WorldWideScience

Sample records for variability contract number

  1. Observer variability in estimating numbers: An experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Census estimates of bird populations provide an essential framework for a host of research and management questions. However, with some exceptions, the reliability of numerical estimates and the factors influencing them have received insufficient attention. Independent of the problems associated with habitat type, weather conditions, cryptic coloration, ete., estimates may vary widely due only to intrinsic differences in observers? abilities to estimate numbers. Lessons learned in the field of perceptual psychology may be usefully applied to 'real world' problems in field ornithology. Based largely on dot discrimination tests in the laboratory, it was found that numerical abundance, density of objects, spatial configuration, color, background, and other variables influence individual accuracy in estimating numbers. The primary purpose of the present experiment was to assess the effects of observer, prior experience, and numerical range on accuracy in estimating numbers of waterfowl from black-and-white photographs. By using photographs of animals rather than black dots, I felt the results could be applied more meaningfully to field situations. Further, reinforcement was provided throughout some experiments to examine the influence of training on accuracy.

  2. Motor variability during sustained contractions increases with cognitive demand in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Vanden Noven

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To expose cortical involvement in age-related changes in motor performance, we compared steadiness (force fluctuations and fatigability of submaximal isometric contractions with the ankle dorsiflexor muscles in older and young adults and with varying levels of cognitive demand imposed. Sixteen young (20 ± 2 yr: 8 men, 8 women and 17 older adults (69 ±4 yr: 9 men, 8 women attended three sessions and performed a 40 s isometric contraction at 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC force followed by an isometric contraction at 30% MVC until task failure. The cognitive demand required during the submaximal contractions in each session differed as follows: 1 high-cognitive demand session where difficult mental math was imposed (counting backward by 13 from a 4-digit number; 2 low-cognitive demand session which involved simple mental math (counting backward by one; and 3 control session with no mental math. Anxiety was elevated during the high-cognitive demand session compared with other sessions for both age groups but more so for the older adults than young adults (p0.05, but the variability between sessions (standard deviation [SD] of 3 sessions was greater for older adults than young (2.02 ± 1.05 min vs. 1.25 ± 0.51 min, P<0.05. Thus, variability in lower limb motor performance for low and moderate force isometric tasks increased with age and was exacerbated when cognitive demand was imposed, and may be related to modulation of synergist and antagonist muscles and an altered neural strategy with age originating from central sources. These data have significant implications for cognitively demanding low-force motor tasks that are relevant to functional and ergonomic in an aging workforce.

  3. Motor Variability during Sustained Contractions Increases with Cognitive Demand in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Noven, Marnie L.; Pereira, Hugo M.; Yoon, Tejin; Stevens, Alyssa A.; Nielson, Kristy A.; Hunter, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    To expose cortical involvement in age-related changes in motor performance, we compared steadiness (force fluctuations) and fatigability of submaximal isometric contractions with the ankle dorsiflexor muscles in older and young adults and with varying levels of cognitive demand imposed. Sixteen young (20.4 ± 2.1 year: 8 men, 9 women) and 17 older adults (68.8 ± 4.4 years: 9 men, 8 women) attended three sessions and performed a 40 s isometric contraction at 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force followed by an isometric contraction at 30% MVC until task failure. The cognitive demand required during the submaximal contractions in each session differed as follows: (1) high-cognitive demand session where difficult mental math was imposed (counting backward by 13 from a 4-digit number); (2) low-cognitive demand session which involved simple mental math (counting backward by 1); and (3) control session with no mental math. Anxiety was elevated during the high-cognitive demand session compared with other sessions for both age groups but more so for the older adults than young adults (p  Older adults had larger force fluctuations than young adults during: (1) the 5% MVC task as cognitive demand increased (p  = 0.007), and (2) the fatiguing contraction for all sessions (p  = 0.002). Time to task failure did not differ between sessions or age groups (p  > 0.05), but the variability between sessions (standard deviation of three sessions) was greater for older adults than young (2.02 ± 1.05 vs. 1.25 ± 0.51 min, p  age and was exacerbated when cognitive demand was imposed, and may be related to modulation of synergist and antagonist muscles and an altered neural strategy with age originating from central sources. These data have significant implications for cognitively demanding low-force motor tasks that are relevant to functional and ergonomic in an aging workforce. PMID:24904410

  4. Modeling Turbulent Combustion for Variable Prandtl and Schmidt Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H. A.

