed drugs in a bariatric surgery population and to assess existing evidence regarding trends in oral drug bioavailability post bariatric surgery. A retrospective audit was undertaken to document commonly prescribed drugs amongst patients undergoing bariatric surgery in an NHS hospital in the UK and to assess practice for drug administration following bariatric surgery. The available literature was examined for trends relating to drug permeability and solubility with regards to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) and main route of elimination. No significant difference in the 'post/pre surgery oral drug exposure ratio' (ppR) was apparent between BCS class I to IV drugs, with regards to dose number (Do) or main route of elimination. Drugs classified as 'solubility limited' displayed an overall reduction as compared with 'freely soluble' compounds, as well as an unaltered and increased ppR. Clinical studies establishing guidelines for commonly prescribed drugs, and the monitoring of drugs exhibiting a narrow therapeutic window or without a readily assessed clinical endpoint, are warranted. Using mechanistically based pharmacokinetic modelling for simulating the multivariate nature of changes in drug exposure may serve as a useful tool in the further understanding of postoperative trends in oral drug exposure and in developing practical clinical guidance. © 2012 The Authors

  19. Bianchi - I, II, VIII, IX and Kantowski-Sachs-like cosmological models with perfect fluid and electromagnetic fields with conductivity current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portugal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Three processes of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations for Bianchi - I, II, VIII, IX and Kantowski-Sachs-like cosmological models with perfect fluid in magnetohydrolodynamical regimem are presented. Diagonal Bianchi-like models are considered with two anisotropy direction in the maximum. Solutions are found for Bianchi-II and IX-like models with energy conditions to be analyzed. Solutions are found for Bianchi-IX and Kantowski-Sachs-Like models with positive electric conductivity and satisfering to the predominant energy conditions. Solutions are formed for isotropic Kantowski-Sachs-Like models satisfering to the equation of state p=λρ, 0 0, admiting, in addition to the perfect fluid, electric field only. It is shown that a class of Bertotti-Robinson-like solutions is unstable by perturbations and it is carried in Kantowski-Sachs-like models with non-null electric conductivity. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Action of the protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) in the life period of Drosophila mutants deficient in endogenous antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal E, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The human being is daily exposed to free radicals or reactive oxygen species (Ros), as a result of the breathing and the interactions with xenobiotics that can cause irreversible lesions in molecules and cellular structures and that they are associated to diseases like the cancer, neuro degenerative and to the acceleration of the normal process of aging. Fortunately, to reduce the damaging effect of the Ros the cell has endogenous antioxidant systems constituted by antioxidant enzymes as: the superoxide dismutase (Sod), the catalase (Cat), and the glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Even, when these systems are not enough, we find to the exogenous antioxidants that cooperate in the balance of the Ros, as the porphyrins that include to the chlorophyllin, the hemin and the bilirubin among others. The protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) is a tetra pyrrole without metallic center with antimutagenic and antioxidant activity similar to that of the chlorophyllin. However, is also known that their over-expression has toxic effects, because induces Ros. In Drosophila melanogaster, recently was found that the Pp-Ix have dual action anti and persistent mutagenic. One of their possible mechanism to act like mutagen is through the Ros induction. To evaluate this possibility and based in that the increase in the Ros levels can accelerate the aging process, in the present work the Pp-Ix role was evaluated, in the life period of Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in Sod and Cat, sensitive to radiation or oxidative stress (rad, whd and flr 3 ) and a wild one as control (C-S). Females and males of each strain were treated chronically for separate with sucrose or Pp-Ix and every 15 days a group of each sex was irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results indicated that the chronic treatment with Pp-Ix and in combination with radiation, increased the life period of the C-S strain. The Sod strain had a contrary effect and this effect was pronounced with the combined treatment of Pp-Ix

  1. The Secret Lives of Cepheids: δ Cep—The Prototype of a New Class of Pulsating X-Ray Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward F.; Harper, Graham M.; Cuntz, Manfred; Remage Evans, Nancy; Neilson, Hilding R.; Fawzy, Diaa E.

    2017-03-01

    From our Secret Lives of Cepheids program, the prototype Classical Cepheid, δ Cep, is found to be an X-ray source with periodic pulsation-modulated X-ray variations. This finding complements our earlier reported phase-dependent FUV-UV emissions of the star that increase ˜10-20 times with highest fluxes at ˜ 0.90{--}0.95φ , just prior to maximum brightness. Previously δ Cep was found as potentially X-ray variable, using XMM-Newton observations. Additional phase-constrained data were secured with Chandra near X-ray emission peak, to determine if the emission and variability were pulsation-phase-specific to δ Cep and not transient or due to a possible coronally active, cool companion. The Chandra data were combined with prior XMM-Newton observations, and were found to very closely match the previously observed X-ray behavior. From the combined data set, a ˜4 increase in X-ray flux is measured, reaching a peak {L}{{X}} = 1.7 × 1029 erg s-1 near 0.45ϕ. The precise X-ray flux phasing with the star’s pulsation indicates that the emissions arise from the Cepheid and not from a companion. However, it is puzzling that the maximum X-ray flux occurs ˜0.5ϕ (˜3 days) later than the FUV-UV maximum. There are several other potential Cepheid X-ray detections with properties similar to δ Cep, and comparable X-ray variability is indicated for two other Cepheids: β Dor and V473 Lyr. X-ray generating mechanisms in δ Cep and other Cepheids are discussed. If additional Cepheids are confirmed to show phased X-ray variations, then δ Cep will be the prototype of a new class of pulsation-induced X-ray variables.

  2. Ares I-X: First Flight of a New Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X suborbital development flight test demonstrated NASA s ability to design, develop, launch and control a new human-rated launch vehicle (Figure 14). This hands-on missions experience will provide the agency with necessary skills and insights regardless of the future direction of space exploration. The Ares I-X team, having executed a successful launch, will now focus on analyzing the flight data and extracting lessons learned that will be used to support the development of future vehicles.

  3. Synthesis of [119mSn]-mesoporphyrin IX dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denissen, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Tin mesoporphyrin IX dichloride (Sn-MPCl 2 ) is a heme oxygenase inhibitor of current clinical interest for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The synthesis of [ 119m Sn]-MPCl 2 for drug metabolism and disposition studies is reported. [ 119m Sn]-MPCl 2 was prepared in 60% radiochemical yield by metalation of the porphyrin nucleus of mesoporphyrin IX dihydrochloride with tin(II)-119m acetate. The product had a specific activity of 43.4 mCi/mmol and a radiochemical purity of 99%, as determined by radio-HPLC analysis. (author)

  4. Type IX Collagen Gene Mutations Can Result in Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia That Is Associated With Osteochondritis Dissecans and a Mild Myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Gail C.; Marcus-Soekarman, Dominique; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Verrips, Aad; Taylor, Jacqueline A.; Briggs, Michael D.

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous disease that is characterized by mild short stature and early onset osteoarthritis. Autosomal dominant forms are caused by mutations in the genes that encode type IX collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix

  5. Type IX collagen gene mutations can result in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia that is associated with osteochondritis dissecans and a mild myopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, G.C.; Marcus-Soekarman, D.; Stolte-Dijkstra, I.; Verrips, A.; Taylor, J.A.; Briggs, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous disease that is characterized by mild short stature and early onset osteoarthritis. Autosomal dominant forms are caused by mutations in the genes that encode type IX collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix

  6. Effect of IX dosing on polypropylene and PVDF membrane fouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Darli Theint; Mergen, Max R D; Zhao, Oliver; Stewart, Matthew B.; Orbell, John D.; Merle, Tony; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Gray, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of ion exchange (IX) resin for organics removal from wastewater was assessed using advanced characterisation techniques for varying doses of IX. Organic characterisation using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array (PDA

  7. IX : An OS for datacenter applications with aggressive networking requirements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that aggressive networking requirements, such as high packet rates for small messages and microsecond-scale tail latency, are best addressed outside the kernel, in a user-level networking stack. We present IX, a dataplane operating system designed to support low-latency, high-throughput and high-connection count applications.  Like classic operating systems such as Linux, IX provides strong protection guarantees to the networking stack.  However, and unlike classic operating systems, IX is designed for the ground up to support applications with aggressive networking requirements on dense multi-core platforms with 10GbE and 40GbE Ethernet NICs.  IX outperforms Linux by an order of magnitude on micro benchmarks, and by up to 3.6x when running an unmodified memcached, a popular key-value store. The presentation is based on the joint work with Adam Belay, George Prekas, Ana Klimovic, Sam Grossman and Christos Kozyrakis, published at OSDI 2014; Best P...

  8. Dynamic of exact perturbations in Bianchi IX type cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Neto, J.R.T. de.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic of Bianchi IX type cosmological models is studied, after reducing Einstein equations to Hamiltonian system. Using the Melnikov method, the existence of chaos in the dynamic of these models is proved, and some numerical experiments are carried out. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  10. 23. IX korraldab Vaala galerii kunstioksjoni "Väliseesti eri"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Oksjonil on esindatud Eerik Haamer, Jaan Grünberg, Arno Vihalemm, Eduard Wiiralt, Ruth Tulving, Endel Kõks, Harald Jürissaar, Otto Paas, Ville Tops, Otto Puusta. Töödega saab tutvuda alates 18. IX, traditsiooniline sügisoksjon toimub 18. XI

  11. IX Congress of Spanish radiation protection Society (Bilbao, May-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present book contains the papers presented to the IX Congress of Spanish Radiation Protection Society. The main sessions were : 1.- Scientific area of Radiation Protection and Regulation, Social aspects, Radioactive waste management and Dismantling. 2.- Radiation protection in Medical applications. 3.- Physics of radiations and their measurements

  12. Study of primitive universe in the Bianchi IX model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsas, G.E.A.

    1988-03-01

    The theory of general relativity is used to study the homogeneous cosmological model Bianch IX with isometry group SO(3) near the cosmological singularity. The Bogoyavlenskii-Novikov formalism to explain the anusual behaviour of the Liapunov exponent associated with this chaotic system, is introduced. (author) [pt

  13. Title IX and Sexual Harassment of Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolohan, John T.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews what constitutes sexual harassment in sports by examining Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the effect it has had on charges of sexual harrassment in educational institutions. Athletic administrators are provided with strategies and recommendations to help schools and athletic departments develop sexual…

  14. Counselor Education and Title IX: Current Perceptions and Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welfare, Laura E.; Wagstaff, Jennifer; Haynes, Jenna R.

    2017-01-01

    This national survey of counselor educator perceptions of the Title IX requirement to report student disclosures of gender-based discrimination revealed the need for greater clarity about faculty strategies for serving counseling program students while upholding the federal law. The authors describe the recent expansion of the requirements and…

  15. Heart-Rate Variability During Deep Sleep in World-Class Alpine Skiers: A Time-Efficient Alternative to Morning Supine Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, David; Testorelli, Moreno; Olstad, Daniela Schäfer; Erlacher, Daniel; Achermann, Peter; Eser, Prisca; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    It is increasingly popular to use heart-rate variability (HRV) to tailor training for athletes. A time-efficient method is HRV assessment during deep sleep. To validate the selection of deep-sleep segments identified by RR intervals with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and to compare HRV parameters of these segments with those of standard morning supine measurements. In 11 world-class alpine skiers, RR intervals were monitored during 10 nights, and simultaneous EEGs were recorded during 2-4 nights. Deep sleep was determined from the HRV signal and verified by delta power from the EEG recordings. Four further segments were chosen for HRV determination, namely, a 4-h segment from midnight to 4 AM and three 5-min segments: 1 just before awakening, 1 after waking in supine position, and 1 in standing after orthostatic challenge. Training load was recorded every day. A total of 80 night and 68 morning measurements of 9 athletes were analyzed. Good correspondence between the phases selected by RR intervals vs those selected by EEG was found. Concerning root-mean-squared difference of successive RR intervals (RMSSD), a marker for parasympathetic activity, the best relationship with the morning supine measurement was found in deep sleep. HRV is a simple tool for approximating deep-sleep phases, and HRV measurement during deep sleep could provide a time-efficient alternative to HRV in supine position.

  16. Soluble form of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) in the serum and urine of renal carcinoma patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závada, Jan; Závadová, Zuzana; Zaťovičová, M.; Hyršl, L.; Kawaciuk, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 89, - (2003), s. 1067-1071 ISSN 0007-0920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/99/0356 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : carbonic anhydrase IX * tumor antigens * cancer diagnostics Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.894, year: 2003

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of normal and collagen IX null mouse cartilage reveals altered extracellular matrix composition and novel components of the collagen IX interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachvogel, Bent; Zaucke, Frank; Dave, Keyur; Norris, Emma L; Stermann, Jacek; Dayakli, Münire; Koch, Manuel; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Bateman, John F; Wilson, Richard

    2013-05-10

    Collagen IX is an integral cartilage extracellular matrix component important in skeletal development and joint function. Proteomic analysis and validation studies revealed novel alterations in collagen IX null cartilage. Matrilin-4, collagen XII, thrombospondin-4, fibronectin, βig-h3, and epiphycan are components of the in vivo collagen IX interactome. We applied a proteomics approach to advance our understanding of collagen IX ablation in cartilage. The cartilage extracellular matrix is essential for endochondral bone development and joint function. In addition to the major aggrecan/collagen II framework, the interacting complex of collagen IX, matrilin-3, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is essential for cartilage matrix stability, as mutations in Col9a1, Col9a2, Col9a3, Comp, and Matn3 genes cause multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, in which patients develop early onset osteoarthritis. In mice, collagen IX ablation results in severely disturbed growth plate organization, hypocellular regions, and abnormal chondrocyte shape. This abnormal differentiation is likely to involve altered cell-matrix interactions but the mechanism is not known. To investigate the molecular basis of the collagen IX null phenotype we analyzed global differences in protein abundance between wild-type and knock-out femoral head cartilage by capillary HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 297 proteins in 3-day cartilage and 397 proteins in 21-day cartilage. Components that were differentially abundant between wild-type and collagen IX-deficient cartilage included 15 extracellular matrix proteins. Collagen IX ablation was associated with dramatically reduced COMP and matrilin-3, consistent with known interactions. Matrilin-1, matrilin-4, epiphycan, and thrombospondin-4 levels were reduced in collagen IX null cartilage, providing the first in vivo evidence for these proteins belonging to the collagen IX interactome. Thrombospondin-4 expression was reduced at the mRNA level

  18. Arabidopsis Lectin Receptor Kinases LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 Are Functional Analogs in Regulating Phytophthora Resistance and Plant Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cordewener, Jan H G; America, Antoine H P; Shan, Weixing; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Govers, Francine

    2015-09-01

    L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRK) are potential immune receptors. Here, we characterized two closely-related Arabidopsis LecRK, LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2, of which T-DNA insertion mutants showed compromised resistance to Phytophthora brassicae and Phytophthora capsici, with double mutants showing additive susceptibility. Overexpression of LecRK-IX.1 or LecRK-IX.2 in Arabidopsis and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana increased Phytophthora resistance but also induced cell death. Phytophthora resistance required both the lectin domain and kinase activity, but for cell death, the lectin domain was not needed. Silencing of the two closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase genes NbSIPK and NbNTF4 in N. benthamiana completely abolished LecRK-IX.1-induced cell death but not Phytophthora resistance. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of protein complexes coimmunoprecipitated in planta with LecRK-IX.1 or LecRK-IX.2 as bait, resulted in the identification of the N. benthamiana ABC transporter NbPDR1 as a potential interactor of both LecRK. The closest homolog of NbPDR1 in Arabidopsis is ABCG40, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that ABCG40 associates with LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 in planta. Similar to the LecRK mutants, ABCG40 mutants showed compromised Phytophthora resistance. This study shows that LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 are Phytophthora resistance components that function independent of each other and independent of the cell-death phenotype. They both interact with the same ABC transporter, suggesting that they exploit similar signal transduction pathways.

  19. X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L X ≥ 10 40 erg s –1 ). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass ∼10 M ☉ or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the ∼>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow

  20. Star formation rate in Holmberg IX dwarf galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use previously determined Hα fluxes for dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX (Arbutina et al. 2009 to calculate star formation rate (SFR in this galaxy. We discuss possible contaminations of Hα flux and, for the first time, we take into account optical emission from supernova remnants (SNRs as a possible source of contamination of Hα flux. Derived SFR for Holmberg IX is 3:4 x 10-4M.yr-1. Our value is lower then in previous studies, due to luminous shock-heated source M&H 9-10, possible hypernova remnant, which we excluded from the total Hα flux in our calculation of SFR.

  1. Growth stimulation of Porphyromonas endodontalis by hemoglobin and protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerr, M A; Cox, C D; Johnson, W T; Drake, D R

    2000-12-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis, like other Porphyromonas species, has a complex set of nutritional requirements. In addition to being an obligate anaerobe, the bacterium must be grown in a complex medium consisting of amino acids, reducing agents and heme compounds. P. endodontalis accumulates high concentrations of heme pigments to the extent that colonies appear black on blood agar. This accumulation of heme and the need for these compounds has been characterized as iron requirements by these species. However, in our studies, P. endodontalis demonstrated growth dependence on hemoglobin or protoporphyrin IX but not on free iron. Iron added to other heme compounds actually decreased growth stimulation by porphyrin-containing compounds. P. endodontalis actively transported free iron, but this process did not appear to be critical for growth. The maximum stimulation of growth by protoporphyrin IX, under conditions of iron deprivation, suggests that P. endodontalis requires the porphyrin moiety as a growth factor.

  2. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V. [Hematological Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A. [Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Spectral action for Bianchi type-IX cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    A rationality result previously proved for Robertson-Walker metrics is extended to a homogeneous anisotropic cosmological model, namely the Bianchi type-IX minisuperspace. It is shown that the Seeley-de Witt coefficients appearing in the expansion of the spectral action for the Bianchi type-IX geometry are expressed in terms of polynomials with rational coefficients in the cosmic evolution factors w_1(t),w_2(t),w_3(t), and their higher derivates with respect to time. We begin with the computation of the Dirac operator of this geometry and calculate the coefficients a_0,a_2,a_4 of the spectral action by using heat kernel methods and parametric pseudodifferential calculus. An efficient method is devised for computing the Seeley-de Witt coefficients of a geometry by making use of Wodzicki’s noncommutative residue, and it is confirmed that the method checks out for the cosmological model studied in this article. The advantages of the new method are discussed, which combined with symmetries of the Bianchi type-IX metric, yield an elegant proof of the rationality result.

  4. Spectral action for Bianchi type-IX cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-13

    A rationality result previously proved for Robertson-Walker metrics is extended to a homogeneous anisotropic cosmological model, namely the Bianchi type-IX minisuperspace. It is shown that the Seeley-de Witt coefficients appearing in the expansion of the spectral action for the Bianchi type-IX geometry are expressed in terms of polynomials with rational coefficients in the cosmic evolution factors w{sub 1}(t),w{sub 2}(t),w{sub 3}(t), and their higher derivates with respect to time. We begin with the computation of the Dirac operator of this geometry and calculate the coefficients a{sub 0},a{sub 2},a{sub 4} of the spectral action by using heat kernel methods and parametric pseudodifferential calculus. An efficient method is devised for computing the Seeley-de Witt coefficients of a geometry by making use of Wodzicki’s noncommutative residue, and it is confirmed that the method checks out for the cosmological model studied in this article. The advantages of the new method are discussed, which combined with symmetries of the Bianchi type-IX metric, yield an elegant proof of the rationality result.

  5. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on kinetics of protoporphyrin IX production in CHO cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Warchoł

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA is utilized in a photodynamic therapy as a compound capable of augmenting intracellular pool of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, which exhibits properties of a photosensitizer. The studies were aimed at monitoring accumulation of endogenous protoporphyrin IX in CHO cells under effect of various concentrations of ALA in culture medium and following removal of the compound from the culture medium. Cell content of PpIX was determined following incubation of the cells for 72 h in a culture medium containing different concentration of ALA. Moreover, the cells were preincubated for 2 h in ALA at various concentrations and separated from the compound by medium change and their PpIX content was monitored following incubation. PpIX content was defined by a fluorescent technique under the confocal microscope. In the course of continuous incubation of cells with ALA, biphasic alterations were noted in cellular PpIX concentration. Removal of ALA from the incubation medium resulted at first in a decrease in PpIX content in cells, which was followed by an evidently augmented accumulation of the compound in the cells. The results suggested that in the case of CHO cells, exogenous ALA was not an exclusive source of PpIX synthesis and that alterations in enzyme activities were responsible for production of PpIX.

  6. Phosphorylation of carbonic anhydrase IX controls its ability to mediate extracellular acidification in hypoxic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditte, Peter; Dequiedt, Franck; Svastova, Eliska; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Zatovicova, Miriam; Csaderova, Lucia; Kopacek, Juraj; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2011-12-15

    In the hypoxic regions of a tumor, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an important transmembrane component of the pH regulatory machinery that participates in bicarbonate transport. Because tumor pH has implications for growth, invasion, and therapy, determining the basis for the contributions of CA IX to the hypoxic tumor microenvironment could lead to new fundamental and practical insights. Here, we report that Thr443 phosphorylation at the intracellular domain of CA IX by protein kinase A (PKA) is critical for its activation in hypoxic cells, with the fullest activity of CA IX also requiring dephosphorylation of Ser448. PKA is activated by cAMP, which is elevated by hypoxia, and we found that attenuating PKA in cells disrupted CA IX-mediated extracellular acidification. Moreover, following hypoxia induction, CA IX colocalized with the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and other PKA substrates in the leading edge membranes of migrating tumor cells, in support of the concept that bicarbonate metabolism is spatially regulated at cell surface sites with high local ion transport and pH control. Using chimeric CA IX proteins containing heterologous catalytic domains derived from related CA enzymes, we showed that CA IX activity was modulated chiefly by the intracellular domain where Thr443 is located. Our findings indicate that CA IX is a pivotal mediator of the hypoxia-cAMP-PKA axis, which regulates pH in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.

  7. Infrared photometry of the nova-like system IX Velorum (= CPD -4801577)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, Karlheinz

    1988-01-01

    Continuous IR photometry of the UX UMa-type nova-like system IX Velorum reveals phase-correlated light variations in JHK filter bands with an amplitude of about O m .06. From a periodogram analysis an orbital period of P = 0.1939 ± 0.0001 day is determined. Physical reasons for the observed IR light variability are discussed. Model light curve calculations demonstrate that the observed light curves can be interpreted by a superposition of ellipsoidal light variations and asymmetric light distribution on the surface of the secondary component owing to illumination from the disc. The observation of different heights of the two light maxima might be an indication for an additional orbital light variation due to the changing aspect of the disc and/or bright spot region. (author)

  8. Pengembangan Soal Penalaran Model TIMSS Konteks Sumatera Selatan di Kelas IX SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazlita Hazlita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan soal-soal penalaran model TIMSS konteks Sumatera Selatan yang valid dan praktis dan untuk melihat efek potensial soal matematika tipe TIMSS konteks Sumatera Selatan terhadap kemampuan penalaran matematis siswa. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas IX SMPN 9 Palembang yang berjumlah 29 orang. Metode penelitian adalah penelitian pengembangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebanyak 37,93% siswa menunjukkan tingkat kemampuan penalaran matematis yang baik. Sebanyak 55,17% siswa menunjukkan tingkat kemampuan penalaran matematis yang cukup dan sebanyak 6,90% siswa menunjukkan tingkat kemampuan penalaran matematis yang kurang. Berdasarkan hasil tes tersebut, jika nilai rata-rata siswa siswa sebesar 39,24 dijadikan sebagai batas acuan, maka bisa disimpulkan bahwa 31,03% siswa memiliki kemampuan penalaran matematis yang kurang, sementara 68,97% siswa sudah memiliki kemampuan pelanaran matematis yang cukup baik. Kata Kunci: Soal Penalaran; TIMSS; Konteks Sumatera Selatan  AbstractThe aim of this research was developing valid and practical TIMSS reasoning problem on mathematics context of South Sumatra. The subjects of this research were 29 students of class IX SMPN 9 Palembang. The method of research is the development of research. The results showed that 37.93% of students showed levels of good mathematical reasoning abilities, 55.17% of students showed levels sufficient mathematical reasoning ability and 6.90% of students showed levels of mathematical reasoning abilities are lacking. Based on the test results, if the 39.24 was determined as minimum limit of success, it means that 31.03% of students have less mathematical reasoning ability, while 68.97% of students already have sufficient mathematical reasoning ability. Keywords: Problem Reasoning; TIMSS; Context South Sumatra

  9. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Music classes, [43]; 86.34(f) Physical education, [43, 56, 58]; Sex education, [43, 57]; 86.34(e...(a) to (r) Designation of responsible employee, [20, 22]; 86.8(a), (b) Dissemination of policy, [21]; 86.9 Distribution, 86.9(c) Notification of policy, [21]; 86.9(a) Publications, 86.9(b) Dress codes 86...

  10. The Structure of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Is Adapted for Low-pH Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Brian P; Bhatt, Avni; Socorro, Lilien; Driscoll, Jenna M; Okoh, Cynthia; Lomelino, Carrie L; Mboge, Mam Y; Kurian, Justin J; Tu, Chingkuang; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Frost, Susan C; McKenna, Robert

    2016-08-23

    Human carbonic anhydrase IX (hCA IX) expression in many cancers is associated with hypoxic tumors and poor patient outcome. Inhibitors of hCA IX have been used as anticancer agents with some entering Phase I clinical trials. hCA IX is transmembrane protein whose catalytic domain faces the extracellular tumor milieu, which is typically associated with an acidic microenvironment. Here, we show that the catalytic domain of hCA IX (hCA IX-c) exhibits the necessary biochemical and biophysical properties that allow for low pH stability and activity. Furthermore, the unfolding process of hCA IX-c appears to be reversible, and its catalytic efficiency is thought to be correlated directly with its stability between pH 3.0 and 8.0 but not above pH 8.0. To rationalize this, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of hCA IX-c to 1.6 Å resolution. Insights from this study suggest an understanding of hCA IX-c stability and activity in low-pH tumor microenvironments and may be applicable to determining pH-related effects on enzymes.

  11. Embryonic chicken cornea and cartilage synthesize type IX collagen molecules with different amino-terminal domains.

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, K K; Nishimura, I; Sugrue, S P; Ninomiya, Y; Olsen, B R

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed embryonic chicken cornea for the presence of type IX collagen mRNA and protein. Using RNA transfer blot analysis, we demonstrate that alpha 1(IX) and alpha 2(IX) mRNAs are expressed by corneal epithelial cells at the time that the primary stromal components are synthesized. The levels of the mRNAs decrease with increasing developmental age and are barely detectable at day 11 of development. In contrast, type IX collagen protein is detectable by immunofluorescence at days 5 an...

  12. The spectroscopy analyses of PpIX by ultrasound irradiation and its sonotoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Gao, Kaili; Song, Ming; Liu, Quanhong

    2013-07-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has been used as a sensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as well as in sonodynamic therapy (SDT). The photo-bleaching of PpIX has been well investigated in many experimental systems and some photo-products have also been identified in PDT. But until now, little information has been reported about the sono-damage of PpIX in SDT. So, the present study was to investigate changes of PpIX properties before and after different ultrasound treatment, and the potential interactions between PpIX, ultrasound and the irradiated cells. In cell-free system, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of PpIX in different solutions were measured by ultraviolet spectrometer and fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The terephthalic acid dosimetry was applied to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasound cavitation by monitoring hydroxyl radical (OH) production on the thermolysis of H2O in the ultrasound field. In in vitro study, confocal microscopy was applied to detect the sub-cellular localization of PpIX in S180 cells before and after ultrasound exposure. Flow cytometry was used to detect the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during PpIX-SDT. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cell viability of S180 cells after SDT treatment with or without ROS scavengers. The results show that PpIX displayed different spectral patterns in different solutions. PpIX was decomposed by ultrasound exposure as measured by the decreased absorption and fluorescence peak values in RPMI-1640 medium. In addition, the decomposition of PpIX was found to be simultaneously accompanied by OH production with increasing output power from ultrasound generator. PpIX at 1μg/ml significantly enhanced the ultrasound induced cavitation as measured by OH generation, and which was greatly eliminated by NaN3, histidine, mannitol, EDTA and catalase, but not by SOD. The in vitro study indicates more PpIX entered into S180 cells after ultrasound exposure. And, the extra-cellular PpIX

  13. Noninvasive murine glioma detection improved following photobleaching of skin PpIX fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Davis, Scott C.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2008-02-01

    Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) is a prodrug which can be administered to cells, animals or patients after which it is transformed via the Heme synthesis pathway into the fluorescent molecule Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). PpIX has been shown to be useful as both a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and as a fluorescence imaging contrast agent. The ALA-PpIX system not only provides contrast for fluorescence imaging but also gives information about the metabolic activity of the imaged tissue and thus could be useful for monitoring cancer therapy. In the current study skin photobleaching was examined to determine if PpIX fluorescence contrast in malignant brain tumors could be better visualized noninvasively. Red light photobleaching decreased skin PpIX fluorescence and increased the ability to noninvasively quantify PpIX fluorescence in murine gliomas, as in vivo measurements of mean PpIX fluorescence more closely matched ex vivo quantification following skin photobleaching. Three doses of blue light photobleaching (4 J/cm2, 8 J/cm2 and 12 J/cm2) were tested and determined to give similar levels of skin photobleaching as well as a similar window of decreased skin PpIX fluorescence for noninvasive fluorescence imaging following the photobleaching dose administration.

  14. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Offerings Adjustment period, [55]; 106.34(a) (i) General, [7, 43]; 106.34 Music classes, [43]; 106.34(f... responsible employee, [20, 22]; 106.8(a), (b) Dissemination of policy, [21]; 106.9 Distribution, 106.9(c) Notification of policy, [21]; 106.9(a) Publications, 106.9(b) Dress codes 106.31(b) (4) E Education...

  15. Immunosuppressive effects of factor IX products: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, A B; McGregor, J R; Samlowski, W E; Rodgers, G M

    1999-11-01

    The effects of a recombinant factor IX product (BeneFix), and of five plasma-derived factor IX products, AlphaNine, Immunine, Konyne, Mononine and Replinine on in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) immune function were compared in a blinded study. We assessed the effects of these products on Con-A-induced lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 and interleukin-10 secretion, expression of lymphocyte activation markers, and nitric oxide secretion by stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. At 1 mL-1 for 48 h, Konyne reduced Con-A-induced mitogenesis by 50% (P < 0.05); AlphaNine, Mononine and BeneFix had no effect. At 10 IU mL-1, Con-A-induced mi- togenesis was at control levels with Mononine and BeneFix, but was reduced to <15% (P < 0.05) with each of the other products. IL-2 and IL-10 secretion by Con-A-stimulated lymphocytes was also markedly depressed by all the products tested except Mononine and BeneFix. Dialysis of these products did not substantially affect these results. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte activation markers following Con-A stimulation showed that Konyne also decreased IL-2 receptor alpha and beta chain (CD25 and CD122) induction on PBMC. Konyne also inhibited nitric oxide secretion to levels <18% of controls. These results indicate that certain factor IX products, including some of purported higher purity, substantially depress in vitro immune function. The importance of these findings to in vivo immune function in haemophilia B patients remains to be established.

  16. Fe IX CALCULATIONS FOR THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Adam R.; Testa, Paola

    2011-01-01

    New calculations of the energy levels, radiative transition rates, and collisional excitation rates of Fe IX have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code, paying close attention to experimentally identified levels and extending existing calculations to higher energy levels. For lower levels, R-matrix collisional excitation rates from earlier work have been used. Significant emission is predicted by these calculations in the 5f-3d transitions, which will impact analysis of Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations using the 94 A filter.

  17. The Bianchi IX model in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Date, Ghanashyam; Hossain, Golam Mortuza

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi IX model has been used often to investigate the structure close to singularities of general relativity. Its classical chaos is expected to have, via the BKL scenario, implications even for the approach to general inhomogeneous singularities. Thus, it is a popular model to test consequences of modifications to general relativity suggested by quantum theories of gravity. This paper presents a detailed proof that modifications coming from loop quantum gravity lead to a non-chaotic effective behaviour. The way this is realized, independently of quantization ambiguities, suggests a new look at initial and final singularities

  18. Effect of IX dosing on polypropylene and PVDF membrane fouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Darli Theint

    2013-07-01

    The performance of ion exchange (IX) resin for organics removal from wastewater was assessed using advanced characterisation techniques for varying doses of IX. Organic characterisation using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence spectroscopy (Method A), and UV254, organic carbon and organic nitrogen detectors (Method B), was undertaken on wastewater before and after magnetic IX treatment. Results showed partial removal of the biopolymer fraction at high IX doses. With increasing concentration of IX, evidence for nitrogen-containing compounds such as proteins and amino acids disappeared from the LC-OND chromatogram, complementary to the fluorescence response. A greater fluorescence response of tryptophan-like proteins (278nm/343nm) for low IX concentrations was consistent with aggregation of tryptophan-like compounds into larger aggregates, either by self-aggregation or with polysaccharides. Recycling of IX resin through multiple adsorption steps without regeneration maintained the high level of humics removal but there was no continued removal of biopolymer. Subsequent membrane filtration of the IX treated waters resulted in complex fouling trends. Filtration tests with either polypropylene (PP) or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher rates of initial fouling following treatment with high IX doses (10mL/L) compared to filtration of untreated water, while treatment with lower IX doses resulted in decreased fouling rates relative to the untreated water. However, at longer filtration times the rate of fouling of IX treated waters was lower than untreated water and the relative fouling rates corresponded to the amount of biopolymer material in the feed. It was proposed that the mode of fouling changed from pore constriction during the initial filtration period to filter cake build up at longer filtration times. The organic composition strongly influenced the rate of fouling during the initial filtration period due to

  19. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  20. Comparison of USMA Graduates from the Class of 1950 with Graduates from Other Colleges on Selected Variables (A Product Appraisal Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Richard P.

    The responses of USMA graduates from the Class of 1950 are compared with those of graduates from civilian colleges on a number of topics of current interest. Most of the topics dealt with many of the goals of education which are obtainable and observable only in adult life. The questionnaire that was used consisted of seven major sections:…

  1. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN MEDIA INTERAKTIF DISERTAI LKS TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR IPA PADA KELAS IX SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Angreni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to reveal the difference between learning achievement of the students involving taught by using media interactive Compact Disk (CD media and worksheet and interactive compact disk (CD media and those taught by using conventional media. This was a quasi-experiment research. The population of this research was class IX of SMP Negeri 5 Kerinci. The researcher then chose class IXC as the experimental class I taught by using interactive CD media with a worksheet, class IXD as the experimental class II taught by using media interactive CD media, and class IXE as the control class taught by using conventional method. The data it was analyzed by using One Way ANOVA and Post hoc Tukey HSD. The results of One Way ANOVA test is Fcalculated (13,76>Ftable (3,45. Based on the hypothesis acceptance criteria, if Fcalculated >Ftable, HI was accepted. After analyzing the data by using Way ANOVA, the data then was tested by using Post hoc Tukey HSD, and the result were: the result of te study suggested taught by using media interactive Compact Disk (CD media and worksheet and interactive compact disk (CD media had significant effect on the learning outcome, which means media interactive Compact Disk (CD media and worksheet and interactive compact disk (CD media had positive effect on the biology learning outcome.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan hasil belajar peserta didik dengan menggunakan media CD interaktif disertai LKS dan media CD interaktif. Jenis penelitian adalah eksperimen semu. Sampel penelitian siswa kelas IXC sebagai eksperimen I, sedangkan siswa kelas IXD sebagai eksperimen II dan siswa kelas IXE sebagai kontrol Analisis data menggunakan uji Anova satu arah dan dilanjutkan dengan uji lanjutan (Post hoc Tuket HSD. Hasil penelitian uji Anova Satu Arah adalah hasil belajar  Fhitung (13,76 > Ftabel (3,45. Berdasarkan kriteria penerimaan hipotesis jika Fhitung > Ftabel, maka H1 diterima. Dengan demikian dapat

  2. 5-ALA/PpIX fluorescence detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Vladimirov, Borislav; Terziev, Ivan; Ivanova, Radina; Avramov, Latchezar

    2009-07-01

    In the recent study delta-ALA/PpIX is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus, stomach and colon. ALA is administered per os six to eight (depending on the lesion location) hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built for the LED to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. The fluorescence detected from tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Spectral features observed during endoscopic investigations could be distinct as the next regions: 450-630 nm region, where tissue autofluorescence is observed; 630-710 nm region, where fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced; 530-580 nm region, where minima in the autofluorescence signal are observed, related to re-absorption of oxy-hemoglobin in this spectral area. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence spectra are used to develop simple but effective algorithm, based on dimensionless ratio of the signals at 560 and 635 nm, for differentiation of normal/abnormal gastrointestinal tissues. Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  3. A Place on the Team: The Triumph and Tragedy of Title IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Welch

    2006-01-01

    "A Place on the Team" is the inside story of how Title IX revolutionized American sports. The federal law guaranteeing women's rights in education, Title IX opened gymnasiums and playing fields to millions of young women previously locked out. Journalist Welch Suggs chronicles both the law's successes and failures-the exciting…

  4. Why, What and Where To? Title IX, Educational Amendment of 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Miller, Mitzi

    Three years after Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 became law, the U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare provided regulations for the implementation of Title IX. This report reviews the implications of these regulations as well as several of the court cases in which discrimination on the basis of sex has been declared…

  5. The feasibility of using concentrates containing factor IX for continuous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, S; Gitel, S; Zivelin, A; Katsarou, O; Mandalaki, T; Varon, D; Martinowitz, U

    1995-04-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of continuous infusion of undiluted factor IX (F IX) over several days using minipumps. The stabilities of seven different reconstituted F IX products were substantially better than those declared by the manufacturers. Several concentrates maintained factor activities 80% of baseline for the entire period of 4 weeks at 4-8d̀C as did one product at 20-23d̀A. At 37d̀C the latter concentrate was stable for at least 1 week. The stability seemed to correlate with the purity of the product. Analysis of two prothrombin comples concentrates by gel electrophoresis demonstrated degradation of prothrombin to prethrombin-1 and fragment 1 at 37d̀C and in one of the concentrates also at 20-23d̀C. In two F IX concentrates the corresponding analysis did not reveal any degradation. Four patients were treated with continuous infusion with a pure F IX concentrate (Mononine™, Armour) after surgery or for serious haemorrhage (two each) with good haemostatic effect, an initial progressive decrease of the F IX clearance, and no side-effects. Continuous infusion with F IX, using a minipump and undiluted reconstituted factor, is therefore feasible and effective, and can be conveniently prepared for several days at a time. Pure F IX products are more stable and probably safer for this purpose.

  6. An update on anticancer drug development and delivery targeting carbonic anhydrase IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Kazokaitė

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX is up-regulated in many types of solid tumors in humans under hypoxic and acidic microenvironment. Inhibition of CA IX enzymatic activity with selective inhibitors, antibodies or labeled probes has been shown to reverse the acidic environment of solid tumors and reduce the tumor growth establishing the significant role of CA IX in tumorigenesis. Thus, the development of potent antitumor drugs targeting CA IX with minimal toxic effects is important for the target-specific tumor therapy. Recently, several promising antitumor agents against CA IX have been developed to treat certain types of cancers in combination with radiation and chemotherapy. Here we review the inhibition of CA IX by small molecule compounds and monoclonal antibodies. The methods of enzymatic assays, biophysical methods, animal models including zebrafish and Xenopus oocytes, and techniques of diagnostic imaging to detect hypoxic tumors using CA IX-targeted conjugates are discussed with the aim to overview the recent progress related to novel therapeutic agents that target CA IX in hypoxic tumors.

  7. On the role of type IX collagen in the extracellular matrix of cartilage: type IX collagen is localized to intersections of collagen fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The tissue distribution of type II and type IX collagen in 17-d-old chicken embryo was studied by immunofluorescence using polyclonal antibodies against type II collagen and a peptic fragment of type IX collagen (HMW), respectively. Both proteins were found only in cartilage where they were co-distributed. They occurred uniformly throughout the extracellular matrix, i.e., without distinction between pericellular, territorial, and interterritorial matrices. Tissues that undergo endochondral bo...

  8. 4p-5s transitions in YVII, VIII, ZrVIII, IX, NbIX, X and MoX, XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimullah, K.; Chaghtai, M.S.Z.; Khatoon, S.

    1976-01-01

    The spectra of Y VII, VIII, Zr VIII, IX, Nb X and Mo X, XI are studied for the first time and the 1971 analysis of Nb IX is improved. By analyses of the transitions 4s 2 4psup(k)-4s 2 4psup(k-1)5s all the levels of the configurations 4p 3 , 4p 2 5s, 4p 2 and 4p5s are established in the spectra concerned. (Auth.)

  9. Functional consequences of an arginine180 to glutamine mutation in factor IX Hilo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, D M; McCord, D M; Huang, M N; High, K A; Lundblad, R L; Kasper, C K; Roberts, H R

    1989-05-01

    Factor IX Hilo is a variant factor IX molecule that has no detectable coagulant activity. The defect in factor IX Hilo arises from a point mutation in the gene such that in the protein Arg180 is converted to a Gln. Activation of factor IX Hilo by factor Xla was monitored using the fluorescent active site probe p-aminobenzamidine. Normal factor IX showed complete activation in one hour as determined by measuring the increase in fluorescence when p-aminobenzamidine bound to activated factor IX. Factor IX Hilo showed no increase in fluorescence even after 24 hours, indicating that the active site was not exposed. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that factor IX Hilo was cleaved to a light chain plus a larger peptide with a molecular weight equivalent to a heavy chain covalently linked to an activation peptide. Amino terminal amino acid sequencing of factor IX Hilo cleaved by factor Xla showed cleavage only at Arg145-Ala146, indicating that the Gln180-Val181 bond was not cleaved and that the active site was thus not exposed. The presence of factor IX Hilo in patient plasma was responsible for the patient having a very long ox brain prothrombin time characteristic of severe hemophilia Bm. Patient plasma had an ox brain prothrombin time of 100 seconds using a Thrombotest kit, significantly prolonged over the normal control value of 45 seconds. When factor IX Hilo was depleted from patient plasma using an immunoaffinity column, the ox brain prothrombin time decreased to 41 seconds. When factor IX Hilo was added back to depleted patient plasma, to normal plasma depleted of factor IX by the same affinity column, or to plasma from a CRM- hemophilia B patient, the ox brain prothrombin time was significantly prolonged. We conclude that the Arg180 to Gln mutation in factor IX Hilo results in a molecule that cannot be activated by factor Xla. Further, our data suggest that the mutation results in a molecule that interacts with components of the extrinsic pathway to give

  10. Translation norms for English and Spanish: The role of lexical variables, word class, and L2 proficiency in negotiating translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; MacWhinney, Brian; Kroll, Judith F.

    2014-01-01

    We present a set of translation norms for 670 English and 760 Spanish nouns, verbs and class ambiguous items that varied in their lexical properties in both languages, collected from 80 bilingual participants. Half of the words in each language received more than a single translation across participants. Cue word frequency and imageability were both negatively correlated with number of translations. Word class predicted number of translations: Nouns had fewer translations than did verbs, which had fewer translations than class-ambiguous items. The translation probability of specific responses was positively correlated with target word frequency and imageability, and with its form overlap with the cue word. Translation choice was modulated by L2 proficiency: Less proficient bilinguals tended to produce lower probability translations than more proficient bilinguals, but only in forward translation, from L1 to L2. These findings highlight the importance of translation ambiguity as a factor influencing bilingual representation and performance. The norms can also provide an important resource to assist researchers in the selection of experimental materials for studies of bilingual and monolingual language performance. These norms may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:18183923

  11. Molecular and electronic structure of thin films of protoporphyrin(IX)Fe(III)Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Shelly R.; White, Henry S.

    1991-11-01

    Electrochemical, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and tunneling spectroscopy studies of the molecular and electronic properties of thin films of protoporphyrin(IX)Fe(III)Cl (abbreviated as PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes are reported. PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl films are prepared by two different methods: (1) adsorption, yielding an electrochemically-active film, and (2) irreversible electrooxidative polymerization, yielding an electrochemically-inactive film. STM images, in conjunction with electro-chemical results, indicate that adsorption of PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl from aqueous solutions onto freshly cleaved HOPG results in a film comprised of molecular aggregates. In contrast, films prepared by irreversible electrooxidative polymerization of PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl have a denser, highly structured morphology, including what appear to be small pinholes (approx. 50A diameter) in an otherwise continuous film.

