WorldWideScience

Sample records for variable argon retentivity

  1. Modeling Coast Redwood Variable Retention Management Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Pascal Berrill; Kevin O' Hara

    2007-01-01

    Variable retention is a flexible silvicultural system that provides forest managers with an alternative to clearcutting. While much of the standing volume is removed in one harvesting operation, residual stems are retained to provide structural complexity and wildlife habitat functions, or to accrue volume before removal during subsequent stand entries. The residual...

  2. Effect of Argon Plasma Treatment Variables on Wettability and Antibacterial Properties of Polyester Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Pandurangan; Karthik, Thangavelu

    2016-04-01

    In this research work, the effect of argon plasma treatment variables on the comfort and antibacterial properties of polyester fabric has been investigated. The SEM micrographs and FTIR analysis confirms the modification of fabric surface. The Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization of plasma process variables and to evaluate the effects and interactions of the process variables, i.e. operating power, treatment time and distance between the electrodes on the characteristics of polyester fabrics. The optimum conditions of operating power 600 W, treatment time 30 s, and the distance between the electrodes of 2.8 mm was arrived using numerical prediction tool in Design-Expert software. The plasma treated polyester fabrics showed better fabric characteristics particularly in terms of water vapour permeability, wickability and antibacterial activity compared to untreated fabrics, which confirms that the modified structure of polyester fabric.

  3. Performances of helium, neon and argon glow discharges for reduction of fuel hydrogen retention in tungsten, stainless steel and graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.; Yamauchi, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Matsumoto, A.; Nishimura, K.; Ueda, Y.

    2012-11-01

    It is quite important to investigate the performance of glow discharge conditionings for controls of in-vessel tritium (T) inventory and hydrogen recycling. For this purpose, first, the deuterium (D) retentions in tungsten (W), graphite (C) and stainless steel (SS) were measured. The retention in W was not small as expected, several times larger than that of SS, although the retention in SS was one order smaller than that of C. Such the large retention in W is owing to the growth of rough surface structure produced by plasma irradiations. For reduction of deuterium retention in W, SS and C, second, inert gas (He, Ne, Ar) glow discharges were conducted under the same condition, and these performances were compared. The removal ratio of deuterium retention was highest in He discharge, and lowest in Ar discharge. These values are well explained by the numerical analyses using SRIM code. The removal ratios for SS and C were significantly large, but quite small for W. This reason is again owing to the rough surface structure in W. For W, thirdly, the hydrogen isotope exchange and the wall baking experiments were conducted. It is found that the wall backing with a temperature higher than 700 K can well reduce the retention, and the hydrogen isotope exchange using deuterium glow discharge is also useful to reduce the tritium retention in the wall. The present results significantly contribute to control the fuel hydrogen retention and to reduce the in-vessel tritium inventory in fusion reactors. (author)

  4. A Tool for Estimating Variability in Wood Preservative Treatment Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Adam M. Taylor; Timothy M. Young

    2015-01-01

    Composite sampling is standard practice for evaluation of preservative retention levels in preservative-treated wood. Current protocols provide an average retention value but no estimate of uncertainty. Here we describe a statistical method for calculating uncertainty estimates using the standard sampling regime with minimal additional chemical analysis. This tool can...

  5. Variability of Moisture Retention and Hydrophobicity Among Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research identifies factors and mechanisms that control changes in moisture retention when biochars produced from different feedstocks and under different heat treatment temperatures are mixed with fine sand. While substantial experimental research has been conducted on the ...

  6. Biofilm retention on surfaces with variable roughness and hydrophobicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lone; Pillai, Saju; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms on food processing equipment cause food spoilage and pose a hazard to consumers. The bacterial community on steel surfaces in a butcher’s shop was characterized, and bacteria representative of this community enriched from minced pork were used to study biofilm retention. Stainless steel...

  7. Predicting Teacher Retention Using Stress and Support Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Daniel A.; Seal, Andrea K.; Martin, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Teacher attrition is a significant international concern facing administrators. Although a considerable amount of literature exists related to the causes of job dissatisfaction and teachers leaving the profession, relatively few theoretical models test the complex interrelationships between these variables. The goal of this paper is to…

  8. Effects of variable retention harvesting on natural tree regeneration in Pinus resinosa (red pine) forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret W. Roberts; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christel C. Kern; Brian J. Palik

    2017-01-01

    Concerns over loss of ecosystem function and biodiversity in managed forests have led to the development of silvicultural approaches that meet ecological goals as well as sustain timber production. Variable Retention Harvest (VRH) practices, which maintain mature overstory trees across harvested areas, have been suggested as an approach to balance these objectives;...

  9. The physiological basis for regeneration response to variable retention harvest treatments in three pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Powers; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Brian J. Palik; Christopher R. Webster

    2011-01-01

    Variable retention harvesting (VRH) is promoted for enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem processes in managed forests, but regeneration responses to the complex stand structures that result from VRH are poorly understood. We analyzed foliar stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C), oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O...

  10. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Twedt; Scott G. Somershoe

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after...

  11. Retention time variability as a mechanism for animal mediated long-distance dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwesha Guttal

    Full Text Available Long-distance dispersal (LDD events, although rare for most plant species, can strongly influence population and community dynamics. Animals function as a key biotic vector of seeds and thus, a mechanistic and quantitative understanding of how individual animal behaviors scale to dispersal patterns at different spatial scales is a question of critical importance from both basic and applied perspectives. Using a diffusion-theory based analytical approach for a wide range of animal movement and seed transportation patterns, we show that the scale (a measure of local dispersal of the seed dispersal kernel increases with the organisms' rate of movement and mean seed retention time. We reveal that variations in seed retention time is a key determinant of various measures of LDD such as kurtosis (or shape of the kernel, thinkness of tails and the absolute number of seeds falling beyond a threshold distance. Using empirical data sets of frugivores, we illustrate the importance of variability in retention times for predicting the key disperser species that influence LDD. Our study makes testable predictions linking animal movement behaviors and gut retention times to dispersal patterns and, more generally, highlights the potential importance of animal behavioral variability for the LDD of seeds.

  12. Field Soil Water Retention of the Prototype Hanford Barrier and Its Variability with Space and Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-08-14

    Engineered surface barriers are used to isolate underlying contaminants from water, plants, animals, and humans. To understand the flow processes within a barrier and the barrier’s ability to store and release water, the field hydraulic properties of the barrier need to be known. In situ measurement of soil hydraulic properties and their variation over time is challenging because most measurement methods are destructive. A multiyear test of the Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) has yielded in situ soil water content and pressure data for a nine-year period. The upper 2 m layer of the PHB is a silt loam. Within this layer, water content and water pressure were monitored at multiple depths at 12 water balance stations using a neutron probe and heat dissipation units. Valid monitoring data from 1995 to 2003 for 4 depths at 12 monitoring stations were used to determine the field water retention of the silt loam layer. The data covered a wide range of wetness, from near saturation to the permanent wilt point, and each retention curve contained 51 to 96 data points. The data were described well with the commonly used van Genuchten water retention model. It was found that the spatial variation of the saturated and residual water content and the pore size distribution parameter were relatively small, while that of the van Genuchten alpha was relatively large. The effects of spatial variability of the retention properties appeared to be larger than the combined effects of added 15% w/w pea gravel and plant roots on the properties. Neither of the primary hydrological processes nor time had a detectible effect on the water retention of the silt loam barrier.

  13. Retention and variability of hydrogen (H2) samples stored in plastic syringes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The utility of two brands of 20 ml plastic syringes for storage of hydrogen (H2) samples as obtained in H2 breath tests were studied. Plastipak syringes were found to be significantly better with regard to the stability of the H2 concentration and the variability between the H2 samples. Storage...... of the H2 samples in Plastipak syringes at 5 degrees C significantly improved the H2 retention, whereas refrigeration of H2 samples stored in Once syringes did not reduce H2 loss. Storage of H2 samples in refrigerated plastic syringes is efficient and reliable for several days if syringes with minimal...... sample variation are used....

  14. Variability in soil-water retention properties and implications for physics-based simulation of landslide early warning criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew A.; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Collins, Brian D.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2018-01-01

    Rainfall-induced shallow landsliding is a persistent hazard to human life and property. Despite the observed connection between infiltration through the unsaturated zone and shallow landslide initiation, there is considerable uncertainty in how estimates of unsaturated soil-water retention properties affect slope stability assessment. This source of uncertainty is critical to evaluating the utility of physics-based hydrologic modeling as a tool for landslide early warning. We employ a numerical model of variably saturated groundwater flow parameterized with an ensemble of texture-, laboratory-, and field-based estimates of soil-water retention properties for an extensively monitored landslide-prone site in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA, USA. Simulations of soil-water content, pore-water pressure, and the resultant factor of safety show considerable variability across and within these different parameter estimation techniques. In particular, we demonstrate that with the same permeability structure imposed across all simulations, the variability in soil-water retention properties strongly influences predictions of positive pore-water pressure coincident with widespread shallow landsliding. We also find that the ensemble of soil-water retention properties imposes an order-of-magnitude and nearly two-fold variability in seasonal and event-scale landslide susceptibility, respectively. Despite the reduced factor of safety uncertainty during wet conditions, parameters that control the dry end of the soil-water retention function markedly impact the ability of a hydrologic model to capture soil-water content dynamics observed in the field. These results suggest that variability in soil-water retention properties should be considered for objective physics-based simulation of landslide early warning criteria.

  15. Long-term impacts of variable retention harvesting on ground-layer plant communities in Pinus resinosa forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret W. Roberts; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christel C. Kern; Brian J. Palik; Lorenzo Marini

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about loss of biodiversity and structural complexity in managed forests have recently increased and led to the development of new management strategies focused on restoring or maintaining ecosystem functions while also providing wood outputs. Variable retention harvest (VRH) systems, in which mature overstorey trees are retained in various spatial arrangements...

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Channel Retention in a Lowland Temperate Forest Stream Settled by European Beaver (Castor fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Grygoruk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Beaver ponds remain a challenge for forest management in those countries where expansion of beaver (Castor fiber is observed. Despite undoubted economic losses generated in forests by beaver, their influence on hydrology of forest streams especially in terms of increasing channel retention (amount of water stored in the river channel, is considered a positive aspect of their activity. In our study, we compared water storage capacities of a lowland forest stream settled by beaver in order to unravel the possible temporal variability of beaver’s influence on channel retention. We compared distribution, total damming height, volumes and areas of beaver ponds in the valley of Krzemianka (Northeast Poland in the years 2006 (when a high construction activity of beaver was observed and in 2013 (when the activity of beaver decreased significantly. The study revealed a significant decrease of channel retention of beaver ponds from over 15,000 m3 in 2006 to 7000 m3 in 2013. The total damming height of the cascade of beaver ponds decreased from 6.6 to 5.6 m. Abandoned beaver ponds that transferred into wetlands, where lost channel retention was replaced by soil and groundwater retention, were more constant over time and less vulnerable to the external disturbance means of water storage than channel retention. We concluded that abandoned beaver ponds played an active role in increasing channel retention of the river analyzed for approximately 5 years. We also concluded that if the construction activity of beaver was used as a tool (ecosystem service in increasing channel retention of the river valley, the permanent presence of beaver in the riparian zone of forest streams should have been assured.

  17. Retention and Curve Number Variability in a Small Agricultural Catchment: The Probabilistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Banasik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the curve number (CN and the retention parameter (S of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS-CN method in a small agricultural, lowland watershed (23.4 km2 to the gauging station in central Poland has been assessed using the probabilistic approach: distribution fitting and confidence intervals (CIs. Empirical CNs and Ss were computed directly from recorded rainfall depths and direct runoff volumes. Two measures of the goodness of fit were used as selection criteria in the identification of the parent distribution function. The measures specified the generalized extreme value (GEV, normal and general logistic (GLO distributions for 100-CN and GLO, lognormal and GEV distributions for S. The characteristics estimated from theoretical distribution (median, quantiles were compared to the tabulated CN and to the antecedent runoff conditions of Hawkins and Hjelmfelt. The distribution fitting for the whole sample revealed a good agreement between the tabulated CN and the median and between the antecedent runoff conditions (ARCs of Hawkins and Hjelmfelt, which certified a good calibration of the model. However, the division of the CN sample due to heavy and moderate rainfall depths revealed a serious inconsistency between the parameters mentioned. This analysis proves that the application of the SCS-CN method should rely on deep insight into the probabilistic properties of CN and S.

  18. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps six years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Guldin, James M.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  19. Effects of variable attachment shapes and aligner material on aligner retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasy, Hiltrud; Dasy, Andreas; Asatrian, Greg; Rózsa, Noémi; Lee, Hao-Fu; Kwak, Jin Hee

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the retention of four types of aligners on a dental arch with various attachments. For this study, three casts were manufactured, two of which contained attachments (ellipsoid and beveled), and one without any attachments to serve as a control. Four types of aligners were thermoformed: Clear-Aligner (CA)-soft, CA-medium, and CA-hard, with various thicknesses, and Essix ACE. Measurements of vertical displacement force during aligner removal were performed with the Gabo Qualimeter Eplexor. Means and standard deviations were next compared between different aligner thicknesses and attachment shapes. CA-soft, CA-medium, and CA-hard did not present a significant increase in retention, except when used in the presence of attachments. Additionally, CA-medium and CA-hard required significantly more force for removal. Essix ACE demonstrated a significant decrease in retention when used with ellipsoid attachments. The force value for Essix ACE removal from the cast with beveled attachments was comparable to that of CA-medium. Forces for aligner removal from the model without attachments showed a linear trend. Essix ACE did not show a continuous increase in retention for each model. Overall, ellipsoid attachments did not present a significant change in retention. In contrast, beveled attachments improved retention. Ellipsoid attachments had no significant influence on the force required for aligner removal and hence on aligner retention. Essix ACE showed significantly less retention than CA-hard on the models with attachments. Furthermore, beveled attachments were observed to increase retention significantly, compared with ellipsoid attachments and when using no attachments.

  20. Soil Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn sorption and retention models using SVM: Variable selection and competitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Costa, J J; Reigosa, M J; Matías, J M; Covelo, E F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to model the sorption and retention of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils. To that extent, the sorption and retention of these metals were studied and the soil characterization was performed separately. Multiple stepwise regression was used to produce multivariate models with linear techniques and with support vector machines, all of which included 15 explanatory variables characterizing soils. When the R-squared values are represented, two different groups are noticed. Cr, Cu and Pb sorption and retention show a higher R-squared; the most explanatory variables being humified organic matter, Al oxides and, in some cases, cation-exchange capacity (CEC). The other group of metals (Cd, Ni and Zn) shows a lower R-squared, and clays are the most explanatory variables, including a percentage of vermiculite and slime. In some cases, quartz, plagioclase or hematite percentages also show some explanatory capacity. Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression shows that the different models are not as regular as in multiple regression in terms of number of variables, the regression for nickel adsorption being the one with the highest number of variables in its optimal model. On the other hand, there are cases where the most explanatory variables are the same for two metals, as it happens with Cd and Cr adsorption. A similar adsorption mechanism is thus postulated. These patterns of the introduction of variables in the model allow us to create explainability sequences. Those which are the most similar to the selectivity sequences obtained by Covelo (2005) are Mn oxides in multiple regression and change capacity in SVM. Among all the variables, the only one that is explanatory for all the metals after applying the maximum parsimony principle is the percentage of sand in the retention process. In the competitive model arising from the aforementioned sequences, the most intense competitiveness for the adsorption and retention of different metals appears between

  1. The influence of salivary variables on fluoride retention in dental plaque exposed to a mineral-enriching solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Nakagaki, H; Arai, K; Pearce, E I F

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine interindividual differences in salivary variables related to plaque accumulation and to estimate their influence on the fluoride retention in plaque in vivo by a mineral-enriching solution. Two saliva samples were taken from 10 subjects, once after brushing and once after 24 h without brushing. Calcium, phosphate and monofluorophosphatase (MFPase) activity in the saliva samples were determined. The salivary flow rate and the debris index were also recorded. After plaque had formed over 3 days within in situ plaque-generating devices, subjects were instructed to rinse with a mineral-enriching mouthrinse three times a day on 4 consecutive days. Plaque exposed to distilled water plus flavoring agents served as a control. Fluoride-free dentifrice was used during the experimental period. Twenty-four hours after the last rinsing, the samples were removed from the mouth, and fluoride and mineral distributions in plaque analyzed using a method previously reported by the authors. Salivary flow, MFPase activity and calcium concentration in saliva were significantly higher after 24 h of plaque accumulation. Rinsing with the mineral-enriching solution produced retention of fluoride and phosphate in the outer and middle layers of plaque. Salivary calcium concentration had a direct effect on fluoride uptake in plaque, but no obvious relationship was found between other salivary variables and the plaque fluoride retention. The salivary calcium effect may be due to enhanced bacterial cell wall binding of fluoride via calcium bridging. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Of sports and politics: Predicting category-specific retention of news events from demographic variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Ochtman, D.J.C.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of retrograde amnesia consist of questions on news events. It is therefore important to know how such questions are answered by normal adults. We analysed the retention of news events in a sample of 12,913 participants, who provided basic demographic information and subsequently answered

  3. Of sports and politics: Predicting category-specific retention of news events from demographic variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Ochtman, D.J.C.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of retrograde amnesia consist of questions on news events. It is therefore important to know how such questions are answered by normal adults. We analysed the retention of news events in a sample of 12,913 participants, who provided basic demographic information and subsequently answered

  4. Limited Effects of Variable-Retention Harvesting on Fungal Communities Decomposing Fine Roots in Coastal Temperate Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Timothy J; Barker, Jason S; Prescott, Cindy E; Grayston, Sue J

    2018-02-01

    Fine root litter is the principal source of carbon stored in forest soils and a dominant source of carbon for fungal decomposers. Differences in decomposer capacity between fungal species may be important determinants of fine-root decomposition rates. Variable-retention harvesting (VRH) provides refuge for ectomycorrhizal fungi, but its influence on fine-root decomposers is unknown, as are the effects of functional shifts in these fungal communities on carbon cycling. We compared fungal communities decomposing fine roots (in litter bags) under VRH, clear-cut, and uncut stands at two sites (6 and 13 years postharvest) and two decay stages (43 days and 1 year after burial) in Douglas fir forests in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Fungal species and guilds were identified from decomposed fine roots using high-throughput sequencing. Variable retention had short-term effects on β-diversity; harvest treatment modified the fungal community composition at the 6-year-postharvest site, but not at the 13-year-postharvest site. Ericoid and ectomycorrhizal guilds were not more abundant under VRH, but stand age significantly structured species composition. Guild composition varied by decay stage, with ruderal species later replaced by saprotrophs and ectomycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizal abundance on decomposing fine roots may partially explain why fine roots typically decompose more slowly than surface litter. Our results indicate that stand age structures fine-root decomposers but that decay stage is more important in structuring the fungal community than shifts caused by harvesting. The rapid postharvest recovery of fungal communities decomposing fine roots suggests resiliency within this community, at least in these young regenerating stands in coastal British Columbia. IMPORTANCE Globally, fine roots are a dominant source of carbon in forest soils, yet the fungi that decompose this material and that drive the sequestration or respiration of this carbon remain largely

  5. Argon analytical procedures for potassium-argon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabites, J.E.; Adams, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    A manual for the argon analytical methods involved in potassium-argon geochronology, including: i) operating procedures for the ultra-high vacuum argon extraction/purification equipment for the analysis of nanolitre quantities of radiogenic argon in rocks, minerals and gases; ii) operating procedures for the AEI-MS10 gas source mass spectrometer

  6. Potassium-argon technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassignol, Charles; Cornette, Yves; David, Benjamin; Gillot, P.-Y.

    1978-04-01

    The main features of the method of processing rocks and minerals and measuring the extracted argon, for the purpose of potassium-argon dating are described. It differs in several respects from the conventional one, as described, f.i., in Dalrymple and Lanphere's monography. Principally it was established that the continual purification of the gases in the mass spectrometer cell during the measurement, stops the peaks of current drift, and renders them representative of the introduced argon. This allows on the one hand to improve the reliability and accuracy of measurements, on the other hand to get rid of the isotopic dilution method, with 38 A as a spike. Moreover the reliability of the radiogenic argon is improved by taking into account the mislinearness of the M.S. response. All this results in a higher performance of the K/Ar dating method, especially in the recent ages range. The technological side of the problem was only dealt with [fr

  7. Short time-scale wind forced variability in the Río de la Plata Estuary and its role on ichthyoplankton retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionato, C. G.; Berasategui, A.; Meccia, V. L.; Acha, M.; Mianzan, H.

    2008-01-01

    The Río de la Plata Estuary presents a strong bottom salinity front located over a submerged shoal. Apparently favored by retention processes, it is a spawning ground for several coastal fishes. This estuary is very shallow and essentially wind driven and, moreover, in time scales relevant to biota, estuarine circulation is wind dominated and highly variable. Two intriguing questions are, therefore, how this system can favor retention and what the involved mechanisms are. This paper qualitatively explores mechanisms involved in the estuary where retention is favored applying numerical simulations in which neutral particles - simulating fish eggs and early larvae - are released along the bottom frontal zone and tracked for different wind conditions. Results suggest that retentive features can be a consequence of estuarine response to natural wind variability acting over bathymetric features. For winds from most directions, particles either remain trapped near their launching position or move northeastward to southwestward along the shoal. As alternation of winds that favor along-shoal motion is the dominant feature of wind variability in the region, a retentive scenario results from prevailing wind variability. Additionally, winds that tend to export particles with a poor chance of being restored to the front are neither frequent nor persistent. Results show, therefore, that physical forcing alone might generate a retentive scenario at the inner part of this estuary. The physical retention mechanism is more effective for bottom than for surface launched particles. Wind statistics indicate that the proposed mechanism has different implications for retention along the seasons. Spring is the most favorable season, followed by summer, when particles would have a larger propensity to reach the southern area of the estuary (Samborombón Bay). Fall and winter are increasingly less favorable. All these features are consistent with patterns observed in the region in

  8. SLD liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, E.

    1992-10-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter (LAC) of the SLD detector is a parallel plate -- liquid argon sampling calorimeter, used to measure particle energies in Z 0 decays at the Stanford Linear Collider. The LAC module design is based on a unique projective tower structure, in which lead plates and segmented lead tiles serve both as absorbers and electrodes. The LAC front end electronics incorporates several novel features, including extensive multiplexing and optical fiber readout, which take advantage of the low SLC beam crossing frequency. The operational performance of the LAC during the recently completed SLD physics run (which recorded over 10,000 Z 0 events) is discussed

  9. Argon in action

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few days, the SPS has been accelerating argon ions, which have started to be sent to the NA61/SHINE experiment. This operating mode, using a new type of ion, required a number of modifications to the accelerator.   Picture 1: a “super-cycle” of the SPS, featuring a proton cycle for the LHC, followed by an argon ion cycle for the North Area. Today, the accelerators are once again juggling particles and even performing completely new tricks. The SPS is supplying beams of argon ions for the first time, at energies never before achieved for this type of beam. They are destined for the NA61/SHINE experiment (see box) located in the North Area, which began receiving the beams on 11 February. Argon ions have a relatively large mass, as they consist of 40 nucleons, so they can be used in a similar way to lead ions. The main difficulty in accelerating them lies in the SPS, where the variation in acceleration frequency is limited. “The SPS was designed for a...

  10. Argon isotopes as recorders of magmatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, P. W.; Gardner, J. E.; Mora Chaparro, J. C.; Arce, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    Argon isotopic ratios vary enough between different reservoirs (atmosphere, crust, mantle) and diffuse fast enough through most minerals at magmatic temperatures (700-1200 C) to make them ideal for looking at magma chamber dynamics. Indeed, diffusion is sufficiently fast to allow short time scales to be deciphered, setting argon apart from many other isotopic methods. A mineral's ability to retain "excess" argon (40Ar/36Ar ratios greater than the atmospheric value and apparent ages older than the known eruption age) during post-eruption cooling is key to Ar studies. Previous work shows that both phenocrysts (crystallizing in the magma chamber; e.g. Mt St. Helens; Layer and Gardner, 2001) and xenocrysts (introduced into the magma chamber; e.g Toba; Gardner et al., 2002) preserve excess argon, which enables magma chamber processes to be deciphered through the variable diffusion rates between crystal phases. Single crystal 40Ar/39Ar step-heating of biotite from the 10.5 ka eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico indicates that they are xenocrystic and resided for only a short (< 1 year) time in the magma before it erupted. The biotite has reaction rims of hornblende, orthopyroxene and plagioclase, and failed to grow experimentally at pressure-temperature conditions of the magma, confirming the xenocrystic nature of this phase. Single-step fusion of plagioclase phenocrysts from eruptions of El Chichon volcano, Mexico, shows evidence of excess (mantle) argon, whereas hornblende from the same eruptions contains little or none. In this case, faster diffusion of Ar in plagioclase than in hornblende allow plagioclase to incorporate excess argon during magma recharge; hornblende does not. Combining such results with other isotopic systems may in fact better determine magma chamber processes. At El Chichon, Sr isotopes suggest magma recharges ocurred (Tepley et al., 2000), whereas the argon isotopes suggest such pulses occurred just before each eruption. The fast and

  11. Isentropic Compression of Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oona, H.; Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Rodriquez, P.J.; Younger, S.M.; Lewis, W.; Turley, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    We are studying the transition of argon from an insulator to a conductor by compressing the frozen gas isentropically to pressures at which neighboring atomic orbitals overlap sufficiently to allow some electron motion between atoms. Argon and the other rare gases have closed electron shells and therefore remain montomic, even when they solidify. Their simple structure makes it likely that any measured change in conductivity is due to changes in the atomic structure, not in molecular configuration. As the crystal is compressed the band gap closes, allowing increased conductivity. We have begun research to determine the conductivity at high pressures, and it is our intention to determine the compression at which the crystal becomes a metal

  12. The argon excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, W.G.

    1981-02-01

    The electron-beam-pumped argon eximer laser is investigated and tuned for the first time. The electron beam is generated by means of an improved coaxial field emmision diode in which argon gas is excited with power densities of 0.3 GW/cm 3 for 18 ns. The processes in the excited gas of 20 to 65 bar are described in the context of a kinetic model as a sequence of stationary states. Investigations of the amplified spontaneous emission (superfluorescence) confirm the predictions of this model. Only the absorption due to the excited Ar atoms is anomalously high. Reproducible operation of the argon eximer laser was achieved in a wide pressure range with various resonator arrangements. The wavelength of this shortest wavelength of this shortest wavelength excimer laser is 126 nm, the laser line width approx. 1.7 nm, the pulse length 7 to 13 ns, and the laser power 250 kW. The laser emission is tuned from 123.2 nm to 128.4 nm by two different methods (diffraction grating and prism). This tunable laser is thus the one with the shortest wavelength at present. Its line width is 0.25 to 0.4 nm, and the power ue 1.7 kW. (orig.)

  13. Climatic variability and its role in regulating C, N and P retention in the James River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukaveckas, Paul A.; Beck, Michael; Devore, Dana; Lee, William M.

    2018-05-01

    Transformations and retention of C, N and P inputs to estuaries are subject to external factors such as discharge-driven variation in loading rates, and internal processes regulating biogeochemical cycles. We used an 8-year time series of finely resolved (monthly) mass balances for the tidal freshwater segment of the James River Estuary to assess the influence of discharge and temperature on C, N and P retention. Peak export and retention of organic, likely particulate, fractions occurred in months of highest discharge. With increasing discharge we observed higher mass retention, greater proportional retention (in relation to inputs) and more selective retention (with P retained preferentially over N and C). DIN retention was strongly influenced by water temperature with 10-fold high retention occurring at high (>20 °C) vs. low (estuaries is in dissolved inorganic form, and therefore subject to temperature dependent rates of biological assimilation and denitrification. By contrast, the bulk of the P load was in particulate form, which is retained via sediment trapping, and not appreciably affected by water temperature. The tidal freshwater estuary was an important site for nutrient removal where the accumulation of N- and P- rich materials may delay recovery in response to nutrient load reductions.

  14. The Argon Geochronology Experiment (AGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, T. D.; Bode, R.; Fennema, A.; Chutjian, A.; MacAskill, J. A.; Darrach, M. R.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Cremers, D.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Argon Geochronology Experiment (AGE). Potassium-Argon dating is shown along with cosmic ray dating exposure. The contents include a flow diagram of the Argon Geochronology Experiment, and schematic diagrams of the mass spectrometer vacuum system, sample manipulation mechanism, mineral heater oven, and the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Operation with elemental abundances is also described.

  15. Argon Diffusion Measured in Rhyolite Melt at 100 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, N.; Edwards, P. M.; Watkins, J. M.; Lesher, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Argon diffusivity (D_{Ar} ) controls the rate and length scale of argon exchange between melt and gas phases and is used as a parameter to model noble gas fractionation during magma degassing. D_{Ar} may also be useful in geochronology to estimate the distribution of excess (non-radiogenic) atmospheric argon in lavas. Our measurements of D_{Ar} in molten anhydrous rhyolite near 1000 °C and 100 MPa add to the existing dataset. Using a rapid-quench cold seal pressure apparatus we exposed cylindrical charges drilled from a Miocene rhyolite flow near Buck Mtn., CA to a pure argon atmosphere resulting in a gradually lengthening argon concentration gradient between the saturated surface and the argon poor interior. Argon concentration was measured by electron microprobe along radial transects from the center to the surface of bisected samples. D_{Ar} was calculated for each transect by fitting relative argon concentration (as a function of distance from the surface) to Green's function (given each experiment's specific temperature, pressure and runtime). Variability (σ = 1.202{μm }^{2} /s) was smaller than in previous studies, but still greater than what is likely due to analytical or experimental uncertainty. We observed a symmetric geometric bias in the distribution of argon in our samples, possibly related to advective redistribution of argon accompanying the deformation of cylindrical charges into spheroids driven by surface tension. Average diffusivity, D_{Ar} = 4.791{μm }^{2} /s, is close to the predicted value, D_{Ar} = {μm }^{2} /s ( σ_{ \\bar{x} } = 1.576 {μm }^{2} /s), suggesting that Behrens and Zhang's (2001) empirical model is valid for anhydrous rhyolite melts to relatively higher temperatures and lower pressures. Behrens, H. and Y. Zhang (2001). "Ar diffusion in hydrous silicic melts: implications for volatile diffusion mechanisms and fractionation." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 192: 363-376.

  16. Liquid-argon calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the viability of liquid-argon calorimetric techniques in the experimental environment of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is briefly analyzed. The authors compare the required and achievable energy resolution with benchmark figures obtained using practical instruments. Comments on the desirable (i.e. required) temporal performance are made and compared with the state of the art. Some of the major engineering challenges are listed, for which solutions will have to be developed if such instruments are to find a place in an SSC experimental area

  17. Potassium-argon (argon-argon), structural fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosca, Michael A.; Rink, W. Jack; Thompson, Jereon

    2014-01-01

    Definition: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of structural fabrics: The application of 40Ar/39Ar methods to date development of structural fabrics in geologic samples. Introduction: Structural fabrics develop during rock deformation at variable pressures (P), temperatures (T), fluid compositions (X), and time (t). Structural fabrics are represented in rocks by features such as foliations and shear zones developed at the mm to km scale. In ideal cases, the P-T-X history of a given structural fabric can be constrained using stable isotope, cation exchange, and/or mineral equilibria thermobarometry (Essene 1989). The timing of structural fabric development can be assessed qualitatively using geologic field observations or quantitatively using isotope-based geochronology. High-precision geochronology of the thermal and fluid flow histories associated with structural fabric development can answer fundamental geologic questions including (1) when hydrothermal fluids transported and deposited ore minerals, ...

  18. Limited mobility of argon in a metamorphic terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foland, K A [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia (USA). Dept. of Geology

    1979-06-01

    Excess /sup 40/Ar in biotite from some relatively anhydrous charnockitic rocks in the Appalachian Piedmont indicates limited mobility or argon. Biotite from the Arden pluton of the granulite-facies Wilmington Complex apparently formed as a retrograde product at the expense of pyroxene and K-feldspar Rb-Sr ages of biotite from all rocks are approximately 365 Myr. The same micas have apparent K-Ar ages which range from about 365-590 Mye, six of which clearly exceed the Sr isotope whole-rock date of 500 Myr. They contain variable amounts of excess /sup 40/Ar incorporated during crystallization or recrystallization of biotite at about 365 Myr ago. None of the other minerals appears to contain significant amounts of excess argon. The K-Ar apparent ages show strong, positive correlation with whole-rock K concentrations. These relations yield a correlation between excess argon in the biotite phase and rock potassium. This suggests that excess /sup 40/Ar in biotite is of local derivation and is due to an imprint of the local argon activity. If the amount incorporated is roughly proportional to the prevailing argon partial pressure then substantial differences in psub(Ar) existed. Argon did not have a uniform chemical potential over large rock volumes. Analysis of closely spaced samples suggests different argon activity over the scale of less than 10 m. This implies restricted transport of Ar and is probably due to very low effective permeability of the anhydrous assemblages.

  19. Argon solubility in liquid steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R; Dankert, O; Van Veen, A; Kamperman, AA

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to establish the solubility of argon in liquid interstitial-free steel. The solubility appears to be lower than 0.1 at ppb, The results are in line with argon solubilities reported in the literature on liquid iron. Semiempirical theories and calculations based on the

  20. The Argon Dark Matter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071720

    2009-01-01

    The ArDM experiment, a 1 ton liquid argon TPC/Calorimeter, is designed for the detection of dark matter particles which can scatter off the spinless argon nucleus, producing nuclear recoils. These events will be discerned by their light to charge ratio, as well as the time structure of the scintillation light. The experiment is presently under construction and commissioning on surface at CERN. Cryogenic operation and light detection performance was recently confirmed in a test run of the full 1 ton liquid argon target under purely calorimetric operation and with a prototype light readout system. This note describes the experimental concept, the main detector components and presents some first results.

  1. Wettability of poultry litter biochars at variable pyrolysis temperatures and their impact on soil wettability and water retention relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. C.; Witt, B.; Guo, M.; Chiu, P.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    To reduce the impact of poultry farming on greenhouse gas emissions, poultry farming waste - poultry litter - can be converted to biofuel and biochar through slow-pyrolysis, with the biochar added to agricultural soil for nutrient enrichment and carbon sequestration. While biochars from source materials other than poultry litter have been shown to sequester carbon and increase soil fertility, there is considerable variability in biochar behavior - even with biochars created from the same source material. This situation is exacerbated by our limited understanding of how biochars alter physical, chemical, and biological processes in agricultural soils. The focus of this work is to develop a mechanistic understanding of how poultry litter (PL) biochars affect the hydrology, microbial communities, N2O emissions, and nitrogen cycling in agricultural soils. The initial focus is on the impact of PL biochar on soil hydrology. PL from Perdue AgriRecycle, LLC (Seaford, Delaware) was used to produce biochars at pyrolysis temperatures from 300°C to 600°C. To explore the impact of these biochars on soil wettability, the PL biochars were mixed with a 30/40 Accusand in mass fractions from 0% to 100%. The water contact angle was then measured using a goniometer on these sand/biochar mixtures using the sessile drop method and a single layer of sample particles. The PL biochars produced at temperatures between 300°C to 400°C were hydrophobic, while those pyrolized at > 400°C were hydrophilic. Water contact angles for samples with 100% biochar varied systematically with pyrolysis temperature, decreasing from 101.12° to 20.57° as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 300 to 600°C. Even for small amounts of hydrophobic biochar added to the hydrophilic sand, the contact angle of the mixture was altered: for sand/biochar mixtures containing only 2% hydrophobic PL biochar by weight, the contact angle of the mixture increased from ~ 8° (0% biochar) to 20° (2% biochar). For

  2. Evaluation of Colloid Retention Site Dominance in Variably Saturated Porous Media: An All Pores Pore-Scale Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Veronica; Perez-Reche, Francisco; Holzner, Markus; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    It is well accepted that colloid and nanoparticle transport processes in porous media differ substantially between water saturated and unsaturated conditions. Differences are frequently ascribed to particle immobilization by association with interfaces with the gas, as well as to restrictions of the liquid medium through which colloids are transported. Yet, the current understanding of the importance of particle retention at gas interfaces is based on observations of single pores or two-dimensional pore network representations, leaving open the question of their statistical significance when all pores in the medium are considered. In order to address this question, column experiments were performed using a model porous medium of glass beads through which Silver particles were transported for conditions of varying water content and water chemistry. X-ray microtomography was subsequently employed as a non-destructive imaging technique to obtain pore-scale information of the entire column regarding: i) the presence and distribution of the main locations where colloids can become retained (interfaces with the water-solid, air-water, air-solid, and air-water-solid, grain-grain contacts, and the bulk liquid), ii) deposition profiles of colloids along the column classified by the available retention location, and iii) channel widths of 3-dimensional pore-water network representations. The results presented provide a direct statistical evaluation on the significance of colloid retention by attachment to interfaces or by strainig at contact points where multiple interfaces meet.

  3. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  4. Iron Retention in Root Hemicelluloses Causes Genotypic Variability in the Tolerance to Iron Deficiency-Induced Chlorosis in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongli Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic interactions of phosphorus (P hamper iron (Fe acquisition by plants and can cause Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. To determine the physiological processes underlying adverse Fe–P interactions, the maize lines B73 and Mo17, which differ in chlorosis susceptibility, were grown hydroponically at different Fe:P ratios. In the presence of P, Mo17 became more chlorotic than B73. The higher sensitivity of Mo17 to Fe deficiency was not related to Fe–P interactions in leaves but to lower Fe translocation to shoots, which coincided with a larger pool of Fe being fixed in the root apoplast of P-supplied Mo17 plants. Fractionating cell wall components from roots showed that most of the cell wall-contained P accumulated in pectin, whereas most of the Fe was bound to root hemicelluloses, revealing that co-precipitation of Fe and P in the apoplast was not responsible for Fe inactivation in roots. A negative correlation between chlorophyll index and hemicellulose-bound Fe in 85 inbred lines of the intermated maize B73 × Mo17 (IBM population indicated that apoplastic Fe retention contributes to genotypic differences in chlorosis susceptibility of maize grown under low Fe supplies. Our study indicates that Fe retention in the hemicellulose fraction of roots is an important determinant in the tolerance to Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis of graminaceous plant species with low phytosiderophore release, like maize.

  5. Modelling electroluminescence in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, D Y; Barker, G J; Bennieston, A J; Harrison, P F; McConkey, N; Morgan, B; Ramachers, Y A; Lightfoot, P K; Robinson, M; Spooner, N J C; Thompson, L

    2010-01-01

    We present Monte-Carlo simulations of electron transport through liquid argon motivated by our recent observation of electroluminescence light emanating from a thick gaseous electron multiplier (THGEM) in a liquid argon volume. All known elastic and inelastic reaction cross-sections have been accounted for, providing electroluminescence light yield predictions for arbitrary electrostatic fields. This study concludes that the large field gradients needed to produce electroluminescence cannot be accounted for by straightforward electrostatic field calculations based on ideal THGEM holes, suggesting that further experimental investigations are required.

  6. Geminate recombination in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The extended Onsager model for geminate neutralization is supported by the field dependence of the ionization yield in liquid argon irradiated by high energy electrons or x rays. Attempts to employ the model fail unless the distribution of initial separation distances between the thermalized electrons and their sibling ions (secondary electron thermalization ranges) is included. Data of Scalettar and co-workers are reanalyzed

  7. A global data set of soil hydraulic properties and sub-grid variability of soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, Carsten; Herbst, Michael; Weihermüller, Lutz; Verhoef, Anne; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-07-01

    Agroecosystem models, regional and global climate models, and numerical weather prediction models require adequate parameterization of soil hydraulic properties. These properties are fundamental for describing and predicting water and energy exchange processes at the transition zone between solid earth and atmosphere, and regulate evapotranspiration, infiltration and runoff generation. Hydraulic parameters describing the soil water retention (WRC) and hydraulic conductivity (HCC) curves are typically derived from soil texture via pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Resampling of those parameters for specific model grids is typically performed by different aggregation approaches such a spatial averaging and the use of dominant textural properties or soil classes. These aggregation approaches introduce uncertainty, bias and parameter inconsistencies throughout spatial scales due to nonlinear relationships between hydraulic parameters and soil texture. Therefore, we present a method to scale hydraulic parameters to individual model grids and provide a global data set that overcomes the mentioned problems. The approach is based on Miller-Miller scaling in the relaxed form by Warrick, that fits the parameters of the WRC through all sub-grid WRCs to provide an effective parameterization for the grid cell at model resolution; at the same time it preserves the information of sub-grid variability of the water retention curve by deriving local scaling parameters. Based on the Mualem-van Genuchten approach we also derive the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from the water retention functions, thereby assuming that the local parameters are also valid for this function. In addition, via the Warrick scaling parameter λ, information on global sub-grid scaling variance is given that enables modellers to improve dynamical downscaling of (regional) climate models or to perturb hydraulic parameters for model ensemble output generation. The present analysis is based on the ROSETTA PTF

  8. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  9. Prospects for photosensitive dopants in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1990-12-01

    Evidence is presented that the addition of a few ppM of a photosensitive dopant to a U/liquid argon or Pb/liquid argon calorimeter will make a substantial reduction in the e/π ratio. Previous results indicating high voltage problems and no change in the e/π ratio in tests of photosensitive dopants with the Fermilab D0 experiment's U/liquid argon tests calorimeter are also explained. 13 refs., 3 figs

  10. Dynamics of imploding argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.; Richardson, R.; Brannon, J.; Wilkinson, M.; Katzenstein, J.

    1982-01-01

    The BLACKJACK 5 pulse generator has been used to implode annular argon plasmas to form dense Z pinches. Visible streak photography, framing photography, and laser shadowgraphy were used to observe the radial position and velocity of the plasmas as they imploded. The measured position and velocity of the imploding plasmas have been compared with the results of calculations based on a one-dimensional snowplow model. Good agreement is obtained between the snowplow calculations and the optical measurements. Empirically determined optimum implosion parameters are also found to agree with those predicted by the model

  11. Continuum radiation of argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Yachkov, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    A simple completely analytical method of the calculation of radiative continuum of plasmas is derived and an analysis of experimental data on continuum radiation of argon plasma is made. The method is based on the semiclassical quantum defect theory. To calculate radial matrix elements of dipole transitions the asymptotic expansion in powers of E c /ω 2/3 , with an accuracy to the linear term, where E, is the arithmetic mean of the initial and final energies of the transition, is used. This expansion has the same form for free-free, free-bound and bound-bound transitions. If the quantum defects are also approximated by a linear function of energy, the integration over the electron energy (the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is assumed) can be performed in analytical form. For Rydberg states the sum of photoionization continua can be replaced by an integral. We have calculated the absorption coefficient pf argon plasma. The photoionization cross section is calculated for all the states of 4s, 5s, 6s, 4p, 5p, 3d, 4d, 4s', 5s', 6s', 4p', 5p', 3d' and 4d' configurations taking into account P-coupling and multiplet splitting (56 states). Other excited states are allowed for by the integral formula together with free-free transitions

  12. Liquid argon calorimetry for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid argon calorimetry is a mature technique. However, adapting it to the challenging environment of the SSC requires a large amount of R ampersand D. The advantages of the liquid argon approach are summarized and the issues being addressed by the R ampersand D program are described. 18 refs

  13. Secrets of Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the…

  14. Vascular anastomosis by Argon Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, O.M.; Macruz, R.; Armelin, E.; Brum, J.M.G.; Ribeiro, M.P.; Mnitentog, J.; Verginelli, G.; Pileggi, F.; Zerbini, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty four mongrel dogs, wheighing 13 to 24 kilograms were studied. After anesthesia, intubation and controlled ventilation, they were submitted to three types of vascular anastomosis: Group I - eight dogs with saphenous vein inter-carotid arteries by-pass: Group II - eight dogs with left mammary artery - left anterior descending coronary artery by-pass; Group III - eight dogs with venovenous anastomosis. In all groups 0.8 to 15 watts of Argon Laser power was applied to a total time of 90 to 300 seconds. The lower power for venovenous anastomosis and the greater for the arterial ones. The mean valves of resistence of the Laser anastomosis to pressure induced rupture was 730 mmHg in the immediate post operative study, and superior to 2.500 mmHg 30 days after. No signs of occlusion was demonstrated at the anastomosis sites by the angiographic and anathomo-patological study performed. (Author) [pt

  15. Emissive spectra of shock-heated argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jingyou; Gu Yan; Peng Qixian; Bai Yulin; Li Ping

    2003-01-01

    To study the radiant properties of argon under weak shock compression, an aluminum target filled with gaseous argon at ambient states was impacted by a tungsten alloy projectile which was launched from a two-stage light gun to 2.00 km/s. The radiant signals of single shock-compressed argon were recorded by a six-channel pyrometer and oscilloscopes, which varied with time linearly for the five channels from 405 nm to 700 nm and exponentially for the channel 800 nm, and the corresponding velocity of shock wave was determined to be 4.10 ± 0.09 km/s. By the present experiment, it has been shown that the absorbability of the shock-heated argon is low for visual light and the optical depths of argon gas turn from thin to thick as wavelengths gradually increase. The time-resolved spectra in the rising-front of the radiant signal in the re-shocked argon were recorded by means of an OMA, and strong emissive spectrum bands near 450 nm light-wave length but no linear spectrum were found. The emissive spectrum properties of shock-compression argon were qualitatively explained by the state parameters and ionization degree

  16. Argon cover gas purity control on LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi [PNC (Japan); Ishiyama, Satoshi [Toshiba (Japan); Motonaga, Tetsuji [Hitachi (Japan)

    1987-07-01

    Various control methods on chemical impurities and radioactive materials (fission products) in the primary argon gas of LMFBRs' have been studied based on experiences in Joyo and results of research and development. These results are reflected on MONJU design. On-line gas chromatographs are installed both in the Primary and in the Secondary Argon Gas Systems in JOYO. Also, chemical analysis has been done by batch sampling in JOYO. Though the rise of impurity concentration had been measured after periodical fuel exchange operation, impurity concentration has been controlled sufficiently under target control limits. In MONJU detailed design, the Rare Gas Removal and Recovery System which consisted of cryogenic distillation equipment had been eliminated and the capacity of Charcoal Beds in the Primary Argon Gas System has been improved to keep the concentration of radioactive materials sufficient low levels. The necessity to control the impurities in fresh argon gas which is supplied to the Primary Argon Gas System is now considered to keep the concentration of Kr and Xe isotopes in specified level, because their isotopes may make background rise for the Tagging Gas Failed Fuel Detection and Location System. Based on various investigations performed on sodium vapor trapping to obtain its detailed characteristics, design specifications and operating conditions of MONJU's Vapor Traps have been decided. To keep the level of radioactivity in gaseous effluents to the environment as low as reasonably achievable, the following means are now adopted in MONJU: the Primary Argon Gas System is composed of a closed recirculating path, but the exhaust gas discharged has different path after the Charcoal Beds; fresh argon gas is blown down to prevent Primary Argon Gas from releasing to the circumference during opening of the primary argon gas boundary, such as fuel exchange operations. (author)

  17. Virial Coefficients for the Liquid Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Micheal; Kim, Saesun

    2014-03-01

    We begin with a geometric model of hard colliding spheres and calculate probability densities in an iterative sequence of calculations that lead to the pair correlation function. The model is based on a kinetic theory approach developed by Shinomoto, to which we added an interatomic potential for argon based on the model from Aziz. From values of the pair correlation function at various values of density, we were able to find viral coefficients of liquid argon. The low order coefficients are in good agreement with theoretical hard sphere coefficients, but appropriate data for argon to which these results might be compared is difficult to find.