    2004-01-01

    This report consists of two abstracts submitted for possible presentation at the AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting to be held in January 2005. Since the submittal of these abstracts we are continuing refinement of the model coefficients derived for the case of a variable Turbulent Prandtl number. The test cases being investigated are a Mach 9.2 flow over a degree ramp and a Mach 8.2 3-D calculation of crossing shocks. We have developed an axisymmetric code for treating axisymmetric flows. In addition the variable Schmidt number formulation was incorporated in the code and we are in the process of determining the model constants.

  5. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  6. Contractions of Lie algebras and separation of variables. The n-dimensional sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmest'ev, A.A.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Winternitz, P.

    1998-01-01

    Inonu-Wigner contractions from the rotation group O (n + 1) to the Euclidean group E (n) are used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami operators on n-dimensional spheres and Euclidean spaces. We consider all subgroup type coordinates corresponding to different chains of subgroups of O (n + 1) and E (n). In particular, the contractions relate the graphical formalism of 'trees' on spheres to the 'clusters' on Euclidean spaces (introduced in this article). The contractions are considered analytically on several levels: the vector fields realizing the Lie algebras, the complete sets of commuting operators characterizing separable coordinate systems, the coordinate systems themselves and the separated eigenfunctions

  7. Final Technical Report for contract number DE-FG02-05ER15670

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazebrook, Jane [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This is the final technical report for contract number DE-FG02-05ER15670. The project is now complete, and results of the project have been published. Two papers were published based on work done in the last three-year funding period. The DOIs of these papers are included below. The abstracts of the papers, providing summaries of the work, are included in the body of the report.

  8. 26 CFR 1.817-5 - Diversification requirements for variable annuity, endowment, and life insurance contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... issuer or holder of the variable contract must agree to make such adjustments or pay such amounts as may... quarter because of a discrepancy between the value of its assets and the diversification requirements unless such discrepancy exists immediately after the acquisition of any asset and such discrepancy is...

  9. A Variable Turbulent Schmidt Number Formulation for Scramjet Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Edwards, J. R.; Hassan, H. A.; Cutler, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    In high speed engines, thorough turbulent mixing of fuel and air is required to obtain high performance and high efficiency. Thus, the ability to predict turbulent mixing is crucial in obtaining accurate numerical simulation of an engine and its performance. Current state of the art in CFD simulation is to assume both turbulent Prandtl number and Schmidt numbers to be constants. However, since the mixing of fuel and air is inversely proportional to the Schmidt number, a value of 0.45 for the Schmidt number will produce twice as much diffusion as that with a value of 0.9. Because of this, current CFD tools and models have not been able to provide the needed guidance required for the efficient design of a scramjet engine. The goal of this investigation is to develop the framework needed to calculate turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers as part of the solution. This requires four additional equations: two for the temperature variance and its dissipation rate and two for the concentration variance and its dissipation rate. In the current investigation emphasis will be placed on studying mixing without reactions. For such flows, variable Prandtl number does not play a major role in determining the flow. This, however, will have to be addressed when combustion is present. The approach to be used is similar to that used to develop the k-zeta model. In this approach, relevant equations are derived from the exact Navier-Stokes equations and each individual correlation is modeled. This ensures that relevant physics is incorporated into the model equations. This task has been accomplished. The final set of equations have no wall or damping functions. Moreover, they are tensorially consistent and Galilean invariant. The derivation of the model equations is rather lengthy and thus will not be incorporated into this abstract, but will be included in the final paper. As a preliminary to formulating the proposed model, the original k-zeta model with constant turbulent Prandtl and

  10. Modeling and designing of variable-period and variable-pole-number undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Davidyuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of permanent-magnet variable-period undulator (VPU was proposed several years ago and has found few implementations so far. The VPUs have some advantages as compared with conventional undulators, e.g., a wider range of radiation wavelength tuning and the option to increase the number of poles for shorter periods. Both these advantages will be realized in the VPU under development now at Budker INP. In this paper, we present the results of 2D and 3D magnetic field simulations and discuss some design features of this VPU.

  11. A random number generator for continuous random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, V. M.; Tapia, R. A.; Thompson, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 routine is given which may be used to generate random observations of a continuous real valued random variable. Normal distribution of F(x), X, E(akimas), and E(linear) is presented in tabular form.

  12. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 83, quarter ending June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Summaries of 41 research projects on enhanced recovery are presented under the following sections: (1) chemical flooding; (2) gas displacement; (3) thermal recovery; (4) geoscience technology; (5) resource assessment technology; and (6) reservoir classes. Each presentation gives the title of the project, contract number, research facility, contract date, expected completion data, amount of the award, principal investigator, and DOE program manager, and describes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress.