  12. Lansoprazole and carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors sinergize against human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Cristina; Lugini, Luana; Marino, Maria Lucia; Carta, Fabrizio; Iessi, Elisabetta; Azzarito, Tommaso; Supuran, Claudiu T; Fais, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) reduce tumor acidity and therefore resistance of tumors to drugs. Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CA IX) inhibitors have proven to be effective against tumors, while tumor acidity might impair their full effectiveness. To analyze the effect of PPI/CA IX inhibitors combined treatment against human melanoma cells. The combination of Lansoprazole (LAN) and CA IX inhibitors (FC9-399A and S4) has been investigated in terms of cell proliferation inhibition and cell death in human melanoma cells. The combination of these inhibitors was more effective than the single treatments in both inhibiting cell proliferation and in inducing cell death in human melanoma cells. These results represent the first successful attempt in combining two different proton exchanger inhibitors. This is the first evidence on the effectiveness of a new approach against tumors based on the combination of PPI and CA IX inhibitors, thus providing an alternative strategy against tumors.

  13. The importance of protoporphyrin IX efflux for ALA-PDT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanetto, M C; Imasato, H; Perussi, J R

    2009-01-01

    One of the major advances in PDT is the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to induce the production of an endogenous photosensitizer inside the cells using intracellular enzymatic pathways. ALA is the first intermediate in heme biosynthesis and a precursor of the protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). When activated by light, this efficient photosensitizer accumulated in the target cells can produce cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to find the best conditions for cell killing using ALA to temporarily increase the concentration of PpIX in two cell lines. It was shown that a considerable efflux of synthesized PpIX occurs. Since this efflux is time-dependent, it is essential to know the optimum time for irradiation after ALA administration. So, the efflux of PpIX from the cells is an important parameter to be considered for ALA-PDT dosimetry

  14. 19.-25. IX toimub Rüütelkonna hoones Kumu pärlite nädal...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    23. IX kõneleb Anu Allikvee teemal "Eestlane baltisaksa kunstnike vaatepiiris"; 24. IX tutvustab Mai Levin Eugen Dückeri maale, 25. IX Ene Lamp Konrad Mäge. Vt. ka lk. 24 Tähtede nädal 26. IX-2. X - kohtumisõhtutel esinevad Marika ja Heinz Valk, Jüri Kuuskemaa, Sirje Helme, Pekka Vapaavuori, Inge Teder, Rain Lõhmus

  15. Inactivation of Dengue and Yellow Fever viruses by heme, cobalt-protoporphyrin IX and tin-protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção-Miranda, I; Cruz-Oliveira, C; Neris, R L S; Figueiredo, C M; Pereira, L P S; Rodrigues, D; Araujo, D F F; Da Poian, A T; Bozza, M T

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of heme, cobalt-protoporphyrin IX and tin-protoporphyrin IX (CoPPIX and SnPPIX), macrocyclic structures composed by a tetrapyrrole ring with a central metallic ion, on Dengue Virus (DENV) and Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) infection. Treatment of HepG2 cells with heme, CoPPIX and SnPPIX after DENV infection reduced infectious particles without affecting viral RNA contents in infected cells. The reduction of viral load occurs only with the direct contact of DENV with porphyrins, suggesting a direct effect on viral particles. Previously incubation of DENV and YFV with heme, CoPPIX and SnPPIX resulted in viral particles inactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Biliverdin, a noncyclical porphyrin, was unable to inactivate the viruses tested. Infection of HepG2 cells with porphyrin-pretreated DENV2 results in a reduced or abolished viral protein synthesis, RNA replication and cell death. Treatment of HepG2 or THP-1 cell lineage with heme or CoPPIX after DENV infection with a very low MOI resulted in a decreased DENV replication and protection from death. Heme, CoPPIX and SnPPIX possess a marked ability to inactivate DENV and YFV, impairing its ability to infect and induce cytopathic effects on target cells. These results open the possibility of therapeutic application of porphyrins or their use as models to design new antiviral drugs against DENV and YFV. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. In vitro characterization of high purity factor IX concentrates for the treatment of hemophilia B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limentani, S A; Gowell, K P; Deitcher, S R

    1995-04-01

    This study employed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and immunoblotting to assess the purity of seven high purity factor IX concentrates: Aimafix (Aima), AlphaNine-SD (Alpha Therapeutic), Factor IX VHP (Biotransfusion), Immunine (Immuno), Mononine (Armour Pharmaceutical), Nanotiv (Kabi Pharmacia), and 9MC (Blood Products Laboratory). The mean specific activity of these products ranged from 68 U factor IX/mg (Aimafix) to 246 U factor IX/mg (Mononine). SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the highest purity product, Mononine, had a single contaminating band under non-reducing conditions. Two additional bands were detected when this product was analyzed under reducing conditions. All other products had multiple contaminating bands that were more apparent under reducing than non-reducing conditions. The immunoblot for factor IX showed a dominant factor IX band for all products. In addition, visible light chain of factor IX was detected for AlphaNine-SD, Factor IX VHP, Immunine, Mononine, Nanotiv, and 9MC, suggesting that the factor IX in these products had undergone partial activation to factor IXa. Another contaminating band was visible at 49,500 for all of the products except 9MC. In addition to this band, high molecular weight contaminants were apparent for some products, most notably AlphaNine-SD. The identity of these bands is unknown. Immunoblotting failed to demonstrate factor VII as a contaminant of any of the high purity products, although factor VIIa could be detected in some lots of Immunine, Nanotiv, and 9MC by a clot-based assay. Factor X contaminated Aimafix, AlphaNine-SD, Factor IX VHP, Immunine, Nanotiv, and 9MC, but activation products of factor X were not detected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Increase in protoporphyrin IX after 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy is due to local re-synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Henriëtte S.; Kruijt, Bastiaan; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angélique; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2007-01-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence that is bleached during aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) increases again in time after treatment. In the present study we investigated if this increase in PpIX fluorescence after illumination is the result of local re-synthesis or of

  18. Induction of protoporphyrin IX by aminolaevulinic acid in actinic keratosis, psoriasis and normal skin: preferential porphyrin enrichment in differentiated cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, T.; Laarhoven, A.I.M. van; Staassen, A.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Erp, P.E.J. van; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In photodynamic therapy the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is synthesized following topical application of aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). However, different tissues have distinct PpIX-accumulating properties, due to differences in penetration of ALA through the stratum

  19. Validation of the protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique for mitochondrial oxygen measurements in the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Harms (Floor A.); S.I.A. Bodmer (Sander I. A.); N.J.H. Raat (Nicolaas); R.J. Stolker (Robert); E.G. Mik (Egbert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMitochondrial oxygen tension can be measured in vivo by means of oxygen-dependent quenching of delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Here we demonstrate that mitochondrial PO2 (mitoPO2) can be measured in the skin of a rat after topical application of the PpIX precursor

  20. Chemical fractionations in meteorites. IX. C3 chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, E; Higuchi, H; Ganapathy, R; Morgan, J W [Chicago Univ., Ill. (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.

    1976-09-01

    Four C3V chondrites (Grosnaja, Kaba, Mokoia, Vigarano) and three C30 chondrites (Felic, Kainsaz, and Lance) were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for 17 trace elements. Both classes show a typical chondritic step pattern, reflecting loss of volatiles during chondrule formation. Elements condensing above 1300 K (U, Re, Ir, Ni) are present in essentially C1 chondrite proportions, while moderately volatile elements condensing between 1300 K and 800 K (Ge, Rb, Ag) are depleted by a factor of 0.44. However, elements condensing below 700 K (S, Cs, Bi, Tl, Br, Se, Te, In, Cd) are depleted to a still greater degree, and more so in the Ornans subclass (factor of 0.24, except Cd 0.007) than in the Vigarano subclass (factor of 0.29). This additional depletion may be due to a slight (less than 3-fold) dust-gas fractionation, by settling of dust to the median plane of the solar nebula. Among other chondrite classes, ordinary chondrites show a similar depletion, but C2 chondrites do not. Possibly the undepleted meteorites formed in one of the convection zones of the nebula predicted by Cameron and Pine, whereas the depleted meteorites formed in a quiescent region. The condensation of chalocophile elements as a function of H/sub 2/S partial pressure is discussed, in an attempt to explain the drastic difference in Cd abundance between the two subclasses. It appears that the H/sub 2/S/H/sub 2/ ratio is the key variable. C30's seem to have condensed in a region where enough metallic Fe was present to buffer the H/sub 2/S pressure, while C3V's condensed in a more oxidized region, where H/sub 2/S was in excess. Accretion temperatures, for an assumed nebular pressure of 10/sup -5/ atm, were between 415 and 430 K for C30's and less than 440 K for CeV's.

  1. PROFIL PERTANYAAN SISWA TUNANETRA KELAS IX SMPLB YKAB SURAKARTA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN MATEMATIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khoiriyah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thinking can be drilled to the student by developing question skill during teaching process. Personal life quality is determined from question quality; the more qualified a question the more success a person in life. Therefore, this study analyzed the students question to find out the students question quality. The subject of this study is IX class of SMPLB YKAB students Surakarta. The data was found by observation with handy cam. The data analysis was conducted through data reduction, data presentation and conclusion. From the data analysis was found the result that 89 questions from the students consist of 46 (51, 68 % questions that consist of C1, 2 elements (2,25 % questions that consist of C2, 25 elements (28,09 % questions that consist of C4 elements. Based on the finding of the study could be conclude that majority of visual impaired students in low categorize because of having C1, C2, and C3 elements.Keywords : visual impaired students question, mathematics learning.

  2. THE IX EUROPEAN FORUM ON ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES. A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya V Seredavkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief review of the proceedings of the IX European Forum on antiphospholipid antibodies held in May 2013 in Krakow (Poland. The aim of the Forum is to coordinate multicenter projects focused on antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, both clinical and fundamental research, based on cooperation between the European countries. The main purpose is to stimulate research into all aspects of aPL, to facilitate the exchange of information between institutions, and to involve many centers in different countries into scientific research on this issue. The issues of standardization of the diagnostic criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, primarily serological markers (their specificity, sensitivity and correlation with clinical manifestations, as well as non-criterial manifestations of APS, were considered at the meeting. In addition, the therapy problems were discussed.

  3. The order of chaos on a Bianch IX cosmological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugalho, H; da Silva, A R; Ramos, J S

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the chaotic behavior that can arise on a type-IX cosmological model using methods from dynamic systems theory and symbolic dynamics. Specifically, instead of the Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifschitz model, we use the iterates of a monotonously increasing map of the circle with a discontinuity, and for the Hamiltonian dynamics of Misner's Mixmaster model we introduce the iterates of a noninvertible map. An equivalence between these two models can easily be brought upon by translating them in symbolic dynamical terms. The resulting symbolic orbits can be inserted in an ordered tree structure set, and so we can present an effective counting and referentation of all period orbits.

  4. Cutting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Provides critical reviews of three books, "The Political Economy of Social Class", "Ethnicity: Theory and Experience," and "Ethnicity in the United States," focusing on the political economy of social class and ethnicity. (Author/AM)

  5. Syntheses of carbon-13 labeled protoporphyrin-IX for spectroscopic studies of heme proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinari, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The development of various methodologies for synthesis of selectively tailored protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester are presented. The iron(II) complex of protoporphyrin-IX is the heme, the prosthetic group for Hb, Mb, cytochromes and peroxidases. The significance of this research is to provide direct means to establish definitive carbon-13 NMR assignments of heme proteins in order to study not only the structure-function relationships, but also protein dynamics of these vital systems. Carbon-13 labeling at the beta-vinyl position was first achieved by ozonolysis of protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester. Column LC method were used to first isolate 2,4-diformyldeuteroporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester. Concomitantly, monofomyl-monovinyl porphyrins were obtained as a mixture of two isomers. This mixture was separated by MPLC or prep HPLC to afford the isomerically pure products, Spirographis porphyrin dimethyl ester and Iso-Spirographis porphyrin dimethyl ester. A Wittig reaction to each of these porphyrins with 13 C-methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide gave 2,4-bis[ 13 C 2 ]-vinyl protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, 2-[ 13 C 2 ]-vinyl protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, and the 4-[ 13 C 2 ]-vinyl protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, respectively

  6. Evaluation of Sonochemiluminescence in a Phantom in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX Conjugated to Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanei, A.; Sazgarnia, A.; Hassanzadeh-Kayyat, M.; Eshghi, H.; Soudmand, S.; Attaran Kakhki, N.

    2012-01-01

    When a liquid is irradiated with high-intensity and low-frequency ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs and there are some methods to determine and quantify this phenomenon. The existing methods for performing these experiments include sonochemiluminescence and chemical dosimetric methods. The particles in a liquid decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. In this study, a new nano conjugate made up of Protoporphyrin IX and gold nanoparticles, i.e., Au-PpIX was used to provide nucleation sites for cavitation. The nonradiative relaxation time of PpIX in the presence of GNPs is longer than the similar time for PpIX without GNPs. This effect can be used in medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The acoustic cavitation activity was investigated studying integrated sonochemiluminescence signal in the wavelength range of 400-500 nm in polyacrylamide gel phantom containing luminol using a cooled CCD spectrometer at different intensities of 1 MHz ultrasound. In order to confirm these results, a chemical dosimetric method was utilized, too. sonochemiluminescence signal level in gel phantom containing Au-PpIX was higher than the other phantoms. These results have been confirmed by the chemical dosimetric data. This finding can be related to the existence of PpIX as a sensitizer and GNPs as cavitation nuclei. In other words, nanoparticles have acted as the sites for cavitation and have increased the cavitation rate. Another theory is that activation of PpIX has produced more free radicals and has enhanced the sonochemiluminescence signal level.

  7. The H IX galaxy survey - II. H I kinematics of H I eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-05-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected H I content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these H I eXtreme (H IX) galaxies to be so H I-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed H IX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in H IX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of H IX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) H IX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most H IX galaxies live in higher spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that H IX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the H IX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of H IX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array through the large program C 2705.

  8. DNA Damage and Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Protoporphyrin IX in Sarcoma 180 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyrin derivatives have been widely used in photodynamic therapy as effective sensitizers. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, a well-known hematoporphyrin derivative component, shows great potential to enhance light induced tumor cell damage. However, PpIX alone could also exert anti-tumor effects. The mechanisms underlying those direct effects are incompletely understood. This study thus investigated the putative mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effects of PpIX on sarcoma 180 (S180 cells. Methods: S180 cells were treated with different concentrations of PpIX. Following the treatment, cell viability was evaluated by the 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT assay; Disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by flow cytometry; The trans-location of apoptosis inducer factor (AIF from mitochondria to nucleus was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy; DNA damage was detected by single cell gel electrophoresis; Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by DNA content with flow cytometry; Cell cycle associated proteins were detected by western blotting. Results: PpIX (≥ 1 µg/ml significantly inhibited proliferation and reduced viability of S180 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PpIX rapidly and significantly triggered mitochondrial membrane depolarization, AIF (apoptosis inducer factor translocation from mitochondria to nucleus and DNA damage, effects partially relieved by the specific inhibitor of MPTP (mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Furthermore, S phase arrest and upregulation of the related proteins of P53 and P21 were observed following 12 and 24 h PpIX exposure. Conclusion: PpIX could inhibit tumor cell proliferation by induction of DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in the S phase.

  9. Kinetics of the Factor XIa catalyzed activation of human blood coagulation Factor IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.N.; Bradford, H.; Sinha, D.; Piperno, J.R.; Tuszynski, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of activation of human Factor IX by human Factor XIa was studied by measuring the release of a trichloroacetic acid-soluble tritium-labeled activation peptide from Factor IX. Initial rates of trichloroacetic acid-soluble 3 H-release were linear over 10-30 min of incubation of Factor IX (88 nM) with CaCl 2 (5 mM) and with pure (greater than 98%) Factor XIa (0.06-1.3 nM), which was prepared by incubating human Factor XI with bovine Factor XIIa. Release of 3 H preceded the appearance of Factor IXa activity, and the percentage of 3 H released remained constant when the mole fraction of 3 H-labeled and unlabeled Factor IX was varied and the total Factor IX concentration remained constant. A linear correlation (r greater than 0.98, P less than 0.001) was observed between initial rates of 3 H-release and the concentration of Factor XIa, measured by chromogenic assay and by radioimmunoassay and added at a Factor IX:Factor XIa molar ratio of 70-5,600. Kinetic parameters, determined by Lineweaver-Burk analysis, include K/sub m/ (0.49 microM) of about five- to sixfold higher than the plasma Factor IX concentration, which could therefore regulate the reaction. The catalytic constant (k/sub cat/) (7.7/s) is approximately 20-50 times higher than that reported by Zur and Nemerson for Factor IX activation by Factor VIIa plus tissue factor. Therefore, depending on the relative amounts of Factor XIa and Factor VIIa generated in vivo and other factors which may influence reaction rates, these kinetic parameters provide part of the information required for assessing the relative contributions of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways to Factor IX activation, and suggest that the Factor XIa catalyzed reaction is physiologically significant

  10. Prevention and Reversal of Antibody Responses Against Factor IX in Gene Therapy for Hemophilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushrusha eNayak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular (IM administration of an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector represents a simple and safe method of gene transfer for treatment of the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia B (factor IX, F.IX, deficiency. However, the approach is hampered by an increased risk of immune responses against F.IX. Previously, we demonstrated that the drug cocktail of immune suppressants rapamycin, IL-10, and a specific peptide (encoding a dominant CD4+ T cell epitope caused an induction of regulatory T cells (Treg with a concomitant apoptosis of antigen-specific effector T cells (J. Thromb. Haemost. 7:1523, 2009. This protocol was effective in preventing inhibitory antibody formation against human F.IX (hF.IX in muscle gene transfer to C3H/HeJ hemophilia B mice (with targeted F9 gene deletion. Here, we show that this protocol can also be used to reverse inhibitor formation. IM injection of AAV1-hF.IX vector resulted in inhibitors of on average 8-10 BU within 1 month. Subsequent treatment with the tolerogenic cocktail accomplished a rapid reduction of hF.IX-specific antibodies to <2 BU, which lasted for >4.5 months. Systemic hF.IX expression increased from undetectable to >200 ng/ml, and coagulation times improved. In addition, we developed an alternative prophylactic protocol against inhibitor formation that did not require knowledge of T cell epitopes, consisting of daily oral administration of rapamycin for 1-month combined with frequent, low-dose intravenous injection of hF.IX protein. Experiments in T cell receptor transgenic mice showed that the route and dosing schedule of drug administration substantially affected Treg induction. When combined with intravenous antigen administration, oral delivery of rapamycin had to be performed daily in order to induce Treg, which were suppressive and phenotypically comparable to natural Treg.

  11. Modulation of the endogenous production of protoporphyrin IX in a yeast-based model organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joniová, Jaroslava; Gerelli, Emmanuel; Wagnières, Georges

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess conditions at which simple yeast-based model organism produces maximal levels of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after an exogenous administration of its precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), and the ferrous-ion chelator 2,2'-bipyridyl. We observed that the fluorescing porphyrin, produced after these administrations, was likely to be PpIX since fluorescence spectroscopy of the porphyrins produced endogenously in yeast cells resembles that of PpIX in DMSO and in vivo in the chick's chorioallantoic membrane model. Also, fluorescence lifetimes of these porphyrins are very similar to that of PpIX in vitro and in vivo. This suggests that PpIX is the main fluorescent compound produced by yeast in our conditions. We found that the conditions at which yeast produces the maximal PpIX were a synchronous administration of 5 μM ALA and 1 mM 2,2'-bipyridyl for yeast incubated in aqueous glucose and 1 mM 2,2'-bipyridyl in the presence of YPD medium. Such a simple model is of high interest to study basic mechanisms involved in the mitochondrial respiration since PpIX, which is produced in this organelle, can be used as an oxygen sensor, or to perform photodynamic therapy and photodiagnosis. Since the absorption and scattering coefficients of this model are much smaller than those of soft tissues over the visible part of the spectrum, a version of this model loaded with appropriated amounts of light absorbing and scattering particles could be designed as a phantom to mimic tumors containing PpIX, a useful tool to optimize certain cancer photodetection set-ups.

  12. [Rheumatoid arthritis among mapuche aborigines. A 16 years experience in the IX Region of the Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliski, S; Bustos, L; Artigas, C; Alarcón, C; Vega, M A; Cárdenas, C

    2001-03-01

    Mapuche, Chilean natives, represent approximately 9.8% of Chilean population and in the IX region of the country, they account for 18.4% of population over 15 years old. They preserve some socio-cultural characteristics that make them different to the rest of the population. To describe the epidemiological characteristics rheumatoid arthritis among Mapuche natives. Retrospective review of patients of Mapuche origin with rheumatoid arthritis, seen at Temuco Hospital between 1980 and 1996. Among 308 cases gathered, only 106 (93 women, aged 55 +/- 10 years old) complied with 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. The disease began between 29 and 52 years old in 73% of patients and the mean delay in diagnosis was 4.4 years. At diagnosis, 99% had symmetric poliarthritis, 28.3% had either fatigue, fever or weight loss, and 46.9% were in class III or in class IV of ACR-1991. Fifty three percent of patients developed Sicca syndrome, 36% developed nodules, 23% developed Raynaud phenomenon, 11% developed pulmonary involvement, 7% developed vasculitis, 5% developed neurological manifestations and 19% developed ophthalmologic involvement. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 78% and 73% had erosions. HLA DR4 was (+) in 60% of 30 patients. Thirty percent required 3 or more disease modifying drugs and prednisone over 10 mg/day. There was no correlation between functional capacity and several other features of the disease. Mapuche rheumatoid arthritis patients are detected late and have a poor functional capacity at the time of diagnosis. They also have a higher proportion of extraarticular manifestations, more erosions and require more aggressive treatments.

  13. Increased protoporphyrin IX accumulation does not improve the effect of photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Heerfordt, I M; Wiegell, S R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) is highly effective for treating actinic keratosis (AK) on the face/scalp, but less effective on the extremities. Insufficient accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) may cause these inferior efficacy rates. However...... (P = 0·001 and P = 0·002, respectively). However, the median total clearance rates did not improve accordingly: 3hC+ (55·0%), 21hC- (55·0%) and 21hC+ (53·6%). Conversely, insufficient PpIX accumulation in the 3hC- regimen led to a significantly lower clearance rate (33·3%) than the other regimens (P...

  14. Evaluation of the potential inhibitor of Ix (Pp-Ix) protoporphyrin of the genetic damage induced by gamma rays administered to different dose reasons in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores A, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage in DNA directly or indirectly by free radicals (Rl), characterized by unstable and highly reactive. To avoid damage by Rl the cell has endogenous antioxidants such as Sod, Cat, GSH or exogenous as some vitamins, but if with these mechanisms does not reach the cell homeostasis, the consequence may be the generation of chronic-disease degenerative such as cancer. This study was conducted in order to test the inhibitory role of Rl protoporphyrin Ix (Pp-Ix), induced by 20 Gy of gamma rays administered at different dose ratios using the assay of somatic mutation and recombination in the Drosophila wing. The results indicated that 20 Gy delivered at a rate of low dose (6.659 Gy/h), caused elevated frequencies of genetic damage (p <0.001), compared with those that induced a high dose reason (1111.42 Gy/h) in larvae of 48 h old. The difference is probably due to an indirect damage by Rl; when this hypothesis was approved with the possible inhibitor role of Pp-Ix (0.69 m M), damage was increased with the two reasons of tested doses. This result may be due to: 1) the Pp-Ix is not a good inhibitor of Rl, 2) the difference in the frequency of mutation found with both dose reasons, not due to Rl so that this compound did not reduce the genetic damage, and 3) that Pp-Ix acts as pro oxidant. (Author)

  15. Class prediction for high-dimensional class-imbalanced data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusa Lara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of class prediction studies is to develop rules to accurately predict the class membership of new samples. The rules are derived using the values of the variables available for each subject: the main characteristic of high-dimensional data is that the number of variables greatly exceeds the number of samples. Frequently the classifiers are developed using class-imbalanced data, i.e., data sets where the number of samples in each class is not equal. Standard classification methods used on class-imbalanced data often produce classifiers that do not accurately predict the minority class; the prediction is biased towards the majority class. In this paper we investigate if the high-dimensionality poses additional challenges when dealing with class-imbalanced prediction. We evaluate the performance of six types of classifiers on class-imbalanced data, using simulated data and a publicly available data set from a breast cancer gene-expression microarray study. We also investigate the effectiveness of some strategies that are available to overcome the effect of class imbalance. Results Our results show that the evaluated classifiers are highly sensitive to class imbalance and that variable selection introduces an additional bias towards classification into the majority class. Most new samples are assigned to the majority class from the training set, unless the difference between the classes is very large. As a consequence, the class-specific predictive accuracies differ considerably. When the class imbalance is not too severe, down-sizing and asymmetric bagging embedding variable selection work well, while over-sampling does not. Variable normalization can further worsen the performance of the classifiers. Conclusions Our results show that matching the prevalence of the classes in training and test set does not guarantee good performance of classifiers and that the problems related to classification with class

  16. LBT Discovery of a Yellow Supergiant Eclipsing Binary in the Dwarf Galaxy Holmberg IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Weisz, D. R.; Baruffolo, A.; Bechtold, J.; Burwitz, V.; De Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Garnavich, P. M.; Giallongo, E.; Hill, J. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Ragazzoni, R.; Speziali, R.; Thompson, D. J.; Wagner, R. M.

    2008-01-01

    In a variability survey of M81 using the Large Binocular Telescope we have discovered a peculiar eclipsing binary (MV ~ - 7.1) in the field of the dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX. It has a period of 271 days, and the light curve is well fit by an overcontact model in which both stars are overflowing their Roche lobes. It is composed of two yellow supergiants (V - Isimeq 1 mag, Teffsimeq 4800 K), rather than the far more common red or blue supergiants. Such systems must be rare. While we failed to find any similar systems in the literature, we did, however, note a second example. The SMC F0 supergiant R47 is a bright (MV ~ - 7.5) periodic variable whose All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) light curve is well fit as a contact binary with a 181 day period. We propose that these systems are the progenitors of supernovae like SN 2004et and SN 2006ov, which appeared to have yellow progenitors. The binary interactions (mass transfer, mass loss) limit the size of the supergiant to give it a higher surface temperature than an isolated star at the same core evolutionary stage. We also discuss the possibility of this variable being a long-period Cepheid. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  17. Pain during photodynamic therapy is associated with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence and fluence rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Skiveren, J.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence, lesion type, lesion preparation and lesion localization. Methods Twenty-six patients with actinic keratoses (AKs) in different localizations and 34 patients with facial acne vulgaris were treated with methyl aminolaevulinate-PDT. Patients with acne were illuminated using......) patients with acne had a pain score of 6 [interquartile range (IQR) 5-7] compared with 8 (IQR 6-10) when using a fluence rate of 68 mW cm(-2) (P = 0.018). After correcting the pain score for PpIX fluorescence no differences in pain scores were found between first and second acne treatment, locations of AK...... lesions or between the two types of lesions. Conclusions Pain during PDT was correlated with the PpIX fluorescence in the treatment area prior to illumination. Pain was reduced using a lower fluence rate during PDT of acne Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  18. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Fuerst, F.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V.; Stern, D. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, A. C.; Parker, M. L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W., E-mail: dwalton@srl.caltech.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the X-ray coverage of this remarkable source up to ∼30 keV. Broadband observations were undertaken at two epochs, between which Holmberg IX X-1 exhibited both flux and strong spectral variability, increasing in luminosity from L {sub X} = (1.90 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} to L {sub X} = (3.35 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. Neither epoch exhibits a spectrum consistent with emission from the standard low/hard accretion state seen in Galactic black hole binaries, which would have been expected if Holmberg IX X-1 harbors a truly massive black hole accreting at substantially sub-Eddington accretion rates. The NuSTAR data confirm that the curvature observed previously in the 3-10 keV bandpass does represent a true spectral cutoff. During each epoch, the spectrum appears to be dominated by two optically thick thermal components, likely associated with an accretion disk. The spectrum also shows some evidence for a nonthermal tail at the highest energies, which may further support this scenario. The available data allow for either of the two thermal components to dominate the spectral evolution, although both scenarios require highly nonstandard behavior for thermal accretion disk emission.

  19. IX - MR Control Chart as a Tool in Assessment of the Cast Iron Properties Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The study offers a statistical assessment of the stability of a technological process of melting and pouring low-carbon grey iron assigned for casting of brake discs. Some specific characteristics were presented that should be taken into consideration when statistical methods are used for technology improvement. The stability of the cast iron melting process was evaluated using data read out from the thermal analysis curve and true data, i.e. the results of spectrometric analysis of the chemical composition and measured values of the mechanical properties. The method for assessment of process stability was discussed on the example of carbon content and Brinell hardness. The examined parameters of the technological process of grey iron melting and casting are independent of each other (the results of carbon content determination in successive melts, the results of hardness measurements, etc.. Therefore, for analysis, the IX - MR type charts were chosen, where single measurements of the selected property (n = 1 serve as a measure of location, while a measure of variability are the, so called, Moving Ranges (MR, which are an absolute value of the difference between the two successive measurements.

  20. Analysis of cell line variation in biochemical production of protoporphyrin IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; Chen, Bin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2006-02-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced via the heme synthesis pathway by the cell following administration of aminolevulinic acid (ALA). ALA synthase, the enzyme that produces ALA in the cell from glycine and succinyl-coenzyme A, is inhibited in a feedback mechanism by heme and thus is the rate limiting enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway. Since ALA is administered systemically, the rate limiting step that naturally exists in the cells is bypassed, however it is currently unclear why cells have different rate limiting steps in the ALA-PpIX synthesis pathway, and more specifically which types of cancer cells are most productive. It has been determined that when the same amount of ALA is administered to a wide panel of cancer cells in vitro that vastly differing amounts of PpIX are produced. The steps for the ALA-PpIX pathway occur in and around the mitochondria of the cell, but interestingly no correlation is seen between PpIX production and mitochondrial content of the cell, following ALA administration. However, total cell area shows positive correlation with PpIX production. Administration of the iron chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (L1) in combination with ALA allows the final step in the heme synthesis pathway, conversion of PpIX to heme, to be delayed and thus increases the detectable amount of PpIX in each cell line. The cell lines that have the lowest PpIX production following administration of ALA alone show the largest increase in production following the combined administration of ALA and L1. PpIX fluorescence is thought to be a measure of cellular activity and the goal of the current study was to determine which cell lines would be the most promising targets for fluorescence detection or monitoring response to therapy. The results indicate that the cells with larger size and larger numbers of mitochondria may be good potential targets for this therapy. While this conclusion may appear obvious, it is not universally true, and cellular specific

  1. Evaluation of Sonochemiluminescence in a Phantom in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX Conjugated to Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shanei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction When a liquid is irradiated with high-intensity and low-frequency ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs and there are some methods to determine and quantify this phenomenon. The existing methods for performing these experiments include sonochemiluminescence (SCL and chemical dosimetric methods. The particles in a liquid decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. In this study, a new nanoconjugate made up of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX and gold nanoparticles (GNP, i.e., Au-PpIX was used to provide nucleation sites for cavitation. The nonradiative relaxation time of PpIX in the presence of GNPs is longer than the similar time for PpIX without GNPs. This effect can be used in medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Materials and Methods The acoustic cavitation activity was investigated studying integrated SCL signal in the wavelength range of 400-500 nm in polyacrylamide gel phantom containing luminol using a cooled CCD spectrometer at different intensities of 1 MHz ultrasound. In order to confirm these results, a chemical dosimetric method was utilized, too. Results SCL signal level in gel phantom containing Au-PpIX was higher than the other phantoms. These results have been confirmed by the chemical dosimetric data. Conclusion This finding can be related to the existence of PpIX as a sensitizer and GNPs as cavitation nuclei. In other words, nanoparticles have acted as the sites for cavitation and have increased the cavitation rate. Another theory is that activation of PpIX has produced more free radicals and has enhanced the SCL signal level.

  2. HIGHLY VARIABLE EXTINCTION AND ACCRETION IN THE JET-DRIVING CLASS I-TYPE YOUNG STAR PTF 10nvg (V2492 Cyg, IRAS 20496+4354)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John M.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Crepp, Justin R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Miller, Adam A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Covey, Kevin R. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 226 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Fischer, William J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    We report extensive new photometry and spectroscopy of the highly variable young stellar object PTF 10nvg (also known as IRAS 20496+4354 and V2492 Cyg), including optical and near-infrared time-series data as well as mid-infrared and millimeter data. Following the previously reported 2010 rise to R{sub PTF} {approx}<13.{sup m}5 and subsequent fade, during 2011 and 2012 the source underwent additional episodes of brightening, followed by several magnitude dimming events including prolonged faint states at R{sub PTF} {approx}> 20{sup m}. The observed high-amplitude variations are largely consistent with extinction changes ({Delta}A{sub V} up to 30 mag) having a {approx}220 day quasi-periodic signal. However, photometry measured when the source was near maximum brightness in mid-2010 as well as in late-2012 does not phase well to this period. Spectral evolution includes not only changes in the spectral slope but also correlated variation in the prominence of TiO/VO/CO bands and atomic line emission, as well as anti-correlated variation in forbidden line emission which, along with H{sub 2}, dominates optical and infrared spectra at faint epochs. Notably, night-to-night variations in several forbidden doublet strengths and ratios are observed. High-dispersion spectra were obtained in a variety of photometric states and reveal time-variable line profiles. Neutral and singly ionized atomic species are likely formed in an accretion flow and/or impact while the origin of zero-velocity atomic Li I {lambda}6707 in emission is unknown. Forbidden lines, including several rare species, exhibit blueshifted emission profiles and likely arise from an outflow/jet. Several of these lines are also seen spatially offset from the continuum source position, presumably in a shocked region of an extended jet. Blueshifted absorption components of the Na I D doublet, K I {lambda}{lambda}7665, 7669 doublet, and the O I 7774 triplet, as well as blueshifted absorption components seen against

  3. Influence of protoporphyrin IX loaded phloroglucinol succinic acid dendrimer in photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. Suresh; Aruna, P.; Ganesan, S.

    2018-03-01

    One of the major problems reported clinically for photosensitizers (PS) in Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is, the cause of side-effects to normal tissue due to dark toxicity. The usefulness of photosensitizers can be made possible by reducing its dark toxicity nature. In such scenario, biocompatible carriers can be used as a drug delivery system to evade the problems that arises while using free (dark toxic) drugs. So in this study, we have developed a nano drug delivery system called Phloroglucinol Succinic acid (PGSA) dendrimer, entrapped a photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) inside the system and investigated whether the photodynamic efficacy of the anionic surface charged dendrimer-PpIX nano formulation is enhanced than achieved by the free PpIX in HeLa cancer cell lines. Moreover, the Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored using 2‧,7‧-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA)- ROS Marker with phase contrast microscopy for the IC50 values of free and dendrimer-PpIX nano formulation. Similarly, the mode of cell death has been confirmed by cell cycle analysis for the same. For the in vitro PDT application, we have used a simple light source (Light Emitting Diode) with a power of 30-50 mW for 20 min irradiation. Hence, in this study we have taken steps to report this anionic drug delivery system is good to consider for the photodynamic therapy applications with the photosensitizer, PpIX which satisfied the prime requirement of PDT.

  4. Effect of Photon Radiations in Semi-Rigid Artificial Tissue Sensitized by Protoporphyrin IX Encapsulated with Silica Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhadmeh, Ghaseb N.; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul; Al-Akhras, M.-Ali H.

    2018-02-01

    This study involves the synthesis of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) encapsulated with Silica Nanoparticles (SiNPs) as an application for Photodynamic therapy. Semi-rigid artificial tissues with optical features similar to human tissue were used as sample materials to ascertain the efficacy of PpIX encapsulated with SiNPs. The disparity in optical characteristics (transmittance, reflectance, scattering, and absorption) of tissues treated with encapsulated PpIX and naked PpIX under light exposure (Intensity at 408 nm ~1.19 mW/cm2) was explored. The optimal exposure times required for naked PpIX and SiNPs encapsulated PpIX to engulf Red Blood Cells (RBCs) in the artificial tissue were subsequently measured. Comparative analysis showed that the encapsulated PpIX has a 91.5 % higher efficacy than naked PpIX. The results prove the applicability of PpIX encapsulated with SiNP on artificial tissue and possible use on human tissue.

  5. Homoclinic chaos in axisymmetric Bianchi IX cosmologies reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, I. Damiao; Stuchi, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of Bianchi IX models with two scale factors A(t) and B(t) is reexamined. The matter content of the model is assumed to be comoving dust plus a positive cosmological constant. We make a complete numerical construction of topological structures present in the phase space of the model, as the center manifold of periodic orbits and the stable and unstable cylinders of orbits that emerge from the center manifold, associated to a saddle-center critical point. We exhibit the homoclinic intersections of the unstable and stable cylinders that produce homoclinic chaos in the models. A=0 is not a singularity of the Hamiltonian dynamics and any truncation of the dynamics at A=0 is bound to a loss of information. We make an explicit construction of a set with a horseshoe structure in the A>0 region, of initial conditions corresponding to initially expanding universes. We show that the dynamics of this set is chaotic even if restricted to the region A>0 and has the Einstein universe configuration as a chaotic scatterer. The result however demands the information of the Hamiltonian dynamics in whole phase space, including the region A<0. This refutes recent claims that no homoclinic chaos is present in the dynamics of the model

  6. Oscillating Bianchi IX universe in Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misonoh, Yosuke; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    We study a vacuum Bianchi IX universe in the context of Horava-Lifshitz gravity. In particular, we focus on the classical dynamics of the universe and analyze how anisotropy changes the history of the universe. For small anisotropy, we find an oscillating universe as well as a bounce universe just as the case of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker spacetime. However, if the initial anisotropy is large, we find the universe which ends up with a big crunch after oscillations if a cosmological constant Λ is zero or negative. For Λ>0, we find a variety of histories of the universe, that is a de Sitter expanding universe after oscillations in addition to the oscillating solution and the previous big crunch solution. This fate of the universe shows sensitive dependence of initial conditions, which is one of the typical properties of a chaotic system. If the initial anisotropy is near the upper bound, we find the universe starting from a big bang and ending up with a big crunch for Λ≤0, and a de Sitter expanding universe starting from a big bang for Λ>0.

  7. Response of planktonic cladocerans (Class: Branchiopoda) to short-term changes in environmental variables in the surface waters of the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Elbée, Jean; Lalanne, Yann; Castège, Iker; Bru, Noelle; D'Amico, Frank

    2014-08-01

    From January 2001 to December 2008, 73 surface plankton samples and 45 vertical profiles of sea temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were collected on a monthly basis from a single sampling station located in the Bay of Biscay (43°37N; 1°43W) (North-East Atlantic). Two types of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indexes were included in the data set and submitted to a Canonical Correspondence Analysis and Spearman non-parametric test. Significant breaks and levels in time series were tested using a data segmentation method. The temperature range varies from 11 °C to 25 °C. It begins to rise from April until August and then decline. Low salinity values occur in mid-spring (36 PSU) in autumn. Dissolved oxygen mean values were around 8 mg/l. In summer, when temperature and salinity are high, surface water layer is always accompanied with a significant deoxygenation, and the process reverses in winter. pH mean values range was 7.78-8.33. Seasonal and inter-annual variations of the two NAO indexes are strongly correlated to one another, but do not correlate with any hydrological or biological variable. Five of the seven cladocerans species which are present in the Bay of Biscay were found in this study. There is a strong pattern in species succession throughout the year: Evadne nordmanni is a vernal species, while Penilia avirostris and Pseudevadne tergestina occur mainly in summer and autumn. Evadne spinifera has a maximum abundance in spring, Podon intermedius in autumn, but they both occur throughout the year. However, for some thirty years, the presence of species has tended to become significantly extended throughout the year. During the 2001-2008 period, there was a noticeable decline and even a disappearance of the categories involved in sexual reproduction as well as those involved in parthenogenesis, in favor of non-breeding individuals.

  8. Interpretation of the possibility of extensive clause IX article 103 of the Federal Constitution by collective protection of procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Oliveira Catani Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the broad interpretation of the rule present in article 103 of the Brazilian Federal Constitution (CF, specifically in section IX, which in its entirety provides an exhaustive list that gives legitimacy to the use of the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality. In this context, which raises doubts to the practicality of having access to courts – specifically for those who have substantial interest in the matter – the claim of the IBDFAM (Brazilian Institute of Family Law, a fair provocation of the Supreme Court, raises the question whether the taxation of child support is income tax and if its practice is unconstitutional. Moreover, seeking the core of the tribute in question, the fact of which is that the increase of equity, or acquisition of the economic or legal availability of income and earnings of any nature, does not prove correct in violating the dignity of those who provide and receive child support. Therefore, this discussion has general repercussions that can affect significantly the Brazilian populace. As can be seen, the inspiration for this work comes from the recent ADI IBDFAM filing, dated November 25, 2015, an opportunity, which set in motion this discussion, as it covered the procedural aspect of the parts’ legitimacy, since it is discussed whether the IBDFAM is considered a class entity of national scope, thusly fulfilling the requirement of art. 2, IX, of Law 9,868 of 1999, and consequently article 103 of the CF. In this chain, IBDFAM was inspired by the IDECON (Consumer Law Institute, which filed the ADI n. 5291 that seeks consumer claims and argues for active legitimacy, with a view to its representativeness at the national level.

  9. Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Phase II: The Application of Medium-Voltage Electrical Apparatus to the Class of Variable Speed Multi-Megawatt Low Wind Speed Turbines; 15 June 2004--30 April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, W.; Behnke, M.

    2005-11-01

    Kilowatt ratings of modern wind turbines have progressed rapidly from 50 kW to 1,800 kW over the past 25 years, with 3.0- to 7.5-MW turbines expected in the next 5 years. The premise of this study is simple: The rapid growth of wind turbine power ratings and the corresponding growth in turbine electrical generation systems and associated controls are quickly making low-voltage (LV) electrical design approaches cost-ineffective. This report provides design detail and compares the cost of energy (COE) between commercial LV-class wind power machines and emerging medium-voltage (MV)-class multi-megawatt wind technology. The key finding is that a 2.5% reduction in the COE can be achieved by moving from LV to MV systems. This is a conservative estimate, with a 3% to 3.5% reduction believed to be attainable once purchase orders to support a 250-turbine/year production level are placed. This evaluation considers capital costs as well as installation, maintenance, and training requirements for wind turbine maintenance personnel. Subsystems investigated include the generator, pendant cables, variable-speed converter, and padmount transformer with switchgear. Both current-source and voltage-source converter/inverter MV topologies are compared against their low-voltage, voltage-source counterparts at the 3.0-, 5.0-, and 7.5-MW levels.