  18. Broadband Ftmw Spectroscopy of the Urea-Argon and Thiourea-Argon Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medcraft, Chris; Bittner, Dror M.; Cooper, Graham A.; Mullaney, John C.; Walker, Nick

    2017-06-01

    The rotational spectra complexes of argon-urea, argon-thiourea and water-thiourea have been measured by chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy from 2-18.5 GHz. The sample was produced via laser vaporisation of a rod containing copper and the organic sample as a stream of argon was passed over the surface and subsequently expanded into the vacuum chamber cooling the sample. Argon was found to bind to π system of the carbonyl bond for both the urea and thiourea complexes.

  19. Negative corona current pulses in argon and in mixture argon with SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoranova, A.; Zahoran, M.; Bucek, A.; Cernak, M.; Bosko, J.

    2004-01-01

    Waveforms of the first negative current pulses in a short negative point-to plane gap in pure argon and argon with SF 6 admixture have been investigated with a nanosecond time resolution at a gas pressure 50 kPa as a function of applied gap voltage and content of SF 6 in the mixture. We have made an attempt to explain the differences in the discharge development in pure argon and in argon with admixture of SF 6 based on the observed changes of the pulse shape. The experimental results obtained will be discussed in context with existing computer simulation models (Authors)

  20. Dissolved carbon and nitrogen leaching following variable logging-debris retention and competing-vegetation control in Douglas-fir plantations of western Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; Timothy B. Harrington; Brian D. Strahm

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect of logging-debris retention and competing-vegetation control (CCC, initial or annual applications) on dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen, and nitrate-N leaching to determine the relative potential of these practices to contribute to soil C and N loss at two contrasting sites. Annual CVC resulted in higher soil water...

  1. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeya Sharma, T

    2015-11-01

    Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE). This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar) gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine's performance within the range studied.

  2. Urinary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011. [4] Mevcha A, Drake MJ. Etiology and management of urinary retention in women. Indian Journal of Urology. 2010;26(2):230–235. August ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  3. QSRR modeling for the chromatographic retention behavior of some β-lactam antibiotics using forward and firefly variable selection algorithms coupled with multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Marwa A; Tolba, Enas H; El-Shal, Manal A; El Kerdawy, Ahmed M

    2018-05-11

    The justified continuous emerging of new β-lactam antibiotics provokes the need for developing suitable analytical methods that accelerate and facilitate their analysis. A face central composite experimental design was adopted using different levels of phosphate buffer pH, acetonitrile percentage at zero time and after 15 min in a gradient program to obtain the optimum chromatographic conditions for the elution of 31 β-lactam antibiotics. Retention factors were used as the target property to build two QSRR models utilizing the conventional forward selection and the advanced nature-inspired firefly algorithm for descriptor selection, coupled with multiple linear regression. The obtained models showed high performance in both internal and external validation indicating their robustness and predictive ability. Williams-Hotelling test and student's t-test showed that there is no statistical significant difference between the models' results. Y-randomization validation showed that the obtained models are due to significant correlation between the selected molecular descriptors and the analytes' chromatographic retention. These results indicate that the generated FS-MLR and FFA-MLR models are showing comparable quality on both the training and validation levels. They also gave comparable information about the molecular features that influence the retention behavior of β-lactams under the current chromatographic conditions. We can conclude that in some cases simple conventional feature selection algorithm can be used to generate robust and predictive models comparable to that are generated using advanced ones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Trapping cold ground state argon atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, P D; Barker, P F

    2014-10-31

    We trap cold, ground state argon atoms in a deep optical dipole trap produced by a buildup cavity. The atoms, which are a general source for the sympathetic cooling of molecules, are loaded in the trap by quenching them from a cloud of laser-cooled metastable argon atoms. Although the ground state atoms cannot be directly probed, we detect them by observing the collisional loss of cotrapped metastable argon atoms and determine an elastic cross section. Using a type of parametric loss spectroscopy we also determine the polarizability of the metastable 4s[3/2](2) state to be (7.3±1.1)×10(-39)  C m(2)/V. Finally, Penning and associative losses of metastable atoms in the absence of light assisted collisions, are determined to be (3.3±0.8)×10(-10)  cm(3) s(-1).

  5. Sodium evaporation into a forced argon flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Toshiaki; Kasahara, Fumio; Ishiguro, Ryoji

    1975-01-01

    Evaporation from a rectangular sodium free surface into an argon flow was measured. Tests were carried out with varying sodium temperature, argon velocity and argon temperature respectively under conditions of fog formation being possible. In order to clarify the enhancement of evaporation by fog formation, convection heat transfer from a plate of the same geometry into an air flow was also measured. The evaporation rate and Sherwood number were compared with those predicted by both the heat transfer experiment and the theory proposed by Hill and Szekely, and also a comparison was run with the previously reported experimental results of sodium evaporation. As a result it was shown that the sodium evaporation rate in this experiment is at least four times as large as that predicted by the heat transfer experiment and varies almost linearly with the heat transfer rate and the sodium vapour pressure. (auth.)

  6. Two-photon excitation of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindzola, P.S.; Payne, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors calculate two photon excitation parameters for various excited states of argon assuming the absorption of near resonance broad-bandwidth laser radiation. Results are given for the case of two photons absorbed for the same laser beam as well as the case of absorbing photons of different frequency from each of two laser beams. The authors use multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock wave functions to evaluate the second-order sums over matrix elements. Various experimental laser schemes are suggested for the efficient excitation and subsequent ionization of argon

  7. Local effects of ECRH on argon transport at ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sertoli, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Future deuterium-tritium magnetically confined fusion power plants will most probably rely an high-Z Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) such as tungsten. This choice is determined by the necessity of low erosion of the first wall materials (to guarantee a long lifetime of the wall components) and by the need to avoid the too high tritium wall retention of typical carbon based PFCs. The experience gathered at the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak has demonstrated the possibility of reliable and high performance plasma operation with a full tungsten-coated first wall. The observed accumulation of tungsten which can lead to excessive radiation losses is mitigated with the use of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). Although this impurity control method is routinely performed at AUG, the underlying physics principles are still not clear. This thesis aims an providing further knowledge an the effects of ECRH an the transport of impurities inside the core plasma. The transport of argon has been therefore investigated in-depth in purely ECR heated L-mode (low-confinement) discharges. Studies an impurity transport in centrally ECR heated nitrogen-seeded H-mode (high-confinement) discharges have also been performed. To this scope, a new crystal X-ray spectrometer of the Johann type has been installed an AUG for argon concentration and ion temperature measurements. New methods for the experimental determination of the total argon density through the integrated use of this diagnostic and of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) diode arrays have been developed. This gives the possibility of evaluating the full profiles of the argon transport coefficients from the linear flux-gradient dependency of local argon density. In comparison to classical χ 2 -minimization methods, the approach proposed here delivers transport coefficients intrinsically independent of the modelling of periodic relaxation mechanisms such as those Lied to sawtooth MHD (Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic) activity. Moreover, the good

  8. Contraction ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskij, Yu.B.; Kulikov, V.V.; Nekutchaev, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge and a definition of their arising propagation mechanism accounting for the specificity of elementary pocesses characteristic of argon are presented. (author)

  9. Argon-ion contamination of the plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Cornwall, J.M.; Luhmann, J.G.; Schulz, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper applies present observational and analytic knowledge on effects of plasma beam interaction wth the magnetosphere to the plasmasphere contamination problem of the argon ion engine exhaust expected to be deposited in the magnetosphere during the construction phase of the Satellite Power System. Effects of plasmasphere, ionosphere, and radiation belt modifications are discussed

  10. Silicon compounds of neon and argon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roithová, J.; Schröder, Detlef

    -, č. 46 (2009), s. 8788-8790 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1223 Grant - others: ERC (XE) Adg HORIZOMS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : argon * bond formation * dications * neon Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 11.829, year: 2009

  11. Performance of a uranium liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuts, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents results on the performance of a uranium and liquid argon colorimeter in the NW test beam at Fermilab. This study describes the calorimeter, and discusses its performance with electrons, pions and muons from 10 GeV to 150 GeV. The performance parameters measure response, linearity, resolution, compensation, and e/π separation

  12. SLD liquid argon calorimeter prototype test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, R.; Eigen, G.; Au, Y.

    1985-10-01

    The results of the SLD test beam program for the selection of a calorimeter radiator composition within a liquid argon system are described, with emphasis on the study of the use of uranium to obtain equalization of pion and electron responses

  13. Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    A selection of ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter commissioning studies are presented. These include a coherent noise study, a measurement of the quality of the physics pulse shape prediction, and energy and time reconstruction analyses with cosmic and single beam signals.

  14. Thermal decomposition of barium valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, P.; Norby, Poul; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of barium valerate (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2)/Ba-pentanoate) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage optical microscopy. Melting takes place in two different steps, at 200 degrees C and 280...

  15. 46 CFR 151.50-36 - Argon or nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Argon or nitrogen. 151.50-36 Section 151.50-36 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-36 Argon or nitrogen. (a) A cargo tank that contains argon or nitrogen and that has a maximum allowable working pressure of 172 kPa (25...

  16. Measurement of argon concentrations in a TRIGA Mark-III pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, R [California State University, Northridge, CA (United States)

    1974-07-01

    Argon-41, the principal radioactive effluent from a pool type reactor during normal operation, is produced by the {sup 40}A (n,{gamma}) reaction. The reactant, {sup 40}A, is introduced into the pool water by contact with the air. Reduction in radioactive argon release can be accomplished by reducing the concentration of dissolved {sup 40}A and retaining the {sup 41}A within the pool. However, little data were available concerning the mechanisms of argon introduction, production, retention, and release from a reactor pool. Experiments have therefore been performed at the Torrey Pines TRIGA Mark-III Reactor to develop techniques to sample dissolved argon and to provide data on argon concentrations in the pool for release modeling studies. Significant results for argon dissolved at different pool depths can only be obtained if the water samples are sealed at the point of collection. A special handling tool was developed to perform this remote operation. Pool samples were counted for {sup 41}A soon after collection with a NaI spectrometer. After allowing one day for decay of {sup 41}A, the concentration of {sup 40}A in the water sample was determined by neutron activation analysis. In each case, the 1.29 MeV gamma-ray peak of {sup 41}A was used. Interference from the 1.37 MeV {sup 24}Na peak was considered and its effect subtracted after determining {sup 24}Na content from the 2.75 MeV {sup 24}Na peak and a sodium standard. A Ge(Li) detector was tried and found to eliminate the problem, but it introduced an unacceptable geometrical effect dependent on bubble size within the sample bottles. Samples were taken from the 27 ft deep TRIGA pool at various locations. Results were obtained for samples taken on several different days along the same vertical line about 3-1/2 ft from the reactor centerline. Temperature measurements along this vertical traverse indicated a sharp temperature gradient at about 15 ft below the surface ({approx}6 ft above the top of the reactor). The

  17. Preferential site occupancy observed in coexpanded argon-krypton clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundwall, M.; Bergersen, H.; Lindblad, A.; Oehrwall, G.; Svensson, S.; Bjoerneholm, O.; Tchaplyguine, M.

    2006-01-01

    Free heterogeneous argon-krypton clusters have been produced by coexpansion and investigated by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. By examining cluster surface and bulk binding energy shifts, relative intensities, and peak widths, we show that in the mixed argon-krypton clusters the krypton atoms favor the bulk and argon atoms are pushed to the surface. Furthermore, we show that krypton atoms in the surface layer occupy high-coordination sites and that heterogeneous argon-krypton clusters produced by coexpansion show the same surface structure as argon host clusters doped with krypton. These observations are supported by site-dependent calculations of chemical shifts

  18. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  19. NOx emission control in SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moneib, Hany A.; Abdelaal, Mohsen; Selim, Mohamed Y.E.; Abdallah, Osama A.

    2009-01-01

    The Argon inert gas is used to dilute the intake air of a spark ignition engine to decrease nitrogen oxides and improve the performance of the engine. A research engine Ricardo E6 with variable compression was used in the present work. A special test rig has been designed and built to admit the gas to the intake air of the engine for up to 15% of the intake air. The system could admit the inert gas, oxygen and nitrogen gases at preset amounts. The variables studied included the engine speed, Argon to inlet air ratio, and air to fuel ratio. The results presented here included the combustion pressure, temperature, burned mass fraction, heat release rate, brake power, thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, exhaust temperature, brake specific fuel consumption and emissions of CO, CO 2 , NO and O 2 . It was found that the addition of Argon gas to the intake air of the gasoline engine causes the nitrogen oxide to reduce effectively and also it caused the brake power and thermal efficiency of the engine to increase. Mathematical program has been used to obtain the mixture properties and the heat release when the Argon gas is used.

  20. Managing retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990).

  1. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Module Zero

    CERN Multimedia

    1993-01-01

    This module was built and tested with beam to validate the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter design. One original design feature is the folding. 10 000 lead plates and electrodes are folded into an accordion shape and immersed in liquid argon. As they cross the folds, particles are slowed down by the lead. As they collide with the lead atoms, electrons and photons are ejected. There is a knock-on effect and as they continue on into the argon, a whole shower is produced. The electrodes collect up all the electrons and this signal gives a measurement of the energy of the initial particle. The M0 was fabricated by French institutes (LAL, LAPP, Saclay, Jussieu) in the years 1993-1994. It was tested in the H6/H8 beam lines in 1994, leading to the Technical Design Report in 1996.

  2. Diffusion of lithium ions in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, T.

    1983-01-01

    Published measurements of transport coefficients for Li + ions in argon seem to be limited to the mobility and the longitudinal diffusion coefficient in the field-to-density ratio range at and below 200 Td 1-5 . In this paper results are presented from measurements of the transverse diffusion coefficient to mobility ratio (Dsub(T)/μ) for Li + ions in argon in the field-to-density ratio range 10 < E/n < 800 Td. The measurements were made with a drift tube mass spectrometer at a gas temperature of 295 +- 1 K using the modified Townsend method of Skullerud. The experimental curve is compared to a calculation by H.R. Skullerud in the same proceedings. (G.Q.)

  3. Argon laser irradiation of the otolithic organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, T.; Nomura, Y.; Young, Y.H.; Hara, M. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    An argon laser was used to irradiate the otolithic organs of guinea pigs and cynomolgus monkeys. After stapedectomy, the argon laser (1.5 W x 0.5 sec/shot) irradiated the utricle or saccule without touching the sensory organs. The stapes was replaced over the oval window after irradiation. The animals used for acute observation were killed immediately for morphologic studies; those used for long-term observation were kept alive for 2, 4, or 10 weeks. Acute observation revealed that sensory and supporting cells were elevated from the basement membrane only in the irradiated area. No rupture of the membranous labyrinth was observed. Long-term observation revealed that the otolith of the macula utriculi had disappeared in 2-week specimens. The entire macula utricili had disappeared in 10-week specimens. No morphologic changes were observed in cochlea, semicircular canals, or membranous labyrinth. The saccule showed similar changes.

  4. Charge transfer cross-sections of argon ions colliding on argon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.; Bliman, S.; Chan-Tung, N.; Geller, R.; Jacquot, B.; Van Houtte, D.

    1980-04-01

    A device has been built to measure charge changing cross-sections of Argon ions colliding on argon atoms. It consists of an E.C.R. ion source (Micromafios) that delivers argon ions up to charge + 13. The ion source potential may be varied from 1 up to 10 kVolts. A first magnet is used to charge analyze the extracted beam. For a given separated charge state, the ion beam is passed in a collision cell whose pressure may be varied. The ions undergoing collisions on the target are analyzed by a second magnet and collected. The pressure is varied in the collision cell in order to check that the single collision condition is satisfied. It is shown that the ions do two types of collisions: charge exchange and stripping whose cross-sections are measured. Interpretation of charge exchange is proposed along yet classic theoretical approaches. As to stripping no available theory allows interpretation

  5. Influence of impurities on the fuel retention in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the influence of plasma impurities on the hydrogen retention in metals, in the scope of plasma-wall-interaction research for fusion reactors. This is addressed experimentally and by modelling. The mechanisms of the hydrogen retention are influenced by various parameters like the wall temperature, ion energy, flux and fluence as well as the plasma composition. The plasma composition is a relevant factor for hydrogen retention in fusion reactors, as their plasma will also contain impurities like helium or seeded impurities like argon. The experiments treated in this thesis were performed in the linear plasma generator PSI-2 at Forschungszentrum Juelich, and are divided in 3 parts: The first experiments cover the plasma diagnostics, most importantly the measurement of the impurity ion concentration in the plasma by optical emission spectroscopy. This is a requirement for the later experiments with mixed plasmas. Diagnostics like Langmuir probe measurements are not applicable for this task because they do not distinguish different ionic species. The results also show that the impurity ion concentrations cannot be simply concluded from the neutral gas input to the plasma source, because the relation between the neutral gas concentration and impurity ion concentration is not linear. The second and main part of the experiments covers the exposure of tungsten samples to deuterium plasmas. In the experiments, the impurity ion type and concentration is variated, to verify the general influence of helium and argon on the deuterium retention in tungsten samples exposed at low temperatures. It shows that helium impurities reduce the amount of retained deuterium by a factor of 3, while argon impurities slightly increase the total retention, compared to exposures to a pure deuterium plasma. Cross-sections of the exposed tungsten surfaces via TEM-imaging reveal a 12-15 nm deep helium nanobubble layer at the surface of the sample, while for the cases of

  6. Influence of impurities on the fuel retention in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the influence of plasma impurities on the hydrogen retention in metals, in the scope of plasma-wall-interaction research for fusion reactors. This is addressed experimentally and by modelling. The mechanisms of the hydrogen retention are influenced by various parameters like the wall temperature, ion energy, flux and fluence as well as the plasma composition. The plasma composition is a relevant factor for hydrogen retention in fusion reactors, as their plasma will also contain impurities like helium or seeded impurities like argon. The experiments treated in this thesis were performed in the linear plasma generator PSI-2 at Forschungszentrum Juelich, and are divided in 3 parts: The first experiments cover the plasma diagnostics, most importantly the measurement of the impurity ion concentration in the plasma by optical emission spectroscopy. This is a requirement for the later experiments with mixed plasmas. Diagnostics like Langmuir probe measurements are not applicable for this task because they do not distinguish different ionic species. The results also show that the impurity ion concentrations cannot be simply concluded from the neutral gas input to the plasma source, because the relation between the neutral gas concentration and impurity ion concentration is not linear. The second and main part of the experiments covers the exposure of tungsten samples to deuterium plasmas. In the experiments, the impurity ion type and concentration is variated, to verify the general influence of helium and argon on the deuterium retention in tungsten samples exposed at low temperatures. It shows that helium impurities reduce the amount of retained deuterium by a factor of 3, while argon impurities slightly increase the total retention, compared to exposures to a pure deuterium plasma. Cross-sections of the exposed tungsten surfaces via TEM-imaging reveal a 12-15 nm deep helium nanobubble layer at the surface of the sample, while for the cases of

  7. Development of a low-cost inductively coupled argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripson, P.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to drastically reduce running costs of an inductively coupled plasma. This is done by reducing the argon consumption from 20 l/min to about 1 l/min. First, a sample introduction system operating on 0.1 l/min of carrier argon is described. This system ensures a high ratio of plasma argon and carrier argon even at the low total argon consumptions intended. Next, the developed low consumption plasma is presented. In the proposed design, air is blown perpendicularly against the outside of the torch. A different coil has been developed to make air-cooling efficient. Preliminary data on coupling efficiency for the air-cooled plasma are presented. A similarly low argon consumption has been achieved with water as an external coolant medium. It is concluded that a cheaper alternative to the current ICP has become available. (Auth.)

  8. Argon spill in the hall of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Peón-Hernández, G

    1998-01-01

    A hazard analysis is in progress to determine the operation mode of the ventilation system in the ATLAS hall in case of an Argon spill. Two risk scenarios have been investigated so far. In the first, the behaviour of an Argon gas pool is calculated for different ventilation strategies. In the second, the behaviour of Argon gas leaking from the bottom part of the detector is studied for different flows. The description of the study, results and conclusions are presented.

  9. Study of argon-oxygen flowing afterglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazánková, V.; Trunec, D.; Navrátil, Z.; Raud, J.; Krčma, F.

    2016-06-01

    The reaction kinetics in argon-oxygen flowing afterglow (post-discharge) was studied using NO titration and optical emission spectroscopy. The flowing DC post-discharge in argon-oxygen mixture was created in a quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 90 W. The O(3P) atom concentration was determined by NO titration at different places along the flow tube. The optical emission spectra were also measured along the flow tube. Argon spectral lines, oxygen lines at 777 nm and 844.6 nm and atmospheric A-band of {{\\text{O}}2} were identified in the spectra. Rotational temperature of {{\\text{O}}2} was determined from the oxygen atmospheric A-band and also the outer wall temperature of the flow tube was measured by a thermocouple and by an IR thermometer. A zero-dimensional kinetic model for the reactions in the afterglow was developed. This model allows the time dependencies of particle concentrations and of gas temperature to be calculated. The wall recombination probability for O(3P) atoms {γ\\text{O≤ft(\\text{P}\\right)}}=≤ft(1.63+/- 0.06\\right)× {{10}-3} and wall deactivation probability for {{\\text{O}}2} (b {{}1}Σ\\text{g}+ ) molecules {γ{{\\text{O}2}≤ft(\\text{b}\\right)}}=≤ft(1.7+/- 0.1\\right)× {{10}-3} were determined from the fit of model results to experimental data. Sensitivity analysis was applied for the analysis of kinetic model in order to reveal the most important reactions in the model. The calculated gas temperature increases in the afterglow and then decreases at later afterglow times after reaching the maximum. This behavior is in good agreement with the spatial rotational temperature dependence. A similar trend was also observed at outer wall temperature measurement.

  10. Argon laser treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting- Bing Fang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the efficacy of the argon laser photocoagulation treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy(CSC. METHODS: The treatment groups: 18 patients(18 eyes, argon laser photocoagulation and oral jolethin, vitamin B1, inosine and venoruton tablets. Control group: 18 patients(18 eyes, oral lecithin complex iodine, vitamin B1, inosine, venoruton tablets. Foveal thickness and neuroepithelial layer detachment range were measured by optical coherence tomography(OCTbefore treatment, after 1 month and 3 months post-operation to compare the decline in value of foveal thickness and neuroepithelial layer detachment range of the two groups. RESULTS: After 1 month of treatment, the decline in value of the center foveal thickness: the value of treatment group was 256±72μm; the value of the control group was 82±57μm, and the difference of the two groups, P <0.05; the decline in value of neuroepithelial layer detachment range: the value of the treatment group was 3 548±168μm, the value of the control group was 1 520±143μm, And the difference of the two groups, P<0.05. After three months of treatment, the decline in value of the center foveal thickness: the value of treatment group was 383±75μm, the value of the control group was 312±67 μm, and the difference of the two groups, P<0.05; decline in value of neuroepithelial layer detachment range: the value of the treatment group was 4 908±172μm, the value of the control group was 4 211±153μm, and the difference of the two groups, P <0.05. The differences were statistically significant between the treatment and the control groups(two independent samples t-test. CONCLUSION:Argon laser photocoagulation treatment of CSC is an effective treatment method and can significantly shorten the course.

  11. Near-infrared scintillation of liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, T. [Fermilab; Escobar, C. O. [Campinas State U.; Lippincott, W. H. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab

    2016-03-03

    Since the 1970s it has been known that noble gases scintillate in the near infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum (0.7 $\\mu$m < $\\lambda$; < 1.5$\\mu$m). More controversial has been the question of the NIR light yield for condensed noble gases. We first present the motivation for using the NIR scintillation in liquid argon detectors, then briefly review early as well as more recent efforts and finally show encouraging preliminary results of a test performed at Fermilab.

  12. Gasdynamic structure of free argon plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunder, J.

    1973-01-01

    The paper deals with the experimental results of research conducted on the argon plasma jet. Special miniaturized water cooled Pitot probes (1.45 and 2.5 mm. dia.) were used for the measurement of the total head. The results correlate the length of the arc chamber and other main parameters of the plasma generator with the length of the core and maximum values of the total pressure and velocity in the core of the jet. For the plasma generator used for the experiments the axial and radial distributions of the pressure as well as the generalized volt-ampere dependence were obtained. (author)

  13. Sterile searches with Liquid Argon at FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Raselli, Gian Luca

    2017-01-01

    A new Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) experiment is in preparation at FNAL to definitely prove or exclude the existence of non-standard neutrino oscillations into sterile states. The program foresees the deployment along the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) of three detectors, all based on the liquid-argon time projection chamber technique. This technology has been taken to full maturity with ICARUS T600, which will act as far detector after the completion of the overhauling at CERN and its transportation to FNAL. The program foresees the data taking for three years.

  14. Energy resolution in liquid argon doped with allene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, H.; Doke, T.; Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E.

    1989-01-01

    Studies have been made on liquid argon as detection medium with large volume and good energy and position resolution. It is advantageous to dope liquid argon with molecules with an ionization potential lower than the energy of scintillation light. In the present work, the energy resolution for 5.305MeV alpha particles is examined, and the effect of allene added to liquid argon is investigated. Some preliminary results for 976 KeV electrons are also presented. Allene is purified by two methods: (a) small-quantity purification and (b) mass purification. Three methods are tried for mixing allene with argon. Results concerning the allene purification methods, effect of allene concentration, and allene-argon mixing methods are presented. Discussion is made of the collected charge and energy resolution. It is concluded that the addition of allene to liquid argon greatly improves the energy resolution of 5.305 MeV alpha particles. The best intrinsic resolution is 1.4 percent FWHM obtained for 4 ppm allene doped liquid argon. In the case of 976 KeV electron radiation, energy resolution is not improved by adding allene to liquid argon. The best resolution is 31 KeV FWHM obtaiend for 65ppm allene doped liquid argon. (N.K.)

  15. Formation of carbon nanostructures using acetylene, argon-acetylene and argon-hydrogen-acetylene plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinauskas, L.; Grigonis, A.; Minialga, V.; Marcinauskas, L.; Valincius, V.

    2013-01-01

    The films prepared in argon-acetylene plasma are attributed to graphite-like carbon films. Addition of the hydrogen decreases growth rate and the surface roughness of the films and lead to the formation of nanocrystalline graphite. The carbon nanotubes were formed at low (≤ 450°C; p = 40 Pa) temperature in pure acetylene plasma. (authors)

  16. Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D.; McEachran, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies

  17. The H1 liquid argon calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, B.; Babayev, A.; Ban, J.

    1993-06-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter of the H1 detector presently taking data at the HERA ep - collider at DESY, Hamburg, is described here. The main physics requirements and the most salient design features relevant to this calorimeter are given. The aim to have smooth and hermetic calorimetric coverage over the polar angular range 4 ≤ θ ≤ 154 is achieved by a single liquid argon cryostat containing calorimeter stacks structured in wheels and octants for easy handling. The absorber materials used are lead in the electromagnetic part and stainless steel in the hadronic part. The read-out system is pipelined to reduce the dead time induced by the high trigger rate expected at the HERA collider where consecutive bunches are separated in time by 96 ns. The main elements of the calorimeter, such as the cryostat, with its associated cryogenics, the stack modules, the read-out, calibration and trigger electronics as well as the data acquisition system are described. Performance results from data taken in calibration runs with full size H1 calorimeter stacks at a CERN test beam, as well as results from data collected with the complete H1 detector using cosmic rays during the initial phase of ep operations are presented. The observed energy resolutions and linearities are well in agreement with the requirements. (orig.)

  18. Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville 4810 (Australia); McEachran, R. P. [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-04-21

    The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies.

  19. NBS measurement system for natural argon-37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.; Lindstrom, R.M.

    1973-01-01

    A project to determine the cosmic-ray production rate and the natural levels of 35-day half-life 37 Ar in the atmosphere has been underway at the National Bureau of Standards for about the past year. The prime objective of this project is to determine the spatial dependence of 37 Ar production in the atmosphere, and the spatial distribution of the naturally-produced 37 Ar (observed concentrations). The results of this study are to be used, in cooperation with L. Machta (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration), to derive information about atmospheric mixing. The purpose of this communication, however, is to present a general description of the various components of the measurement system. As the lowest concentrations of interest are but approximately equal to 10 -3 dpm ( 37 Ar)/l-Ar, very high sensitivity measurement techniques are required. Among the techniques which we have adopted are: quantitative separation of the noble gases from about 1 m 3 of air, using a CaC 2 reactor; gas chromatographic separation of the argon fraction; isotopic enrichment (by a factor of approximately equal to 100) of purified argon; use of specially selected low-level gas proportional counters together with massive shielding and anticoincidence meson cancellation; and the application of pulse discrimination based upon both amplitude (energy) and pulse shape. Finally, on-line computer techniques are being applied for data acquisition and system control

  20. Fast sampling calorimetry with solid argon ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, E.; Linn, S.; Piekarz, H.; Wahl, H.; Womersley, J.; Hansen, S.; Hurh, P.; Rivetta, C.; Sanders, R.; Schmitt, R.; Stanek, R.; Stefanik, A.

    1992-01-01

    A proposal for the fast sampling calorimetry with solid argon as active medium and the preliminary results from the solid argon test cell are presented. The proposed test calorimeter module structure, the signal routing and the mechanical and cryogenic arrangements are also discussed

  1. Luminescence decay in condensed argon under high energy excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.J.; Klein, G.

    1978-01-01

    α and β particles were used to study the luminescence of condensed argon. The scintillation decay has always two components independently of the phase and the kind of the exciting particles. Decay time constants are given for solid, liquid and also gaseous argon. Changes in the relative intensity values of the two components are discussed in terms of track effects

  2. Thermal conductivity in an argon arc at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, L.; Timmermans, C.J.; Schram, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of an argon plasma has been determined in a phi 5 mm wall stabilized atmospheric argon arc in the temperature range from 10000 to 16000 K. The calculations are based on the energy balance, and include non-LTE effects like ambipolar diffusion and overpopulation of the ground

  3. WARP: a double phase argon programme for dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, N

    2006-01-01

    WARP (Wimp ARgon Programme) is a double phase Argon detector for Dark Matter search under construction at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. We present recent results obtained operating a prototype with a sensitive mass of 2.3 litres deep underground

  4. Stopping Power of Solid Argon for Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Grauersen, O.

    1981-01-01

    By means of the Rutherford-backscattering method, the stopping cross section of solid argon has been measured for 0.5–3 MeV helium ions to an accuracy of not, vert, similar3%. The results agree within the experimental accuracies with our earlier measurements for gaseous argon over the energy region...

  5. Cleaning of diffusion bonding surface by argon ion bombardment treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Airu; Ohashi, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Norio; Aoki, Masanori; Higashi, Yasuo; Hitomi, Nobuteru

    2003-01-01

    The specimens of oxygen-free high conductivity copper, SUS304L stainless steel and pure iron were treated by argon ion bombardment and then were bonded by diffusion bonding method. The effects of argon ion bombardment treatment on faying surface morphology, tensile strength of bonding joints and inclusions at the fracture surface were investigated. The results showed that argon ion bombardment treatment was effective to remove the oxide film and contamination at the faying surface and improve the quality of joints. The tensile strength of the bonded joints was improved, and minimum bonding temperature to make the metallic bonding at the interface was lowered by argon ion bombardment treatment. At the joints with argon ion bombardment treatment, ductile fractured surface was seen and the amount of inclusions was obviously decreased

  6. Argon activation analysis, application to dating by the potassium-argon method; Analyse par activation de l'argon. Application a la datation par la methode potassium-argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesnil, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Activation analysis using radiogenic argon-40 has been applied to rock-dating by the K-Ar method. The argon is extracted from the sample, purified, activated to saturation in a flux of 2 X 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} and measured by gamma spectroscopy. The sensitivity obtained is such that it is possible to measure amounts of argon corresponding to age of a few thousand years only. However since it has not been possible to measure the amount of pollution of radiogenic argon by atmospheric argon with any accuracy, the measurable age limit is in fact of the order of MY. The method has been applied to basalts from the Mont-Dore region. The results obtained are in fairly good agreement with geological, stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data. (author) [French] L'analyse par activation de l'argon 40 radiogenique a ete appliquee a la datation des roches par la methode K-Ar. L'argon est extrait de l'echantillon, purifie, active a saturation dans un flux de 2.10{sup 13} neutrons.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} et mesure en spectrometrie gamma. La sensibilite obtenue est telle qu'il est possible de mesurer des quantites d'argon correspondant a des ages de quelques milliers d'annees seulement. Cependant la correction de pollution de l'argon radiogenique par l'argon atmospherique n'ayant pu etre etablie avec precision, la limite d'age mesurable pratique est de l'ordre de 1 Ma. La methode a ete appliquee aux basaltes de la region du Mont-Dore. Les ages obtenus sont en assez bon accord avec les donnees geologiques, stratigraphiques et paleomagnetiques. (auteur)

  7. Effect of Emergency Argon on FCF Operational Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The following report presents analyses of operational incidents which are considered in the safety analysis of the FCF argon cell and the effect that the operability of the emergency argon system has on the course of these incidents. The purpose of this study is to determine if the emergency argon system makes a significant difference in ameliorating the course of these incidents. Six incidents were considered. The following three incidents were analyzed. These are: 1. Cooling failing on 2. Vacuum Pump Failing on 3. Argon Supplies Failing on. In the remaining three incidents, the emergency argon supply would have no effect on the course of these transients since it would not come on during these incidents. The transients are 1. Loss of Cooling 2. Loss of power (Differs from above by startup delay till the Diesel Generators come on.) 3. Cell rupture due to an earthquake or other cause. The analyses of the first three incidents are reported on in the next three sections. This report is issued realizing the control parameters used may not be optimum, and additional modeling must be done to model the inertia of refrigeration system, but the major conclusion concerning the need for the emergency argon system is still valid. The timing of some events may change with a more accurate model but the differences between the transients with and without emergency argon will remain the same. Some of the parameters assumed in the analyses are Makeup argon supply, 18 cfm, initiates when pressure is = -6 iwg., shuts off when pressure is = -3.1 iwg. 170,000 ft3 supply. Min 1/7th always available, can be cross connected to HFEF argon supply dewar. Emergency argon supply, 900 cfm, initiates when pressure is = -8 iwg. shuts off when pressure is =-4 iwg. reservoir 220 ft3, refilled when tank farm pressure reduces to 1050 psi which is about 110 ft3.

  8. Argon activation analysis, application to dating by the potassium-argon method; Analyse par activation de l'argon. Application a la datation par la methode potassium-argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesnil, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Activation analysis using radiogenic argon-40 has been applied to rock-dating by the K-Ar method. The argon is extracted from the sample, purified, activated to saturation in a flux of 2 X 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} and measured by gamma spectroscopy. The sensitivity obtained is such that it is possible to measure amounts of argon corresponding to age of a few thousand years only. However since it has not been possible to measure the amount of pollution of radiogenic argon by atmospheric argon with any accuracy, the measurable age limit is in fact of the order of MY. The method has been applied to basalts from the Mont-Dore region. The results obtained are in fairly good agreement with geological, stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data. (author) [French] L'analyse par activation de l'argon 40 radiogenique a ete appliquee a la datation des roches par la methode K-Ar. L'argon est extrait de l'echantillon, purifie, active a saturation dans un flux de 2.10{sup 13} neutrons.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} et mesure en spectrometrie gamma. La sensibilite obtenue est telle qu'il est possible de mesurer des quantites d'argon correspondant a des ages de quelques milliers d'annees seulement. Cependant la correction de pollution de l'argon radiogenique par l'argon atmospherique n'ayant pu etre etablie avec precision, la limite d'age mesurable pratique est de l'ordre de 1 Ma. La methode a ete appliquee aux basaltes de la region du Mont-Dore. Les ages obtenus sont en assez bon accord avec les donnees geologiques, stratigraphiques et paleomagnetiques. (auteur)

  9. The (e,2e) spectrum of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; Amos, K.; Morrison, I.

    1983-01-01

    The Plane Wave Impulse Approximation is used to analyse the experimental cross-section for the Argon (e,2e) reaction (using the non-coplanar symmetric geometry). A series of Configuration Interaction calculations for the structure of Ar I and Ar II are reported demonstrating that correlation effects have only a minor effect on the momentum distributions (which are well described by the Target Hartree-Fock Approximation). Fair agreement between the theoretical and experimental spectroscopic factors for the separation energy spectrum is obtained, and in particular the distribution of strength amongst the 3s 2 3p 4 nd 2 S/sup e/ satellite states specified by the largest calculations is in better agreement with data than that obtained with simple structure models

  10. Paschen like behavior in argon RF discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jwaady, Y. I.

    2011-01-01

    A 13.56 MHz radio frequency inductively coupled discharge system is used in this work to study the relation between Argon gas pressure in the discharge chamber and the threshold breakdown RF power needed to create the discharge. Experimental results indicated that although the data involve some features related to the traditional Paschen relation used in Dc discharge, this relation cannot provide a quantitative description of experimental data. For such reason, a modified from Paschen relation is suggested. The modified relation provides good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, it seems that the Paschen relation will have significant reflections on the behavior of the transit process from capacitive to inductive discharge. This is demonstrated by studying the transit region. (author)

  11. Neutron Inelastic Scattering Study of Liquid Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoeld, K; Rowe, J M; Ostrowski, G [Solid State Science Div., Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (US); Randolph, P D [Nuclear Technology Div., Idaho Nuclear Corporation, Idaho Falls, Idaho (US)

    1972-02-15

    The inelastic scattering functions for liquid argon have been measured at 85.2 K. The coherent scattering function was obtained from a measurement on pure A-36 and the incoherent function was derived from the result obtained from the A-36 sample and the result obtained from a mixture of A-36 and A-40 for which the scattering is predominantly incoherent. The data, which are presented as smooth scattering functions at constant values of the wave vector transfer in the range 10 - 44/nm, are corrected for multiple scattering contributions and for resolution effects. Such corrections are shown to be essential in the derivation of reliable scattering functions from neutron scattering data. The incoherent data are compared to recent molecular dynamics results and the mean square displacement as a function of time is derived. The coherent data are compared to molecular dynamics results and also, briefly, to some recent theoretical models

  12. Potassium-argon dating in archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences)

    1990-01-01

    The potassium-argon (K-Ar) isotopic dating method can provide precise and accurate numerical ages on suitable rocks, especially igneous rocks, over a wide range of age from less than 100,000 years old, with no older limit. Together with its variants, the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar technique, the K-Ar method is very useful for the numerical age calibration of stratigraphic sequences, including those containing archaeological or fossil material, in cases where appropriate rocks for dating are present. This brief review of the basis of the K-Ar dating method and the underlying assumptions, concludes with an example of its application to the Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphic sequence in the Turkana Basin, northern Kenya. By dating alkali feldspars separated from pumice blocks in tuffaceous beds, excellent age control has been obtained for the wealth of vertebrate fossils, including hominids, as well as archaeological materials that has been found in the sequence. (author).

  13. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karthikeya Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE. This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine’s performance within the range studied.

  14. ArgonCube: a Modular Approach for Liquid Argon TPC Neutrino Detectors for Near Detector Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, M; Sinclair, JR

    2017-01-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPCs) are an ideal detector candidate for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently under consideration at the future LBNF/DUNE facility in the United States. That particular endeavor would be on the very large mass scale of 40~kt. Following diverse and long standing R\\&D work conducted over several years, with contributions from international collaborators, we propose a novel LAr TPC based on a fully-modular, innovative design, ArgonCube. ArgonCube will demonstrate that LAr TPCs are a viable detector technology for high-energy and high-multiplicity environments, such as the DUNE near detector. Necessary R\\&D work is proceeding along two main pathways; the first, aimed at the demonstration of modular detector design and the second, at the exploration of new signal readout methods. This two-pronged approach has provided a hig...

  15. The drift velocity of excess electrons in fluid methane, argon and mixtures of methane and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, J.M.L.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of an experimental investigation of the drift velocity of excess electrons in fluid methane at temperatures between 91K and 215K, and at pressures up to 65X10 5 Pa. These measurements that have become possible especially due to the improved purification techniques of the liquids under investigation. The purification prevents the electron from being captured too soon by an electron-impurity. From the results of the measurements in methane it appeared that in some respects the behaviour of excess electrons in methane is qualitatively similar to that in argon. For this reason a number of measurements of the electron drift velocity have been carried out in argon and in mixtures of methane and argon as well. A detailed description of the experimental set-up is presented. The excess electrons are generated with a high-voltage electron gun, which produces a pulse of highly energetic electrons. A fraction of these electrons enters the liquid sample by passing through a thin metal foil which separates the liquid sample and the vacuum present in the electron gun. At the same time the foil is used as one of two plane-parallel electrodes of the measuring capacitor in which the drift velocity of the excess electrons is to be measured. (Auth.)

  16. Low energy collisions of spin-polarized metastable argon atoms with ground state argon atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillandier-Loize, T.; Perales, F.; Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Bocvarski, V.; Ducloy, M.; Correia, F.; Fabre, N.; Dutier, G.

    2018-04-01

    The collision between a spin-polarized metastable argon atom in Ar* (3p54s, 3P2, M = +2) state slightly decelerated by the Zeeman slower-laser technique and a co-propagating thermal ground state argon atom Ar (3p6, 1S0), both merged from the same supersonic beam, but coming through adjacent slots of a rotating disk, is investigated at the center of mass energies ranging from 1 to 10 meV. The duration of the laser pulse synchronised with the disk allows the tuning of the relative velocity and thus the collision energy. At these sub-thermal energies, the ‘resonant metastability transfer’ signal is too small to be evidenced. The explored energy range requires using indiscernibility amplitudes for identical isotopes to have a correct interpretation of the experimental results. Nevertheless, excitation transfers are expected to increase significantly at much lower energies as suggested by previous theoretical predictions of potentials 2g(3P2) and 2u(3P2). Limits at ultra-low collisional energies of the order of 1 mK (0.086 μeV) or less, where gigantic elastic cross sections are expected, will also be discussed. The experimental method is versatile and could be applied using different isotopes of Argon like 36Ar combined with 40Ar, as well as other rare gases among which Krypton should be of great interest thanks to the available numerous isotopes present in a natural gas mixture.

  17. Argon laser induced changes to the carbonate content of enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziglo, M.J.; Nelson, A.E.; Heo, G.; Major, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Argon laser irradiation can be used to cure orthodontic brackets onto teeth in significantly less time than conventional curing lights. In addition, it has been shown that the argon laser seems to impart a demineralization resistance to the enamel. The purpose of this study was to use surface science techniques to ascertain if this demineralization resistance is possibly a result of a decrease in the carbonate content of enamel. Eleven mandibular third molars previously scheduled for extraction were collected and used in the present study. The teeth were sectioned in two and randomly assigned to either the argon laser (457-502 nm; 250 mW cm -2 ) or the control (no treatment) group. The sections assigned to the argon laser group were cured for 10 s and analyzed. To exaggerate any potential changes the experimental sections were then exposed to a further 110 s of argon laser irradiation. Surface analysis was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The results showed no statistically significant change in the carbonate content of enamel after argon laser irradiation (p > 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that any demineralization resistance imparted to the enamel surface by argon laser irradiation is not due to alterations in carbonate content.

  18. Argon laser induced changes to the carbonate content of enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziglo, M.J. [Orthodontic Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Private Practice, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Nelson, A.E., E-mail: aenelson@dow.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Heo, G.; Major, P.W. [Orthodontic Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Argon laser irradiation can be used to cure orthodontic brackets onto teeth in significantly less time than conventional curing lights. In addition, it has been shown that the argon laser seems to impart a demineralization resistance to the enamel. The purpose of this study was to use surface science techniques to ascertain if this demineralization resistance is possibly a result of a decrease in the carbonate content of enamel. Eleven mandibular third molars previously scheduled for extraction were collected and used in the present study. The teeth were sectioned in two and randomly assigned to either the argon laser (457-502 nm; 250 mW cm{sup -2}) or the control (no treatment) group. The sections assigned to the argon laser group were cured for 10 s and analyzed. To exaggerate any potential changes the experimental sections were then exposed to a further 110 s of argon laser irradiation. Surface analysis was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The results showed no statistically significant change in the carbonate content of enamel after argon laser irradiation (p > 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that any demineralization resistance imparted to the enamel surface by argon laser irradiation is not due to alterations in carbonate content.

  19. Argon laser induced changes to the carbonate content of enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglo, M. J.; Nelson, A. E.; Heo, G.; Major, P. W.

    2009-05-01

    Argon laser irradiation can be used to cure orthodontic brackets onto teeth in significantly less time than conventional curing lights. In addition, it has been shown that the argon laser seems to impart a demineralization resistance to the enamel. The purpose of this study was to use surface science techniques to ascertain if this demineralization resistance is possibly a result of a decrease in the carbonate content of enamel. Eleven mandibular third molars previously scheduled for extraction were collected and used in the present study. The teeth were sectioned in two and randomly assigned to either the argon laser (457-502 nm; 250 mW cm -2) or the control (no treatment) group. The sections assigned to the argon laser group were cured for 10 s and analyzed. To exaggerate any potential changes the experimental sections were then exposed to a further 110 s of argon laser irradiation. Surface analysis was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The results showed no statistically significant change in the carbonate content of enamel after argon laser irradiation ( p > 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that any demineralization resistance imparted to the enamel surface by argon laser irradiation is not due to alterations in carbonate content.

  20. Shear viscosity of liquid argon and liquid rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiakwelu, O.

    1978-01-01

    A direct evaluation of the shear viscosity coefficient for models of liquid rubidium and liquid argon is presented by neglecting the cross-terms in the autocorrelation function of the transverse component of the momentum stress tensor. The time dependence of the shear viscosity for liquid argon is found to display a long decaying tail in qualitative agreement with a computer calculation of Levesque et al. However, the numerical values of the shear viscosity coefficients are smaller than the experimentally determined values of about 45% for liquid rubidium and 35% for liquid argon

  1. First principles study of inert-gas (helium, neon, and argon) interactions with hydrogen in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiang-Shan [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Hou, Jie [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Li, Xiang-Yan [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Xuebang, E-mail: xbwu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, C.S., E-mail: csliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, Jun-Ling; Luo, G.-N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-04-15

    We have systematically evaluated binding energies of hydrogen with inert-gas (helium, neon, and argon) defects, including interstitial clusters and vacancy-inert-gas complexes, and their stable configurations using first-principles calculations. Our calculations show that these inert-gas defects have large positive binding energies with hydrogen, 0.4–1.1 eV, 0.7–1.0 eV, and 0.6–0.8 eV for helium, neon, and argon, respectively. This indicates that these inert-gas defects can act as traps for hydrogen in tungsten, and impede or interrupt the diffusion of hydrogen in tungsten, which supports the discussion on the influence of inert-gas on hydrogen retention in recent experimental literature. The interaction between these inert-gas defects and hydrogen can be understood by the attractive interaction due to the distortion of the lattice structure induced by inert-gas defects, the intrinsic repulsive interaction between inert-gas atoms and hydrogen, and the hydrogen-hydrogen repelling in tungsten lattice.