  13. How variable is the number of triggered aftershocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsan, D.; Helmstetter, A.

    2017-07-01

    Aftershock activity depends at first order on the main shock magnitude but also shows important fluctuations between shocks of equal magnitude. We here investigate these fluctuations, by quantifying them and by relating them to the main shock stress drop and other variables, for southern California earthquakes. A method is proposed in order to only count directly triggered aftershocks, rather than secondary aftershocks (i.e., triggered by previous aftershocks), and to only quantify fluctuations going beyond the natural Poisson variability. Testing of the method subjected to various model errors allows to quantify its robustness. It is found that these fluctuations follow a distribution that is well fitted by a lognormal distribution, with a coefficient of variation of about 1.0 to 1.1. A simple model is proposed to relate this observed dependence to main shock stress drop variability.

  14. Design of a propeller turbine with a variable revolution number; Entwicklung einer Propellerturbine mit variabler Drehzahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fella, G.; Wierer, C. [Fella GmbH Maschinen- und Apparatebau, Amorbach (Germany); Goede, E.; Batrekhy, S.; Ruprecht, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen

    1997-12-31

    The small hydroelectric power station of Rupboden in the Oberfranken district was reactivated after having been decommissioned for 30 years. This new low pressure plant consists of an open-flume turbine with an adjustable diffusor and a firm rotor disk (propeller) with a vertical rod. A large range of operation at a constant height of fall is ensured by a variable revolution number. The profiles of the adjustable diffusor and rotor disk and the design of the draft tube were optimized using numerical flow calculation. First operating experience is very positive. The turbine runs extremely smoothly over the entire range. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Kleinwasserkraftwerk Rupboden in Oberfanken wurde nach 30 Jahren Stillstand reaktiviert. Die neue Niederdruckanlage besteht aus einer Schachtturbine mit verstellbarem Leitapparat, feststehendem Laufrad (Propeller) mit senkrechter Welle. Zum Erzielen eines grossen Betriebsbereiches bei gleichbleibender Fallhoehe wurde eine variable Drehzahl vorgesehen. Die Profilierung von Leitapparat und Laufrad sowie die Formgebung fuer das Saugrohr wurden mit numerischer Stroemungsberechnung optimiert. Erste Betriebserfahrungen sind sehr positiv. Die Turbine laeuft im gesamten Leistungsbereich ausserordentlich ruhig. (orig.)

  15. Optimal defense with variable number of overarching and individual protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell; Dai, Yuanshun

    2014-01-01

    The article considers a system consisting of identical elements. Each element can be protected individually. The groups of elements can have overarching protection. To destroy an element having both types of protections the attacker must always penetrate/destroy the overarching protection and then destroy the individual protection of the element. Both the attacker and the defender have limited resources. The resources needed to defend and attack the overarching protection are fixed, as is also the number of elements that can be protected by single overarching protection. The defender chooses the number of overarching protections and the number of individual protections within each protected group to minimize the expected damage caused by the attack. The attacker chooses the number of attacked overarching protections and after attacking the overarching protections it chooses the number of attacked elements to maximize the expected damage. The three period minmax game is formulated and an enumerative procedure for its solving is suggested. The influence of the game parameters on the optimal defense and attack strategies is discussed

  16. Contracts, grants and funding summary of supersonic cruise research and variable-cycle engine technology programs, 1972 - 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, S.; Varholic, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    NASA-SCAR (AST) program was initiated in 1972 at the direct request of the Executive Office of the White House and Congress following termination of the U.S. SST program. The purpose of SCR was to conduct a focused research and technology program on those technology programs which contributed to the SST termination and, also, to provide an expanded data base for future civil and military supersonic transport aircraft. Funding for the Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program was initiated in fiscal year 1973 and terminated in fiscal year 1981. The program was implemented through contracts and grants with industry, universities, and by in-house investigations at the NASA/OAST centers. The studies included system studies and five disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, materials and structures, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. The NASA/Lewis Variable-Cycle Engine (VCE) Component Program was initiated in 1976 to augment the SCR program in the area of propulsion. After about 2 years, the title was changed to VCE Technology program. The total number of contractors and grantees on record at the AST office in 1982 was 101 for SCR and 4 for VCE. This paper presents a compilation of all the contracts and grants as well as the funding summaries for both programs.