  10. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  11. The lower cranial nerves: IX, X, XI, XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, J-L; Toulgoat, F; Benoudiba, F

    2013-10-01

    The lower cranial nerves innervate the pharynx and larynx by the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X) (mixed) nerves, and provide motor innervation of the muscles of the neck by the accessory nerve (CN XI) and the tongue by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). The symptomatology provoked by an anomaly is often discrete and rarely in the forefront. As with all cranial nerves, the context and clinical examinations, in case of suspicion of impairment of the lower cranial nerves, are determinant in guiding the imaging. In fact, the impairment may be located in the brain stem, in the peribulbar cisterns, in the foramens or even in the deep spaces of the face. The clinical localization of the probable seat of the lesion helps in choosing the adapted protocol in MRI and eventually completes it with a CT-scan. In the bulb, the intra-axial pathology is dominated by brain ischemia (in particular, with Wallenberg syndrome) and multiple sclerosis. Cisternal pathology is tumoral with two tumors, schwannoma and meningioma. The occurrence is much lower than in the cochleovestibular nerves as well as the leptomeningeal nerves (infectious, inflammatory or tumoral). Finally, foramen pathology is tumoral with, outside of the usual schwannomas and meningiomas, paragangliomas. For radiologists, fairly hesitant to explore these lower cranial pairs, it is necessary to be familiar with (or relearn) the anatomy, master the exploratory technique and be aware of the diagnostic possibilities. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Carnosine inhibits carbonic anhydrase IX-mediated extracellular acidosis and suppresses growth of HeLa tumor xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditte, Zuzana; Ditte, Peter; Labudova, Martina; Simko, Veronika; Iuliano, Filippo; Zatovicova, Miriam; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a transmembrane enzyme that is present in many types of solid tumors. Expression of CA IX is driven predominantly by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and helps to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis under hypoxic conditions, resulting in acidification of the tumor microenvironment. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an anti-tumorigenic agent that inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the role of CA IX in carnosine-mediated antitumor activity and whether the underlying mechanism involves transcriptional and translational modulation of HIF-1α and CA IX and/or altered CA IX function. The effect of carnosine was studied using two-dimensional cell monolayers of several cell lines with endogenous CA IX expression as well as Madin Darby canine kidney transfectants, three-dimensional HeLa spheroids, and an in vivo model of HeLa xenografts in nude mice. mRNA and protein expression and protein localization were analyzed by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Cell viability was measured by a flow cytometric assay. Expression of HIF-1α and CA IX in tumors was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Real-time measurement of pH was performed using a sensor dish reader. Binding of CA IX to specific antibodies and metabolon partners was investigated by competitive ELISA and proximity ligation assays, respectively. Carnosine increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and HIF targets and increased the extracellular pH, suggesting an inhibitory effect on CA IX-mediated acidosis. Moreover, carnosine significantly inhibited the growth of three-dimensional spheroids and tumor xenografts compared with untreated controls. Competitive ELISA showed that carnosine disrupted binding between CA IX and antibodies specific for its catalytic domain. This finding was supported by reduced formation of the functional metabolon of CA IX and anion exchanger 2 in the

  13. Protoporphyrin IX formation after topical application of methyl aminolaevulinate and BF-200 aminolaevulinic acid declines with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a popular treatment modality in dermatology. The effect of PDT in epidermal cells depends on formation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). A variety of physiological changes in epidermal function occur with increasing age...... assessed. Treatment efficacy in relation to age was evaluated in 100 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) treated with MAL-PDT. RESULTS: Both photosensitizers induced significantly more PpIX formation in the younger group. Linear regression revealed a significant age-related decline in PpIX formation after...

  14. Evaluation of the potential inhibitor of Ix (Pp-Ix) protoporphyrin of the genetic damage induced by gamma rays administered to different dose reasons in Drosophila melanogaster; Evaluacion del potencial inhibidor de la protoporfirina IX (PP-IX) del dano genetico inducido por rayos gama administrados a diferentes razones de dosis en Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores A, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage in DNA directly or indirectly by free radicals (Rl), characterized by unstable and highly reactive. To avoid damage by Rl the cell has endogenous antioxidants such as Sod, Cat, GSH or exogenous as some vitamins, but if with these mechanisms does not reach the cell homeostasis, the consequence may be the generation of chronic-disease degenerative such as cancer. This study was conducted in order to test the inhibitory role of Rl protoporphyrin Ix (Pp-Ix), induced by 20 Gy of gamma rays administered at different dose ratios using the assay of somatic mutation and recombination in the Drosophila wing. The results indicated that 20 Gy delivered at a rate of low dose (6.659 Gy/h), caused elevated frequencies of genetic damage (p <0.001), compared with those that induced a high dose reason (1111.42 Gy/h) in larvae of 48 h old. The difference is probably due to an indirect damage by Rl; when this hypothesis was approved with the possible inhibitor role of Pp-Ix (0.69 m M), damage was increased with the two reasons of tested doses. This result may be due to: 1) the Pp-Ix is not a good inhibitor of Rl, 2) the difference in the frequency of mutation found with both dose reasons, not due to Rl so that this compound did not reduce the genetic damage, and 3) that Pp-Ix acts as pro oxidant. (Author)

  15. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    . Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas......The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general...

  16. Bovine adenovirus type 3 containing heterologous protein in the C-terminus of minor capsid protein IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhartchouk, Alexander; Connors, Wayne; Van Kessel, Andrew; Tikoo, Suresh Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Earlier, we detected pIX of BAdV-3 as a 14-kDa protein in purified virions. Analysis of BAdV-3 pIX using different region antibodies revealed that the N-terminus and central domain of the pIX contain immunogenic sites and are not exposed on the surface of BAdV-3 virion. This suggested that the C-terminus of BAdV-3 pIX (125 amino acid) may be exposed on the virion and may be used as a site for incorporation of heterologous peptides or proteins. We constructed recombinant BAV950 containing a small peptide (21 amino acid), including the RGD motif or recombinant BAV951 containing enhanced yellow-green fluorescent protein (EYFP) fused to the C-terminus of pIX. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the chimeric pIX-RGD was incorporated into virion capsids. Incorporation of the RGD motif into the pIX resulted in significant augmentation of BAdV-3 fiber knob-independent infection of the integrin-positive cells, suggesting that RGD motifs are displayed on the surface of virion capsids and are accessible for binding to integrins. Analysis of BAV951 revealed that the chimeric pIX is incorporated into virion capsids and EYFP containing the C-terminus of pIX is exposed on the surface of the virion. Moreover, insertion of chimeric pIXs was maintained without change through successive rounds of viral replication. These results suggested that in contrast to major capsid proteins (hexon, penton, fiber), the minor capsid protein IX can be use for the incorporation of targeting ligands based on either small peptides or longer polypeptides

  17. Effect of IX column maintenance on carbon-14 concentration in moderator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, C.L.; Tripple, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclide 14 C is produced in CANDU reactors primarily by the (n,α) reaction with 17 O. Because of high neutron fluxes in the core, the majority of the 14 C (94.5%) is produced in the moderator. In the moderator system, 14 C is present mainly as CO 2 in the cover gas in dynamic equilibrium with dissolved carbonates, bicarbonates and CO 2 in the moderator water. Emissions of 14 C from reactors occur through venting or leakage of the cover gas. By controlling the dissolved carbonates in the moderator water with an ion exchange (IX) purification system, the amount of 14 C in the cover gas is minimized and thus the emissions of 14 C can be reduced. A study was conducted to measure the 14 C concentrations in the moderator system at Gentilly 2 in order to determine the effectiveness of the purification system in removing 14 C. Moderator water samples were obtained from the inlet and outlet of the purification system from 2004 January 14 to July 12, covering the operation of two IX columns (IX-1 and IX-3). The moderator water samples contained high levels of tritium (∼2 TBq·L -1 ). As both tritium and 14 C are β-radiation emitters, direct counting of moderator water for 14 C is impossible as the signal due to tritium dominates over that of other β-emitters. Therefore, a procedure developed by Caron et al. was used in this study, which involved acidifying the sample to release the dissolved 14 CO 2 as gas and collecting the 14 CO 2 in a base (NaOH), which could then be measured by liquid scintillation counting to determine the 14 C concentration. Both of the IX columns started with 14 C removal efficiencies of about 95%. The efficiency began to decrease almost immediately with the IX-1 column dropping to 80% efficiency after ∼1115 hours. This drop in efficiency also led to an increase in the inlet concentration over time. IX-1 column was removed from service after ∼1745 hours with a 14 C removal efficiency of ∼31%. IX-3 column was then placed in service

  18. Haemophilia B caused by mutation of a potential thrombin cleavage site in factor IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winship, P.R. (Univ. of Oxford (England))

    1990-03-11

    Haemophilia B is a blood coagulation disorder caused by mutations in the factor IX gene giving functionally defective or reduced levels of factor IX protein circulating in the plasma. The mutation in the Caucasian patient under investigation, Haemophilia B Oxford h5 (Oxh5), was characterized at the DNA level by constructing a genomic library using leucocyte-derived DNA from the patient. Overlapping recombinant clones spanning the entire factor IX locus were isolated which then allowed the generation of a series of sub-clones across all eight exons (a-h) plus the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences known to be important in regulation of the gene and polyadenylation of the mRNA species.

  19. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  20. Hubungan Gaya Kepemimpinan Orang Tua terhadap Hasil Belajar IPA Siswa Kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelfi Erlinda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPenelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh rendahnya hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Faktor penyebabnya ada yang berasal dari dalam diri siswa dan dari luar diri siswa. Faktor yang berasal dari dalam diri siswa seperti malas belajar. Faktor luar diri siswa seperti faktor lingkungan keluarga yang terdiri dari faktor orang tua, suasana keluarga, lingkungan keluarga, kondisi keluarga yang tidak sehat atau broken home. Hal ini berpengaruh dalam proses belajar dan hasil belajar siswa di sekolah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan gaya kepemimpinan orang tua terhadap hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif. Populasi penelitian adalah semua siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai yang terdaftar dalam tahun ajaran  2016/2017. Sampel penelitian adalah semua kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan total sampling. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan berupa angket atau kuesioner yang diberikan ke siswa. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis adalah analisis korelasi dengan menggunakan uji chi kuadrat untuk melihat antara hubungan gaya kepemimpinan oramg tua dengan hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Berdasarkan analisis data didapatkan dua gaya kepemimpimam yaitu otoriter dan demokratis. Hasil uji hipotesis diperoleh X2hitung < X2tabel = 0,004 < 3,841  sehingga hipotesis Ho diterima pada taraf nyata 0,05 dan hipotesis Hi ditolak. Jadi tidak ada hubungan yang berarti antara gaya kepemimpinan orang tua terhadap hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas IX SMPN 2 Batang Anai. Kata kunci :  Gaya kepemimpinan orang tua, hasil belajar.

  1. IX Jornadas de educación emocional. Educación emocional y valores

    OpenAIRE

    Barredo Gutiérrez, Blanca; Bisquerra Alzina, Rafael; Blanco Cuch, Aida; Giner, Antoni; Pérez Escoda, Núria; Tey, Amèlia

    2013-01-01

    Barredo Gutierrez, B.; Bisquerra Alzina, R.; Blanco Cuch, A.; Giner Tarrida, A.; Perez Escoda, N.; Tey Teijón, A. (eds.) IX Jornades d’educació emocional. Educació emocional i valors / IX Jornadas de educación emocional. Educación emocional y valores. Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona (Institut de Ciències de l’Educació), 2013. Document electrònic.valores. Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona (Institut de Ciències de l’Educació), 2013. Document electrònic

  2. Lacerations to Zones VIII and IX: It Is Not Just a Tendon Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charla R. Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensor tendon injuries are widely believed to be straightforward problems that are relatively simple to manage. However, these injuries can be complex and demand a thorough understanding of anatomy to achieve the best functional outcomes. When lacerations occur in the forearm as in Zones VIII and IX injury, the repair of the extensor tendon and muscle, and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN is often challenging. A review of the literature shows little guidance and attention for these injuries. We present four patients with injuries to Zones VIII and IX as well as a review of surgical technique, postoperative rehabilitation, and pearls that may be of benefit to those managing these injuries.

  3. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  4. Correlation between macroscopic fluorescence and protoporphyrin IX content in psoriasis and actinic keratosis following application of aminolevulinic acid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, T.; Robles, C.A.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    In fluorescence diagnosis with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced porphyrins (FDAP), protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation can be macroscopically visualized. Interpretation of these data is still problematic because of the low reproducibility of the procedure and poor understanding of the

  5. Somatic mosaicism and female-to-female transmission in a kindred with hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.A.M.; Deugau, K.V.; Lillicrap, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have shown that hemophilia B (Christmas disease; factor IX deficiency) results from many different mutations in the factor IX gene, of which >95% are single nulceotide substitutions. This study has identified a previously unreported form of hemophilia B in a patient who was a somatic mosaic for a guanine-to-cytosine transversion at nucleotide 31,170 in the factor IX gene. This point mutation changes the codon for residue 350 in the catalytic domain of factor IX from a cysteine to a serine. The authors used differential termination of primer extension to confirm and measure the degree of mosaicism. The study shows that a varying proportion of cells from hepatic, renal, smooth muscle, and hematopoietic populations possessed normal as well as mutant factor IX sequences. These results indicate that the mutation in this patient occurred either as an uncorrected half-chromatid mutation in the female gamete or as a replication or postreplication error in the initial mitotic divisions of the zygote preceding implantation. In addition, this kindred also contains two females in successive generations who have moderately severe factor IX deficiency. The molecular pathogenesis of this latter phenomenon has been studied and seems to relate to the unaccompanied expression of the mutant factor IX gene consequent upon a second, as yet undefined, genetic event that has prevented inactivation of sequences including the mutant factor IX gene on the X chromosome inherited from the affected male

  6. Exploring social class: voices of inter-class couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Teresa; Melendez-Rhodes, Tatiana; Althusius, Erin; Hergic, Sara; Sleeman, Gillian; Ton, Nicky Kieu My; Zimpfer-Bak, A J

    2013-01-01

    Social class is not often discussed or examined in-depth in couple and family therapy research and literature even though social class shapes familial relationships and is considered an important variable in marital satisfaction. In this qualitative study, we explored the perceptions of eight couples who made lasting commitments across class lines by asking them about the impact of their social class backgrounds on their relationships. Three categories of themes emerged including: (a) differences and similarities in values and attitudes toward education, work, money, and class awareness/classism, (b) relationship issues involving families of origin, friends, and class-based couple conflict, and (c) differences in economic resources, social capital and privileges/opportunities. Implications for assessment and treatment of couples are included. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  7. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  8. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  9. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kwang W. [Department of Internal Medicines, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hong R. [Department of Surgery, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Byungsuk, E-mail: bskwon@mail.ulsan.as.kr [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  10. Big Men on Campus: Administrative Response to Title IX and the Development of Women's Sports in the Big Ten Conference, 1972-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Signed into law in 1972, Title IX of the Education Amendments was designed to eliminate gender discrimination throughout the American educational system. Title IX applied to all educational programs at any level of schooling including admissions, financial aid, academic programs, and social organizations. However, Title IX has primarily been…

  11. Systemic component of protoporphyrin IX production in nude mouse skin upon topical application of aminolevulinic acid depends on the application conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Johanna T. H. M.; Iani, Vladimir; Star, Willem M.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Moan, Johan

    2002-01-01

    Topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) for protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-based photodynamic therapy of skin cancer is generally considered not to induce systemic side effects because PpIX is supposed to be formed locally. However, earlier studies with topically applied ALA have revealed that

  12. Transition properties of the Be-like X-ray from Mg IX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feng Hu

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... Transition properties of the Be-like Kα X-ray from Mg IX. FENG HU1,3,∗ ... 1. Introduction. Magnesium is one of the most abundant elements in the. Universe, and its .... sion coefficients for the configuration state functions are optimized to ..... The absorption oscillator strengths ( fij) and radiative rate Aji for a ...

  13. Quark matter coupled to domain walls in Bianchi types II, VIII and IX ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study of Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes, quark matter coupled to domain walls in the ... The self-bound state appears to be at ρ ... The observations suggest that the Hubble expansion of the Universe ... Taking motivation from.

  14. Suggestions for Local School District Compliance with Title IX Rules and Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This guidebook is designed to help local districts determine how well they comply with the spirit of the Title IX requirements against sex discrimination, which in turn could aid in compliance with the letter of the law. The document's first section presents samples of required antidiscrimination policy statements issued by two districts. The…

  15. Two novel mutations in the PPIB gene cause a rare pedigree of osteogenesis imperfecta type IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Pan, Jingxin; Guo, Dongwei; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Jie; Fang, Zishui; Guo, Chunmiao; Fang, Qun; Jiang, Weiying; Guo, Yibin

    2017-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic skeletal disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and vulnerability to fractures. PPIB is identified as a candidate gene for OI-IX, here we detect two pathogenic mutations in PPIB and analyze the genotype-phenotype correlation in a Chinese family with OI. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to screen the whole exome of the parents of proband. Screening of variation frequency, evolutionary conservation comparisons, pathogenicity evaluation, and protein structure prediction were conducted to assess the pathogenicity of the novel mutations. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the candidate variants. RTQ-PCR was used to analyze the PPIB gene expression. All mutant genes screened out by NGS were excluded except PPIB. Two novel heterozygous PPIB mutations (father, c.25A>G; mother, c.509G>A) were identified in relation to osteogenesis imperfecta type IX. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis and RTQ-PCR analysis revealed downregulated PPIB expression in the two carriers. We report a rare pedigree with an autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta type IX (OI-IX) caused by two novel PPIB mutations identified for the first time in China. The current study expands our knowledge of PPIB mutations and their associated phenotypes, and provides new information on the genetic defects associated with this disease for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protoporphyrin IX formation and photobleaching in different layers of normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Idorn, Luise W; Philipsen, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    human skin was tape-stripped and incubated with 20% methylaminolevulinate (MAL) or 20% hexylaminolevulinate (HAL) for 3 h. Fluorescence microscopy quantified PpIX accumulation in epidermis, superficial, mid and deep dermis, down to 2 mm. PpIX photobleaching by light-emitting diode (LED, 632 nm, 18......Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for various skin disorders, and selective targeting of specific skin structures is desirable. The objective was to assess accumulation of PpIX fluorescence and photobleaching within skin layers using different photosensitizers and light sources. Normal...... and 37 J/cm(2)), intense pulsed light (IPL, 500-650 nm, 36 and 72 J/cm(2)) and long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL, 595 nm, 7.5 and 15 J/cm(2)) was measured using fluorescence photography and microscopy. We found higher PpIX fluorescence intensities in epidermis and superficial dermis in HAL-incubated skin than...

  17. Kinetic data bank for Ramona of the Siemens 9x9-IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso V, G.

    1993-12-01

    With the purpose of making the transitory analyses of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power station when Siemens fuel of the type 9x9-IX is used, proposed for the cycle 2 of the Unit 2, the kinetic data bank in hot condition for the Ramona code has been generated. (Author)

  18. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter IX: engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hiromasa; Seki, Masahiro; Sawada, Yoshio

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapter IX of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Data base assessment are made for systems engineering, magnet systems, torus systems, and NBI heating systems. R and D programme and impact on INTOR design are also specified. In addition to the data base assessment, studies have been made for several new tasks. (author)

  19. Quark matter coupled to domain walls in Bianchi types II, VIII and IX ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study of Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes, quark matter coupled to domain walls in the context of general relativity are explored. To obtain deterministic solution of the Einstein's field equations, various techniques are adopted. The features of the obtained solution are discussed.

  20. Sex Discrimination and Intercollegiate Athletics: Putting Some Muscle on Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale Law Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the general language of the Title IX statute, together with certain specific features of it, strongly suggests that the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare should develop more stringent and demanding regulations based on social policy considerations concerning sex discrimination in intercollegiate sports. Available from Yale…

  1. The Fourth Circuit Kicks a Hole through the Contact-Sport Exception to Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puszczewicz, James

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a recent Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals decision that when individuals are allowed to try out for or join a team participating in a contact sport and operated for members of the other sex, then discrimination against because of their sex is prohibited by Title IX. (22 footnotes) (MLF)

  2. Title IX: Does Help for Women Come at the Expense of African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Craig T.

    1997-01-01

    Federal law that forbids sex discrimination in educational institutions receiving federal funds (Title IX) has created opportunities for women athletes, but some say men's sports have lost ground. Since athletics provide major educational opportunities for black men, less so for black women, critics are concerned blacks may be losing. (MSE)

  3. Comparison of nitric oxide binding to different pure and mixed protoporphyrin IX monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, W.; Crego-Calama, M.; Brongersma, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) binding properties of monolayers of four different protoporphyrins IX adsorbed on aluminum oxide surfaces have been investigated. XPS and AFM results are consistent with the presence of a monolayer of porphyrins, bound to the surface by their carboxylic acid groups and with the

  4. Title IX, Girls' Sports Participation, and Adult Female Physical Activity and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…

  5. One of Gibbs's ideas that has gone unnoticed (comment on chapter IX of his classic book)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, Alexander D; Rudoi, Yurii G

    2006-01-01

    We show that contrary to the commonly accepted view, Chapter IX of Gibbs's book [1] contains the prolegomena to a macroscopic statistical theory that is qualitatively different from his own microscopic statistical mechanics. The formulas obtained by Gibbs were the first results in the history of physics related to the theory of fluctuations in any macroparameters, including temperature. (from the history of physics)

  6. The Future of Electronic Power Processing and Conversion: Highlights from FEPPCON IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enslin, Johan H.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Tan, Don F.D.

    2017-01-01

    Since 1991, every second year the IEEE Power Electronics Society (PELS) has organized the technical long-range planning meeting "Future of Electronic Power Processing and Conversion" (FEPPCON). FEPPCON IX was held 12-16 June 2017 in beautiful Kruger Park in South Africa (Figure 1). The overall go...

  7. Singlet oxygen feedback delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX in organic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinklárek, Ivo S; Scholz, Marek; Dědic, Roman; Hála, Jan

    2017-04-12

    Delayed fluorescence (DF) of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has been recently proposed as a tool for monitoring of mitochondrial oxygen tension in vivo as well as for observation of the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) [E. G. Mik, Anesth. Analg., 2013, 117, 834-346; F. Piffaretti et al., J. Biomed. Opt., 2012, 17, 115007]. However, the efficiency of the mechanism of thermal activation (E-type DF), which was considered in the papers, is limited due to a large energy gap between the first excited singlet and the first triplet state of PpIX at room or body temperatures. Moreover, the energy gap is roughly equal to other porphyrinoid photosensitizers that generate DF mostly through the Singlet Oxygen Feedback-Induced mechanism (SOFDF) under certain conditions [M. Scholz and R. Dědic, Singlet Oxygen: Applications in Biosciences and Nanosciences, 2016, vol. 2, pp. 63-81]. The mechanisms of delayed fluorescence of PpIX dissolved either in dimethylformamide (DMF) or in the mixture of DMF with ethylene glycol (EG) were investigated at atmospheric partial pressure of oxygen by means of a simultaneous time-resolved detection of 1 O 2 phosphorescence and PpIX DF which makes a direct comparison of the kinetics and lifetimes of both the luminescence channels possible. Samples of PpIX (100 μM) exhibit concave DF kinetics, which is a typical footprint of the SOFDF mechanism. The dramatic decrease in the DF intensity after adding a selective 1 O 2 quencher sodium azide (NaN 3 , 10 mM) proves that >90% of DF is indeed generated through SOFDF. Moreover, the analysis of the DF kinetics in the presence of NaN 3 implies that the second significant mechanism of DF generation is the triplet-triplet annihilation (P-type DF). The bimolecular mechanism of DF was further confirmed by the decrease of the DF intensity in the more viscous mixture DMF/EG and by the increase of the ratio of DF to the prompt fluorescence (PF) intensity with the increasing excitation intensity. These results

  8. Effect of PpIX photoproducts formation on pO2 measurement by time-resolved delayed fluorescence spectroscopy of PpIX in solution and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntosova, Veronika; Gerelli, Emmanuel; Zellweger, Matthieu; Wagnières, Georges

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of Protoporphyrin IX delayed fluorescence lifetime is a minimally invasive method for monitoring the levels of oxygen in cells and tissues. The excitation of Protoporphyrin IX during this measurement can lead to the formation of photoproducts in vitro and in vivo. The influence of their luminescence on the measured Protoporphyrin IX delayed fluorescence lifetimes was studied in solution and in vivo on the Chick's chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model under various oxygen enriched air conditions (0mmHg, 37mmHg and 155mmHg). The presence of photoproducts disturbs such measurements since the delayed fluorescence emission of some of them spectrally overlaps with that of Protoporphyrin IX. One possible way to avoid this obstacle is to detect Protoporphyrin IX's delayed fluorescence lifetime in a very specific spectral range (620-640nm). Another possibility is to excite Protoporphyrin IX with light doses much lower than 10J/cm 2 , quite possibly as low as a fraction 1J/cm 2 at 405nm. This leads to an increased accuracy of pO 2 detection. Furthermore, this method allows combination of diagnosis and therapy in one step. This helps to improve detection systems and real-time identification of tissue respiration, which is tuned for the detection of PpIX luminescence and not its photoproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Action of the protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) in the life period of Drosophila mutants deficient in endogenous antioxidants; Accion de la protoporfirina-IX (PP-IX) en el periodo de vida de mutantes de Drosophila deficientes en antioxidantes endogenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal E, L. M.

    2012-07-01

    The human being is daily exposed to free radicals or reactive oxygen species (Ros), as a result of the breathing and the interactions with xenobiotics that can cause irreversible lesions in molecules and cellular structures and that they are associated to diseases like the cancer, neuro degenerative and to the acceleration of the normal process of aging. Fortunately, to reduce the damaging effect of the Ros the cell has endogenous antioxidant systems constituted by antioxidant enzymes as: the superoxide dismutase (Sod), the catalase (Cat), and the glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Even, when these systems are not enough, we find to the exogenous antioxidants that cooperate in the balance of the Ros, as the porphyrins that include to the chlorophyllin, the hemin and the bilirubin among others. The protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) is a tetra pyrrole without metallic center with antimutagenic and antioxidant activity similar to that of the chlorophyllin. However, is also known that their over-expression has toxic effects, because induces Ros. In Drosophila melanogaster, recently was found that the Pp-Ix have dual action anti and persistent mutagenic. One of their possible mechanism to act like mutagen is through the Ros induction. To evaluate this possibility and based in that the increase in the Ros levels can accelerate the aging process, in the present work the Pp-Ix role was evaluated, in the life period of Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in Sod and Cat, sensitive to radiation or oxidative stress (rad, whd and flr{sup 3}) and a wild one as control (C-S). Females and males of each strain were treated chronically for separate with sucrose or Pp-Ix and every 15 days a group of each sex was irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results indicated that the chronic treatment with Pp-Ix and in combination with radiation, increased the life period of the C-S strain. The Sod strain had a contrary effect and this effect was pronounced with the combined treatment of

  10. Hierarchical coassembly of DNA–triptycene hybrid molecular building blocks and zinc protoporphyrin IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Kumari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe the successful construction of composite DNA nanostructures by the self-assembly of complementary symmetrical 2,6,14-triptycenetripropiolic acid (TPA–DNA building blocks and zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn PpIX. DNA–organic molecule scaffolds for the composite DNA nanostructure were constructed through covalent conjugation of TPA with 5′-C12-amine-terminated modified single strand DNA (ssDNA and its complementary strand. The repeated covalent conjugation of TPA with DNA was confirmed by using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF. The biologically relevant photosensitizer Zn PpIX was used to direct the hybridization-mediated self-assembly of DNA–TPA molecular building blocks as well as a model guest molecule within the DNA–TPA supramolecular self-assembly. The formation of fiber-like composite DNA nanostructures was observed. Native PAGE, circular dichroism (CD and atomic force microscopy (AFM have been utilized for analyzing the formation of DNA nanofibers after the coassembly. Computational methods were applied to discern the theoretical dimension of the DNA–TPA molecular building block of the nanofibers. A notable change in photocatalytic efficiency of Zn PpIX was observed when it was inside the TPA–DNA scaffold. The significant increase in ROS generation by Zn PpIX when trapped in this biocompatible DNA–TPA hybrid nanofiber may be an effective tool to explore photodynamic therapy (PDT applications as well as photocatalytic reactions.

  11. Peningkatan Hasil Belajar Siswa Materi Usaha Mempertahankan Republik Indonesia Melalui Model Pembelajaran Snowball Throwing Pada Kelas IX.2 SMP Negeri Muara Beliti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holili Holili

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to improve student learning outcomes of class IX.2 State Junior High School Muara Beliti on the material business to defend the Republic of Indonesia by using the Snowball throwing learning. The research method used is Classroom Action Research. The study was conducted in two cycles with each model cycle following the procedure: planning, action, observation, and reflection. The action of two cycles resulted in improving the quality of learning and improving the learning outcomes, the average completeness of students' learning cycle one 68.55% completeness 61.29%. Cycle two averages 80.1% completeness 90%. The end result of the two cycle action succeeded in improving the IPS learning outcomes. Keywords: Learning Outcome, Snowball throwing   http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um022v2i12017p025

  12. Factor IX expression in skeletal muscle of a severe hemophilia B patient 10 years after AAV-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchlis, George; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Radu, Antonetta; Hawk, Sarah M; Flake, Alan W; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A

    2012-03-29

    In previous work we transferred a human factor IX-encoding adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) into skeletal muscle of men with severe hemophilia B. Biopsy of injected muscle up to 1 year after vector injection showed evidence of gene transfer by Southern blot and of protein expression by IHC and immunofluorescent staining. Although the procedure appeared safe, circulating F.IX levels remained subtherapeutic (< 1%). Recently, we obtained muscle tissue from a subject injected 10 years earlier who died of causes unrelated to gene transfer. Using Western blot, IHC, and immunofluorescent staining, we show persistent factor IX expression in injected muscle tissue. F.IX transcripts were detected in injected skeletal muscle using RT-PCR, and isolated whole genomic DNA tested positive for the presence of the transferred AAV vector sequence. This is the longest reported transgene expression to date from a parenterally administered AAV vector, with broad implications for the future of muscle-directed gene transfer.

  13. Early increase in circulating carbonic anhydrase IX during neoadjuvant treatment predicts favourable outcome in locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hektoen, Helga Helseth; Flatmark, Kjersti; Andersson, Yvonne; Dueland, Svein; Redalen, Kathrine Røe; Ree, Anne Hansen

    2015-01-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) comprises heterogeneous tumours with predominant hypoxic components. The hypoxia-inducible metabolic shift causes microenvironmental acidification generated by carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and facilitates metastatic progression, the dominant cause of failure in LARC. Using a commercially available immunoassay, circulating CAIX was assessed in prospectively archived serial serum samples collected during combined-modality neoadjuvant treatment of LARC patients and correlated to histologic tumour response and progression-free survival (PFS). Patients who from their individual baseline level displayed serum CAIX increase above a threshold of 224 pg/ml (with 96 % specificity and 39 % sensitivity) after completion of short-course neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) prior to long-course chemoradiotherapy and definitive surgery had significantly better 5-year PFS (94 %) than patients with below-threshold post-NACT versus baseline alteration (PFS rate of 56 %; p < 0.01). This particular CAIX parameter, ΔNACT, was significantly correlated with histologic ypT0–2 and ypN0 outcome (p < 0.01) and remained an independent PFS predictor in multivariate analysis wherein it was entered as continuous variable (p = 0.04). Our results indicate that low ΔNACT, i.e., a weak increase in serum CAIX level following initial neoadjuvant treatment (in this case two cycles of the Nordic FLOX regimen), might be used as risk-adapted stratification to postoperative therapy or other modes of intensification of the combined-modality protocol in LARC. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00278694

  14. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  15. Compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII and Bianchi IX Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we prove that all compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII Hamiltonian system are contained in the set described by several simple linear equalities and inequalities. Moreover, we describe invariant domains in which the phase flow of this system has no recurrence property and show that there are no periodic orbits and neither homoclinic, nor heteroclinic orbits contained in the zero level set of its Hamiltonian. Similar results are obtained for the Bianchi IX Hamiltonian system. -- Highlights: → Zero level set of Hamiltonian of Bianchi VIII/IX systems contains no periodic orbits. → Similar conditions for homoclinic/heteroclinic orbits are given. → General nonexistence conditions of compact invariant sets are got.

  16. Compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII and Bianchi IX Hamiltonian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, Konstantin E., E-mail: konst@citedi.mx [CITEDI-IPN, Av. del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)

    2011-08-22

    In this Letter we prove that all compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII Hamiltonian system are contained in the set described by several simple linear equalities and inequalities. Moreover, we describe invariant domains in which the phase flow of this system has no recurrence property and show that there are no periodic orbits and neither homoclinic, nor heteroclinic orbits contained in the zero level set of its Hamiltonian. Similar results are obtained for the Bianchi IX Hamiltonian system. -- Highlights: → Zero level set of Hamiltonian of Bianchi VIII/IX systems contains no periodic orbits. → Similar conditions for homoclinic/heteroclinic orbits are given. → General nonexistence conditions of compact invariant sets are got.

  17. Operational Lessons Learned from the Ares I-X Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X flight test, launched in 2009, is the first test of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. This development flight test evaluated the flight dynamics, roll control, and separation events, but also provided early insights into logistical, stacking, launch, and recovery operations for Ares I. Operational lessons will be especially important for NASA as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Constellation Program, which is designed to be less labor-intensive. The mission team itself comprised only 700 individuals over the life of the project compared to the thousands involved in Shuttle and Apollo missions; while missions to and beyond low-Earth orbit obviously will require additional personnel, this lean approach will serve as a model for future Constellation missions. To prepare for Ares I-X, vehicle stacking and launch infrastructure had to be modified at Kennedy Space Center's Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) as well as Launch Complex (LC) 39B. In the VAB, several platforms and other structures designed for the Shuttle s configuration had to be removed to accommodate the in-line, much taller Ares I-X. Vehicle preparation activities resulted in delays, but also in lessons learned for ground operations personnel, including hardware deliveries, cable routing, transferred work and custodial paperwork. Ares I-X also proved to be a resource challenge, as individuals and ground service equipment (GSE) supporting the mission also were required for Shuttle or Atlas V operations at LC 40/41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. At LC 39B, several Shuttle-specific access arms were removed and others were added to accommodate the in-line Ares vehicle. Ground command, control, and communication (GC3) hardware was incorporated into the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP). The lightning protection system at LC 39B was replaced by a trio of 600-foot-tall towers connected by a catenary wire to account for the much greater height of the vehicle. Like Shuttle

  18. Revisitation of chaos in Bianchi IX Universe and in generalized scalar-tensor cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, Thierry; Di Menza, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    We show that there is a threshold for the onset of chaos in cosmology for the Universe described as a dynamical system derived from the Einstein equations of general relativity (GR). In the case of the mixmaster model (homogeneous and anisotropic cosmology with a Bianchi IX metric) the chaos occurs precisely at the prescribed necessary value H vac =0 of the GR for the energy of the Universe while the system is found regular for H vac >0 and chaotic for H vac <0 with respect to its pure vacuum part. In the case of generalized scalar tensor theories within the Bianchi IX model we show using the ADM formalism and a conformal transformation that the energy of the dynamical system as compared to vacuum lies below the threshold thus the system is not exhibiting chaos and the conclusion still holds in the presence of ordinary matter as well. The suppression of chaos occurs in a similar way for stiff matter alone

  19. The transitions 4p-5s in Y VI, Zr VII, Nb VIII and Mo IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaghtai, M.S.Z.; Rahimullah, K.; Khatoon, S.

    1976-01-01

    With the help of the spectra recorded in the Physics Department of Lund University, Y VI, Zr VII, Nb VIII and Mo IX are freshly analysed. The five 4s 2 4p 4 ground levels and the ten 4s 2 4p 3 5s levels of previous analyses are confirmed in the first three spectra, except for revising in Y VI the 4p 4 1 S 0 and 4p 3 5s( 4 Ssub(3/2)) 2 levels and interchanging 5s( 2 Dsub(3/2)) 1 with 5s( 2 Dsub(3/2)) 2 . All level values are improved due to the new measurements. A new analysis of Mo IX establishing all the 4p 4 and 4p 3 5s levels is being reported. (Auth.)

  20. Comparison of protoporphyrin IX content and related gene expression in the tissues of chickens laying brown-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqi; Chen, Sirui; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an immediate precursor of heme, is the main pigment resulting in the brown coloration of eggshell. The brownness and uniformity of the eggshell are important marketing considerations. In this study, 9 chickens laying darker brown shelled eggs and 9 chickens laying lighter brown shelled eggs were selected from 464 individually caged layers in a Rhode Island Red pureline. The PpIX contents were measured with a Microplate Reader at the wavelength of 412 nm and were compared in different tissues of the 2 groups. Although no significant difference in serum, bile, and excreta was found between the 2 groups, PpIX content in the shell gland and eggshell of the darker group was higher than in those of the lighter group, suggesting that PpIX was synthesized in the shell gland. We further determined the expression levels of 8 genes encoding enzymes involved in the heme synthesis and transport in the liver and shell gland at 6 h postoviposition by quantitative PCR. The results showed that expression of aminolevulinic acid synthase-1 (ALAS1) was higher in the liver of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs, whereas in the shell gland the expression levels of ALAS1, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX), ATP-binding cassette family members ABCB7 and ABCG2, and receptor for feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FLVCR) were significantly higher in the hens laying darker brown shelled eggs. Our results demonstrated that hens laying darker brown shelled eggs could deposit more PpIX onto the eggshell and the brownness of the eggshell was dependent on the total quantity of PpIX in the eggshell. More heme was synthesized in the liver and shell gland of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs than those of hens laying lighter brown shelled eggs. High expression level of ABCG2 might facilitate the accumulation of PpIX in the shell gland.

  1. What are lay theories of social class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class.

  2. Puzzle of the particles and the universe. The inner life of the elementary particles IX d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geitner, Uwe W.

    2013-01-01

    The series The Inner Life of the Elementary Particles attempts to develop the elementary particles along of a genealogical tree, which begins before the ''big bang''. The simple presentation without mathematics opens also for the interested layman a plastic understanding. Volume IX discusses the known puzzles of particle physics and cosmology and offers for many of them explanation models. Explanation approaches are among others the ''DNA'' of the elementary particles and the interpretation of the quanta and the spin.

  3. Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the de-Sitter universe, the Taub-NUT solutions etc. are of Bianchi Type-IX space- times. In these models, neutrino viscosity does not guarantee isotropy at the present ..... The model (2.11) starts with a big-bang at T = 0 where α > 0 and m < 2, and the expansion in the model decreases as time increases. The expansion in the ...

  4. Aplikasi Peta Kendali p sebagai Pengendalian Kualitas Karet di PTPN IX Batujamus/Kerjoarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Khomah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing of global rubber consumption is an opportunity as well as a challenge for Indonesian rubber produsers to increase the quantity and the quality of production. Faced the competition between countries, the quality of rubber products should be enhanced adapted to consumer demand. This study aims to determine whether the quality of the rubber produced in PTPN IX (Persero Garden Batujamus/Kerjoarum still within the control or not. This study uses time series data, in the form of rubber production data during March 2012 - February 201, that were analyzed descriptively using Control p Chart Analysis. Control p Chart describe the proportion of production damage that can be tolerated as a tool for statistical Control p Chart Application as Quality Control Tools for Rubber Production in PTPN IX Batujamus/Kerjoarum process control. This study shows that the quality of the rubber produced by PTPN IX (Persero Garden Batujamus/ Kerjoarum is out of the control. The Control p Chart proves that there are still many points that are outside the production control line. The production domination of the third RSS type (RSS 3 cause this problem, so that the profit and the efficiency of the company can be increased if the RSS 3 product can be controlled and be changed with the production of RSS 1.

  5. Comparison between two portable devices for widefield PpIX fluorescence during cervical intraepithelial neoplasia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia Mayumi; Lombardi, Welington; Cossetin, Natália Fernandez; Varoto, Cinthia; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-06-01

    The use of portable electronic devices, in particular mobile phones such as smartphones is increasing not only for all known applications, but also for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring treatments like topical Photodynamic Therapy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of the photosensitizer Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after topical application of a cream containing methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) in the cervix with diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) through the fluorescence images captured after one and three hours and compare the images using two devices (a Sony Xperia® mobile and an Apple Ipod®. Was observed an increasing fluorescence intensity of the cervix three hours after cream application, in both portable electronic devices. However, because was used a specific program for the treatment of images using the Ipod® device, these images presented better resolution than observed by the Sony cell phone without a specific program. One hour after cream application presented a more selective fluorescence than the group of three hours. In conclusion, the use of portable devices to obtain images of PpIX fluorescence shown to be an effective tool and is necessary the improvement of programs for achievement of better results.

  6. Analyses of the Sn IX-Sn XII spectra in the EUV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilov, S S; Ryabtsev, A N

    2006-01-01

    The Sn IX-Sn XII spectra excited in a vacuum spark have been analysed in the 130-160 A wavelength region. The analysis was based on the energy parameter extrapolation in the isonuclear Sn VI-VIII and Sn XIII-XIV sequence. 266 spectral lines belonging to the 4d m -(4d m-1 4f+4p 5 4d m+1 ) (m=6-3) transition arrays were classified in the Sn IX-Sn XII spectra for the first time. All 18 level energies of the 4d 3 configuration and 39 level energies of the strongly interacting 4d 2 4f and 4p 5 4d 4 configurations were established in the Sn XII spectrum. The energy differences between the majority of the 4d m levels and about 40 levels of the 4d m-1 4f+4p 5 4d m+1 configurations were determined in each of the Sn IX, Sn X and Sn XI spectra (m=6-4). As a result, all intense lines were classified in the 130-140 A region relevant to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. It was shown that the most of the intense lines in the 2% bandwidth at 135 A belong to the transitions in the Sn XI-Sn XIII spectra

  7. Transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isozymes IX and XII in the female mouse reproductive organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eija

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA classically catalyses the reversible hydration of dissolved CO2 to form bicarbonate ions and protons. The twelve active CA isozymes are thought to regulate a variety of cellular functions including several processes in the reproductive systems. Methods The present study was designed to investigate the expression of transmembrane CAs, CA IX and XII, in the mouse uterus, ovary and placenta. The expression of CA IX and XII was examined by immunoperoxidase staining method and western blotting. CA II and XIII served as positive controls since they are known to be present in the mouse reproductive tract. Results The data of our study indicated that CA XII is expressed in the mouse endometrium. Only very faint signal was observed in the corpus luteum of the ovary and the placenta remained mainly negative. CA IX showed weak reaction in the endometrial epithelium, while it was completely absent in the ovary and placenta. Conclusion The conservation of CA XII expression in both mouse and human endometrium suggests a role for this isozyme in reproductive physiology.

  8. High-resolution Laboratory Measurements of Coronal Lines near the Fe IX Line at 171 Å

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Träbert, Elmar

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution laboratory measurements in the spectral region between 165 and 175 Å that focus on the emission from various ions of C, O, F, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni. This wavelength region is centered on the λ171 Fe IX channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and we place special emphasis on the weaker emission lines of Fe IX predicted in this region. In general, our measurements show a multitude of weak lines missing in the current databases, where the emission lines of Ni are probably most in need of further identification and reclassification. We also find that the wavelengths of some of the known lines need updating. Using the multi-reference Møller–Plesset method for wavelength predictions and collisional-radiative modeling of the line intensities, we have made tentative assignments of more than a dozen lines to the spectrum of Fe IX, some of which have formerly been identified as Fe VII, Fe XIV, or Fe XVI lines. Several Fe features remain unassigned, although they appear to be either Fe VII or Fe X lines. Further work will be needed to complete and correct the spectral line lists in this wavelength region.

  9. Optical-sectioning microscopy of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in human gliomas: standardization and quantitative comparison with histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Linpeng; Chen, Ye; Yin, Chengbo; Borwege, Sabine; Sanai, Nader; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2017-04-01

    Systemic delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid leads to enhanced fluorescence image contrast in many tumors due to the increased accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a fluorescent porphyrin that is associated with tumor burden and proliferation. The value of PpIX-guided resection of malignant gliomas has been demonstrated in prospective randomized clinical studies in which a twofold greater extent of resection and improved progression-free survival have been observed. In low-grade gliomas and at the diffuse infiltrative margins of all gliomas, PpIX fluorescence is often too weak to be detected with current low-resolution surgical microscopes that are used in operating rooms. However, it has been demonstrated that high-resolution optical-sectioning microscopes are capable of detecting the sparse and punctate accumulations of PpIX that are undetectable via conventional low-power surgical fluorescence microscopes. To standardize the performance of high-resolution optical-sectioning devices for future clinical use, we have developed an imaging phantom and methods to ensure that the imaging of PpIX-expressing brain tissues can be performed reproducibly. Ex vivo imaging studies with a dual-axis confocal microscope demonstrate that these methods enable the acquisition of images from unsectioned human brain tissues that quantitatively and consistently correlate with images of histologically processed tissue sections.