  2. Scattering of electrons from argon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, A.; Bhatia, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The scattering of electrons from argon atoms is studied by the method of polarized orbitals. The 3p→d perturbed orbital calculated using the Sternheimer approximation gives the polarizability 14.29a 0 3 . The perturbation of the orbitals 1s, 2s, 2p, and 3s is taken into account by renormalizing the 3p→d orbitals to give the experimental value 11.06a 0 3 . Using only the modified orbital in the total wave function, phase shifts for various partial waves have been calculated in the exchange, exchange-adiabatic, and polarized-orbital approximations. They are compared with the results of the previous calculations. The calculated total elastic, differential, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared with the experimental results. The elastic total cross sections obtained in the polarized-orbital approximation agree very closely with the recently measured cross sections by Jost et al. and Nickel et al. The critical point (the value of k 2 and theta at which the differential cross section is minimum) is at 0.306 eV and 80 0 , in good agreement with the measurements of Weyhreter et al

  3. Liquid Argon Calorimeter performance at High Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $3\\cdot10^{11}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  4. Neutrino Event Reconstruction in a Liquid Argon TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Gary, E-mail: G.J.Barker@Warwick.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-25

    We present some preliminary findings and results from activities in Europe and the USA working towards an automated, algorithmic, reconstruction of particle interactions in liquid argon time projection chambers.

  5. Improvement of helium characteristics using argon in cylindrical ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel salam, F.W.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel reheem, A.M.; Kassem, N.E.; Ahmed, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    the discharge characteristics of pure helium gas were measured at different pressures in the range of 10 -4 torr. in order o improve its characteristics, argon gas was added . different percentages of argon gas ,1%,2%,3%,4%,5%,10% and 20% were used at constant values of pressures . Measurements of the efficiency of the cylindrical ion source in case of adding different percentages of argon gas to pure helium gas were made . an optimum value of the output ion beam current was obtained when 2% argon gas was added to pure helium gas . an output ion beam current of 105 μA was obtained at a pressure of 7X10 -4 torr inside the vacuum chamber and discharge current of 0.6 m A

  6. Phenomenological modeling of argon Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.; Coulter, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors investigate some of the effects of plasma turbulence on the K-shell emission dynamics of argon gas puff Z-pinch implosions. The increases that turbulence produces in the plasma viscosity, heat conductivity, and electrical resistivity are modeled phenomenologically using multipliers for these quantities in the MHD calculations. The choice of multipliers was made by benchmarking a 1-D MHD simulation of a Physics International Inc. argon gas puff experiment against the inferred densities and temperatures achieved in the experiment. These multipliers were then used to study the parametric dependence of the K-shell emission on the energy input to the argon plasma for a fixed mass loading. Comparisons between turbulent and non-turbulent argon implosions are made

  7. Characterization of DC argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jianhua; Ma Zengyi; Pan Xinchao; Cen Kefa; Bruno, C

    2006-01-01

    An original DC double anode plasma torch operating with argon at atmospheric pressure which provides a long time and highly stable plasma jet is analyzed through its electrical and optical signals. Effects of gas flow rate and current intensity on the arc dynamics behaviour are studied using standard diagnostic tools such as FFT and correlation function. An increasing current-voltage characteristic is reported for different argon flow rates. It is noted that the takeover mode is characteristic for argon plasma jet and arc fluctuations in our case are mainly induced by the undulation of torch power supply. Furthermore, the excitation temperatures and electron densities of the plasma jet inside and outside the arc chamber have been determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The criteria for the existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in plasma is then discussed. The results show that argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure under our experimental conditions is close to LTE. (authors)

  8. The Effect of Supplemental Instruction on Retention: A Bivariate Probit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Tyler J.; Jones, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Single equation regression models have been used to test the effect of Supplemental Instruction (SI) on student retention. These models, however, fail to account for the two salient features of SI attendance and retention: (1) both SI attendance and retention are categorical variables, and (2) are jointly determined endogenous variables. Adopting…

  9. Studies on EOS of shock-generated argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fanhou; Jing Fuqian

    2001-01-01

    The equation of state for argon plasma, covering the thermodynamic states of 10000-30000 K in temperature and 0.0133-0.166 GPa in pressure, is computed using the Saha model and Debye-Huckel correction. Comparisons of the measured EOS with the calculated ones demonstrate the Saha model and Debye-Huckel correction can be used to well describe the essential behavior of argon plasma under the thermodynamic condition above-mentioned

  10. The effect of storage in damp air and damp argon on pond water contaminated CAGR fuel cladding steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, P.W.G.

    1986-10-01

    Retention of the mechanical integrity of fuel element assemblies during dry storage forms part of the strategy for any dry-store and is important for the ease of eventual reprocessing or disposal. This report describes a number of corrosion experiments which have been carried out on coupons of unirradiated CAGR fuel cladding steel which have been contaminated with simulated pond water. Two potential dry-store problem areas have been addressed. First is the possibility of failure of the dry-store mild steel container, allowing damp air to replace the nominally dry argon cover gas. Second is the possibility of water-logged failed fuel being inadvertently containerised giving rise to a humid argon atmosphere within the dry-store container. Specimens of niobium stabilised and titanium nitride strengthened CAGR fuel cladding steels in virgin, pre-oxidised and laboratory sensitised states have been exposed at temperatures of 150 0 C and 400 0 C, to air saturated with water at 10 0 C and to argon saturated at 25 0 C. Most specimens were contaminated with simulated pond water deposits containing chloride anion concentrations up to 10 ppm. No deleterious effects were observed either gravimetrically or metallographically after exposures between 10039 hours and 13152 hours. However, the absence of stress and radiation in these experiments means that caution should be exercised in applying the results to situations in which those conditions are present. (author)

  11. Electron densities and energies of a guided argon streamer in argon and air environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hübner, S; Hofmann, S; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Bruggeman, P J

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report the temporally and spatially resolved electron densities and mean energies of a guided argon streamer in ambient argon and air obtained by Thomson laser scattering. The plasma is driven by a positive monopolar 3.5 kV pulse, with a pulse width of 500 ns and a frequency of 5 kHz which is synchronized with the high repetition rate laser system. This configuration enables us to use the spatial and temporal stability of the guided streamer to accumulate a multitude of laser/plasma shots by a triple grating spectrometer equipped with an ICCD camera and to determine the electron parameters. We found a strong initial n e -overshoot with a maximum of 7 × 10 19  m −3 and a mean electron energy of 4.5 eV. This maximum is followed by a fast decay toward the streamer channel. Moreover, a 2D distribution of the electron density is obtained which exhibits a peculiar mushroom-like shape of the streamer head with a diameter significantly larger than that of the emission profile. A correlation of the width of the streamer head with the expected pre-ionization channel is found. (paper)

  12. Urinary retention in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary retention in women. Urinary retention in women is often transient and of no known cause. ... stones, constipation, urethral cancer, uterine fibroids ... present with abnormal bladder function secondary to ... (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelography ... full blood count, urea, electrolytes and creatinine can ...

  13. An Interactionalist Analysis of Soldier Retention across Career Stages and Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Gilad; Ployhart, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    ...., work characteristics and social support), job attitudes, motivation, and retention. In general, it is proposed that job attitudes and motivation mediate the impact of ability and situational variables on retention outcomes...

  14. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of argon ion velocities near the sheath boundary of an argon-xenon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongsoo; Severn, Greg; Oksuz, Lutfi; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2006-01-01

    The Bohm sheath criterion in single- and two-ion species plasma is studied with laser-induced fluorescence using a diode laser. Xenon is added to a low pressure unmagnetized dc hot filament argon discharge confined by surface multidipole magnetic fields. The Ar II transition at 668.614 nm is adopted for optical pumping to detect the fluorescence from the plasma and to measure the argon ion velocity distribution functions with respect to positions relative to a negatively biased boundary plate. The structures of the plasma sheath and presheath are measured by an emissive probe. The ion concentrations of the two-species in the bulk plasma are calculated from ion acoustic wave experiments. Results are compared with previous experiments of Ar-He plasmas in which the argon ions were the heavier ion species. Unlike the previous results, the argon speed is slower than its own Bohm velocity near the sheath-presheath boundary in the Ar-Xe plasma where argon ions are the lighter ion species. We argue that this result is consistent with the behaviour of the helium ion required by the generalized Bohm criterion in the previous experiments with Ar-He plasmas. Further, our results suggest that the measured argon ion speed approaches the ion sound speed of the system

  15. Behavior of Excited Argon Atoms in Inductively Driven Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEBNER, GREGORY A.; MILLER, PAUL A.

    1999-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence has been used to measure the spatial distribution of the two lowest energy argon excited states, 1s 5 and 1s 4 , in inductively driven plasmas containing argon, chlorine and boron trichloride. The behavior of the two energy levels with plasma conditions was significantly different, probably because the 1s 5 level is metastable and the 1s 4 level is radiatively coupled to the ground state but is radiation trapped. The argon data is compared with a global model to identify the relative importance of processes such as electron collisional mixing and radiation trapping. The trends in the data suggest that both processes play a major role in determining the excited state density. At lower rfpower and pressure, excited state spatial distributions in pure argon were peaked in the center of the discharge, with an approximately Gaussian profile. However, for the highest rfpowers and pressures investigated, the spatial distributions tended to flatten in the center of the discharge while the density at the edge of the discharge was unaffected. The spatially resolved excited state density measurements were combined with previous line integrated measurements in the same discharge geometry to derive spatially resolved, absolute densities of the 1s 5 and 1s 4 argon excited states and gas temperature spatial distributions. Fluorescence lifetime was a strong fi.mction of the rf power, pressure, argon fraction and spatial location. Increasing the power or pressure resulted in a factor of two decrease in the fluorescence lifetime while adding Cl 2 or BCl 3 increased the fluorescence lifetime. Excited state quenching rates are derived from the data. When Cl 2 or BCl 3 was added to the plasma, the maximum argon metastable density depended on the gas and ratio. When chlorine was added to the argon plasma, the spatial density profiles were independent of chlorine fraction. While it is energetically possible for argon excited states to dissociate some of the

  16. New argon-argon (40Ar/39Ar) radiometric age dates from selected subsurface basalt flows at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary K. V.; Turrin, Brent D.; Champion, Duane E.; Swisher, Carl C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected samples for 12 new argon-argon radiometric ages from eastern Snake River Plain olivine tholeiite basalt flows in the subsurface at the Idaho National Laboratory. The core samples were collected from flows that had previously published paleomagnetic data. Samples were sent to Rutgers University for argon-argon radiometric dating analyses.

  17. Urinary retention in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Saad

    2014-07-01

    This review is a summary of the most pertinent published studies in the literature in the last 18 months that address cause, diagnosis, and management of urinary retention in women. Symptoms, uroflow, and pressure-flow studies have a low predictive value for and do not correlate with elevated postvoid residual urine (PVR). Anterior and posterior colporrhaphy do not cause de-novo bladder outlet obstruction in the majority of patients with elevated PVR, and the cause of elevated PVR may be other factors such as pain or anxiety causing abnormal relaxation of the pelvic floor and contributing to voiding difficulty. The risk of urinary retention in a future pregnancy after mid-urethral sling (MUS) is small. The risk of urinary tract infection and urinary retention after chemodenervation of the bladder with onabotulinumtoxin-A (100 IU) in patients with non-neurogenic urge incontinence is 33 and 5%, respectively. There is a lack of consensus among experts on the timing of sling takedown in the management of acute urinary retention following MUS procedures. There has been a significant progress in the understanding of the causation of urinary retention. Important areas that need further research (basic and clinical) are post-MUS and pelvic organ prolapse repair urinary retention and obstruction, and urinary retention owing to detrusor underactivity.

  18. Characterisation of GERDA Phase-I detectors in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabe Heider, Marik; Schoenert, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Gusev, Konstantin [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    GERDA will search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge by submerging bare enriched HPGe detectors in liquid argon. In GERDA Phase-I, reprocessed enriched-Ge detectors, which were previously operated by the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX collaborations, and reprocessed natural-Ge detectors from Genius-TF, will be redeployed. We have tested the operation and performance of bare HPGe detectors in liquid nitrogen and in liquid argon over more than three years with three non-enriched p-type prototype detectors. The detector handling and mounting procedures have been defined and the Phase-I detector technology, the low-mass assembly and the long-term stability in liquid argon have been tested successfully. The Phase-I detectors were reprocessed by Canberra Semiconductor NV, Olen, according to their standard technology but without the evaporation of a passivation layer. After their reprocessing, the detectors have been mounted in their low-mass holders and their characterisation in liquid argon performed. The leakage current, the counting characteristics and the efficiency of the detectors have been measured. The testing of the detectors was carried out in the liquid argon test stand of the GERDA underground Detector Laboratory (GDL) at LNGS. The detectors are now stored underground under vacuum until their operation in GERDA.

  19. Background or Experience? Using Logistic Regression to Predict College Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synco, Tracee M.

    2012-01-01

    Tinto, Astin and countless others have researched the retention and attrition of students from college for more than thirty years. However, the six year graduation rate for all first-time full-time freshmen for the 2002 cohort was 57%. This study sought to determine the retention variables that predicted continued enrollment of entering freshmen…

  20. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  1. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  2. Features of copper etching in chlorine-argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.M.; Svettsov, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorine mixtures with inert gases including argon exhibit promise as plasma feed gases for etching metals and semiconductors in the microelectronics industry. It was shown that even strong dilution of reactive gas with an inert gas (up to 80-90% of the latter) has virtually no effect in decreasing the rate of plasma etching of materials such as silicon and gallium arsenide, compared to etching in pure chlorine. The principal reactive species responsible for etching these substrates are chlorine atoms therefore, a possible explanation of the effect is an increase in the rate of bulk generation of chlorine atoms in the presence of argon. In this work the authors studied the influence of argon on the rate of copper etching in chlorine, because copper, unlike the above substrates, reacts effectively not only with the atoms but with the ground-state molecules of chlorine

  3. Pressure regulation in the dry-boxes. Argon purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascard, R.; Fabre, R.

    1958-01-01

    Each dry-box is equipped with an autonomous installation for circulation and purification of argon and for pressure regulation. This installation consists essentially of a ballast tank, a compressor and two valves electromagnetically controlled by a contact manometer. The compressor and the valves are enclosed in the tank to form a system as compact as possible. The argon is purified by passing it over a furnace filled with titanium-zirconium turnings brought to about 800 deg. C, branching off the main system. With this set-up as well as the automatic maintenance of a constant depression in the box, a quality of argon is obtained whose oxygen contact is undetectable by the manganous hydroxide method. (author) [fr

  4. Developing Detectors for Scintillation Light in Liquid Argon for DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Bruce [Fermilab

    2016-12-22

    The Deep Underground Neutrino experiment will conduct a broad program of physics research by studying a beam of neutrinos from Fermilab, atmospheric neutrinos, neutrinos from potential supernovae, and potential nucleon decay events. In pursuit of these studies, the experiment will deploy four 10kt fiducial mass liquid argon time projection chambers underground in Lead, South Dakota. Liquid argon time projection chambers allow high-resolution tracking and energy measurements. A precise timing signal is needed to provide the necessary time stamp to localize events in the drift direction. As liquid argon is a natural scintillator, a photon detection system will be deployed to provide such a signal, especially for non-beam events. In the baseline design for the single-phase time projection chamber, the detectors are contained within the anode plane assemblies. The design of two prototypes utilizing wavelength shifters and light guides are presented, and aspects of the research and development program are discussed.

  5. Mathematical identification of homogenisation processes in argon stirred ladle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Michalek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models processed results of experimental investigation obtained during ladle gas argon bubbling realized by stir elements situated in the ladle bottom. Exact theoretical description of processes occurring at argon bubbling into steel would be very complex and it would lead to a system of non-linear partial differential equations describing transfer of momentum, heat, components, and with excitation function in the form of equation of so called deterministic chaos (argon bubbling. On the basis of pouring ladle model diagram and concentrations courses, the simplified linear physically adequate model was proposed, which described behavior of steel concentration in pouring ladle during its bubbling. The analysed process was understood in the form of a cybernetic model.

  6. Liquid Argon Calorimetry with LHC-Performance Specifications

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-3 Liquid Argon Calorimetry with LHC-Performance Specifications \\\\ \\\\Good electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry will play a central role in an LHC detector. Among the techniques used so far, or under development, the liquid argon sampling calorimetry offers high radiation resistence, good energy resolution (electromagnetic and hadronic), excellent calibration stability and response uniformity. Its rate capabilities, however, do not yet match the requirements for LHC. \\\\ \\\\The aim of this proposal is to improve the technique in such a way that high granularity, good hermiticity and adequate rate capabilities are obtained, without compromising the above mentioned properties. To reach this goal, we propose to use a novel structure, the $^{\\prime\\prime}$accordion$^{\\prime\\prime}$, coupled to fast preamplifiers working at liquid argon temperature. Converter and readout electrodes are no longer planar and perpendicular to particles, as usual, but instead they are wiggled around a plane containing particles. ...

  7. Electrical Measurements on a Moving Argon Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A. A.M.; Howatson, A. M. [Oxford University (United Kingdom)

    1966-10-15

    Experimental current-voltage characteristic curves were obtained for a moving argon plasma at two stations in an electrically-driven 5 cm shock tube. The standard energy was 1 kj and the base pressure 10 torr, giving a shock of about Mach 4. The measurements were made on the highly-ionized driver gas which followed the shock at speeds between 800 and 1100 m/sec. Two types of electrode were used. One comprised circular solid electrodes of aluminium, molybdenum or stainless steel so machined as to be quite flush with the tube wall; the other comprised filaments of tungsten wire which were immersed in the free stream and could be used cold or heated for thermionic emission. Characteristics were obtained both for applied voltages and for MHD-generated voltages; for the latter a magnetic field of good uniformity up to 0.9 Wb/m{sup 2} was used. The results were always markedly dependent on the surface condition of the electrodes. For consistent results the flush electrodes had to be cleaned carefully by hand after every third discharge, while the filament electrodes were thermionically cleaned before every discharge. In general the cold electrode characteristics for applied voltage showed three distinct regions: a current increase such as would be expected from a double probe; a saturation region; and a linear increase, in order of increasing voltage. For the flush electrodes another apparent saturation was found before, finally, the transition to an arc-type discharge. The first saturation current for flush electrodes corresponded to a random ion current much less than that estimated to exist away from the tube walls, as is expected from a consideration of diffusion through a boundary layer. The value of the current varied somewhat with the electrode material. For the cold filaments, the saturation current density was of the same order as for the flush electrodes. From the linear region of the curves, an effective plasma conductivity was obtained. For comparison, the

  8. Cover gases in nuclear reactors with special reference to argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, C.J.; Shah, G.C.; Prabhu, L.H.; Vartak, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The report describes the specifications of an ideal cover gas for the smooth operation of a nuclear reactor. The advantages of using helium as cover gas, the sources of impurities in helium cover gas and the methods of purification of helium are given in detail. Various problems associated with the use of argon as cover gas and methods to purify and decontaminate argon cover gas are discussed on the basis of experimental data collected. A laboratory model of the system which can be used to evaluate the performance of the gas purification adsorbents is also described. (author)

  9. Optical spectroscopy of high-L Rydberg states of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L. E.; Snow, E. L.; Lundeen, S. R.; Sturrus, W. G.

    2007-01-01

    High-L fine structure patterns in n=9 and n=17 Rydberg levels of argon have been studied using a Doppler-tuned CO 2 laser and a fast beam of argon atoms. Analysis of the measured pattern using the polarization model yields the scalar dipole polarizability and quadrupole moment of the 2 P 3 at ∼sol∼ at 2 Ar + ion. The results are α S =6.83(8)a 0 3 and Q=-0.5177(15)ea 0 2 . Within the precision of this study, no vector component of the structure was observed

  10. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, Mark

    2011-01-01

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76 Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m 3 of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m 3 (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10 3 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10 -2 cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural 42 Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  11. Study of a microwave discharge in argon/helium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saada, Serge

    1983-01-01

    A discharge created by a surface wave in Argon-Helium mixture is studied. First, the helium influence on plasma parameters has been studied (electron density, electric field, effective collision frequency, etc...), then, on excitation processes in the discharge. Relations between plasma lines, electron density and electric field have been established. [fr

  12. 21 CFR 868.1075 - Argon gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thermal conductivity. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Argon gas analyzer. 868.1075 Section 868.1075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...

  13. DWBA calculation of positron impact ionization of argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campeanu, R I; Alam, M, E-mail: campeanu@yorku.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    The ionization of the 3p and 3s orbitals of argon by 200 eV incident positrons is studied with the DWBA approximation. Our TDCS results for the 3p orbital ionization are found to be in good agreement with recent CDW-EIS data.

  14. Plasma flow in a pressure pulsed argon cascade arc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, J.C.M.; Bol, L.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Timmermans, C.J.; Timmermans, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Flowing thermal plasmas are frequently used e . g. in welding, cutting, plasma deposition and testing materials at high temperatures . In most of the applications the geometry is complex . In the cascade arc the argon plasma flows through a straight circular channel with a constant area. The study

  15. Emission spectroscopy on a supersonically expanding argon/silane plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeusen, G.J.; Ershov-Pavlov, E.A.; Meulenbroeks, R.F.G.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Schram, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Results from emission spectroscopy measurements on an Ar/SiH/sub 4/ plasma jet which is used for fast deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon are presented. The jet is produced by allowing a thermal cascaded arc plasma in argon (I=60 A, V=80 V, Ar flow=60 scc/s and pressure 4*10/sup 4/ Pa) to

  16. An integrated calibration system for liquid argon calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Marschalkowski, E; Mense, T; Nürnberger, H A; Schäfer, U

    1999-01-01

    A novel technical solution for an integrated version of the pulse generator of a calibration system for liquid argon calorimeters is presented. It consists of a differential amplifier with automatic offset compensation, a current mirror and a switching logic. These components are integrated on an ASIC chip in CMOS technology. The technical realisation as well as results on the performance are presented. (author)

  17. Aging tests of ethylene contaminated argon/ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Bauer, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report on aging tests of argon/ethane gas with a minor (1800 ppM) component of ethylene. The measurements were first conducted with the addition of alcohol to test the suppression of aging by this additive, with exposure up to ∼1.5 C/cm. Tests have included: a proportional tube with ethanol, another with isopropyl alcohol, and for comparison a tube has also been run with ethanol and argon/ethane from CDF's old (ethylene-free) ethane supply. The aging test with ethanol showed no difference between the ethylene-free and the ethylene tube. Furthermore, raw aging rates of argon/ethane and argon/ethane/ethylene were measured by exposing tubes without the addition of alcohol to about 0.1 C/cm. Again, no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, we see no evidence that ethylene contamination up to 1800 ppM has any adverse effect on wire aging. However, this level of ethylene does seem to significantly suppress the gas gain

  18. Risk assessment for Argon-41 in RP-10 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas C, J.; Alarcon V, P.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation of the radiological risk during normal operations of the Peruvian 10 Mw research reactor was performed. The noble gas, Argon-41 produced from activation of Ar-40 from the air contained in the irradiation tubes, thermal column and coolant, is analyzed as the major source of risk

  19. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) hexanoate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Suarez Guevara, Maria Josefina; Attique, Fahmida

    2015-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) hexanoate (Y(C5H11CO2)3)·xH2O in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction at a laboratory Cu-tube source and in-situ experiments at a synchrotron radiation source as well as hot...

  20. Thermal decomposition of Yttrium(III) isovalerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Tang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The thermal behaviour of yttrium(III) isovalerate (Y(C4H9CO2)3) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, FTIR-spectroscopy, hot-stage optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction with a laboratory Cu-tube source as well as with a synchrotron radiation source...

  1. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Tang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) valerate (Y(C4H9CO2)3) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, in-situ synchrotron diffraction and hot-stage microscopy as well as room temperature optical microscopy. Melting...

  2. Characterising argon-bomb balloons for high-speed photography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A method to optimise the geometry, explosive charge mass and volume of an argon bomb for specific lighting requirements has been proposed. The method is specifically aimed at applications that require photographic diagnostics with ultra-high speed...

  3. Measurement of the argon plasma temperature by use of pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fanhou; Jing Fuqian

    2002-01-01

    The author describes in detail how to use pyrometer to measure the plasma temperature. The temperatures of shock-generated argon plasmas are given in the present work. Measured results of temperature-pressure curve are compared with calculated results using Saha-Debye-Huckel model, which are in good agreement

  4. Laser-induced vibrational dynamics of ozone in solid argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Amstrup, B.; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1997-01-01

    We consider the vibrational dynamics, induced by an intense infrared laser pulse, in an ozone molecule with isotopic substitution, that is, (OOO)-O-16-O-16-O-18 and compare the dynamics in the gas phase and in solid ar on. not perturbed by argon on a time-scale of a few picoseconds and selective...

  5. Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from Argon-clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Yin; Hagmeijer, Rob; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Goh, S.J.; van der Slot, P.J.M.; Biedron, S.; Milton, S.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2017-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in clusters is of high promise because clusters appear to offer an increased optical nonlinearity. We experimentally investigate HHG from Argon clusters in a supersonic gas jet that can generate monomer-cluster mixtures with varying atomic number density and

  6. Study of Hydrogen Pumping through Condensed Argon in Cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, K A; Bhatt, S B

    2012-01-01

    In ultra high vacuum (UHV) range, hydrogen is a dominant residual gas in vacuum chamber. Hydrogen, being light gas, pumping of hydrogen in this vacuum range is limited with widely used UHV pumps, viz. turbo molecular pump and cryogenic pump. Pre condensed argon layers in cryogenic pump create porous structure on the surface of the pump, which traps hydrogen gas at a temperature less than 20° K. Additional argon gas injection in the cryogenic pump, at lowest temperature, generates multiple layers of condensed argon as a porous frost with 10 to 100 A° diameters pores, which increase the pumping capacity of hydrogen gas. This pumping mechanism of hydrogen is more effective, to pump more hydrogen gas in UHV range applicable in accelerator, space simulation etc. and where hydrogen is used as fuel gas like tokamak. For this experiment, the cryogenic pump with a closed loop refrigerator using helium gas is used to produce the minimum cryogenic temperature as ∼ 14° K. In this paper, effect of cryosorption of hydrogen is presented with different levels of argon gas and hydrogen gas in cryogenic pump chamber.

  7. Behavior of Excited Argon Atoms in Inductively Driven Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Hebner, G A

    1999-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence has been used to measure the spatial distribution of the two lowest energy argon excited states, 1s sub 5 and 1s sub 4 , in inductively driven plasmas containing argon, chlorine and boron trichloride. The behavior of the two energy levels with plasma conditions was significantly different, probably because the 1s sub 5 level is metastable and the 1s sub 4 level is radiatively coupled to the ground state but is radiation trapped. The argon data is compared with a global model to identify the relative importance of processes such as electron collisional mixing and radiation trapping. The trends in the data suggest that both processes play a major role in determining the excited state density. At lower rfpower and pressure, excited state spatial distributions in pure argon were peaked in the center of the discharge, with an approximately Gaussian profile. However, for the highest rfpowers and pressures investigated, the spatial distributions tended to flatten in the center of the disch...

  8. Turbulence and transport in a magnetized argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pots, B.F.M.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study on turbulence and transport in the highly ionized argon plasma of a hollow cathode discharge is described. In order to determine the plasma parameters three standard diagnostics have been used, whilst two diagnostics have been developed to study the plasma turbulence. (Auth.)

  9. Study of Liquid Argon Dopants for LHC Hadron Calorimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hadron calorimetry based on the Liquid Argon Ionisation Chamber technique is one of the choice techniques for LHC-experimentation. A systematic study of the effect of selected dopants on Liquid Argon (LAr) will be carried out with the aim to achieve an improvement on: \\item (i)~``Fast Liquid Argon'' search and study of dopants to increase the drift velocity. It has been already shown that CH&sub4. added at a fraction of one percent increases the drift velocity by a factor of two or more. \\item (ii)~``Compensated Liquid Argon'' search and study of dopants to increase the response to densely ionising particles, resulting in improved compensation, such as photosensitive dopants. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ Monitoring of the parameters involved in understanding the response of a calorimeter is essential. In case of doped LAr, the charge yield, the non-saturated drift velocity and the electron lifetime in the liquid should be precisely and simultaneously monitored as they all vary with the level of dopant concentrati...

  10. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, Mark

    2011-04-13

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m{sup 3} of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m{sup 3} (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10{sup 3} have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural {sup 42}Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  11. Thermophysical properties of multi-shock compressed dense argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q F; Zheng, J; Gu, Y J; Chen, Y L; Cai, L C; Shen, Z J

    2014-02-21

    In contrast to the single shock compression state that can be obtained directly via experimental measurements, the multi-shock compression states, however, have to be calculated with the aid of theoretical models. In order to determine experimentally the multiple shock states, a diagnostic approach with the Doppler pins system (DPS) and the pyrometer was used to probe multiple shocks in dense argon plasmas. Plasma was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The shock was produced using the flyer plate impact accelerated up to ∼6.1 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun and introduced into the plenum argon gas sample, which was pre-compressed from the environmental pressure to about 20 MPa. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were determined using a multi-wavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Simultaneously, the particle velocity profiles of the LiF window was measured with multi-DPS. The states of multi-shock compression argon plasma were determined from the measured shock velocities combining the particle velocity profiles. We performed the experiments on dense argon plasmas to determine the principal Hugonoit up to 21 GPa, the re-shock pressure up to 73 GPa, and the maximum measure pressure of the fourth shock up to 158 GPa. The results are used to validate the existing self-consistent variational theory model in the partial ionization region and create new theoretical models.

  12. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors

  13. Surface modification of argon/oxygen plasma treated vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene surfaces for improved adhesion with natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, Ganesh C.; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Neogi, Sudarsan; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene (EPDM) rubber surface was treated in a radio frequency capacitatively coupled low pressure argon/oxygen plasma to improve adhesion with compounded natural rubber (NR) during co-vulcanization. The plasma modified surfaces were analyzed by means of contact angle measurement, surface energy, attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray sulfur mapping and atomic force microscopy. Several experimental variables such as plasma power, length of exposure time and composition of the argon-oxygen gas mixture were considered. It was delineated that plasma treatment changed both surface composition and roughness, and consequently increased peel strength. The change in surface composition was mainly ascribed to the formation of C-O and -C=O functional groups on the vulcanized surfaces. A maximum of 98% improvement in peel strength was observed after plasma treatment.

  14. Surface modification of argon/oxygen plasma treated vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene surfaces for improved adhesion with natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basak, Ganesh C. [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit [Department of Polymer Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, Calcutta 700 009 (India); Neogi, Sudarsan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bhowmick, Anil K., E-mail: anilkb@rtc.iitkgp.ernet.in [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene (EPDM) rubber surface was treated in a radio frequency capacitatively coupled low pressure argon/oxygen plasma to improve adhesion with compounded natural rubber (NR) during co-vulcanization. The plasma modified surfaces were analyzed by means of contact angle measurement, surface energy, attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray sulfur mapping and atomic force microscopy. Several experimental variables such as plasma power, length of exposure time and composition of the argon-oxygen gas mixture were considered. It was delineated that plasma treatment changed both surface composition and roughness, and consequently increased peel strength. The change in surface composition was mainly ascribed to the formation of C-O and -C=O functional groups on the vulcanized surfaces. A maximum of 98% improvement in peel strength was observed after plasma treatment.

  15. Observations of acoustic-wave-induced superluminescence in an argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramyan, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that in an argon discharge plasma it is possible to obtain overpopulation of certain electronic levels of atomic argon under the influence of acoustic waves. When the specified threshold is exceeded, then a superluminescence (in the form of light flashes) from the overpopulated electronic levels of atomic argon is observed

  16. Variable range hopping in ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasir; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-04-01

    We report the variable range hopping in ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. It has been found that Mott variable range hopping dominant over Efros variable range hopping in all ZnO films. It also has been found that hopping distance and energy increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure.

  17. Implicit memory. Retention without remembering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, H L

    1990-09-01

    Explicit measures of human memory, such as recall or recognition, reflect conscious recollection of the past. Implicit tests of retention measure transfer (or priming) from past experience on tasks that do not require conscious recollection of recent experiences for their performance. The article reviews research on the relation between explicit and implicit memory. The evidence points to substantial differences between standard explicit and implicit tests, because many variables create dissociations between these tests. For example, although pictures are remembered better than words on explicit tests, words produce more priming than do pictures on several implicit tests. These dissociations may implicate different memory systems that subserve distinct memorial functions, but the present argument is that many dissociations can be understood by appealing to general principles that apply to both explicit and implicit tests. Phenomena studied under the rubric of implicit memory may have important implications in many other fields, including social cognition, problem solving, and cognitive development.

  18. Retention of Emergency Care Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckes, Mardie E.; Shao, Kung Ping Pam

    1984-01-01

    Data on the emergency care knowledge of college students were measured by a pretest, posttest, and retention test. A high relationship was found between students' posttest scores and retention test scores. Findings are discussed. (Author/DF)

  19. Readiness of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter for LHC Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Bathe, S.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal-Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans-Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Chren, D.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clements, D.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P V M; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Cruz Burelo, E; De La Taille, C; De Mora, L; De Oliveira Branco, M; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dean, S.; Deberg, H.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Defay, P.O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, D.J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O.B.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen ,.M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A; Dunford, M.; Duperrin, A.; Duran-Yildiz, H.; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Eerola, P.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Epshteyn, V.S.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Faccioli, P.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A.C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; 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Orlov, I.; Oropeza Barrera, C; Orr, R.S.; Ortega, E.O.; Osculati, B.; Osuna, C.; Otec, R.; Ottersbach, J.P.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Ozcan, V.E.; Ozone, K.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A; Padhi, S.; Padilla Aranda, C; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pajchel, K.; Pal, A.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J.D.; Pan, Y.B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panes, B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Papadopoulou, Th D; Park, S.J.; Park, W.; Parker, M.A.; Parker, S.I.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passardi, G.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J.R.; Patricelli, S.; Patwa, A.; Pauly, T.; Peak, L.S.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Morales, M I; Peleganchuk, S.V.; Peng, H.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Codina, E; Pérez García-Estañ, M T; Perez Reale, V; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Perrodo, P.; Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Petersen, B.A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T.C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Pfeifer, B.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A.W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pilkington, A.D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J.L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pirotte, O.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W.G.; Pleier, M-A; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poffenberger, P.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D.M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B.G.; Popovic, D.S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G.E.; Pospichal, P.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I.N.; Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Potter, K.P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Preda, T.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; 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Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solfaroli-Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Sospedra-Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St Denis, R D; Stahl, T.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S.I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu M; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P.K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thomas, T.L.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique-Aires-Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Tovey, S.N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; 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Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along eta (averaged over phi) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained u...

  20. Development of cryogenic installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Montanari, D; Nessi, M; Norris, B

    2015-01-01

    A proposal for a very large liquid argon (68,000 kg) based neutrino detector is being studied. To validate the design principles and the detector technology, and to gain experience in the development of the cryostats and the cryogenic systems needed for such large experiments, several smaller scale installations will be developed and implemented, at Fermilab and CERN. The cryogenic systems for these installations will be developed, constructed, installed and commissioned by an international engineering team. These installations shall bring the required cooling power under specific conditions to the experiments for the initial cool-down and the long term operation, and shall also guarantee the correct distribution of the cooling power within the cryostats to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution within the cryostat itself. The cryogenic systems shall also include gaseous and liquid phase argon purification devices to be used to reach and maintain the very stringent purity requirements needed for these...

  1. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Fox, J.D.; Smith, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the physical packaging and the logical organization of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) electronics system for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC are described. This system processes signals from approximately 44,000 calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained. The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. 12 refs., 5 figs

  2. Ionization relaxation in shock-heated krypton-argon mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezumi, Hiromichi; Kawamura, Masahiko; Yokota, Toshiaki.

    1977-01-01

    The ionization relaxation processes behind shock waves in pure krypton and krypton-argon mixtures have been investigated using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer technique. The incident shock velocity was fixed in the neighborhood of Us=2800 m/sec, and the initial pressure was fixed at 0.95 Torr. The experimental results were compared with theoretical values based on the two-step collisional ionization model taking into account of the wall boundary-layer effect. The slope constants of excitation cross section against relative kinetic energy between krypton atom-atom collisions, krypton atom-electron collisions, and krypton-argon atom-atom collisions were determined to be 4.2 x 10 -19 cm 2 /eV, 1.2 x 10 -17 cm 2 /eV, and 4.2 x 10 -19 cm 2 /eV, respectively. (auth.)

  3. Experimental investigations of helium cryotrapping by argon frost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, A.; Perinic, D.; Murdoch, D.; Boissin, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    At the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre (KfK) cryopumping techniques are being investigated by which the gaseous exhausts from the NET/ITER reactor can be pumped out during the burn-and dwell-times. Cryosorption and cryotrapping are techniques which are suitable for this task. It is the target of the investigations to test the techniques under NET/ITER conditions and to determine optimum design data for a prototype. They involve measurement of the pumping speed as a function of the gas composition, gas flow and loading condition of the pump surfaces. The following parameters are subjected to variations: Ar/He ratio, specific helium volume flow rate, cryosurface temperature, process gas composition, impurities in argon trapping gas, three-stage operation and two-stage operation. This paper is a description of the experiments on argon trapping techniques started in 1990. Eleven tests as well as the results derived from them are described

  4. Opacity measurements in shock-generated argon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D.

    1993-07-01

    Dense plasmas having uniform and constant density and temperature are generated by passage of a planar shock wave through gas. The opacity of the plasma is accurately measured versus wavelength by recording the risetime of emitted light. This technique is applicable to a wide variety of species and plasma conditions. Initial experiments in argon have produced plasmas with 2 eV temperatures, 0.004--0.04 g/cm{sup 3} densities, and coupling parameters {Gamma} {approximately}0.3--0.7. Measurements in visible light are compared with calculations using the HOPE code. An interesting peak in the capacity at 400 nm is observed for the first time and is identified with the 4s-5p transition in excited neutral argon atoms.

  5. The Erosion of Frozen Argon by Swift Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Graversen, O.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore unequivo......The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore...... unequivocally associated with electronic processes generated by the bombarding particle. In the present energy region, it is found that Y scales approximately as the electronic stopping power squared, depends on the charge state of the incoming helium ions, and perhaps more important, is independent...

  6. STATUS OF THE ATLAS LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER AND ITS PERFORMANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Berillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The liquid argon (LAr) calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic and for hadron calorimetry. The LAr calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The latest status of the detector as well as problems and solutions addressed during the last years will be presented. Aspects of operation of a large detector over a long time period will be summarized and selected topics showing the performance of the detector will be shown.

  7. Thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) butyrate in argon atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Xiao, Tang

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of La(C3H7CO2)3·xH2O (x≈0.82) was studied in argon during heating at 5K/min. After the loss of bound H2O, the anhydrous butyrate presents at 135°C a phase transition to a mesophase, which turns to an isotropic liquid at 180°C. The decomposition of the anhydrous butyrate...

  8. Argon laser photocoagulation of cyclodialysis clefts after cataract surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, B. [Univ. of Lund, Dept. of Ophthalmology, Lund (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    Three patients with cyclodialysis clefts, hypotony and hypotonic retinopathy subsequent to cataract surgery were treated with argon laser photocoagulation. The hypotony was reversed in each patient and their visual acuity was normalized. Laser photocoagulation is a noninvasive treatment that can be repeated easily and safely. The complications of the treatment are minor. A hypertensive episode commonly occurs in the early postoperative period. (au) 8 refs.

  9. Salving Distribution Information System on PT. Anugerah Argon Medica

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus, Halimah

    2015-01-01

    Medica's Argon godsend constitute moving firm at salving sell area filing system and its reporting is still utilize archives and ledger before utilizes.Data collecting on observational it utilizes to methodic observation, interview and `studi` is library.Meanwhile software development methods that is utilized is model Waterfall. Implementation of model Waterfall this was worded utilize `document`'s flowing charts, diagram context, `flow`'s data diagramdesignoutput` is input design databasedat...

  10. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters: integration, installation and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters positioned in three cryostats. Since May 2006 the LAr barrel calorimeter records regular calibration runs and takes cosmic muon data together with tile hadronic calorimeter in the ATLAS cavern. The cosmic runs with end-cap calorimeters started in April 2007. First results of these combined runs are presented

  11. Enhancing retention of partial dentures using elastomeric retention rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkirala Revathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an alternative method for the retention of partial dentures that relies on the engagement of tooth undercuts by a lining material. The lab procedures are also presented. A new maxillary and mandibular acrylic partial dentures were fabricated using elastomeric retention technique for a partially dentate patient. A partially dentate man reported difficulty in retaining his upper removable partial denture (RPD. The maxillary RPD was designed utilizing elastomeric retention technique. During follow-up, it was necessary to replace the retention rings due to wear. The replacement of the retention rings, in this case, was done through a chairside reline technique. Elastomeric retention technique provides exceptionally good retention can be indicated to stabilize, cushion, splint periodontally involved teeth, no enough undercut for clasps, eliminate extractions, single or isolated teeth.

  12. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region |eta|<3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry from |eta|=1.4 to |eta|=4.8. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The lead-liquid argon sampling technique with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the endcap (EMEC). This geometry allows a uniform acceptance over the whole azimuthal range without any gap. The hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with plate geometry and is subdivided into two wheels in depth per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules featuring cylindrical electrodes ...

  13. Muonium formation in xenon and argon up to 60 atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempton, J.R.; Senba, M.; Arseneau, D.J.; Gonzalez, A.C.; Pan, J.J.; Tempelmann, A.; Garner, D.M.; Fleming, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Results of muon polarization studies in xenon and argon up to 60 atm are reported. In argon for pressures up to 10 atm, the muon polarization is best explained by an epithermalcharge exchange model. Above this pressure, the decrease in P D and increase in P L are ascribed to charge neutralization and spin exchange reactions, respectively, in the radiolysis track. Measurements with Xe/He mixtures with a xenon pressure of 1 atm indicate that the lost polarization in the pure xenon at this pressure is due to inefficient moderation of the muon. As the pressure in pure xenon is increased above 10 atm, we find that P L remains roughly constant and P D begins to increase. The lost fraction may be due to the formation of a XeMu Van der Waals type complex, while P D is ascribed to XeMu + formation. This suggests that spur processes appear to be less important in xenon that in argon. (orig.)

  14. Sodium evaporation into a forced argon flow, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Toshiaki; Kasahara, Fumio; Ishiguro, Ryoji

    1976-01-01

    Measurements were made on the rate of evaporation from a rectangular-shaped free surface of liquid sodium into argon flow. Tests were carried out at various levels of sodium temperature, of argon velocity and of argon temperature, under conditions where fog formation could be expected. To gain information on the enhancement of evaporation occasioned by fog formation, a supplementary experiment was performed on convection heat transfer into flowing air from a heated plate of the same geometry as the free surface of the sodium in the preceding measurements. The values obtained for the rate of evaporation and Sherwood number were compared with those predicted by the heat transfer experiment and by the theory by Hill and Szekely. The overall results revealed that the rate of sodium evaporation can amount to as much as three times that predicted by the heat transfer experiment, and that it varies roughly linearly with the heat transfer rate and with the sodium vapor pressure prevailing at the free surface. (auth.)

  15. ARAPUCA a new device for liquid argon scintillation light detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, A.A.; Segreto, E.

    2016-01-01

    We present a totally innovative device for the detection of liquid argon scintillation light, that has been named ARAPUCA (Argon R and D Advanced Program at UniCAmp). It is composed of a passive light collector and of active devices. The latters are standard SiPMs that operate at liquid argon temperature, while the passive collector is based on a new technology, never explored in this field before. It is a photon trap, that allows to collect light with extremely high efficiency. The total detection efficiency of the device can be tuned by modifying the ratio between the area of the active devices (SiPM) and the area of the optical window. For example, it will allow to reach a detection efficiency at the level of 1% on a surface of 50 × 50 cm 2 with an active coverage of 2 × 2 cm 2 (two/three large area SiPM). It is also a cheap device, since the major part of its cost is represented by the active devices. For these reason this appears to be the ideal device for scintillation light detection in large Time Projection Chambers. With appropriate modifications it can be used also in next generation Dark Matter detectors

  16. Metal clusters on supported argon layers; Metallcluster auf dielektrischen Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Bernhard

    2011-10-21

    The deposition of small sodium clusters on supported Ar(001)-surfaces is simulated. Theoretical description is achieved by a hierarchical model consisting of time-dependent DFT and molecular dynamics. The valence electrons of the sodium atoms are considered by Kohn-Sham-Scheme with self interaction correction. The interaction of argon atoms and sodium ions is described by atom-atom potentials whereas the coupling to the QM electrons is done by local pseudo-potentials. A decisive part of the model is the dynamical polarizability of the rare-gas atoms. The optional metal support is considered by the method of image charges. The influence of the forces caused by image charges and the influence of the number of argon monolayers on structure, optical response and deposition dynamics of Na{sub 6} and Na{sub 8} is investigated. There is very little influence on cluster structure and only a small shift of the cluster perpendicular to the surface. Concerning optical response the position of the Mie plasmon peak stays robust whereas the details of spectral fragmentation react very sensitively to changes. The forces caused by image charges of the metal support play only a little role with the dynamics of deposition while the thickness of the argon surface strongly influences the dissipation. (orig.)