  17. Modeling Scramjet Flows with Variable Turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Hassan, H. A.; Baurle, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    A complete turbulence model, where the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers are calculated as part of the solution and where averages involving chemical source terms are modeled, is presented. The ability of avoiding the use of assumed or evolution Probability Distribution Functions (PDF's) results in a highly efficient algorithm for reacting flows. The predictions of the model are compared with two sets of experiments involving supersonic mixing and one involving supersonic combustion. The results demonstrate the need for consideration of turbulence/chemistry interactions in supersonic combustion. In general, good agreement with experiment is indicated.

  18. Informal Progress Report Contract Number: DE-FG03-02NA00074/A000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, Carl R.; Grimes, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B127 We report on work performed under contract DE-FG03-03NA00074 since January 1,2003. The research is in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. The progress on research on level densities and improvement to R-Matrix calculations are presented. The preparations to begin high resolution experiments on p-shell nuclei are reviewed

  19. Intra-subject variability in muscle activity and co-contraction during jumps and landings in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, P C; Alkjaer, T; Simonsen, E B

    2017-01-01

    -subject variability in the muscle activity. Co-contraction was quantified for two thigh muscle pairs and one plantar flexor/dorsiflexor muscle pair and group differences were assessed (two-way ANOVA). No significant differences were observed in the less eccentric demanding CMJ while significantly higher muscle...

  20. The number of subjects per variable required in linear regression analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Austin (Peter); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To determine the number of independent variables that can be included in a linear regression model. Study Design and Setting We used a series of Monte Carlo simulations to examine the impact of the number of subjects per variable (SPV) on the accuracy of estimated regression

  1. Improving the repeatability of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) by introducing additional epochs at low contraction levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yun; Zhang, Yingchun

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of (Motor Unit Number Index) MUNIX under repeatability conditions, specify the origin of variations and provide strategies for quality control. MUNIX calculations were performed on the bicep brachii muscles of eight healthy subjects. Negative effect of suboptimal electrode positions on MUNIX accuracy was eliminated by employing the high-density surface electromyography technique. MUNIX procedures that utilized a variety of surface interferential pattern (SIP) epoch recruitment strategies (including the original MUNIX procedure, two proposed improvement strategies and their combinations) were described. For each MUNIX procedure, ten thousands of different SIP pools were constructed by randomly recruiting necessary SIP epochs from a large SIP epoch pool (3 datasets, 9 independent electromyography recordings at different contraction levels per dataset and 10 SIP epochs per recording) and implemented for MUNIX calculation. The repeatability of each MUNIX procedure was assessed by summarizing the resulting MUNIX distribution and compared to investigate the effect of SIP epoch selection strategy on repeatability performance. SIP epochs selected at lower contraction levels have a stronger influence on the repeatability of MUNIX than those selected at higher contraction levels. MUNIX under repeatability conditions follows a normal distribution and the standard deviation can be significantly reduced by introducing more epochs near the MUNIX definition line. The MUNIX technique shows an inherent variation attributable to SIP epochs at low contraction levels. It is recommended that more epochs should be sampled at these low contraction levels to improve the repeatability. The present study thoroughly documented the inherent variation of MUNIX and the causes, and offered practical solutions to improve the repeatability of MUNIX. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. RODOS User's Group: Final project report. Contract number: F14P- CT98-0075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M.

    2001-03-01

    Prior to 1998, the development of RODOS, a decision support system designed for the management of nuclear emergencies, had been carried out almost entirely by research scientists and engineers. The end-users/operators had little or no input into this development. To redress this situation, the RODOS Users Group (RUG) was established in 1998 under a Concerted Action Contract between the European Commission and STUK. The main objectives of this group were to encourage the emergency management community to use such a system, to provide a forum for end-users to share their experience in the use of such systems and to provide feedback from the end-users to the model and system developers in regard to operational problems and required improvements. The contract, which commenced on 1st September 1998, was for a period of two years. During this period, RUG established a www homepage, planned and performed two nuclear accident exercises and held four meetings. Technically the Web page operated very well. State-of-the-art Internet technology provided an efficient communication channel at low cost. The membership of the RUG was, however, too low to maintain a lively and ongoing discussion in parallel with the RODOS project Web page. This experience would suggest that it might have been better to have operated a Web page for RUG on the RODOS project Web-site rather than an independent RUG Web-site. Exercises based on fixed accident scenarios proved to be an appropriate means of highlighting issues that needed to be discussed between users and developers and to stimulate and motivate the end-users to maintain and further develop the system. Such exercises also promoted further activity in the field of emergency management. The organisation and administration of realistic exercises are time consuming, laborious and expensive. It is therefore very important that the maximum benefit is achieved from such exercises. The use of analytical evaluation methods could be better employed

  3. Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise NA and LNQD Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some strong laws of large numbers and strong convergence properties for arrays of rowwise negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables are obtained. The results obtained not only generalize the result of Hu and Taylor to negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables, but also improve it.