  10. Dual-channel red/blue fluorescence dosimetry with broadband reflectance spectroscopic correction measures protoporphyrin IX production during photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; Davis, Scott C.; Zhao, Yan; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.; Pogue, Brian W.; Chapman, M. Shane

    2014-07-01

    Dosimetry for aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis was examined with an optimized fluorescence dosimeter to measure PpIX during treatment. While insufficient PpIX generation may be an indicator of incomplete response, there exists no standardized method to quantitate PpIX production at depths in the skin during clinical treatments. In this study, a spectrometer-based point probe dosimeter system was used to sample PpIX fluorescence from superficial (blue wavelength excitation) and deeper (red wavelength excitation) tissue layers. Broadband white light spectroscopy (WLS) was used to monitor aspects of vascular physiology and inform a correction of fluorescence for the background optical properties. Measurements in tissue phantoms showed accurate recovery of blood volume fraction and reduced scattering coefficient from WLS, and a linear response of PpIX fluorescence versus concentration down to 1.95 and 250 nM for blue and red excitations, respectively. A pilot clinical study of 19 patients receiving 1-h ALA incubation before treatment showed high intrinsic variance in PpIX fluorescence with a standard deviation/mean ratio of >0.9. PpIX fluorescence was significantly higher in patients reporting higher pain levels on a visual analog scale. These pilot data suggest that patient-specific PpIX quantitation may predict outcome response.

  11. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static semantics of vc...

  12. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1 AND ITS STELLAR ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grise, F.; Kaaret, P.; Pakull, M. W.; Motch, C.

    2011-01-01

    Holmberg IX X-1 is an archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). Here we study the properties of the optical counterpart and of its stellar environment using optical data from SUBARU/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph, GEMINI/GMOS-N and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys, as well as simultaneous Chandra X-ray data. The V ∼ 22.6 spectroscopically identified optical counterpart is part of a loose cluster with an age ∼ sun . The counterpart is more luminous than the other stars of the association, suggesting a non-negligible optical contribution from the accretion disk. An observed UV excess also points to non-stellar light similar to X-ray active low-mass X-ray binaries. A broad He II λ4686 emission line identified in the optical spectrum of the ULX further suggests optical light from X-ray reprocessing in the accretion disk. Using stellar evolutionary tracks, we have constrained the mass of the counterpart to be ∼> 10 M sun , even if the accretion disk contributes significantly to the optical luminosity. Comparison of the photometric properties of the counterpart with binary models show that the donor may be more massive, ∼> 25 M sun , with the ULX system likely undergoing case AB mass transfer. Finally, the counterpart exhibits photometric variability of 0.14 mag between two HST observations separated by 50 days which could be due to ellipsoidal variations and/or disk reprocessing of variable X-ray emission.

  13. Ethnicity, class, and civil war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David

    2016-01-01

    of political instability. These two types of conflict result from distinct principles of group solidarity – ethnicity and class – and since each individual is simultaneously a member of an ethnic group (or many such groups) and a particular class, these two principles vary in the degree to which......Why are some countries prone to ethno-nationalist conflict, whereas others are plagued by class conflict? This is a question that has seldom been raised and rarely been examined empirically. This paper presents a social-structural theory to account for the variable incidence of these two forms......-group inequalities are high, and within-group inequalities low, ethnicity should be the dominant principle of group solidarity and serve as the primary basis of group conflict. By contrast, in countries where between-group inequalities are low, and within-group inequalities high, class is more likely to serve...

  14. Validation of the manufacturing process used to produce long-acting recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, J; Osborne, D; Dumont, J; Peters, R; Mei, B; Pierce, G F; Kobayashi, K; Euwart, D

    2014-07-01

    Recombinant factor IX Fc (rFIXFc) fusion protein is the first of a new class of bioengineered long-acting factors approved for the treatment and prevention of bleeding episodes in haemophilia B. The aim of this work was to describe the manufacturing process for rFIXFc, to assess product quality and to evaluate the capacity of the process to remove impurities and viruses. This manufacturing process utilized a transferable and scalable platform approach established for therapeutic antibody manufacturing and adapted for production of the rFIXFc molecule. rFIXFc was produced using a process free of human- and animal-derived raw materials and a host cell line derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293H cells. The process employed multi-step purification and viral clearance processing, including use of a protein A affinity capture chromatography step, which binds to the Fc portion of the rFIXFc molecule with high affinity and specificity, and a 15 nm pore size virus removal nanofilter. Process validation studies were performed to evaluate identity, purity, activity and safety. The manufacturing process produced rFIXFc with consistent product quality and high purity. Impurity clearance validation studies demonstrated robust and reproducible removal of process-related impurities and adventitious viruses. The rFIXFc manufacturing process produces a highly pure product, free of non-human glycan structures. Validation studies demonstrate that this product is produced with consistent quality and purity. In addition, the scalability and transferability of this process are key attributes to ensure consistent and continuous supply of rFIXFc. © 2014 The Authors. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Use of Cre/loxP recombination to swap cell binding motifs on the adenoviral capsid protein IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, Kathy L.; Tong, Grace; Vorobyova, Olga; Pool, Madeline; Kothary, Rashmi; Parks, Robin J.

    2011-01-01

    We used Cre/loxP recombination to swap targeting ligands present on the adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX). A loxP-flanked sequence encoding poly-lysine (pK-binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans) was engineered onto the 3'-terminus of pIX, and the resulting fusion protein allowed for routine virus propagation. Growth of this virus on Cre-expressing cells removed the pK coding sequence, generating virus that could only infect through alternative ligands, such as a tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA)-binding motif engineered into the capsid fibre protein for enhanced infection of neuronal cells. We used a similar approach to swap the pK motif on pIX for a sequence encoding a single-domain antibody directed towards CD66c for targeted infection of cancer cells; Cre-mediated removal of the pK-coding sequence simultaneously placed the single-domain antibody coding sequence in frame with pIX. Thus, we have developed a simple method to propagate virus lacking native viral tropism but containing cell-specific binding ligands. - Highlights: → We describe a method to grow virus lacking native tropism but containing novel cell-binding ligands. → Cre/loxP recombination was used to modify the adenovirus genome. → A targeting ligand present on capsid protein IX was removed or replaced using recombination. → Cre-loxP was also used to 'swap' the identity of the targeting ligand present on pIX.

  16. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated coagulation factor IX prevents inhibitor formation and fatal anaphylaxis in hemophilia B mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dheeraj; Moghimi, Babak; LoDuca, Paul A; Singh, Harminder D; Hoffman, Brad E; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2010-04-13

    To address complications of pathogenic antibody or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions in protein replacement therapy for patients with hemophilia or other inherited protein deficiencies, we have developed a prophylactic protocol using a murine hemophilia B model. Oral delivery of coagulation factor IX fused with cholera toxin beta-subunit (with or without a furin cleavage site; CTB-FFIX or CTB-FIX), expressed in chloroplasts (up to 3.8% soluble protein or 0.4 mg/g leaf tissue), bioencapsulated in plant cells, effectively blocked formation of inhibitory antibodies (undetectable or up to 100-fold less than controls). Moreover, this treatment eliminated fatal anaphylactic reactions that occurred after four to six exposures to intravenous F.IX. Whereas only 20-25% of control animals survived after six to eight F.IX doses, 90-93% of F.IX-fed mice survived 12 injections without signs of allergy or anaphylaxis. Immunostaining confirmed delivery of F.IX to Peyer's patches in the ileum. Within 2-5 h, feeding of CTB-FFIX additionally resulted in systemic delivery of F.IX antigen. This high-responder strain of hemophilia B mice represents a new animal model to study anaphylactic reactions. The protocol was effective over a range of oral antigen doses (equivalent to 5-80 microg recombinant F.IX/kg), and controlled inhibitor formation and anaphylaxis long-term, up to 7 months (approximately 40% life span of this mouse strain). Oral antigen administration caused a deviant immune response that suppressed formation of IgE and inhibitory antibodies. This cost-effective and efficient approach of antigen delivery to the gut should be applicable to several genetic diseases that are prone to pathogenic antibody responses during treatment.

  17. Absence of collagen IX accelerates hypertrophic differentiation in the embryonic mouse spine through a disturbance of the Ihh-PTHrP feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamper, Matthias; Paulsson, Mats; Zaucke, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Collagen IX (Col IX) is a component of the cartilage extracellular matrix and contributes to its structural integrity. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the Col IX ɑ2- and ɑ3-chains are associated with early onset of disc degeneration. Col IX-deficient mice already display changes in the spine at the newborn stage and premature disc degeneration starting at 6 months of age. To determine the role of Col IX in early spine development and to identify molecular mechanisms underlying disc degeneration, the embryonic development of the spine was analyzed in Col IX -/- mice. Histological staining was used to show tissue morphology at different time points. Localization of extracellular matrix proteins as well as components of signaling pathways were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Developing vertebral bodies of Col IX -/- mice were smaller and already appeared more compact at E12.5. At E15.5, vertebral bodies of Col IX -/- mice revealed an increased number of hypertrophic chondrocytes as well as enhanced staining for the terminal differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase and collagen X. This correlates with an imbalance in the Ihh-PTHrP signaling pathway at this time point, reflected by an increase of Ihh and a concomitant decrease of PTHrP expression. An accelerated hypertrophic differentiation caused by a disturbed Ihh-PTHrP signaling pathway may lead to a higher bone mineral density in the vertebral bodies of newborn Col IX -/- mice and, as a result, to the early onset of disc degeneration.

  18. Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase IX by Ureidosulfonamide Inhibitor U104 Reduces Prostate Cancer Cell Growth, But Does Not Modulate Daunorubicin or Cisplatin Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Anne; Güttler, Antje; Haupt, Verena; Wichmann, Henri; Reime, Sarah; Bache, Matthias; Vordermark, Dirk; Thews, Oliver

    2018-03-05

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapy. It is highly upregulated in hypoxic regions and mediates pH regulation critical for tumor cell survival as well as extracellular acidification of the tumor microenvironment, which promotes tumor aggressiveness via various mechanisms, such as augmenting metastatic potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the complex interdependency between CA IX and the tumor microenvironment in prostate tumor cells with regard to potential therapeutic implications. CA IX was upregulated by hypoxia as well as acidosis in prostate cancer cells. This induction did not modulate intracellular pH but led to extracellular acidification. Pharmacological inhibition of CA IX activity by U104 (SLC-0111) resulted in a reduction in tumor cell growth and an increase in apoptotic cell death. Intracellular pH was reduced under normoxic and even more so under hypoxic conditions when CA IX level was high. However, although intracellular pH regulation was disturbed, targeting CA IX in combination with daunorubicin or cisplatin did not intensify apoptotic tumor cell death. Hence, targeting CA IX in prostate cancer cells can lead to intracellular pH dysregulation and, consequently, can reduce cellular growth and elevate apoptotic cell death. Attenuation of extracellular acidification by blocking CA IX might additionally impede tumor progression and metastasis. However, no beneficial effect was seen when targeting CA IX in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs.

  19. Teachers Class Size, Job Satisfaction and Morale in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied staff class size, job satisfaction and morale in some secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teacher class size and workload were used as independent variables while the dependent variables were students' academic performance, teacher satisfaction and morale. Out of the ...

  20. The rates and patterns of deletions in the human factor IX gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.L.; Lind, T.J.; Thorland, E.C.; Sommer S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Deletions are commonly observed in genes with either segments of highly homologous sequences or excessive gene length. However, in the factor IX gene and in most genes, deletions (of [ge]21 bp) are uncommon. The authors have analyzed DNA from 290 families with hemophilia B (203 independent mutations) and have found 12 deletions >20 bp. Eleven of these are >2 kb (range >3-163 kb), and one is 1.1 kb. The junctions of the four deletions that are completely contained within the factor IX gene have been determined. A novel mutation occurred in patient HB128: the data suggest that a 26.8-kb deletion occurred between two segments of alternating purines and pyrimidines and that a 2.3-kb sense strand segment derived from the deleted region was inserted. For a sample of 203 independent mutations, the authors estimate the [open quotes]baseline[close quotes] rates of deletional mutation per base pair per generation as a function of size. The rate for large (>2 kb)I deletions is exceedingly low. For every mutational event in which a given base is at the junction of a large deletion, there are an estimated 58 microdeletions (<20 bp) and 985 single-base substitutions at that base. Analysis of the nine reported deletion junctions in the factor IX gene literature reveals that (i) five are associated with inversion, orphan sequences, or sense strand insertions; (ii) four are simple deletions that display an excess of short direct repeats at their junctions; (iii) there is no dramatic clustering of junctions within the gene; and (iv) with the exception of alternating purines and pyrimidines, deletion junctions are not preferentially associated with repetitive DNA. 58 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Comparison of Ares I-X Wind-Tunnel Derived Buffet Environment with Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV), launched in October 2009, carried with it over 243 buffet verification pressure sensors and was one of the most heavily instrumented launch vehicle flight tests. This flight test represented a unique opportunity for NASA and its partners to compare the wind-tunnel derived buffet environment with that measured during the flight of Ares I-X. It is necessary to define the launch vehicle buffet loads to ensure that structural components and vehicle subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins when the vehicle structural dynamic response to buffet forcing functions are considered. Ares I-X buffet forcing functions were obtained via wind-tunnel testing of a rigid buffet model (RBM) instrumented with hundreds of unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment across the desired frequency range. This paper discusses the comparison of RBM and FTV buffet environments, including fluctuating pressure coefficient and normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-mean-square magnitudes, frequency content of power-spectral density functions, and force magnitudes of an alternating flow phenomena. Comparison of wind-tunnel model and flight test vehicle buffet environments show very good agreement with root-mean-square magnitudes of buffet forcing functions at the majority of vehicle stations. Spectra proved a challenge to compare because of different wind-tunnel and flight test conditions and data acquisition rates. However, meaningful and promising comparisons of buffet spectra are presented. Lastly, the buffet loads resulting from the transition of subsonic separated flow to supersonic attached flow were significantly over-predicted by wind-tunnel results.

  2. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  3. The 3d84s-3d84p transitions in Br IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, X.T.; Jupen, C.; Livingston, A.E.; Westerlind, M.; Engstroem, L.; Martinson, I.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of bromine was studied in the region 450-1100 A, using the beam-foil method with 6 MeV ions from a tandem accelerator. On the basis of isoelectronic extrapolations and theoretical calculations, 32 lines were classified as transitions between the 3p 6 3d 8 4s and 3p 6 3d 8 4p configurations of Co-like BrIX. Fo the 16 possible 4s levels 13 have been located, and 11 new 4p levels have been added to the previously known ones. Only 4 of all the 4p levels (45 in total) remain to be found. (orig.)

  4. Syntheses of protoporphyrin-IX regioselectivity carbon-13 labelled at the alpha-vinyl carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.M.; Fujinari, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    A method for transformation of readily available beta-vinyl 99% carbon-13 enriched derivatives of protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester into the less accessible alpha-vinyl labelled isomers is described. The procedure involves thallium(III) promoted vinyl carbon rearrangement, and proceeds through 2,2-dimethoxyethyl, formylmethyl, 2-hydroxyethyl and 2-chloroethyl porphyrins; the rearranged vinyl groups are regenerated from 2-chloroethyl in the last step by treatment with base. No evidence of vinyl carbon scrambling in the sequence is observed, and spectroscopic data of the products are given. (author)

  5. Prophylactic use of factor IX concentrate in a Jehovah's Witness patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Daniel; Sreeram, Gautam; Duncan, Alexander; Molinaro, Ross J; Szlam, Fania; Chen, Edward P; Tanaka, Kenichi A

    2009-11-01

    In Jehovah's Witness patients, the use of red blood cells, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma is not optional. Various blood conservation techniques are available, but complex cardiac surgery remains a major challenge. The feasibility of fractions of "primary components" has not been fully considered in published case reports. For Jehovah's Witness patients who preoperatively give consent, factor IX concentrates may be acceptable for hemostatic therapy. We hereby describe a combination of "secondary components" to prevent excessive bleeding in a Jehovah's Witness patient undergoing complex replacement of the aortic arch.

  6. IX Simposio Ibérico sobre Nutrición Mineral de las Plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Abadía Bayona, Javier

    2003-01-01

    Del 10 al 13 de Septiembre de 2002 se celebró el IX Simposio Ibérico sobre Nutrición Mineral de las Plantas en el Campus de Aula Dei de Zaragoza. El Simposio se realizó bajo los auspicios de la Sociedad Española de Fisiología Vegetal, el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), el Instituto Agronómico Mediterráneo de Zaragoza-Centro Internacional de Altos Estudios Agronómicos Mediterráneos (CIHEAM-IAMZ), la Asociación Internacional para la Optimización de...

  7. Spectral analysis of the 4d96s configuration in eight times ionized xenon, Xe IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raineri, M.; Gallardo, M.; Reyna Almandos, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    A capillary light source was used to observe the spectrum of eight times ionized xenon, Xe IX, in the vacuum ultraviolet range, 270-2000 A. Sixteen transitions have been identified as combinations between energy levels of the 4d 9 6s with 4d 9 5p configuration, and all 4d 9 6s levels have been determined. The present analysis is based on an accurate extrapolation of energy parameters and experimental energy level values in the Pd I isoelectronic sequence. The energy parameters were obtained with Hartree-Fock relativistic calculations. Least-squares parametric calculation has been carried out to study the fit between experimental and theoretical values

  8. Weighted oscillator strengths and lifetimes for the S IX and S X spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, F.O.; Cavalcanti, G.H.; Trigueiros, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    The weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and the lifetimes presented in this work were carried out in a multi configuration Hartree-Fock relativistic (HFR) approach. In this calculation, the electrostatic parameters were optimized by a least-squares procedure, in order to improve the adjustment to experimental energy levels. This method produces gf-values that are in better agreement with intensity observations and lifetime values that are closer to the experimental ones. In this work, we presented all the experimentally known electric dipole S IX and S X spectral lines

  9. The Ripple Effect of Title IX on Women's Health Issues: Treating an Increasingly Active Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mees, Patricia D

    2003-04-01

    Perhaps no area in sports medicine has changed as dramatically in the last 30 years as women's health. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in all curricular and extracurricular activities at educational institutions that receive federal funding. Before 1972, many assumed that women were not interested in sports and that there was no need to provide programs for girls and women, and most primary care physicians had little experience in treating female athletes and other active women.

  10. Collateral patient doses in the Varian 21iX radiotherapy Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquero, R.; Castillo, A. del

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiotherapy aim is to irradiate the patient tumor cells while the doses in healthy tissue remains as low as possible. Nevertheless, when high photon energy accelerators are used, collateral undesired photon and neutron doses are always implied during the treatments and became more important with the new accelerators and techniques as IMRT. To assess secondary cancer risk outside the treatment volume as a long-term medical consequence of treatments, the total doses received by each patient outside the primary field during his treatment must be estimated. To achieve this purpose photon and neutron dose equivalents Hp(10) and H*(10) has been measured in a new Varian 21iX with maximum photon energy of 15 MV placed recently in our radiotherapy department. Three devices: 1) a neutron dose rate meter BERTHOLD LB 4111 calibrated recently in the German PTB laboratory, 2) a calibrated environmental pressurized photon ionization chamber (IC) VICTOREEN 450-PI n/s 1020, and 3) a calibrated personal electronic photon dosimeter GAMMACOM 4200M, were placed above the treatment couch outside the primary field while the Varian 21iX reference test were done. In particular the photon and neutron doses in the couch were measured while a water phantom was irradiated during automatic beam data acquisition for a 15 MV beam. A complete set of measurements changing field size are made. These 15 MV results are compared with data measured previously by thermoluminescence and bubble dosimeters in the same facility for an Elekta Precise and a Siemens KDS both with maximum photon energy of 18 MV. From this the benefits in the patient collateral doses of decreasing the maximum treatment photon energy are discussed. The patient doses obtained in the Varian 21iX had values that go from 80 to 800 uSv per treatment Gray. As the Varian 21iX therapy Linac is operated in pulsed mode with short pulse length the discussion of the results includes: 1. The correction of dead time in the GM

  11. Unity in John 17 and in IQS I-IX: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. de Wet

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The unity theme as it is found in John 17 and in IQS I-IX provides sufficient comparative material to give an indication of the extent to which John�s theology flourished within the contemporary Jewish context. It is argued that the events surrounding Christ constituted for John the central point of orientation according to which the typical Jewish ideas could be interpreted and reformulated. It is finally concluded that, according to this radical and exclusive Christian dynamic approach, certain elements within Judaism, also found among members of the Qumran community, were reinterpreted, while others were either continued or discontinued.

  12. Variabilidade espacial de atributos físicos de solo usada na identificação de classes pedológicas de microbacias na Amazônia meridional Spatial variability of soil physical attributes used for soil mapping in small headwater catchments of the southern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Novaes Filho

    2007-02-01

    identifying pedologic classes in undisturbed forested headwater catchments by examining the spatial variability of soil texture and color, and taking elevation and topographic position into consideration. The spatial variability of soil texture and color were determined for 185 georeferenced sample points from a 20 x 20 m grid over the four headwater catchments. By sampling each location at depths of 0-20 and 40-60 cm it was possible to distinguish and map the principle soil classes found in the study area to the 2nd category level of the Brazilian System of Soil Classification, associated with the topographic relief. A satisfactory relationship between the redness index of the diagnostic horizons and the soil class colors was also found. The small headwater catchments contained the soil classes Plintossolos and Argissolos (of plinthic character at altitudes below 280 m, and Latossolos at higher elevations. In this way, the use of geostatistics to map soil classes proved effective, as well as to estimate the precision of the resulting maps. Nevertheless, pedologic knowledge and a follow-up field validation of the resulting maps are necessary for an application as well as adjustments to the geostatistical models.

  13. Probabilistic Estimation of Critical Flaw Sizes in the Primary Structure Welds of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Hoge, Peter A.; Patel, B. M.; Nagpal, Vinod K.

    2009-01-01

    The primary structure of the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) launch vehicle is constructed of welded mild steel plates. There is some concern over the possibility of structural failure due to welding flaws. It was considered critical to quantify the impact of uncertainties in residual stress, material porosity, applied loads, and material and crack growth properties on the reliability of the welds during its pre-flight and flight. A criterion--an existing maximum size crack at the weld toe must be smaller than the maximum allowable flaw size--was established to estimate the reliability of the welds. A spectrum of maximum allowable flaw sizes was developed for different possible combinations of all of the above listed variables by performing probabilistic crack growth analyses using the ANSYS finite element analysis code in conjunction with the NASGRO crack growth code. Two alternative methods were used to account for residual stresses: (1) The mean residual stress was assumed to be 41 ksi and a limit was set on the net section flow stress during crack propagation. The critical flaw size was determined by parametrically increasing the initial flaw size and detecting if this limit was exceeded during four complete flight cycles, and (2) The mean residual stress was assumed to be 49.6 ksi (the parent material s yield strength) and the net section flow stress limit was ignored. The critical flaw size was determined by parametrically increasing the initial flaw size and detecting if catastrophic crack growth occurred during four complete flight cycles. Both surface-crack models and through-crack models were utilized to characterize cracks in the weld toe.

  14. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  15. Factor IX[sub Madrid 2]: A deletion/insertion in Facotr IX gene which abolishes the sequence of the donor junction at the exon IV-intron d splice site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solera, J. (Unidades de Genetica Molecular, Madrid (Spain)); Magallon, M.; Martin-Villar, J. (Hemofilia Hospital, Madrid (Spain)); Coloma, A. (Departamento deBioquimica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autonoma, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-02-01

    DNA from a patient with severe hemophilia B was evaluated by RFLP analysis, producing results which suggested the existence of a partial deletion within the factor IX gene. The deletion was further localized and characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing. The altered allele has a 4,442-bp deletion which removes both the donor splice site located at the 5[prime] end of intron d and the two last coding nucleotides located at the 3[prime] end of exon IV in the normal factor IX gene; this fragment has been inserted in inverted orientation. Two homologous sequences have been discovered at the ends of the deleted DNA fragment.

  16. Intracellular localization analysis of npAu-PpIX in HeLa cells using specific dyes and confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblero-Bartolón, Victoria Gabriela; Maldonado-Alvarado, Elizabeth; Galván-Mendoza, José Iván; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva

    2012-10-01

    Cervical carcinoma (CC) represents the second leading cause of cancer death in Mexican women. No conventional treatments are being developed such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), involving the simultaneous presence of a photosensitizer (Ps), light of a specific wavelength and tissue oxygen. On the other hand, it has seen that the use of gold nanoparticles coupled to protoporphyrin IX increases the effectiveness of PDT. The aim of this study was to determine the site of accumulation of the conjugate npAu-PpIX in cells of cervical cancer by the use of specific dyes and confocal microscopy. The results indicate that the gold nanoparticles coupled to protoporphyrin IX are accumulated in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of HeLa cells.

  17. Tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.A.; Jesty, J.

    1984-01-01

    A comparism was made of the tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in a human plasma system and a study was made of the role of proteases known to stimulate factor VII activity. Plasma was defibrinated by heating and depleted of its factors IX and X by passing it through antibody columns. Addition of human brain thromboplastin, Ca2+, and purified 3H-labeled factor X to the plasma resulted, after a short lag, in burst-like activation of the factor X, measured as the release of radiolabeled activation peptide. The progress of activation was slowed by both heparin and a specific inhibitor of factor Xa but factor X activation could not be completely abolished by such inhibitors. In the case of 3H-factor IX activation, the rate also increased for approximately 3 min after addition of thromboplastin, but was not subsequently curtailed. A survey of proteases implicated as activators of factor VII in other settings showed that both factor Xa and factor IXa could accelerate the activation of factor IX. However, factor Xa was unique in obliterating activation when present at concentrations greater than approximately 1 nM. Heparin inhibited the tissue factor-dependent activation of factor IX almost completely, apparently through the effect of antithrombin on the feedback reactions of factors Xa and IXa on factor VII. These results suggest that a very tight, biphasic control of factor VII activity exists in human plasma, which is modulated mainly by factor Xa. At saturation of factor VIIa/tissue factor, factor IX activation was significantly more rapid than was previously found in bovine plasma under similar conditions. The activation of factor X at saturation was slightly more rapid than in bovine plasma, despite the presence of heparin

  18. The Bolgary IX settlement – a site of the Ananyino finale in the vicinity of Perm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva Anastasia V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents materials recovered from the Bolgary IX settlement, attributed to the late Ananyino group of sites, discovered in the vicinity of the city of Perm on the left bank of the Kama River. The structures thus found were interpreted by the authors as, presumably, a dwelling (? and a cult building. The pre-Ananyino cult buildings are well known by two hillforts – Zuevy Klychi-1 on the Lower Kama and Argyzh on the Vyatka River. Small clay figurines, arrow heads, spindle whorls, small oblational cups and household ceramics were found within the cult buildings. Household ceramics are represented by some typical late Ananyino vessel forms: mainly bowls with a closed throat, sometimes with profiled pronounced neck. Some vessels have a collar on the rim. Ornamentation of the vessels includes versatile corded, combed and recessed compositions. The Bolgary IX material culture is considered in complex with simultaneous Protasy burial ground, which is located on a nearby promontory and has similar ceramics among the grave goods. This complex of sites (the settlement and the burial ground is dated back to 3rd-2nd centuries BC and is related by the authors to the period of transition from the Ananyino to the Glyadenovo cultures in the Kama River region.

  19. Computational study of the solvation of protoporphyrin IX and its Fe2+ complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizado, Teobaldo Cuya; Pita, Samuel Da Rocha; Louro, Sonia R. Wanderley; Pascutti, Pedro Geraldo

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a well known hydrophobic structure, the heme (ferroprotoporphyrin IX) and its precursor in the heme synthesis, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) are presented. The objective of the present study is to determine the stability of both structures in an aqueous medium, as well as the structure-solvent relation, hydration shells, and discuss their implications for biological processes. The density functional theory (DFT) is used for the electronic and structural characterization of both PPIX and its Fe2+ complex. A classical approach based on the Gromacs package is used for the MD. The radial distribution function g(r) is used to examine the allocation of water molecules around different regions of the porphyrins. The calculations demonstrate the heterogeneous character of the porphyrins with respect to the affinity with water molecules, the general hydrophobic character of the porphyrin ring bonded or not to the ion Fe, the hydrophilic character of the carboxylic oxygen that is unchanged upon iron binding, and the low hydrophilicity of Fe2+ in the heme.

  20. Improving contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX for high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Kakeda, Shingo; Yoneda, Tetsuya; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro; Shimajiri, Shohei; Tanaka, Tohru; Korogi, Yukunori; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a gadolinium-based contrast agent is the gold standard for high-grade gliomas (HGGs). The compound 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) undergoes a high rate of cellular uptake, particularly in cancer cells. In addition, fluorescence-guided resection with 5-ALA is widely used for imaging HGGs. 5-ALA is water soluble, while protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is water insoluble. It was speculated whether converting from 5-ALA to PpIX may relatively increase intracellular water content, and consequently, might enhance the T2 signal intensity in HGG. The aim of the present study was to assess whether 5-ALA-induced PpIX enhances the T2 signal intensity in patients with HGGs. A total of 4 patients who were candidates for HGG surgical treatment were prospectively analyzed with preoperative MRI. Patients received oral doses of 5-ALA (20 mg/kg) 3 h prior to anesthesia. At 2.5 h post-5-ALA administration, T2-weighted images (T2WIs) were obtained from all patients. Subsequently, tumors were evaluated via fluorescence using a modified operating microscope. Fluorescent tumor tissues were obtained to analyze the accumulation of 5-ALA-induced PpIX within the tumors, which was confirmed quantitatively by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The MRI T2 signal intensity within the tumors was evaluated prior to and following 5-ALA administration. Three glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) and 1 anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) were included in the analysis. Intraoperatively, all GBMs exhibited strong fluorescence of 5-ALA-induced PpIX, whilst no fluorescence was observed in the AO sample. HPLC analysis indicated a higher accumulation of 5-ALA-induced PpIX in the GBM samples compared with the AO sample. In total, 48 regions of interest were identified within the tumors from T2-WIs. In the GBM group, the relative T2 signal intensity value within the tumors following 5-ALA administration was significantly increased compared with the T2 signal

  1. Optical Observations of M81 Galaxy Group in Narrow Band [SII] and H_alpha Filters: Holmberg IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina, B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the nearby tidal dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX in M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and H$alpha$ filters, carried out in March and November 2008 with the 2m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for resident supernova remnants (identified as sources with enhanced [SII] emission relative to their H$alpha$ emission in this galaxy yielded no sources of this kind, besides M&H 10-11 or HoIX X-1. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant H$alpha$ emission that probably represent uncatalogued HII regions.

  2. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous x-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the...

  3. Quantitative model calculation of the time-dependent protoporphyrin IX concentration in normal human epidermis after delivery of ALA by passive topical application or lontophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, Willem M.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Sac, Arnoldo; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a mathematical layer model to quantitatively calculate the diffusion of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in the skin in vivo, its uptake into the cells and its conversion to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and subsequently to heme. The model is a modification and extension of a recently presented

  4. The scorpion toxin Bot IX is a potent member of the α-like family and has a unique N-terminal sequence extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Salvatierra, Juan; Bosmans, Frank; Bougis, Pierre E

    2016-09-01

    We report the detailed chemical, immunological and pharmacological characterization of the α-toxin Bot IX from the Moroccan scorpion Buthus occitanus tunetanus venom. Bot IX, which consists of 70 amino acids, is a highly atypical toxin. It carries a unique N-terminal sequence extension and is highly lethal in mice. Voltage clamp recordings on oocytes expressing rat Nav1.2 or insect BgNav1 reveal that, similar to other α-like toxins, Bot IX inhibits fast inactivation of both variants. Moreover, Bot IX belongs to the same structural/immunological group as the α-like toxin Bot I. Remarkably, radioiodinated Bot IX competes efficiently with the classical α-toxin AaH II from Androctonus australis, and displays one of the highest affinities for Nav channels. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  6. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  7. Efficacy of a high-purity factor IX concentrate in hemophilia B patients undergoing surgery Eficácia do concentrado de alta pureza do fator IX em pacientes cirúrgicos portadores de hemofilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Rasi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A plasma derived, high purity, solvent-detergent treated and subsequently nanofiltered factor IX concentrate (BEMOFIL was evaluated in 19 hemophilia B patients, including four with severe, thirteen with mild or moderate type of disease and two hemophilia B carriers undergoing 31 surgical procedures. The mean in vivo recovery was 52 %, range 36 - 76 %. The mean preoperative plasma factor IX activity after the initial loading dose was 0.86 IU mL-1, range 0.59 - 1.32 IU mL-1. In eight major orthopedic procedures, the mean usage of factor IX was 44600 IU or 574 IU kg-1 during the hospital stay, mean 11.6 days. Thromboprophylaxis was not used. The hemostatic efficacy was evaluated good in all cases and there were no thromboembolic complications. In conclusion, BEMOFIL used as bolus dosing was found to be safe and effective in achieving hemostasis in subjects with hereditary F IX deficiency undergoing surgery.O concentrado de fator IX ( Bemofil , um derivado plasmático de alta pureza tratado com solventes- detergente e nano-filtrado , foi avaliado em 19 pacientes portadores de Hemofilia B .Quatro pacientes apresentavam a forma grave da moléstia, 13 a forma leve e moderada e dois portadores em um total de 31 atos cirúrgicos.A recuperação média "in vivo" foi de 52% (36-76%. A atividade plasmática média pré-operatória do fator IX após a dose inicial foi de 0,86 UI ml -1 , média de 0,59 - 1,32 UI ml-1. Em oito procedimentos ortopédicos extensos , a média de utilização do fator IX foi de 44.600 UI ou 574 UI kg -1 durante a hospitalização que teve a média de 11,6 dias. A tromboprofilaxia não foi utilizada. A eficácia hemostática avaliada em todos os casos foi boa ,e não ocorreu nenhum tipo de complicação tromboembólica. Concluímos que o Bemofil em bolus foi considerado seguro e eficaz para a hemostasia em pacientes portadores de hemofilia B que necessitam de um procedimento cirúrgico.

  8. In silico evaluation of limited blood sampling strategies for individualized recombinant factor IX prophylaxis in hemophilia B patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preijers, T.; Hazendonk, H. C. A. M.; Fijnvandraat, K.; Leebeek, F. W. G.; Cnossen, M. H.; Mathôt, R. A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with severe hemophilia B regularly administer prophylactic intravenous doses of clotting factor IX concentrate to maintain a trough level of at least 0.01 IU mL(-1) in order to prevent joint bleeds. Assessment of individual pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters allows individualization

  9. PHKA2 mutation spectrum in Korean patients with glycogen storage disease type IX: prevalence of deletion mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Rihwa; Park, Hyung-Doo; Kang, Ben; Choi, So Yoon; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Soo-Youn; Kim, Jong-Won; Song, Junghan; Choe, Yon Ho

    2016-04-21

    Molecular diagnosis of glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) is important to enable accurate diagnoses and make appropriate therapeutic plans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PHKA2 mutation spectrum in Korean patients with GSD type IX. Thirteen Korean patients were tested for PHKA2 mutations using direct sequencing and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. A comprehensive review of the literature on previously reported PHKA2 mutations in other ethnic populations was conducted for comparison. Among 13 patients tested, six unrelated male patients with GSD IX aged 2 to 6 years at the first diagnostic work-up for hepatomegaly with elevated aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were found to have PHKA2 mutations. These patients had different PHKA2 mutations: five were known mutations (c.537 + 5G > A, c.884G > A [p.Arg295His], c.3210_3212delGAG [p.Arg1072del], exon 8 deletion, and exons 27-33 deletion) and one was a novel mutation (exons 18-33 deletion). Notably, the most common type of mutation was gross deletion, in contrast to other ethnic populations in which the most common mutation type was sequence variant. This study expands our knowledge of the PHKA2 mutation spectrum of GSD IX. Considering the PHKA2 mutation spectrum in Korean patients with GSD IX, molecular diagnostic methods for deletions should be conducted in conjunction with direct sequence analysis to enable accurate molecular diagnosis of this disease in the Korean population.

  10. Rifampicin-dependent antibodies bind a similar or identical epitope to glycoprotein IX-specific quinine-dependent antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, Janette K.; Lopez, Jose A.; Gaudry, Leonie E.; Chong, Beng H.

    2000-01-01

    The drug-dependent antibody of a patient with rifampicin-induced thrombocytopenia was characterized using the antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAIPA assay), flow cytometry, and immunoprecipitation. The antibody was found to bind glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX but not GPIIb-IIIa because

  11. Identification of genes encoding the type IX secretion system and secreted proteins in Flavobacterium columnare IA-S-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes, causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. Many members of the phylum Bacteroidetes use type IX secretion systems (T9SSs) to secrete enzymes...

  12. Egg-Citing! Isolation of Protoporphyrin IX from Brown Eggshells and Its Detection by Optical Spectroscopy and Chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Michelle L.; Miller, Tyson A.; Bruckner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective laboratory experiment is described that extracts protoporphyrin IX from brown eggshells. The porphyrin is characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. A chemiluminescence reaction (peroxyoxalate ester fragmentation) is performed that emits light in the UV region. When the porphyrin extract is added as a fluor…

  13. Gene therapy with adeno-associated virus vector 5-human factor IX in adults with hemophilia B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miesbach, Wolfgang; Meijer, Karina; Coppens, Michiel

    2018-01-01

    Hemophilia B gene therapy aims to ameliorate bleeding risk and provide endogenous factor IX (FIX) activity/synthesis through a single treatment, eliminating the requirement for FIX concentrate. AMT-060 combines an adeno-associated virus-5 (AAV5) vector with a liver-specific promoter driving expre...

  14. Comparison of adenovirus fiber, protein IX, and hexon capsomeres as scaffolds for vector purification and cell targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Samuel K.; Barry, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The direct genetic modification of adenoviral capsid proteins with new ligands is an attractive means to confer targeted tropism to adenoviral vectors. Although several capsid proteins have been reported to tolerate the genetic fusion of foreign peptides and proteins, direct comparison of cell targeting efficiencies through the different capsomeres has been lacking. Likewise, direct comparison of with one or multiple ligands has not been performed due to a lack of capsid-compatible ligands available for retargeting. Here we utilize a panel of metabolically biotinylated Ad vectors to directly compare targeted transduction through the fiber, protein IX, and hexon capsomeres using a variety of biotinylated ligands including antibodies, transferrin, EGF, and cholera toxin B. These results clearly demonstrate that cell targeting with a variety of high affinity receptor-binding ligands is only effective when transduction is redirected through the fiber protein. In contrast, protein IX and hexon-mediated targeting by the same set of ligands failed to mediate robust vector targeting, perhaps due to aberrant trafficking at the cell surface or inside targeted cells. These data suggest that vector targeting by genetic incorporation of high affinity ligands will likely be most efficient through modification of the adenovirus fiber rather than the protein IX and hexon capsomeres. In contrast, single-step monomeric avidin affinity purification of Ad vectors using the metabolic biotinylation system is most effective through capsomeres like protein IX and hexon

  15. "Prompt and Equitable" Explained: How to Craft a Title IX Compliant Sexual Harassment Policy and Why It Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    An April 2011 "Dear Colleague" letter issued by the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights provided new guidance related to Title IX and the civil rights violation inherent in sexual harassment cases. Using the "Dear Colleague" letter as a guide, this article will provide best practice suggestions to remedy…

  16. Enhancing Title Ix Due Process Standards in Campus Sexual Assault Adjudication: Considering the Roles of Distributive, Procedural, and Restorative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shannon; Maskaly, Jon; Kirkner, Anne; Lorenz, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Title IX prohibits sex discrimination--including sexual assault--in higher education. The Department of Education Office for Civil Rights' 2011 "Dear Colleague Letter" outlines recommendations for campus sexual assault adjudication allowing a variety of procedures that fail to protect accused students' due process rights and victims'…

  17. Up-Regulation of the Inflammatory Response by Ovariectomy in Collagen-Induced Arthritis. Effects of Tin Protoporphyrin IX.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibanez, L.; Alcaraz, M.J.; Maicas Blasco, N.; Guede, D.; Caeiro, J.R.; Koenders, M.I.; Berg, W.B. van den; Ferrandiz, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the influence of ovariectomy on the inflammatory response and bone metabolism on CIA as a model of postmenopausal arthritis as well as the effects of tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), a heme oxygenase inhibitor. Ovariectomy in non-arthritic mice produced increased serum PGD(2) levels and

  18. High overexpression of dye decolorizing peroxidase TfuDyP leads to the incorporation of heme precursor protoporphyrin IX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colpa, Dana I.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights • Dye decolorizing peroxidase TfuDyP binds heme and protoporphyrin IX in vivo. • The activity of TfuDyP is dependent on the expression level in E. coli. • Expression of fully functional DyPs can be tuned by the type of expression host and expression conditions. The heterologous

  19. Delta Scuti variables. Lecture 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The class of variables near or on the upper main sequence, the delta Scuti variables, are not only the usual ones about the masses, radii, and luminosities, but also the age, rotation, element diffusion to change the surface layer composition, the occurance of convection and the presence of radial and nonradial pulsation modes

  20. X-ray spectral line coincidences between fluorine VIII (and IX) and transition metal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charatis, G.; Rockett, P.D.; Burkhalter, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy was performed in the 12 to 15 A region, recording L-shell lines from selected laser-irradiated transition metals. Line coincidences and near coincidences were identified between Fe, Cr, Mn, and Ni L-spectra, and F VIII and F IX K-shell lines. Wavelengths were determined to accuracies of 1 to 3 mA and will be utilized in selecting potential pumping candidates in future x-ray lasing schemes. High-resolution x-ray spectra were collected under controlled illumination and target conditions using 1.05 μm and 0.527 μm laser excitation with the KMS CHROMA laser

  1. Simulation of an IXS imaging analyzer with an extended scattering source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvorov, Alexey [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II; Cai, Yong Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II

    2016-09-15

    A concept of an inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) spectrograph with an imaging analyzer was proposed recently and discussed in a number of publications (see e.g. Ref.1). The imaging analyzer as proposed combines x-ray lenses with highly dispersive crystal optics. It allows conversion of the x-ray energy spectrum into a spatial image with very high energy resolution. However, the presented theoretical analysis of the spectrograph did not take into account details of the scattered radiation source, i.e. sample, and its impact on the spectrograph performance. Using numerical simulations we investigated the influence of the finite sample thickness, the scattering angle and the incident energy detuning on the analyzer image and the ultimate resolution.

  2. Formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX in Parma-like ham without nitrate or nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Uemura, Juichi; Odagiri, Hiroko; Okui, Jun; Hayashi, Nobutaka; Hioki, Shoji; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito

    2009-04-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) is a characteristic red pigment in meat products that are manufactured without the addition of a curing agent such as nitrate or nitrite. To examine the effects of impurities such as mineral components in sea salt on the formation of ZPP, we manufactured Parmatype dry-cured hams that were salted with refined salt or sea salt and examined the involvement of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the formation of ZPP. The content of ZPP was increased drastically after 40 weeks. Microscopic observation showed strong fluorescence caused by ZPP muscle fiber after 40 weeks. Conversely, heme content varied considerably during processing. ORP increased during processing. However, there was no obvious difference between ham salted with refined salt and that salted with sea salt. Therefore, it was concluded that impurities in sea salt were not involved in the formation of ZPP.

  3. Proceedings of IX International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The Study Centre for Renewable Energy Technologies (CETER) located at the Technological University of Havana Jose Antonio Echeverria (CUJAE) Cuba hosted the IX International Renewable Energy Conference, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2017). The current focus on Cuba's renewable energy sector is ambitious with the Government proposing to boost investment by USD 3.5 billion in order to reach its goal of generating 24 per cent of its power from renewable energy by 2030. CIER 2017 brought together hundreds of scientist, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users and other specialists from across the entire international renewable energy spectrum to exchange knowledge, debate and analyze the global efforts currently being carried out in the field. This is all with the objective of intensifying the introduction of renewable energy technologies and promoting the sustainable energetic development in Cuba and the Caribe.