  17. Energy and charge transfer in ionized argon coated water clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kočišek, J.; Lengyel, J.; Fárník, M.; Slavíček, P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electron ionization of clusters generated in mixed Ar-water expansions. The electron energy dependent ion yields reveal the neutral cluster composition and structure: water clusters fully covered with the Ar solvation shell are formed under certain expansion conditions. The argon atoms shield the embedded (H 2 O) n clusters resulting in the ionization threshold above ≈15 eV for all fragments. The argon atoms also mediate more complex reactions in the clusters: e.g., the charge transfer between Ar + and water occurs above the threshold; at higher electron energies above ∼28 eV, an excitonic transfer process between Ar + * and water opens leading to new products Ar n H + and (H 2 O) n H + . On the other hand, the excitonic transfer from the neutral Ar* state at lower energies is not observed although this resonant process was demonstrated previously in a photoionization experiment. Doubly charged fragments (H 2 O) n H 2 2+ and (H 2 O) n 2+ ions are observed and Intermolecular Coulomb decay (ICD) processes are invoked to explain their thresholds. The Coulomb explosion of the doubly charged cluster formed within the ICD process is prevented by the stabilization effect of the argon solvent

  18. Deposition of a-SiC:H using organosilanes in an argon/hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, L.

    1993-01-01

    Selected organosilanes were examined as precursors for the deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon carbide in an argon/hydrogen plasma. Effect of process variables on the quality of the films was established by means of FTIR, Auger spectroscopy, XPS, XRD, chemical analysis, and weight losses upon pyrolysis. For a given power level there is a limiting feeding rate of the precursor under which operation of the system is dominated by thermodynamics and leads to high quality silicon carbide films that are nearly stoichiometric and low in hydrogen. Beyond that limit, carbosilane polymer formation and excessive hydrogen incorporation takes place. The hydrogen content of the plasma affects the deposition rate and the hydrogen content of the film. In the thermodynamically dominated regime the nature of the precursor has no effect on the quality of the film, it affects only the relative utilization efficiency

  19. Retention of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, O.O.; Mailen, J.C.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Retention of gaseous fission products during fuel reprocessing has, in the past, been limited to a modest retention of 131 I when processing fuels decayed less than about 180 days. The projected rapid growth of the nuclear power industry along with a desire to minimize environmental effects is leading to the reassessment of requirements for retention of gaseous fission products, including 131 I, 129 I, 85 Kr, 3 H, and 14 C. Starting in the late 1960s, a significant part of the LMFBR reprocessing development program has been devoted to understanding the behavior of gaseous fission products in plant process and effluent streams and the development of advanced systems for their removal. Systems for iodine control include methods for evolving up to 99% of the iodine from dissolver solutions to minimize its introduction and distribution throughout downstream equipment. An aqueous scrubbing system (Iodox) using 20 M HNO 3 as the scrubbing media effectively removes all significant iodine forms from off-gas streams while handling the kilogram quantities of iodine present in head-end and dissolver off-gas streams. Silver zeolite is very effective for removing iodine forms at low concentration from the larger-volume plant off-gas streams. Removal of iodine from plant liquid effluents by solid sorbents either prior to or following final vaporization appears feasible. Krypton is effectively released during dissolution and can be removed from the relatively small volume head-end and dissolver off-gas stream. Two methods appear applicable for removal and concentration of krypton: (1) selective absorption in fluorocarbons, and (2) cryogenic absorption in liquid nitrogen. The fluorocarbon absorption process appears to be rather tolerant of the normal contaminants (H 2 O, CO 2 , NOsub(x), and organics) present in typical reprocessing plant off-gas whereas the cryogenic system requires an extensive feed gas pretreatment system. Retention of tritium in a reprocessing plant is

  20. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  1. Argon-41 production and evolution at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor (OSTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anellis, L.G.; Johnson, A.G.; Higginbotham, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, argon-41 concentrations were measured at various locations within the reactor facility to assess the accuracy of models used to predict argon-41 evolution from the reactor tank, and to determine the relationship between argon gas evolution from the tank and subsequent argon-41 concentrations throughout the reactor room. In particular, argon-41 was measured directly above the reactor tank with the reactor tank lids closed, at other accessible locations on the reactor top with the tank lids both closed and open, and at several locations on the first floor of the reactor room. These measured concentrations were then compared to values calculated using a modified argon-41 production and evolution model for TRIGA reactor tanks and ventilation values applicable to the OSTR facility. The modified model was based in part on earlier TRIGA models for argon-41 production and release, but added features which improved the agreement between predicted and measured values. The approximate dose equivalent rate due to the presence of argon-41 in reactor room air was calculated for several different locations inside the OSTR facility. These dose rates were determined using the argon-41 concentration measured at each specific location, and were subsequently converted to a predicted quarterly dose equivalent for each location based on the reactor's operating history. The predicted quarterly dose equivalent values were then compared to quarterly doses measured by film badges deployed as dose-integrating area radiation monitors at the locations of interest. The results indicate that the modified production and evolution model is able to predict argon-41 concentrations to within a factor of ten when compared to the measured data. Quarterly dose equivalents calculated from the measured argon-41 concentrations and the reactor's operating history seemed consistent with results obtained from the integrating area radiation monitors. Given the argon-41 concentrations measured

  2. Home healthcare nurse retention and patient outcome model: discussion and model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbecker, Carol Hall; Cushman, Margaret

    2012-08-01

    This paper discusses additions to an empirically tested model of home healthcare nurse retention. An argument is made that the variables of shared decision-making and organizational commitment be added to the model based on the authors' previous research and additional evidence from the literature. Previous research testing the home healthcare nurse retention model established empirical relationships between nurse, agency, and area characteristics to nurse job satisfaction, intent to stay, and retention. Unexplained model variance prompted a new literature search to augment understanding of nurse retention and patient and agency outcomes. Data come from the authors' previous research, and a literature search from 1990 to 2011 on the topics organizational commitment, shared decision-making, nurse retention, patient outcomes and agency performance. The literature provides a rationale for the additional variables of shared decision-making and affective and continuous organizational commitment, linking these variables to nurse job satisfaction, nurse intent to stay, nurse retention and patient outcomes and agency performance. Implications for nursing.  The new variables in the model suggest that all agencies, even those not struggling to retain nurses, should develop interventions to enhance nurse job satisfaction to assure quality patient outcomes. The new nurse retention and patient outcome model increases our understanding of nurse retention. An understanding of the relationship among these variables will guide future research and the development of interventions to create and maintain nursing work environments that contribute to nurse affective agency commitment, nurse retention and quality of patient outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Ionizing Shocks in Argon. Part 2: Transient and Multi-Dimensional Effects (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    stability in ionizing monatomic gases. Part 1. Argon ,” J. Fluid Mech., 84, 55 (1978). 2M. P. F. Bristow and I. I. Glass, “ Polarizability of singly...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Ionizing Shocks in Argon . Part 2: Transient...Physics. 14. ABSTRACT We extend the computations of ionizing shocks in argon to unsteady and multi-dimensional, using a collisional-radiative

  4. Recycling retention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Johnson, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with the concept of any number of physiologically meaningful compartments that recycle material with a central extracellular fluid compartment and considering various excretion pathways, we solve the differential equations describing the kinetics by the method of Laplace to obtain concise algebraic expressions for the retentions. These expressions contain both fundamental and eigenvalue rate constants; the eigenvalue rate constants are obtained from the solution of a polynomial incorporating the fundamental rate constants. Mathematically exact expressions that predict the biodistribution resulting from continuous uptakes are used to obtain very simple mathematically exact steady state expressions as well as approximate expressions applicable to any time. These steady state and approximate expressions contain only the fundamental rate constants; also, they include a recycling factor that describes the increase in the biodistributions because of recycling. To obtain the values of the fundamental rate constants, short term kinetics studies along with data on the long term distributions are suggested. Retention functions obtained in this way predict both the short term and long term distributions; they therefore are useful in the interpretation of bioassay data and in the estimation of internal doses

  5. Retention capacity of correlated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, K J; Araújo, N A M; Ziff, R M; Herrmann, H J

    2014-06-01

    We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes.

  6. Retention capacity of correlated surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Ziff, R. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes.

  7. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Braunschweig, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Geulig, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Schoentag, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Siedling, R. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Wlochal, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Putzer, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Wotschack, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Cheplakov, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Feshchenko, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kazarinov, M. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kukhtin, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ladygin, E. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Obudovskij, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Geweniger, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Hanke, P. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Kluge, E.E. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Krause, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Schmidt, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Stenzel, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Tittel, K. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Wunsch, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Zerwas, D. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Bruncko, D. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Kosice (Slovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Fyziky; Jusko, A. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Kosice (Slovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Fyziky; Kocper, B.; RD33 Collaboration

    1994-11-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure. (orig.)

  8. Performance of the TGT liquid argon calorimeter and trigger system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.; Schöntag, M.; Siedling, R.; Wlochal, M.; Wotschack, J.; Cheplakov, A.; Feshchenko, A.; Kazarinov, M.; Kukhtin, V.; Ladygin, E.; Obudovskij, V.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Kluge, E.-E.; Krause, J.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Zerwas, D.; Ban, J.; Bruncko, D.; Jusko, A.; Kocper, B.; Aderholz, M.; Brettel, H.; Dulny, B.; Dydak, F.; Fent, J.; Huber, J.; Jakobs, K.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Bogolyubsky, M. Y.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kurchaninov, L. L.; Levitsky, M. S.; Maksimov, V. V.; Minaenko, A. A.; Moiseev, A. M.; Semenov, P. A.; Tikhonov, V. V.

    1996-02-01

    A novel concept of a liquid argon calorimeter, the "Thin Gap Turbine" (TGT) calorimeter, is presented. A TGT test module, equipped with specially developed cold front-end electronics in radiation hard GaAs technology, has been operated in a particle beam. Results on its performance are given. A 40 MHz FADC system with a "circular data store" and standalone readout and play-back capability has been developed to test the properties of the TGT detector for trigger purposes. Results on trigger efficiency, response and energy resolution are given.

  9. Performance of the TGT liquid argon calorimeter and trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Geuling, E.; Schoentag, M.

    1996-03-01

    A novel concept of a liquid argon calorimeter, the thin gap turbine (TGT) calorimeter, is presented. A TGT test module, equipped with specially developed cold front-end electronics in radiation hard GaAs technology, has been operated in a particle beam. Results on its performance are given. A 40 MHz FADC system with a circular data store and standalone readout and playback capability has been developed to test the properties of the TGT detector for trigger purposes. Results on trigger efficiency, response and energy resolution are given. (orig.)

  10. Performance of the TGT liquid argon calorimeter and trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.; Schoentag, M.; Siedling, R.; Wlochal, M.; Wotschack, J.; Cheplakov, A.; Feshchenko, A.; Kazarinov, M.; Kukhtin, V.; Ladygin, E.; Obudovskij, V.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Kluge, E.-E.; Krause, J.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Zerwas, D.; Ban, J.; Bruncko, D.; Jusko, A.; Kocper, B.; Aderholz, M.; Brettel, H.; Dulny, B.; Dydak, F.; Fent, J.; Huber, J.; Jakobs, K.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Bogolyubsky, M.Y.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Kiryunin, A.E.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Levitsky, M.S.; Maksimov, V.V.; Minaenko, A.A.; Moiseev, A.M.; Semenov, P.A.; Tikhonov, V.V. [Tech. Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Phys. Inst.]|[CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)]|[Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)]|[Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)]|[Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-21

    A novel concept of a liquid argon calorimeter, the ``thin gap turbine`` (TGT) calorimeter, is presented. A TGT test module, equipped with specially developed cold front-end electronics in radiation hard GaAs technology, has been operated in a particle beam. Results on its performance are given. A 40 MHz FADC system with a ``circular data store`` and standalone readout and play-back capability has been developed to test the properties of the TGT detector for trigger purposes. Results on trigger efficiency, response and energy resolution are given. (orig.).

  11. Performance of the TGT liquid argon calorimeter and trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.; Schoentag, M.

    1996-01-01

    A novel concept of a liquid argon calorimeter, the 'Thin Gap Turbine' (TGT) calorimeter, is presented. A TGT test module, equipped with specially developed cold front-end electronics in radiation hard GaAs technology, has been operated in a particle beam. Results on its performance are given. A 40 MHz FADC system with a 'circular data store' and standalone readout and playback capability has been developed to test the properties of the TGT detector for trigger purposes. Results on trigger efficiency, response and energy resolution are given. 12 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter TGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.

    1994-01-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a test beam exposure. 15 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.] [and others

    1995-04-21

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure. ((orig.)).

  14. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.

    1995-01-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure. ((orig.))

  15. Performance of the TGT liquid argon calorimeter and trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.; Schoentag, M.; Siedling, R.; Wlochal, M.; Wotschack, J.; Cheplakov, A.; Feshchenko, A.; Kazarinov, M.; Kukhtin, V.; Ladygin, E.; Obudovskij, V.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Kluge, E.-E.; Krause, J.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Zerwas, D.; Ban, J.; Bruncko, D.; Jusko, A.; Kocper, B.; Aderholz, M.; Brettel, H.; Dulny, B.; Dydak, F.; Fent, J.; Huber, J.; Jakobs, K.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Bogolyubsky, M.Y.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Kiryunin, A.E.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Levitsky, M.S.; Maksimov, V.V.; Minaenko, A.A.; Moiseev, A.M.; Semenov, P.A.; Tikhonov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    A novel concept of a liquid argon calorimeter, the ''thin gap turbine'' (TGT) calorimeter, is presented. A TGT test module, equipped with specially developed cold front-end electronics in radiation hard GaAs technology, has been operated in a particle beam. Results on its performance are given. A 40 MHz FADC system with a ''circular data store'' and standalone readout and play-back capability has been developed to test the properties of the TGT detector for trigger purposes. Results on trigger efficiency, response and energy resolution are given. (orig.)

  16. Diffraction experiments of argon or helium on polluted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, J.P.; Constans, A.; Daury, G.; Lostis, P.

    1975-01-01

    Scattering patterns of molecular beams of argon or helium from metal surfaces (bulk metal or thin films) are reported. The pressure in the scattering chamber is about 10 -6 torr. So, the surfaces are polluted. Diffraction peaks are observed which can be interpreted very well by assuming that nitrogen, oxygen or carbon atoms are adsorbed of the surface. On the other hand, diffraction peaks from a silicon crystal have been observed which can be reproduced very well by using silicon crystal lattice. These experiments are not interpreted accurately, but show that molecular reflection can be used for some surface studies [fr

  17. Relaxation rates studies in an argon cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Dengra, A.; Colomer, V.

    1986-01-01

    The single Langmuir probe method has been used to determine the relaxation rates of the electron density and temperature in an argon afterglow dc cylindrical plasma. The ion-electron recombination was found to be the fundamental mechanism of density decay during the early afterglow while the ambipolar diffusion controlles the density decay for later afterglow. Electron temperature cooling curves have been interpreted via electron-neutral collisons. Measurements of the electron-ion recombination and the ambipolar diffusion coefficients have been made, as well as of the electron-neutral collision frequency and the momentum transfer cross sections. Good agreement is obtained with previously published data. (author)

  18. Energy dependences of absorption in beryllium windows and argon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantler, C.T.; Staudenmann, J-P.

    1994-01-01

    In part of an ongoing work on x-ray form factors, new absorption coefficients are being evaluated for all elements, across the energy range from below 100 eV to above 100 keV. These new coefficients are applied herein to typical problems in synchrotron radiation stations, namely the use of beryllium windows and argon gas detectors. Results are compared with those of other authors. The electron-ion pair production process in ionization chambers is discussed, and the effects of 3d-element impurities are indicated. 15 refs., 6 figs

  19. High rate amplifier-digitizer system for liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droege, T.F.; Lobkowicz, F.; Fukushima, Y.

    1978-01-01

    A low-cost charge amplifier for a liquid argon photon detector and a new method for pulse height analysis are described. This scheme is suitable for high-energy photon detection with high counting rate. Samples of preamplifer output are taken just before and just after the arrival of the charge from the detector. The difference of these samples provides a stable pedestal and rejects low frequency noise. Short two-pulse resolving time (approximately equal to 200ns) is achieved. 6 refs

  20. Electrical and spectroscopic characterization of a surgical argon plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Sandra; Neugebauer, Alexander; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    For electrosurgical procedures, the argon plasma coagulation (APC) discharge is a well-established atmospheric-pressure plasma tool for thermal haemostasis and devitalization of biological tissue. To characterize this plasma source, voltage-current measurements, microphotography, optical emission spectroscopy and numerical simulation are applied. Two discharge modes are established during the operation of the APC plasma source. A short transient spark discharge is ignited within the positive half period of the applied high voltage after a streamer channel connects the APC probe and the counter-electrode. During the second phase, which continues under negative high voltage, a glow discharge is stabilized in the plasma channel.

  1. Study of a Novel Concept for a Liquid Argon Calorimeter \

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD33 \\\\ \\\\ The development of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter prototype is proposed as a generic R\\&D project for a novel concept of calorimetry in proton-proton and electron-positron collider detectors: the $^{\\prime$Thin Gap Turbine$^{\\prime}$ (TGT). The TGT calorimeter has a modular construction, is flexible in its longitudinal and transverse granularity, and offers a uniform energy response and resolution, independent of the production angle of incident particles. An important aspect of the project is the development of fast, radiation-hard front-end electronics which is operating in the cold.

  2. Argon laser choroidotomy for drainage of subretinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, J A; Marcus, D F; Nelsen, P T

    1985-03-01

    We used the argon laser to perforate the choroid and drain subretinal fluid during retinal detachment surgery in 24 consecutive patients. The procedure was successful in 23 of 24 patients (95.8%). The laser settings required for perforation ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 s and from 200 mW to 2.0 W. Because it is not necessary to enter the subretinal space with a solid, pointed object, laser choroidotomy may reduce the incidence of retinal perforation. In addition, the laser has the advantage of cauterizing small vessels during choroidal puncture, which may reduce bleeding at the time of drainage.

  3. Electron drift velocity in argon-methane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakeem, N.El; Mathieson, E.

    1978-01-01

    Described are the results of a series of measurements of electron drift velocity taken with samples of chemically pure grade gas mixture of Ar-10% CH 4 (N 2 2 2 2 O<2 ppm). The measured drift velocity is plotted as a function of the ratio of electric field to pressure in the range from 0.05 to 0.8 V/cmxtorr. The measurements are reproducible only to within 4%. The results of numerical calculations employing the well-established argon elastic and methane elastic and inelastic cross sections are also included. The disagreement from the present experimental results, and from those obtained elsewhere, is rather puzzling

  4. Scintillation trigger system of the liquid argon neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, S.V.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutnikov, Yu.E.; Denisov, A.G.; Kochetkov, V.I.; Matveev, M.Yu.; Mel'nikov, E.A.; Usachev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the organization of the Scintillation Trigger System (STS) for the Liquid Argon Neutrino Detector of the Tagged Neutrino Facility. STS is aimed at the effective registration of the needed neutrino interaction type and production of a fast trigger signal with high time resolution. The fast analysis system of analog signal from the trigger scintillation planes for rejection of the trigger signals from background processes is described. Real scintillation trigger planes characteristics obtained on the basis of the presented data acquisition system are shown. 10 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Penning transfer in argon-based gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, O; Tapan, I; Ozmutlu, E N

    2010-01-01

    Penning transfers, a group of processes by which excitation energy is used to ionise the gas, increase the gas gain in some detectors. Both the probability that such transfers occur and the mechanism by which the transfer takes place, vary with the gas composition and pressure. With a view to developing a microscopic electron transport model that takes Penning transfers into account, we use this dependence to identify the transfer mechanisms at play. We do this for a number of argon-based gas mixtures, using gain curves from the literature.

  6. HARP: high-pressure argon readout for calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco-Luque, M.; Fabjan, C.W.; Frandsen, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Steel tubes of approximately 8 mm O.D., filled with Argon gas to approx. 200 bar, are considered as the active element for a charge collecting sampling calorimeter readout system. The tubes are permanently sealed and operated in the ion chamber mode, with the charge collection on a one-millimeter concentric anode. We present the motivation for such a device, including Monte Carlo predictions of performance. The method of construction and signal collection are discussed, with initial results on leakage and ageing of the filling gas. A prototype electromagnetic calorimeter is described

  7. Rabi oscillations in extreme ultraviolet ionization of atomic argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flögel, Martin; Durá, Judith; Schütte, Bernd; Ivanov, Misha; Rouzée, Arnaud; Vrakking, Marc J. J.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate Rabi oscillations in nonlinear ionization of argon by an intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser field produced by high-harmonic generation. We monitor the formation of A r2 + as a function of the time delay between the XUV pulse and an additional near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulse, and show that the population of an A r+* intermediate resonance exhibits strong modulations both due to an NIR laser-induced Stark shift and XUV-induced Rabi cycling between the ground state of A r+ and the A r+* excited state. Our experiment represents a direct experimental observation of a Rabi-cycling process in the XUV regime.

  8. Liquid Argon TPC Signal Formation, Signal Processing and Hit Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baller, Bruce [Fermilab

    2017-03-11

    This document describes the early stage of the reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions requires knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise.

  9. Sodium aerosol formation in an argon flow over hot sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.; Dolias, M.J.; UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Thermal Hydraulics Div.)

    1987-01-01

    Vapour evaporation, which partly forms aerosol, occurs when a cold gas flows over a hot liquid. A previous well-mixed model is extended to predict the final vapour plus aerosol content of such a flow in terms of its initial and final temperatures. The predictions are compared to results of the Copacabana II experiment in which argon passed over a sodium pool. Agreement is obtained for the final sodium density at moderate flow rates, and physical reasons are given as to why deviations occur at low and high flow rates. (author)

  10. The adsorption of argon, krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Charcoal adsorption beds are commonly used to remove radioactive noble gases from contaminated gas streams. The design of such beds requires the adsorption coefficient for the noble gas. Here an extension of the Dubinin-Radushkevich theory of adsorption is developed to correlate the effects of temperature, pressure, concentration, and carrier gas on the adsorption coefficients of krypton, xenon, and argon on activated carbon. This model is validated with previously published adsorption measurements. It accurately predicts the equilibrium adsorption coefficient at any temperature and pressure if the potential energies of adsorption, the micropore volume, and the van der Waals constants of the gases are known. 18 refs., 4 figs

  11. Endobronchial Electrocautery and Argon Plasma Coagulation: A Practical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Tremblay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review covers the technical and practical aspects of endobronchial electrocautery, including argon plasma coagulation, which have great potential for widespread use by pulmonologists around the world. The various electrocautery modes, power settings and electrode probes are described in detail, and the authors' clinical and technical approach is demonstrated with a narrative description and brief case presentations. Malignant airway obstruction, hemoptysis, web-like stenosis, stent related granulation tissue and early lung carcinomas are the most common indications for treatment. Advantages of electrocautery, such as low cost, rapid effect, safety and ease of use, are contrasted to other endobronchial therapeutic modalities. Published experience with electrocautery is reviewed.

  12. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter--status and expected performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schacht, Peter

    2004-01-01

    For the ATLAS detector at the LHC, the liquid argon technique is exploited for the electromagnetic calorimetry in the central part and for the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry in the forward and backward regions. The construction of the calorimeter is well advanced with full cold tests of the barrel calorimeter and first endcap calorimeter only months away. The status of the project is discussed as well as the related results from beam test studies of the various calorimeter subdetectors. The results show that the expected performance meets the ATLAS requirements as specified in the ATLAS Technical Design Report

  13. Use of the big liquid argon spectrometer BARS for neutrino and cosmic-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, V.B.; Belikov, S.N.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Denisov, A.G.; Denisov, S.P.; Fedjakin, N.N.; Kochetkov, V.I.; Korablev, V.M.; Koreshev, V.I.; Lipaev, V.V.; Los, S.V.; Mikhailin, V.N.; Rybin, A.M.; Sytin, A.N.; Bogdanov, A.G.; Kirina, T.M.; Kokoulin, R.P.; Reznikov, M.A.; Petrukhin, A.A.; Yanson, E.E.; Alexeyev, E.N.; Chernyaev, A.B.; Petkov, V.B.; Smirnov, D.V.; Tsyabuk, A.L.; Voevodsky, A.V.; Gennaro, G.; Sergiampietri, F.; Spandre, G.; Lanfranchi, M.; Marchionni, A.; Conforto, G.; Martelli, F.

    1998-01-01

    The design of the fine grained 300 t liquid argon calorimeter BARS is described. The BARS electronics include about 30 K channels of low noise amplifiers and ADCs. The DAQ system makes it possible to select channels with signals above the chosen threshold. 48 scintillation horoscopes placed inside the liquid argon are used to form the first level trigger. The total number of scintillation counters in liquid argon is 384. Sums of ionization signals are used to produce the second level trigger. Results of the first use of liquid argon calorimetry for the measurements of tagged neutrino interactions, cosmic-ray muon spectra and composition of extensive atmospheric showers are discussed. (author)

  14. Modeling of inhomogeneous mixing of plasma species in argon-steam arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeništa, J.; Takana, H.; Uehara, S.; Nishiyama, H.; Bartlová, M.; Aubrecht, V.; Murphy, A. B.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulation of mixing of argon- and water-plasma species in an argon-steam arc discharge generated in a thermal plasma generator with the combined stabilization of arc by axial gas flow (argon) and water vortex. The diffusion of plasma species itself is described by the combined diffusion coefficients method in which the coefficients describe the diffusion of argon ‘gas,’ with respect to water vapor ‘gas.’ Diffusion processes due to the gradients of mass density, temperature, pressure, and an electric field have been considered in the model. Calculations for currents 150-400 A with 15-22.5 standard liters per minute (slm) of argon reveal inhomogeneous mixing of argon and oxygen-hydrogen species with the argon species prevailing near the arc axis. All the combined diffusion coefficients exhibit highly nonlinear distribution of their values within the discharge, depending on the temperature, pressure, and argon mass fraction of the plasma. The argon diffusion mass flux is driven mainly by the concentration and temperature space gradients. Diffusions due to pressure gradients and due to the electric field are of about 1 order lower. Comparison with our former calculations based on the homogeneous mixing assumption shows differences in temperature, enthalpy, radiation losses, arc efficiency, and velocity at 400 A. Comparison with available experiments exhibits very good qualitative and quantitative agreement for the radial temperature and velocity profiles 2 mm downstream of the exit nozzle.

  15. Career satisfaction and retention risk among Wisconsin internists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriyappa, Pradeep; Sullivan, Kandis K

    2009-09-01

    Physician career satisfaction has been studied extensively, but career satisfaction as it relates to retention is less well studied. The objective was to assess the relationship between career satisfaction and retention in primary care internal medicine physicians in Wisconsin. In this descriptive quantitative study, survey data was assessed for correlations between career satisfaction, risk to retention, and demographics. The survey included 1231 primary care internal medicine physicians in the Wisconsin Medical Directory (2007). Responses were measured by career satisfaction variables, and demographics and retention variables for the purpose of correlations and regression analysis. Survey responses included 573 physicians. An additional 85 physicians were disqualified. The final survey group included 1146 physicians for a response rate of 50%. A total of 116 physicians (20.2%) reported anticipating leaving their current position, 84 (14.7%) physicians reported anticipating leaving the career of medicine. Identified at risk for retention were 144 (25.1%) physicians. The lowest career satisfaction scores were reported in the areas of compensation (3.19) and practice (3.42) on a scale of 1 (very dissatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied). The highest correlations to retention were associated with practice, followed by compensation satisfaction. The level of significance for this study was identified as 0.05, and the P-value was 0.000. The study findings reveal a significant risk to the stability of continuity of care for patients, and may cost Wisconsin health care organizations more than $35 million in recruitment costs to replace departing physicians.

  16. Trapping of deuterium in argon-implanted nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, R.C.; Rehn, L.E.; Baldo, P.

    1985-01-01

    Argon ions with energy 250 keV were implanted at fluences of 2 x 10 16 cm -2 at temperatures of 500, 250, and 21 0 C, in the specimen of relatively pure polycrystalline nickel. Deuterium was introduced into the surface and implanted regions by making the specimen the negative electrode of an electrolytic cell containing 1-N pure deuterated sulfuric acid. Deuterium trapped in the vacancy complexes of the implanted regions was analyzed as a function of temperature using the vacancy complexes of the implanted regions was analyzed as a function of temperature using the 2 H( 3 He, 1 H) 4 He nuclear reaction during an isochronal annealing process. The results indicate that the types of traps and trap densities found in the regions implanted at 21 and 250 0 C were essentially identical while the trap density found in the region implanted at 500 0 C was approximately 40% of that found in the other regions. Math model comparison with the experimental results suggests the existence of at least two types of traps in each region. Trap binding enthalpies used in the math model to fit the experimental data were slightly higher for the region implanted with argon at 500 0 C than for the regions implanted at the lower temperatures. TEM studies revealed the presence of small voids in the region implanted at 500 0 as well as dislocation loops similar to those found in the regions implanted at the lower temperatures. 20 references, 2 figures

  17. A liquid argon scintillation veto for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegmann, Anne [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. Results of Phase I have been published in summer 2013. Currently Gerda is being upgraded to a second phase. To reach the aspired background index of ≤ 10{sup -3} cts/(keV . kg . yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques will be applied, including an active liquid argon veto (LAr veto). It has been demonstrated by the LArGe test facility that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in LAr. This talk focusses on the light instrumentation which is being installed in GERDA. Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and wavelength-shifting fibers connected to silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are combined to maximize the photoelectron-yield with respect to various background sources. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to optimize the design for background suppression and low self-induced background. First results of the prototypes and the progress of installation are reported.

  18. Argon laser trabeculoplasty as primary therapy in open angle glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, P.S.; Jamali, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the effect of Argon Laser Trabeculoplasty (ALT) as a primary mode of therapy in reducing the intraocular Pressure (IOP) of patients diagnosed with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG). A total of 35 eyes of 35 patients with the gender distribution of 27 men and 8 women who were newly diagnosed with POAG, were included in this study. Mean age of the patients was 55.2 years with the range of 32 to 76 years. All of them were treated with argon laser trabeculoplasty as a primary mode of therapy. Intra ocular pressure was measured objectively using Goldman applanation tonometer, pre-and-post laser therapy. The pre-laser mean IOP was 27.63 mmHg (range 21-40 mmHg). The post-laser mean IOP measured at 6 months follow up was 15.5 mmHg (range 11 - 33 mmHg) with mean decrease of 12.1 mmHg. The decrease in IOP was seen in 32 eyes (95%) with no change observed in 3 (5%) eyes. The result shows a marked decline in IOP in patients with POAG who underwent ALT as a primary mode of treatment. Further studies with large sample size and longer follow-up will help in making future recommendations. (author)

  19. Study of straw chamber lifetime with argon ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cheu, E.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Odian, A.; Pitman, D.; Stockhausen, W.; Toki, W.; Wadley, W.; Wood, C.; Mir, R.

    1989-01-01

    We present detailed laboratory measurements of the lifetime of a small test chamber, simulating the Mark III straw vertex chamber conditions. The tests were carried out with an argon-ethane 50/50 gas mixture at 3 atm absolute pressure and 3.9 kV applied to the wires. After the accumulation of ≅ 0.02 C/cm on a single straw, continuous discharges began. The addition of alcohol or water vapor to the gas mixture was found to extend the lifetime of the straws. Continuous flow of the gas mixture with water vapor through the straws prolonged the lifetime significantly. We present results on the effects of changing the gas mixture inside the straws at regular time intervals. Adding a small percentage of water vapor to the argon-ethane gas and flowing the gas mixture in the straws can improve the lifetime by more than an order of magnitude. An accumulated charge of 1.0 C/cm on a single straw has been obtained. (orig.)

  20. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.

    1993-01-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4to 12), np(n=4to8) and nd(n=3to8)of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4 to 7), np (n=4 to 7) and nd (n=3 to 8). 3.- comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author) 35 refs

  1. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutro argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Ramos, F.

    1993-01-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p''5 ns(n=4 to 12), np(n=4 to 8) and nd(n=3 to 8) of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p''5 ns(n=4 to 7), np(n=4 to 7) and nd(n=3 to 8). 3.- Comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author)

  2. Elastic properties of liquid and solid argon in nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schappert, Klaus; Pelster, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We have measured sorption isotherms and determined the intrinsic longitudinal elastic modulus β Ar,ads of nanoconfined material via ultrasonic measurements combined with a special effective medium analysis. In the liquid regime the adsorbate only contributes to the measured effective properties when the pores are completely filled and the modulus is bulklike. At partial fillings its contribution is cancelled out by the high compressibility of the vapour phase. In contrast, at lower temperatures frozen argon as well as underlying liquid surface layers cause a linear increase of the effective longitudinal modulus upon filling. During sorption the contribution of the liquid surface layers near the pore wall β Ar,surf increases with the thickness of the solid layers reaching the bulk value β Ar,liquid only in the limit of complete pore filling. We interpret this effect as due to the gradual stiffening of the solid argon membrane. The measurements and their analysis show that longitudinal ultrasonic waves are well suited to the study of the elastic properties and liquid–solid phase transitions in porous systems. This method should also help to detect the influence of nanoconfinement on elastic properties in further research. (paper)

  3. Shock velocity in weakly ionized nitrogen, air, and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefert, Nicholas S.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine the principal mechanism(s) for the shock velocity increase in weakly ionized gases. This paper reports experimental data on the propagation of spark-generated shock waves (1< Mach<3) into weakly ionized nitrogen, air, and argon glow discharges (1 < p<20 Torr). In order to distinguish between effects due solely to the presence of electrons and effects due to heating of the background gas via elastic collisions with electrons, the weakly ionized discharge was pulsed on/off. Laser deflection methods determined the shock velocity, and the electron number density was collected using a microwave hairpin resonator. In the afterglow of nitrogen, air, and argon discharges, the shock velocity first decreased, not at the characteristic time for electrons to diffuse to the walls, but rather at the characteristic time for the centerline gas temperature to equilibrate with the wall temperature. These data support the conclusion that the principal mechanism for the increase in shock velocity in weakly ionized gases is thermal heating of the neutral gas species via elastic collisions with electrons

  4. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drug on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).

  5. Molten core retention assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods

  6. Promoting Special Educator Teacher Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy E. Vittek

    2015-01-01

    This article is a critical review of the literature on special education teacher attrition and retention. The research focused on journal articles from 2004 to present. The results of the study helped define special educator attrition and retention. The major themes present in the findings were job satisfaction, administrative support, induction programs, and mentoring. The literature shows a clear need for comprehensi...

  7. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement......, pretreatment with tribochemical silicate coating significantly increased retention of the posts. Increased cement film thickness resulted in decreased retention of untreated posts and of pretreated posts luted with zinc phosphate cement. Increased cement film thickness had no influence on retention...

  8. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  9. Towards a liquid Argon TPC without evacuation filling of a 6$m^3$ vessel with argon gas from air to ppm impurities concentration through flushing

    CERN Document Server

    Curioni, A; Gendotti, A; Knecht, L; Lussi, D; Marchionni, A; Natterer, G; Resnati, F; Rubbia, A; Coleman, J; Lewis, M; Mavrokoridis, K; McCormick, K; Touramanis, C

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a successful experimental test of filling a volume of 6 $m^3$ with argon gas, starting from normal ambient air and reducing the impurities content down to few parts per million (ppm) oxygen equivalent. This level of contamination was directly monitored measuring the slow component of the scintillation light of the Ar gas, which is sensitive to $all$ sources of impurities affecting directly the argon scintillation.

  10. Evolution of subsurface nanocavities in copper under argon bombardment and annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulikov, D.V.; Kurnosikov, O.; Kharlamov, V.S.; Trushin, Yu.V.

    2013-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical studies of evolution of nanocavities in argon-irradiated copper under annealing are presented. The subsurface argon-filled nanocavities are formed during a short annealing at a temperature around 1000 K by migration and interaction of complexes of the simplest

  11. Study of electron recombination in liquid argon with the ICARUS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoruso, S.; Antonello, M.; Aprili, P.; Arneodo, F.; Badertscher, A.; Baiboussinov, B.; Baldo Ceolin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bekman, B.; Benetti, P.; Bischofberger, M.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Brunetti, R.; Bruzzese, R.; Bueno, A.; Buzzanca, M.; Calligarich, E.; Campanelli, M.; Carbonara, F.; Carpanese, C.; Cavalli, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, D.; Chen, D.B.; Chen, Y.; Cieslik, K.; Cline, D.; Cocco, A.G.; Dai, Z.; De Vecchi, C.; Dabrowska, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Dolfini, R.; Ereditato, A.; Felcini, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferri, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Galli, S.; Ge, Y.; Gibin, D.; Gigli Berzolari, A.; Gil-Botella, I.; Graczyk, K.; Grandi, L.; Guglielmi, A.; He, K.; Holeczek, J.; Huang, X.; Juszczak, C.; Kielczewska, D.; Kisiel, J.; Kozlowski, T.; Laffranchi, M.; Lagoda, J.; Li, Z.; Lu, F.; Ma, J.; Mangano, G.; Markiewicz, M.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Matthey, C.; Mauri, F.; Meng, G.; Messina, M.; Montanari, C.; Muraro, S.; Navas-Concha, S.; Otwinowski, S.; Ouyang, Q.; Palamara, O.; Pascoli, D.; Periale, L.; Piano Mortari, G.B.; Piazzoli, A.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Polopek, W.; Rancati, T.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rico, J.; Rondio, E.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.R.; Santorelli, R.; Scannicchio, D.; Segreto, E.; Seo, Y.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sobczyk, J.; Spinelli, N.; Stepaniak, J.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Terrani, M.; Velotta, R.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Woo, J.; Xu, G.; Xu, Z.; Zalewska, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhen, S.; Zipper, W.

    2004-01-01

    Electron recombination in liquid argon (LAr) is studied by means of charged particle tracks collected in various ICARUS liquid argon TPC prototypes. The dependence of the recombination on the particle stopping power has been fitted with a Birks functional dependence. The simulation of the process of electron recombination in Monte Carlo calculations is discussed. A quantitative comparison with previously published data is carried out

  12. Role of metastable atoms in argon-diluted silane Rf plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansonnens, L.; Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, C.; Dorier, J.L.; Kroll, U.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the argon metastable density has been studied by absorption spectroscopy in power-modulated plasmas of argon and a mixture of 4% silane in argon. A small concentration of silane suppresses the argon metastable density by molecular quenching. This molecular quenching adds to the electronic collisional dissociation to increase the silane dissociation rate as compared with pure silane plasmas. Using time-resolved emission spectroscopy, the role of metastables in excitation to the argon 2P 2 state has been determined in comparison with production from the ground state. In silane plasmas, emission from SiH* is due essentially to electron impact dissociation of silane, whereas in 4% silane-in-argon plasmas, emission from SiH* seems to be due to electron impact excitation of the SiH ground state. These studies demonstrate that argon is not simply a buffer gas but has an influence on the dissociation rate in the plasma-assisted deposition of amorphous silicon using argon-diluted silane plasmas. (author) 7 figs., 30 refs

  13. Calibration of a large volume argon-41 gas-effluent monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, William E.; Lovas, Thomas A.

    1976-01-01

    In September of 1975, a large volume Argon-41 sampler was calibrated using a series connected calibration chamber of known sensitivity and a constant flow of activated Argon gas. The calibration included analysis of the effects of flow rate through the large volume sampler and yielded a calibration constant of 2.34 x 10 -8 μc/cm 3 /CPM. (author)

  14. The ICARUS Front-end Preamplifier Working at Liquid Argon Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Baibussinov, B; Casagrande, F; Cennini, P; Centro, S; Curioni, A; Meng, G; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rubbia, C; Sergiampietri, F; Ventura, S

    2011-01-01

    We describe characteristics and performance of the low-noise front-end preamplifier used in the ICARUS 50-litre liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber installed in the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility during the 1997-98 neutrino runs. The preamplifiers were designed to work immersed in ultra-pure liquid Argon at a temperature of 87K.

  15. Characterising the light output from Argon bombs by two simultaneous diagnostic techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The light output from Argon-bombs was investigated by means of ultra high speed photography (Cordin Model 550-32 camera) and locally developed photodiode sensors. Tubes of various sizes were inflated with Argon gas, and were detonated on one side...

  16. Determinants of feedback retention in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januário Nuno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed soccer players’ retention of coaches’ feedback during training sessions. We intended to determine if the retention of information was influenced by the athletes’ personal characteristic (age, gender and the sports level, the quantity of information included in coach’s feedback (the number of ideas and redundancy, athletes’ perception of the relevance of the feedback information and athletes’ motivation as well as the attention level. The study that was conducted over the course of 18 sessions of soccer practice, involved 12 coaches (8 males, 4 females and 342 athletes (246 males, 96 females, aged between 10 and 18 years old. All coach and athlete interventions were transposed to a written protocol and submitted to content analysis. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression were calculated. The results showed that a substantial part of the information was not retained by the athletes; in 65.5% of cases, athletes experienced difficulty in completely reproducing the ideas of the coaches and, on average, the value of feedback retention was 57.0%. Six variables with a statistically significant value were found: gender, the athletes’ sports level, redundancy, the number of transmitted ideas, athletes’ perception of the relevance of the feedback information and the athletes’ motivation level.

  17. RAINWATER RETENTION ON THE HEAVILY INDUSTRIALIZED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kaźmierczak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dimensioning of retention reservoirs indicator method regarding to the German DWA-A 117 guideline, recommended for small rainfall catchments (with an area of 200 ha. A comparative calculation of the retention reservoirs overflow useful volume were conducted for 4 variants of catchment development (degree sealing surface varied from 60% to 90%, under the assumed sewage outflow from the tank at the level of the urban basin natural runoff. At given conditions required unit volume of retention reservoirs, from 145.4 m3 to 206.7 m3 for each 1 ha of catchment area were determined. The obtained results confirmed the fact that useful volume of the tanks were decreased, when Blaszczyk’s pattern reliable rainwater streams were used for calculations. Because the DWA-A 117 guideline method should be applied to a small rainfall catchments, it is recommended to verify the hydraulic capacity of dimensioned channels and objects using hydrodynamic simulations at different load of rainfall catchment scenarios, variable in time and space.

  18. Pressure regulation in the dry-boxes. Argon purification; Regulation de pression dans les boites a gants. Purification d'argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascard, R; Fabre, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Each dry-box is equipped with an autonomous installation for circulation and purification of argon and for pressure regulation. This installation consists essentially of a ballast tank, a compressor and two valves electromagnetically controlled by a contact manometer. The compressor and the valves are enclosed in the tank to form a system as compact as possible. The argon is purified by passing it over a furnace filled with titanium-zirconium turnings brought to about 800 deg. C, branching off the main system. With this set-up as well as the automatic maintenance of a constant depression in the box, a quality of argon is obtained whose oxygen contact is undetectable by the manganous hydroxide method. (author) [French] Chaque boite a gants est munie d'une installation autonome de circulation purification d'argon et de regulation de pression. Cette installation comprend essentiellement un reservoir tampon, un compresseur et deux vannes electromagnetiques commandees par un manometre a contact. Le compresseur et les vannes sont enfermes dans le reservoir de maniere a realiser un ensemble aussi compact que possible. L'argon est purifie par passage dans un four en derivation charge de tournure de titane-zirconium, porte a environ 800 deg. C. Avec ce dispositif, on obtient, outre le maintien automatique d'une depression constante dans la boite, un argon dont la teneur en oxygene est indecelable par la methode a l'hydrate manganeux. (auteur)

  19. Retrospective analysis for detecting seismic precursors in groundwater argon content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Biagi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the groundwater Argon content data sampled from 1988 to 2001 at two wells in Kamchatka (Russia and anomalous increases appeared clearly during June-July 1996. On 21 June, a shallow (1km earthquake with M=7.1 occurred at a distance less than 250km from the wells and so the previous increases could be related to this earthquake and, in particular, could be considered premonitory anomalies. In order to support this raw interpretation, we analysed the data collected in details. At first we smoothed out the high frequency fluctuations arising from the errors in a single measurement. Next we considered the known external effects on the water of a well that are the slow tectonic re-adjustment processes, the meteorology and the gravity tides and we separated these effects applying band-pass filters to the Argon content raw trends. Then we identified the largest fluctuations in these trends applying the 3 σ criterion and we found three anomalies in a case and two anomalies in other case. Comparing the time occurrence of the anomalies at the two wells we found out that a coincidence exists only in the case of the premonitory anomalies we are studying. The simultaneous appearance of well definite anomalies in the residual trends of the same parameter at two different sites supports their meaning and the possibility that they are related to some large scale effect, as the occurrence of a strong earthquake. But, other earthquakes similar to the June 1996 event took place during the Argon content measurements time and no anomaly appeared in this content. In the past, some of the authors of this paper studied the Helium content data collected in three natural springs of the Caucasus during seven years. A very similar result, that is the simultaneous appearance of clear premonitory anomalies only on the occasion of a strong (M=7.0 but shallow (2–4km earthquake, was obtained. The correspondence with the case of the Caucasus validates the

  20. Argon plasma coagulation for rectal bleeding after prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stephen; Wallner, Kent; Dominitz, Jason A.; Han, Ben; True, Lawrence; Sutlief, Steven; Billingsley, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To better define the efficacy and safety of argon plasma coagulation (APC), specifically for brachytherapy-related proctitis, we reviewed the clinical course of 7 patients treated for persistent rectal bleeding. Approximately 2-10% of prostate cancer patients treated with 125 I or 103 Pd brachytherapy will develop radiation proctitis. The optimum treatment for patients with persistent bleeding is unclear from the paucity of available data. Prior reports lack specific dosimetric information, and patients with widely divergent forms of radiation were grouped together in the analyses. Methods and Materials: Seven patients were treated with APC at the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System and the University of Washington from 1997 to 1999 for persistent rectal bleeding due to prostate brachytherapy-related proctitis. Four patients received supplemental external beam radiation, delivered by a four-field technique. A single gastroenterologist at the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System treated 6 of the 7 patients. If the degree of proctitis was limited, all sites of active bleeding were coagulated in symptomatic patients. An argon plasma coagulator electrosurgical system was used to administer treatments every 4-8 weeks as needed. The argon gas flow was set at 1.6 L/min, with an electrical power setting of 40-45 W. Results: The rectal V100 (the total rectal volume, including the lumen, receiving the prescription dose or greater) for the 7 patients ranged from 0.13 to 4.61 cc. Rectal bleeding was first noticed 3-18 months after implantation. APC (range 1-3 sessions) was performed 9-22 months after implantation. Five patients had complete resolution of their bleeding, usually within days of completing APC. Two patients had only partial relief from bleeding, but declined additional APC therapy. No patient developed clinically evident progressive rectal wall abnormalities after APC, (post-APC follow-up range 4-13 months). Conclusions: Most

  1. High capacity argon extraction and purification system. [Suitable for age estimation of rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balogh, K; Morik, Gy [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia Atommag Kutato Intezete, Debrecen

    1979-01-01

    A high capacity metal-glass argon extraction and purification system has been developed for K/Ar dating of geologic materials. A set of samples can be loaded simultaneously and degassed in turn in the system by high frequency induction heating in a molybdenum crucible. The argon purification is carried out by titanium sponge, molecular sieve, copper oxide and glass and charcoal filled traps cooled by liquid nitrogen. The /sup 38/Ar spike and the atmospheric argon used for calibrating the mass spectrometer are dispensed by a gas-pipette system. 80-120 minutes after starting the degassing of the sample, the purified argon can be introduced into the mass spectrometer; the gettering materials regenerate in 1-5 hours, thus 1-3 samples may be analysed a day. The atmospheric argon inflow during an experimental process is less than 5x10/sup -8/ cc STP.

  2. Influence of argon impurities on the elastic scattering of x-rays from imploding beryllium capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A. M.; Chapman, D. A.; Kritcher, A. L.; Schoff, M.; Shuldberg, C.; Landen, O. L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Falcone, R. W.; Gericke, D. O.; Döppner, T.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effect of argon impurities on the elastic component of x-ray scattering spectra taken from directly driven beryllium capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser. The plasma conditions were obtained in a previous analysis [18] by fitting the inelastic scattering component. We show that the known argon impurity in the beryllium modifies the elastic scattering due to the larger number of bound electrons. We indeed find significant deviations in the elastic scattering from roughly 1 at.% argon contained in the beryllium. With knowledge of the argon impurity fraction, we use the elastic scattering component to determine the charge state of the compressed beryllium, as the fits are rather insensitive to the argon charge state. Finally, we discuss how doping small fractions of mid- or high-Z elements into low-Z materials could allow ionization balance studies in dense plasmas.

  3. Simulation of argon response and light detection in the DarkSide-50 dual phase TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2017-07-18

    A Geant4-based Monte Carlo package named G4DS has been developed to simulate the response of DarkSide-50, an experiment operating since 2013 at LNGS, designed to detect WIMP interactions in liquid argon. In the process of WIMP searches, DarkSide-50 has achieved two fundamental milestones: the rejection of electron recoil background with a power of ~10^7, using the pulse shape discrimination technique, and the measurement of the residual 39Ar contamination in underground argon, ~3 orders of magnitude lower with respect to atmospheric argon. These results rely on the accurate simulation of the detector response to the liquid argon scintillation, its ionization, and electron-ion recombination processes. This work provides a complete overview of the DarkSide Monte Carlo and of its performance, with a particular focus on PARIS, the custom-made liquid argon response model.

  4. First measurement of the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangiorgio, Samuele [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foxe, Michael P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Hagmann, Chris [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jovanovic, Igor [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Norman, E. B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pereverzev, S. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rebassoo, Finn O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sorensen, Peter F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Liquid phase argon has long been used as a target medium for particle detection via scintillation light. Recently there has been considerable interest in direct detection of both hypothetical darkmatter particles and coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering. These as-yet unobserved neutral particle interactions are expected to result in a recoiling argon atom O(keV), generally referred to in the literature as a nuclear recoil. This prompts the question of the available electromagnetic signal in a liquid argon detector. In this Letter we report the first measurement of the ionization yield (Qy), detected electrons per unit energy, resulting from nuclear recoils in liquid argon, measured at 6.7 keV. This is also the lowest energy measurement of nuclear recoils in liquid argon.

  5. Comparison study of nitrogen and argon processing in a plasma arc centrifugal treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuey, M.; Tsuji, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Recent testing performed at the plasma research center of Retech Services, Inc. compared nitrogen with argon as plasma gas in the processing of simulated wastes. The testing took place in a full-scale production PACT system under a cooperative research and development study between Retech Services Inc. and Toyo Engineering Corporation. This study shows that simulated waste can be processed by both nitrogen and argon plasmas. Heat losses to the torch nozzle were significantly lower with argon and should be studied further. Both argon and nitrogen plasma were able to process feeds containing both metals and oxides. Some of the drawbacks to using argon plasma are cost, higher volume flow rates, and dual mode torch nozzle erosion. (authors)

  6. Urinary Retention Associated with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Takeru; Ohta, Hirotsugu; Yokota, Akira; Yarimizu, Shiroh; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    Patients often exhibit urinary retention following a stroke. Various neuropathological and animal studies have implicated the medulla oblongata, pons, limbic system, frontal lobe as areas responsible for micturition control, although the exact area responsible for urinary retention after stroke is not clear. The purpose of this study was to identify the stroke area responsible for urinary retention by localizing the areas where strokes occur. We assessed 110 patients with cerebral infarction and 27 patients with cerebral hemorrhage (78 men, 59 women; mean age, 73.0 years) who had been admitted to our hospital between October, 2012 and September, 2013. We used computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the stroke location, and evaluated whether post-stroke urinary retention occurred. Twelve (8.8%) of the 137 patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age, 78.8 years) exhibited urinary retention after a stroke. Stroke occurred in the right/left dominant hemisphere in 7 patients; nondominant hemisphere in 1; cerebellum in 3; and brainstem in 1. Strokes in the dominant hemisphere were associated with urinary retention (P = 0.0314), particularly in the area of the insula (P < 0.01). We concluded that stroke affecting the insula of the dominant hemisphere tends to cause urinary retention.

  7. Job embeddedness and nurse retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, O Ed; Anderson, Mary Ann; Hill, Pamela D

    2010-01-01

    Nurse retention is a different way of conceptualizing the employer-employee relationship when compared with turnover. Job embeddedness (JE), a construct based on retention, represents the sum of reasons why employees remain at their jobs. However, JE has not been investigated in relation to locale (urban or rural) or exclusively with a sample of registered nurses (RNs). The purpose of this study was to determine what factors (JE, age, gender, locale, and income) help predict nurse retention. A cross-sectional mailed survey design was used with RNs in different locales (urban or rural). Job embeddedness was measured by the score on the composite, standardized instrument. Nurse retention was measured by self-report items concerning intent to stay. A response rate of 49.3% was obtained. The typical respondent was female (96.1%), white, non-Hispanic (87.4%), and married (74.9%). Age and JE were predictive of nurse retention and accounted for 26% of the explained variance in intent to stay. Although age was a significant predictor of intent to stay, it accounted for only 1.4% of the variance while JE accounted for 24.6% of the variance of nurse retention (as measured by intent to stay). Older, more "embedded" nurses are more likely to remain employed in their current organization. Based on these findings, JE may form the basis for the development of an effective nurse retention program.

  8. Influence of the mechanical properties of resilient denture liners on the retention of overdenture attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Koike, Takashi; Ueda, Takayuki; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2018-03-15

    Information is lacking about the selection criteria for silicone resilient denture liners applied as a matrix material for attachments on overdentures. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the mechanical properties of silicone resilient denture liners and their influence on the initial retention force of overdenture attachments and the reduction in retention force over time. Nine types of silicone resilient denture liner were injected and fixed to the matrix section of an experimental denture base. They were then fitted to an epoxy resin model that simulated the residual ridge with a patrix ball attachment (n=10). The retention force of the denture was measured with a digital force gauge, and the maximum force of traction (N) was regarded as the initial retention force. The retention force reduction (N) after repeated insertion and removal (n=5) was calculated by subtracting the retention force after 3348 cycles (3-year simulated insertion and removal) from the initial retention force. The intaglio of the matrix was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after the 3348 cycles. Four mechanical properties (hardness, strain-in-compression, tensile strength, and arithmetic mean roughness) of the resilient denture liners were measured. One-way ANOVA of the initial retention force of each lining material was performed, followed by the Scheffe test (α=.05). Pearson correlation analysis was used (α=.05) to analyze correlations of the initial retention force with the retention force reduction after insertion and removal and the mechanical properties of each material. Multiple regression analysis with the stepwise method extracted the initial retention force and the retention force reduction as dependent variables, and the resilient denture liner mechanical properties as explanatory variables (α=.05). The initial retention force of the resilient denture liners was 1.3 to 5.4 N. Multiple comparisons showed significant differences in

  9. Postgraduation retention of medical students from Otago and Auckland medical programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelker, William; Poole, Phillippa; Bagg, Warwick; Wood, Ian; Glue, Paul

    2014-01-24

    Auckland and Otago medical programmes have different methods for selecting students. This study compared postgraduate retention in New Zealand (NZ) of medical graduates from the two medical programmes, to assess whether different selection methods influenced retention. Other variables assessed included entrance category and age at graduation. Anonymised databases were created of all graduates from the Otago Faculty of Medicine (1999-2011) and the Auckland medical programme (2000-2012). Demographic and entry category data were recorded. Retention was defined as presence on the NZ Medical Register in December 2012. Risk differences (RD) were calculated to compare retention between the two medical programmes using the Mantel-Haenszel method. The influence of medical programme entrance category on retention was also tested. The influence of covariates on retaining graduates on the register was evaluated using a multiple logistic regression model. The postgraduate retention of graduates of the two medical programmes over 13 years was identical (Auckland 74.9%, Otago 73.6%, P=0.48). Retention of graduate and non-graduate entry students from both medical programmes was similar by 6 years after graduation. Age during medical school did not affect retention. University of attendance had no effect on postgraduation retention of students on the NZ Medical Register, suggesting that retention is not influenced by the different student selection methods at each programme. The data presented shows that New Zealand graduates regardless of programme completed show a similar profile in terms of retention.

  10. 2D DC Subnormal Glow Discharge in Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchikhi, A.; Hamid, A.

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional time-dependent fluid model was developed and used to describe a DC subnormal glow discharge in argon with Cartesian geometry. This configuration allows us to take into account the transverse expansion of the discharge. A hydrodynamic fluid model used in this paper is based on the moments of the Boltzmann transport equation. The resultant set of governing equations consists of continuity equations (fluxes and densities) for electrons and ions, an energy equation for electrons, and Poisson's equation. Simulation results are presented for the densities of charged particles, the electric voltage, the electric field, and the electron temperature of the discharge. The results were compared with those obtained in the literature.

  11. Development of membrane cryostats for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, D; Gendotti, A; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Loew, T; Mladenov, D; Montanari, C; Murphy, S; Nessi, M; Norris, B; Noto, F; Rubbia, A; Sharma, R; Smargianaki, D; Stewart, J; Vignoli, C; Wilson, P; Wu, S

    2015-01-01

    A new collaboration is being formed to develop a multi-kiloton Long-Baseline neutrino experiment that will be located at the Surf Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. In the present design, the detector will be located inside cryostats filled with 68,400 ton of ultrapure liquid argon (less than 100 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). To qualify the membrane technology for future very large-scale and underground implementations, a strong prototyping effort is ongoing: several smaller detectors of growing size with associated cryostats and cryogenic systems will be designed and built at Fermilab and CERN. They will take physics data and test different detector elements, filtration systems, design options and installation procedures. In addition, a 35 ton prototype is already operational at Fermilab and will take data with single-phase detector in early 2016. After the prototyping phase, the multi-kton detector will be constructed. After commissioning, it will detect and study ne...

  12. Cold Electronics for Giant Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; De Geronimo, G.; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; Lanni, F.; Li, S.; Nambiar, N.; Rescia, S.; Thorn, C.; Yarema, R.; Yu, B.

    2011-01-01

    The choice between cold and warm electronics (inside or outside the cryostat) in very large LAr TPCs (>5-10 ktons) is not an electronics issue, but it is rather a major cryostat design issue. This is because the location of the signal processing electronics has a direct and far reaching effect on the cryostat design, an indirect effect on the TPC electrode design (sense wire spacing, wire length and drift distance), and a significant effect on the TPC performance. All these factors weigh so overwhelmingly in favor of the cold electronics that it remains an optimal solution for very large TPCs. In this paper signal and noise considerations are summarized, the concept of the readout chain is described, and the guidelines for design of CMOS circuits for operation in liquid argon (at ∼89 K) are discussed.

  13. Is there excess argon in the Fish Canyon magmatic system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. M.; Sherlock, S.; Kelley, S. P.; Charlier, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Some phenocrysts from the Fish Canyon Tuff (San Juan volcanic field, south-western Colorado, USA) have yielded anomalously old 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages and yet the sanidine ages are sufficiently reproducible to allow its use as an international standard. The eruption age of the Fish Canyon tuff has recently been determined by high precision analysis and recalibration of the decay constants based on the sanidine standard at 28.305 ± 0.036 Ma [1], slightly younger than the generally accepted U-Pb age. Previously, minerals from the tuff have been used in various geochronological studies e.g., fission-track; U-Pb; Rb-Sr; K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar, but U-Pb zircon ages which range 28.37 - 28.61 Ma appear to be older than the sanidine and other minerals, including biotite, yield older ages (27.41 - 28.25 Ma for biotite) [2]. In the Fish Canyon volcanic system, the erupted products are thought to exist in the magma chamber for significant periods prior to eruption [3] and then pass rapidly from a high temperature magmatic environment (where Ar is free to re-equilibrate among the minerals), to effectively being quenched upon eruption (where Ar becomes immobile). Artificially elevated ages, older than eruption age, have been identified in some 40Ar/39Ar geochronological studies (e.g. [4]). These older ages may either reflect; 1) argon accumulation in pheno- or xenocrysts (by radioactive decay of parent 40K), 2) excess argon (40ArE) incorporated into a mineral during crystallisation (via diffusion into the mineral lattice or hosted within fluid or melt inclusions) or 3) inherited radiogenic argon (the dated material contains a component older than the age of eruption) [5]. To better understand the effects of 40ArE on 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages we have conducted a detailed study of intra-grain grain age variations by UV-LAMP Ar-analysis. Analysis of polished thick sections has been performed in-situ using a 213nm laser and Nu Instruments Noblesse which is able to discriminate against

  14. Liquid argon calorimetry with LHC-performance specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianotti, F.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Ferrari, A.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Cavanna, F.; Colas, J.; Lebeau, M.; Leflour, T.; LeMarec, J.C.; Maire, M.; Petitpas, P.; Thion, J.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Gordon, H.A.; Polychronakos, V.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Baisin, L.; Berset, J.C.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Franz, A.; Farthouat, P.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Marin, C.P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Polesello, G.; Richter, W.; Sigrist, A.; Stevenson, G.R.; Willis, W.J.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.L.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Fournier, D.; Guilhem, G.; Hrisoho, A.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jean, P.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Veillet, J.J.; Fuglesang, C.

    1992-01-01

    A novel geometry liquid argon calorimeter with accordion-shaped electrodes and converter plates has been recently conceived. Such a design allows for a fast readout and for a high granularity over large volumes with minimal dead spaces, properties which are considered essential for operation at the future hadron colliders. The first electromagnetic prototype based on this scheme has been built and tested at the CERN SPS. For a response peaking time of 140 ns an energy resolution of 10%/√E(GeV) and a space resolution of 4.4 mm/√E(GeV) with 2.7 cm cell size were achieved for electrons. A few preliminary results from a test with fast readout (response peaking time of less than 40 ns) are also presented. (orig.)

  15. Performance of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter with fast readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Franz, A.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.F.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sala, P.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Jean, P.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.; Towers, S.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype lead-liquid-argon electromagnetic calorimeter with parallel plates and Accordion geometry has been equipped with high speed readout electronics and tested with electron and muon beams at the CERN SPS. For a response peaking time of about 35 ns, fast enough for operation at the future hadron colliders, the energy resolution for electrons is 9.6%/√E[GeV] with a local constant term of 0.3% and a noise contribution of 0.33/E[GeV]. The spatial accuracy achieved with a detector granularity of 2.7 cm is 3.7 mm/√E[GeV] and the angular resolution 12 mrad at 60 GeV. (orig.)

  16. High pressure argon detector of high energy neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevskii, A.V.; Golutvin, I.A.; Sarantsev, V.L.; Sviridov, V.A.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Kalinovskii, A.N.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Chernyatin, V.K.; Kaftanov, V.S.; Khovanskii, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper, we suggest an electron neutrino detector of a new type where track information is available for all charged particles. As a working medium we use Argon compressed up to a pressure of 100 to 150 atm (approximately 0.2-0.3 g/cm 3 ). The spatial reconstruction of tracks are accomplished with an accuracy not inferior to that of bubble chambers. The detector has a high sensitivity in ionization measurements. An assembly with a working medium mass of approximately 100 tons seem to be realisable. This makes it possible to perform tasks with cross-sections of (10 -5 + 10 -3 ) x delty tot at an intensity of the neutrino beam which is available in present-day accelerators. (orig.)

  17. Electron-ion recombination study in argon at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafrouni, Hanna.

    1979-01-01

    This study deals with a wall-stabilized arc burning in argon at atmospheric pressure. A transient mode is obtained using a fast thyristor connected to the electrodes, which short-circuits the discharge. By means of two wavelengths laser interferometry and spectroscopy measurements we have determined the temporal changes of the electron density, ground state atom density and excited atom density. We have shown that, when the electric field is suppressed, the electron temperature rapidly decreases to the gas temperature before changing electron and atom densities. This phenomenon is applied to determine the gas temperature and to evaluate the role played by ionization in electron density balance. The coefficients of ambipolar diffusion, ionization and recombination and an apparent recombination coefficient are determined versus electron temperature and compared with theoretical values [fr

  18. Readout Electronics Upgrades of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, Christopher Ryan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC will provide 5-7 times higher luminosites than the orignal design. An improved readout system of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter is needed to readout the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40 MHz with 16 bit dynamic range in these conditions. Low-noise, low-power, radiation-tolerant and high-bandwidth electronics components are being developed in 65 and 130 nm CMOS technologies. First prototypes of the front-end electronics components show good promise to match the stringent specifications. The off-detector electronics will make use of FPGAs connected through high-speed links to perform energy reconstruction, data reduction and buffering. Results of tests of the first prototypes of front-end components will be presented, along with design studies on the performance of the off-detector readout system.

  19. Raman spectra of ruthenium and tantalum trimers in argon matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Shen, Xiaole; Chen, Xiaoyu; Lombardi, John R.

    2000-12-01

    The resonance Raman spectra of ruthenium trimers (Ru 3) in argon matrices have been obtained. Three resonance Raman transitions were observed between 570 and 590 nm. Two of them (303.4 and 603.7 cm -1) are assigned to the totally symmetric vibrational progression, giving k e=1.86 mdyne/ Å. The line at 581.5 cm-1 is assigned as the origin of a low-lying electronic state. We also report on the observation of a resonance Raman spectrum of tantalum trimers (Ta 3). Observed lines include 251.2 and 501.9 cm-1 which we assign to the fundamental and the first overtone of the symmetric stretch in Ta 3. This gives k e=2.25 mdyne/ Å.

  20. Liquid argon TPC signal formation, signal processing and reconstruction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, B.

    2017-07-01

    This document describes a reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions benefits from the knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise. A unique clustering algorithm reconstructs line-like trajectories and vertices in two dimensions which are then matched to create of 3D objects. These techniques and algorithms are available to all experiments that use the LArSoft suite of software.

  1. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory [Adelphi Technology LLC, Purdue Technology Center, 5225 Exploration Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46241 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  2. Drift velocity of free electrons in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowiak, W.

    2000-01-01

    A measurement of the drift velocity of free electrons in liquid argon has been performed. Free electrons have been produced by photoelectric effect using laser light in a so-called 'laser chamber'. The results on the drift velocity v d are given as a function of the electric field strength in the range 0.5 kV/cm≤|E|≤12.6 kV/cm and the temperature in the range 87 K≤T≤94 K. A global parametrization of v d (|E|,T) has been fitted to the data. A temperature dependence of the electron drift velocity is observed, with a mean value of Δv d /(ΔT v d )=(-1.72±0.08)%/K in the range of 87-94 K

  3. LET dependence of scintillation yields in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doke, Tadayoshi; Hitachi, Akira; Kikuchi, Jun; Crawford, H J; Lindstrom, P J; Masuda, Kimiaki; Shibamura, Eido; Takahashi, Tan

    1988-06-01

    Scintillation yields (scintillation intensity per unit absorbed energy) in liquid argon for ionizing particles are reviewed as a function of LET for the particles. The maximum scintillation yield, which is obtained for relativistic heavy ions from Ne to La, is about 1.2 times larger than that for gamma rays in NaI(Tl) crystal. In the low LET region, the scintillation yields for relativistic electrons, protons and He ions are 10-20% lower than the maximum yield. This tendency can be explained by taking into account the existence of the electrons which have escaped from their parent ions. In the high LET region, a quenching effect due to high ionization density is observed for alpha particles, fission fragments and relativistic Au ions.

  4. Effect of the levitating microparticle cloud on radiofrequency argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitic, S.; Pustylnik, M. Y.; Klumov, B. A.; Morfill, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a levitating cloud of microparticles on the parameters of a radiofrequency (RF) plasma has been studied by means of two experimental techniques. Axial distributions of 1s excited states of argon were measured by a self-absorption method. A correction of a standard self-absorption method for the extinction of the light by the levitating microparticles is proposed. In addition the electron temperature was estimated using the optical emission spectroscopy. Measurements at the same discharge conditions in a microparticle-free discharge and discharge, containing a cloud of levitating microparticles, revealed the non-local influence of the microparticle cloud on the discharge plasma. The most probable cause of this influence is the disturbance of the ionization balance by the levitating microparticles.

  5. The liquid argon TPC for the ICARUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F

    1997-01-01

    The ICARUS project aims at the realisation of a large liquid argon TPC to be run at the Underground Laboratories of Gran Sasso in Italy. An intense R&D; activity has put on firm grounds this new detector technology and experimentally confirmed its feasibility on a few ton scale. Based on these solid achievements, the collaboration is now confident of being able to build and safely operate a multi-kton detector. The reseach program of the experiment involves the systematic study of a wide spectrum of physical phenomena covering many orders of magnitude in the energy deposited in the detector: from the few MeV of solar neutrino interactions, to the about one GeV of the proton decay and atmospheric neutrinos, up to the higher energies of neutrinos from accelerators.

  6. Dynamic polarizabilities and Rydberg states of the argon isoelectronic sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, T.K.; Das, A.K.; Castro, M.; Canuto, S.; Mukherjee, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic dipole polarizabilities α d (ω) have been calculated within and beyond the normal-dispersion region for the isoelectronic members of argon up to Mn 7+ using time-dependent coupled Hartree-Fock theory. Excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and quantum-defect values have been estimated for the dipole-allowed transitions 3p 6 1 Se→3p 5 ( 2 P)ns 1 Po (n=4,...,7) and 3p 6 1 Se→3p 5 ( 2 P)nd 1 Po (n=3,...,7). Analytic representations of the singly excited Rydberg orbitals have been obtained. The results compare favorably with the existing theoretical and experimental data. The oscillator strengths show an interesting trend of variation along the isoelectronic sequence

  7. Numerical study of some operating characteristics for argon induction plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, K.

    1978-01-01

    Some operating characteristics of argon induction plasmas at atmospheric pressure were obtained numerically by using magnetohydrodynamic equations. From these characteristics we can estimate the general dependency of plasma temperatures on operating conditions for induction plasmas. Calculated relationships between the sustaining electric field strength at the plasma surface and the electric power input show the existence of a minimum value of the field strength, the reason for which is revealed by detailed investigation of the calculated radial temperature distributions. Further, it was found that the minimum increases almost linearly with increasing frequency. In addition, characteristics of the Poynting vector and heat conduction loss at the plasma surface were obtained. Some characteristics obtained here give practical information on the electromagnetic field which is necessary to maintain the steady plasmas

  8. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  9. Energy band dispersion in photoemission spectra of argon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, Marko; Mucke, Melanie; Arion, Tiberiu; Lischke, Toralf; Barth, Silko; Ulrich, Volker; Ohrwall, Gunnar; Bjoerneholm, Olle; Hergenhahn, Uwe; Bradshaw, Alex M.

    2011-01-01

    Using photoemission we have investigated free argon clusters from a supersonic nozzle expansion in the photon energy range from threshold up to 28 eV. Measurements were performed both at high resolution with a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser and at lower resolution with a magnetic bottle device. The latter experiments were performed for various mean cluster sizes. In addition to the ∼1.5 eV broad 3p-derived valence band seen in previous work, there is a sharper feature at ∼15 eV binding energy. Surprisingly for non-oriented clusters, this peak shifts smoothly in binding energy over the narrow photon energy range 15.5-17.7 eV, indicating energy band dispersion. The onset of this bulk band-like behaviour could be determined from the cluster size dependence.

  10. Alphas and surface backgrounds in liquid argon dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Christopher J.

    Current observations from astrophysics indicate the presence of dark matter, an invisible form of matter that makes up a large part of the mass of the universe. One of the leading theories for dark matter is that it is made up of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). One of the ways we try to discover WIMPs is by directly detecting their interaction with regular matter. This can be done using a scintillator such as liquid argon, which gives off light when a particle interacts with it. Liquid argon (LAr) is a favorable means of detecting WIMPs because it has an inherent property that enables a technique called pulse-shape discrimination (PSD). PSD can distinguish a WIMP signal from the constant background of electromagnetic signals from other sources, like gamma rays. However, there are other background signals that PSD is not as capable of rejecting, such as those caused by alpha decays on the interior surfaces of the detector. Radioactive elements that undergo alpha decay are introduced to detector surfaces during construction by radon gas that is naturally present in the air, as well as other means. When these surface isotopes undergo alpha decay, they can produce WIMP-like signals in the detector. We present here two LAr experiments. The first (RaDOSE) discovered a property of an organic compound that led to a technique for rejecting surface alpha decays in LAr detectors with high efficiency. The second (DarkSide-50) is a dark matter experiment operated at LNGS in Italy and is the work of an international collaboration. A detailed look is given into alpha decays and surface backgrounds present in the detector, and projections are made of alpha-related backgrounds for 500 live days of data. The technique developed with RaDOSE is applied to DarkSide-50 to determine its effectiveness in practice. It is projected to suppress the surface background in DarkSide-50 by more than a factor of 1000.

  11. Prediction of underground argon content for dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, D.-M.; Spaans, J.; Keller, C.; Yin, Z.-B.; Koppang, M.; Hime, A.; Gehman, V. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of physical models to evaluate the production of 39 Ar and 40 Ar underground. Considering both cosmogenic 39 Ar production and radiogenic 40 Ar production in situ and from external sources, we can derive the ratio of 39 Ar to 40 Ar in underground sources. We show for the first time that the 39 Ar production underground is dominated by stopping negative muon capture on 39 K and (α,n) induced subsequent 39 K(n,p) 39 Ar reactions. The production of 39 Ar is shown as a function of depth. We demonstrate that argon depleted in 39 Ar can be obtained only if the depth of the underground resources is greater than 500 m.w.e. below the surface. Stopping negative muon capture on 39 K dominates over radiogenic production at depths of less than 2000 m.w.e., and that production by muon-induced neutrons is subdominant at any depth. The depletion factor depends strongly on both radioactivity level and potassium content in the rock. We measure the radioactivity concentration and potassium concentration in the rock for a potential site of an underground argon source in South Dakota. Depending on the probability of 39 Ar and 40 Ar produced underground being dissolved in the water, the upper limit of the concentration of 39 Ar in the underground water at this site is estimated to be in a range of a factor of 1.6 to 155 less than the 39 Ar concentration in the atmosphere. The calculation tools presented in this paper are also critical to the dating method with 39 Ar.

  12. The Retention of Female Unrestricted Line Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pecenco, Elena G

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the retention of female Naval officers, focusing on the relationship between officer selection metrics and retention beyond minimum service obligation and the effect of lateral...

  13. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  14. Kinetics of Ar+*(2G9/2) metastable ions and transport of argon ions in ICP reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghi, N.; Derouard, J.; Grift, van de M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Hoog, de F.J.; Tachibana, K.; Watanabe, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The decay time of the argon Ar~~(2G912) metastable ions was measured in the afterglow of a low pressure pulsed helicon reactor. From the argon pressure and electron density dependence of this decay time, rate coefficients for quenching of these ions by argon atoms and by plasma electrons have been

  15. The Influence of Workplace Attraction on Recruitment and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Norman E.

    2007-01-01

    Economic changes have made the topics of recruitment and retention key issues for career development and human resource professionals. In this article, a model of workplace attraction is presented as 1 way of better understanding the match between workers and workplaces. Many contextual variables such as age, culture, and gender influence the…

  16. Increasing Army Retention Through Incentives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beerman, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    .... If the Army fails to address the enlisted retention issue in the near future departures of experienced NCOs will have a detrimental impact our military's ability to provide for our nation's security...

  17. Is Enlisted Retention too High?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, M

    2003-01-01

    .... The consensus appears to be that higher retention is better for the Navy; more experienced Sailors improve readiness and allow the Navy to devote fewer resources to the recruiting, training, and acculturation of new accessions...

  18. Transit ridership, reliability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This project explores two major components that affect transit ridership: travel time reliability and rider : retention. It has been recognized that transit travel time reliability may have a significant impact on : attractiveness of transit to many ...

  19. Emotional intelligence, performance, and retention in clinical staff nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codier, Estelle; Kamikawa, Cindy; Kooker, Barbara M; Shoultz, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has been correlated with performance, retention, and organizational commitment in professions other than nursing. A 2006 pilot study provided the first evidence of a correlation between emotional intelligence and performance in clinical staff nurses. A follow-up study was completed, the purpose of which was to explore emotional intelligence, performance level, organizational commitment, and retention. A convenience sample of 350 nurses in a large medical center in urban Hawaii participated in this study. This article reports the findings pertaining to the subset of 193 clinical staff nurses who responded. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test instrument was used to measure emotional intelligence abilities. Performance was defined as ranking on a clinical ladder. Commitment was scored on a Likert scale. The following variables measured retention: total years in nursing, years in current job, total years anticipated in current job, and total anticipated career length. Emotional intelligence scores in clinical staff nurses correlated positively with both performance level and retention variables. Clinical staff nurses with higher emotional intelligence scores demonstrated higher performance, had longer careers, and greater job retention.

  20. phosphorus retention data and metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    phosphorus retention in wetlands data and metadataThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Lane , C., and B. Autrey. Phosphorus retention of forested and emergent marsh depressional wetlands in differing land uses in Florida, USA. Wetlands Ecology and Management. Springer Science and Business Media B.V;Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V., GERMANY, 24(1): 45-60, (2016).

  1. Promoting Special Educator Teacher Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E. Vittek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a critical review of the literature on special education teacher attrition and retention. The research focused on journal articles from 2004 to present. The results of the study helped define special educator attrition and retention. The major themes present in the findings were job satisfaction, administrative support, induction programs, and mentoring. The literature shows a clear need for comprehensive administrative support to improve job satisfaction and the likelihood a special educator will remain in their job.

  2. Monetary and Non-monetary SWO Retention Bonuses: An Experimental Approach to the Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    aircraft carrier would not function properly nor could a guided missile destroyer fulfill its missions. Retention of qualified and motivated ...19 Jason Blake Ellis, “Variability of Valuation of Non-Monetary Incentives: Motivating and...this illustration offer individual values that exceed the Navy’s cost to provide the incentive for most individuals. On the other hand, telecommuting

  3. Argon Kα measurement on DIII endash D by Ross filters technique (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, R.T.; Bogatu, I.N.; Brooks, N.H.; Wade, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Techniques to reduce the heat flux to the divertor plates in tokamak power plants and the consequent erosion of, and subsequent damage to the divertor target plates include the injection of impurities such as argon, that can dissipate the energy (through radiative or collisional processes) before it reaches the target plates. An important issue with this type of scheme is poisoning of the plasma core by the impurities introduced in the divertor region. Subsequently, there is a desire to measure the profiles of the injected impurities in the core. X-ray Ross filters with an effective narrow band pass centered on the argon Kα line at 3.2 keV, have been installed on two of the existing x-ray arrays on DIII endash D in order to help determine the argon concentration profiles. Emissivity profiles of the Kα lines and the emissivity profiles for the argon enhanced continuum can be inferred from the inverted filtered x-ray brightness signals if T e , n e , and Ar 18+ profiles are known. The MIST code is used to couple the filtered x-ray signals to the time dependent measurements of T e and n e . Further, the Ar 16+ profiles measured by charge transfer spectroscopy, are used as a constraint on the MIST code runs to calculate Ar 18+ profiles and unfold the argon emissivity profiles. A discussion of the Ross filters, the DIII endash D argon data, and the data analysis scheme for inferring argon emissivity profiles will be discussed. Estimates of the total argon concentration in the core determined from this technique in DIII endash D argon puff experiments will be presented. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  4. Simulation of argon response and light detection in the DarkSide-50 dual phase TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Asner, D. M.; Back, H. O.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cataudella, V.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D' Angelo, D.; D' Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; de Candia, A.; Cecco, S. De; Deo, M. De; Filippis, G. De; Vincenzi, M. De; Derbin, A. V.; Rosa, G. De; Devoto, A.; Eusanio, F. Di; Pietro, G. Di; Dionisi, C.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, An.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Longo, G.; Ma, Y.; Machado, A. A.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Martoff, C. J.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Monte, A.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Agasson, A. Navrer; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Sablone, D.; Sands, W.; Sanfilippo, S.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-10-01

    Geant4-based Monte Carlo package named G4DS has been developed to simulate the response of DarkSide-50, an experiment operating since 2013 at LNGS, designed to detect WIMP interactions in liquid argon. In the process of WIMP searches, DarkSide-50 has achieved two fundamental milestones: the rejection of electron recoil background with a power of ~10^7, using the pulse shape discrimination technique, and the measurement of the residual 39Ar contamination in underground argon, ~3 orders of magnitude lower with respect to atmospheric argon.

  5. Data relative to (e, argon) and (e, ethane) interactions necessary for strong field transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florent, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Collisions between electrons and argon atoms and ethane molecules are studied in order to better understand phenomena occurring at each stage of detection in gas detectors used in nuclear and high energy physics. Elastic collisions between an electron and argon, those producing an electronic excitation of the atom, and those leading to its ionisation are reviewed. For the ethane collisions, vibrational excitation is considered. Photoionisation of argon and ethane is also examined. Total or partial cross sections, and differential cross sections are presented [fr

  6. Death during laparoscopy: can 1 gas push out another? Danger of argon electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezeur, Alain; Partensky, Christian; Chipponi, Jacques; Duron, Jean-Jacques

    2008-08-01

    We report the death of a young man during a laparoscopic partial splenectomy performed with an argon plasma coagulator to remove a benign cyst. The report analyzes the very particular mechanism of a gas embolism, which caused death here. This analysis leads us to recommend a close attention on the use of argon coagulators during laparoscopy. The aim of this article is to draw surgeons' attention to the conclusions of a court-ordered expert assessment intended to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the death of a 20-year-old man during a laparoscopic partial splenectomy performed with an argon plasma coagulator to remove a benign cyst.

  7. Addition of photosensitive dopants to the D0 liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, N.A.; Anderson, D.F.

    1992-10-01

    The addition of photosensitive dopants to liquid argon greatly enhances the signal from heavily ionizing particles. Since binding energy losses we correlated with the heavily ionizing component in hadronic showers, the addition of photosensitive dopants has been suggested as a mechanism to tune the e/π ratio in liquid argon calorimeters. A measurement was performed at the FNAL test beam, adding 4 ppM tetramethylgermanium to the Dφ uranium-liquid argon calorimeter. An increase in response for electromagnetic and hadronic showers was observed, with no net change in the e/π ratio

  8. Trapping cold ground state argon atoms for sympathetic cooling of molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Edmunds, P. D.; Barker, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    We trap cold, ground-state, argon atoms in a deep optical dipole trap produced by a build-up cavity. The atoms, which are a general source for the sympathetic cooling of molecules, are loaded in the trap by quenching them from a cloud of laser-cooled metastable argon atoms. Although the ground state atoms cannot be directly probed, we detect them by observing the collisional loss of co-trapped metastable argon atoms using a new type of parametric loss spectroscopy. Using this technique we als...

  9. Predictors of retention in a multicomponent treatment for smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moreno-Coutiño

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is a lack of knowledge about factors that promote or hinder retention of smokers in treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was the identification of variables that predict retention of smokers who received a multicomponent treatment against smoking. Method: Participants (n = 79 simultaneously received pharmacological and psychological treatment, including an intervention phase prior to the date of smoking cessation. They were evaluated periodically in their abstinence, depressive and anxious symptoms, and were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions (nicotine patch, bupropion or nicotine patch + bupropion. Eighteen variables were grouped into four categories (demographic, consumption pattern, mood and treatment. Data were analyzed using student's t test and X2, for inclusion into a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: Results indicate that age of onset of regular tobacco consumption, secondary education and bupropion pharmacological treatment are significant in relation to the retention of smokers to smoking treatment. Discussion: The reported “age of onset” correlates with treatment retention (OR = 1.545, 95 % CI = 1.175-2.032. This variable has not previously been reported in the literature, and taking it into account in the design of prevention and treatment for smoking could increase their success.

  10. Comparison between argon/methane and argon/ethane gas mixtures in cylindrical drift chambers operating in a high transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, U.; Boer, W. de; Grindhammer, G.; Kotthaus, R.; Lierl, H.; Sack, B.

    1983-03-01

    We compare the behaviour of two commonly used gas mixtures argon/methane (90:10) and argon/ethane (50:50) in large cylindrical drift chambers operating in a transverse magnetic field of 1.3 T. The cooler gas argon/ethane was found to exhibit considerably smaller deflection angles, which in our case leads to an improved performance of the chambers. The deflection angles have been determined from a comparison of the experimental non-linear space time relation with the one calculated from a computer simulation of the drift process. For the simulation we use a simple model with only two free parameters. These two parameters are sufficient to obtain an accurate parametrization of the non-linear space time relation. (orig.)

  11. Comparison between argon/methane and argon/ethane gas mixtures in cylindrical drift chambers operating in a high transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, U.; De Boer, W.; Grindhammer, G.; Kotthaus, R.; Lierl, H.; Sack, B.

    1983-01-01

    We compare the behaviour of two commonly used gas mixture argon/methane (90:10) and argon/ethane (50:50) in large cylindrical drift chambers operating in a transverse magnetic field of 1.3 T. The cooler gas argon/ethane was found to exhibit considerably smaller deflection angles, which in our case leads to an improved performance of the chambers. The deflection angles have been determined from a comparison of the experimental non-linear space-time relation with the one calculated from a computer simulation of the drift process. For the simulation we use a simple model with only two free parameters. These two parameters are sufficient to obtain an accurate parametrization of the non-linear space-time relation. (orig.)

  12. College Choice as a Linking Variable between Recruitment and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villella, Edward F.; Hu, Michael

    1990-01-01

    A study of 740 first-year university students found a strong positive correlation between students' college choice, subsequent expectations of the institution, and intent to stay at or leave the university. It is suggested that processes occurring before matriculation are as significant as the college social and academic environment or external…

  13. Teacher Attrition Variables That Influence Retention and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Leslie Garmon

    2014-01-01

    Teacher attrition is a major problem. According to researchers at North Carolina State University, more teachers are leaving the profession than staying or entering. Accordingly, school systems in the United States find themselves in the predicament where they must hire teachers who have little teaching experience or who have not been adequately…

  14. Mobile Learning and Student Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Inder Fozdar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not been well researched. The main aim of our research, therefore, is to better understand and measure students’ attitudes and perceptions towards the effectiveness of mobile learning. Our hope is to determine how this technology can be optimally used to improve student retention at Bachelor of Science programmes at Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU in India. For our research, we used a survey. Results of this survey clearly indicate that offering mobile learning could be one method improving retention of BSc students, by enhancing their teaching/ learning and improving the efficacy of IGNOU’s existing student support system. The biggest advantage of this technology is that it can be used anywhere, anytime. Moreover, as mobile phone usage in India explodes, it offers IGNOU easy access to a larger number of learners. This study is intended to help inform those who are seeking to adopt mobile learning systems with the aim of improving communication and enriching students’ learning experiences in their ODL institutions.

  15. Sinterization of manganese ore tailings under argon atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valduga, M.M.F.; Lima, F.; Lima, R.M.F. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Manganese is an element widely used in Metallurgy, however the Brazilian reserves has low grade. The aim of this work was to obtain and characterize the sinters from manganese ore tailings. The fines (less than 400⧣) were calcinated (800°C - 3600s) and homogenized with activated charcoal (7 and 10%) and CaO (5 and 10%). The sintering were carried out at 1135, 1140 and 1145°C during 7200 and 14400s under argon atmosphere. The sintered products were characterized by EDS analysis, BET surface area, apparent density, X-rays diffraction and SEM/EDS. The surface area was 0.03m2/g. The alkali element present (potassium) justified the low melting point of waste (1140°C). Due to the chemical complexity of the tailings, several phases were characterized in the products: pores, silicates with high content of manganese in the matrix, other silicates with different proportions of Al, Mn, Mg and Ca, pure Fe, SiO2, etc. (author)

  16. Free electron lifetime achievements in Liquid Argon Imaging TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Baibussinov, B; Calligarich, E; Centro, S; Cieslik, K; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Meng, G; Pietropaolo, F; Rubbia, C; Varanini, F; Ventura, S

    2010-01-01

    A key feature for the success of the Liquid Argon TPC technology is the industrial purification against electro-negative impurities, especially Oxygen and Nitrogen remnants, which have to be initially and continuously kept at an exceptional purity. New purification techniques have been applied to a 120 litres LAr-TPC test facility in the INFN-LNL laboratory. Through-going muon tracks have been used to monitor the LAr purity. The short path length used (30 cm) is compensated by the high accuracy in the observation of the specific ionization of cosmic rays muons at sea level. A free electron lifetime of (21.4+7.3-4.3) ms, namely > 15.8 ms at 90 % C.L. has been observed under stable conditions over several weeks, corresponding to about 15 ppt (part per trillion) of Oxygen equivalent. At 500 V/cm, where the electron speed is approximately of 1.5 mm/us, the free electron lifetime >15 ms corresponds to an attenuation <15 % for a drift path of 5 m, opening the way to reliable operation of LAr TPC for exceptionall...

  17. Electronics calibration board for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, J.; Dumont-Dayot, N.; Marchand, J.F.; Massol, N.; Perrodo, P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; De La Taille, C.; Imbert, P.; Richer, J.P.; Seguin Moreau, N.; Serin, L.

    2008-01-01

    To calibrate the energy response of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter, an electronics calibration board has been designed; it delivers a signal whose shape is close to the calorimeter ionization current signal with amplitude up to 100 mA in 50 Ω with 16 bit dynamic range. The amplitude of this signal is designed to be uniform over all calorimeters channels, stable in time and with an integral linearity much better that the electronics readout. The various R and D phases and most of the difficulties met are discussed and illustrated by many measurements. The custom design circuits are described and the layout of the ATLAS calibration board presented. The procedure used to qualify the boards is explained and the performance obtained illustrated: a dynamic range up to 3 TeV in three energy scales with an integral linearity better than 0.1% in each of them, a response uniformity better than 0.2% and a stability better than 0.1%. The performance of the board is well within the ATLAS requirements. Finally, in situ measurements done on the ATLAS calorimeter are shown to validate these performances

  18. Application of accelerated argon ion radiation in rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hong; Mei Mantong; Lu Yonggen; Yang, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    Dry seeds of rice 'Xiangzhou', a hsien (indica) variety, which has pleasant aroma but poor yield and originated in Guangdong Province, were irradiated by argon ion beam with the energy of 400 MeV/u to improve its agronomic traits. Three mutant lines, Ar-X-1-1, Ar-X-1-2 and Ar-X-2 were selected from M 1 or M 2 generation plants developed from seeds exposed to the dose of 100 Gy, and their economic potential in the M 5 generation was tested. The results showed that several traits of these lines were evidently improved when compared with the original variety. Plant height was reduced by 25% ∼ 39%, and growth period shortened by 8 ∼ 25 days. The effective panicle per plant was increased, and the resistance to bacterial leaf blight was improved. The grain yield per plot was increased by 14.34% ∼ 121.51%, which reached significant level in variance analysis, and the pleasant aroma was also retained. In addition, two mutants with traits of early maturity or semidwarf were found from the progenies of seeds exposured to the 150 Gy. The results suggest the potential application of heavy ion radiation in rice breeding

  19. Numerical simulation of nonequilibrium effects in an argon plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.H.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Departures from thermal (translational), ionization, and excitation equilibrium in an axisymmetric argon plasma jet have been studied by two-dimensional numerical simulations. Electrons, ions, and excited and ground states of neutral atoms are represented as separate chemical species in the mixture. Transitions between excited states, as well as ionization/recombination reactions due to both collisional and radiative processes, are treated as separate chemical reactions. Resonance radiation transport is represented using Holstein escape factors to simulate both the optically thin and optically thick limits. The optically thin calculation showed significant underpopulation of excited species in the upstream part of the jet core, whereas in the optically thick calculation this region remains close to local thermodynamic equilibrium, consistent with previous experimental observations. Resonance radiation absorption is therefore an important effect. The optically thick calculation results also show overpopulations (relative to equilibrium) of excited species and electron densities in the fringes and downstream part of the jet core. In these regions, however, the electrons and ions are essentially in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium with the excited state at the electron temperature, even though the ionized and excited states are no longer in equilibrium with the ground state. Departures from partial local thermodynamic equilibrium are observed in the outer fringes and far downstream part of the jet. These results are interpreted in terms of the local relative time scales for the various physical and chemical processes occurring in the plasma

  20. Saturation spectroscopy of an optically opaque argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Ben; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2018-02-01

    A pure argon (Ar) plasma formed by a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge was analyzed using Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy. The expected line shape was a characteristic of sub-Doppler spectra in the presence of velocity-changing collisions, a narrow Lorentzian centered on a Doppler pedestal, but the observed line shapes contain a multi-peak structure, attributed to opacity of the medium. Laser absorption and inter-modulated fluorescence spectroscopy measurements were made to validate opacity as a driving factor of the observed line shapes. Spectral line shapes are further complicated by the spatial dependence of the pump laser, probe laser and of the absorbing medium, as well as the large absorbance of the transition under investigation. A numerical line shape was derived by accounting for the spatial variation of the pump and probe with a saturated line shape obtained from the rate equations for an equivalent two-level system. This simulated line shape shows good qualitative agreement with the trends observed in the data.

  1. Methane from benzene in argon dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tomi Nath; Dey, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Efficient on-line conversion of benzene to methane at room temperature. ► Absence of other H-atom donor suggests new type of chemistry. ► For parent loss > 90%, methane yield was ∼40% of limit due to H-atom availability. ► Surface moisture contributed ·OH radical for trace phenolic products’ formation. ► This method may emerge as an exploitable tactic for pollutants’ usable alterations. -- Abstract: A first-time account of direct, on-line, instantaneous and efficient chemical conversion of gas phase benzene to methane in argon Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) is presented. In the absence of another overt hydrogen-donating source, potency of analogous parents toward methane generation is found to follow the order: benzene > toluene > p-xylene. Simultaneous production of trace amounts of phenolic surface deposits suggest (a) prompt decomposition of the parent molecules, including a large fraction yielding atomic transients (H-atom), (b) continuous and appropriate recombination of such parts, and (c) trace moisture in parent contributing ·OH radicals and additional H-atoms, which suitably react with the unreacted fraction of the parent, and also other intermediates. Results highlight Ar DBD to be a simple and exploitable technology for transforming undesirable hazardous aromatics to usable/useful low molecular weight open-chain products following the principles of green chemistry and engineering

  2. Argon defect complexes in low energy Ar irradiated molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, A. van; Buters, W.T.M.; Kolk, G.J. van der; Caspers, L.M.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectrometry has been used to study the defects created in Mo irradiated along the direction with Ar ions ranging in energy from 0.1 to 2 keV. In addition to monitoring the release of the implanted Ar, additional information has been obtained by decoration of the defects with low energy helium and subsequent monitoring of the helium release. The studies show evidence that the Ar can be trapped in both substitutional sites and in a configuration in which the Ar is associated with vacancies (ArVsub(n), n >= 2). Most of the Ar implanted at high energy is released at approx. equal to 1500 K by thermal vacancy assisted diffusion. Argon trapped closer to the surface is released at lower temperatures via at least three different surface related release mechanisms. Additional results are presented on the interaction of self interstitial atoms (introduced by 100 eV Xe bombardment) with the Ar defects. Substitutional Ar is found to convert to interstitial Ar which seems to be mobile at room temperature. The Ar-vacancy complexes are found to be reduced to substitutional Ar. The results of atomistic calculations of the release mechanisms will also be presented. (orig.)