  4. Campus Sexual Misconduct: Restorative Justice Approaches to Enhance Compliance With Title IX Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P; Wilgus, Jay K; Williamsen, Kaaren M

    2014-07-01

    Campus response to sexual violence is increasingly governed by federal law and administrative guidance such as the 1972 Title IX, the 2011 Dear Colleague Letter (DCL), and the 2013 Violence Against Women Act. Educational institutions are directed to expand disciplinary responses and establish coordinated action to eliminate sexual violence and remedy its effects. Compliance fosters a quasi-criminal justice approach not suited to all sexual misconduct and inconsistent with developing practice in student conduct management. This article envisions restorative justice (RJ) enhancements to traditional student conduct processes that maintain compliance, expand options, empower victim choice, and increase responsiveness to DCL aims. The article (1) defines sexual violence and sexual harassment within the DCL scope, (2) elaborates the DCL position on permissible alternative resolutions and differentiates mediation from RJ, (3) sequences action steps from case report to finalization, including both restorative and traditional justice pathways; and (4) discusses building support for innovation beginning with existing campus response. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Prolactin-stimulated mitogenesis in the Nb2 rat lymphoma cell: Lack of protoporphyrin IX effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrish, K.E.; Putnam, C.W.; Laird, H.E. II (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Pharmacological characterization of the Nb2 cell peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) was determined using selected 1,4-benzodiazepines, PK 11195, and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) to compete for specific ({sup 3}H) Ro5-4864 binding. These data suggest that PPIX possesses an affinity for the Nb2 cell PBR. We have previously reported that the peripheral benzodiazepine ligands, Ro5-4864 and PK 11195, modulate prolactin-stimulated mitogenesis in the Nb2 cell. In contrast, PPIX, a putative endogenous ligand for the PBR had no effect on prolactin-stimulated mitogenesis in the Nb2 cell over the concentration range from 10{sup {minus}15} M to 10{sup {minus}6} M. Taken together these data show that PPIX has an affinity for the Nb2 cell PBR but does not modulate prolactin-stimulated mitogenesis at concentrations which should bind to the Nb2 cell PBR.

  6. 5. IX avati Pärnus paralleelselt Eesti Litograafiakeskuse korraldatud litograafiasümpoosioniga...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Litograafiakeskuses litograafia ajalugu tutvustav näitus. Pärnu kontserdimajas noorte - Jaak Visnap, Inga Heamägi, Kadri Alesmaa, Marko Mäetamm, Viljar Kõiv, Lembe Ruben - litograafianäitus "New generation". Endla teatri näitusesaalides näitus "Old Stars" - esinevad Evi Tihemets, Marje Üksine, Raul Meel, Leonhard Lapin, Tiia Külv, Urmas Vaino, Herald Eelma. Teatri Küüni ja kohviku seintel noorte soome ja rootsi litograafide tööd. Pärnu mudaravilas ülevaade litokeskuse kursustel valminud töödest. Endises Linnagaleriis Rüütli t. näitus 6.-12. IX sümpoosioni raames toimunud workshop'ide töödest

  7. A scalable pairwise class interaction framework for multidimensional classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias, Jacinto; Gámez, Jose A.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2016-01-01

    We present a general framework for multidimensional classification that cap- tures the pairwise interactions between class variables. The pairwise class inter- actions are encoded using a collection of base classifiers (Phase 1), for which the class predictions are combined in a Markov random fie...

  8. In vitro evaluation of photodynamic therapy using redox-responsive nanoparticles carrying PpIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Leite, Ilaiáli; Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Lyles, Zachary; Salvador Bagnato, Vanderlei; Mayumi Inada, Natalia

    2018-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that combines light's interaction with a photoactive substance to promote cellular death and that has been used to treat a wide range of maladies. Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide and has been a central issue assessed by PDT research and clinical trials over the last 35 years, but its efficiency has been hampered by photosensitizer buildup at treatment site. Nanotechnology has been addressing drug delivery problems by the development of distinct nanostructured platforms capable of increasing pharmacological properties of molecules. The association of nanotechnology's potential to enhance photosensitizer delivery to target tissues with PDT's oxidative damage to induce cell death has been rising as a prospect to optimize cancer treatment. In this study, we aim to verify and compare the efficiency of PDT using redox-responsive silica-based nanoparticles carrying protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in vitro, in both tumor and healthy cells. Dose-response experiments revealed the higher susceptibility of murine melanoma cells (B16-F10 cell line) to PDT (630 nm, 50 J/cm2) when compared to human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn): after 24 h of incubation with 50 μg/mL nanoparticles solutions, approximately 80 % of B16- F10 cells were killed, while similar results were obtained in HDFn cultures when solutions over 150 μg/mL were used. Uptake and ROS generation assays suggest increased nanoparticle internalization in the tumor cell line, in comparison with the healthy cells, and greater ROS levels were observed in B16-F10 cells.

  9. Seth Nicholson's First Satellite Discovery: Jupiter IX and His Orbit for It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    2006-12-01

    Seth B. Nicholson was a graduate astronomy student at the University of California in Berkeley when he discovered his first satellite in 1914. He was later to discover three more, after he had joined the Mount Wilson Observatory staff following his PhD in 1915. Nicholson had begun his thesis on the problem of computing an improved orbit for J VIII, which had been discovered by Melotte in England in 1908, a distant irregular satellite like J VI and J VII. Nicholson was taking photographic plates to measure the position of J VIII in the summer of 1914 with the Crossley 36-inch reflector of Lick Observatory. He was a teaching assistant at Berkeley that summer, but would go up to Mount Hamilton to observe on weekends in the dark of the moon, traveling by rail, stage (an automobile on a regular schedule between San Jose and the observatory) and interurban trolley car, and sleeping in a shed near the Crossley dome. He first saw J IX as a much fainter object with the same motion as J VIII on a plate he took in late July 1914, and realized it must be another satellite of the giant planet. Nicholson obtained his first orbit of J IX, which had by then become his new thesis topic, in September, and published a paper on it in early 1915. Its orbit, like that of J VIII, was retrograde and irregular, but it was considerably fainter. Nicholson, a loyal student of Armin O. Leuschner, the head of the Berkeley Astronomy Division, used his teacher's "short method" (or analytic method) to calculate the orbit.

  10. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  11. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  12. Class Notes for "Class-Y-News."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Judy L.

    1991-01-01

    A self-contained class of students with mild to moderate disabilities published a monthly newsletter which was distributed to students' families. Students became involved in writing, typing, drawing, folding, basic editing, and disseminating. (JDD)

  13. Classed identities in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed The central argument of this thesis is that social class remains a persistent system of inequality in education, health, life chances and opportunities. Therefore class matters. But why is it that so little attention has been paid to class in the psychological literature? Three papers are presented here which draw together theoretical advances in psychological understandings of group processes and sociological understandings of the complexity of class. As western labour marke...

  14. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  15. Spectroscopic and computational studies of cobalamin species with variable lower axial ligation: implications for the mechanism of Co-C bond activation by class I cobalamin-dependent isomerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Karen S; Jordan, Christopher D; Brown, Kenneth L; Brunold, Thomas C

    2015-04-20

    5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12, AdoCbl) serves as the cofactor for several enzymes that play important roles in fermentation and catabolism. All of these enzymes initiate catalysis by promoting homolytic cleavage of the cofactor's Co-C bond in response to substrate binding to their active sites. Despite considerable research efforts, the role of the lower axial ligand in facilitating Co-C bond homolysis remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we characterized several derivatives of AdoCbl and its one-electron reduced form, Co(II)Cbl, by using electronic absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopies. To complement our experimental data, we performed computations on these species, as well as additional Co(II)Cbl analogues. The geometries of all species investigated were optimized using a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method, and the optimized geometries were used to compute absorption spectra with time-dependent density functional theory. Collectively, our results indicate that a reduction in the basicity of the lower axial ligand causes changes to the cofactor's electronic structure in the Co(II) state that replicate the effects seen upon binding of Co(II)Cbl to Class I isomerases, which replace the lower axial dimethylbenzimidazole ligand of AdoCbl with a protein-derived histidine (His) residue. Such a reduction of the basicity of the His ligand in the enzyme active site may be achieved through proton uptake by the catalytic triad of conserved residues, DXHXGXK, during Co-C bond homolysis.

  16. Activation of 125I-Factor IX and 125I-Factor X: Effect of tissue factor and Factor VII, Factor Xsub(a) and thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterud, B.; Rapaport, S.I.

    Activation of Factor IX and Factor X was studied by adding 125 I-Factor IX or 125 I-Factor X to reaction mixtures and quantitating cleavage products by reduced sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis. Thrombin failed to activate Factors IX or X; Factor Xsub(a) produced insignificant amounts of cleavage products of both factors. In contrast, the reaction product of tissue factor and Factor VII cleaved large amounts of both Factor IX and Factor X in purified systems and in plasma. In incubation mixtures of plasma containing added 125 I-Factor IX or 125 I-Factor X, tissue factor and Ca 2+ ions, the percentage of total radioactivity in the heavy chain peak of 125 I-IXsub(a) and the heavy chain of 125 I-Xsub(a) increased at a similar rate. When the tissue factor was diluted, similar curves were obtained for percent cleavage of 125 I-Factor IX and percent cleavage of 125 I-Factor X plotted against tissue factor concentration. These findings support the hypothesis that activation of Factor IX by the tissue factor-Factor VII reaction product represents a physiologically significant step in normal haemostasis. (author)

  17. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  18. Kinetic study of the substitution of pyridine by cyanide in the bis(pyridine)cobalt(III)hematoporphyrin-IX: distinguishing between Isub(d) and D mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birush, M.; Pribanicj, M.

    1977-01-01

    ''Mass-law (rate) retardation'' effect shows that the reaction between the cyanide ion and bis(pyridine)cobalt(III)hematoporphyrin-IX complex to give (CN) 2 cobalt(III)hematoporphyrin-IX occurs by a purely dissociative (D but not Isub(d)) mechanism in chloroform. Limiting rate constant at the excess of cyanide ion concentration at 25 deg C was found to be 2.5x10 -3 S -1 and the competition ratio of pyridine (ksub(-) 1 ) and the cyanide ion (k 2 ) for a five coordinate intermediate (pyridin) cobalt(III)hematoporphyrin-IX complex was obtained as ksub(-) 1 /k 2 =0.35. (author)

  19. Optimalisasi Prestasi Belajar Materi Elektromagnet dengan Menggunakan Pendekatan Eksperimen dalam Pembelajaran IPA pada Peserta Didik Kelas IX A SMP Negeri 3 Teras Semester Gasal Kabupaten Boyolali Tahun Pelajaran 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiharjo Budiharjo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research purpose is to describe about effort to increase learning achievement giving task autonomous structure in learning electromagnet material of the student’s class IX A SMP Negeri 3 Teras Boyolali regency semester 2011/2012. Subject and data source of the research the students class IX A sum 40 students. Collecting data method uses observation, documentation and test. Analysis data uses critic and comparative. Reaching indicator uses KKM 63 and complete target 100%. Research procedure uses cycles. According to achievement of the research and review conclusion if observation result of the teacher in learning from they teach material in the class that gets pre cycle to cycle II shows pre cycle is 50%, cycle I is 74,43% and cycle II is 97,15%. From data shows advance from pre cycle to cycle I is 12,86%, so cycle I to cycle II increases 25,72% and pre cycle to cycle II is 38,58%. Hence, result observation of the teacher in learning shows advance significant. Result observation of the teacher prepares class to learning, data get pre cycle to cycle II, it get advance at pre cycle is 56%, cycle I is 80% and cycle II is 94%. From this data shows advance from pre cycle to cycle I is 24%, so cycle I to cycle II advance 14% and pre cycle to cycle II is 38%. Hence, result observation of the teacher prepares class to learning shows significant. Percentage optimum motivation pre cycle step gets 45%, cycle I is 85% and cycle II is 100%. Hence, it increases from pre cycle to cycle I is 40%, cycle I to cycle II increases 15% and pre cycle to cycle II increases 55%. Hence, motivation of the student in physics learning from pre cycle to cycle II is significant. Percentage learning complete from pre cycle gets 62,5% and cycle I is 67,5% and cycle II is 100%. Pre cycle step to cycle I increases 15% from cycle I to cycle II is 22,5% and Pre cycle to cycle II increases 37,5%. Hence, physics learning achievement of the student from pre cycle to cycle II are

  20. Killing malignant melanoma cells with protoporphyrin IX-loaded polymersome-mediated photodynamic therapy and cold atmospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mian Wang,1 Benjamin M Geilich,2 Michael Keidar,3 Thomas J Webster1,4 1Department of Chemical Engineering, 2Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, 3Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA; 4Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Traditional cancer treatments contain several limitations such as incomplete ablation and multidrug resistance. It is known that photodynamic therapy (PDT is an effective treatment for several tumor types especially melanoma cells. During the PDT process, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, an effective photosensitizer, can selectively kill cancer cells by activating a special light source. When tumor cells encapsulate a photosensitizer, they can be easily excited into an excited state by a light source. In this study, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP was used as a novel light source. Results of some studies have showed that cancer cells can be effectively killed by using either a light source or an individual treatment due to the generation of reactive oxygen species and electrons from a wide range of wavelengths, which suggest that CAP can act as a potential light source for anticancer applications compared with UV light sources. Results of the present in vitro study indicated for the first time that PpIX can be successfully loaded into polymersomes. Most importantly, cell viability studies revealed that PpIX-loaded polymersomes had a low toxicity to healthy fibroblasts (20% were killed at a concentration of 400 µg/mL, but they showed a great potential to selectively kill melanoma cells (almost 50% were killed. With the application of CAP posttreatment, melanoma cell viability significantly decreased (80% were killed compared to not using a light source (45% were killed or using a UV light source (65% were killed. In summary, these results indicated for the

  1. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...... practice. Further, the article explores this theoretical framework in a multiple correspondence analysis of a Danish survey, demonstrating how class and political practices are indeed homologous. However, the analysis also points at several elements of field autonomy, and the concluding discussion...

  2. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  3. Culture and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri

    2017-12-01

    A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting...

  5. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy. The pa....... The paper also raises questions about how sociological discourses may contribute to the veiling of class....

  6. Two-peaked 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence emission spectrum distinguishes glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcel, Bruno; Mahieu-Williame, Laurent; Armoiry, Xavier; Meyronet, David; Guyotat, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence enables to guiding in intra-operative surgical glioma resection. However at present, it has yet to be shown that this method is able to identify infiltrative component of glioma. In extracted tumor tissues we measured a two-peaked emission in low grade gliomas and in the infiltrative component of glioblastomas due to multiple photochemical states of PpIX. The second emission peak appearing at 620 nm (shifted by 14 nm from the main peak at 634 nm) limits the sensibility of current methods to measured PpIX concentration. We propose new measured parameters, by taking into consideration the two-peaked emission, to overcome these limitations in sensitivity. These parameters clearly distinguish the solid component of glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas.

  7. Bianchi IX dynamics in bouncing cosmologies: homoclinic chaos and the BKL conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Rodrigo; Damião Soares, Ivano; Valentino Tonini, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    We examine the dynamics of a Bianchi IX model with three scale factors on a 4-dim Lorentzian brane embedded in a 5-dim conformally flat empty bulk with a timelike extra dimension. The matter content is a pressureless perfect fluid restricted to the brane, with the embedding consistently satisfying the Gauss-Codazzi equations. The 4-dim Einstein equations on the brane reduce to a 6-dim Hamiltonian dynamical system with additional terms (due to the bulk-brane interaction) that avoid the singularity and implement nonsingular bounces in the model. We examine the complex Bianchi IX dynamics in its approach to the neighborhood of the bounce which replaces the cosmological singularity of general relativity. The phase space of the model presents (i) two critical points (a saddle-center-center and a center-center-center) in a finite region of phase space, (ii) two asymptotic de Sitter critical points at infinity, one acting as an attractor to late-time acceleration and (iii) a 2-dim invariant plane, which together organize the dynamics of the phase space. The saddle-center-center engenders in the phase space the topology of stable and unstable 4-dim cylinders R × S 3, where R is a saddle direction and S 3 is the center manifold of unstable periodic orbits, the latter being the nonlinear extension of the center-center sector. By a proper canonical transformation the degrees of freedom of the dynamics are separated into one degree connected with the expansion/contraction of the scales of the model, and two rotational degrees of freedom associated with the center manifold S 3. The typical dynamical flow is thus an oscillatory mode about the orbits of the invariant plane. The stable and unstable cylinders are spanned by oscillatory orbits about the separatrix towards the bounce, leading to the homoclinic transversal intersection of the cylinders, as shown numerically in two distinct simulations. The homoclinic intersection manifold has the topology of R × S 2 consisting of

  8. Hořava-Lifshitz bouncing Bianchi IX universes: A dynamical system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Rodrigo; Soares, Ivano Damião

    2017-11-01

    We examine the Hamiltonian dynamics of bouncing Bianchi IX cosmologies with three scale factors in Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. We assume a positive cosmological constant plus noninteracting dust and radiation as the matter content of the models. In this framework the modified field equations contain additional terms which turn the dynamics nonsingular. The six-dimensional phase space presents (i) two critical points in a finite region of the phase space, (ii) one asymptotic de Sitter attractor at infinity and (iii) a two-dimensional invariant plane containing the critical points; together they organize the dynamics of the phase space. We identify four distinct parameter domains A , B , C and D for which the pair of critical points engenders distinct features in the dynamics, connected to the presence of centers of multiplicity 2 and saddles of multiplicity 2. In the domain A the dynamics consists basically of periodic bouncing orbits, or oscillatory orbits with a finite number of bounces before escaping to the de Sitter attractor. The center with multiplicity 2 engenders in its neighborhood the topology of stable and unstable cylinders R ×S3 of orbits, where R is a saddle direction and S3 is the center manifold of unstable periodic orbits. We show that the stable and unstable cylinders coalesce, realizing a smooth homoclinic connection to the center manifold, a rare event of regular/nonchaotic dynamics in bouncing Bianchi IX cosmologies. The presence of a saddle of multiplicity 2 in the domain B engenders a high instability in the dynamics so that the cylinders emerging from the center manifold about P2 towards the bounce have four distinct attractors: the center manifold itself, the de Sitter attractor at infinity and two further momentum-dominated attractors with infinite anisotropy. In the domain C we examine the features of invariant manifolds of orbits about a saddle of multiplicity 2 P2. The presence of the saddle of multiplicity 2 engenders bifurcations

  9. KERAGAMAN VEGETASI GULMA DI BAWAH TEGAKAN POHON KARET ( Hevea brasiliensis PADA UMUR DAN ARAH LERENG YANG BERBEDA DI PTPN IX BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara Anggarda Gathot Subroto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in PTPN IX Afdeling Krumput Banyumas in July 2016, with observational survey method is by field orientation, exploration, and analysis of vegetation. The data collection is done by means of interviews and direct observation. Preliminary surveys conducted to seek information from relevant agencies, environmental conditions around the rubber planting. The main survey is done to take samples of weeds in every age group, every group performed 5 times the sampling is considered to represent the age group. The variables measured were type of weed, SDR, and the coefficient Communities (C.The results showed that the weed dominant in the younger age group (1-5 years: Cyperus Kyllingia, Axonopus compressus, Clibadium Surinames, adolescent age group (6-10 years: Cyperus Kyllingia, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, Calopogonium mucuinoides Desv., Group age youth (11-15 years: Cyperus Kyllingia, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, Chromolaena odorata., adult group (16-20 years: Eleusine indica, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, Chromolaena odorata, then the dominant weeds on the slopes of the West-East direction (BT is Calopogonium mucuinoides Desv., Clibadium Surinames, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, and the dominant weed species in the North-South direction of the slope (US is Calopogonium mucuinoides Desv., Paspalum conjugatum Berg., and Axonopus compressus. Weeds dominant age group and Directions Slope is Cyperus killingia and Eleusine indica (L, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, Axonopus compressus, Clibadium Surinames and Calopogonium mucuinoides Desv.Keywords : weeds, rubber tree, group age, slopes, SDR

  10. Ashtekar formalism with real variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalau, W.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1990-12-01

    A new approach to canonical gravity is presented which is based on the Ashtekar formalism. But, in contrast to Ashtekar's variables, this formulation does not need complex quantities nor does it lead to second class constraints. This is achieved using SO(3,1) as a gauge group instead of complexified SO(3). Because of the larger group additional first class constraints are needed which turn out to be cubic and quartic in the momenta. (author). 13 refs

  11. The Effect of Using Origami Paper to Teach the Perimeter of Plane Figures on Cognitive Achievement of Students Grade IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Narwastu Jati

    2017-03-01

    BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Desain penelitian eksperimen ini dilakukan untuk melihat apakah terdapat pengaruh penggunaan kertas origami untuk mengajar keliling dari suatu bidang datar terhadap hasil belajar kognitif siswa kelas IX dan bagaimana penggunaan tersebut mempengaruhi hsil belajar. Sampel penelitian adalah 16 siswa kelas IX-A sebagai kelompok ekperimen yang akan menggunakan kertas origami. Data diperolehh dari hasil pre-tests dan post-tests. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada perbedaan rata-rata skor yang signifikan antara hasil pre-tests dan post-tests yang di duga, yaitu 4.0 (normalized gain, bahkan mencapai 0.8 yang termasuk golongan tinggi. Sehingga, dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh pada hasil belajar kognitif pada pengajaran keliling suatu bidang datar dengan menggunakan kertas origami

  12. The Role of Hexon Protein as a Molecular Mold in Patterning the Protein IX Organization in Human Adenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vijay S

    2017-09-01

    Adenoviruses are respiratory, ocular and enteric pathogens that form complex capsids, which are assembled from seven different structural proteins and composed of several core proteins that closely interact with the packaged dsDNA genome. The recent near-atomic resolution structures revealed that the interlacing continuous hexagonal network formed by the protein IX molecules is conserved among different human adenoviruses (HAdVs), but not in non-HAdVs. In this report, we propose a distinct role for the hexon protein as a "molecular mold" in enabling the formation of such hexagonal protein IX network that has been shown to preserve the stability and infectivity of HAdVs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PEMBERDAYAAN EKONOMI MASYARAKAT RT 05 RW IX KELURAHAN KROBOKAN KECAMATAN SEMARANG BARAT MELALUI PENGOLAHAN BAHAN PANGAN LOKAL DAN PEMASARANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Sulistyoningsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ?é?á The purpose of this activity is to increase of people?óÔé¼Ôäós income through local food processing and its marketing by empowerment of communities. Participants of these activities include member of RT 05 RW IX, Kelurahan Krobokan, sub-district of West Semarang, Semarang City. The method are discussion, practice, and simulation. Implementation of activities is to encourage community to be entrepreneurs in increasing family incomes not only just relying on the income from the work as laborers or workers. Training activities of local food into a healthy diet has a positive response from family group in RT 05 RW IX, Kelurahan Krobokan, sub-district of West Semarang, Semarang City. ?é?á Keywords : family income, local food, entrepreneur, marketing

  14. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  15. MO-FG-BRA-07: Theranostic Gadolinium-Based AGuIX Nanoparticles for MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detappe, A; Rottmann, J; Kunjachan, S; Berbeco, R; Tillement, O

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: AGuIX are gadolinium-based nanoparticles, initially developed for MRI, that have a potential role in radiation therapy as a radiosensitizer. Our goal is to demonstrate that these nanoparticles can both be used as an MRI contrast agent, as well as to obtain local dose enhancement in a pancreatic tumor when delivered in combination with an external beam irradiation. Methods: We performed in vitro cell uptake and radiosensitization studies of a pancreatic cancer cell line in a low energy (220kVp) beam, a standard clinical 6MV beam (STD) and a flattening filter free clinical 6MV beam (FFF). After injection of 40mM of nanoparticles, a biodistribution study was performed in vivo on mice with subcutaneous xenograft pancreatic tumors. In vivo radiation therapy studies were performed at the time point of maximum tumor uptake. Results: The concentration of AGuIX nanoparticles in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells, determined in vitro by MRI and ICPMS, peaks after 30 minutes with 0.3% of the initial concentration (5mg/g). Clonogenic assays show a significant effect (p<0.05) when the AGuIX are coupled with MV photon irradiation (DEF20%=1.31). Similar AGuIX tumor uptake is found in vivo by both MRI and ICPMS 30 minutes after intravenous injection. For long term survival studies, the choice of the radiation dose is determined with 5 control groups (3mice/group) irradiated with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20Gy. Afterwards, 4 groups (8mice/group) are used to evaluate the effect of the nanoparticles. A Logrank test is performed as a statistical test to evaluate the effect of the nanoparticles. Conclusion: The combination of the MRI contrast and radiosensitization properties of gadolinium nanoparticles reveals a strong potential for usage with MRI-guided radiation therapy

  16. Identification of five novel 14-3-3 isoforms interacting with the GPIb-IX complex in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, P H; Receveur, N; Wurtz, V; David, T; Gachet, C; Lanza, F

    2009-09-01

    Binding of von Willebrand factor to the platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX complex initiates a signaling cascade leading to integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation, a key process in hemostasis and thrombosis. Interaction of 14-3-3zeta with the intracytoplasmic domain of GPIb appears to be a major effector of this activation pathway. The aim of our study was to determine whether other members of the 14-3-3 family bind to GPIb-IX. In this study, western blot analyses showed that platelets also contain the 14-3-3beta, 14-3-3gamma, 14-3-3epsilon, 14-3-3eta and 14-3-3theta isoforms, but lack 14-3-3sigma. Coimmunoprecipitation studies in platelets and CHO transfectants demonstrated that all six 14-3-3 isoforms expressed in platelets, including, as previously reported, 14-3-3zeta, bind to GPIb-IX. In addition, their interaction was found to critically require the same GPIbalpha domains (580-590 and 605-610) already identified as essential for 14-3-3zeta binding, in agreement with the conservation of the sequence of the I-helix among these different isoforms. Pull-down experiments indicated that all six 14-3-3 isoforms present in platelets bind to GPIbbeta. In contrast, deletion or mutation of the GPIbbeta intracytoplasmic tail did not affect the interaction of GPIb-IX with the 14-3-3 isoforms, questioning the importance of this domain. Our study suggests that, to inhibit GPIb-induced integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation, a more appropriate strategy than inhibiting individual 14-3-3 isoforms would be to target the 14-3-3-binding motif on GPIb or, alternatively, the conserved 14-3-3 I-helix.

  17. Factor IX expression in skeletal muscle of a severe hemophilia B patient 10 years after AAV-mediated gene transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Buchlis, George; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Radu, Antonetta; Hawk, Sarah M.; Flake, Alan W.; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we transferred a human factor IX–encoding adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) into skeletal muscle of men with severe hemophilia B. Biopsy of injected muscle up to 1 year after vector injection showed evidence of gene transfer by Southern blot and of protein expression by IHC and immunofluorescent staining. Although the procedure appeared safe, circulating F.IX levels remained subtherapeutic (< 1%). Recently, we obtained muscle tissue from a subject injected 10 years earlier ...

  18. Microsatellite alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and relation to expression of pimonidazole, CA IX and GLUT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutter, Harlinde de; Barbe, Barbara; Spaepen, Marijke

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Because the locoregional control for HNSCC is still disappointing, research efforts focus on the exploration of new molecular markers located in both tumour and microenvironment, which could help stratify patients. The aim of the present work was therefore first to assess microsatellite alterations and hypoxia in HNSCC as possible molecular markers. Second, a relation between both was investigated, as hypoxia is known to select for genetic alterations. Material and methods: Forty-eight patients with advanced HNSCC treated by surgery ± radiotherapy were included. MSI and LOH were investigated with microsatellite markers using automatic fragment analysis. The presence of hypoxia was assessed by immunohistochemistry for pimonidazole, CA IX and GLUT-1. The mutual relationship between MSI/LOH and hypoxia was evaluated. Results: No MSI was detected in this patient group. LOH occurred mostly on chromosomal arms 3p, 5q, 9p, 17p and 17q. Patients with LOH at D17S799, located in the near environment of p53, showed a higher CA IX expression (p = 0.01). Conclusions: LOH is a possible molecular marker in HNSCC. The positive correlation between LOH at D17S799 and CA IX is in full concordance with previous publications linking hypoxia to selective pressure on the p53 gene

  19. Efficiency Of The Photodynamic Therapy Using Gold Nanoparticles (np-Au) And PpIX Induced And Not Induced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado-Alvarado, Elizabeth; Ramon-Gallegos, Eva; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco jesus; Reyes-Arellano, Alicia; Tanori-Cordova, Judith; Sanchez-Espindola, Maria Esther; Jimenez-Perez, Jose Luis; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    The use of gold nanoparticles (np-Au) to eliminate cancer has proved to be very effective due to the fact that cancerous cells accumulate it 600% more than healthy cells. In addition they have a high capacity of absorption and dispersion of light. Therefore, the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be improved by the simultaneous use of np-Au and photosensitizes (Ps), emphasizing the high efficiency of the PDT to diagnose and to treat pre-malignant and malignant processes. The aim of this work was to determine the efficiency of PDT using np-Au and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced and not induced by the δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). It were found the conditions of synthesis of hydrosoluble np-Au, and were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and UV-VIS spectroscopy. It was realized a kinetic by TEM to determine the cellular incorporation time of np-Au, the maximum incorporation of np-Au was of 16 h. PDT was applied using different doses of np-Au and photosensitizers. It was observed that the use of PDT simultaneously with np-Au did not increase the mortality of HeLa cells. In the case of C33, when PpIX not induced is used as photosensitizer simultaneously with np-Au, the mortality increased 20%

  20. Novel 6- and 7-Substituted Coumarins with Inhibitory Action against Lipoxygenase and Tumor-Associated Carbonic Anhydrase IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of carboxamide derivatives of 6- and 7-substituted coumarins have been prepared by an original procedure starting from the corresponding 6- or 7-hydroxycoumarins which were alkylated with ethyl iodoacetate, and the obtained ester was converted to the corresponding carboxylic acids which were thereafter reacted with a series of aromatic/aliphatic/heterocyclic amines leading to the desired amides. The new derivatives were investigated as inhibitors of two enzymes, human carbonic anhydrases (hCAs and soy bean lipoxygenase (LOX. Compounds 4a and 4b were potent LOX inhibitors, whereas many effective hCA IX inhibitors (KIs in the range of 30.2–30.5 nM were detected in this study. Two compounds, 4b and 5b, showed the phenomenon of dual inhibition. Furthermore, these coumarins did not significantly inhibit the widespread cytosolic isoforms hCA I and II, whereas they were weak hCA IV inhibitors, making them hCA IX-selective inhibitors. As hCA IX and LOX are validated antitumor targets, these results are promising for the investigation of novel drug targets involved in tumorigenesis.

  1. Modifier activity of the protoporphyrin IX of the clastogenic damage induced by gamma radiation in Drosophila melanogaster; Actividad modificadora de la protoporfirina IX del dano clastogenico inducido por radiacion gamma en Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez A, G. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that the copper sodium chlorophyllin (CCS) it is a potent inhibitor of the one genetic damage induced by physical or chemical agents in systems like: bacteria, Drosophila, rainbow trout and mammals. Nevertheless it has been observed that under certain conditions it promotes it. In the laboratory of Drosophila of the ININ evidences have been obtained that the CCS increases the percentage of lethal embryonic dominant and post-embryonic induced by gamma radiation. One of the probable causes of this effect promoter, is the oxidizer stress that it could cause the metallic center of the CCS. The objective of this investigation it was the evaluation of the inhibitory action of the protoporphyrin IX (PP-IX) of the genetic damage induced by gamma radiation in the germinal line of Drosophila melanogaster. For such effect it was used the lethal dominant test by means of two protocols: one in the one that the PP-IX or CCS was administered to the females and the other one to the males. Females of genotype y/y and males of the canton-S stump were used. In both cases the males were treated with 40 Gy of gamma radiation. Its were count the embryonic lethal dominant (L-E) and those post-embryonic (L-PE) of the F1. The results indicated that after the one pretreatment with PP-IX to the crossed females with males treaties increase the percentage of L-E (P {<=} 0.001) and it diminished that of L-PE (P {<=} 0.001) compared with the sucrose control more radiation, however when it was pretreated with CCS also it was observed an increment in the percentage of L-E (P {<=} 0.001), but it doesn't present effect on that of L-PE. In contrast, when the males were pretreated, it was observed that the PP-IX tends to increase those L-E, but diminished the L-PE (P {<=} 0.05), however when it was pretreated with CCS was observed that increased the percentage of L-E (P {<=} 0.001) but diminished that of L-PE (P {<=} 0.001). It was concluded that none of the two pigments

  2. Model of a ternary complex between activated factor VII, tissue factor and factor IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-wen W; Pellequer, Jean-Luc; Schved, Jean-François; Giansily-Blaizot, Muriel

    2002-07-01

    Upon binding to tissue factor, FVIIa triggers coagulation by activating vitamin K-dependent zymogens, factor IX (FIX) and factor X (FX). To understand recognition mechanisms in the initiation step of the coagulation cascade, we present a three-dimensional model of the ternary complex between FVIIa:TF:FIX. This model was built using a full-space search algorithm in combination with computational graphics. With the known crystallographic complex FVIIa:TF kept fixed, the FIX docking was performed first with FIX Gla-EGF1 domains, followed by the FIX protease/EGF2 domains. Because the FIXa crystal structure lacks electron density for the Gla domain, we constructed a chimeric FIX molecule that contains the Gla-EGF1 domains of FVIIa and the EGF2-protease domains of FIXa. The FVIIa:TF:FIX complex has been extensively challenged against experimental data including site-directed mutagenesis, inhibitory peptide data, haemophilia B database mutations, inhibitor antibodies and a novel exosite binding inhibitor peptide. This FVIIa:TF:FIX complex provides a powerful tool to study the regulation of FVIIa production and presents new avenues for developing therapeutic inhibitory compounds of FVIIa:TF:substrate complex.

  3. Neutron contamination of Varian Clinac iX 10 MV photon beam using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yani, S; Haryanto, F; Arif, I; Tursinah, R; Rhani, M F; Soh, R C X

    2016-01-01

    High energy medical accelerators are commonly used in radiotherapy to increase the effectiveness of treatments. As we know neutrons can be emitted from a medical accelerator if there is an incident of X-ray that hits any of its materials. This issue becomes a point of view of many researchers. The neutron contamination has caused many problems such as image resolution and radiation protection for patients and radio oncologists. This study concerns the simulation of neutron contamination emitted from Varian Clinac iX 10 MV using Monte Carlo code system. As neutron production process is very complex, Monte Carlo simulation with MCNPX code system was carried out to study this contamination. The design of this medical accelerator was modelled based on the actual materials and geometry. The maximum energy of photons and neutron in the scoring plane was 10.5 and 2.239 MeV, respectively. The number and energy of the particles produced depend on the depth and distance from beam axis. From these results, it is pointed out that the neutron produced by linac 10 MV photon beam in a typical treatment is not negligible. (paper)

  4. Effectiveness and competing capacity of native Rhizobium strains evaluated in IX Region soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos D, Leticia; Mendez A, Edith; Pino N, Ines

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes reaches its optimum when the host plants are nodulated by highly competitive and effective Rhizobium strains. With the purpose of assessing competition and nitrogen fixing capacity of native Rhizobium leguminosarum bio-var trifolii strains, a greenhouse test was carried out using white clover (Trifolium re-pens) and four kinds of soils, which represent the main agroecological areas of the IX Region. Eleven strains were evaluated, they were both native and collected and were streptomycin sulphate antibiotic resistant. A nitrogen and a nitrogen-less without inoculation testers were used as controls. All pots received a solution of ammonium sulphate marked with 10% 15 N a.e, equivalent to 10 kg ha -1 of N. Rye-grass was used as reference crop, cv. Nu-i. In general, the evaluated strains were very efficient. After three or four cuts they became the only source of nitrogen for the plants. They were also very competitive, getting to over 70% of root infection with regard to those present in soils. In Curacautin and Tolten soils, biological nitrogen fixation begins later than other soils evaluated, which is coincident with soils having a higher nitrogen content. Symbiosis occurs when the soil nitrogen content exhausts or diminishes. (author)

  5. Description of the Earth in the Works of Arabic Geographers from IX to XII Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijanovic, I.

    2012-12-01

    The works of Arabic writers provide data about shape, position and size of the Earth, planets and zodiac signs. They include preserved maps of Ibn Haukal, Al-Masudi and Al-Idrisi. Al-Masudi (871-956/7) made a map of the world and wrote that the Earth is round, before the Christians in Europe were ready to accept that idea. The famous geographer and cartographer Al-Idrisi (IX/X., died in 903/913.) has lived on the court of Norman king Roger II of Sicily, and after his death on the court of his son William I on Sicily, where he obtained the data from European and Arabic geographers. On the basis of this data he wrote a work known entitled Roger's book. Besides this important work he made a celestial globe and a map of the world in the shape of a silver disk. The lines that marked the borders of seven regions of the inhabited world were engraved on this disk. The Arabs had excellent knowledge of Greek astronomy and accepted their division of the world in seven climatic zones.

  6. Identification of 16SrIX-C phytoplasmas in Argyranthemum frutescens in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca FERRETTI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas are cell wall-less microorganisms associated with plant diseases worldwide. Many important food, vegetable and fruits crops as well as ornamental plants can be severely affected by these pathogens, with significant economic impacts. Phytoplasma diseases of ornamentals have been described worldwide in a wide range of plant genera, and 11 different 16Sr groups have been identified. In Italy, many ornamental plant species belonging to several botanical families have been found to be infected by phytoplasmas, classified into the ribosomal groups 16SrI, 16SrII, 16SrV and 16SrXII. During a survey carried out in commercial gardens in Rome, some marguerite daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens plants showing symptoms of phytoplasma-like disease, were collected and submitted to molecular analyses. Cloning and sequencing of the portion of the 16S rRNA gene followed by BLAST analysis, real and virtual restriction fragment length polymorphism anlaysis with AluI and RsaI, allowed assignment of the detected phytoplasma to the 16SrIX-C group (Picris echioides yellows, PEY.

  7. Probing the Highly Efficient Electron Transfer Dynamics between Zinc Protoporphyrin IX and Sodium Titanate Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Debdyuti; De, Swati; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2016-09-15

    Sodium titanate nanosheets (NaTiO2 NS) have been prepared by a new method and completely characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD, EDX, and XPS techniques. The sensitization of nanosheets is carried out with Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX). The emission intensity of ZnPPIX is quenched by NaTiO2 NS, and the dominant process for this quenching has been attributed to the process of photoinduced electron injection from excited ZnPPIX to the nanosheets. Time resolved fluorescence measurement was used to elucidate the process of electron injection from the singlet state of ZnPPIX to the conduction band of NaTiO2 NS. Electron injection from the dye to the semiconductor is very fast (ket ≈ 10(11) s(-1)), much faster than previously reported rates. The large two-dimensional surface offered by the NaTiO2 NS for interaction with the dye and the favorable driving force for electron injection from ZnPPIX to NaTiO2 NS (ΔGinj = -0.66 V) are the two important factors responsible for such efficient electron injection. Thus, NaTiO2 NS can serve as an effective alternative to the use of TiO2 nanoparticles in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  8. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  9. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  10. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  11. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  12. Luminosity class of neutron reflectometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleshanov, N.K., E-mail: pnk@pnpi.spb.ru

    2016-10-21

    The formulas that relate neutron fluxes at reflectometers with differing q-resolutions are derived. The reference luminosity is defined as a maximum flux for measurements with a standard resolution. The methods of assessing the reference luminosity of neutron reflectometers are presented for monochromatic and white beams, which are collimated with either double diaphragm or small angle Soller systems. The values of the reference luminosity for unified parameters define luminosity class of reflectometers. The luminosity class characterizes (each operation mode of) the instrument by one number and can be used to classify operating reflectometers and optimize designed reflectometers. As an example the luminosity class of the neutron reflectometer NR-4M (reactor WWR-M, Gatchina) is found for four operation modes: 2.1 (monochromatic non-polarized beam), 1.9 (monochromatic polarized beam), 1.5 (white non-polarized beam), 1.1 (white polarized beam); it is shown that optimization of measurements may increase the flux at the sample up to two orders of magnitude with monochromatic beams and up to one order of magnitude with white beams. A fan beam reflectometry scheme with monochromatic neutrons is suggested, and the expected increase in luminosity is evaluated. A tuned-phase chopper with a variable TOF resolution is recommended for reflectometry with white beams.

  13. Classes of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Dauns, John

    2006-01-01

    Because traditional ring theory places restrictive hypotheses on all submodules of a module, its results apply only to small classes of already well understood examples. Often, modules with infinite Goldie dimension have finite-type dimension, making them amenable to use with type dimension, but not Goldie dimension. By working with natural classes and type submodules (TS), Classes of Modules develops the foundations and tools for the next generation of ring and module theory. It shows how to achieve positive results by placing restrictive hypotheses on a small subset of the complement submodules, Furthermore, it explains the existence of various direct sum decompositions merely as special cases of type direct sum decompositions. Carefully developing the foundations of the subject, the authors begin by providing background on the terminology and introducing the different module classes. The modules classes consist of torsion, torsion-free, s[M], natural, and prenatural. They expand the discussion by exploring...

  14. Modifier activity of the protoporphyrin IX of the clastogenic damage induced by gamma radiation in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez A, G.

    2007-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the copper sodium chlorophyllin (CCS) it is a potent inhibitor of the one genetic damage induced by physical or chemical agents in systems like: bacteria, Drosophila, rainbow trout and mammals. Nevertheless it has been observed that under certain conditions it promotes it. In the laboratory of Drosophila of the ININ evidences have been obtained that the CCS increases the percentage of lethal embryonic dominant and post-embryonic induced by gamma radiation. One of the probable causes of this effect promoter, is the oxidizer stress that it could cause the metallic center of the CCS. The objective of this investigation it was the evaluation of the inhibitory action of the protoporphyrin IX (PP-IX) of the genetic damage induced by gamma radiation in the germinal line of Drosophila melanogaster. For such effect it was used the lethal dominant test by means of two protocols: one in the one that the PP-IX or CCS was administered to the females and the other one to the males. Females of genotype y/y and males of the canton-S stump were used. In both cases the males were treated with 40 Gy of gamma radiation. Its were count the embryonic lethal dominant (L-E) and those post-embryonic (L-PE) of the F1. The results indicated that after the one pretreatment with PP-IX to the crossed females with males treaties increase the percentage of L-E (P ≤ 0.001) and it diminished that of L-PE (P ≤ 0.001) compared with the sucrose control more radiation, however when it was pretreated with CCS also it was observed an increment in the percentage of L-E (P ≤ 0.001), but it doesn't present effect on that of L-PE. In contrast, when the males were pretreated, it was observed that the PP-IX tends to increase those L-E, but diminished the L-PE (P ≤ 0.05), however when it was pretreated with CCS was observed that increased the percentage of L-E (P ≤ 0.001) but diminished that of L-PE (P ≤ 0.001). It was concluded that none of the two pigments act as

  15. Analysis of transcriptional isoforms of collagen types IX, II, and I in the developing avian cornea by competitive polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, J M; Gordon, M K; Gibney, E P; Linsenmayer, T F

    1995-01-01

    The genes for the alpha 1(IX), alpha 1(II), and alpha 2(I) collagen chains can give rise to different isoforms of mRNA, generated by alternative promotor usage [for alpha 1(IX) and alpha 2(I)] or alternative splicing [for alpha 1(II)]. In this study, we employed competitive reverse transcriptase PCR to quantitate the amounts of transcriptional isoforms for these genes in the embryonic avian cornea from its inception (about 3 1/2 days of development) to 11 days. In order to compare values at different time points, the results were normalized to those obtained for the "housekeeping" enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH). These values were compared to those obtained from other tissues (anterior optic cup and cartilage) that synthesize different combinations of the collagen isoforms. We found that, in the cornea, transcripts from the upstream promotor of alpha 1(IX) collagen (termed "long IX") were predominant at stage 18-20 (about 3 1/2 days), but then fell rapidly, and remained at a low level. By 5 days (just before stromal swelling) the major mRNA isoform of alpha 1(IX) was from the downstream promoter (termed "short IX"). The relative amount of transcript for the short form of type IX collagen rose to a peak at about 6 days of development, and then declined. Throughout this period, the predominant transcriptional isoform of the collagen type II gene was IIA (i.e., containing the alternatively spliced exon 2). This indicates that the molecules of type II collagen that are assembled into heterotypic fibrils with type I collagen possess, at least transiently, an amino-terminal globular domain similar to that found in collagen types I, III, and V. For type I, the "bone/tendon" mRNA isoform of the alpha 2(I) collagen gene was predominant; transcripts from the downstream promotor were at basal levels. In other tissues expressing collagen types IX and II, long IX was expressed predominantly with the IIA form in the anterior optic cup at stage 22/23; in 14 1

  16. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  17. Optimizing UML Class Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergievskiy Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of object-oriented development technologies rely on the use of the universal modeling language UML; class diagrams play a very important role in the design process play, used to build a software system model. Modern CASE tools, which are the basic tools for object-oriented development, can’t be used to optimize UML diagrams. In this manuscript we will explain how, based on the use of design patterns and anti-patterns, class diagrams could be verified and optimized. Certain transformations can be carried out automatically; in other cases, potential inefficiencies will be indicated and recommendations given. This study also discusses additional CASE tools for validating and optimizing of UML class diagrams. For this purpose, a plugin has been developed that analyzes an XMI file containing a description of class diagrams.