  3. Calculation of the mobility of electrons injected in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascarelli, G.

    1986-01-01

    A model calculation is carried out in which we evaluate the mobility of electrons injected in liquid argon. Scattering by both phonons and static density fluctuations is taken into account. The calculation for the mobility limited by phonon scattering differs from the usual calculation in crystals by considering both the local changes in the deformation potential and the changes of the amplitude of the phonons that are caused by the existence of density fluctuations. The calculation of the mobility limited by scattering from density fluctuations is carried out with the assumption that they give rise to a square-well (or barrier) potential that will scatter the electrons. The above perturbation ΔV 0 is related to a density fluctuation Δn by ΔV 0 = V 0 (n-bar+Δn)-V 0 (n-bar). The scattering volumes Ω, where the density fluctuation Δn is located, are weighted by exp(-r/xi) where xi is the correlation length and r is the radius of Ω. The magnitude of the different density fluctuations is weighted by exp[-(Δn) 2 Ω/2nS(0)], where S(0) = nk/sub B/TK/sub T/, K/sub T/ is the isothermal compressibility. The calculation of the mean free path is carried out using partial waves. Both scattering mechanisms, scattering by phonons and static density fluctuations, give comparable contributions to the mobility

  4. About the EDF formation in a capacitively coupled argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatanova, M; Thieme, G; Basner, R; Hannemann, M; Golubovskii, Yu B; Kersten, H

    2006-01-01

    The formation of the electron distribution function (EDF) in the bulk plasma of a capacitively coupled radio-frequency (rf) discharge in argon generated in the plasma-chemical reactor PULVA-INP is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Measurements of the EDF and internal plasma parameters were performed by means of a Langmuir probe at pressures of 0.5-100 Pa and discharge powers of 5-100 W. The observed EDFs have revealed a two-temperature behaviour at low pressures and evolved into a Maxwellian distribution at high gas pressures and large discharge powers. Theoretical determination of the EDF is based on the numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation in the local and non-local approaches under experimental conditions. The model includes elastic and inelastic electron-atom collisions and electron-electron interactions. Low electron temperatures and relatively high ionization degrees are the features of the PULVA-INP rf discharge. This leads to significant influence of the electron-electron collisions on the EDF formation. The modelled and measured distributions show good agreement in a wide range of discharge parameters, except for a range of low gas pressures, where the stochastic electron heating is intense. Additionally, mechanisms of the EDF formation in the dc and rf discharge were compared under similar discharge conditions

  5. About the EDF formation in a capacitively coupled argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatanova, M [Institute of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, ul. Ulianovskaja 1, 198504 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Thieme, G [Institut fur Niedertemperatur-Plasmaphysik, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str 19, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Basner, R [Institut fur Niedertemperatur-Plasmaphysik, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str 19, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Hannemann, M [Institut fur Niedertemperatur-Plasmaphysik, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str 19, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Golubovskii, Yu B [Institute of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, ul. Ulianovskaja 1, 198504 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kersten, H [Institut fur Niedertemperatur-Plasmaphysik, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str 19, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-08-01

    The formation of the electron distribution function (EDF) in the bulk plasma of a capacitively coupled radio-frequency (rf) discharge in argon generated in the plasma-chemical reactor PULVA-INP is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Measurements of the EDF and internal plasma parameters were performed by means of a Langmuir probe at pressures of 0.5-100 Pa and discharge powers of 5-100 W. The observed EDFs have revealed a two-temperature behaviour at low pressures and evolved into a Maxwellian distribution at high gas pressures and large discharge powers. Theoretical determination of the EDF is based on the numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation in the local and non-local approaches under experimental conditions. The model includes elastic and inelastic electron-atom collisions and electron-electron interactions. Low electron temperatures and relatively high ionization degrees are the features of the PULVA-INP rf discharge. This leads to significant influence of the electron-electron collisions on the EDF formation. The modelled and measured distributions show good agreement in a wide range of discharge parameters, except for a range of low gas pressures, where the stochastic electron heating is intense. Additionally, mechanisms of the EDF formation in the dc and rf discharge were compared under similar discharge conditions.

  6. Dynamic range compression in a liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, W.E.; Lissauer, D.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Takai, H.; Wingerter-Seez, I.

    1996-01-01

    The anticipated range of particle energies at the LHC, coupled with the need for precision, low noise calorimetry makes severe demands on the dynamic range of the calorimeter readout. A common approach to this problem is to use shapers with two or more gain scales. In this paper, the authors describe their experience with a new approach in which a preamplifier with dynamic gain compression is used. An unavoidable consequence of dynamic gain adjustment is that the peaking time of the shaper output signal becomes amplitude dependent. The authors have carried out a test of such a readout system in the RD3 calorimeter, a liquid argon device with accordion geometry. The calibration system is used to determine both the gain of the individual channels as well as to map the shape of the waveform as a function of signal amplitude. A new procedure for waveform analysis, in which the fitted parameters describe the impulse response of the system, permits a straightforward translation of the calibration waveform to the waveform generated by a particle crossing the ionization gap. They find that the linearity and resolution of the calorimeter is equivalent to that obtained with linear preamplifiers, up to an energy of 200 GeV

  7. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.vigier@ec.europa.eu [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, Annabelle [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Renard, Catherine [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Miguirditchian, Manuel [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, Francis [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10{sup −4.0}, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl{sub 3} precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO{sub 2} powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation. - Highlights: • Precipitation of Uranium (III) is quantitative in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%). • The salt is oxoacid with a water dissociation constant of 10{sup −4.0} at 705 °C. • Volatility of uranium chloride is strongly reduced in reductive conditions. • Coprecipitation of U(III) and Nd(III) leads to a consecutive precipitation of the two elements.

  8. Separation of argon isotopes by porous membrane method, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Fujine, Sachio; Saito, Keiichiro; Ouchi, Misao; Naruse, Yuji

    1979-08-01

    Separation characteristics of an engineering-scale cascade equipment, which is composed of five stages using Al 2 O 3 barriers, were examined under different operating conditions. This report describes the results of the separation experiment of argon isotopes by the square cascade operated under total reflux. The results are as follows: (1) Mean pore diameter and tortuosity of the barriers were estimated to be 400A and 13-15, respectively. (2) Flow mechanism through the barriers was proved to be ideal Knudsen flow by measurement of the permeability. (3) The cascade was equilibriated in 30-40 minutes, depending on stage gas inventory. (4) The effect of an operating pressure on the separation factor could be estimated by Knudsen's and Present-deBethune's theories. (5) The stage separation factor could be estimated by the conventional theoretical equations by introducing a correction factor as a function of Reynolds number of the permeating flow through the barriers. (6) An experimental equation to estimate the flow effect on the separation factor was obtained considering velocity and physical properties of the gas in the vicinity of the barrier surface. (author)

  9. Resonant excitation of uranium atoms by an argon ion laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeyama, H; Morikawa, M; Aihara, Y; Mochizuki, T; Yamanaka, C [Osaka Univ. (Japan)

    1979-03-01

    Photoionization of uranium atoms by UV lines, 3511 A and 3345 A, of an argon ion laser was observed and attributed due to resonant two-photon ionization. The dependence of the photoion currents on laser power was measured in focusing and non-focusing modes of laser beam, which has enabled us to obtain an absorption cross section and an ionization cross section independently. The orders of magnitude of these cross sections averaged over the fine structure were determined to be 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 2/ and 10/sup -17/ cm/sup 2/ respectively from a rate equation model. Resonance between 3511-A laser line and the absorption line of uranium isotopes was also confirmed by the ionization spectra obtained by near-single-frequency operation of the ion laser, which allowed the isotopic selective excitation of the uranium atoms. The maximum value of the enrichment of /sup 235/U was about 14%. The isotope separation of uranium atoms by this resonant excitation has been discussed.

  10. Accurate calculations of bound rovibrational states for argon trimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, Drew; Poirier, Bill [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41061, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    This work presents a comprehensive quantum dynamics calculation of the bound rovibrational eigenstates of argon trimer (Ar{sub 3}), using the ScalIT suite of parallel codes. The Ar{sub 3} rovibrational energy levels are computed to a very high level of accuracy (10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} or better), and up to the highest rotational and vibrational excitations for which bound states exist. For many of these rovibrational states, wavefunctions are also computed. Rare gas clusters such as Ar{sub 3} are interesting because the interatomic interactions manifest through long-range van der Waals forces, rather than through covalent chemical bonding. As a consequence, they exhibit strong Coriolis coupling between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom, as well as highly delocalized states, all of which renders accurate quantum dynamical calculation difficult. Moreover, with its (comparatively) deep potential well and heavy masses, Ar{sub 3} is an especially challenging rare gas trimer case. There are a great many rovibrational eigenstates to compute, and a very high density of states. Consequently, very few previous rovibrational state calculations for Ar{sub 3} may be found in the current literature—and only for the lowest-lying rotational excitations.

  11. Aluminium Morphological Modification by Nitrogen-Argon Mixture PIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munnoz-Castro, A.E.; Valencia Alvarado, R.; Penna-Eguiluz, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Barocio, S.R.; Rodriguez-Mendez, B.G.; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la

    2011-01-01

    With incident fluences of ∼ 10 12 atoms/cm 2 aluminium samples have been plasma immersion ion implanted with either pure nitrogen or argon/nitrogen mixtures at temperatures around 450 o C. X-ray diffraction studies have validated the formation of the cubic phase of AlN, in samples treated with both the gas mixtures and pure nitrogen. Likewise, the presence of the hexagonal phase of AlN has been detected when either pure nitrogen or a 70% N/30% Ar mixture have been used. The signature peak of AlN has also been confirmed by the Raman spectroscopy. The maximal microhardness values were found in samples treated with the mixture. The maximal roughness was achieved with the equal part mixture in all cases, although increasing with the implantation pulse width up to a 300 nm peak at 150 μs. The latter critical value remains invariant under the pure nitrogen plasma treatment, provided that implantation periods in the order of 4.5 h are carried out. (author)

  12. Five second helium neutral beam injection using argon-frost cryopumping techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.; Kellman, D.H.; Hong, R.; Kim, J.; Laughon, G.M.

    1995-10-01

    High power helium neutral beams for the heating of tokamak discharges can now be provided for 5 s by using argon cryopumping (of the helium gas) in the beamlines. A system has now been installed to deposit a layer of argon frost on the DIII-D neutral beam cryopanels, between tokamak injection pulses. The layer serves to trap helium on the cryopanels providing sufficient pumping speed for 5 s helium beam extraction. The argon frosting hardware is now present on two of four DIII-D neutral beamlines, allowing injection of up to 6 MW of helium neutral beams per discharge, with pulse lengths of up to 5 s. The argon frosting system is described, along with experimental results demonstrating its effectiveness as a method of economically extending the capabilities of cryogenic pumping panels to allow multi-second helium neutral beam injection

  13. Management of Liver Cancer Argon-helium Knife Therapy with Functional Computer Tomography Perfusion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Shu, Shengjie; Li, Jinping; Jiang, Huijie

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the change in blood perfusion of liver cancer following argon-helium knife treatment with functional computer tomography perfusion imaging. Twenty-seven patients with primary liver cancer treated with argon-helium knife and were included in this study. Plain computer tomography (CT) and computer tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging were conducted in all patients before and after treatment. Perfusion parameters including blood flows, blood volume, hepatic artery perfusion fraction, hepatic artery perfusion, and hepatic portal venous perfusion were used for evaluating therapeutic effect. All parameters in liver cancer were significantly decreased after argon-helium knife treatment (p knife therapy. Therefore, CTP imaging would play an important role for liver cancer management followed argon-helium knife therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Operation of the cryotron relaxation generator in solid argon and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhubvsky, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    The research results of the cryotron relaxation generator (CRG) operation in solid argon, normal hydrogen and parahydrogen have been given. The frequency transition times for CRG at different values of cooling the solid gas have been measured

  15. The radiolytic formation of nitric acid in argon/air/water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.; Stinchcombe, D.; White, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    The extent of nitric acid formation in the γ-radiolysis of argon/air/water mixtures has been assessed. The yields of nitric acid are found to increase as water vapour pressure is increased but are lower in the presence of a discrete water phase. G values for the formation of nitric acid from argon/air mixtures based on energy absorbed in the air are increased in the presence of argon but the yields in an atmosphere of argon containing small amounts of moist air are smaller than from an atmosphere of moist air alone. The G value for nitric acid formation from pure air in the presence of a distinct water phase is 2, based on energy absorbed in the air. (author)

  16. Study on electron density and average degree of ionization for the non-ideal argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Ming; Huang Hua; Zhou Yisu; Wang Caixia

    2008-01-01

    Electron density and average degree of ionization of the non-ideal argon plasmas under different plasma temperature and density are calculated by using SHM model. It comes to a conclusion that the average degree of ionization is less than 0.5 for the non-ideal argon plasmas at temperature T=2.0eV and plasma density ρ=(0.01-0.5)g·cm -3 , and the average degree of ionization is reduced with the increase of plasma density ρ. This indicates that the non-ideal argon plasma has a very low degree of ionization so that most argon has not been ionized. In addition, the discussion on the ionization decrease with the increase of plasma density ρ is given. (authors)

  17. Prospects for obtaining a superconducting filter to purify oxygen from argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Yuichi; Ishizaki, Kozo; Yayashi, Shigeki; Jain, R.

    1993-01-01

    A possible superconducting filter, through which argon can pass and oxygen can not pass, is discussed theoretically. Oxygen and argon are paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials, respectively. The mixture of oxygen and argon can be separated in a magnetic field higher than 4 T 2 /m of BdB/dx, where B is the magnetic flux density and dB/dx is its gradient. Such a magnetic field can be obtained by a superconducting filter. Because magnetic flux does not pass through a superconducting body of the filter, and instead does along the penetrating pores, B in the penetrating pores and dB/dx on the surface of the filter are very high, which allows separation of argon from oxygen. 3 refs., 3 figs

  18. Neutrino-argon interactions in the T2K near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Lukas; Radermacher, Thomas; Roth, Stefan; Steinmann, Jochen [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The T2K near detector employs three large, argon-filled TPCs with a total fiducial volume of about 10 m{sup 3} at ambient pressure. These TPCs have been exposed to the intense T2K muon-neutrino beam since the start of the experiment. The beam has a mean neutrino energy of 600 MeV and so far, data corresponding to over 6 . 10{sup 20}(4 . 10{sup 20}) protons on target was recorded in neutrino (anti-neutrino) mode. We expect about 600 charged current neutrino-argon interactions in the data. That enables us to do the world's first neutrino-Argon cross section measurement in gaseous argon, thus making an important contribution to constraining nuclear interaction models for future neutrino oscillation measurements. This talk describes the physics goals and present the current status of the analysis.

  19. Simulations of argon accident scenarios in the ATLAS experimental cavern a safety analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Balda, F

    2002-01-01

    Some characteristic accidents in the ATLAS experimental cavern (UX15) are simulated by means of STAR-CD, a code using the "Finite-Volume" method. These accidents involve different liquid argon leaks from the barrel cryostat of the detector, thus causing the dispersion of the argon into the Muon Chamber region and the evaporation of the liquid. The subsequent temperature gradients and distribution of argon concentrations, as well as their evolution in time are simulated and discussed, with the purpose of analysing the dangers related to asphyxiation and to contact with cryogenic fluids for the working personnel. A summary of the theory that stands behind the code is also given. In order to validate the models, an experimental test on a liquid argon spill performed earlier is simulated, showing that the program is able to output reliable results. At the end, some safety-related recommendations are listed.

  20. Thermal information regarding the cooldown and operation of liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.A.; Cooper, W.E.; Dixon, K.D.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Primdahl, K.; Urbin, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Three liquid argon calorimeters were cooled down and operated as part of the D-Zero detector at Fermi National Accelerator laboratory. The largest vessel contains 248 metric tons of uranium and copper plates and 19 kL (5000 gal.) of liquid argon. The other two vessels are mirror images, each containing 185 metric tons of uranium and stainless steel plates and 12.1 kL (3200 gal.) of liquid argon. The cool down was accomplished by convection heat transfer between boiling liquid nitrogen filled finned heat exchangers and argon gas inside the vessels. Information regarding the general internal geometry of the calorimeters, cool down, operation, and steady state heat loads will be presented

  1. Retention of minority participants in clinical research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen S; Gonzales, Adelita; Fleuriet, K Jill

    2005-04-01

    Recruitment of minority participants for clinical research studies has been the topic of several analytical works. Yet retention of participants, most notably minority and underserved populations, is less reported and understood, even though these populations have elevated health risks. This article describes two related, intervention-based formative research projects in which researchers used treatment theory to address issues of recruitment and retention of minority women participants in an exercise program to reduce obesity. Treatment theory incorporates a model of health promotion that allows investigators to identify and control sources of extraneous variables. The authors' research demonstrates that treatment theory can improve retention of minority women participants by considering critical inputs, mediating processes, and substantive participant characteristics in intervention design.

  2. Near-Infrared Scintillation of Liquid Argon: Recent Results Obtained with the NIR Facility at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, C. O. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab; Tilly, E. [Sewanee U.

    2018-03-19

    After a short review of previous attempts to observe and measure the near-infrared scintillation in liquid argon, we present new results obtained with NIR, a dedicated cryostat at the Fermilab Proton Assembly Building (PAB). The new results give confidence that the near-infrared light can be used as the much needed light signal in large liquid argon time projection chambers.11 pages,

  3. Calculation of high-pressure argon plasma parameters produced by excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    When a XeCl excimer laser light was focused in a high-pressure argon gas up to 150 atm, a dense plasma developed not only backward but also forward. It is important to study on the electron density and temperature of the laser-induced plasma in the high-pressure gas. The electron density and temperature in high-pressure argon plasma produced by XeCl excimer laser has been calculated and compared with the experimental data. (author)

  4. Conclusions from the engineering subgroup of the SSC liquid argon calorimeter working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bederede, D.; Cooper, W.; Mulholland, G.; Kroon, P.; Guryn, W.; Lobkowicz, F.; Mason, I.; Pohlen, J.; Schindler, R.H.; Scholle, E.A.; Watanabe, Y.; Watt, R.

    1990-01-01

    The SSC Calorimeter Workshop was organized to explore the feasibility of each calorimeter technology for use in a 4π detector at the SSC. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter group further subdivided into four subgroups; Hermeticity, Engineering, Module Details, and Electronics. This is the report of the Engineering Subgroup whose charge was to evaluate the cost, schedule, manpower, safety, and facilities requirements for the construction of a large liquid argon calorimeter for the SSC

  5. Effects of uranium bombardment by 20-40 KeV argon ions, Annex 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenadovic, T.; Jurela, Z.

    1966-01-01

    This paper shows the results of argon ions interaction with the polycrystal natural uranium. Thin foil of uranium about 200 μ was bombarded by 20-40 KeV argon ions. Coefficients of cathode scattering δ and secondary electrons emission γ were measured, during the process A + →U. The foil was then studied by transmission method and method of single step replica using an electron microscope [sr

  6. Smoothing an isolated interface of cobalt-copper under irradiation by low-energy argon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stognij, A.I.; Novitskij, N.N.; Stukalov, O.M.

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer film structures, i.e. gold layer-copper-cobalt, are considered. It is shown that the structure, where cobalt surface prior to copper layer deposition was subjected to additional irradiation by a flow of argon ions, features the smoothest surface. The conclusion is made about smoothing out of cobalt-copper interface as a result of multiple collisions of argon slow ions and cobalt atoms during braking within two or three upper atomic rows of the cobalt layer [ru

  7. Ion charge-state production and photoionization near the K edge in argon and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Azuma, Y.; Cowan, P.L.; Gemmell, D.S.; LeBrun, T.; Amusia, M.Y.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the time-of-flight charge distributions of ions of argon and potassium following x-ray absorption at energies near their respective K edges. We confirm previously observed enhancements of the higher charge states at energies up to 100 eV below the K edge in argon. The measurements confirm recent calculations suggesting excitation of a virtual 1s state in this energy range

  8. Flocculation of retention pond water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; McGregor, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    An integral part of the water management strategy proposed by Ranger Uranium Mining Pty. Ltd. involves the collection of runoff water in a series of retention ponds. This water will subsequently be used in the uranium milling plant or released to Magela Creek. Runoff water collected during the wet season caused a section of Magela Creek to become turbid when it was released. The eroded material causing the turbidity was very highly dispersed and showed little tendency to sediment out in the retention ponds. Results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of clarifying retention pond water by flocculation with alum are presented. A concentration of 30 Mg/L alum reduced turbidity from an initial 340 NTU to less than 30 NTU in four hours

  9. Student retention in athletic training education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M; Mitchell, Murray F; Mensch, James M

    2009-01-01

    The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students. The nature of persistent students versus students who prematurely leave the athletic training major is not known. Understanding the profiles of athletic training students who persist or leave is important. To (1) explore the relationships among the following variables: anticipatory factors, academic integration, clinical integration, social integration, and motivation; (2) determine which of the aforementioned variables discriminate between senior athletic training students and major changers; and (3) identify which variable is the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education programs. Descriptive study using a qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach. Thirteen athletic training education programs located in District 3 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Ninety-four senior-level athletic training students and 31 college students who changed majors from athletic training to another degree option. Data were collected with the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire (ATEPSRQ). Data from the ATEPSRQ were analyzed via Pearson correlations, multivariate analysis of variance, univariate analysis of variance, and a stepwise discriminant analysis. Open-ended questions were transcribed and analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Member checks and peer debriefing techniques ensured trustworthiness of the study. Pearson correlations identified moderate relationships among motivation and clinical integration (r = 0.515, P accounting for 37.2% of the variance between groups. The theoretic model accurately classified 95.7% of the seniors and 53.8% of the major changers. A common theme emerging from the qualitative data was the presence of a strong peer-support group that surrounded many of the senior-level students. Understanding student retention in athletic training is

  10. Clinicopathologic correlation of argon laser photocoagulation of retinal angiomas in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease followed for more than 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, R H; Goldberg, M F; Green, W R

    1996-01-01

    The authors review the histopathologic findings in the eyes of a patient with multiple retinal angiomas and von Hippel-Lindau disease, who underwent treatment with argon laser photocoagulation with follow-up of more than 20 years. The patient was studied ophthalmoscopically and by fluorescein angiography before and after argon laser photocoagulation of retinal angiomas. The eyes were obtained postmortem, and the central portion of the right eye, including the macula and optic nerve head, was sectioned serially for light microscopy. The pupil-optic nerve segment of the left eye was step-sectioned serially for light microscopy. Histopathologic study of the right eye disclosed mild cystoid macular edema and focal areas of exudation in the midperiphery possibly secondary to irradiation of the head. A 1.5 x 0.3-mm area of residual angioma was present in the nasal peripapillary retina. Superotemporally, four chorioretinal scars were present in one photocoagulated area. These scars were composed of dense fibrous tissue with vascularization and variable retinal pigment epithelium hyperplasia. Large, nonangiomatous vessels within each of the scars were continuous with other retinal vessels. Inferotemporally, two chorioretinal scars were present in one photocoagulated area. Histopathologically, these scars were similar to the superotemporal scars, except that no patent retinal vessels traversed the inferotemporal scars. Neovascularization of the retina was associated with one superotemporal and one inferotemporal scar. No residual angiomatous tissue was present in the supero- or inferotemporal areas. Histopathologic examination of the left eye disclosed extensive vitreous organization and periretinal fibrovascular proliferation, extensive gliosis of the retina, and a 4.5 x 2-mm schisis cavity filled with fibrinous exudate. Three angiomas with variable fibrosis were present in the left eye. Despite a poor clinical course in one eye treated with xenon arc photocoagulation

  11. Argon concentration time-series as a tool to study gas dynamics in the hyporheic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mächler, Lars; Brennwald, Matthias S; Kipfer, Rolf

    2013-07-02

    The oxygen dynamics in the hyporheic zone of a peri-alpine river (Thur, Switzerland), were studied through recording and analyzing the concentration time-series of dissolved argon, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and temperature during low flow conditions, for a period of one week. The argon concentration time-series was used to investigate the physical gas dynamics in the hyporheic zone. Differences in the transport behavior of heat and gas were determined by comparing the diel temperature evolution of groundwater to the measured concentration of dissolved argon. These differences were most likely caused by vertical heat transport which influenced the local groundwater temperature. The argon concentration time-series were also used to estimate travel times by cross correlating argon concentrations in the groundwater with argon concentrations in the river. The information gained from quantifying the physical gas transport was used to estimate the oxygen turnover in groundwater after water recharge. The resulting oxygen turnover showed strong diel variations, which correlated with the water temperature during groundwater recharge. Hence, the variation in the consumption rate was most likely caused by the temperature dependence of microbial activity.

  12. Diagnostics of Argon Injected Hydrogen Peroxide Added High Frequency Underwater Capillary Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waqar Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hydrogen peroxide addition and Argon injection on electrical and spectral characteristics of underwater capillary discharge were investigated. The flowing water discharge was created in a quartz tube (Φ = 4mm outer; Φ = 2mm inner; thickness 1mm by applying high frequency (25 kHz alternating current voltage (0-15kV across the tungsten electrodes (Φ=0.5mm, in pin-pin electrode configuration, separated by a gap distance of 10 mm. The results of no hydrogen peroxide addition and no Argon gas injection were compared with addition of hydrogen peroxide and Argon injection for different values. The emission spectrum was taken to present the increase in concentration of •OH radicals with and without hydrogen peroxide addition under different argon injection rates. The results demonstrated that addition of hydrogen peroxide do not remarkably affected the conductivity of water, but its addition increased the yield rate of •OH radicals generated by plasma discharge. The addition of Argon generated bubbles and gas channels reduced the high power consumption required for inducing flowing water long gap discharge. The results showed large concentration of •OH radicals due to hydrogen peroxide addition, less required input power for generating flowing water discharge by using high frequency input voltage and due to Argon injection.

  13. Condensed argon isentropic compression with ultrahigh magnetic field pressure: Experimental design. Post-shot report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, A.I.; Boriskov, G.V.; Dolotenko, M.I. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    This report continues the series of work devoted to experimental study of a high-dense condensed argon state. Remember that according to work of Kwon et. al., hexagonal close-packed structure is profitable in terms of energy rather than face-centered argon structure (stable with zero pressure). What is most interesting and intriguing here is the issue of possible argon metallization, when it is compressed up to the densities more than 9.17 g/cm{sup 3}. In the experiment of 1995 (the arrangement and data are described in a cited reference) the authors recorded appearance of conductivity in argon, which is non-conductive in the initial state, when it is compressed more than a factor of four. The peak value of argon specific conductivity recorded in this experiment did not exceed 10 (Ohm x cm){sup {minus}1}. This value of conductivity is characteristic of semiconductors, but not metals, which have 10{sup 4} (Ohm x cm){sup {minus}1}. At this stage of the work the main attention is paid to recording of argon conductive state and studying the possibilities of multiframed radiography of the sample in the compressed state.

  14. Gatherings as a retention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Lillian Gatlin

    2003-01-01

    Retention has long been an issue for minority students enrolled in nursing programs. Indiana University put into place an initiative to enhance retention. The initiative is "Gatherings" which provide a means for maintaining contact and direct communication with minority/international students. Gatherings allow students at varied levels in the program to interact with each other and to share issues and concerns. Over a five-year period, the benefits of this initiative have been voiced by students. These students have strongly encouraged continuation of "gatherings". Plans are underway to start similar sessions for all students.

  15. Psychological determinants of job retention in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Helen L; Wicks, Charlotte R; Stroud, Amanda; Tennant, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining paid work is a key issue for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Different factors, including psychological attributes, can influence job retention. Understanding their role should inform potential interventions to help PwMS retain employment. The aim of this study was to identify the key factors which improve job retention in an employed cohort of PwMS. This three-year longitudinal study used validated self-completed measures of physical and psychological factors at four time points over 28 months. Of 208 employed PwMS, just over 1 in 10 was no longer working at the end of the study. Three variables were predictive of continuing employment; low 'work instability' at baseline increased the odds of job retention by a factor of 12.76; high levels of self-efficacy by a factor of 4.66 and being less than 50 years of age increased the odds of job retention by a factor of 3.90. Path analysis demonstrated the mediating role of self-efficacy between the physical impact of MS and the level of work instability at exit. Screening for work instability and self-efficacy in a clinical setting followed by appropriate interventions to increase self-efficacy and reduce work instability could aid job retention in MS.

  16. Retention of Mohs surgeons in academic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shali; Mina, Mary Alice; Brown, Marc D; Zwald, Fiona O

    2015-08-01

    Retention of academic Mohs surgeons is important for the growth of this specialty and teaching of residents and students. To examine factors that influence retention of Mohs surgeons in academics and to better understand reasons for their departure. A survey was electronically distributed to academic Mohs surgeons in the American College of Mohs Surgery, asking them to rate the importance of several variables on their decision to remain in academia. Private practice Mohs surgeons who had left academics were also surveyed. Two hundred thirty-six dermatologic surgeons completed the survey. Twenty-nine percent work full time in academics, and approximately 7% work part time. The top reasons for practicing in the academic setting are intellectual stimulation, teaching opportunities, and collaboration with other university physicians and researchers. Seventy-one percent of respondents reported they would stay in academics, 7% indicated they would not, and 22% were unsure. Unfair compensation, inadequate support staff, poor leadership, increased bureaucracy, and decreased autonomy were top reasons that may compel a Mohs surgeon to leave. Opportunities for intellectual stimulation, collaboration, and teaching remain the main draw for academic Mohs surgeons. A supportive environment, strong leadership, and establishing fair compensation are imperative in ensuring their stay.

  17. The role of radiation damage on retention and temperature intervals of helium and hydrogen detrapping in structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstolutskaya, G.D., E-mail: g.d.t@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademicheskaya St., 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Ruzhytskyi, V.V.; Voyevodin, V.N.; Kopanets, I.E.; Karpov, S.A.; Nikitin, A.V. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademicheskaya St., 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2013-11-15

    An experimental study of hydrogen/deuterium behavior in ferritic–martensitic stainless steels EP-450 (Cr13Mo2NbVB), EP-852 (Cr13Mo2VS), and RUSFER-EK-181 (Fe12Cr2WVTaB) is presented. The effect of displacement damage (dpa) resulting from irradiation with helium, hydrogen, and argon ions on features of deuterium detrapping and retention in steels was studied using ion implantation, nuclear reaction depth profiling, and thermal desorption spectrometry techniques. Numerical simulation on the basis of the continuum rate theory was applied for obtaining thermodynamic parameters of deuterium trapping and desorption in steels.

  18. Argon-ion charge distributions following near-threshold ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    When an atom is photoionized in an inner shell, there are two mechanisms by which the remaining electron cortege relaxes to fill the vacancy: x-ray emission and radiationless Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions. In the former, the inner-shell hole moves to a less tightly bound orbital without increasing the number of atomic vacancies. In Auger processes, however, the energy liberated by transfer of a less-tightly-bound electron to the inner-shell vacancy is transferred to another electron which is ejected into the continuum. In this case, the charge on the residual ion increases by one. Through a series of radiative and non-radiative processes, the initial vacancy bubbles up until all vacancies arrive at the outermost shell. Due to the many possible routes by which this may occur, there can be a broad distribution of residual ion charge states characteristic of the decay of a single inner-shell vacancy. Because so many processes can contribute to each charge state, it is difficult to determine the effect of each by examining the total ion charge distribution; the total-ion charge distribution represents an average over many effects. To overcome this limitation, the author has recently measured argon-ion production as a function of both photon energy and Auger decay channel following photoionization of K-shell electrons with highly monochromatic synchrotron radiation. When measured differential in decay channel, the ion charge distributions are greatly simplified. Analysis, in progress, of these simplified distributions will permit extraction of information about relative decay rates and shakeoff effects that is obscured in the single spectra

  19. Alternating current electrical properties of Argon plasma treated jute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masroor Anwer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature plasma (LTP treatment, a kind of environment friendly surface modification technique, was applied to biodegradable and environment friendly jute fibre with the use of nonpolymerizing gas, namely argon, at various discharge power levels and exposure times with a definite flow rate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM microphotographs reveal that the roughness of the fibre surfaces increases with the increase of discharge power and exposure time. This is caused due to the bombardment of high energetic ions on the fibre surface and the fibres become sputtered. The capacitance and the electrical conductance of raw and LTP treated jute fibre were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. The dielectric constant, conductivity, dielectric loss-tangent and the surface morphology of raw and LTP treated jute as a function of frequency were studied at room temperature. It was observed that for all the samples the dielectric constant almost constant at lower frequencies and then decreases gradually in the high frequency region. In addition, dielectric constant increases with the increase of plasma treatment time as well as discharge power. It is also observed for all the samples that the conductivity increases as the frequency increases with a lower slope in the low frequency region and with a higher slope in the higher frequency region. In addition, the conductivity decreases with the increase of plasma exposure time as well as discharge power. The conductivity increases with frequency due to the hopping mechanism of electrons. The dependence of the dielectric loss-tangent with frequency at different treatment times and discharge powers for all the jute samples show small relaxation peaks in the very low frequency region. The dielectric loss-tangent decreases with the increase of both plasma treatment time and discharge power. In addition, the relaxation peaks are shifted to the higher frequency region as the plasma treatment

  20. Recycling argon through metamorphic reactions: The record in symplectites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christopher S.; Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Kelley, Simon P.; Sherlock, Sarah C.

    2018-02-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar ages of metamorphic micas that crystallized at high temperatures are commonly interpreted as cooling ages, with grains considered to have lost 40Ar via thermally-driven diffusion into the grain boundary network. Recently reported laser-ablation data suggest that the spatial distribution of Ar in metamorphic micas does not always conform to the patterns predicted by diffusion theory and that despite high metamorphic temperatures, argon was not removed efficiently from the local system during metamorphic evolution. In the Western Gneiss Region (WGR), Norway, felsic gneisses preserve microtextural evidence for the breakdown of phengite to biotite and plagioclase symplectites during near isothermal decompression from c. 20-25 to c. 8-12 kbar at 700 °C. These samples provide an ideal natural laboratory to assess whether the complete replacement of one K-bearing mineral by another at high temperatures completely 'resets' the Ar clock, or whether there is some inheritance of 40Ar in the neocrystallized phase. The timing of the high-temperature portion of the WGR metamorphic cycle has been well constrained in previous studies. However, the timing of cooling following the overprint is still much debated. In-situ laser ablation spot dating in phengite, biotite-plagioclase symplectites and coarser, texturally later biotite yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages that span much of the metamorphic cycle. Together these data show that despite residence at temperatures of 700 °C, Ar is not completely removed by diffusive loss or during metamorphic recrystallization. Instead, Ar released during phengite breakdown appears to be partially reincorporated into the newly crystallizing biotite and plagioclase (or is trapped in fluid inclusions in those phases) within a close system. Our data show that the microtextural and petrographic evolution of the sample being dated provides a critical framework in which local 40Ar recycling can be tracked, thus potentially allowing 40Ar/39Ar dates

  1. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittington, D.; Howard, B.; Mufson, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a composite model. Both models find τ T  = 1.52 μs for the decay time constant of the Ar 2 * triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the ''early'' light fraction in the phenomenological model, F E  ≈ 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is F S  ≈ 36%, where the increase over F E is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter F prompt , the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value ∼0.3 found by dark matter and double β-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  2. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Denver Wade [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.; Mufson, S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Astronomy Dept.; Howard, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a physically-motivated model. Both models find tT = 1:52 ms for the decay time constant of the Ar 2 triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the “early” light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value 0.3 found by dark matter and double b-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  3. Elastic scattering of electrons from singly ionized argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, Greenwood et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1062 (1995)] reported measurements of large-angle elastic scattering of electrons from singly ionized argon at an energy of 3.3 eV. They compared their results for the differential cross section with cross sections determined using phase shifts obtained from two different scattering potentials and found large discrepancies between theory and experiment at large angles. They state that these differences may be due to the effects of polarization of the target, which are not included in their calculations, as well as inaccurate representations of electron exchange in the local scattering potentials that are employed to determine the phase shifts. In order to test these proposed explanations of the discrepancies, we have carried out calculations of elastic scattering from Ar + using the R-matrix method. We compare both a single-state calculation, which does not include polarization, and a 17-state calculation, in which the effects of dipole polarizability are included through the use of polarization pseudostates within the close-coupling expansion, to each other and with the measurements. We find some differences between the two calculations at intermediate scattering angles, but very close agreement at angles above 100 degree. Although the calculated cross sections agree with experiment between 120 degree and 135 degree, large discrepancies persist at angles above 135 degree. We conclude that the differences between the measurements and theory cannot be explained on the basis of an inaccurate representation of electron exchange or polarization of the target. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Retention-Oriented Curricular Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Ivana; Eppes, Tom A.; Girouard, Janice; Townsend, Lee

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a retention-oriented approach to the educational value stream within the STEM undergraduate area. Faced with several strategic challenges and opportunities, a Flex Advantage Plan was developed to enhance the undergraduate engineering technology programs and better utilize the curricular flexibilities inherent in the current…

  5. Memory control with selective retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a memory circuit and a method of controlling data retention in the memory circuit, wherein a supply signal is selectively switched to a respective one of at least two virtual supply lines (24) each shared by a respective one of a plurality of groups (30-1 to 30-n) of

  6. Memory control with selective retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a memory circuit and a method of controlling data retention in the memory circuit, wherein a supply signal is selectively switched to a respective one of at least two virtual supply lines (24) each shared by a respective one of a plurality of groups (30-1 to 30-n) of

  7. Strategies for improving employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

    2007-03-28

    This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined.

  8. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  9. [Gastroduodenal intussusception causing gastric retention.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamili, M.; Berg, J.O.; Lindstrom, C.

    2008-01-01

    A case of gastroduodenal intussusception caused by a duodenal lipoma is presented. The condition was characterized by severe upper gastrointestinal retention, epigastric pain and weight loss. The mass was diagnosed by CT scan. The diagnosis was confirmed by operation. The patient was treated succ...

  10. Teacher Retention: An Appreciative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento-Conway, Jennifer Jean

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, the problem of teacher retention compounds the unstable nature of the educational situation, especially in urban, high-needs schools. Much of the instability of urban schools is due to teacher movement, the migration of teachers from school to another school within or between school districts, particularly from high-needs schools.…

  11. [Gastroduodenal intussusception causing gastric retention.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamili, M.; Berg, J.O.; Lindstrom, C.

    2008-01-01

    A case of gastroduodenal intussusception caused by a duodenal lipoma is presented. The condition was characterized by severe upper gastrointestinal retention, epigastric pain and weight loss. The mass was diagnosed by CT scan. The diagnosis was confirmed by operation. The patient was treated...

  12. A national study of the retention of Irish opiate users in methadone substitution treatment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullen, Louise

    2012-07-02

    Background: Retention in treatment is a key indicator of methadone treatment success. The study aims to identify factors that are associated with retention. Objectives: To determine retention in treatment at 12 months for Irish opiate users in methadone substitution treatment and to indicate factors that increase the likelihood of retention. Methods: National cohort study of randomly selected opiate users commencing methadone treatment in 1999, 2001, and 2003 (n = 1269). Results: Sixty-one percent of patients attending methadone treatment remained in continuous treatment for more than 1 year. Retention in treatment at 12 months was associated with age, gender, facility type, and methadone dose. Age and gender were no longer significant when adjusted for other variables in the model. Those who attended a specialist site were twice as likely to leave methadone treatment within 12 months compared with those who attended a primary care physician. The most important predictor of retention in treatment was methadone dose. Those who received <60 mg of methadone were three times more likely to leave treatment. Conclusion: Retention in methadone treatment is high in Ireland in a variety of settings. The main factors influencing retention in methadone treatment was an adequate methadone dose and access to a range of treatment settings including from primary care physicians. Scientific Significance: Providing an adequate dose of methadone during treatment will increase the likelihood of treatment retention. Methadone treatment by the primary care physician is a successful method of retaining opioid users in treatment.

  13. Mucous retention cyst of the maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, A; Batniji, S; el-Neweihi, E

    1986-12-01

    The mucous retention cyst is not a rare phenomenon. The incidence of dental patients was determined. Of 1685 patient radiographs reviewed, 44 (2.6%) had one or more mucous retention cysts in the maxillary sinuses.

  14. Incorporating hydrologic variability into nutrient spiraling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient spiraling describes the path of a nutrient molecule within a stream ecosystem, combining the biochemical cycling processes with the downstream driving force of stream discharge. To date, nutrient spiraling approaches have been hampered by their inability to deal with fluctuating flows, as most studies have characterized nutrient retention within only a small range of discharges near base flow. Here hydrologic variability is incorporated into nutrient spiraling theory by drawing on the fluvial geomorphic concept of effective discharge. The effective discharge for nutrient retention is proposed to be that discharge which, over long periods of time, is responsible for the greatest portion of nutrient retention. A developed analytical model predicts that the effective discharge for nutrient retention will equal the modal discharge for small streams or those with little discharge variability. As modal discharge increases or discharge variability increases, the effective discharge becomes increasingly less than the modal discharge. In addition to the effective discharge, a new metric is proposed, the functionally equivalent discharge, which is the single discharge that will reproduce the magnitude of nutrient retention generated by the full hydrologic frequency distribution when all discharge takes place at that rate. The functionally equivalent discharge was found to be the same as the modal discharge at low hydrologic variability, but increasingly different from the modal discharge at large hydrologic variability. The functionally equivalent discharge provides a simple quantitative means of incorporating hydrologic variability into long-term nutrient budgets.

  15. The evolution, argon diffusion properties, and 40Argon/39Argon ages of detachment-related fault rocks in the footwalls of the Whipple and Chemehuevi Mountains, Southeastern, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, Garrett Blaine

    measured. Those with fault rock-like compositions yield activation energies of 25--39 kca/mol and average diffusivity of 4.63 · 10-3 cm2/sec. Network-forming Ca, Fe, and Mg partly cause certain low-temperature diffusion behaviors that, if unaccounted for, could allow an underestimation of Ar diffusion rates in some glass-bearing materials. Numerical models show that ambient temperature, grain size, and cooling rate strongly influence the Ar retention rate and interpretability of fault rock 40Ar/39Ar ages.

  16. 76 FR 24089 - Credit Risk Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... 17 CFR Part 246 Department of Housing and Urban Development 24 CFR Part 267 Credit Risk Retention... 2501-AD53 Credit Risk Retention AGENCIES: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury (OCC..., Commission, FHFA, and HUD (the Agencies) are proposing rules to implement the credit risk retention...

  17. ULTRAVIOLET INDUCED MOTION OF A FLUORESCENT DUST CLOUD IN AN ARGON DIRECT CURRENT GLOW DISCHARGE PLASMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvasta, M.G.; and Zwicker, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dusty plasmas consist of electrons, ions, neutrals and nm-μm sized particles commonly referred to as dust. In man-made plasmas this dust may represent impurities in a tokamak or plasma etching processing. In astrophysical plasmas this dust forms structures such as planetary rings and comet tails. To study dusty plasma dynamics an experiment was designed in which a 3:1 silica (<5 μm diameter) and fl uorescent dust mixture was added to an argon DC glow discharge plasma and exposed to UV radiation. This fl uorescent lighting technique offers an advantage over laser scattering (which only allows two-dimensional slices of the cloud to be observed) and is simpler than scanning mirror techniques or particle image velocimetry. Under typical parameters (P=150 mTorr, V anode= 100 V, Vcathode= -400 V, Itotal < 2mA) when the cloud is exposed to the UV light (100W, λ = 365 nm) the mixture fl uoresces, moves ~2mm towards the light source and begins rotating in a clockwise manner (as seen from the cathode). By calibrating a UV lamp and adjusting the relative intensity of the UV with a variable transformer it was found that both translational and rotational velocities are a function of UV intensity. Additionally, it was determined that bulk cloud rotation is not seen when the dust tray is not grounded while bulk translation is. This ongoing experiment represents a novel way to control contamination in man-made plasmas and a path to a better understanding of UV-bathed plasma systems in space..

  18. Transition rate diagrams and excitation of titanium in a glow discharge in argon and neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Zdeněk; Steers, Edward B. M.; Pickering, Juliet C.

    2018-06-01

    Emission spectra of titanium in a Grimm-type glow discharge in argon and neon were studied using the formalism of transition rate diagrams. Ti I spectra in argon and neon discharges are similar, without signs of selective excitation, and populations of Ti I levels exhibit a decreasing trend as function of energy, except for some scatter. A major excitation process of Ti II in argon discharge is charge transfer from argon ions to neutral titanium. In neon discharge, a strong selective excitation was observed of Ti II levels at ≈13.3-13.4 eV relative to the Ti I ground state. It was attributed to charge transfer from doubly charged titanium ions to neutral titanium, while the Ti++ ions are produced by charge transfer and ionization of neutral titanium by neon ions. Cascade excitation is important for Ti II levels up to an energy of ≈13 eV relative to the Ti I ground state, both in argon and neon discharges.

  19. Effect of Argon Laser on Enamel Demineralization around Orthodontic Brackets: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miresmaeili, Amirfarhang; Etrati Khosroshahi, Mohammad; Motahary, Pouya; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Mahjub, Hossein; Dadashi, Maryam; Farhadian, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effect of argon laser irradiation on development and progress of enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: Fifty caries-free, intact human premolars were randomly assigned to one of the following five equal groups: Groups 1 (control) and 2: The brackets were bonded using conventional halogen light for 40s and argon laser for 10s, respectively. Teeth in group 3 were lased with argon laser for 10s before bracket bonding with halogen light. Group 4 was the same as group 3 except that brackets were also bonded with argon laser. In group 5 samples were bonded conventionally, immersed in an artificial caries solution for two days and then irradiated for 10s with argon laser. All samples were subjected to demineralization by artificial caries solution for 10 days. After bracket removal, samples were buccolingually sectioned and evaluated by polarized light microscopy. Decalcified lesion depth in each section was measured by a trained examiner in a blind fashion. Data were analyzed in SPSS 14 using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test. Results: The control group showed the greatest mean lesion depth while group 5 revealed the lowest. The laser-treated groups had significantly lower mean lesion depth compared with the control group (Pbracket bonding can increase caries resistance of intact and demineralized enamel. PMID:25584052

  20. Effects of oxygen concentration on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in Argon-Oxygen Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechun; Li, Dian; Wang, Younian

    2016-09-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can generate a low-temperature plasma easily at atmospheric pressure and has been investigated for applications in trials in cancer therapy, sterilization, air pollution control, etc. It has been confirmed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the processes. In this work, we use a fluid model to simulate the plasma characteristics for DBD in argon-oxygen mixture. The effects of oxygen concentration on the plasma characteristics have been discussed. The evolution mechanism of ROS has been systematically analyzed. It was found that the ground state oxygen atoms and oxygen molecular ions are the dominated oxygen species under the considered oxygen concentrations. With the oxygen concentration increasing, the densities of electrons, argon atomic ions, resonance state argon atoms, metastable state argon atoms and excited state argon atoms all show a trend of decline. The oxygen molecular ions density is high and little influenced by the oxygen concentration. Ground state oxygen atoms density tends to increase before falling. The ozone density increases significantly. Increasing the oxygen concentration, the discharge mode begins to change gradually from the glow discharge mode to Townsend discharge mode. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175034).