  18. Classes of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and Advanced HF • Tools and Resources • Personal Stories Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  19. Results of a phase I/II open-label, safety and efficacy trial of coagulation factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein in haemophilia B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinowitz, U; Lissitchkov, T; Lubetsky, A; Jotov, G; Barazani-Brutman, T; Voigt, C; Jacobs, I; Wuerfel, T; Santagostino, E

    2015-11-01

    rIX-FP is a coagulation factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein with more than fivefold half-life prolongation over other standard factor IX (FIX) products available on the market. This prospective phase II, open-label study evaluated the safety and efficacy of rIX-FP for the prevention of bleeding episodes during weekly prophylaxis and assessed the haemostatic efficacy for on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes in previously treated patients with haemophilia B. The study consisted of a 10-14 day evaluation of rIX-FP pharmacokinetics (PK), and an 11 month safety and efficacy evaluation period with subjects receiving weekly prophylaxis treatment. Safety was evaluated by the occurrence of related adverse events, and immunogenic events, including development of inhibitors. Efficacy was evaluated by annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR), and the number of injections to achieve haemostasis. Seventeen subjects participated in the study, 13 received weekly prophylaxis and 4 received episodic treatment only. No inhibitors were detected in any subject. The mean and median AsBR were 1.25, and 1.13 respectively in the weekly prophylaxis arm. All bleeding episodes were treated with 1 or 2 injections of rIX-FP. Three prophylaxis subjects who were treated on demand prior to study entry had >85% reduction in AsBR compared to the bleeding rate prior to study entry. This study demonstrated the efficacy for weekly routine prophylaxis of rIX-FP to prevent spontaneous bleeding episodes and for the treatment of bleeding episodes. In addition no safety issues were detected during the study and an improved PK profile was demonstrated. © 2015 CSL Behring. Haemophilia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Carbonic Anhydrase IX is Not a Predictor of Outcomes in Non-Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma - A Digital Analysis of Tissue Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zerati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The knowledge about the molecular biology of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC is evolving, and Carbonic Anhydrase type IX (CA-IX has emerged as a potential prognostic marker in this challenging disease. However, most of the literature about CA-IX on ccRCC comes from series on metastatic cancer, with a lack of series on non-metastatic cancer. The objective is to evaluate the expression of CA-IX in a cohort of non-metastatic ccRCC, correlating with 1 overall survival, and 2 with established prognostic parameters (T stage, tumor size, Fuhrman nuclear grade, microvascular invasion and peri-renal fat invasion. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. We evaluated 95 patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma, as to the expression of CA-IX. The analyzed parameters where: overall survival (OS, TNM stage, tumor size (TS, Fuhrman nuclear grade (FNG, microvascular invasion (MVI, peri-renal fat invasion (PFI. We utilized a custom built tissue microarray, and the immunoexpression was digitally quantified using the Photoshop® software. Results: Th e mean follow-up time was 7.9 years (range 1.9 to 19.5 years. The analysis of CA-IX expression against the selected prognostic parameters showed no correlation. The results are as follows: Overall survival (p = 0.790; T stage (p = 0.179; tumor size (p = 0.143; grouped Fuhrman nuclear grade (p = 0.598; microvascular invasion (p = 0.685, and peri-renal fat invasion (p = 0.104. Conclusion Carbonic anhydrase type IX expression does not correlate with overall survival and conventional prognostic parameters in non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  1. Ares I-X Flight Test Validation of Control Design Tools in the Frequency-Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Hannan, Mike; Brandon, Jay; Derry, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A major motivation of the Ares I-X flight test program was to Design for Data, in order to maximize the usefulness of the data recorded in support of Ares I modeling and validation of design and analysis tools. The Design for Data effort was intended to enable good post-flight characterizations of the flight control system, the vehicle structural dynamics, and also the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. To extract the necessary data from the system during flight, a set of small predetermined Programmed Test Inputs (PTIs) was injected directly into the TVC signal. These PTIs were designed to excite the necessary vehicle dynamics while exhibiting a minimal impact on loads. The method is similar to common approaches in aircraft flight test programs, but with unique launch vehicle challenges due to rapidly changing states, short duration of flight, a tight flight envelope, and an inability to repeat any test. This paper documents the validation effort of the stability analysis tools to the flight data which was performed by comparing the post-flight calculated frequency response of the vehicle to the frequency response calculated by the stability analysis tools used to design and analyze the preflight models during the control design effort. The comparison between flight day frequency response and stability tool analysis for flight of the simulated vehicle shows good agreement and provides a high level of confidence in the stability analysis tools for use in any future program. This is true for both a nominal model as well as for dispersed analysis, which shows that the flight day frequency response is enveloped by the vehicle s preflight uncertainty models.

  2. Carbonic anhydrase IX inhibition affects viability of cancer cells adapted to extracellular acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreucci, Elena; Peppicelli, Silvia; Carta, Fabrizio; Brisotto, Giulia; Biscontin, Eva; Ruzzolini, Jessica; Bianchini, Francesca; Biagioni, Alessio; Supuran, Claudiu T; Calorini, Lido

    2017-12-01

    Among the players of the adaptive response of cancer cells able to promote a resistant and aggressive phenotype, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) recently has emerged as one of the most relevant drug targets. Indeed, CAIX targeting has received a lot of interest, and selective inhibitors are currently under clinical trials. Hypoxia has been identified as the master inductor of CAIX, but, to date, very few is known about the influence that another important characteristic of tumor microenvironment, i.e., extracellular acidosis, exerts on CAIX expression and activity. In the last decades, acidic microenvironment has been associated with aggressive tumor phenotype endowed with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) profile, high invasive and migratory ability, apoptosis, and drug resistance. We demonstrated that melanoma, breast, and colorectal cancer cells transiently and chronically exposed to acidified medium (pH 6.7 ± 0.1) showed a significantly increased CAIX expression compared to those grown in standard conditions (pH 7.4 ± 0.1). Moreover, we observed that the CAIX inhibitor FC16-670A (also named SLC-0111, which just successfully ended phase I clinical trials) not only prevents such increased expression under acidosis but also promotes apoptotic and necrotic programs only in acidified cancer cells. Thus, CAIX could represent a selective target of acidic cancer cells and FC16-670A inhibitor as a useful tool to affect this aggressive subpopulation characterized by conventional therapy escape. Cancer cells overexpress CAIX under transient and chronic extracellular acidosis. Acidosis-induced CAIX overexpression is NF-κB mediated and HIF-1α independent. FC16-670A prevents CAIX overexpression and induces acidified cancer cell death.

  3. Study of cell killing effect on S180 by ultrasound activating protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Bing; Liu, Quan Hong; Wang, Pan; Tang, Wei; Hao, Qiao

    2008-04-01

    The present study was initiated to investigate the potential biological mechanism of cell killing effect on isolate sarcoma 180 (S180) cells induced by ultrasound activating protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). S180 cells were exposed to ultrasound for 30s duration, at a frequency of 2.2 MHz and an acoustic power of 3 W/cm(2) in the presence of 120 microM PPIX. The viability of cells was evaluated using trypan blue staining. The generation of oxygen free radicals in cell suspensions was detected immediately after treatment using a reactive oxygen detection kit. A copper reagent colorimetry method was used to measure the level of FFAs released into cell suspensions by the process of cell damage induced by ultrasound and PPIX treatment. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activities of key antioxidant enzymes (i.e., SOD, CAT, GSH-PX) in S180 tumor cells. Treatment with ultrasound and PPIX together increased the cell damage rate to 50.91%, while treatment with ultrasound alone gave a cell damage rate to 24.24%, and PPIX alone kept this rate unchanged. Colorimetry and enzymatic chemical methods showed that the level of FFAs in cell suspension increased significantly after the treatment, while the activity of all the above enzymes decreased in tumor cells at different levels, and were associated with the generation of oxygen free radicals in cell suspension after treatment. The results indicate that oxygen free radicals may play an important role in improving the membrane lipid peroxidation, degrading membrane phospholipids to release FFAs, and decreasing the activities of the key antioxidant enzymes in cells. This biological mechanism might be involved in mediating the effects on S180 cells and resulting in the cell damage seen with SDT.

  4. Torino 2006. XX Olympic and IX Paralympic Winter Games: the ENT experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, G; Crosetti, E; Mattiazzo, A; Riontino, E; Massazza, G

    2008-06-01

    A total of 27 competition days, more than 3000 athletes, over 10,000 components of the Olympic family, 3,500 workers, 2,500 volunteers, an overall business of more than 2 billion Euros. These, in a nutshell, are just a few of the data concerning the XX Olympic and the IX Paralympic Winter Games, Torino, Italy, 2006. Such a huge event, obviously required a meticulously organized medical service to cope with the healthcare of the athletes, official workers and the Olympic family, distributed over a geographic area of approximately 80 km in diameter. An ENT service was organized within the medical service, which was divided between 3 Polyclinics, in which 12 ENT Specialists were on duty. The present report gives an account of the final data concerning the service involved, together with a description of the approach used in the actual organization, with a view to providing useful information for colleagues who will be called upon, for a similar service, in future Olympic Winter Games. The ENT healthcare offered was confirmed to be proportional to the requirements, both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. All the ENT specialists involved, reported having gained an immense store of human experience from having lived the Olympic atmosphere as a volunteer exerting one's own profession. The facilities available in the Polyclinics, which were at a considerable distance from the Hospital, were found to be more than adequate with respect to the pathological conditions and service requested, particularly in 17% of the cases which would otherwise have been sent to a Hospital Outpatient Unit at least 80 km away.

  5. Protoporphyrin-IX conjugated cellulose nanofibers that exhibit high antibacterial photodynamic inactivation efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiancheng; Ghiladi, Reza A.; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Yibing; Wei, Qufu

    2018-06-01

    Towards the development of anti-infective nanoscale materials employing a photodynamic mechanism of action, we report the synthesis, physical properties (SEM, mechanical strength, water contact angle), spectroscopic characterization (infrared, Raman, DRUV), and evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of porphyrin-conjugated regenerated cellulose nanofibers, termed RC-TETA-PPIX-Zn. Cellulose acetate was electrospun to produce nanofibers, thermally treated to enhance mechanical strength, and finally hydrolyzed to produce regenerated cellulose (RC) nanofibers that possessed a high surface area and nanofibrous structure. Covalent grafting of a protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) photosensitizer using epichlorohydrin/triethylenetetramine (TETA), followed by zinc chelation, afforded RC-TETA-PPIX-Zn. The high surface area afforded by the nanofibers and efficient photosensitizer conjugation led to a very high loading of 412 nmol PPIX/mg material, corresponding to a degree of substitution of 0.1. Antibacterial efficacy was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-6538) and Escherichia coli (ATCC-8099), with our best results achieving detection limit inactivation (99.999+%) of both bacteria after only 20 min illumination (Xe lamp, λ ≥ 420 nm). No statistically significant loss in antibacterial activity was observed when using nanofibers that had been ‘photo-aged’ with 5 h of pre-illumination to simulate the effects of photobleaching. Post aPDI, scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria had undergone cell membrane leakage, consistent with oxidative damage caused by photo-generated reactive oxygen species. Taken together, the conjugation strategy employed here provides a scalable, facile and efficient route to creating nanofibrous materials from natural polymers with a high photosensitizer loading, enabling the use of commercially-available neutral porphyrin photosensitizers, such as PPIX, in the design and synthesis of potent anti-infective nanomaterials.

  6. Ultrasound-targeted hepatic delivery of factor IX in hemophiliac mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C D; Moisyadi, S; Avelar, A; Walton, C B; Shohet, R V

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) was used to direct the delivery of plasmid and transposase-based vectors encoding human factor IX (hFIX) to the livers of hemophilia B (FIX-/-) mice. The DNA vectors were incorporated into cationic lipid microbubbles, injected intravenously, and transfected into hepatocytes by acoustic cavitation of the bubbles as they transited the liver. Ultrasound parameters were identified that produced transfection of hepatocytes in vivo without substantial damage or bleeding in the livers of the FIX-deficient mice. These mice were treated with a conventional expression plasmid, or one containing a piggyBac transposon construct, and hFIX levels in the plasma and liver were evaluated at multiple time points after UTMD. We detected hFIX in the plasma by western blotting from mice treated with either plasmid during the 12 days after UTMD, and in the hepatocytes of treated livers by immunofluorescence. Reductions in clotting time and improvements in the percentage of FIX activity were observed for both plasmids, conventional (4.15±1.98%), and transposon based (2.70±.75%), 4 to 5 days after UTMD compared with untreated FIX (-/-) control mice (0.92±0.78%) (P=0.001 and P=0.012, respectively). Reduced clotting times persisted for both plasmids 12 days after treatment (reflecting percentage FIX activity of 3.12±1.56%, P=0.02 and 3.08±0.10%, P=0.001, respectively). Clotting times from an additional set of mice treated with pmGENIE3-hFIX were evaluated for long-term effects and demonstrated a persistent reduction in average clotting time 160 days after a single treatment. These data suggest that UTMD could be a minimally invasive, nonviral approach to enhance hepatic FIX expression in patients with hemophilia.

  7. Optical Variability Properties of High Luminosity AGN Classes C. S. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    On the theoretical side, two main approaches have been put forward to ..... Preliminary processing of the images as well as the photometry was done using the ...... 0.057 derived from non-rotating BH thin accretion disk theory (e.g., ..... in mind that caveat, the major finding of this present study, which subsumes and refines.

  8. Within- and between- class variability of spectrally similar tree species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available of hyperspectral data applied to mixtures of lichen and rock,” IEEE Transactions of Geoscience and Re- mote Sensing, vol. 42(9), pp. 1934–1940, 2004. [7] R.L. Pu, P. Gong, G.S. Biging, and M.R. Larrieu, “Extraction of red edge optical parameters from Hyperion...

  9. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  10. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  11. Estado de la investigacion en enfermería IX región de la Araucania, Temuco, Chile 2002 State of the research in nursing IX th region of the Araucania, Temuco, Chile 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Elina Rivas Riveros

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de la investigación nos proyecta en la imagen de enfermera(o que queremos para el siglo XXI y el posicionamiento que tendremos. Esta imagen debe caracterizarse por intervenciones que demuestren calidad científica y humanización del cuidado. Las prácticas del cuidado, si bien son concebidas como una actividad práctica, necesitan de la actividad intelectual y de una masa crítica de investigadores e ideólogos que orienten las acciones, situación que debe fundamentarse en la evidencia. El propósito de esta investigación fue identificar, por medio de un estudio descriptivo, exploratorio y correlacional, el estado de la investigación en enfermería en la IX Región de la Araucania, Chile. Los objetivos específicos fueron analizar las condiciones en que se desarrolló el perfeccionamiento de las enfermeras en la IX Región y contribuir a la identificación de las líneas de investigación. El estudio recoge las características de los postgrados en enfermería en la IX Región, Chile: licenciatura, magíster y doctorado hasta el año 2002. Se concluye que en materia de enfoques predomina el positivista; las enfermeras están motivadas a perfeccionarse en programas de postgrado fundamen-talmente por razones de desarrollo personal y el deseo de contribuir a mejorar la profesión; quienes realizan estudios de postgrado se desempeñan en docencia en institutos y universidades, y la temática de las in-vestigaciones está básicamente orientada hacia la enseñanza de enfermería.The development of the investigation projected us in nurse’s image that we want for the XXI Century and the positioning that we will have. This image will be characterized by interventions that demonstrate scientific quality and humanization of the care. The practices of the care, although they are conceived as a practical activity, they need of the intellectual activity and of a critical mass of investigators and ideologists that guide the actions

  12. Social Media Listening and Title IX Training Crisis: Implications for Discourse of Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Joseph P.; Dutchak, Iaroslava; Thatcher, Jason Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Undergraduate or graduate organizational/crisis communication or public relations courses. Objective: The goal for this single class activity is for students to apply discourse of renewal to an organizational crisis fueled through social media.

  13. Predictors of Latent Trajectory Classes of Dating Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Foshee, Vangie; Ennett, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study identified classes of developmental trajectories of physical dating violence victimization from grades 8 to 12 and examined theoretically-based risk factors that distinguished among trajectory classes. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning 8th through 12th grade (n = 2,566; 51.9% female). Growth mixture models were used to identify trajectory classes of physical dating violence victimization separately for girls and boys. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify situational and target vulnerability factors associated with the trajectory classes. For girls, three trajectory classes were identified: a low/non-involved class; a moderate class where victimization increased slightly until the 10th grade and then decreased through the 12th grade; and a high class where victimization started at a higher level in the 8th grade, increased substantially until the 10th grade, and then decreased until the 12th grade. For males, two classes were identified: a low/non-involved class, and a victimized class where victimization increased slightly until the 9th grade, decreased until the 11th grade, and then increased again through the 12th grade. In bivariate analyses, almost all of the situational and target vulnerability risk factors distinguished the victimization classes from the non-involved classes. However, when all risk factors and control variables were in the model, alcohol use (a situational vulnerability) was the only factor that distinguished membership in the moderate trajectory class from the non-involved class for girls; anxiety and being victimized by peers (target vulnerability factors) were the factors that distinguished the high from the non-involved classes for the girls; and victimization by peers was the only factor distinguishing the victimized from the non-involved class for boys. These findings contribute to our understanding of the heterogeneity in physical dating violence victimization during

  14. Static Members of Classes in C#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The C# language is object-oriented, which is why the declared member data must be part of a class. Thus, there is no possibility to declare certain variables that can be accessed from anywhere within the application, as it happens, for example, with global variables at the C language level. Making this work in C# is possible through static members of the class. Declaring a class implies defining some of its member data that later receive values when creating each object. A static member of the class can be interpreted as belonging only to the class, not to the objects subsequently created, which means that for the non-static data, there are as many children as there were objects created, while for the static ones there is only one copy, regardless of the number of created objects. In this regard, this paper presents the main aspects that characterize these abstract concepts of object oriented programming in general and C# language in particular, detailing how to develop an application that includes both static and non-static members. At the same time, particularities in the mirror for the two types of data, restrictions on use and potential limitations are presented.

  15. Safety class methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.B.; Low, J.M.; Lux, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ''safety class items.'' Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Safety class items are those in the highest of four categories determined to be of special importance to nuclear safety and, merit appropriately higher-quality design, fabrication, and industrial test standards and codes. The identification of safety class items is approached using a cascading strategy that begins at the 'safety function' level (i.e., a cooling function, ventilation function, etc.) and proceeds down to the system, component, or structure level. Thus, the items that are required to support a safety function are SCls. The basic steps in this procedure apply to the determination of SCls for both new project activities, and for operating facilities. The GDC lists six characteristics of SCls to be considered as a starting point for safety item classification. They are as follows: 1. Those items whose failure would produce exposure consequences that would exceed the guidelines in Section 1300-1.4, ''Guidance on Limiting Exposure of the Public,'' at the site boundary or nearest point of public access 2. Those items required to maintain operating parameters within the safety limits specified in the Operational Safety Requirements during normal operations and anticipated operational occurrences. 3. Those items required for nuclear criticality safety. 4. Those items required to monitor the release of radioactive material to the environment during and after a Design Basis Accident. Those items required to achieve, and maintain the facility in a safe shutdown condition 6. Those items that control Safety Class Item listed above

  16. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  17. Handbook of latent variable and related models

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    This Handbook covers latent variable models, which are a flexible class of models for modeling multivariate data to explore relationships among observed and latent variables.- Covers a wide class of important models- Models and statistical methods described provide tools for analyzing a wide spectrum of complicated data- Includes illustrative examples with real data sets from business, education, medicine, public health and sociology.- Demonstrates the use of a wide variety of statistical, computational, and mathematical techniques.

  18. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormoen, Garth W; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J T

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis. (paper)

  19. Monte Carlo modeling of in vivo protoporphyrin IX fluorescence and singlet oxygen production during photodynamic therapy for patients presenting with superficial basal cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Ronan M.; Brown, C. Tom A.; Moseley, Harry; Ibbotson, Sally; Wood, Kenny

    2011-04-01

    We present protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence measurements acquired from patients presenting with superficial basal cell carcinoma during photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment, facilitating in vivo photobleaching to be monitored. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, taking into account photobleaching, are performed on a three-dimensional cube grid, which represents the treatment geometry. Consequently, it is possible to determine the spatial and temporal changes to the origin of collected fluorescence and generated singlet oxygen. From our clinical results, an in vivo photobleaching dose constant, β of 5-aminolaevulinic acid-induced PpIX fluorescence is found to be 14 +/- 1 J/cm2. Results from our MC simulations suggest that an increase from our typical administered treatment light dose of 75-150 J/cm2 could increase the effective PDT treatment initially achieved at a depth of 2.7-3.3 mm in the tumor, respectively. Moreover, this increase reduces the surface PpIX fluorescence from 0.00012 to 0.000003 of the maximum value recorded before treatment. The recommendation of administrating a larger light dose, which advocates an increase in the treatment time after surface PpIX fluorescence has diminished, remains valid for different sets of optical properties and therefore should have a beneficial outcome on the total treatment effect.

  20. Significant performance enhancement of inverted organic light-emitting diodes by using ZnIx as a hole-blocking layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuan-Hui; Zhang, Bi-Long; Sun, Chao; Li, Ruo-Xuan; Wang, Yuan; Tian, Wen-Ming; Zhao, Chun-Yi; Jin, Sheng-Ye; Liu, Wei-Feng; Luo, Ying-Min; Du, Guo-Tong; Cong, Shu-Lin

    2017-06-01

    A highly efficient inverted organic light emitting diode using 1.0 nm-thick ZnIx as a hole-blocking layer is developed. We fabricate devices with the configuration ITO/ZnIx (1.0 nm)/Alq3 (50 nm)/NPB (50 nm)/MoO3 (6.0 nm)/Al (100 nm). The deposition of a ZnIx layer increases the maximum luminance by two orders of magnitude from 13.4 to 3566.1 cd/m2. In addition, the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency are increased by three orders of magnitude, and the turn-on voltage to reach 1 cd/m2 decreases from 13 to 8 V. The results suggest that the electron injection efficiency is not improved by introducing a ZnIx layer. Instead, the improved device performance originates from the strong hole-blocking ability of ZnIx. This work indicates that layered materials may lead to novel applications in optoelectronic devices.

  1. Further analysis of the FRONT model in ASTEC by simulating the hydrogen deflagration experiment BMC Ix9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, Thimo; Koch, Marco K.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of possible hydrogen deflagration like pressure built up and temperature increase can become important for the evaluation of late phases in loss of coolant accidents. In this compact the simulation of the hydrogen deflagration test BMC Ix9 with the FRONT model of the integral lumped-parameter-code ASTEC is treated. This model is available since mid of 2009, released with ASTEC V2.0. To check the validity of the model related to the applicability on different phenomena, a large number of simulations are necessary. The model was used by RUB in the frame of the 'International Standard Problem on Hydrogen Combustion (ISP-49)' and within the EC NoE SARNET2. It has been concluded that the model is able to simulate a broad range of hydrogen deflagration phenomena under different experimental conditions. Experiments analysed in the mentioned benchmarks are characterised by flame propagation in vertical direction. Moreover there were no considerations of flame propagation in multi compartment geometries. In the BMC Ix9 test horizontal hydrogen deflagration with flame propagation in 3 rooms was investigated. The FRONT model was already validated on the BMC Hx23 experiment with sufficient results. In comparison to this test the number of compartments and the initial gas composition, like hydrogen and steam concentration differs from the BMC Ix9 experiment. Previous investigations of RUB showed that the modelling of turbulence related to the transport between different compartment and the determination of this quantity has a strong influence on the simulation results. In the following the FRONT model is described briefly, the simulation results are discussed and a first recommendation for the nodalisation is given. (orig.)

  2. Molecular phylogeny and intricate evolutionary history of the three isofunctional enzymes involved in the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Masuda, Tatsuru; Tajima, Naoyuki; Wada, Hajime; Sato, Naoki

    2014-08-01

    Tetrapyrroles such as heme and chlorophyll are essential for biological processes, including oxygenation, respiration, and photosynthesis. In the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway, protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (Protox) catalyzes the formation of protoporphyrin IX, the last common intermediate for the biosynthesis of heme and chlorophyll. Three nonhomologous isofunctional enzymes, HemG, HemJ, and HemY, for Protox have been identified. To reveal the distribution and evolution of the three Protox enzymes, we identified homologs of each along with other heme biosynthetic enzymes by whole-genome clustering across three domains of life. Most organisms possess only one of the three Protox types, with some exceptions. Detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed that HemG is mostly limited to γ-Proteobacteria whereas HemJ may have originated within α-Proteobacteria and transferred to other Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria. In contrast, HemY is ubiquitous in prokaryotes and is the only Protox in eukaryotes, so this type may be the ancestral Protox. Land plants have a unique HemY homolog that is also shared by Chloroflexus species, in addition to the main HemY homolog originating from Cyanobacteria. Meanwhile, organisms missing any Protox can be classified into two groups; those lacking most heme synthetic genes, which necessarily depend on external heme supply, and those lacking only genes involved in the conversion of uroporphyrinogen III into heme, which would use a precorrin2-dependent alternative pathway. However, hemN encoding coproporphyrinogen IX oxidase was frequently found in organisms lacking Protox enzyme, which suggests a unique role of this gene other than in heme biosynthesis. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  4. Type IX secretion system PorM and gliding machinery GldM form arches spanning the periplasmic space

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Philippe; Roche, Jennifer; Vincent, Maxence S.; Tran, Quang Hieu; Desmyter, Aline; Cascales, Eric; Kellenberger, Christine; Cambillau, Christian; Roussel, Alain

    2018-01-01

    Type IX secretion system (T9SS), exclusively present in the Bacteroidetes phylum, has been studied mainly in Flavobacterium johnsoniae and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Among the 18 genes, essential for T9SS function, a group of four, porK-N (P. gingivalis) or gldK-N (F. johnsoniae) belongs to a co-transcribed operon that expresses the T9SS core membrane complex. The central component of this complex, PorM (or GldM), is anchored in the inner membrane by a trans-membrane helix and interacts throug...

  5. Seleucid, Demotic and Mediterranean mathematics versus Chapters VIII and IX of the Nine Chapters: accidental or significant similarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    Similarities of geometrical diagrams and arithmetical structures of problems have often been taken as evidence of transmission of mathematical knowledge or techniques between China and “the West”. Confronting on one hand some problems from Chapter VIII of the Nine Chapters with comparable problems...... known from Ancient Greek sources, on the other a Seleucid collection of problems about rectangles with a subset of the triangle problems from Chapter IX, it is concluded, (1) that transmission of some arithmetical riddles without method – not “from Greece” but from a transnational community of traders...

  6. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en población infantil. Chile: Regiones IX y X. 1998-2000

    OpenAIRE

    SOZA C., GUILLERMO; LORCA O., PEDRO; PUEBLA M., SERGIO; WENZEL M., MARISOL; NAVARRETE C., MARITZA; VILLAGRA C., ELIECER; MORA R., JUDITH; LEVIS C., SILVANA; AVILES A., GABRIELA

    2000-01-01

    El síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH) ha estado presente en Chile desde 1993 y ha sido detectado desde 1997 en la IX Región. Es una grave zoonosis con alta mortalidad, que afecta a gente joven incluyendo niños. Se ha estimado oportuno dar a conocer nuestra experiencia en la atención de 6 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos en las unidades de Cuidados Intensivos y Aislamiento en el Hospital Regional de Temuco, entre enero de 1998 y enero de 2000 mediante un estudio descriptivo de la experienc...

  8. U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World. Volume IX. World-Wide Means and Standard Deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    TITLE (..d SobtII,) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED U. S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World Volume IX World-wide Means and Standard Reference...Ives the best estimate of the population standard deviations. The means, , are com~nuted from: EX IIN I 90 80 70 60" 50’ 40, 30 20 10 0 1070 T- VErr ...or 10%, whichever is greater Since the mean ice limit approximates the minus two de l temperature isopleth, this analyzed lower limit was Wave Heights

  9. Editorial - Special Issue on the Ninth International Conference on Aeolian Research - ICAR IX (Coastal Dune Processes and Aeolian Transport)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Graziela Miot

    2018-04-01

    This special issue combines some of the papers related to coastal dune processes and aeolian sediment transport that were presented at the Ninth International Conference on Aeolian Research - ICAR IX. The conference was held between 4 and 8 of July 2016 in Mildura, Australia, organized by the International Society for Aeolian Research (ISAR) and convened by Adrian Chappell (Cardiff University), Craig Strong (Australian National University), Stephen Cattle (University of Sydney), Patrick Hesp (Flinders University), John Leys (New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage), Lynda Petherick (University of Wellington) and Nick Webb (USDA-ARS Jornada Experimental Range).

  10. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  11. Gender differences in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated gender differences in the cephalometric records of a large-scale cross-sectional sample of Caucasian subjects with Class III malocclusion at different developmental ages. The purpose also was to provide average age-related and sex-related data for craniofacial measures in untreated Class III subjects that are used as reference in the diagnostic appraisal of the patient with Class III disharmony. The sample examined consisted of 1094 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records (557 female subjects and 537 male subjects) of Caucasian Class III individuals. The age range for female subjects was between three years six months and 57 years seven months. The male subject group ranged from three years three months to 48 years five months. Twelve age groups were identified. Skeletal maturity at different age periods also was determined using the stage of cervical vertebral maturation. Gender differences for all cephalometric variables were analyzed using parametric statistics. The findings of the study indicated that Class III malocclusion is associated with a significant degree of sexual dimorphism in craniofacial parameters, especially from the age of 13 onward. Male subjects with Class III malocclusion present with significantly larger linear dimensions of the maxilla, mandible, and anterior facial heights when compared with female subjects during the circumpubertal and postpubertal periods.

  12. PREFACE: IX International Conference on Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnostics and their Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savjolov, A. S.; Dodulad, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    The IX Conference on ''Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnosis and their Application'' was held on 5 - 7 November, 2014 at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (NRNU MEPhI). The goal of the conference was an exchange of information on both high-temperature and low-temperature plasma diagnostics as well as deliberation and analysis of various diagnostic techniques and their applicability in science, industry, ecology, medicine and other fields. The Conference also provided young scientists from scientific centres and universities engaged in plasma diagnostics with an opportunity to attend the lectures given by the leading specialists in this field as well as present their own results and findings. The first workshop titled ''Modern problems of plasma diagnostics and their application for control of chemicals and the environment'' took place at Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI) in June 1998 with the support of the Section on Diagnostics of the Council of Russian Academic of Science on Plasma Physics and since then these forums have been held at MEPhI every two years. In 2008 the workshop was assigned a conference status. More than 150 specialists on plasma diagnostics and students took part in the last conference. They represented leading Russian scientific centres (such as Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Thermonuclear Research, National Research Centre ''Kurchatov Institute'', Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and others) and universities from Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, USA, Belgium and Sweden. About 30 reports were made by young researchers, students and post-graduate students. All presentations during the conference were broadcasted online over the internet with viewers in Moscow, Prague, St. Petersburgh and other cities. The Conference was held within the framework of the Centre of Plasma, Laser Research and Technology supported by MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (Russian

  13. Wheat nitrogen fertilizer residues on an ultisol from the IX Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouanet M, Juan Luis; Pino N, Ines; Nario M, Adriana; Jobet, Claudio; Parada V, Ana Maria; Videla L, Ximena

    2005-01-01

    The soil nitrogen fertilizer residue is a relevant issue on a wheat production system at the IX Region of Chile, due to the high level of yield and use of resources, having an environmental impact from the use of fertilizer economy. The N-soil residue, not absorb by the plant, can be leach and contaminate the groundwater with nitrates or be redistributed by erosion. The application of isotopic techniques, using fertilizer labeled with 15 N, providing the quantitative information of the fate of this nutrient in the plant-soil system, important in the rate formulation based on the nitrogen use efficiency and in the benefit/cost relation. An assay was carried out in an Ultisol Metrenco Soil (Family fine, mixed, mesic, Typic Paleudults) at Pumalal locality. A Kumpa wheat variety was used, with a control treatment and five N rates applied as Urea labeled with 10% 15 N a.e., split in four times during the crop growth cycle. Total N (Kjeldhal) and 15 N optical emission spectrometer were determined in grain and straw samples harvested in February. Before to the next sow on may, soil sample were taken with an 3 cm diameter hugger (0-20; 20-40 and 40-60 cm depth). The samples were air dried, sieved and analyzed for total N and 15 N. The parameters determined for each depth were: N total (%), 15 N a.e. to obtain the plant-soil system N fertilizer recovery and its N residues in the soil profile. The wheat yield obtained was related with a cubic model using the N fertilizer rate applied (R 2 =0.75). The highest yield for the grain, 9.8 Mg ha -1 , was obtained applying 197 k ha -1 of N, with 45% of 15 N recovered by the grain. Nevertheless, the soil-crop system obtained a high 15 N recovery (>88%), in the soil remained 32-60% as N residue, being not used by the plant during the growth period. Between 27-54% of the 15 N total residue was found at the 0-20 cm soil depth, portion that is susceptible of distribution by erosion, implied in the use of fertilizer economy. Around 4

  14. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and the latter are non-manual office workers, supervisors and profession...

  15. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated....

  16. Second class weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed [fr

  17. World Class Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rosalita

    1998-01-01

    School communities are challenged to find ways to identify good teachers and give other teachers a chance to learn from them. The New Mexico World Class Teacher Project is encouraging teachers to pursue certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. This process sharpens teachers' student assessment skills and encourages…

  18. EPA Web Training Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheduled webinars can help you better manage EPA web content. Class topics include Drupal basics, creating different types of pages in the WebCMS such as document pages and forms, using Google Analytics, and best practices for metadata and accessibility.

  19. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Danish...

  20. Coming out in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

  1. Working Together in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateşan Marioara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scores obtained by the military students are very important as a lot of opportunities depend on them: the choice of the branch, selection for different in and off-campus activities, the appointment to the workplace and so on. A qualifier, regardless of its form of effective expression, can make a difference in a given context of issuing a value judgment, in relation to the student's performance assessment. In our research we tried to find out what motives students, what determines them to get actively involved in the tasks they are given and the ways we can improve their participation in classes and assignments. In order to have an educated generation we need to have not only well prepared teachers but ones that are open-minded, flexible and in pace with the methodological novelties that can improve the teaching learning process in class. Along the years we have noticed that in classes where students constituted a cohesive group with an increasing degree of interaction between members, the results were better than in a group that did not appreciate team-work. In this article we want to highlight the fact that a teacher can bring to class the appropriate methods and procedures can contribute decisively to the strengthening of the group cohesion and high scores.

  2. Analysis of the in vitro and in vivo effects of photodynamic therapy on prostate cancer by using new photosensitizers, protoporphyrin IX-polyamine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidanzi-Dugas, Chloë; Liagre, Bertrand; Chemin, Guillaume; Perraud, Aurélie; Carrion, Claire; Couquet, Claude-Yves; Granet, Robert; Sol, Vincent; Léger, David Yannick

    2017-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy, using porphyrins as photosensitizers (PS), has been approved in treatment of several solid tumors. However, commonly used PS induce death but also resistance pathways in cancer cells and an alteration of surrounding normal tissues. Because polyamines (PA) are actively accumulated in cancer cells by the Polyamine Transport System (PTS), they may enable PS to specifically target cancer cells. Here, we investigated whether new protoporphyrin IX-polyamine derivatives were effective PS against prostate cancer and whether PA increased PDT specificity after 630nm irradiation. CHO and CHO-MG cells (differing in their PTS activity) were used to assess efficacy of polyamine vectorization. MTT assays were performed on human prostate non-malignant (RWPE-1) and malignant (PC-3, DU 145 and LNCaP) cell lines to test PS phototoxicity. ROS generation, DNA fragmentation and cell signalling were assessed by ELISA/EIA, western-blots and gel shift assays. Finally, PS effects were studied on tumor growth in nude mice. Our PS were more effective on cancer cells compared to non-malignant cells and more effective than PpIX alone. PpIX-PA generated ROS production involved in induction of apoptotic intrinsic pathways. Different pathways involved in apoptosis resistance were studied: PS inhibited Bcl-2, Akt, and NF-κB but activated p38/COX-2/PGE 2 pathways which were not implicated in apoptosis resistance in our model. In vivo experiments showed PpIX-PA efficacy was greater than results obtained with PpIX. All together, our results showed that PpIX-PA exerted its maximum effects without activating resistance pathways and appears to be a good candidate for prostate cancer PDT treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. COED Transactions, Vol. IX, No. 9, September 1977. A Complete Course in Process Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

    This document presents a mechanical engineering unit addressing essential aspects of computerized plant automation. The unit reviews the control of the simplest of all processes, a 1-measured variable, 1-controlled variable system, through the computer control of an air compressor. (SL)

  4. Adeus à classe trabalhadora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Eley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No início da década de 1980, a política centrada em classes da tradição socialista estava em crise, e comentadores importantes adotaram tons apocalípticos. No final da década, a esquerda permanecia profundamente dividida entre os advogados da mudança e os defensores da fé. Em meados dos anos 1990, os primeiros tinham, de modo geral, ganhado a batalha. O artigo busca apresentar essa mudança contemporânea não como a 'morte da classe', mas como o desa­parecimento de um tipo particular de ­sociedade de classes, marcado pelo ­processo de formação da classe trabalhadora entre os anos 1880 e 1940 e pelo alinhamento político daí resultante, atingindo seu apogeu na construção social-democrata do acordo do pós-guerra. Quando mudanças de longo prazo na economia se combinaram com o ataque ao keynesianismo na política de recessão a partir de meados da década de 1970, a unidade da classe trabalhadora deixou de estar disponível da forma antiga e bastante utilizada, como o terreno natural da política de esquerda. Enquanto uma coletividade dominante da classe trabalhadora entrou em declínio, outra se corporificou de modo lento e desigual para tomar o lugar daquela. Mas a unidade operacional dessa nova agregação da classe trabalhadora ainda está, em grande parte, em formação. Para recuperar a eficácia política da tradição socialista, alguma nova visão de agência política coletiva será necessária, uma visão imaginativamente ajustada às condições emergentes da produção e acumulação capitalista no início do século XXI.

  5. A new manufacturing process to remove thrombogenic factors (II, VII, IX, X, and XI) from intravenous immunoglobulin gamma preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Hwarn; Kang, Gil Bu; Kang, Dae Eun; Hong, Jeung Woon; Lee, Min Gyu; Kim, Ki Yong; Han, Jeung Whan

    2017-01-01

    Coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, X, and particularly XIa) remaining in high concentrations in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations can form thrombi, causing thromboembolic events, and in serious cases, result in death. Therefore, manufacturers of biological products must investigate the ability of their production processes to remove procoagulant activities. Previously, we were able to remove coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X from our IVIG preparation through ethanol precipitation, but factor XIa, which plays an important role in thrombosis, remained in the intermediate products. Here, we used a chromatographic process using a new resin that binds with high capacity to IgG and removes procoagulant activities. The procoagulant activities were reduced to low levels as determined by the thrombin generation assay: 250 s, FXI/FXIa ELISA: <0.31 ng/mL. Even after spiking with FXIa at a concentration 32.5 times higher than the concentration in normal specimens, the procoagulant activities were below the detection limit (<0.31 ng/mL). These results demonstrate the ability of our manufacturing process to remove procoagulant activities to below the detection limit (except by NaPTT), suggesting a reduced risk of thromboembolic events that maybe potentially caused by our IVIG preparation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Significant Microsynteny with New Evolutionary Highlights Is Detected through Comparative Genomic Sequence Analysis of Maize CCCH IX Gene Subfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CCCH zinc finger proteins, which are characterized by the presence of three cysteine residues and one histidine residue, play important roles in RNA processing in plants. Subfamily IX CCCH proteins were recently shown to function in stress tolerances. In this study, we analyzed CCCH IX genes in Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor. These genes, which are almost intronless, were divided into four groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Microsynteny analysis revealed microsynteny in regions of some gene pairs, indicating that segmental duplication has played an important role in the expansion of this gene family. In addition, we calculated the dates of duplication by Ks analysis, finding that all microsynteny blocks were formed after the monocot-eudicot divergence. We found that deletions, multiplications, and inversions were shown to have occurred over the course of evolution. Moreover, the Ka/Ks ratios indicated that the genes in these three grass species are under strong purifying selection. Finally, we investigated the evolutionary patterns of some gene pairs conferring tolerance to abiotic stress, laying the foundation for future functional studies of these transcription factors.

  7. Breeding of transgenic cattle for human coagulation factor IX by a combination of lentiviral system and cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzani, P S; Sangalli, J R; De Bem, T H C; Bressan, F F; Fantinato-Neto, P; Pimentel, J R V; Birgel-Junior, E H; Fontes, A M; Covas, D T; Meirelles, F V

    2013-02-28

    Recombinant coagulation factor IX must be produced in mammalian cells because FIX synthesis involves translational modifications. Human cell culture-based expression of human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) is expensive, and large-scale production capacity is limited. Transgenic animals may greatly increase the yield of therapeutic proteins and reduce costs. In this study, we used a lentiviral system to obtain transgenic cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce transgenic animals. Lentiviral vectors carrying hFIX driven by 3 bovine β-casein promoters were constructed. Bovine epithelial mammary cells were transduced by lentivirus, selected with blasticidin, plated on extracellular matrix, and induced by lactogenic hormones; promoter activity was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Transcriptional activity of the 5.335-kb promoter was 6-fold higher than the 3.392- and 4.279-kb promoters, which did not significantly differ. Transgenic bovine fibroblasts were transduced with lentivirus carrying the 5.335-kb promoter and used as donor cells for SCNT. Cloned transgenic embryo production yielded development rates of 28.4%, similar to previous reports on cloned non-transgenic embryos. The embryos were transferred to recipient cows (N = 21) and 2 births of cloned transgenic cattle were obtained. These results suggest combination of the lentiviral system and cloning may be a good strategy for production of transgenic cattle.

  8. Comparative study of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence image enhancement methods to improve an optical imaging system for oral cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ching-Fen; Wang, Chih-Yu; Chiang, Chun-Ping

    2011-07-01

    Optoelectronics techniques to induce protoporphyrin IX fluorescence with topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid on the oral mucosa have been developed to noninvasively detect oral cancer. Fluorescence imaging enables wide-area screening for oral premalignancy, but the lack of an adequate fluorescence enhancement method restricts the clinical imaging application of these techniques. This study aimed to develop a reliable fluorescence enhancement method to improve PpIX fluorescence imaging systems for oral cancer detection. Three contrast features, red-green-blue reflectance difference, R/B ratio, and R/G ratio, were developed first based on the optical properties of the fluorescence images. A comparative study was then carried out with one negative control and four biopsy confirmed clinical cases to validate the optimal image processing method for the detection of the distribution of malignancy. The results showed the superiority of the R/G ratio in terms of yielding a better contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue, and this method was less prone to errors in detection. Quantitative comparison with the clinical diagnoses in the four neoplastic cases showed that the regions of premalignancy obtained using the proposed method accorded with the expert's determination, suggesting the potential clinical application of this method for the detection of oral cancer.