  1. Urinary retention and post-void residual urine in men: separating truth from tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Steven A; Wein, Alan J; Staskin, David R; Roehrborn, Claus G; Steers, William D

    2008-07-01

    The definitions of acute and chronic urinary retention remain empirical and subject to wide interpretation. Standardized criteria have not been established and many questions remain unanswered. Moreover, the definition of significant post-void residual urine is unclear. We reviewed several aspects of urinary retention that require clarification with the objective of stimulating discussion among urologists to establish an accurate and coherent definition of urinary retention and significant post-void residual urine, and clarify risk factors. A MEDLINE search for articles written in English and published before April 2007 was done using a list of terms related to urinary retention. Articles not directly relevant to urinary retention or post-void residual urine were excluded. The term urinary retention lacks precise clinical or urodynamic meaning. Use of this term to describe a symptom, a sign, and a condition further complicates the issue. Many factors can contribute to the development of retention, including bladder outlet obstruction, detrusor underactivity, and neurogenic bladder conditions. Community based studies and clinical trials in patients with benign prostatic enlargement and/or lower urinary tract symptoms yield different estimates of the incidence of retention and only provide information on the epidemiology of acute urinary retention. However, age, previous retention episodes, lower urinary tract symptoms, chronic inflammation, serum prostate specific antigen level, prostate size, and urodynamic variables appear to be predictors of acute urinary retention. Alpha-receptor antagonists and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors may be useful in preventing urinary retention episodes and progressive benign prostatic enlargement. Clinical trials on the short-term use of antimuscarinics have not provided evidence that these agents increase the risk of retention; data on longer term administration are needed. Clinicians are adopting less invasive approaches (eg

  2. Deuterium retention in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Conn, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of deuterium retention in samples of lithium exposed in the liquid state to deuterium plasma are reported. Retention was measured as a function of plasma ion dose in the range 6x10 19 -4x10 22 D atoms and exposure temperature between 523 and 673 K using thermal desorption spectrometry. The results are consistent with the full uptake of all deuterium ions incident on the liquid metal surface and are found to be independent of the temperature of the liquid lithium over the range explored. Full uptake, consistent with very low recycling, continues until the sample is volumetrically converted to lithium deuteride. This occurs for exposure temperatures where the gas pressure during exposure was both below and slightly above the corresponding decomposition pressure for LiD in Li. (author)

  3. Krypton retention on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental laboratory program was conducted to develop economical solid adsorbents for the retention of krypton from a dissolver off-gas stream. The study indicates that a solid adsorbent system is feasible and competitive with other developing systems which utilize fluorocarbon absorption nd cryogenic distillation. This technology may have potential applications not only in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, but also in nuclear reactors and in environmental monitoring. Of the 13 prospective adsorbents evaluated with respect to adsorption capacity and cost, the commercially available hydrogen mordenite was the most cost-effective material at subambient temperatures (-40 0 to -80 0 C). Silver mordenite has a higher capacity for krypton retention, but is 50 times more expensive than hydrogen mordenite

  4. Factors Affecting Customer Retention in the Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda Climis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study empirically investigated the factors that affect customer retention in the airline industry in North Cyprus. These factors were service quality attributes, perceived safety, customer satisfaction, loyalty reward program, relationship commitment and customer loyalty. The study also investigated four different groups for purposes of travel (business, education, vacation and family visit in the empirical model. Methodology: A descriptive approach was chosen to conduct this research. A quanhip between customer retention and the related study factors; however, not all of these relations are signifcant. The results also showed that the different purposes of travel had different influences on the variables regarding the positive and signifcant relations between them. Some independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variables. Conclusions: This research was limited to one group and place: the students of Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus. Originality: This study connected the retention, loyalty, satisfaction and service quality factors as attributes. In addition, this research was the frst to include other independent factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty in a comparison between four different groups regarding the purpose of travel in the airline industry.

  5. Estimating water retention curves for sandy soils at the Doñana National Park, SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The determination of soil water retention curves (SWRC) in the laboratory is a slow and tedious task, which is especially challenging for sandy soils due to their low water retention capacity and large water content changes for small pressure head differences. Due to spatial variability within larg...

  6. Plunger with simple retention valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekete, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a positive displacement retention valve apparatus in which the actual flow equals the theoretical maximum flow through the retention valve. The apparatus includes, in combination, a confined fluid flow conduit, a piston adapted for reciprocal movement within the fluid flow conduit between upstream and downstream limit positions, piston reciprocating means, and pressure responsive check valve means located upstream with respect to the piston in the fluid flow conduit. The pressure responsive check valve means operable to permit fluid flow therethrough in a downstream direction toward the piston, and to preclude fluid flow therethrough in an opposite direction. The piston is composed of parts which are relatively movable with respect to one another. The piston includes a simple retention valve consisting of a plug means, a cylinder having a minimum and a maximum internal cross section flow area therein and being reciprocal within the confined fluid flow conduit, and a seat on the cylinder for the plug means. The piston reciprocating means are operatively connected to the plug means

  7. Pennsylvania Academic Libraries and Student Retention and Graduation: A Preliminary Investigation with Confusing Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Crawford

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationships between specific institutional financial variables and two library-related variables on graduation and retention rates for colleges and universities through correlations and multiple regression analysis. The analyses used data for Pennsylvania colleges and universities that were extracted from the Integrated Postsecondary Educational Data System (IPEDS and the Academic Libraries Survey (ALS.  All analyses were run using IBM SPSS software. The correlations showed that both library expenses per student and library use per student were significantly correlated with both graduation and retention rates. In contrast, the multiple regression results showed that neither library budgets nor library use had significant effects on either graduation rates or retention rates. As would be expected, instructional expenses per student had the highest correlation with both graduation and retention and also yielded the strongest coefficient in the resulting regression equations.

  8. Theoretical and experimental comparisons of Gamble 2 argon gas puff experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, J.W.; Young, F.C.; Whitney, K.G.; Davis, J.; Stephanakis, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional radiative MHD analysis of an imploding argon gas puff plasma is performed. The calculations are set up to approximate the conditions of a series of argon gas puff experiments that were carried out on the NRL Gamble II generator. Annular gas puffs (2.5 cm diameter) are imploded with a 1.2-MA peak driving current for different initial argon mass loadings. Comparisons are made with the experimental results for implosion times, K, L-shell x-ray emission, and energy coupled from the generator to the plasma load. The purpose of these calculations is to provide a foundation from which a variety of physical phenomena which influence the power and total energy of the x-ray emission can be analyzed. Comparisons with similar experimental and theoretical results for aluminum plasmas are discussed

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of post-cluster argon plasmas during the blast wave expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.-K.; Fournier, K.B.; Edwards, M.J.; Scott, H.A.; Lee, R.W.; Cattolica, R.; Ditmire, T.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we present temperature diagnostics of an expanding laser-produced argon plasma. A short-pulse (35fs) laser with an intensity of I = 1017 W/cm deposits ∼ 100 mJ of energy into argon clusters. This generates a hot plasma filament that develops into a cylindrically expanding shock. We develop spectral diagnostics for the temperatures of the argon plasma in the shock region and the preionized region ahead of the shock. A collisional-radiative model is applied to explore line intensity ratios derived from Ar II-Ar IV spectra that are sensitive to temperatures in a few eV range. The results of hydrodynamic simulations are employed to derive a time dependent radiative transport calculation that generates the theoretical emission spectra from the expanding plasma

  10. Spectroscopic Characterization of Post-Cluster Argon Plasmas During the Blast Wave Expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, H-K.; Fournier, K.B.; Edwards, M.J.; Scott, H.A.; Cattolica, R.; Ditmire, T.; Lee, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we present temperature diagnostics of an expanding laser-produced argon plasma. A short-pulse (35fs) laser with an intensity of I = 10 17 W/cm 2 deposits ∼ 100 mJ of energy into argon clusters. This generates a hot plasma filament that develops into a cylindrically expanding shock. We develop spectral diagnostics for the temperatures of the argon plasma in the shock region and the preionized region ahead of the shock. A collisional-radiative model is applied to explore line intensity ratios derived from Ar II - Ar IV spectra that are sensitive to temperatures in a few eV range. The results of hydrodynamic simulations are employed to derive a time dependent radiative transport calculation that generates the theoretical emission spectra from the expanding plasma

  11. Rotational study on the van der Waals complex 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane-argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Chen, Junhua; Feng, Gang; Xia, Zhining; Gou, Qian

    2018-03-01

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex formed between 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane and argon has been investigated by using a pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Only one set of rotational transitions belonging to the lowest energy conformer has been observed and assigned, although theoretical calculations suggest six stable conformers that might be observed. The observed conformer, according to the experimental evidence from two isotopologues (35Cl and 37Cl), adopts a configuration in which the argon atom is located, close to the sbnd CF2Cl top, between the CCF and CCCl planes (the dihedral angle ∠ ArCCCl is 65.2°). The distance between argon atom and the center of mass of CH3CF2Cl is 3.949(2) Å. The dissociation energy, with pseudo diatomic approximation, is evaluated to be 2.4 kJ mol- 1.

  12. Experimental studies of the argon-puff Z-pinch implosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianbin; Yang Libing; Gu Yuanchao; Deng Jianjun; Zhou Rongguo; Zou Jie; Zhou Shaotong; Zhang Siqun; Chen Guanghua; Chang Lihua; Li Fengping; Ouyang Kai; Li Jun; Yang Liang; Wang Xiong; Zhang Zhaohui

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary experiment for studying the argon-puff Z-pinch implosion process has been performed on the Yang accelerator. The ten-frame nanosecond temporal and spatial gated camera, visible high-speed scanning camera, differential laser interferometer, X-ray time integration pinhole camera and X-ray power system have been used to investigated the evolution of the argon-puff Z-pinch. Some typical results of argon-puff Z-pinch during implosion and pinch phase, including the 'zipper' effect, necking phenomenon, sausage instability, temperature changes and the effect of load current rise time, are given and analyzed as examples, and some relevant conclusions are drawn. (authors)

  13. Argon plasma treatment to enhance the electrochemical reactivity of screen-printed carbon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghamouss, F.; Luais, E. [Universite de Nantes, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation (CEISAM), UMR CNRS no 6230, 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 NANTES Cedex 3 (France); Universite de Nantes, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel IMN - CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Thobie-Gautier, C. [Universite de Nantes, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation (CEISAM), UMR CNRS no 6230, 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 NANTES Cedex 3 (France); Tessier, P.-Y. [Universite de Nantes, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation (CEISAM), UMR CNRS no 6230, 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 NANTES Cedex 3 (France); Universite de Nantes, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel IMN - CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Boujtita, M. [Universite de Nantes, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation (CEISAM), UMR CNRS no 6230, 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 NANTES Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.fr

    2009-04-15

    Radiofrequency argon plasma was used for screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) surface treatment. The cyclic voltammetry of ferri/ferrocyanide as redox couple showed a remarkable improvement of the electrochemical reactivity of the SPCE after the plasma treatment. The effect of the plasma growth conditions on the efficiency of the treatment procedure was evaluated in term of electrochemical reactivity of the SPCE surface. The electrochemical study showed that the electrochemical reactivity of the treated electrodes was strongly dependant on radiofrequency power, treatment time and argon gas pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed a considerable evolution on the surface chemistry of the treated electrodes. Our results clearly showed that the argon plasma treatment induces a significant increase in the C{sub sp2}/C{sub sp3} ratio. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) also showed a drastic change on the surface morphology of the treated SPCEs.

  14. Argon: Systematic Review on Neuro- and Organoprotective Properties of an “Inert” Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Höllig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Argon belongs to the group of noble gases, which are regarded as chemically inert. Astonishingly some of these gases exert biological properties and during the last decades more and more reports demonstrated neuroprotective and organoprotective effects. Recent studies predominately use in vivo or in vitro models for ischemic pathologies to investigate the effect of argon treatment. Promising data has been published concerning pathologies like cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, models applied and administration of the therapeutic gas vary. Here we provide a systematic review to summarize the available data on argon’s neuro- and organoprotective effects and discuss its possible mechanism of action. We aim to provide a summary to allow further studies with a more homogeneous setting to investigate possible clinical applications of argon.

  15. Enhancement of the EUV emission of a metallic capillary discharge operated with argon ambient gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, L. S., E-mail: lschan1982@yahoo.com; Tan, D., E-mail: lschan1982@yahoo.com; Saboohi, S., E-mail: lschan1982@yahoo.com; Yap, S. L., E-mail: lschan1982@yahoo.com; Wong, C. S., E-mail: lschan1982@yahoo.com [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Physics Department, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05

    In this work, the metallic capillary discharge is operated with two different ambients: air and argon. In the experiments reported here, the chamber is first evacuated to 10{sup −5} mbar. The discharge is initiated by the transient hollow cathode effect generated electron beam, with either air ambient or argon ambient at 10{sup −4} mbar. The bombardment of electron beam at the tip of the stainless steel anode gives rise to a metallic vapor, which is injected into the capillary and initiates the main discharge through the capillary. The EUV emission is measured for different discharge voltages for both conditions and compared. It is found that the metallic capillary discharge with argon ambientis able to produce higher EUV energy compared to that with air ambient.

  16. Melting of “non-magic” argon clusters and extrapolation to the bulk limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senn, Florian; Wiebke, Jonas; Schumann, Ole; Gohr, Sebastian; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Pahl, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The melting of argon clusters Ar N is investigated by applying a parallel-tempering Monte Carlo algorithm for all cluster sizes in the range from 55 to 309 atoms. Extrapolation to the bulk gives a melting temperature of 85.9 K in good agreement with the previous value of 88.9 K using only Mackay icosahedral clusters for the extrapolation [E. Pahl, F. Calvo, L. Koči, and P. Schwerdtfeger, “Accurate melting temperatures for neon and argon from ab initio Monte Carlo simulations,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 47, 8207 (2008)]. Our results for argon demonstrate that for the extrapolation to the bulk one does not have to restrict to magic number cluster sizes in order to obtain good estimates for the bulk melting temperature. However, the extrapolation to the bulk remains a problem, especially for the systematic selection of suitable cluster sizes

  17. Synodic and semiannual oscillations of argon-40 in the lunar exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R. Richard; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutral mass spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft collected a trove of exospheric data, including a set of high-quality measurements of radiogenic 40Ar over a period of 142 days. Data synthesis studies, using well-established exosphere simulation tools, show that the LADEE argon data are consistent with an exosphere-regolith interaction that is dominated by adsorption and that the desorption process generates the Armand distribution of exit velocities. The synthesis work has uncovered an apparent semiannual oscillation of argon that is consistent with temporal sequestration in the seasonal cold traps created at the poles by the obliquity of the Moon. In addition, the LADEE data provide new insight into the pristine nature of lunar regolith, its spatially varying sorption properties, and the influence of sorption processes on the synodic oscillation of the argon exosphere.

  18. Uncovering client retention antecedents in service organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Jansen van Rensburg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a multi-dimensional model of retention to provide a more complete and integrated view of client retention and its determinants in service contexts. To uncover the antecedents of client retention, social and economic exchanges were reviewed under the fundamental ideas of the Social Exchange Theory. Findings from a survey of senior South African advertising executives suggest that client retention is the result of evaluative as well as relational factors that can influence client responses. Despite contractual obligations, advertisers are willing to pay the costs and make the sacrifices of switching should their expectations be unmet. An important contribution of this study is the use of multi-item scales to measure retention. The model developed provides valuable insight to agencies on client retention management and the optimal allocation of resources for maximum customer equity. This model may also be applied to other service organisations to provide insight to client retention.

  19. Cleaning method of aluminium surface by argon discharge for photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Watabe, Hiromi; Horikoshi, Gen-ichi; Mathewson, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    In the Photon Factory program of High Energy Research Laboratory, in which the electron storage ring as a photon source stores the electron beam of 2.5 GeV and 500 mA, beam intensity the probability of gas discharge from the inner surface of doughnut wall due to electron bombardment (for 100 eV electorns) must be limited to 1 x 10 -6 or less, according to the estimation by A.G. Mathewson and others. The pressure inside the ring can be maintained at 1 x 10 -9 Torr only with the above probability value. The standard surface treatment of degreasing and evacuation for 24 hours with heating at 150 deg. C can be of no practical use. Since the ion bombardment of surfaces by argon glow discharge is effective for decreasing the probability, the reduction of the probability by argon discharge cleaning was measured with the surface of aluminium, which is planned to be used as the doughnut material. Two methods were employed for the measurement; the one is analysis of gases being discharged, by introducting them to the analyzing chamber during argon discharge and the other is the measurement of the probability when bombardment with electrons of 100 eV is applied, after stopping argon introduction and evacuating after argon discharge had been performed for a definite period. As a result, the probability of approximately 2 x 10 -5 at the beginning of electron beam incidence was obtained by adding argon discharge cleaning to the standard method. This is estimated to correspondent to approximately 25 mA of beam intensity, which is equivalent to 1/20 of the planned value. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Electrical and spectroscopic diagnostic of an atmospheric double arc argon plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, X; Cheron, B G; Yan, J H; Cen, K F

    2007-01-01

    An atmospheric argon plasma jet generated by an original dc double anode plasma torch has been investigated through its electrical and spectroscopic diagnostics. The arc instabilities and dynamic behavior of the argon plasma are analyzed using classical tools such as the statistical method, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and correlation function. The takeover mode is identified as the fluctuation characteristic of the double arc argon plasma jet in our experiment. The FFT and correlation analysis of electrical signals exhibit the only characteristic frequency of 150 Hz, which originates from the torch power and is independent of any change in the operating parameters. No high frequency fluctuations (1-15 kHz) are observed. This indicates that the nature of fluctuations in an argon plasma jet is induced mainly by the undulation of the tri-phase rectified power supply. It is found that each arc root attachment is diffused rather than located at a fixed position on the anode wall. Moreover, the emission spectroscopic technique is performed to determine the electron temperature and number density of the plasma jet inside and outside the arc chamber. Along the torch axis, the measured electron temperature and number density of the double arc argon plasma drop from 12 300 K and 7.6 x 10 22 m -3 at the divergent part of the first anode nozzle, to 10 500 K and 3.1 x 10 22 m -3 at the torch exit. In addition, the validity criteria of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state in the plasma arc are examined. The results show that the measured electron densities are in good agreement with those calculated from the LTE model, which indicates that the double arc argon plasma at atmospheric pressure is close to the LTE state under our experimental conditions

  1. The grit effect: predicting retention in the military, the workplace, school and marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Eskreis-Winkler, Lauren; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Beal, Scott A.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    Remaining committed to goals is necessary (albeit not sufficient) to attaining them, but very little is known about domain-general individual differences that contribute to sustained goal commitment. The current investigation examines the association between grit, defined as passion and perseverance for long-term goals, other individual difference variables, and retention in four different contexts: the military, workplace sales, high school, and marriage. Grit predicted retention over and ...

  2. Pengaruh Customer Satisfaction terhadap Customer Retention (Survei Pelanggan J.co Donut & Coffee Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Tanjung, Andhika; Sanawiri, Brillyanes

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to identify influence of Customer Satisfaction, to Customer Retention. The independent varible in this research are Customer Satsisfaction (X), with the dependent variable Customer Retention (Y). The type of research is explanatory research with quantitative approach. The object of research is the customer J.Co Donut & Coffee with minimum purchase at least 2 times. The sampling after selectes by purposive sampling tehcnique is as many as 116 people of respondents. The d...

  3. Relative efficacy of the argon green, argon blue-green, and krypton red lasers for 10-0 nylon subconjunctival laser suture lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, A V; To, K W; Balachandran, R M; Janigian, R H; Tsiaras, W G

    1999-01-01

    To determine the optimal wavelength for subconjunctival laser suture lysis. 130 black monofilament 10-0 nylon sutures were sewn subconjunctivally into the bare sclera of enucleated rabbit globes. The lowest energy levels facilitating laser suture lysis were determined for the argon green (514.5 NM), argon blue-green (488.0 NM, 514.5 NM), and krypton red (647.1 NM) wavelengths. In addition, absorption spectroscopy was performed on the suture material and conjunctiva using the Perkin Elmer W/VIS Lambda 2 spectrometer. Krypton red produced the fewest buttonhole defects, and it was also the most efficient energy source for suture lysis (P = 0.0001) under nontenectomized conjunctiva. Absorbance spectra studies revealed peak absorbance at 628 NM for the 10-0 nylon suture material. Based on animal and absorption spectroscopy studies, krypton red may be a safer and more efficient wavelength for subconjunctival laser suture lysis.

  4. Influence of displacement damage on deuterium and helium retention in austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloys considered for ADS service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevodin, V.N.; Karpov, S.A.; Kopanets, I.E.; Ruzhytskyi, V.V. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology” Kharkov, 1, Akademicheskaya St., Kharkov, 61108 (Ukraine); Tolstolutskaya, G.D., E-mail: g.d.t@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology” Kharkov, 1, Akademicheskaya St., Kharkov, 61108 (Ukraine); Garner, F.A. [Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The behavior of ion-implanted hydrogen (deuterium) and helium in austenitic 18Cr10NiTi stainless steel, EI-852 ferritic steel and ferritic/martensitic steel EP-450 and their interaction with displacement damage were investigated. Energetic argon irradiation was used to produce displacement damage and bubble formation to simulate nuclear power environments. The influence of damage morphology and the features of radiation-induced defects on deuterium and helium trapping in structural alloys was studied using ion implantation, the nuclear reaction D({sup 3}He,p){sup 4}He, thermal desorption spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. It was found in the case of helium irradiation that various kinds of helium-radiation defect complexes are formed in the implanted layer that lead to a more complicated spectra of thermal desorption. Additional small changes in the helium spectra after irradiation with argon ions to a dose of ≤25 dpa show that the binding energy of helium with these traps is weakly dependent on the displacement damage. It was established that retention of deuterium in ferritic and ferritic-martensitic alloys is three times less than in austenitic steel at damage of ∼1 dpa. The retention of deuterium in steels is strongly enhanced by presence of radiation damages created by argon ion irradiation, with a shift in the hydrogen release temperature interval of 200 K to higher temperature. At elevated temperatures of irradiation the efficiency of deuterium trapping is reduced by two orders of magnitude.

  5. A highly segmented and compact liquid argon calorimeter for the LHC the TGT calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, C; Geulig, H; Pierschel, G; Siedling, R; Tutas, J; Wlochal, M; Wotschack, J; Cheplakov, A P; Eremeev, R V; Feshchenko, A; Gavrishchuk, O P; Kazarinov, Yu M; Khrenov, Yu V; Kukhtin, V V; Ladygin, E; Obudovskij, V; Shalyugin, A N; Tolmachev, V T; Volodko, A G; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Krause, J; Putzer, A; Tittel, K; Wunsch, M; Bán, J; Bruncko, Dusan; Kriván, F; Kurca, T; Murín, P; Sándor, L; Spalek, J; Aderholz, Michael; Brettel, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Fent, J; Huber, J; Hajduk, L; Jakobs, K; Kiesling, C; Oberlack, H; Schacht, P; Stiegler, U; Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Chekulaev, S V; Kiryunin, A E; Kurchaninov, L L; Levitsky, M S; Maximov, V V; Minaenko, A A; Moiseev, A M; Semenov, P A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1992-01-01

    The development of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter is proposed as an R&D project for an LHC calorimeter with full rapidity coverage. The proposed ``Thin Gap Turbine'' (TGT) calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of the impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An important aspect of the project is the development of electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time in the TGT read-out cell. The system aspects of the integration of a high degree of signal processing into the liquid argon would be investigated.

  6. Low-pressure argon adsorption assessment of micropore connectivities in activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, T; Villieras, F; Finqueneisel, G; Cossarutto, L; Weber, J V

    2006-01-01

    Low-pressure argon adsorption has been used to study the energetic distribution of microporous activated carbons differing by their burn-off. The collected isotherms were analyzed using the derivative isotherm summation method. Some oscillations on the experimental curves for very low partial pressures were detected. The results are analyzed and discussed according to the literature and could be attributed to local overheating caused by spontaneous mass transfer of argon through constrictions between former pores and the new opening pore or deadend pores. We used the dynamic character of the experimental method and mainly the discrepancy of the quasi-equilibrium state to deduce key parameters related to the porosity topology.

  7. Active background suppression with the liquid argon scintillation veto of GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double beta decay would allow to shed light onto the particle nature of neutrinos. Gerda is aiming to perform a background-free search for this process using high purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge operated in liquid argon. This goal relies on the application of active background suppression techniques. A low background light instrumentation has been installed for Phase II to detect events with coincident energy deposition in the nearby liquid argon. The intended background index of ˜10-3 cts/(keV·ky·yr) has been confirmed.

  8. Operation of the D0 uranium liquid-argon calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The DO calorimeter consists of three separate cryostats containing uranium modules in liquid argon. This odorimeter has transverse segmentation of 0.1 x 0.1 in η x 0 and consists of eight or nine longitudinal readout segments. The coverage in η extends to 4. As a result of the large coverage and fine segmentation there are 50,000 channels of electronics. After a brief description of the electronics, stability and noise aspects will be investigated. Results of the liquid-argon purity studies will be discssed. The backgrounds in the calorimeter due to the Fermilab main ring will also be examined

  9. Heat Transfer During Evaporation of Cesium From Graphite Surface in an Argon Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespala Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on discussion of problem of graphite radioactive waste formation and accumulation. It is shown that irradiated nuclear graphite being inalienable part of uranium-graphite reactor may contain fission and activation products. Much attention is given to the process of formation of radioactive cesium on the graphite element surface. It is described a process of plasma decontamination of irradiated graphite in inert argon atmosphere. Quasi-one mathematical model is offered, it describes heat transfer process in graphite-cesium-argon system. Article shows results of calculation of temperature field inside the unit cell. Authors determined the factors which influence on temperature change.

  10. Characterization of weakly ionized argon flows for radio blackout mitigation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, L.; Koch, U.; Esser, B.; Gülhan, A.

    2017-06-01

    For reproducing the so-called E × B communication blackout mitigation scheme inside the L2K arc heated facility of the DLR in weakly ionized argon §ows, a §at plate model has been equipped with a superconducting magnet, electrodes, and a setup comprising microwave plasma transmission spectroscopy (MPTS). A thorough characterization of the weakly ionized argon §ow has been performed including the use of microwave interferometry (MWI), Langmuir probe measurements, Pitot probe pro¦les, and spectroscopic methods like diode laser absorption spectroscopy (DLAS) and emission spectroscopy.

  11. Irradiation tests of ATLAS liquid argon forward calorimeter (FCAL) electronics components

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Golikov, V; Golubyh, S M; Kukhtin, V; Kulagin, E; Luschikov, V; Merkulov, L; Minashkin, V F; Shalyugin, A N

    2002-01-01

    FCAL resistors, capacitors, and transformers together with capacitors and sintimid disks of the purity monitor have been irradiated in liquid argon to study their possible lead to argon pollution at a maximal neutron fluence of 1016 n cm-2 at the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna. The results of charge collection measurements before and after irradiation are reported. Electrical measurement on these FCAL capacitors, resistors and transformers were also performed after irradiation. In general, the results of resistance, capacitance, impedance, leakage current and high voltage breakdown measurements after irradiation show minor changes of value only for some parameters from nominal values or values measured before irradiation.

  12. Ionization and scintillation produced by relativistic Au, He and H ions in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibamura, E; Masuda, K; Crawford, H J; Engelage, J M; Doke, T; Hitachi, A; Kikuchi, J; Flores, I; Lindstrom, P J; Ogura, K

    1987-10-15

    We have measured ionization and scintillation produced by relativistic ions of Au, He and H in liquid argon. The sum of ionization signal and scintillation signal per unit energy deposition is the same for He and H ions, which is also the same as that for relativistic Ne, Fe and La ions previously measured. We have found that quenching occurs when liquid argon is irradiated by relativistic Au ions and that the sum per unit energy deposition for the Au ions is 70-76% of that for the other ions mentioned above.

  13. Evolution of precipitate in nickel-base alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Shuoxue; Luo, Fengfeng; Ma, Shuli; Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Tang, Rui; Guo, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Alloy 718 is a nickel-base superalloy whose strength derives from γ′(Ni 3 (Al,Ti)) and γ″(Ni 3 Nb) precipitates. The evolution of the precipitates in alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature were examined via transmission electron microscopy. Selected-area electron diffraction indicated superlattice spots disappeared after argon ion irradiation, which showing that the ordered structure of the γ′ and γ″ precipitates became disordered. The size of the precipitates became smaller with the irradiation dose increasing at 290 °C

  14. Polarizability of Helium, Neon, and Argon: New Perspectives for Gas Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiser, Christof; Fellmuth, Bernd

    2018-03-01

    With dielectric-constant gas thermometry, the molar polarizability of helium, neon, and argon has been determined with relative standard uncertainties of about 2 parts per million. A series of isotherms measured with the three noble gases and two different experimental setups led to this unprecedented level of uncertainty. These data are crucial for scientists in the field of gas metrology, working on pressure and temperature standards. Furthermore, with the new benchmark values for neon and argon, theoretical calculations, today about 3 orders of magnitude larger in uncertainty, can be checked and improved.

  15. Performance of the Electronic Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, H; Aleksa, M; Aperio Bella, L; Archambault, JP; Arfaoui, S; Arnaez, O; Auge, E; Aurousseau, M; Bahinipati, S; Ban, J; Banfi, D; Barajas, A; Barillari, T; Bazan, A; Bellachia, F; Beloborodova, O; Benchekroun, D; Benslama, K; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Bernat, P; Bernier, R; Besson, N; Binet, S; Blanchard, JB; Blondel, A; Bobrovnikov, V; Bohner, O; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Bouchel, M; Bourdarios, C; Bozzone, A; Braun, HM; Breton, D; Brettel, H; Brooijmans, G; Caputo, R; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Caughron, S; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Chareyre, E; Chase, RL; Chekulaev, SV; Chen, H; Cheplakov, A; Chiche, R; Citterio, M; Cojocaru, C; Colas, J; Collard, C; Collot, J; Consonni, M; Cooke, M; Copic, K; Costa, GC; Courneyea, L; Cuisy, D; Cwienk, WD; Damazio, D; Dannheim, D; De Cecco, S; De La Broise, X; De La Taille, C; de Vivie, JB; Debennerot, B; Delagnes, E; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, L; Doan, O; Dudziak, F; Duflot, L; Dumont-Dayot, N; Dzahini, D; Elles, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Etienvre, AI; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farooque, T; Favre, P; Fayard, Louis; Fent, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, A; Fournier, D; Fournier, L; Fras, M; Froeschl, R; Gadfort, T; Gallin-Martel, ML; Gibson, A; Gillberg, D; Gingrich, DM; Göpfert, T; Goodson, J; Gouighri, M; Goy, C; Grassi, V; Gray, J; Guillemin, T; Guo, B; Habring, J; Handel, C; Heelan, L; Heintz, H; Helary, L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hervas, L; Hobbs, J; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, JY; Hoummada, A; Hrivnac, J; Hrynova, T; Hubaut, F; Huber, J; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Iengo, P; Imbert, P; Ishmukhametov, R; Jantsch, A; Javadov, N; Jezequel, S; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Ju, XY; Kado, M; Kalinowski, A; Kar, D; Karev, A; Katsanos, I; Kazarinov, M; Kerschen, N; Kierstead, J; Kim, MS; Kiryunin, A; Kladiva, E; Knecht, N; Kobel, M; Koletsou, I; König, S; Krieger, P; Kukhtin, V; Kuna, M; Kurchaninov, L; Labbe, J; Lacour, D; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lamarra, D; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Laskus, H; Le Coguie, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Lechowski, M; Lee, SC; Lefebvre, M; Leonhardt, K; Lethiec, L; Leveque, J; Liang, Z; Liu, C; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Loch, P; Lu, J; Ma, H; Mader, W; Majewski, S; Makovec, N; Makowiecki, D; Mandelli, L; Mangeard, PS; Mansoulie, B; Marchand, JF; Marchiori, G; Martin, D; Martin-Chassard, G; Martin dit Latour, B; Marzin, A; Maslennikov, A; Massol, N; Matricon, P; Maximov, D; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, T; McPherson, R; Menke, S; Meyer, JP; Ming, Y; Monnier, E; Mooshofer, P; Neganov, A; Niedercorn, F; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nugent, IM; Oakham, G; Oberlack, H; Ocariz, J; Odier, J; Oram, CJ; Orlov, I; Orr, R; Parsons, JA; Peleganchuk, S; Penson, A; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Perus, A; Petit, E; Pisarev, I; Plamondon, M; Poffenberger, P; Poggioli, L; Pospelov, G; Pralavorio, P; Prast, J; Prudent, X; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Quentin, M; Radeka, V; Rajagopalan, S; Rauter, E; Reimann, O; Rescia, S; Resende, B; Richer, JP; Ridel, M; Rios, R; Roos, L; Rosenbaum, G; Rosenzweig, H; Rossetto, O; Roudil, W; Rousseau, D; Ruan, X; Rudert, A; Rusakovich, N; Rusquart, P; Rutherfoord, J; Sauvage, G; Savine, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaffer, A; Schram, M; Schwemling, P; Seguin Moreau, N; Seifert, F; Serin, L; Seuster, R; Shalyugin, A; Shupe, M; Simion, S; Sinervo, P; Sippach, W; Skovpen, K; Sliwa, R; Soukharev, A; Spano, F; Stavina, P; Straessner, A; Strizenec, P; Stroynowski, R; Talyshev, A; Tapprogge, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, GF; Teuscher, R; Tikhonov, Yu; Tocut, V; Tompkins, D; Thompson, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Tomasz, F; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, Thi N; Trochet, S; Trocme, B; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsionou, D; Ueno, R; Unal, G; Urbaniec, D; Usov, Y; Voss, K; Veillet, JJ; Vincter, M; Vogt, S; Weng, Z; Whalen, K; Wicek, F; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wulf, E; Yang, Z; Ye, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zarzhitsky, P; Zerwas, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, L; Zhou, N; Zimmer, J; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. ATLAS includes electromagnetic and hadronic liquid argon calorimeters, with almost 200,000 channels of data that must be sampled at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz. The calorimeter electronics calibration and readout are performed by custom electronics developed specifically for these purposes. This paper describes the system performance of the ATLAS liquid argon calibration and readout electronics, including noise, energy and time resolution, and long term stability, with data taken mainly from full-system calibration runs performed after installation of the system in the ATLAS detector hall at CERN.

  16. Cross sections for charge change in argon and equilibrium charge states of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions passing through argon and carbon targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumal, A.N.; Horvat, V.; Watson, R.L.; Peng, Y.; Fruchey, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Cross sections for single and multiple electron capture and loss were measured for 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions, traveling in argon gas, as a function of incident charge state. Multiple electron loss in single collisions was found to contribute significantly to the total loss cross section. The measured cross sections were used to determine the average equilibrium charge in argon by three different methods. The resulting charges were in good agreement with each other and with the effective charge calculated from stopping powers. In order to investigate the gas-solid (density) effect on the average equilibrium charge, the charge distributions of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions emerging from carbon foils of different thicknesses were measured. It was found that the average equilibrium charge of the uranium ions emerging from the solid is 41% larger than that of the uranium ions emerging from the gas. The energy dependences of the average equilibrium charges for uranium ions exiting carbon and argon targets were examined by combining the present results with previous results of other investigators and compared with the predictions of a semiempirical formula developed recently by Schiwietz and Grande

  17. ArgonCube: a novel, fully-modular approach for the realization of large-mass liquid argon TPC neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, C; Asaadi, J; Auger, M; Barbato, F; Bay, F; Bishai, M; Bleiner, D; Borgschulte, A; Bremer, J; Cavus, E; Chen, H; De Geronimo, G; Ereditato, A; Fleming, B; Goldi, D; Hanni, R; Kose, U; Kreslo, I; La Mattina, F; Lanni, F; Lissauer, D; Luthi, M; Lutz, P; Marchionni, A; Mladenov, D; Nessi, M; Noto, F; Palamara, O; Raaf, J L; Radeka, V; Rudolph Von Rohr, Ch; Smargianaki, D; Soderberg, M; Strauss, Th; Weber, M; Yu, B; Zeller, G P; Zeyrek, M; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2015-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber is a prime candidate detector for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently being considered at the future LBNF facility in the United States on the very large mass scale of 40 kton. In this document, following the long standing R&D work conducted over the last years in several laboratories in Europe and in the United States, we intend to propose a novel Liquid Argon TPC approach based on a fully-modular, innovative design, the ArgonCube. The related R&D work will proceed along two main directions; one aimed at on the assessment of the proposed modular detector design, the other on the exploitation of new signal readout methods. Such a strategy will provide high performance while being cost-effective and robust at the same time. According to our plans, we will firstly realize a detector prototype hosted in a cryostat that is a...

  18. Argon Plasma Coagulation Combined with Covered Stent Placement for Management of Tracheobronchial Stenoses/occlusions as well as Esophagorespiratory Fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwu WANG

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It is a complex problem and difficult treatment for tracheobronchial stenoses/occlusions involving in carina. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of argon plasma coagulation (APC and bifurcated covered Z-type stents (CZTS placement for the treatment of tracheobronchus stenoses and esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF. Methods Thirty-two cases with airway disorders were retrospectively reviewed for the treatment of APC and CZTS placement. Under the bronchoscopic guidance, APC was first given in patients with airway stenoses, then CZTS was placed under the fluoroscopic and flexible bronchoscopic guidance either with airway stenoses or ERF. Results APC was first given in 19 patients with airway stenoses. Airway structures were significantly improved after APC procedure (57.4%-72.1% before APC vs 12.8%-25.8% after APC. Thirty-two CZTS were technically successfully placed in 30 out of 32 cases involving in carinal bifurcation. After APC and stent placement, short breath index was significantly reduced and karnofsky physical score (KPS increased obviously. The endobronchial defects were successfully palliated with bifurcated CZTS placed under fluoroscopy and flexible bronchoscopy in 12 out of 13 patients with ERFs. There is no bleeding introprocedure. Mucous retention was very common in all types of the stents less than 2 weeks after stenting, which required debridement by bronchoscopy and could be prevented by normal saline solution nebulizations. Granuloma developed at the ends of stents after 1 month of stenting which all of them were treated successfully with APC and CO2 cryosurgery. Conclusion Utilization of APC and retrieval bifurcated CZTS placement is a simple and safe protocol for the management of airway complex stenoses involving the tracheal carina and ERF.

  19. Mechanism of the immobilization of surfactants on polymeric surfaces by means of an argon plasma treatment: Influence of UV radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.P.; Spaay, B.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism of the immobilization of the surfactant sodium 10-undecenoate (C11(:)) on poly(ethylene) (PE) by means of an argon plasma treatment has been investigated. In particular, the influence of the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by the argon plasma on the immobilization was

  20. Krypton retention on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    Over a dozen prospective adsorbents for krypton were studied and evaluated with respect to adsorption capacity and cost for dissolver off-gas streams from nuclear reprocessing plants. Results show that, at subambient temperature (-40 0 to -80 0 C), the commercially available hydrogen mordenite has sufficient adsorptive capacity to be the most cost-effective material studied. Silver mordenite has a higher capacity for krypton retention, but is 50 times more expensive than hydrogen mordenite. The results indicate that a solid adsorbent system is feasible and competitive with other developing systems whih utilize fluorocarbon absorption and cryogenic distillation

  1. A 4 tonne demonstrator for large-scale dual-phase liquid argon time projection chambers arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Aimard, B.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Aushev, V.; Autiero, D.; Badoi, M.M.; Balaceanu, A.; Balik, G.; Balleyguier, L.; Bechetoille, E.; Belver, D.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Bourgeois, N.; Bourguille, B.; Bremer, J.; Brown, G.; Brunetti, G.; Caiulo, D.; Calin, M.; Calvo, E.; Campanelli, M.; Cankocak, K.; Cantini, C.; Carlus, B.; Cautisanu, B.M.; Chalifour, M.; Chappuis, A.; Charitonidis, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chiriacescu, A.; Chiu, P.; Conforti, S.; Cotte, Ph.; Crivelli, P.; Cuesta, C.; Dawson, J.; De Bonis, I.; De La Taille, C.; Delbart, A.; Desforge, D.; Di Luise, S.; Dimitru, B.S.; Doizon, F.; Drancourt, C.; Duchesneau, D.; Dulucq, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Duval, F.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Esanu, T.; Falcone, A.; Fusshoeller, K.; Gallego-Ros, A.; Galymov, V.; Geffroy, N.; Gendotti, A.; Gherghel-Lascu, M.; Giganti, C.; Gil-Botella, I.; Girerd, C.; Gomoiu, M.C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Hamada, E.; Hanni, R.; Hasegawa, T.; Holin, A.; Horikawa, S.; Ikeno, M.; Jiménez, S.; Jipa, A.; Karolak, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kasai, S.; Kasami, K.; Kishishita, T.; Kreslo, I.; Kryn, D.; Lastoria, C.; Lazanu, I.; Lehmann-Miotto, G.; Lira, N.; Loo, K.; Lorca, D.; Lutz, P.; Lux, T.; Maalampi, J.; Maire, G.; Maki, M.; Manenti, L.; Margineanu, R.M.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Mathez, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Misitano, G.; Mitrica, B.; Mladenov, D.; Molina Bueno, L.; Moreno Martínez, C.; Mols, J.Ph.; Mosu, T.S.; Mu, W.; Munteanu, A.; Murphy, S.; Nakayoshi, K.; Narita, S.; Navas-Nicolás, D.; Negishi, K.; Nessi, M.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Nita, L.; Noto, F.; Noury, A.; Onishchuk, Y.; Palomares, C.; Parvu, M.; Patzak, T.; Pénichot, Y.; Pennacchio, E.; Periale, L.; Pessard, H.; Pietropaolo, F.; Piret, Y.; Popov, B.; Pugnere, D.; Radics, B.; Redondo, D.; Regenfus, C.; Remoto, A.; Resnati, F.; Rigaut, Y.A.; Ristea, C.; Rubbia, A.; Saftoiu, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sanchez, F.; Santos, C.; Scarpelli, A.; Schloesser, C.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sendai, K.; Sergiampietri, F.; Shahsavarani, S.; Shoji, M.; Sinclair, J.; Soto-Oton, J.; Stanca, D.L.; Stefan, D.; Stroescu, P.; Sulej, R.; Tanaka, M.; Toboaru, V.; Tonazzo, A.; Tromeur, W.; Trzaska, W.H.; Uchida, T.; Vannucci, F.; Vasseur, G.; Verdugo, A.; Viant, T.; Vihonen, S.; Vilalte, S.; Weber, M.; Wu, S.; Yu, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zito, M.

    A 10 kilo-tonne dual-phase liquid argon TPC is one of the detector options considered for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). The detector technology relies on amplification of the ionisation charge in ultra-pure argon vapour and others several advantages compared to the traditional single-phase liquid argon TPCs. A 4.2 tonne dual-phase liquid argon TPC prototype, the largest of its kind, with an active volume of 3 x1x1 m^3 has been constructed and operated at CERN. In this paper we describe in detail the experimental setup and detector components as well as report on the operation experience. We also present the first results on the achieved charge amplification, prompt scintillation and electroluminiscence detection, and purity of the liquid argon from analyses of a collected sample of cosmic ray muons.

  2. Pressure effects on some argon spectral lines belonging to the 3p54p-3p5nd (n=5-7) transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolnikowski, J.; Wawrzynski, J.; Bielski, A.; Szudy, J.

    1987-01-01

    Low pressure broadening and shift of four spectral lines of argon: 518.7 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 5d'), 522.1 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 7d), 549.6 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 6d) and 603.2 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 5d) have been investigated by means of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The values of the pressure broadening and shift coefficients for argon-argon, argon-neon and argon-helium interactions in the low-current glow discharge conditions are determined. For all lines in the pure argon a red shift and in the argon-neon and argon-helium mixtures a blue shift has been found. The results cannot be interpreted on the basis of the existing simple interaction potential models within the framework of the adiabatic impact broadening theory. (orig.)

  3. Supporting nurse practitioner education: Preceptorship recruitment and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Staples

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Clinical experience is an essential component of nurse practitioner (NP education that relies heavily on preceptors. Recruitment and retention of preceptors is challenging due to many variables that can affect NP education and practice. We surveyed Canadian NP programs to understand their preceptorship structures, how they support preceptorship, and to identify gaps and challenges to recruitment and retention of preceptors. Methods: An 18-item survey, developed by the NP Education Interest Group, was distributed to 24 universities across 10 Canadian provinces. Construct validity and reliability was assessed by experienced NPs and NP faculty. Data were analyzed using relative frequency statistics and thematic analysis. Participants consisted of administrative staff and/or faculty designated as responsible for recruitment and retention of NP preceptors. Results: Seventeen returned surveys were analyzed and demonstrated more similarities than differences across Canada's NP programs, particularly related to barriers affecting recruitment and retention of preceptors. The findings identified NP programs have too many students for the number of available clinical sites/preceptors, resulting in overutilization, burnout, or refusal to take students. Competition with other health disciplines for clinical placements was identified as a challenge to placements. Respondents commented they lack time to recruit, provide follow-up, offer support, or seek preceptors' feedback due to competing work demands. They identified the need for standardized funding for preceptor remuneration and recognition across the country. Conclusion: The findings suggest the need for exploring a wider intraprofessional collaboration among graduate NP programs/faculty, clinical placement sites, and NPs to facilitate the recruitment and retention of preceptors.

  4. Variance in exposed perturbations impairs retention of visuomotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaveral, Cesar Augusto; Danion, Frédéric; Berrigan, Félix; Bernier, Pierre-Michel

    2017-11-01

    Sensorimotor control requires an accurate estimate of the state of the body. The brain optimizes state estimation by combining sensory signals with predictions of the sensory consequences of motor commands using a forward model. Given that both sensory signals and predictions are uncertain (i.e., noisy), the brain optimally weights the relative reliance on each source of information during adaptation. In support, it is known that uncertainty in the sensory predictions influences the rate and generalization of visuomotor adaptation. We investigated whether uncertainty in the sensory predictions affects the retention of a new visuomotor relationship. This was done by exposing three separate groups to a visuomotor rotation whose mean was common at 15° counterclockwise but whose variance around the mean differed (i.e., SD of 0°, 3.2°, or 4.5°). Retention was assessed by measuring the persistence of the adapted behavior in a no-vision phase. Results revealed that mean reach direction late in adaptation was similar across groups, suggesting it depended mainly on the mean of exposed rotations and was robust to differences in variance. However, retention differed across groups, with higher levels of variance being associated with a more rapid reversion toward nonadapted behavior. A control experiment ruled out the possibility that differences in retention were accounted for by differences in success rates. Exposure to variable rotations may have increased the uncertainty in sensory predictions, making the adapted forward model more labile and susceptible to change or decay. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The brain predicts the sensory consequences of motor commands through a forward model. These predictions are subject to uncertainty. We use visuomotor adaptation and modulate uncertainty in the sensory predictions by manipulating the variance in exposed rotations. Results reveal that variance does not influence the final extent of adaptation but selectively impairs the retention of

  5. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  7. Gas-chromatographic quantitative determination of argon in air samples, by elimination of oxigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronie, E.