  9. Su Santidad el Papa Pío IX, y la semana santa romana de 1866, visto por un ilustre valenciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Río Hijas Ximenez, María Elena

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisco de Paula Ximénez and Marco made a trip to Italy in 1866. He left a chronicle unpublished. The story of his stay in Rome is published, during the Easter of this year. The chronicle of the celebrations reveals the fascination that exerted Pío IX on the travelling ones and it informs to us on the organization into which it was left of the Pontifical States.Francisco de Paula Ximénez y Marco hizo un viaje a Italia en 1866. Dejó una crónica inédita. Se publica el relato de su estancia en Roma, durante la semana santa de este año. La crónica de las celebraciones revela la fascinación que ejercía Pío IX sobre los peregrinos y nos informa sobre la organización de lo que quedaba de loa Estados Pontificios.

  10. Topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester and 5-aminolevulinic acid to normal nude mouse skin: Differences in protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics and the role of the stratum corneum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, J. T.; Iani, V.; Star, W. M.; Sterenborg, H. J.; Moan, J.

    2000-01-01

    An important limitation of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodetection and photodynamic therapy is that the amount of the fluorescing and photosensitizing product protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) formed is limited. The reason for this Is probably the limited diffusion of ALA through the stratum

  11. The effect of mechanical load cycling and polishing time on microleakage of class V glass-ionomer and composite restorations: A scanning electron microscopy evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoreh Mirzaie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microleakage is one of the challenging concerns in direct filling restorations. Understanding of its related factors is important in clinical practice. The aim of this study was scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of marginal integrity in three types of tooth-colored restorative materials in class V cavity preparations and the effect of load cycling and polishing time on the microleakage. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, class V cavity preparations were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 60 bovine incisors. The specimens were divided into three groups each containing 20 teeth: group 1: Filtek Z350, Group 2: Fuji IX/G Coat Plus, Group 3: Fuji II LC/GC varnish. In each group, 2 subgroups (n = 20 were established based on finishing time (immediate or delayed by 24 h. All specimens were thermocycled (×2,000, 5-50°C. In each sub groups, half of the teeth were load cycled. Epoxy resin replicas of 24 specimens were evaluated under field emission-SEM and interfacial gaps were measured. All teeth were then immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin dye for 24 h, sectioned and observed under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis′ test and Mann-Whitney U test and a comparison between incisal and cervical microleakage was made with Wilcoxon test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Load cycling and filling material had a significant effect on microleakage, but polishing time did not. Cervical microleakage in Z350/load cycle/immediate polish and Fuji IX/load cycle/immediate or delayed polish and Fuji IX/no load cycle/immediate polish were significantly higher than incisal microleakage. Conclusion: It was concluded that the cervical sealing ability of Fuji IX under load cycling was better than Fuji II LC. Under load cycling and immediate polishing Z350 showed better marginal integrity than both Fuji II LC and Fuji IX. The immediate polishing didn′t cause a statistically

  12. Variability of BL Lacertae type object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayatte, V

    1987-10-01

    This object is among the brightest and the most violently variable of this galaxy class with active nuclei. It has been studied in many wavelength domains and in polarimetry. Some important results are reported here and more particularly on its variability. These observations bring some elements for a better knowledge of the inner source.

  13. Multilevel Latent Class Analysis: Parametric and Nonparametric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, W. Holmes; French, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class analysis is an analytic technique often used in educational and psychological research to identify meaningful groups of individuals within a larger heterogeneous population based on a set of variables. This technique is flexible, encompassing not only a static set of variables but also longitudinal data in the form of growth mixture…

  14. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  15. Storytelling in EFL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is one of the oldest ways of education and oral tradition that is continuously being used to transfer the previous nation‘s cultures, tradition and customs. It constructs a bridge between the new and the old. Storytelling in EFL classes usually provides a meaningful context, interesting atmosphere and is used as a tool to highly motivate students. Although it seems to be mostly based on speaking, it is used to promote other skills such as writing, reading, and listening. Storytelling is mainly regarded to be grounded on imitation and repetition; nevertheless many creative activities can be implemented in the classroom since this method directs learners to use their imaginations. This study discusses the importance of storytelling as a teaching method, and it outlines the advantages of storytelling in EFL classes.

  16. Queen elizabeth class battleships

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Les

    2010-01-01

    The 'ShipCraft' series provides in-depth information about building and modifying model kits of famous warship types. Lavishly illustrated, each book takes the modeller through a brief history of the subject class, highlighting differences between sister-ships and changes in their appearance over their careers. This includes paint schemes and camouflage, featuring colour profiles and highly detailed line drawings and scale plans. The modelling section reviews the strengths and weaknesses of available kits, lists commercial accessory sets for super-detailing of the ships, and provides hints on modifying and improving the basic kit. This is followed by an extensive photographic survey of selected high-quality models in a variety of scales, and the book concludes with a section on research references - books, monographs, large-scale plans and relevant websites.This volume covers the five ships of the highly successful Queen Elizabeth class, a design of fast battleship that set the benchmark for the last generati...

  17. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  18. Storytelling in EFL Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Bala

    2015-01-01

    Storytelling is one of the oldest ways of education and oral tradition that is continuously being used to transfer the previous nation‘s cultures, tradition and customs. It constructs a bridge between the new and the old. Storytelling in EFL classes usually provides a meaningful context, interesting atmosphere and is used as a tool to highly motivate students. Although it seems to be mostly based on speaking, it is used to promote other skills such as writing, reading, and listening. Storytel...

  19. Esmeraldas-Class Corvettes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-25

    The series of ships, named after all the provinces of Ecuador , include: --CA 11 ESMERALDAS, laid down 27 September 1979, launched 11 October 1980... LOJA , laid down 25 March 1981, launched 27 February 1982; fitting out at CNR Ancona. The building program, on schedule so far, calls for the entire class...built and are still building in 16 units for foreign navies (Libya, Ecuador , Iraq) with four possible armament alternatives. In particular, they

  20. [Social classes and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo

    2004-05-01

    Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.

  1. How Title IX and Proportionality Population Concepts Have Equalized Collegiate Women's Sports Programs with Men's Sports and Allows Spillover Gains for Women in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Nina H.; Compton, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Reformation Act was passed in 1972 for the purpose of providing equality between males and females in intercollegiate sports. Since its inception the disparity between men's and women's varsity athletics programs has persisted throughout American colleges and universities. Discrimination and equal protection concerns…

  2. Data Summary Report for the Annual Fourmile Branch and F- and H-Area Seeplines, Appendix IX Metals and Radionuclides, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the definitive data validation and verification for the 1998 RFI/RI annual Appendix IX metals and radionuclides survey for Fourmile Branch and the F- and H-Area Seeplines. The validation process began with project mobilization and continued through the delivery of EDDs and this report

  3. ADVANCES AND CHALLENGES IN SUGARCANE BIOTECHNOLOY AND PLANT PATHOLOGY: A REVIEW OF THE IX PLANT PATHOLOGY WORKSHOP AND VI MOLECULAR BIOLOGY WORKSHOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IX Pathology Workshop and VI Molecular Biology Workshop of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ISSCT) were organised jointly and hosted by the Colombian Sugarcane Research Centre (CENICAÑA) from 23-27 June 2008 at the Radisson Royal Hotel in Cali, Colombia. The Workshop was we...

  4. Topical glycerol monooleate/propylene glycol formulations enhance 5-aminolevulinic acid in vitro skin delivery and in vivo protophorphyrin IX accumulation in hairless mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steluti, Regilene; De Rosa, Fernanda Scarmato; Collett, John; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a potential therapy for cancer treatment, utilizes exogenously applied or endogenously formed photosensitizers, further activated by light in an appropriate wavelength and dose to induce cell death through free radical formation. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a pro-drug which can be converted to the effective photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). However, the use of 5-ALA in PDT is limited by the low penetration capacity of this highly hydrophilic molecule into appropriate skin layers. In the present study, we propose to increase 5-ALA penetration by using formulations containing glycerol monooleate (GMO), an interesting and useful component of pharmaceutical formulations. Propylene glycol solutions containing different concentrations of GMO significantly increased the in vitro skin permeation/retention of 5-ALA in comparison to control solutions. In vivo studies also showed increased PpIX accumulation in mouse hairless skin, after the use of topical 5-ALA formulations containing GMO in a concentration-dependent manner. The results show that skin 5-ALA penetration and PpIX accumulation, important factors for the success of topical 5-ALA-PDT in skin cancer, are optimized by GMO/propylene glycol formulations.

  5. Retsensioon : Riigikogu VII, VIII ja IX koosseis. Statistikat ja kommentaare. Peatoimetaja Aaro Mõttus. Tallinn : Riigikogu Kantselei, Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu, 2004. 326 lk. / Mart Nutt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nutt, Mart, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Riigikogu VII, VIII ja IX koosseis. Statistikat ja kommentaare / peatoim. Aaro Mõttus. Tallinn : Riigikogu Kantselei, Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu, 2004. - Lisatud: Ott Heinapuu tutvustav sõnum retsenseeritud väljaande kohta lk. 193. - Vt. ka: http://www.riigikogu.ee/rito/index.php?id=11357

  6. Venous drainage of the dorsal sector of the liver: differences between segments I and IX. A study on corrosion casts of the human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzijev, E M; Ravnik, D; Stanisavljevic, D; Trotovsek, B

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the venous drainage of the dorsal sector of the liver in order to define the differences between segments I and IX and their implications for sectorially and segmentally oriented hepatic surgery. The study was based on corrosion casts of 61 macroscopically healthy livers. The drainage pathways of veins at least 10 mm long and 1 mm wide were evaluated and statistically analysed. On average, 9 veins drained the two segments and three veins from both segments entered the inferior vena cava. In 95% of cases the veins from segment I drained predominantly into the inferior vena cava, whereas in segment IX this pathway was dominant in only 30% of cases. In 64% of cases a vein originating in segment IX entered the right hepatic v. The difference in the venous drainage of the two segments suggests that segment IX partly belongs to the neighbouring segments and may thus be only a paracaval region of the right liver.

  7. Carbonic anhydrase IX and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: a subgroup analysis of the DBCG82 b and c trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Alsner, J.

    2008-01-01

    -points were loco-regional recurrence, distant metastases, disease-specific survival and overall survival. Statistical analyses included kappa statistics, chi(2) or exact tests, Kaplan-Meier probability plots, Log-rank test and Cox regression analyses. Results CA IX was assessable in 945 cores. The percentage...

  8. Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) is expressed in the harderian gland and mediates transport of conjugated protoporphyrin IX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Johan W.; Musters, Sandra; Vlaming, Maria L. H.; Plosch, Torsten; Gooijert, Karin E. R.; Hillebrand, Michel J.; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Schinkel, Alfred H.

    Proper regulation of intracellular levels of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), the direct precursor of heme, is important for cell survival. A deficiency in ferrochelatase, which mediates the final step in heme biosynthesis, leads to erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), a photosensitivity syndrome caused by

  9. Hemophilia as a defect of the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation: Effect of factors VIII and IX on factor X activation in a continuous-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, D.; Gemmell, C.H.; Guha, A.; Turitto, V.T.; Nemerson, Y.; Broze, G.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of factors VIII and IX on the ability of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex to activate factor X was studied in a continuous-flow tubular enzyme reactor. Tissue factor immobilized in a phospholipid bilayer on the inner surface of the tube was exposed to a perfusate containing factors VIIa, VIII, IX, and X flowing at a wall shear rate of 57, 300, or 1130 sec -1 . The addition of factors VIII and IX at their respective plasma concentrations resulted in a further 2 endash-to 3 endash fold increase. The direct activation of factor X by tissue factor-factor VIIa could be virtually eliminated by the lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor. These results suggest that the tissue factor pathway, mediated through factors VIII and IX, produces significant levels of factor Xa even in the presence of an inhibitor of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex; moreover, the activation is dependent on local shear conditions. These findings are consistent both with a model of blood coagulation in which initiation of the system results from tissue factor and with the bleeding observed in hemophilia

  10. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-68-000] Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development Company, LLC...

  11. Hemophilia B with mutations at glycine-48 of factor IX exhibited delayed activation by the factor VIIa-tissue factor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P C; Hamaguchi, N; Yu, Y S; Shen, M C; Lin, S W

    2000-10-01

    Gly-48 is in the conserved DGDQC sequence (residues 47-51 of human factor IX) of the first EGF (EGF-1)-like domain of factor IX. The importance of the Gly-48 is manifested by two hemophilia B patients; factor IXTainan and factor IXMalmo27, with Gly-48 replaced by arginine (designated IXG48R) and valine (IXG48V), respectively. Both patients were CRM+ exhibiting mild hemophilic episodes with 25% (former) and 19% (latter) normal clotting activities. We characterize both factor IX variants to show the roles of Gly-48 and the conservation of the DGDQC sequence in factor IX. Purified plasma and recombinant factor IX variants exhibited approximately 26%-27% normal factor IX's clotting activities with G48R or G48V mutation. Both variants depicted normal quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence by increasing concentrations of calcium ions and Tb3+, indicating that arginine and valine substitution for Gly-48 did not perturb the calcium site in the EGF-1 domain. Activation of both mutants by factor XIa appeared normal. The reduced clotting activity of factors IXG48R and IXG48V was attributed to the failure of both mutants to cleavage factor X: in the presence of only phospholipids and calcium ions, both mutants showed a 4 to approximately 7-fold elevation in Km, and by adding factor VIIIa to the system, although factor VIIIa potentiated the activation of factor X by the mutants factor IXaG48R and factor IXaG48V, a 2 to approximately 3-fold decrease in the catalytic function was observed with the mutant factor IXa's, despite that they bound factor VIIIa on the phospholipid vesicles with only slightly reduced affinity when compared to wild-type factor IXa. The apparent Kd for factor VIIIa binding was 0.83 nM for normal factor IXa, 1.74 nM for IXaG48R and 1.4 nM for IXaG48V. Strikingly, when interaction with the factor VIIa-TF complex was examined, both mutations were barely activated by the VIIa-TF complex and they also showed abnormal interaction with VIIa-TF in bovine

  12. The Application of Lean Thinking Principles and Kaizen Practices for the Successful Development and Implementation of the Ares I-X Flight Test Rocket and Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, B. R.; Davis, S. R.; Heitzman, K. S.; Olsen, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    On October 28, 2009 the Ares I-X flight test rocket launched from Kennedy Space Center and flew its suborbital trajectory as designed. The mission was successfully completed as data from the test, and associated development activities were analyzed, transferred to stakeholders, and well documented. A positive lesson learned from Ares I-X was that the application of lean thinking principles and kaizen practices was very effective in streamlining development activities. Ares I-X, like other historical rocket development projects, was hampered by technical, cost, and schedule challenges and if not addressed boldly could have resulted in cancellation of the test. The mission management team conducted nine major meetings, referred to as lean events, across its elements to assess plans, procedures, processes, requirements, controls, culture, organization, use of resources, and anything that could be changed to optimize schedule or reduce risk. The preeminent aspect of the lean events was the focus on value added activities and the removal or at least reduction in non-value added activities. Trained Lean Six Sigma facilitators assisted the Ares I-X developers in conducting the lean events. They indirectly helped formulate the mission s own unique methodology for assessing schedule. A core team was selected to lead the events and report to the mission manager. Each activity leveraged specialized participants to analyze the subject matter and its related processes and then recommended alternatives and solutions. Stakeholders were the event champions. They empowered and encouraged the team to succeed. The keys to success were thorough preparation, honest dialog, small groups, adherence to the Ares I-X ground rules, and accountability through disciplined reporting and tracking of actions. This lean event formula was game-changing as demonstrated by Ares I-X. It is highly recommended as a management tool to help develop other complex systems efficiently. The key benefits for

  13. Kinetics and comparison of δ-aminolevulinic-acid-induced endogenous protoporphyrin-IX in single cell by steady state and multiphoton fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Elangovan, Masilamani; Periasamy, Ammasi

    2001-04-01

    Photodynamic Therapy has emerged as a new modality in the treatment of various nonmalignant and malignant diseases. It involves the systemic administration of tumor specific photo-sensitizers with the subsequent application of visible light. This combination causes the generation of cytotoxic species, which damage sensitive targets, producing cell injury and tumor destruction. Although, photofrin is the only photosensitizer currently approved for PDT and tumor detection, its concomitant cutaneous photosensitization poses a significant problem. Hence, δ-aminoleuvulinic acid (δ-ALA) a precursor for the endogenous production of Protoporphyrin IX, through heme biosynthesis pathway, has gained significant importance in the Photodynamic Therapy. Though δ-ALA is present naturally in the cells, exogenous δ-ALA helps to synthesis more of PpIX in the tumor cells, as the fast growing tumor cells take up the administered δ-ALA more than the normal cells. Based on these facts, many invasive studies have been reported on the kinetics of δ-ALA at cellular level by chemical extraction of PpIX from the cells. In the present study we have studied the kinetics of δ-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence from Hela cells by perchloric/Methanol extraction method. However, the amount of PpIX synthesized in the cells at different point of incubation time by noninvasive methods has not been reported. Hence we have also used a noninvasive technique of measuring the kinetics δ-ALA induced PPIX fluorescence from Hela, an epithelial cell derived from human cervical cancer by both single photon (steady state) and multi photon excitation. From the studies it is observed that the δ-ALA induced PpIX is more at 2 hours incubation time for 2 mM of δ-ALA concentration. Further, it is observed that with steady state fluorescence imaging method, the excitation light itself cause the Photodynamic damage, due to the prolonged exposure of the cells than in multi photon excitation, leading to the rounding

  14. Class impressions : Higher social class elicits lower prosociality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doesum, Niels J.; Tybur, Joshua M.; Van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Social class predicts numerous important life outcomes and social orientations. To date, literature has mainly examined how an individual's own class shapes interactions with others. But how prosocially do people treat others they perceive as coming from lower, middle, or higher social classes?

  15. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...

  16. Class and eating: Family meals in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines social differentiation in eating patterns in Britain. It focuses on family meals among individuals with under-age children. Eating with family members has been associated with improvement in wellbeing, nutritional status, and school performance of the children. Modern lifestyles may pose a challenge to commensal eating for all groups, but the scale of the impact varies between social classes, with some groups at higher risk of shortening or skipping family meal time. Eating patterns are differentiated by individual's social class; they have also been associated with educational attainment, work schedules, and household composition. The objective of this study is to disaggregate the effect of these variables. Using data from the 2014/2015 UK Time Use Survey I analyse the net effect of social class, education, income, work and family characteristics on the frequency and duration of family meals. Individuals in the highest occupational class dedicate more time overall to family meals. However, class effect becomes insignificant when other variables, such as education or income, are controlled for. This study finds that higher educated individuals have more frequent family meals, and more affluent individuals spend more time at the table with their household members. Work characteristics are associated with frequency of meals, but not with their duration. Finally, household composition matters for how people eat. Parents of younger children eat with their family members more frequently than parents of teenagers. Single parents, a notoriously time-poor category, spend the least amount of time eating with their families and have fewer commensal meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Following the police raid on the ‘Muthanga’ land occupation by Adivasi (‘indigenous’) activists in Kerala, India, in February 2003, intense public debate erupted about the fate of Adivasis in this ‘model’ development state. Most commentators saw the land occupation either as the fight...... analysis, as elaborated in Marxian anthropology, this article provides an alternative to the liberal-culturalist explanation of indigenism in Kerala, arguing instead that contemporary class processes—as experienced close to the skin by the people who decided to participate in the Muthanga struggle......—were what shaped their decision to embrace indigenism....

  18. Tuning of superconductivity by Ni substitution into noncentrosymmetric ThC o1 -xN ixC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T. W.; Cigarroa, O. V.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Machado, A. J. S.; Fisk, Z.

    2017-07-01

    The recently discovered noncentrosymmetric superconductor ThCoC2 was observed to show unusual superconducting behavior with a critical temperature of Tc=2.65 K . Here we investigate the effect of nickel substitution on the superconducting state in ThC o1 -xN ixC2 . Magnetization, resistivity, and heat capacity measurements demonstrate Ni substitution has a dramatic effect with critical temperature increased up to Tc=12.1 K for x =0.4 Ni concentration, which is a rather high transition temperature for a noncentrosymmetric superconductor. In addition, the unusual superconducting characteristics observed in pure ThCoC2 appear to be suppressed or tuned with Ni substitution towards a more conventional fully gapped superconductor.

  19. The 4p-5d, 6d and 4p-6s, 7s transitions of Mo IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatoon, S.; Chaghtai, M.S.Z.; Rahimullah, K.

    1979-01-01

    The transitions 4p-5d, 6d and 4p-6s, 7s have been studied for the first time in Mo IX. The authors have identified 42 4p-5d, 36 4p-6d, 22 4p-6s and 22 4p-7s transitions, establishing 16 4p 3 5d, 14 4p 3 6d and all the ten 4p 3 6s, 7s levels of the spectrum concerned. The ionization energy is estimated to be (1 323 700 +- 700)cm -1 or (164.11 +- 0.09)eV. The spectrum was recorded in sliding and open spark discharges with a 5 m grazing incidence spectrograph of Lund University (Sweden) from about 40 A to 440 A. (Auth.)

  20. Identification of the chlE gene encoding oxygen-independent Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Kaori; Minamizaki, Kei; Fujita, Yuichi

    2015-08-07

    The fifth ring (E-ring) of chlorophyll (Chl) a is produced by Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MPE) cyclase. There are two evolutionarily unrelated MPE cyclases: oxygen-independent (BchE) and oxygen-dependent (ChlA/AcsF) MPE cyclases. Although ChlA is the sole MPE cyclase in Synechocystis PCC 6803, it is yet unclear whether BchE exists in cyanobacteria. A BLAST search suggests that only few cyanobacteria possess bchE. Here, we report that two bchE candidate genes from Cyanothece strains PCC 7425 and PCC 7822 restore the photosynthetic growth and bacteriochlorophyll production in a bchE-lacking mutant of Rhodobacter capsulatus. We termed these cyanobacterial bchE orthologs "chlE." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Color formation in nitrite-free dried hams as related to Zn-protoporphyrin IX and Zn-chelatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolari, Giovanni; Benedini, Riccardo; Toscani, Tania

    2009-08-01

    The development of red pigment Zn-protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) in nitrite-free Parma hams was investigated in 5 leg muscles at several stages of processing and the activity of muscle Zn-chelatase was concurrently assayed for its potential role in ZPP formation. A steady increase of the pigment was observed throughout the manufacturing stages at mild temperatures while no development was observed during the prior cold resting phase. The enzyme was partly inactivated according to a muscle-dependent pattern, resulting in similar ZPP contents, hence color, in finished hams. It is concluded that enzyme-dependent synthesis of ZPP in nitrite-free dried hams contributes to color development, enabling muscles in dried hams to become more similar in redness than in green thighs. Therefore, checking raw meat for the enzyme content may be a means to control color formation in nitrite-free dry-cured meat derivatives.

  2. Proceedings of XV Workshop on Nuclear Physics. IX International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. WONP-NURT 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This year 2015, the XV Workshop on Nuclear Physics and IX International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques, WONP-NURT 2015 organized by the Center of Technological Applications and Nuclear Development from 9 to 13 February at the National Museum of Fine Arts. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM.

  3. Carbon anhydrase IX specific immune responses in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma potentially cured by interleukin-2 based immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Johannes W

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The majority of clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) show high and homogeneous expression levels of the tumor associated antigen (TAA) carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and treatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2) based immunotherapy can lead to cure in patients with metastatic renal cell...... of disease (NED) following treatment with IL-2 based immunotherapy, and thus potentially cured. Immune reactivity in these patients was compared with samples from patients with dramatic tumor response obtained immediately at the cessation of therapy, samples from patients that experienced progressive disease...... interest in future cancer vaccines, but more studies are needed to elucidate the immunological mechanisms of action in potentially cured patients treated with an immunotherapeutic agent....

  4. SCCmec Type IX Element in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcusaureusspa Type t337 (CC9) Isolated from Pigs and Pork in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Cavaco, Lina M; Sirichote, Pantip

    2012-01-01

    blaZ, aac-aphD, vga(A), tetM, and a tet efflux marker, in all strains and additionally ermB and aadD, cat and fex(A) in the pork isolates. None of the isolates were found PVL-positive, but enterotoxins were identified in all isolates. To our knowledge, only a few descriptions of MRSA in livestock...... and food products in Thailand have been observed but this is the first observation of MRSA CC9 associated with SCCmec IX in pork. This study indicates a likely widespread distribution of MRSA in pig and pork in Thailand and further investigation on the prevalence and importance of livestock associated MRSA...

  5. Establishing Approaches to Modeling the Ares I-X and Ares I Roll Control System with Free-stream Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, S. Paul; Deere, Karen A.; Abdol-Hamid, Khales S.

    2011-01-01

    Approaches were established for modeling the roll control system and analyzing the jet interactions of the activated roll control system on Ares-type configurations using the USM3D Navier-Stokes solver. Components of the modeling approach for the roll control system include a choice of turbulence models, basis for computing a dynamic equivalence of the real gas rocket exhaust flow in terms of an ideal gas, and techniques to evaluate roll control system performance for wind tunnel and flight conditions. A simplified Ares I-X configuration was used during the development phase of the roll control system modeling approach. A limited set of Navier-Stokes solutions was obtained for the purposes of this investigation and highlights of the results are included in this paper. The USM3D solutions were compared to equivalent solutions at select flow conditions from a real gas Navier- Stokes solver (Loci-CHEM) and a structured overset grid Navier-Stokes solver (OVERFLOW).

  6. Comparison of invitro cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of glass ionomer cement type IX on human lymphocytes before and after electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, Mithra N.; Brijesh; Shetty, Shilpa S.; Hegde, Nidarsh D.; Suchetha Kumari; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements are widely used in dentistry as an adhesive restorative materials. However, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies using these materials are inconclusive in literature. The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of glass ionomer cement type IX available commercially before and after irradiation. Glass ionomer cement type IX was obtained commercially. Samples were prepared as per the ISO standard size of 25x2x2 mm using polytetrafluoroethylene teflon mould and divided into two groups - non irradiated and irradiated groups. The samples in radiated category were exposed to 10 KGy of electron beam irradiation at Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, Mangalore, India. For hemolysis assay, the samples were immersed in phosphate buffer saline and incubated at 370℃ for 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days. 200 μL of 24 hr material extract was mixed with human peripheral blood lymphocyte tested for comet assay by single cell DNA comet assay and apoptosis by DNA diffusion assay. Hemolytic activity of non irradiated Glass ionomer cement type IX after 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days was 78.18±10.13, 32.57±12.28, 38.56±4.68 respectively whereas hemolytic activity of irradiated Glass ionomer cement type IX after 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days was 58.90±2.28, 35.04±1.09 and 34.26±7.71 respectively. The irradiation of Glass ionomer cement type IX with 10 KGy dose of electron beam irradiation did not show significant increase in the frequency of DNA damage when compared to that of the nonirradiated group. Apoptotic index did not show much difference between non-irradiated and irradiated groups. Taken together, we conclude that some components of glass ionomer cements show both genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. (author)

  7. Building latent class trees, with an application to a study of social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, M.; Schmittmann, V.D.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers use latent class (LC) analysis to derive meaningful clusters from sets of categorical variables. However, especially when the number of classes required to obtain a good fit is large, interpretation of the latent classes may not be straightforward. To overcome this problem, we propose an

  8. Social class and body weight among Chinese urban adults: the role of the middle classes in the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, J.B.; McBride, T.R.; Covic, J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes an automatic variable collimator which controls the width and thickness of X-ray beams in X-ray diagnostic medical equipment, and which is particularly adapted for use with computerized axial tomographic scanners. A two-part collimator is provided which shapes an X-ray beam both prior to its entering an object subject to radiographic analysis and after the attenuated beam has passed through the object. Interposed between a source of radiation and the object subject to radiographic analysis is a first or source collimator. The source collimator causes the X-ray beam emitted by the source of radiation to be split into a plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams. Disposed within the source collimator is a movable aperture plate which may be used to selectively vary the thickness of the plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams transmitted through the source collimator. A second or receiver collimator is interposed between the object subject to radiographic analysis and a series of radiation detectors. The receiver collimator is disposed to receive the attenuated X-ray beams passing through the object subject to radiographic analysis. Located within the receiver collimator are a plurality of movable aperture plates adapted to be displaced relative to a plurality of fixed aperture plates for the purpose of varying the width and thickness of the attenuated X-ray beams transmitted through the object subject to radiographic analysis. The movable aperture plates of the source and receiver collimators are automatically controlled by circuitry which is provided to allow remote operation of the movable aperture plates

  10. FOREWORD: IX International Symposium on Radiation from Relativistic Electrons in Periodic Structures (RREPS-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyn, Alexander; Karataev, Pavel

    2012-05-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the IX International Symposium on Radiation from Relativistic Electrons in Periodic Structures (RREPS'11) which was held at Royal Holloway, University of London on September 12-16, Egham, United Kingdom. The symposium was organized jointly by Royal Holloway, University of London and Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia. RREPS is a biennial series of symposia founded in September 1993 as an initiative of the Nuclear Physics Institute at Tomsk Polytechnic University. The intention was to strengthen the basic and applied research focused on radiation from relativistic electrons in condensed media, particularly from natural and artificial periodic structures, and to review the research activity in this area. Since then, the symposium has developed into a forum attracting young scientists from different areas of research and from many countries. Previous successful symposia were held at Tomsk, Russia (1993, 1995, 1997, 2003), Lake Baikal, Russia (1999), Lake Aiya, Altai, Russia (2001), Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic (2007) and Zvenigorod, Moscow region, Russia (2009). As an outcome of the symposia the conference proceedings have been published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B (Vol. 145 No 1-2, October 1998; Vol. 173 No 1-2, January 2001; Vol. 201 No 1 January 2003; Vol. 227 No 1-2, January 2005; Vol. 266 No 17, September 2008) and Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 236, June 2010). The purpose of the present RREPS'11 symposium was to review the up-to-date situation in the area of electromagnetic radiation generated by relativistic charged particles in condensed media, and to discuss the research strategy for the near future. Nowadays, electromagnetic radiation studies cover electron energies from a few MeV up to hundreds of GeV in many laboratories throughout the world. The goal is to study the physics of the generation of various kinds of radiation and their

  11. Teachers, Social Class and Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mairead; Gazeley, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the "the social class attainment gap" in education has become a government priority in England. Despite multiple initiatives, however, little has effectively addressed the underachievement of working-class pupils within the classroom. In order to develop clearer understandings of working-class underachievement at this level,…

  12. Mapping the Social Class Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Grau Larsen, Anton

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a new explorative method for deriving social class categories from patterns of occupational mobility. In line with Max Weber, our research is based on the notion that, if class boundaries do not inhibit social mobility then the class categories are of little value. Thus...

  13. Social System of River City High School Senior Class: Socio-economic Status (SES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Richard F.

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…

  14. SEM Evaluation and Comparision of Marginal Integrity in Glass-Ionomer and Copmposite Class Restoratins With Immediate or Delay Polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar Omidi B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Marginal seal in class V cavities and determining the best restorative material to decrease microleakage is of great importance in operative dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polishing time on the microleakage of three types of tooth-colored restorative materials in class V cavity preparations and to assess the marginal integrity of these materials using scanning electron microscope (SEM.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, class V cavity preparations were made on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 30 bovine incisors (60 cavities. The specimens were divided into three groups each containing 10 teeth (20 cavities: group 1, Filtek Z350 (nanocomposite; group 2, Fuji IX/G Coat Plus (CGIC; and group 3, Fuji II LC (RMGI. In each group, half of the specimens (n = 20 were finished/polished immediately and the rest of them were finished/polished after 24 hours. All the specimens were thermocycled for 2000 cycles (5-50 °C. Epoxy resin replicas of 12 specimens (2 restorations in each subgroup were evaluated using SEM and the interfacial gaps were measured. Finally, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours at room temperature, sectioned and observed under stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and the comparison between incisal and cervical microleakage was made with Wilcoxon test.Results: Incisal and cervical microleakage were not affected by polishing time in none of the three restorative materials (P>0.05. Cervical microleakage only in Fuji IX with immediate polishing was significantly higher than incisal microleakage (P0.05.Conclusion: Immediate polishing is recommended in tooth-colored class V restorations.

  15. Radio emission from the nova-like variable AC Cancri and the symbiotic variable AG Draconis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torbett, M.V.; Campbell, B.; Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Radio emission at 6 cm has been detected from the nova-like cataclysmic variable AC Cnc and the symbiotic variable AG Dra. The AC Cnc observation constitutes the first radio detection in this class of objects. The AG Dra source is probably resolved and appears to show asymmetric, extended structure. The radio emission can best be explained by thermal bremsstrahlung. 26 references

  16. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia M. Al-Hummayani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month.

  17. [Economy class syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Economy class syndrome is venous thromboembolism following air travel. This syndrome was firstly reported in 1946, and many cases have been reported since 1990s. Low air pressure and low humidity in the aircraft cabin may contribute to the mechanism of this syndrome. Risk factors for venous thrombosis in the plane were old age, small height, obesity, hormonal therapy, malignancy, smoking, pregnancy or recent parturition, recent trauma or operation, chronic disease and history of venous thrombosis. In Japan, the feminine gender is also risk factor though reason was not well known. For prophylaxis, adequate fluid intake and leg exercise are recommended to all passengers. For passengers with high risk, prophylactic measures such as compression stockings, aspirin or low molecular weight heparin should be considered.

  18. Unsupervised classification of variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Lucas; Pichara, Karim

    2018-03-01

    During the past 10 years, a considerable amount of effort has been made to develop algorithms for automatic classification of variable stars. That has been primarily achieved by applying machine learning methods to photometric data sets where objects are represented as light curves. Classifiers require training sets to learn the underlying patterns that allow the separation among classes. Unfortunately, building training sets is an expensive process that demands a lot of human efforts. Every time data come from new surveys; the only available training instances are the ones that have a cross-match with previously labelled objects, consequently generating insufficient training sets compared with the large amounts of unlabelled sources. In this work, we present an algorithm that performs unsupervised classification of variable stars, relying only on the similarity among light curves. We tackle the unsupervised classification problem by proposing an untraditional approach. Instead of trying to match classes of stars with clusters found by a clustering algorithm, we propose a query-based method where astronomers can find groups of variable stars ranked by similarity. We also develop a fast similarity function specific for light curves, based on a novel data structure that allows scaling the search over the entire data set of unlabelled objects. Experiments show that our unsupervised model achieves high accuracy in the classification of different types of variable stars and that the proposed algorithm scales up to massive amounts of light curves.

  19. Network class superposition analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  20. Damascus steel ledeburite class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D. A.; Arkhangelsky, L. B.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbide”. It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.

  1. Social class differences in self, attribution, and attention: socially expansive individualism of middle-class Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E

    2009-07-01

    Although U.S. culture strongly sanctions the ideal of independence, the specific ways in which independence is realized may be variable depending, among other factors, on social class. Characterized by relative scarcity of social and material resources, working-class (WC) Americans were expected to strongly value self-reliance. In contrast, with choices among abundant resources, middle-class (MC) Americans were expected to value personal control and social expansiveness. In support of this analysis, relative to their WC counterparts, MC Americans reported more support from friends and greater likelihood of giving and receiving advice but less self-reliance (Study 1). Furthermore, we found evidence that this social difference has cognitive consequences: College students with MC backgrounds were more likely than their WC counterparts were to endorse situational attributions for others' behavior (Studies 2a and 2b) as well as to show holistic visual attention (Study 3).

  2. Lack of prognostic and predictive value of CA IX in radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with known modifiable hypoxia: An evaluation of the DAHANCA 5 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Overgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CA IX is suggested to be an endogenous marker of hypoxia in tumours like squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CA IX served as a prognostic factor for outcome in a large population of HNSCC and if CA IX...... was able to discriminate the tumours that did benefit from hypoxic modification with nimorazole. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed pre-treatment tumour tissue was available from 320 of the 414 patients treated in the randomized DAHANCA 5 protocol with primary radiotherapy...

  3. Evaluation of a gadolinium-based nanoparticle (AGuIX) for contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver in a rat model of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases at 9.4 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, P.; Morr, D.; Mueller, A.; Massmann, A.; Seidel, R.; Schneider, G.; Buecker, A. [Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg (Germany). Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Lux, F.; Tillement, O. [Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon (France). Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents; Schaefer, T. [Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg (Germany). Dept. of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery; Menger, M.D. [Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg (Germany). Inst. for Clinical and Experimental Surgery

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare a Gd-based nanoparticle (AGuIX) with a standard extracellular Gd-based contrast agent (Gd-DOTA) for MRI at 9.4 T in rats with hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. 12 rats with hepatic metastases were subjected to MRI using a 9.4 T animal scanner. T1w self-gated FLASH sequences (TR/TE=45/2.5 ms, alpha = 45 , TA=1: 23 min, FOV=5.12 x 5.12 cm{sup 2}, matrix = 256 x 256) were acquired before and at 10 time points after contrast injection. Each animal received 0.1 mmol/kg BW Gd-DOTA i.v. 2 days later AGuIX was applied at 0.01 mmol/kg BW (representing equal Gd doses). The SNR of normal liver (SNRliver), hyper- and hypoenhancing parts of tumors (SNRtumor, hyperenh/SNRtumor, hypoenhanc), erector spinae muscle (SNRmuscle), CNR and lesion enhancement (LE) were calculated based on ROI measurements. Mean SNRliver (Gd-DOTA: 14.6 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 28.2 ± 2.6, p < 0.001), SNRtumor, hyperenhanc (Gd-DOTA: 18.6 ± 1.2; AGuIX: 29.6 ± 2.8, p < 0.001), SNRtumor, hypoenhanc (Gd-DOTA: 12.0 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 15.4 ± 0.7, p < 0.001), SNRmuscle (Gd-DOTA: 12.3 ± 0.3; AGuIX: 14.0 ± 0.7, p < 0.001), mean CNR (Gd-DOTA: -2.5 ± 0.2; AGuIX: -7.5 ± 1.0, p < 0.001) and LE (Gd-DOTA: 3.8 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 14.9 ± 2.8, p=0.001) were significantly higher using AGuIX. Regardless of the larger molecular size, AGuIX demonstrates an early peak enhancement followed by a continuous washout. AGuIX provides better enhancement at 9.4 T compared to Gd-DOTA for equal doses of applied Gd. This is based on the molecule structure and the subsequent increased interaction with protons leading to a higher relaxivity. AGuIX potentially ameliorates the conspicuity of focal liver lesions and may improve the sensitivity in diagnostic imaging of malignant hepatic tumors.

  4. Evaluation of a gadolinium-based nanoparticle (AGuIX) for contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver in a rat model of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases at 9.4 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, P.; Morr, D.; Mueller, A.; Massmann, A.; Seidel, R.; Schneider, G.; Buecker, A.; Lux, F.; Tillement, O.; Schaefer, T.; Menger, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a Gd-based nanoparticle (AGuIX) with a standard extracellular Gd-based contrast agent (Gd-DOTA) for MRI at 9.4 T in rats with hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. 12 rats with hepatic metastases were subjected to MRI using a 9.4 T animal scanner. T1w self-gated FLASH sequences (TR/TE=45/2.5 ms, alpha = 45 , TA=1: 23 min, FOV=5.12 x 5.12 cm 2 , matrix = 256 x 256) were acquired before and at 10 time points after contrast injection. Each animal received 0.1 mmol/kg BW Gd-DOTA i.v. 2 days later AGuIX was applied at 0.01 mmol/kg BW (representing equal Gd doses). The SNR of normal liver (SNRliver), hyper- and hypoenhancing parts of tumors (SNRtumor, hyperenh/SNRtumor, hypoenhanc), erector spinae muscle (SNRmuscle), CNR and lesion enhancement (LE) were calculated based on ROI measurements. Mean SNRliver (Gd-DOTA: 14.6 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 28.2 ± 2.6, p < 0.001), SNRtumor, hyperenhanc (Gd-DOTA: 18.6 ± 1.2; AGuIX: 29.6 ± 2.8, p < 0.001), SNRtumor, hypoenhanc (Gd-DOTA: 12.0 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 15.4 ± 0.7, p < 0.001), SNRmuscle (Gd-DOTA: 12.3 ± 0.3; AGuIX: 14.0 ± 0.7, p < 0.001), mean CNR (Gd-DOTA: -2.5 ± 0.2; AGuIX: -7.5 ± 1.0, p < 0.001) and LE (Gd-DOTA: 3.8 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 14.9 ± 2.8, p=0.001) were significantly higher using AGuIX. Regardless of the larger molecular size, AGuIX demonstrates an early peak enhancement followed by a continuous washout. AGuIX provides better enhancement at 9.4 T compared to Gd-DOTA for equal doses of applied Gd. This is based on the molecule structure and the subsequent increased interaction with protons leading to a higher relaxivity. AGuIX potentially ameliorates the conspicuity of focal liver lesions and may improve the sensitivity in diagnostic imaging of malignant hepatic tumors.

  5. IMPLEMENTASI TEAMS GAMES TOURNAMENTS (TGT BERBANTUAN MEDIA KARTU 4-1 UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN SOSIAL DAN HASIL BELAJAR IPS PESERTA DIDIK KELAS IX F DI SMPN 1 KANDEMAN BATANG 2014/2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Dwi Aryani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to: (1 know the implementation of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT Assisted by Card 4-1,  (2 improve student social skills (3 increase social sciences learning outcome of IX F graders at SMPN 1 Kandeman Batang with the implementation of TGT Assisted by Card 4-1.This is a class action research using the spiral design of Kemmis & Taggart. Research subject is 37 students of IX F graders of SMP Negeri 1 Kandeman Batang in genap semester academic year of 2014/2015. There are 2 cycles in this research, each of which consists of two meetings. Each cycle uses 4 stages, they are: planning, implementation, observation and reflection. The action in cycle 1 uses card          4-1 with the materials of geographical elements and population in South East Asia. Cycle 2 uses card 4-1 with the material of earth surface division as continent and ocean. The research is conducted from January to March 2015. Data collecting technique used in this research is: (1 observation, (2 interview, (3 learning outcome test, (4 documentation, and (5field note. The instrument used is (1 observation guidance for teacher and students, (2 interview guidance for students, (3 exercise sheet for learning outcome test, and (4 daily journal. Data analysiss uses qualitative analysis. The results of the research are: (1 The cooperative TGT Assisted by Card 4-1 learning model can be implemented in social sciences learning of IX F graders at SMP N 1 Kandeman Batang, there is average increase from 6 cycles of TGT, the average score of cycle I is 68,75 (good and cycle II is 85 (very good (2 there is average increase of 10 indicators of student social skills, the average score of cycle I is 51,30 (skilled, cycle II is 76,80 (hihgly skilled. (3 there is an increase in the result of students' social sciences learning, learning mastery at cycle I is 72,97% with the average score of 74,86, cycle II is 86,49% with the average value of 85. With the implementation of Teams

  6. Understanding Class in Contemporary Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that claims about the death of class and the coming of the classless society are premature. Such claims are seldom genuinely empirical, and the theoretical argument often refers to a simple and therefore easily dismissible concept of class. By rejecting the concept of class...... altogether, sociological theory runs the risk of loosing the capacity for analysing stratification and vertical differentiation of power and freedom, which in late modernity seem to be a of continuing importance. Hence, I argue that although class analysis faces a number of serious challenges, it is possible...... to reinvent class analysis. The sociology of Pierre Bourdieu in many ways introduces an appropriate paradigm, and the paper therefore critically discusses Bourdieu's concept of class. Since the "Bourdieuan" class concept is primarily epistemological, i.e. a research strategy more than a theory, empirical...

  7. ASAS-SN Discovery of a Possible Galactic Nova ASASSN-18ix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J. V.; Thompson, T. A.; Chomiuk, L.; Strader, J.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo; Stritzinger, M.

    2018-04-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from multiple ASAS-SN telescopes, we detect a new bright transient source, possibly a classical nova, but it might also be a young, large amplitude outburst of a cataclysmic variable Object RA (J2000) DEC (J2000) Gal l (deg) Gal b (deg) Disc.

  8. Who is More Responsible? Preparatory Class Students’ Perceptions of Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Cesur, Kürşat; Ertaş, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

     The main aim of this study is to explore learners’ perceptions of their own responsibility in learning English. The question of whether our learners in Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University (hereafter COMU) Compulsory and Voluntary English Language Prep Classes are responsible enough for their own learning or not is the main focus of this study. Whether some variables like gender, the type of the prep class education (compulsory or voluntary) and the students’ departments will affect their perce...

  9. Critical assessment of methods of protein structure prediction (CASP)-round IX

    KAUST Repository

    Moult, John; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Tramontano, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the special issue of the journal PROTEINS, dedicated to the ninth Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment to assess the state of the art in protein structure modeling. The article describes the conduct of the experiment, the categories of prediction included, and outlines the evaluation and assessment procedures. Methods for modeling protein structure continue to advance, although at a more modest pace than in the early CASP experiments. CASP developments of note are indications of improvement in model accuracy for some classes of target, an improved ability to choose the most accurate of a set of generated models, and evidence of improvement in accuracy for short "new fold" models. In addition, a new analysis of regions of models not derivable from the most obvious template structure has revealed better performance than expected.

  10. Low-Frequency Temporal Variability in Mira and Semiregular Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Karovska, M.; Waagen, E. O.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate low-frequency variability in a large sample of Mira and semiregular variables with long-term visual light curves from the AAVSO International Database. Our aim is to determine whether we can detect and measure long-timescale variable phenomena in these stars, for example photometric variations that might be associated with supergranular convection. We analyzed the long-term light curves of 522 variable stars of the Mira and SRa, b, c, and d classes. We calculated their low-frequency time-series spectra to characterize rednoise with the power density spectrum index, and then correlate this index with other observable characteristics such as spectral type and primary pulsation period. In our initial analysis of the sample, we see that the semiregular variables have a much broader range of spectral index than the Mira types, with the SRb subtype having the broadest range. Among Mira variables we see that the M- and S-type Miras have similarly wide ranges of index, while the C-types have the narrowest with generally shallower slopes. There is also a trend of steeper slope with larger amplitude, but at a given amplitude, a wide range of slopes are seen. The ultimate goal of the project is to identify stars with strong intrinsic red noise components as possible targets for resolved surface imaging with interferometry.

  11. Social Class, Family Background and Intergenerational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin; McIntosh, James

    This research examines the various approaches taken by economists and sociologists for analyzing intergenerational mobility. Social mobility models based on social classes arising from an occupational classification scheme are analyzed. A test for the statistical validity of classification schemes...... is proposed and tested using Danish sample survey data that was first collected in 1976 and augmented in 2000. This is referred to as a homogeneity test and is a likelihood ratio test of a set of linear restrictions which define social classes. For Denmark it is shown that this test fails for an Erikson......-Goldthorpe classification system, raising doubts about the statistical validity of occupational classification systems in general. We also estimate regression models of occupational earnings, household earnings, and educational attainment using family background variables as covariates controlling for unobservables...

  12. Social Class, Family Background and Intergenerational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin; McIntosh, James

    This research examines the various approaches taken by economists and sociologists for analyzing intergenerational mobility. Social mobility models based on social classes arising from an occupational classi.cation scheme are analyzed. A test for the statistical validity of classi.cation schemes...... is proposed and tested using Danish sample survey data that was .rst collected in 1976 and augmented in 2000. This is referred to as a homogeneity test and is a likelihood ratio test of a set of linear restrictions which define social classes. For Denmark it is shown that this test fails for an Erikson......-Goldthorpe classi.cation system, raising doubts about the statistical validity of occupational classication systems in general. We also estimate regression models of occupational earnings, household earnings, and educational attainment using family background variables as covariates controlling for unobservables...

  13. Effect of therapeutic class on counseling in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Kirsti K; Airaksinen, Marja S A; Hyykky, Tarja T; Enlund, K Hannes

    2002-05-01

    To assess the effect and importance of the therapeutic class of a drug as a determinant for verbal counseling by community pharmacists. Direct external observations (n = 1431) of pharmacist-customer interactions at the point of delivery of prescription medicines were conducted in 7 community pharmacies in Finland. Trained observers noted whether the pharmacist provided information on directions for use, mode of action, and adverse effects. To examine factors associated with counseling, a multiple logistic regression analysis was constructed, with the dependent variable being counseling of any of the 3 observed topics. In addition to therapeutic class, other independent variables were the pharmacy; pharmacist's age, gender, and degree; and the customer's age, gender, previous use of medicine, and question asking. Provision of counseling differed significantly according to therapeutic classes. Counseling on any of the 3 observed topics was most likely to be provided for customers with antibiotics (80%) and least likely for customers with gynecologic preparations (18%). Differences between therapeutic classes remained statistically significant when the effects of the other variables were controlled for. Other significant predictors for any verbal counseling were the pharmacy, customer's previous use of the medicine, and question asking. Therapeutic class is an important variable that should be included in further studies and considered when comparing studies on patient counseling in community pharmacies.

  14. Variables for probing neutrino oscillation at super- Kamiokande and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiments and can sensitively signal neutrino oscillations. One class of such variables involve moments of the distributions recorded at the two facilities while another variable, specific to SNO, utilises the integrated charged and neutral current signals. The utility of these variables in the ...

  15. Reconciling Virtual Classes with Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    is functional abstraction, yielding more precise knowledge about the outcome; the prime ex- ample is type parameterized classes. This paper argues that they should be clearly separated to work optimally. We have applied this design philosophy to a lan- guage based on an extension mechanism, namely virtual...... classes. As a result, a kind of type parameters have been introduced, but they are simple and only used where they excel. Conversely, final definitions of virtual classes have been re- moved from the language, thus making virtual classes more flexible. The result- ing language presents a clearer and more...

  16. The analysis of the 3d8, 3d74p and 3p53d9 configurations of Se IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleef, T.A.M. van; Uylings, P.; Joshi, Y.N.; Podobedova, L.I.; Ryabtsev, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    The ninth spectrum of selenium (Se IX) was photographed in the region 100-140 A on a variety of grazing incidence spectrographs using a triggered spark or an open spark as sources. On the basis of these measurements all levels of the 3d 8 configuration, 11 out of 12 levels of the 3p 5 3d 9 configuration and 95 out of 110 levels of the 3d 7 4p configuration have been established. A strong configuration interaction exists between the two odd configurations. Least-squares-fit and Hartree-Fock parameter calculations support the analysis. Two hundred and twenty-five (225) lines have been classified in Se IX. (orig.)

  17. Class Counts: Education, Inequality, and the Shrinking Middle Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Class differences and class warfare have existed since the beginning of western civilization, but the gap in income and wealth between the rich (top 10 percent) and the rest has increased steadily in the last twenty-five years. The U.S. is heading for a financial oligarchy much worse than the aristocratic old world that our Founding Fathers feared…

  18. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions......, now as rewrite rules. This paper looks at the interplay of type classes and type families, and how to deal with shortcomings in both of them. Furthermore, we show how to use families to simulate classes at the type level. However, type families alone are not enough for simulating a central feature...... of type classes: elaboration, that is, generating code from the derivation of a rewriting. We look at ways to solve this problem in current Haskell, and propose an extension to allow elaboration during the rewriting phase....

  19. Subaltern Classes, Class Struggles and Hegemony : a Gramscian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Simionatto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of “overcoming” conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.

  20. Context-sensitive intra-class clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yingwei; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo; Choe, Yoonsuck

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new semi-supervised learning algorithm for intra-class clustering (ICC). ICC partitions each class into sub-classes in order to minimize overlap across clusters from different classes. This is achieved by allowing partitioning

  1. Microleakage of class V cavities restored with nanofilled resin modified glass ionomer and conventional glass ionomer with self etch adhesive and self etch primer

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    Mansore Mirzaie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Microleakage is a criterion proposed for assessing the success of any restorative material. Complete seal is difficult especially for dentin margins compared to enamel margins. The aim of this study was to assess the microleakage at the enamel and dentin margins of class V cavities restored by two GIs and two self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: This study was done on forty third molars. Class V cavities (3×2×2mm were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of teeth using high speed handpiece with 0.8 mm diamond fissure burr. The occlusal margins of the cavities in the enamel and gingival marginswere placed 1 mm below the CEJ. The teeth were divided into 4 groups and the bondings were cured for 20 sec and the teeth were restored. The specimens were kept in distilled water at the temperature of 37°C for 24 hrs. The teeth were thermo cycled and cut in buccolingual direction using diamond disc under water. The dye penetration was evaluated using a stereomicroscope and the leakage was scored. The scores were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test while the paired comparisons were done using Bonferroni correction. P≤0.05 was regarded as significant results. Results: Microleakage scores were similar at the occlusal and gingival walls of all test groups. At the gingival walls, the least microleakage scores were observed. “Fuji IX + SE bond” group showed significant differences with the “Fuji IX + G bond” and “Nanoglass + G bond” groups (P≤0.05. At the occlusal walls, the least scores were observed in the “Fuji IX+SE bond” specimens which were significantly different from the other groups (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Self-Cure glass ionomers yielded less microleakage scores compared to the different types of light-cures due to the less polymerization shrinkage.

  2. Real-time, in vivo measurement of tissular pO2 through the delayed fluorescence of endogenous protoporphyrin IX during photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piffaretti, Filippo; Novello, Anna Maria; Kumar, Rajendran Senthil; Forte, Eddy; Paulou, Cédric; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; van den Bergh, Hubert; Wagnières, Georges

    2012-11-01

    Tissular oxygen concentration plays a key role during photodynamic therapy (PDT). Therefore, monitoring its local oxygen partial pressure (pO2) may help predict and/or control the outcome of a PDT treatment. The first real-time, in vivo measurements of the pO2 in the chicken egg’s chorioallantoic membrane, using the delayed fluorescence of photoactivable porphyrins (PAPs), including protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), as monitored with a dedicated optical, fiber-based, time-resolved spectrometer, are reported here. The formation of PAPs/PpIX, photosensitizers of extensive clinical use, was induced in the chicken egg’s chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) with aminolevulinic acid. An excellent correlation between the vascular damage induced by PDT and the reduction in tissular pO2 is found. This study suggests that clinical measurement of the pO2 using the PAPs’/PpIX’s delayed fluorescence (DF) may be used to individualize in real time the PDT light dose applied.

  3. Caught between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Title IX Generation, Mathematics, and the State of Feminist Quantitative Social Science Research

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    Jill R. Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I reflect on the fortieth anniversary of the Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act of 1972 (Title IX, which prohibited discrimination based on sex in federally funded education programs in the United States and inspired educational programs that encourage girls to pursue math and science careers. I argue that despite the feminist underpinnings of Title IX, in recent years feminism has discouraged the advancement of women in math and science by excluding quantitative research from its publications, quantitative researchers from women's and gender studies programs, and quantitative training from its curriculum. I examine my own experience of growing up with Title IX programs, the long-term ramifications of those programs, and my recent struggles to do feminist demography to show how the relationship of feminism to the promotion of quantitative sciences has changed over time. I argue that there is an unfinished revolution in feminism and a stall in the development of feminist quantitative social science research that can only be resolved by creating intellectual space for feminist quantitative work in the academy.

  4. Long-term correction of canine hemophilia B by gene transfer of blood coagulation factor IX mediated by adeno-associated viral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, R W; Yang, E Y; Couto, L B; Hagstrom, J N; Elwell, D; Fields, P A; Burton, M; Bellinger, D A; Read, M S; Brinkhous, K M; Podsakoff, G M; Nichols, T C; Kurtzman, G J; High, K A

    1999-01-01

    Hemophilia B is a severe X-linked bleeding diathesis caused by the absence of functional blood coagulation factor IX, and is an excellent candidate for treatment of a genetic disease by gene therapy. Using an adeno-associated viral vector, we demonstrate sustained expression (>17 months) of factor IX in a large-animal model at levels that would have a therapeutic effect in humans (up to 70 ng/ml, adequate to achieve phenotypic correction, in an animal injected with 8.5x10(12) vector particles/kg). The five hemophilia B dogs treated showed stable, vector dose-dependent partial correction of the whole blood clotting time and, at higher doses, of the activated partial thromboplastin time. In contrast to other viral gene delivery systems, this minimally invasive procedure, consisting of a series of percutaneous intramuscular injections at a single timepoint, was not associated with local or systemic toxicity. Efficient gene transfer to muscle was shown by immunofluorescence staining and DNA analysis of biopsied tissue. Immune responses against factor IX were either absent or transient. These data provide strong support for the feasibility of the approach for therapy of human subjects.

  5. Seleção de genótipos de cana-de-açúcar para acúmulo de protoporfirina ix com uso de herbicidas inibidores da protox Selection of Sugarcane Genotypes for Protoporphyrin IX Accumulation using Protox-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R.M. Barberis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi selecionar genótipos de cana-de-açúcar por meio de inibidores da PROTOX e antioxidantes para indução do acúmulo de protoporfirina IX (PROTO IX e/ou de seus precursores em plantas. Esses compostos podem ser utilizados como agentes sensibilizantes em terapia fotodinâmica (TFD, os quais possibilitam uma fonte de baixo custo para o tratamento de neoplasias e carcinomas. O experimento foi montado em câmara climatizada, com aplicação de nove tratamentos (1. oxyfluorfen + glutamato monossódico + vitaminas C e E; 2. oxyfluorfen + glutamato monossódico + vitaminas C e E + ácido levulênico; 3. oxyfluorfen; 4. carfentrazone + glutamato monossódico + vitaminas C e E; 5. carfentrazone + glutamato monossódico + vitaminas C e E + ácido levulênico; 6. carfentrazone; 7. testemunha + vitaminas C e E; 8. testemunha + vitaminas C e E + ácido levulênico; e 9. testemunha em oito genótipos de cana-de-açúcar (PO933499, RB806043, RB470355, PO830698, SP701143, PO901387, PO894414 e SP903414, dispostos em esquema fatorial 9 x 8, com quatro repetições. As repetições constituíram-se de folhas (20 cm destacadas de cada genótipo, sendo estas pulverizadas com os tratamentos mencionados, em simulador estacionário. Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de controle aos 2 DAA (dias após aplicação e, no fim do estudo, determinações analíticas via extração da biomassa fresca, verificando os teores de protoporfirina IX por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Os resultados mostraram que em curto prazo foram detectados aumentos significativos nas concentrações de PROTO IX para os genótipos RB470355 e SP903414 submetidos ao tratamento 2 e para o genótipo SP701143 submetido ao tratamento 8, indicando que eles podem ser utilizados como fontes acumuladoras de protoporfirina IX.The objective of this study was to select sugarcane genotypes through PROTOX inhibitors and antioxidants to induce the accumulation

  6. Type IX secretion system PorM and gliding machinery GldM form arches spanning the periplasmic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Philippe; Roche, Jennifer; Vincent, Maxence S; Tran, Quang Hieu; Desmyter, Aline; Cascales, Eric; Kellenberger, Christine; Cambillau, Christian; Roussel, Alain

    2018-01-30

    Type IX secretion system (T9SS), exclusively present in the Bacteroidetes phylum, has been studied mainly in Flavobacterium johnsoniae and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Among the 18 genes, essential for T9SS function, a group of four, porK-N (P. gingivalis) or gldK-N (F. johnsoniae) belongs to a co-transcribed operon that expresses the T9SS core membrane complex. The central component of this complex, PorM (or GldM), is anchored in the inner membrane by a trans-membrane helix and interacts through the outer membrane PorK-N complex. There is a complete lack of available atomic structures for any component of T9SS, including the PorKLMN complex. Here we report the crystal structure of the GldM and PorM periplasmic domains. Dimeric GldM and PorM, each contain four domains of ~180-Å length that span most of the periplasmic space. These and previously reported results allow us to propose a model of the T9SS core membrane complex as well as its functional behavior.

  7. Variations among Japanese of the factor IX gene (F9) detected by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Takahashi, Norio; Asakawa, Junichi; Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Meiko (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    In the course of feasibility studies to examine the efficiencies and practicalities of various techniques for screening for genetic variations, the human coagulation factor IX (F9) genes of 63 Japanese families were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Four target sequences with lengths of 983-2,891 bp from the F9 genes of 126 unrelated individuals from Hiroshima and their 100 children were amplified by PCR, digested with restriction enzymes to approximately 500-bp fragments, and examined by DGGE - a total of 6,724 bp being examined per individual. GC-rich sequences (GC-clamps) of 40 bp were attached to both ends of the target sequences, as far as was feasible. Eleven types of new nucleotide substitutions were detected in the population, none of which produced RFLPs or caused hemophilia B. By examining two target sequences in a single lane, approximately 8,000 bp in a diploid individual could be examined. This approach is very effective for the detection of variations in DNA and is applicable to large-scale population studies. 46 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Primer taller de orfebrería prehispánica excavado en Colombia (siglos IX-XVI d. C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Llanos Chaparro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se exponen de mane - ra sucinta los resultados más relevantes de la primera excavación arqueológica en Colom - bia realizada en un taller orfebre prehispá - nico que funcionó por más de ochocientos años en la cuenca baja del río Saldaña, valle del Magdalena. Los grupos humanos es - tablecidos en el lugar durante el periodo Tardío (siglos IX-XVII d. C. contaban con los conocimientos técnicos (martillado-re - cocido y vaciado a la cera perdida, las he - rramientas (cerámica refractaria e industria lítica y los recursos forestales y minerales necesarios para elaborar piezas en cobre y oro de alta calidad, complejidad y tamaño (pectorales acorazonados, figuras antropo - morfas y zoomorfas con extremidades en escuadra. La tecnología empleada, aunque en apariencia “sencilla” por la ausencia de hornos o estructuras pirotecnológicas com - plejas, era muy eficiente.

  9. Mg IX emission lines in an active region spectrum obtained with the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F. P.; Thomas, R. J.; Neupert, W. M.; Conlon, E. S.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical electron-temperature-sensitive Mg IX emission line ratios are presented for R(sub 1) = I(443.96 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 2) = I(439.17 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 3) = I(443.37 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 4) = I(441.22 A)/I(368.06 A), and R(sub 5) = I(448.28 A)/I(368.06 A). A comparison of these with observational data for a solar active region, obtained during a rocket flight by the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS), reveals excellent agreement between theory and observation for R(sub 1) through R(sub 4), with discrepancies that average only 9%. This provides experimental support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations, and also resolves discrepancies found previously when the theoretical results were compared with solar data from the S082A instrument on board Skylab. However in the case of R(sub 5), the theoretical and observed ratios differ by almost a factor of 2. This may be due to the measured intensity of the 448.28 A line being seriously affected by instrumental effects, as it lies very close to the long wavelength edge of the SERTS spectral coverage (235.46-448.76 A).

  10. Absence of Protoheme IX Farnesyltransferase CtaB Causes Virulence Attenuation but Enhances Pigment Production and Persister Survival in MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Han, Jian; Zhang, Jia; Chen, Jiazhen; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Wenhong; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The membrane protein CtaB in S. aureus is a protoheme IX farnesyltransferase involved in the synthesis of the heme containing terminal oxidases of bacterial respiratory chain. In this study, to assess the role of CtaB in S. aureus virulence, pigment production, and persister formation, we constructed a ctaB mutant in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain USA500. We found that deletion of ctaB attenuated growth and virulence in mice but enhanced pigment production and formation of quinolone tolerant persister cells in stationary phase. RNA-seq analysis showed that deletion of ctaB caused decreased transcription of several virulence genes including RNAIII which is consistent with its virulence attenuation. In addition, transcription of 20 ribosomal genes and 24 genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis was significantly down-regulated in the ctaB knockout mutant compared with the parent strain. These findings suggest the importance of heme biosynthesis in virulence and persister formation of S. aureus .

  11. Human platelet glycoprotein IX: An adhesive prototype of leucine-rich glycoproteins with flank-center-flank structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, M.J.; Williams, S.A.; Roth, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    The glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex on the surface of human platelets functions as the von Willebrand factor receptor and mediates von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet adhesion to blood vessels. GPIX is a relatively small (M r , 17,000) protein that may provide for membrane insertion and orientation of the larger component of the complex. GPIb (M r , 165,000). Using antibody screening, the authors cloned a cDNA encoding GPIX from a human erythroleukemia cell cDNA library constructed in phage λgt11. Lacking a 5' untranslated region and start codon, the cDNA sequence includes 604 nucleotides, beginning with 495 bases at the 5' end coding for 165 amino acids, followed by a stop codon and 106 noncoding bases at the 3' end. By Northern blot analysis, the GPIX cDNA hybridizes with a single 1.0-kilobase species of platelet poly(A) + RNA. Translation of the cDNA sequence gives a predicted protein sequence beginning with a truncated putative signal sequence of 5 amino acids followed by a sequence of 17 amino acids matching that determined directly by Edman degradation of intact GPIX. GPIX contains a leucine-rich glycoprotein (LRG) sequence of 24 amino acids similar to conserved LRG sequences in GPIb and other proteins from humans, Drosophila, and yeast. The role of the flank-LRG center-flank structure in the evolution and function of the LRG proteins remains to be defined

  12. Synthesis and photochemical properties of a novel iron-sulfur-nitrosyl cluster derivatized with the pendant chromophore protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrado, Christa L; Wecksler, Stephen; Egler, Christian; Magde, Douglas; Ford, Peter C

    2004-09-06

    The novel Roussin red-salt ester (PPIX-RSE) with a pendant porphyrin chromophore was prepared and investigated as a precursor for the photochemical generation of nitric oxide. PPIX-RSE has the general formula Fe(2)(NO)(4)[(mu-S,mu-S')P] (where (S,S')P is the bis(2-thiolatoethyl) diester of protoporphyrin IX. The photoexcitation of PPIX-RSE with 436- or 546-nm light in an aerated chloroform solution led to the photodecomposition of the cluster with the respective quantum yields (5.2 +/- 0.7) x 10(-4) and (2.5 +/- 0.5 x 10(-4)) and the concomitant release of NO. PPIX-RSE is a significantly more effective NO generator at longer wavelength excitation than are other Fe(2)(mu-SR)(2)(NO)(4) esters for which R is a simple alkyl group such as CH(3)CH(2)- because of the much higher absorptivity of the pendant PPIX chromophore at these wavelengths and a modestly higher quantum yield. Fluorescence intensity and lifetime data indicate that the photoexcited porphyrin of PPIX-RSE is largely quenched by the energy transfer to the Fe(2)S(2)(NO)(4) cluster's core. However, a small fraction of this emission is not quenched, and it is proposed that PPIX-RSE may exist in solution as two conformers.

  13. Low cost industrial production of coagulation factor IX bioencapsulated in lettuce cells for oral tolerance induction in hemophilia B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jin; Zhu, Liqing; Sherman, Alexandra; Wang, Xiaomei; Lin, Shina; Kamesh, Aditya; Norikane, Joey H; Streatfield, Stephen J; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies (inhibitors) developed by hemophilia B patients against coagulation factor IX (FIX) are challenging to eliminate because of anaphylaxis or nephrotic syndrome after continued infusion. To address this urgent unmet medical need, FIX fused with a transmucosal carrier (CTB) was produced in a commercial lettuce (Simpson Elite) cultivar using species specific chloroplast vectors regulated by endogenous psbA sequences. CTB-FIX (∼1 mg/g) in lyophilized cells was stable with proper folding, disulfide bonds and pentamer assembly when stored ∼2 years at ambient temperature. Feeding lettuce cells to hemophilia B mice delivered CTB-FIX efficiently to the gut immune system, induced LAP(+) regulatory T cells and suppressed inhibitor/IgE formation and anaphylaxis against FIX. Lyophilized cells enabled 10-fold dose escalation studies and successful induction of oral tolerance was observed in all tested doses. Induction of tolerance in such a broad dose range should enable oral delivery to patients of different age groups and diverse genetic background. Using Fraunhofer cGMP hydroponic system, ∼870 kg fresh or 43.5 kg dry weight can be harvested per 1000 ft(2) per annum yielding 24,000-36,000 doses for 20-kg pediatric patients, enabling first commercial development of an oral drug, addressing prohibitively expensive purification, cold storage/transportation and short shelf life of current protein drugs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Porphyromonas gingivalis and related bacteria: from colonial pigmentation to the type IX secretion system and gliding motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, K

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative, non-motile, anaerobic bacterium implicated as a major pathogen in periodontal disease. P. gingivalis grows as black-pigmented colonies on blood agar, and many bacteriologists have shown interest in this property. Studies of colonial pigmentation have revealed a number of important findings, including an association with the highly active extracellular and surface proteinases called gingipains that are found in P. gingivalis. The Por secretion system, a novel type IX secretion system (T9SS), has been implicated in gingipain secretion in studies using non-pigmented mutants. In addition, many potent virulence proteins, including the metallocarboxypeptidase CPG70, 35 kDa hemin-binding protein HBP35, peptidylarginine deiminase PAD and Lys-specific serine endopeptidase PepK, are secreted through the T9SS. These findings have not been limited to P. gingivalis but have been extended to other bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Many Bacteroidetes species possess the T9SS, which is associated with gliding motility for some of these bacteria. PMID:25546073

  15. Preparation and Characterization of γ-AgI in Superionic Composite Glasses (AgIx(AgPO31-x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suminta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The γ-AgI phase was stabilized at room temperature in the composites glasses (AgIx(AgPO31-x with x = 0.6 and 0.7 via rapid quenching of their molten mixture. The measurement of the crystal structure has been carried out using an X-ray Difractometer at the Physics Departement of Ibaraki University, Japan. The micro strain and crystal size are derived from Hall’s equation. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows some Bragg peaks that correspond to the crystalline γ-AgI. By increasing the concentration of AgI, the peak width becomes more narrow and the position shifts to the higher angle. This indicates that the crystalline size and microstrain are increasing. The increase of micro strain (η, and particle size (D will increase the ionic mobility, thus increasing the ionic conductivity. It is concluded that solidification process on melt AgI into glass matrix AgPO3 not only decreases the micro strain and the particle size, but it also increases the ionic conductivity.

  16. Iron(III) protoporphyrin IX-single-wall carbon nanotubes modified electrodes for hydrogen peroxide and nitrite detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turdean, Graziella L.; Popescu, Ionel Catalin; Curulli, Antonella; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Iron(III) protoporphyrin IX (Fe(III)P), adsorbed either on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) or on hydroxyl-functionalized SWCNT (SWCNT-OH), was incorporated within a Nafion matrix immobilized on the surface of a graphite electrode. From cyclic voltammetric measurements, performed under different experimental conditions (pH and potential scan rate), it was established that the Fe(III)P/Fe(II)P redox couple involves 1e - /1H + . The heterogeneous electron transfer process occurred faster when Fe(III)P was adsorbed on SWCNT-OH (∼11 s -1 ) than on SWCNT (∼4.9 s -1 ). Both the SWCNT-Fe(III)P- and SWCNT-OH-Fe(III)P-modified graphite electrodes exhibit electrocatalytic activity for H 2 O 2 and nitrite reduction. The modified electrodes sensitivities were found varying in the following sequences: S SWCNT-OH-Fe(III)P = 2.45 mA/M ∼ S SWCNT-Fe(III)P = 2.95 mA/M > S Fe(III)P = 1.34 mA/M for H 2 O 2 , and S SWCNT-Fe(III)P = 3.54 mA/M > S Fe(III)P 1.44 mA/M > S SWCNT-OH-Fe(III)P = 0.81 mA/M for NO 2 -

  17. A non-radiolabelled ferriprotoporphyrin IX biomineralisation inhibition test for the high throughput screening of antimalarial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deharo, E; García, R N; Oporto, P; Gimenez, A; Sauvain, M; Jullian, V; Ginsburg, H

    2002-04-01

    Intraerythrocytic malaria parasites produce large amounts of toxic ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FP) during their digestion of host cell haemoglobin. The inhibition of biomineralisation of FP to haemozoin (or beta-haematin) by antimalarial drugs underlies their mode of action. We have developed an in vitro microassay for testing the inhibition of biomineralisation by drugs. It is based on the detection by optical density measurement of solubilised beta-haematin remaining after contact with drugs. The assay uses a 192-microM haemin chloride solution in dimethyl sulfoxide, 96-well filtration microplates as well as normal microplates; it lasts 18-24h and requires a spectrophotometer. We determined by this assay the IC(50) of chloroquine phosphate (28microM) and quinine base (324microM) and showed that unlike previous methods it is insensitive to inorganic anions. We also determined the activity of synthetic dyes and plant extract to determinate the interference of coloured compounds on the accuracy of the test. We found that methylene blue, thionine (IC(50) 38 and 87microM, respectively), and an extract of plants that contains quinoline derivatives, inhibited the biomineralisation of FP regardless of their intrinsic colour.

  18. Identification and Genetic Analysis of a Factor IX Gene Intron 3 Mutation in a Hemophilia B Pedigree in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hua Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hemophilia B is caused by coagulation defects in the factor IX gene located in Xq27.1 on the X chromosome. A wide range of mutations, showing extensive molecular heterogeneity, have been described in hemophilia B patients. Our study was aimed at genetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia B in order to further elucidate the pathogenesis of the hemophilia B pedigree in China. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of all the coding regions was conducted in hemophilia B patients and carriers. Prenatal diagnosis of the proband was conducted at 20 weeks. RESULTS: We identified the novel point mutation 10.389 A>G, located upstream of the intron 3 acceptor site in hemophilia B patients. The fetus of the proband’s cousin was identified as a carrier. CONCLUSION: Our identification of a novel mutation in the F9 gene associated with hemophilia B provides novel insight into the pathogenesis of this genetically inherited disorder and also represents the basis of prenatal diagnosis.

  19. Low cost industrial production of coagulation factor IX bioencapsulated in lettuce cells for oral tolerance induction in hemophilia B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jin; Zhu, Liqing; Sherman, Alexandra; Wang, Xiaomei; Lin, Shina; Kamesh, Aditya; Norikane, Joey H.; Streatfield, Stephen J.; Herzog, Roland W.; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies (inhibitors) developed by hemophilia B patients against coagulation factor IX (FIX) are challenging to eliminate because of anaphylaxis or nephrotic syndrome after continued infusion. To address this urgent unmet medical need, FIX fused with a transmucosal carrier (CTB) was produced in a commercial lettuce (Simpson Elite) cultivar using species specific chloroplast vectors regulated by endogenous psbA sequences. CTB-FIX (~1mg/g) in lyophilized cells was stable with proper folding, disulfide bonds and pentamer assembly when stored ~2 years at ambient temperature. Feeding lettuce cells to hemophilia B mice delivered CTB-FIX efficiently to the gut immune system, induced LAP+ regulatory T cells and suppressed inhibitor/IgE formation and anaphylaxis against FIX. Lyophilized cells enabled 10-fold dose escalation studies and successful induction of oral tolerance was observed in all tested doses. Induction of tolerance in such a broad dose range should enable oral delivery to patients of different age groups and diverse genetic background. Using Fraunhofer cGMP hydroponic system, ~870 kg fresh or 43.5 kg dry weight can be harvested per 1000 ft2 per annum yielding 24,000–36,000 doses for 20-kg pediatric patients, enabling first commercial development of an oral drug, addressing prohibitively expensive purification, cold storage/transportation and short shelf life of current protein drugs. PMID:26302233

  20. Potency determination of factor VIII and factor IX for new product labelling and postinfusion testing: challenges for caregivers and regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodt, J; Hubbard, A R; Wicks, S J; Gray, E; Neugebauer, B; Charton, E; Silvester, G

    2015-07-01

    A workshop organized by the European Medicines Agency and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare was held in London, UK on November 28-29, 2013, to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the characterization of new factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) concentrates with respect to potency assays and testing of postinfusion material. The objective was to set the basis for regulatory authorities' discussion on the most appropriate potency assay for the individual products, and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) discussion on whether to propose revision of the Ph. Eur. monographs with respect to potency assays in the light of information on new FVIII and FIX concentrates. The workshop showed that for all products valid assays vs. the international concentrate standards were obtained and potency could be expressed in International Units. The Ph. Eur. chromogenic potency assay gave valid assay results which correlate with in vivo functionality of rFVIII products. For some modified rFVIII products and all modified rFIX products, one-stage clotting assay methods result in different potencies depending on the activated partial thromboplastin time reagent. As a consequence, monitoring of patients' postinfusion levels is challenging but it was pointed out that manufacturers are responsible for providing the users with appropriate information for use and laboratory testing of their product. Strategies to avoid misleading determination of patents' plasma levels, e.g. information on suitable assays, laboratory standards or correction factors were discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Investigations into, and development of, a lyophilized and formulated recombinant human factor IX produced from CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Aline G; Pinto, Rodrigo C V; Smales, C Mark; Castilho, Leda R

    2017-08-01

    To develop a recombinant human factor IX (rFIX) formulation equivalent to commercially available products in terms of cake appearance, residual moisture, proportion of soluble aggregates and activity maintenance for 3 months at 4-8 °C. NaCl and low bulking agent/cryoprotectant mass ratio had a negative impact on cake quality upon lyophilisation for a wide range of formulations tested. Particular devised formulations maintained rFIX activity after lyophilization with a similar performance when compared with the rFIX formulated using the excipients reported for a commercially available FIX formulation (Benefix). rFIX remained active after 3 months when stored at 4 °C, though this was not the case with samples stored at 40 °C. Interestingly, particular formulations had an increase in residual moisture after 3 months storage, but not above a 3% threshold. All four formulations tested were equivalent to the Benefix formulation in terms of particle size distribution and cake appearance. Three specific formulations, consisting of surfactant polysorbate-80, sucrose or trehalose as cryoprotectant, mannitol or glycine as bulking agent, L-histidine as buffering agent, and NaCl added in the reconstitution liquid at 0.234% (w/v) were suitable for use with a CHO cell-derived recombinant FIX.

  2. Geothermal direct heat use: market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region IX (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.; Tang, K. (eds.)

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region IX). The analysis for each state was performed by a different team, located in that state. For each state, the study team was asked to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Each of the four states of interest in this study is unique in its own way. Rather than impose the same assumptions as to growth rates, capture rates, etc. on all of the study teams, each team was asked to use the most appropriate set of assumptions for its state. The results, therefore, should reflect the currently accepted views within each state. The four state reports comprise the main portion of this document. A brief regional overview section was prepared by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, following completion of the state reports.

  3. On uniqueness of characteristic classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda

    2011-01-01

    We give an axiomatic characterization of maps from algebraic K-theory. The results apply to a large class of maps from algebraic K-theory to any suitable cohomology theory or to algebraic K-theory. In particular, we obtain comparison theorems for the Chern character and Chern classes and for the ...

  4. Race and Class on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Angel B.

    2016-01-01

    Colleges and universities have a significant role to play in shaping the future of race and class relations in America. As exhibited in this year's presidential election, race and class continue to divide. Black Lives Matter movements, campus protests, and police shootings are just a few examples of the proliferation of intolerance, and higher…

  5. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1999-01-01

    number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...

  6. Social Class and the Extracurriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Will

    2012-01-01

    Social class is a powerful and often unrecognized influence on student participation in the extracurriculum. Spontaneous student-created extracurricular experiences depend on students affiliating and interacting with each other; student social class is a powerful influence on student affiliations. Students tend to exercise consciousness of kind-…

  7. Translanguaging in a Reading Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti; Subhan, Aidil

    2015-01-01

    Using translanguaging as a theoretical foundation, this paper analyses findings from a Grade 2 reading class for low achieving students, where Malay was used as a scaffold to teach English. Data come from one class in one school in Singapore and its Learning Support Programme (LSP), which is part of a larger research project on biliteracy. The LSP…

  8. A Touch of...Class!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Joan W., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of ideas for class activities in elementary and secondary language classes includes a vocabulary review exercise and games of memory, counting, vocabulary, flashcard tic-tac-toe, dice, trashcans, questioning, and spelling. Some are designed specifically for French. (MSE)

  9. Work Analysis of the nuclear power plant control room operators (II): The classes of situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alengry, P.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents a work analysis of nuclear power plant control room operators focused on the classes of situation they can meet during their job. Each class of situation is first described in terms of the process variables states. We then describe the goals of the operators and the variables they process in each class of situation. We report some of the most representative difficulties encountered by the operators in each class of situation. Finally, we conclude on different topics: the nature of the mental representations, the temporal dimension, the monitoring activity, and the role of the context in the work of controlling a nuclear power plant [fr

  10. The textbook as classroom context variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krammer, H.P.M.

    1985-01-01

    To explore the role of the textbook as a context variable in process—product relationships, data on teaching practices and learning outcomes from the IEA Classroom Environment Study in The Netherlands were used. The sample consisted of 50 secondary school mathematics classes and their teachers.

  11. Combination photodynamic therapy using 5-fluorouracil and aminolevulinate enhances tumor-selective production of protoporphyrin IX and improves treatment efficacy of squamous skin cancers and precancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    In combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT), a small-molecule drug is used to modulate the physiological state of tumor cells prior to giving aminolevulinate (ALA; a precursor for protoporphyrin IX, PpIX). In our laboratory we have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can enhance therapeutic effectiveness of ALAbased photodynamic therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, only one (5-fluorouracil; 5-FU) is FDA-approved for skin cancer management. Here, we describe animal and human studies on 5-FU mechanisms of action, in terms of how 5-FU pretreatment leads to enhanced PpIX accumulation and improves selectivity of ALA-PDT treatment. In A431 subcutaneous tumors in mice, 5-FU changed expression of heme enzyme (upregulating coproporphyrinogen oxidase, and down-regulating ferrochelatase), inhibited tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67), enhanced differentiation (E-cadherin), and led to strong, tumor-selective increases in apoptosis. Interestingly, enhancement of apoptosis by 5-FU correlated strongly with an increased accumulation of p53 in tumor cells that persisted for 24 h post- PDT. In a clinical trial using a split-body, bilaterally controlled study design, human subjects with actinic keratoses (AK; preneoplastic precursors of SCC) were pretreated on one side of the face, scalp, or forearms with 5-FU cream for 6 days, while the control side received no 5-FU. On the seventh day, the levels of PpIX in 4 test lesions were measured by noninvasive fluorescence dosimetry, and then all lesions were treated with PDT using methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) and red light (635 nm). Relative amounts of PpIX were found to be increased ~2-fold in 5-FU pretreated lesions relative to controls. At 3 months after PDT, the overall clinical response to PDT (reduction in lesion counts) was 2- to 3-fold better for the 5-FU pretreated lesions, a clinically important result. In summary, 5-FU is a useful adjuvant to aminolevulinate-based PDT

  12. Generalized latent variable modeling multilevel, longitudinal, and structural equation models

    CERN Document Server

    Skrondal, Anders; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2004-01-01

    This book unifies and extends latent variable models, including multilevel or generalized linear mixed models, longitudinal or panel models, item response or factor models, latent class or finite mixture models, and structural equation models.

  13. Filter Pattern Search Algorithms for Mixed Variable Constrained Optimization Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abramson, Mark A; Audet, Charles; Dennis, Jr, J. E

    2004-01-01

    .... This class combines and extends the Audet-Dennis Generalized Pattern Search (GPS) algorithms for bound constrained mixed variable optimization, and their GPS-filter algorithms for general nonlinear constraints...

  14. Effects of temporal changes in climate variables on crop production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    comprehensive study of the impacts of climate variability on some common classes of food crops. (tubers, grains ... erosion, incidents of pests and diseases, and sea level rise (Onyekwelu et .... calamities and human sufferings. The productivity ...

  15. Statistical inference for a class of multivariate negative binomial distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Ege Holger; Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter

    This paper considers statistical inference procedures for a class of models for positively correlated count variables called α-permanental random fields, and which can be viewed as a family of multivariate negative binomial distributions. Their appealing probabilistic properties have earlier been...

  16. A Poisson type formula for Hardy classes on Heisenberg's group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopushansky O.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hardy type class of complex functions with infinite many variables defined on the Schrodinger irreducible unitary orbit of reduced Heisenberg group, generated by the Gauss density, is investigated. A Poisson integral type formula for their analytic extensions on an open ball is established. Taylor coefficients for analytic extensions are described by the associatedsymmetric Fock space.

  17. Polarimetry of magnetic catalysmic variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cropper, M

    1985-01-01

    The design and construction of an astronomical polarimeter is described and an evaluation made of its performance. Extensive observations of cataclysmic variables with emphasis on the AM Her and DQ Her classes are then presented. The polarimeter permitted simultaneous linear and circular polarisation measurements, or, by rearranging the order of the retarders in the beam, linear polarisation measurements alone, or circular polarisation measurements alone, with enhanced efficiency. Extensive sets of observations using the polarimeter were obtained for six of the ten AM Her variables. A comparison was made between the competing models for the cyclotron emission, showing that those which take into account the temperature structure of the accretion region provide the best results.

  18. Heme Oxygenase-1 Inhibits HLA Class I Antibody-Dependent Endothelial Cell Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zilian

    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is a key limiting factor for long-term graft survival in solid organ transplantation. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I (HLA I antibodies (Abs play a major role in the pathogenesis of AMR via their interactions with HLA molecules on vascular endothelial cells (ECs. The antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase (HO-1 has anti-inflammatory functions in the endothelium. As complement-independent effects of HLA I Abs can activate ECs, it was the goal of the current study to investigate the role of HO-1 on activation of human ECs by HLA I Abs. In cell cultures of various primary human macro- and microvascular ECs treatment with monoclonal pan- and allele-specific HLA I Abs up-regulated the expression of inducible proinflammatory adhesion molecules and chemokines (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], interleukin-8 [IL-8] and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 [MCP-1]. Pharmacological induction of HO-1 with cobalt-protoporphyrin IX reduced, whereas inhibition of HO-1 with either zinc-protoporphyrin IX or siRNA-mediated knockdown increased HLA I Ab-dependent up-regulation of VCAM-1. Treatment with two carbon monoxide (CO-releasing molecules, which liberate the gaseous HO product CO, blocked HLA I Ab-dependent EC activation. Finally, in an in vitro adhesion assay exposure of ECs to HLA I Abs led to increased monocyte binding, which was counteracted by up-regulation of HO-1. In conclusion, HLA I Ab-dependent EC activation is modulated by endothelial HO-1 and targeted induction of this enzyme may be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of AMR in solid organ transplantation.

  19. Cataclysmic variables, Hubble-Sandage variables and eta Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble-Sandage variables are the most luminous stars in external galaxies. They were first investigated by Hubble and Sandage (1953) for use as distance indicators. Their main characteristics are high luminosity, blue colour indices, and irregular variability. Spectroscopically they show hydrogen and helium in emission with occasionally weaker FeII and [FeII], and no Balmer jump (Humphreys 1975, 1978). In this respect they closely resemble cataclysmic variables, particularly dwarf novae. In the quiescent state dwarf novae show broad H and HeI, together with a strong UV continuum. In contrast to the spectroscopic similarities, the luminosities could hardly differ more. Rather than being the brightest stars known, quiescent dwarf novae are as faint or fainter than the sun. It is suggested that the close correspondence between the spectral appearance of the two classes combined with the difference in luminosity is well accounted for by a model of Hubble-Sandage variables in which the same physical processes are occurring, but on a larger scale. (Auth.)

  20. Integrating social class and privilege in the community medicine curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymaker, Christopher; Cadick, Amber; Seavey, Allison

    2017-05-01

    Social class and privilege are hidden variables that impact the physician-patient relationship and health outcomes. This article presents a sample of activities from three programs utilized in the community health curriculum to teach resident physicians about patients within context, including how social class and privilege impact physician-patient relationships and patient health. These activities address resident physicians' resistance to discussion of privilege, social class, and race by emphasizing direct experience and active learning rather than traditional didactic sessions. The group format of these activities fosters flexible discussion and personal engagement that provide opportunities for reflection. Each activity affords opportunities to develop a vocabulary for discussing social class and privilege with compassion and to adopt therapeutic approaches that are more likely to meet patients where they are.