    1982-08-01

    A method of gas-chromatographic quantitative determination of argon in air samples, by elimination of oxygen, is presented. Experiments were carried out in a static system. Conditions for the application of the method in dynamic systems are specified. Sensibility of the method: 5 10 -4 cm 3 Ar per cm 3 of air. (author)

  8. The influence of nitrogen entrainment on argon plasmas created by the 'Torche à Injection Axiale' (TIA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, J.; Hartgers, A.; Selen, L.J.M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Schram, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    When a plasma is sustained in the open air, nitrogen will diffuse into the plasma. Especially for plasmas sustained by the `Torche à Injection Axiale' (TIA) this appears to be the case, since this turbulent jet draws gases from the surroundings. In the argon plasma the entrained nitrogen is probably

  9. Contribution to the evaluation of diffusion coefficients in plasmas containing argon and fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, N V

    2006-01-01

    The theoretical values of the numerical evaluation of the electron and ion diffusion coefficients in plasmas from mixtures of argon and fluorine are presented. The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients for low-pressure (from 0.1 to 1.0 kPa) and low-temperature (from 500 to 5000 K) argon plasmas with 20% and 30% of added fluorine are investigated. These values are results of the applications of the specific numerical model to the evaluation plasma composition and transport coefficients in argon plasma with fluorine as additive. It is assumed that the system is kept under constant pressure and that a corresponding state of local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) is attained. Since the LTE can be assumed, a Maxwellian electron distribution function will be adopted. The hypothesis of LTE, which is commonly used in most of the numerical evaluations, is analysed with the modified Debye radius r D *. The binary electron and ion diffusion coefficients are calculated with the equilibrium plasma composition and with the collision frequencies. Strictly speaking, Maxwellian distribution function (in the state LTE) is not valid for low pressure, but in this case with the aid of the modified Debye radius, a Maxwellian f e M is assumed correctly. It is shown that the electron diffusion coefficients are about four orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding overall diffusion coefficients of ions. Both diffusion coefficients are lower in argon plasma with 30% than with 20% of fluorine additives, in the whole temperature range examined

  10. Influence of argon on temperature modulation and neurological outcome in hypothermia treated rats following cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücken, Anne; Bleilevens, Christian; Föhr, Philipp; Nolte, Kay; Rossaint, Rolf; Marx, Gernot; Fries, Michael; Derwall, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Combining xenon and mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) after cardiac arrest (CA) confers a degree of protection that is greater than either of the two interventions alone. However, xenon is very costly which might preclude a widespread use. We investigated whether the inexpensive gas argon would enhance hypothermia induced neurologic recovery in a similar manner. Following nine minutes of CA and three minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive MTH (33°C for 6h), MTH plus argon (70% for 1h), or no treatment. A first day condition score assessed behaviour, motor activity and overall condition. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was calculated daily for seven days following the experiment before the animals were killed and the brains harvested for histopathological analysis. All animals survived. Animals that received MTH alone showed best overall neurologic function. Strikingly, this effect was abolished in the argon-augmented MTH group, where animals showed worse neurologic outcome being significant in the first day condition score and on day one to three and five in the NDS in comparison to MTH treated rats. Results were reflected by the neurohistopathological analysis. Our study demonstrates that argon augmented MTH does not improve functional recovery after CA in rats, but may even worsen neurologic function in this model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of argon dilution on growth and properties of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parashar, A. [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Physics and Astro Physics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar, Sushil; Gope, Jhuma; Rauthan, C.M.S.; Dixit, P.N. [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Hashmi, S.A. [Department of Physics and Astro Physics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2010-05-15

    The effect of argon concentration (66-87%) in total gaseous mixture (SiH{sub 4}+H{sub 2}+Ar) on growth and properties of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films deposited by RF (13.56 MHz) PECVD technique was investigated. Raman and XRD measurements revealed increasing argon fraction favored enhancement of crystallinity, enlargement of crystallites and relaxation of strained bonds. Photoluminescence spectra of nc-Si:H films exhibited two radiative transitions in the photon energy ranges of 2.8-3.1 eV and 1.6-2.1 eV. The high energy PL peaks are attributed to surface effect of the films whereas peaks in the range of 1.6-2.1 eV are due to nanocrystallinity in the films. Argon dilution also helped enhancement of deposition rate and conductivity of the films. A film deposited at 81% of argon fraction possesses high crystallinity (75%), conductivity in the order of 10{sup -5} ({omega} cm){sup -1}, size of the crystallite (Raman=12 nm, XRD=18 nm), and low residual stress (125 MPa). (author)

  12. Pre-breakdown light emission phenomena in low-pressure argon between parabolic electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Perriëns, N.W.B.; Brok, W.J.M.; Bowden, M.D.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study on pre-breakdown light emission in low-pressure argon gas was performed. In a pulsed discharge, pre-breakdown phenomena were observed for repetition rates between 100 and 2000 Hz and pulse duration of 100 ¿s. These phenomena were studied with time-resolved emission imaging

  13. Performance of a liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter with a cylindrical accordion geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Bulgakov, N.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.R.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, P.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Le Meur, G.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype of a lead liquid argon accordion calorimeter with two types of cylindrical geometry was constructed and equipped with high speed readout electronics. The energy resolution for electrons is 10%/√E (GeV) with a local constant term of 0.65%. The resolutions obtained for position and angular measurements are given. (orig.)

  14. Argon plasma sintering of inkjet printed silver tracks on polymer substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhold, I.; Hendriks, C.E.; Eckardt, R.; Kranenburg, J.M.; Perelaer, J.; Baumann, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    An alternative and selective sintering method for the fabrication of conductive silver tracks on common polymer substrates is presented, by exposure to low-pressure argon plasma. Inkjet printing has been used to pattern a silver nanoparticle ink. This resulted in conductive features with a

  15. Production and recombination of radiation defects in argon and krypton crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giersberg, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    Relative changes in the lattice constants of argon and krypton crystals have been measured by X-ray diffraction. As a result X-ray irradiation is found to produce stable defects. The recombination behaviour of these defects can be determined by isochronous and isothermal annealing. The creation of primary defects can be explained by exciton excitation and double-ionisation. (orig.) [de

  16. Electrical aspects of argon micro-cell plasma with applications in bio-medical technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horiuchi, Y.; Dijk, van J.; Makabe, T.

    2003-01-01

    Argon micro-cell plasma (MCP) is believed to be a viable tool for performing micro-surgery. The non-thermal nature of the discharge allows an effective treatment of pathological tissue without causing thermal damage to its surroundings. This bio-medical application imposes a number of design

  17. Five second helium neutral beam injection using argon-frost cryopumping techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.; Kellman, D.H.; Hong, R.; Kim, J.; Laughon, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    High power helium neutral beams for the heating of tokamak discharges can now be provided for 5 s by using argon cryopumping (of the helium gas) in the beamlines. The DIII-D neutral beam system has routinely provided up to 20 MW of deuterium neutral beam heating in support of experiments on the DIII-D tokamak. Operation of neutral beams with helium has historically presented a problem in that pulse lengths have been limited to 500 ms due to reliance solely on volume pumping of the helium gas. Helium is not condensed on the cryopanels. A system has now been installed to deposit a layer of argon frost on the DIII-D neutral beam cryopanels, between tokamak injection pulses. The layer serves to trap helium on the cryopanels providing sufficient pumping speed for 5 s helium beam extraction. The argon frosting hardware is now present on two of four DIII-D neutral beamlines, allowing injection of up to 6 MW of helium neutral beams per discharge, with pulse lengths of up to 5 s. The argon frosting system is described, along with experimental results demonstrating its effectiveness as a method of economically extending the capabilities of cryogenic pumping panels to allow multi-second helium neutral beam injection

  18. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects on isentropic coefficient in argon and helium thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rohit; Singh, Kuldip

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, two cases of thermal plasma have been considered; the ground state plasma in which all the atoms and ions are assumed to be in the ground state and the excited state plasma in which atoms and ions are distributed over various possible excited states. The variation of Zγ, frozen isentropic coefficient and the isentropic coefficient with degree of ionization and non-equilibrium parameter θ(= T e /T h ) has been investigated for the ground and excited state helium and argon plasmas at pressures 1 atm, 10 atm, and 100 atm in the temperature range from 6000 K to 60 000 K. For a given value of non-equilibrium parameter, the relationship of Zγ with degree of ionization does not show any dependence on electronically excited states in helium plasma whereas in case of argon plasma this dependence is not appreciable till degree of ionization approaches 2. The minima of frozen isentropic coefficient shifts toward lower temperature with increase of non-equilibrium parameter for both the helium and argon plasmas. The lowering of non-equilibrium parameter decreases the frozen isentropic coefficient more emphatically in helium plasma at high pressures in comparison to argon plasma. The increase of pressure slightly reduces the ionization range over which isentropic coefficient almost remains constant and it does not affect appreciably the dependence of isentropic coefficient on non-equilibrium parameter

  19. Analysis of the expanding thermal argon-oxygen plasma gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hest, van M.F.A.M.; Haartsen, J.R.; Weert, van M.H.M.; Schram, D.C.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    An expanding thermal argon plasma into which oxygen is injected has been analyzed by means of Langmuir and Pitot probe measurements. Information is obtained on the ion d. profile and the flow pattern in the downstream plasma. A combination of Langmuir and Pitot probe measurements provide information

  20. Resonance ionization spectroscopy of argon, krypton, and xenon using vacuum ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.D.

    1984-04-01

    Resonant, single-photon excitation of ground state inert gases requires light in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. This paper discusses methods for generating this light. Efficient schemes for ionizing argon, krypton, and xenon using resonant, stepwise single-photon excitation are presented

  1. Liquid argon dielectric breakdown studies with the MicroBooNE purification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Carls, B.; James, C.; Johnson, B.; Jostlein, H.; Lockwitz, S.; Lundberg, B.; Raaf, J. L.; Rameika, R.; Rebel, B.; Zeller, G. P.; Zuckerbrot, M.

    2014-11-01

    The proliferation of liquid argon time projection chamber detectors makes the characterization of the dielectric properties of liquid argon a critical task. To improve understanding of these properties, a systematic study of the breakdown electric field in liquid argon was conducted using a dedicated cryostat connected to the MicroBooNE cryogenic system at Fermilab. An electrode sphere-plate geometry was implemented using spheres with diameters of 1.3 mm, 5.0 mm, and 76 mm. The MicroBooNE cryogenic system allowed measurements to be taken at a variety of electronegative contamination levels ranging from a few parts-per-million to tens of parts-per-trillion. The cathode-anode distance was varied from 0.1 mm to 2.5 cm. The results demonstrate a geometric dependence of the electric field strength at breakdown. This study is the first time that the dependence of the breakdown field on stressed cathode area has been shown for liquid argon.

  2. Calculation of partial enthalpies in argon-krypton mixtures by NPT molecular dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sindzingre, P.; Massobrio, C.; Ciccotti, G.; Frenkel, D.

    1989-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we have indicated how, by using a particle-insertion technique, partial molar enthalpies and related quantities can be evaluated from simulations on a single state point. In the present paper we apply this method to a Lennard-Jones argon-krypton mixture. For this particular

  3. Study of structural and transport properties of argon, krypton, and their binary mixtures at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Sunil; Adhikari, Narayan Prasad

    2017-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation of argon, krypton, and their binary mixtures were performed at different temperatures and constant pressure (P = 1.013 bar) using GROMACS - Groningen Machine for Chemical Simulations. The gases are modeled by Lennard-Jones pair potential, with parameters taken from the literature. The study of radial distribution functions (RDFs) shows a single peak which indicates that there is no packing effect in gaseous state for argon, krypton, and their binary mixtures. The self-diffusion coefficients of argon and krypton is determined by using mean-square displacement(MSD) method and the mutual diffusion coefficients of binary mixtures are determined using Darken's relation. The values of simulated diffusion coefficients are compared with their corresponding theoretical values, numerical estimation, and experimental data. A good agreement between these sets of data is found. The diffusion coefficients obey Arrhenius behavior to a good extent for both pure components and binary mixtures. The values of simulated diffusion coefficient are used to estimate viscosities and thermal conductivities which agree with theoretical values, numerical estimation, and experimental data within 10 %. These results support that the LJ potential is sufficient for description of molecular interactions in argon and krypton.

  4. Liquid--vapor isotope fractionation factors in argon--krypton binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.W.; Neufeld, P.; Bigeleisen, J.

    1977-01-01

    An equilibrium isotope effect has been studied as a continuous function of the potential field acting on the atom undergoing isotopic exchange. This has been accomplished through a study of the liquid vapor isotope fractionation factors for both, 36 Ar/ 40 Ar and 80 Kr/ 84 Kr in a series of binary mixtures which span the range between the pure components at 117.5 0 K. The 36 Ar/ 40 Ar fractionation factor increases (linearly) from (lnα)2.49 x 10 -3 in pure liquid argon to 2.91 x 10 -3 in an infinitely dilute solution in liquid krypton. Conversely, the 80 Kr/ 84 Kr fractionation factor decreases (linearly) from (lnα)0.98 x 10 -3 in pure liquid krypton to 0.64 x 10 -3 in an infinetely dilute solution in pure liquid argon. The mean force constants 2 U>/sub c/ on both argon and krypton atoms in the mixtures are derived from the respective isotope fractionation factors.The mean force constants for argon and krypton as a function of composition have been calculated by a modified corresponding states theory which uses the pure liquids as input parameters. The discrepancy is 8 percent at X/sub Ar/ + O. A systematic set of calculations has been made of 2 U> (Ar) and 2 U> (Kr) as a function of composition using radial distribution functions generated by the Weeks--Chandler--Anderson perturbation theory

  5. Evaporation characteristics of thin film liquid argon in nano-scale confinement: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Haque, Mominul

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to explore the evaporation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in nano-scale confinement. The present study has been conducted to realize the nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation inside a confined space for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of surface wetting conditions. The simulation domain consisted of two parallel platinum plates; one at the top and another at the bottom. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Considering hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of top and bottom surfaces, two different cases have been investigated: (i) Case A: Both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophilic, (ii) Case B: both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophobic. For all cases, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall was set to four different temperatures such as 110 K, 120 K, 130 K and 140 K to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat fluxes normal to top and bottom walls were estimated and discussed to illuminate the effectiveness of heat transfer in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic confinement at various boundary temperatures of the bottom plate.

  6. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  7. Thomson scattering in a low-pressure argon mercury positive column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2000-01-01

    The electron density and the electron temperature in a low-pressure argon mercury positive column are determined using Thomson scattering. Special attention has been given to the stray light reduction in the Thomson scattering setup. The results are obtained in a discharge tube with a 26 mm diam, 5

  8. Potassium-argon dating: an access to the dynamics and the history of the Planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillot, P.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Today, scientists, concerned by the history and the evolution of our planet, have a wide range of dating methods. Among these, potassium-argon dating with a field of application that now largely covers that of dating by thermoluminescence or by carbon 14

  9. A calculation of internal kinetic energy and polarizability of compressed argon from the statistical atom model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldam, C.A. ten; Groot, S.R. de

    1952-01-01

    From Jensen's and Gombás' modification of the statistical Thomas-Fermi atom model, a theory for compressed atoms is developed by changing the boundary conditions. Internal kinetic energy and polarizability of argon are calculated as functions of pressure. At 1000 atm. an internal kinetic energy of

  10. A liquid argon ionisation calorimeter for detection of electromagnetic and hadronic showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.

    1975-02-01

    The performance of a liquid argon ionization chamber, consisting of a set of eighty 2 mm thick iron plates, is described. Measurements with muons, and electron and proton showers were performed; from these measurements a ratio of 1.2 for the electron to proton response was derived. For hadron showers a good detection efficiency of nuclear spallation products could be established. (orig.) [de

  11. Induced luminescence by charged particles on gaseous, liquid and solid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Torres, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A spectral and a kinetic study of the scintillation induced by β and α particles in gaseous, liquid and solid argon have been made in the wavelength region comprised between 1100 and 3000A. The radiative lifetimes and some spectroscopic parameters of the lowest dimer states ( 1 Σ + sub(u) and 3 Σ + sub(u)) have been determined: tau 0 ( 1 Σ + sub(u)) = 4.2ns; tau 0 ( 3 Σ + sub(u)) = 3.1μs; ΔE( 1 Σ + sub(u)- 3 Σ + sub(u)) = 52 meV; hω = 230 cm -1 . A non radiative de-excitation rate of the 3 Σ + sub(u) state has been measured: approximately 2x10 -17 cm 3 s -1 . By applying an electric field the contribution of the electron-ion recombination mechanism to the gaseous argon scintillation is studied. For condensed argon, the dependence of the ratio between the fluorescence and the phosphorescence intensities on the ionisation power of the impinging particle is verified. The continuum which extends from 1600 to 2900A and that is present only in the gas phase spectra, is ascribed to the radiative de-excitation of molecular ions. A time resolved study of the luminescence of high pressure (1-15atm) argon excited by a pulsed electric discharge has also been performed and is compared with that of the scintillation induced by nuclear particles [fr

  12. First observation of low energy electron neutrinos in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; Asaadi, J.; Baller, B.; Bolton, T.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; Church, E.; Edmunds, D.; Ereditato, A.; Farooq, S.; Fitzpatrick, R. S.; Fleming, B.; Hackenburg, A.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; Lang, K.; Luo, X.; Mehdiyev, R.; Page, B.; Palamara, O.; Rebel, B.; Schukraft, A.; Scanavini, G.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Szelc, A. M.; Weber, M.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G. P.

    2017-04-06

    Liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) produce remarkable fidelity in the observation of neutrino interactions. The superior capabilities of such detectors to reconstruct the spatial and calorimetric information of neutrino events have made them the detectors of choice in a number of experiments, specifically those looking to observe electron neutrino ($\

  13. The formation of a turbulent front in a time modulated argon APPJ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Bruggeman, P.J.; Sobota, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) are promising tools for biomedical applications such as wound healing, disinfection, decontamination, and material processing. The jet effluent is blown in an open air environment which leads to air diffusion and argon-air mixtures in the effluent flow.

  14. Computer simulation of cooling properties of UF5 hot-clusters in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ohno, Fubito

    1999-01-01

    Brownian collision-coalescence models have been proposed by many researchers to describe a cluster or a particle growth process. In these mathematical models, the effect of a cluster temperature on a sticking probability is not included, although the cluster temperature is one of the most important factors which determines the particle growth rate at the incipient stage of coagulation. A hot-cluster consisting of 30 UF 5 molecules is formed in a computer and is bombarded with argon atoms. Measuring a kinetic energy of argon atom scattered from the hot-cluster, the cluster temperature can be estimated by molecular dynamics simulations. It is concluded that the hot-cluster is rapidly cooled under the conditions of molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) process, so that the cluster-argon system can reach its thermal equilibrium state. Therefore, in the analysis of the dynamics of clustering process, the temperature of UF 5 molecular cluster may be set equal to that of argon gas. (author)

  15. Proton and antiproton interactions in hydrogen, argon and xenon at 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malecki, P.

    1984-01-01

    The detailed analysis of the production of particles emitted into forward hemisphere in 200 GeV proton and antiproton interactions with hydrogen, argon and xenon targets is presented. Two-particle rapidity correlations and long-range multiplicity correlations are also discussed. (author)

  16. Phase transitions in the argon, krypton and xenon in generalized Van der Waals theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, H.M.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid-solid like phase transitions for three monoatomic substances, argon, krypton and xenon are treated, using the extension of the Van der Waals theory to the crystalline state. The method utilized is based on 'Maxwell construction' of identical areas [pt

  17. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de N.; Palomares, J.M.; Iordanova, E.I.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined

  18. Effects of radiator shapes on the bubble diving and dispersion of ultrasonic argon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Xue, Jilai; Zhao, Qiang; Le, Qichi; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2018-03-01

    In this work, three ultrasonic radiators in different shapes have been designed in order to investigate the effects of radiator shapes on the argon bubble dispersion and diving as well as the degassing efficiency on magnesium melt. The radiator shape has a strong influence on the bubble diving and dispersion by ultrasound. A massive argon bubble slowly flows out from the radiator with the hemispherical cap, due to the covering hemispherical cap. Using a concave radiator can intensively crush the argon bubbles and drive them much deep into the water/melt, depending on the competition between the argon flow and opposite joint shear force from the concave surface. The evolution of wall bubbles involves the ultrasonic cavities carrying dissolved gas, migrating to the vessel wall, and escaping from the liquid. Hydrogen removal can be efficiently achieved using a concave radiator. The hydrogen content can be reduced from 22.3 μg/g down to 8.7 μg/g. Mechanical properties are significantly promoted, due to the structure refinement and efficient hydrogen removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Engagement and Retention in Outpatient Alcoholism Treatment for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Fiona S.; Morgan, Thomas J.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Cook, Sharon M.; Jensen, Noelle K.; Kelly, Shalonda

    2011-01-01

    Reviews of the dropout literature note significant attrition from addiction treatment. However, consistent predictors have not been identified and few studies have examined factors related to retention and engagement for women in gender-specific treatment. The current study consisted of 102 women and their partners randomized to individual or couples outpatient alcoholism treatment. Women attended more treatment sessions if they were assigned to individual treatment, older, had fewer symptoms of alcohol dependence, had more satisfying marital relationships, had spouses who drank, and had matched preference for treatment condition. Women were more engaged in treatment (i.e., completed more assigned homework) if they had fewer children at home, fewer alcohol dependence symptoms, later age of onset of alcohol diagnosis, more satisfying marital relationships, and spouses who accepted or encouraged their drinking. Results highlight important associations of treatment and relationship variables with treatment retention and engagement. PMID:19444731

  20. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  1. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-12-31

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  2. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed

  3. A Study on Employee Retention Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Savarimuthu, Dr. A; Hemalatha, N.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of perusing this study is to assess the level of satisfaction of employee retention techniques at GB Engineering Enterprises PVT Limited., Trichy.This study gains significance because of employee retention techniques can be approached from various angles. It is desirable state of existence involving retention strategies generally fall in to one of four categories salary, working conditions, job enrichment and education. These four elements together constitute. The structure of e...

  4. Positron annihilation in low-temperature rare gases. II. Argon and neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, K.F.; Roellig, L.O.

    1975-01-01

    Lifetime measurements of slow-positron and ortho-positronium (o-Ps) annihilation were made in argon and neon gases at room temperature and below. The argon experiments cover the temperature range 115 to 300 0 K and the density range 0.0356 to 0.0726 g/cm 3 (approximately equal to 20 to 40 amagat). The slow-positron spectra in argon exhibit a departure from free-positron annihilation below 200 0 K. The departure becomes more marked as the temperature is lowered. No deviation from free o-Ps pickoff annihilation is observed in argon at low temperatures. The neon measurements cover the temperature range 30 to 300 0 K and the density range 0.032 to 0.89 g/cm 3 (approximately equal to 35 to 980 amagat). No effect of temperature on the slow-positron spectra throughout the temperature and density ranges investigated in neon is observed. The spectra are very exponential with a corresponding decay rate which is temperature as well as time independent and is directly proportional to density over the ranges investigated. The o-Ps data are more eventful in that the o-Ps lifetime at near-liquid densities is approximately 20 nsec, a factor of nearly 4 greater than the value obtained using the pickoff-annihilation coefficient obtained at lower densities. This is evidence for positronium-induced cavities in low-temperature neon. A brief discussion of the argon and neon results is given in the context of the explanations offered for the low-temperature effects observed in helium gas

  5. First Measurement of one Pion Production in Charged Current Neutrino and Antineutrino events on Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanavini, Scanavini,Giacomo [Yale U.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a work done in the context of the Fermilab Neutrino Intensity Frontier. In this analysis, the cross section of single charged pion production in charged-current neutrino and antineutrino interactions with the argon nucleus target are measured. These measurements are performed using the Argon Neutrino Test (ArgoNeuT) detector exposed to the Fermilab Neutrino From The Main Injector (NuMI) beam operating in the low energy antineutrino mode. The signal is a charged-current μ interaction in the detector, with exactly one charged pion exiting the target nucleus, with momentum above 100 MeV/c. There shouldn’t be any 0 or kaons in the final state. There is no restriction on other mesons or nucleons. Total and differential cross section measurements are presented. The results are reported in terms of outgoing muon angle and momentum, outgoing pion angle and angle between outgoing pion and muon. The total cross sections, averaged over the flux, are found to be 8.2 ± 0.9 (stat) +0.9 -1.1 (syst) × 10-38 cm2 per argon nuclei and 2.5 ± 0.4 (stat) ± 0.5 (syst) × 10-37 cm2 per argon nuclei for antineutrino and neutrino respectively at a mean neutrino energy of 3.6 GeV (antineutrinos) and 9.6 GeV (neutrinos). This is the first time the single pion production in charged-current interactions cross section is measured on argon nuclei.

  6. Study of argon-based Penning gas mixtures for use in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, P.C.; Ramsey, B.D.; Weisskopf, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of three Penning gas mixtures, namely argon-acetylene (Ar-C 2 H 2 ), argon-xenon (Ar-Xe) and argon-xenon-trimethylamine (Ar-Xe-TMA), are reported. The measurements, carried out in cylindrical geometry as well as parallel plate geometry detectors, demonstrate that the Ar-C 2 H 2 mixtures show a significant Penning effect even at an acetylene concentration of 10% and provide the best energy resolution among all the argon-based gas mixtures (≤13% FWHM at 5.9 keV and 6.7% at 22.2 keV). In the parallel plate detector the Ar-C 2 H 2 fillings provide a resolution of ≅7% FWHM at 22.2 keV up to a gas gain of at least ≅10 4 . The nonmetastable Penning mixture Ar-Xe provides the highest gas gain among all the argon-based gas mixtures and is well suited for use in long-duration space-based experiments. Best results are obtained with 5% and 20% Xe in Ar, the energy resolution being ≅7% FWHM at 22.2 keV and ≅4.5% at 59.6 keV for gas gain 3 . Addition of ≥1% TMA to an 80% Ar-20% Xe mixture produces a dramatic increase in gas gain but the energy resolution remains unaffected (≅7% FWHM at 22.2 keV). This increase in gas gain is attributed to the occurrence of a Penning effect between Xe and TMA, the ionization potential of TMA being 8.3 eV, just below the xenon metastable potential of 8.39 eV. (orig.)

  7. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  8. Retention factors in relation to organisational commitment in medical and information technology services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette van Dyk

    2012-07-01

    Research purpose: The objectives of the study were to investigate empirically: (1 the relationship between employees’ satisfaction with organisational retention factors (measured by the Retention Factors Scale and their organisational commitment (measured by the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire and (2 whether gender, age, race and tenure groups differ significantly in terms of these variables. Motivation for the study: Medical and information technology professionals have specialised and hard to replace skills. They also have strong tendencies to leave their organisations and countries. Understanding the retention factors that will increase their organisational commitment may benefit the organisations who want to retain their valuable talent. Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a cross-sectional survey design to collect data from a purposive sample of 206 staff members who had scarce skills in a South African medical and information technology services company. Correlational and inferential statistics were computed to achieve the objectives. Main findings: The results showed that the participants’ satisfaction with retention factors has a significant relationship with their organisational commitment and that the biographical groups differ significantly in terms of the variables. Practical/managerial implications: The measured retention factors were all associated with human resource management practices that influence employees’ intentions to leave. Contribution/value-add: The results are important to managers who are interested in retaining staff who have scarce skills and provide valuable pointers for designing effective retention strategies.

  9. Israeli nurse practice environment characteristics, retention, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeyser Ganz, Freda; Toren, Orly

    2014-02-24

    There is an international nursing shortage. Improving the practice environment has been shown to be a successful strategy against this phenomenon, as the practice environment is associated with retention and job satisfaction. The Israeli nurse practice environment has not been measured. The purpose of this study was to measure practice environment characteristics, retention and job satisfaction and to evaluate the association between these variables. A demographic questionnaire, the Practice Environment Scale, and a Job Satisfaction Questionnaire were administered to Israeli acute and intensive care nurses working in 7 hospitals across the country. Retention was measured by intent to leave the organization and work experience. A convenience sample of registered nurses was obtained using a bi-phasic, stratified, cluster design. Data were collected based on the preferences of each unit, either distribution during various shifts or at staff meetings; or via staff mailboxes. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample and results of the questionnaires. Pearson Product Moment Correlations were used to determine significant associations among the variables. A multiple regression model was designed where the criterion variable was the practice environment. Analyses of variance determined differences between groups on nurse practice environment characteristics. 610 nurses reported moderate levels of practice environment characteristics, where the lowest scoring characteristic was 'appropriate staffing and resources'. Approximately 9% of the sample reported their intention to leave and the level of job satisfaction was high. A statistically significant, negative, weak correlation was found between intention to leave and practice environment characteristics, with a moderate correlation between job satisfaction and practice environment characteristics. 'Appropriate staffing and resources' was the only characteristic found to be statistically different based on

  10. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  11. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding...... duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P postpartum. Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those...

  12. NOx retention in scrubbing column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazone, A.K.; Costa, R.E.; Lobao, A.S.T.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F.

    1988-07-01

    During the UO 2 dissolution in nitric acid, some different species of NO x are released. The off gas can either be refluxed to the dissolver or be released and retained on special columns. The final composition of the solution is the main parameter to take in account. A process for nitrous gases retention using scubber columns containing H 2 O or diluted HNO 3 is presented. Chemiluminescence measurement was employed to NO x evalution before and after scrubbing. Gas flow, temperature, residence time are the main parameters considered in this paper. For the dissolution of 100g UO 2 in 8M nitric acid, a 6NL/h O 2 flow was the best condition for the NO/NO 2 oxidation with maximum adsorption in the scrubber columns. (author) [pt

  13. Separation and retention of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    Caustic and mercuric nitrate scrubbers have been used for iodine recovery from process offgas, but they exhibit low decontamination factors for organic iodide removal and produce liquid wastes that are unsuitable for final storage. The Iodox process gives high decontamination factors for both organic iodides and elemental iodine. The liquid waste can be evaporated to a solid or concentrated and fixed in cement. Efficient separation and retention of gaseous iodine species can be obtained with silver-loaded adsorbents. The waste is a dry solid easily handled and stored. Adsorbents containing cheaper metals appear to have lower iodine-loading capacities and may be unsuitable for bulk iodine removal from process offgas because of the large amounts of solid waste that would be generated. A potential method for regenerationg and recycling silver-loaded adsorbents is being evaluated. In conjunction with the regeneration, lead-exchanged zeolite is used as a secondary adsorbent for the final fixation and storage of the iodine

  14. Introduction of argon beam coagulation functionality to robotic procedures using the ABC D-Flex probe: equivalency to an existing laparoscopic instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchel, Renée. A.; Barnes, Kelli S.; Taylor, Kenneth D.

    2015-03-01

    INTRODUCTION: The ABC® D-Flex Probe utilizes argon beam coagulation (ABC) technology to achieve hemostasis during minimally invasive surgery. A handle on the probe allows for integration with robotic surgical systems and introduces ABC to the robotic toolbox. To better understand the utility of D-Flex, this study compares the performance of the D-Flex probe to an existing ABC laparoscopic probe through ex vivo tissue analysis. METHODS: Comparisons were performed to determine the effect of four parameters: ABC device, tissue type, activation duration, and distance from tissue. Ten ABC D-Flex probes were used to create 30 burn samples for each comparison. Ex vivo bovine liver and porcine muscle were used as tissue models. The area and depth of each burn was measured using a light microscope. The resulting dimensional data was used to correlate tissue effect with each variable. RESULTS: D-Flex created burns which were smaller in surface area than the laparoscopic probe at all power levels. Additionally, D-Flex achieved thermal penetration levels equivalent to the laparoscopic probe. CONCLUSION: D-Flex implements a small 7F geometry which creates a more focused beam. When used with robotic precision, quick localized superficial hemostasis can be achieved with minimal collateral damage. Additionally, D-Flex achieved equivalent thermal penetration levels at lower power and argon flow-rate settings than the laparoscopic probe.

  15. Predicting health plan member retention from satisfaction surveys: the moderating role of intention and complaint voicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, John W

    2008-01-01

    Many health plans have tried to increase member retention by improving their scores on customer satisfaction surveys. However, prior research has demonstrated weak relationships between member satisfaction and retention, suggesting that other variables are needed to understand how satisfaction impacts member retention. In a longitudinal study 4,806 health plan members who completed satisfaction surveys were re-assessed three years later; we compared measures of satisfaction, intention, and complaining behavior from voluntary disenrollees and retained members. The relationship between satisfaction and retention was moderated by members' intentions to disenroll. The findings suggest that health plans can enhance the predictive validity of their satisfaction surveys by including measures of both satisfaction and intentions.

  16. Effects of practice variability on unimanual arm rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Eric G; Conatser, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    High variability practice has been found to lead to a higher rate of motor learning than low variability practice in sports tasks. The authors compared the effects of low and high levels of practice variability on a simple unimanual arm rotation task. Participants performed rhythmic unimanual internal-external arm rotation as smoothly as possible before and after 2 weeks of low (LV) or high (HV) variability practice and after a 2-week retention interval. Compared to the pretest, the HV group significantly decreased hand, radioulnar, and shoulder rotation jerk on the retention test and shoulder jerk on the posttest. After training the LV group had lower radioulnar and shoulder jerk on the posttest but not the retention test. The results supported the hypothesis that high variability practice would lead to greater learning and reminiscence than low variability practice and the theoretical prediction of a bifurcation in the motor learning dynamics.

  17. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate, accessible...

  18. Black Student Retention in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Marvel, Ed.; Ford, Clinita A., Ed.

    This collection focuses on problems in the recruitment, enrollment and retention of Blacks in higher education in America. The following chapters are provided: "The Black Student Retention Problem in Higher Education: Some Introductory Perspectives" (Marvel Lang); "Early Acceptance and Institutional Linkages in a Model Program of Recruitment,…

  19. 76 FR 34010 - Credit Risk Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... 2501-AD53 Credit Risk Retention AGENCIES: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury (OCC... credit risk retention requirements of section 15G of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as added by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Credit Risk NPR'' or ``proposed rule...

  20. African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Eddie S.

    1979-01-01

    The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Victoria Jane

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the constructs of a Multi-Intelligence Model of Retention with four constructs: cognitive and emotional-social intelligence, student characteristics, and environmental factors. Data were obtained from sophomore students entering two diploma, nine associate, and five baccalaureate nursing programs. One year later, retention and…

  2. A Model for Freshman Engineering Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Cindy P.; Dey, Eric L.; Herrin, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    With the current concern over the growing need for more engineers, there is an immediate need to improve freshman engineering retention. A working model for freshman engineering retention is needed. This paper proposes such a model based on Tinto's Interactionalist Theory. Emphasis in this model is placed on pre-college characteristics as…

  3. Employee Retention Strategies And Organizational Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implication of the results for practice is that any organization that fails to put in place adequate employee retention strategies is not likely to retain competent and motivated workforce in its employment and hence experience frequent labour turnover and poor organizational performance. Keywords: Employees, Retention ...

  4. Faculty Personality: A Factor of Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Wu, Xiaodong; Irwin, Kathleen C.; Patrizi, L. A. Chad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student retention and faculty personality as it was hypothesized that faculty personality has an effect on student retention. The methodology adopted for this study was quantitative and in two parts 1) using linear regression models to examine the impact or causality of faculty…

  5. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  6. Herpes zoster-induced acute urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Ben; Harvey, Martyn

    2013-06-01

    Urinary retention is a common acute presentation for men in their later decades. Potential contributing pathologies are numerous. We report an unusual case of acute urinary retention requiring catheterisation secondary to sacral herpes zoster reactivation (S2-4) in an 88-year-old man with minimal preceding obstructive symptoms. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  7. Thermodynamic diagrams for high temperature plasmas of air, air-carbon, carbon-hydrogen mixtures, and argon

    CERN Document Server

    Kroepelin, H; Hoffmann, K-U

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamic Diagrams for High Temperature Plasmas of Air, Air-Carbon, Carbon-Hydrogen Mixtures, and Argon provides information relating to the properties of equilibrium gas plasmas formed from hydrocarbons, from air without argon, from pure argon, and from mixtures of air and carbon at various compositions, temperatures and pressures. The data are presented in graphical rather than tabular form to provide a clearer picture of the plasma processes investigated. This book is composed of four chapters, and begins with the introduction to the characteristics of plasmas, with emphasis on their th

  8. Novel word retention in sequential bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-03-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after either a 2-month or a 4-month delay. Results showed that children retained more words in L1 than in L2 for both of the retention interval conditions. In addition, children's word retention was associated with their existing language knowledge and their fast-mapping performance within and across language. The patterns of association, however, were different between L1 and L2. These findings suggest that children's word retention might be related to the interactions of various components that are operating within a dynamic system.

  9. Size Effect on Transport Properties of Gaseous Argon: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Songhi

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a series of equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations of gaseous argon at 273.15 K and 1.00 atm for the calculation of transport properties as a function of the number of argon molecules (N). While the diffusion coefficients (D) of gaseous argon approach to the experimental measure with increasing N, the viscosities (η) and thermal conductivities (λ) obtained for N = 432 are unreliable due to the high fluctuation of the time correlation functions and those for N = 1728 are rather acceptable. Increasing further to N = 6912 has improved the MD results a little closer to the experimental measures for η and λ. Both the EMD results for η and λ for N = 6912 underestimate the experimental measures and it is not expected that the more increasing N makes the closer results to the experimental measures. One possible explanation for the large disagreement between MD results and the experimental measures for η and λ may be due to the use of LJ parameters which were used for liquid argon. In a recent study, we have examined the Green-Kubo formula for the calculation of transport properties (diffusion coefficient, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) by carrying out a series of equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations for the system of N=1728 at 273.15 K and 1.00 atm.1 While the diffusion coefficients (D) of noble gases were obtained through the original Green-Kubo formula, the viscosities (η) and thermal conductivities (λ) were obtained by utilizing the revised Green-Kubo formulas. The structural and dynamic properties of gaseous argon are completely different from those of liquid argon at 94.4 K and 1.374 g/cm 3 . The results for transport properties (D, η, and λ) at 273.15 K and 1.00 atm obtained from our EMD simulations are in general agreement with the experimental data and superior to the rigorous results of the kinetic theory

  10. Predictors of retention among HIV/hemophilia health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K; Schultz, Janet R; Forsberg, Ann D; King, Gary; Kocik, Susan M; Butler, Regina B

    2002-01-01

    Health care professionals working with individuals with chronic medical illness, especially those infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), may be at risk for burnout and departure due to various job stresses such as the death of patients and social stigma. Factors that prevent burnout and employee attrition are seldom studied. Two hundred thirteen staff (doctors, nurses and mental health workers) at a representative sample of Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC) completed instruments to measure Burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and perceived job stresses and satisfaction (job tasks, interactions with colleagues and patient care). The staff were surveyed again after two years and their job status determined after 4 years. After 4 years, 35% of the staff had left the field of Hemophilia/HIV care. Univariate tests found that retention was significantly associated with initial job satisfaction, being married and low levels of stress with colleagues. Burnout, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, at baseline, was unrelated to job retention over 4 years. An adjusted multiple logistic regression of all significant variables found that colleague support was most related to retention (OR=2.8, CI=1.49,5.1). We conclude that attrition of highly trained staff is a significant issue for patients and HTCs. These data suggest the important role that a well-functioning team can have in buffering the inevitable stresses associated with HIV care. Mental Health professionals have considerable expertise in addressing these issues.

  11. Operating Instructions for the Cryogenics in the Liquid Argon Detector at CIEMAT; Operacion de la Criogenia del Detector de Argon Liquido del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L; Leal, M D; Prado, M del; Ramirez, J L

    2009-12-19

    Ciemat has wide experience in designing and developing gaseous particle detectors. It has taken part in the building of experiments for CERN accelerators, constructing shares of the muon chambers for L3 experiment in LEP and CMS experiment in LHC. Recently, new concepts for particle detectors have been developed, as a natural evolution from the ones built at Ciemat. These new radiation detectors use liquefied noble gases as active media. A testing system for these kind of liquefied argon detectors has been built at Ciemat, and includes a supporting cryogenic system for the liquefaction and maintenance of the liquid argon needed for operating the detector. This document describes the technical features of this cryogenic system. Besides the documentation of the cryogenic system, this technical report can be of help for the management and upgrading of the detector. As well as an introduction, the report includes the following chapters: The second one is a description of the cryogenics and gas systems. The third chapter shows the controlling electronics. The fourth chapter deals with the important topic that is security, its systems and protocols. The fifth describes the cryogenic operations possible in this equipment. The report is completed with diagrams, schemes, pictures and tables for the easier management of the setup. (Author)

  12. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral argon; Compilacion de resultados de secciones eficaces de excitacion para niveles del Argon neutro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, F

    1993-07-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4to 12), np(n=4to8) and nd(n=3to8)of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4 to 7), np (n=4 to 7) and nd (n=3 to 8). 3.- comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author) 35 refs.

  13. Argon-41 ALARA, or reduction of argon-41 released from the OSTR by use of a nitrogen purging system for the rotating rack facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.; Anderson, T.V.; Dodd, B.; Carpenter, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    During a generally concurrent era, the NRC began emphasizing the concept of keeping all radiation doses and releases of radioactivity to the environment 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). In much the same way as the physical security regulations were expanded, the ALARA idea was defined for a number of different NRC licensee categories, but the underlying principle remained the same, namely, reduce occupational doses and releases of radioactivity. In keeping with this NRC policy (i.e., regulatory requirement), the OSTR staff conducted a study of the argon-41 production sites throughout the facility, with the idea of minimizing the production without increasing the potential for higher occupational doses to the staff. The reduction in argon-41 production and release should, after a full year's implementation, result in the 41.68 curie value documented for the past reporting year (July 1, 1980 through June 30, 1981) being cut to about 9 curies per year. This value is based on the fact that the LN purging system was used about the last four months of the stated reporting period. From a dose commitment standpoint, this should reduce the maximum projected annual dose in the unrestricted area under the worst case hypothetical conditions from the currently estimated 1.04 mrem per year to about 0.23 mrem per year

  14. Mass spectrometric evidence for suprathermal ionization in an inductively coupled argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houk, R.S.; Svec, H.J.; Fassel, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Mass spectra have been obtained of species in the axial channel of an inductively coupled argon plasma by extracting ions from the inductively coupled plasma into a vacuum system housing a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Ionization temperatures (T/sub ion/) are obtained from relative count rates of m/z-resolved ions according to two general types of ionization equilibrium considerations: (a) the radio of doubly/singly charged ions of the same element, and (b) the ratio of singly charged ions from two elements of different ionization energy. The T/sub ion/ values derived from measurement of Ar +2 /Ar + , Ba +2 /Ba + , Sr +2 /Sr + , and Cd + /I + are all greater than those expected from excitation temperatures measured by other workers. The latter three values for T/sub ion/ are in reasonable agreement with values obtained by optical spectrometry for a variety of argon inductively coupled plasmas

  15. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; 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    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.7% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of 0.29% in the barrel and 0.53% in the endcaps. The same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61 +- 0.07 mm/microsecond at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.

  16. X-ray fluorescence/Auger-electron coincidence spectroscopy of vacancy cascades in atomic argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, U.

    1996-01-01

    Argon L 2.3 -M 2.3 M 2.3 Auger-electron spectra were measured in coincidence with Kα fluorescent x-rays in studies of Ar K-shell vacancy decays at several photon energies above the K-threshold and on the 1s-4p resonance in atomic argon. The complex spectra recorded by conventional electron spectroscopy are greatly simplified when recorded in coincidence with fluorescent x-rays, allowing a more detailed analysis of the vacancy cascade process. The resulting coincidence spectra are compared with Hartree-Fock calculations which include shake-up transitions in the resonant case. Small energy shifts of the coincidence electron spectra are attributed to post-collision interaction with 1s photoelectrons

  17. Importance of polarization effects in electron impact single ionization of argon atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, G., E-mail: g_vpurohit@yahoo.co [Department of Basic Sciences, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur 313 601 (India); Patidar, Vinod; Sud, K.K. [Department of Basic Sciences, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur 313 601 (India)

    2009-12-15

    We report the results of our calculations of triple differential cross section (TDCS) for electron impact single ionization (i.e. (e, 2e) processes) from the 3s shell of argon using a modified distorted wave Born approximation formalism by including correlation-polarization potential, which accounts for both correlation and polarization effects. We observe that DWBA formalism including polarization potential is able to reproduce most of the trends of experimental data and hence provide a future direction for further investigation of ionization process from the 3s shell of argon. We also compare our results with the available theoretical and experimental results. The present calculations significantly improve the agreement with the experimental results but still there are certain discrepancies, which is a matter of further investigation.

  18. ATLAS endcap liquid argon calorimeters. Description and construction of the cryostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Guy; Prat, Serge; Veillet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud 11, BP 34, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2006-05-15

    All forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold and stable temperature. Taking into account all the constraints as detailed below, and the overall detector size, 5 meter diameter by 3 meter length this was quite a challenge. The design, construction and tests of these two cryostats, up to their delivery at CERN, are described in this document. These two cryostats are a joint 'in kind' contribution to the Atlas experiment of LAL (Orsay), Max Planck Institute (Muenchen) and Wuppertal University (Wuppertal) and have been designed and built under the responsibility of LAL (Orsay) with contributions of the technical groups of the above institutions and of ATLAS-CERN. (authors)

  19. The development of argon arc brazing with Cu-based filler for ITER thermal anchor attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhenchao; Li Pengyuan; Pan Chuanjie; Hou Binglin; Han Shilei; Pei Yinyin; Long Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Thermal anchor is the key component of ITER magnet supports to maintain the low temperature for the nor mal operation of superconducting coils. During the advanced research of ITER thermal anchor attachment, dozens of brazing filler and several kinds of brazing technique have been developed and investigated. The test result shows that Cu-based alloy have the preferable mechanical properties at both room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K) for high brazing temperature. And it has a good weldability to 316LN. The brazing temperature of Cu-based filler is over 1000℃, but heat input is relatively low for shallower heating depth of argon arc brazing. Lower heat input is good for the control of brazing deformation. It is no need to clean after brazing because for argon arc brazing there is no bra- zing flux used. Arc brazing with Cu-based filler was chosen as the principal method for the attachment of thermal anchor. (authors)

  20. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its performance after one year of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    "March, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry and partly for hadronic calorimetry. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The different parts of the LAr calorimeter have been installed inside the ATLAS cavern between October 2004 and April 2006. Since October 2006 the detector has been operated with liquid argon at nominal high voltage, and fully equipped with readout electronics including a LVL1 calorimeter trigger system. First cosmic runs were recorded and used in various stages of commissioning. Starting in September 2008 beam related events were collected for the first time with single beams circulating in the LHC ring providing first beam-gas interactions and then beam-collimator splash events. The fir...