  4. Raw and Central Moments of Binomial Random Variables via Stirling Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We consider here the problem of calculating the moments of binomial random variables. It is shown how formulae for both the raw and the central moments of such random variables may be obtained in a recursive manner utilizing Stirling numbers of the first kind. Suggestions are also provided as to how students might be encouraged to explore this…

  5. Determinants of the number of bidders in the competitive procurement of electricity supply contracts in the Japanese public sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Toru

    2010-01-01

    Since the electricity retail market in Japan was partially opened to competition in 2000, many government entities have sought to solicit competing bids for the electricity supply to their office buildings or facilities, encouraging competition between the incumbents and new entrants. However, in many cases, only the incumbent utility bids for the contract and the competitive effects are limited. This paper presents a statistical analysis of bidders' participation in competitive procurement. We employ several count data regression models to explain the number of bidders other than the local electric utility. Our results suggest that the number of bidders would decrease in response to an increase in the load factor, perhaps because the new entrants are less competitive in serving customers with high load factors as they do not operate low-cost base-load power plants such as nuclear power plants; It would increase along with the voltage level and contract demand. The results also indicate that new entrants are more likely to participate in the bidding process in large city areas. (author)

  6. All ternary permutation constraint satisfaction problems parameterized above average have kernels with quadratic numbers of variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Van Iersel, Leo; Mnich, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    A ternary Permutation-CSP is specified by a subset Π of the symmetric group S3. An instance of such a problem consists of a set of variables V and a multiset of constraints, which are ordered triples of distinct variables of V. The objective is to find a linear ordering α of V that maximizes...... the number of triples whose rearrangement (under α) follows a permutation in Π. We prove that all ternary Permutation-CSPs parameterized above average have kernels with quadratic numbers of variables....

  7. Dynamic Expansion and Contraction of cagA Copy Number in Helicobacter pylori Impact Development of Gastric Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungil Jang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for development of gastric disease, including gastric cancer. Patients infected with H. pylori strains that express CagA are at even greater risk of gastric carcinoma. Given the importance of CagA, this report describes a new molecular mechanism by which the cagA copy number dynamically expands and contracts in H. pylori. Analysis of strain PMSS1 revealed a heterogeneous population in terms of numbers of cagA copies; strains carried from zero to four copies of cagA that were arranged as direct repeats within the chromosome. Each of the multiple copies of cagA was expressed and encoded functional CagA; strains with more cagA repeats exhibited higher levels of CagA expression and increased levels of delivery and phosphorylation of CagA within host cells. This concomitantly resulted in more virulent phenotypes as measured by cell elongation and interleukin-8 (IL-8 induction. Sequence analysis of the repeat region revealed three cagA homologous areas (CHAs within the cagA repeats. Of these, CHA-ud flanked each of the cagA copies and is likely important for the dynamic variation of cagA copy numbers. Analysis of a large panel of clinical isolates showed that 7.5% of H. pylori strains isolated in the United States harbored multiple cagA repeats, while none of the tested Korean isolates carried more than one copy of cagA. Finally, H. pylori strains carrying multiple cagA copies were differentially associated with gastric disease. Thus, the dynamic expansion and contraction of cagA copy numbers may serve as a novel mechanism by which H. pylori modulates gastric disease development.

  8. Intra and interobserver variability of intrapartum transperineal ultrasound measurements with contraction and pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, José A; Fernández-Palacín, Ana; Borrero, Carlota; Aquise, Adriana; Ramos, Zenaida; García-Mejido, José A

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intraobserver correlation of the different intrapartum-transperineal-ultrasound-parameters(ITU) (angle of progression (AoP), progression-distance (PD), head-direction (HD), midline-angle (MLA) and head-perineum distance (HPD)) with contraction and pushing. We evaluated 28 nulliparous women at full dilatation under epidural analgesia. We performed a transperineal ultrasound evaluating AoP and PD in the longitudinal plane, and MLA and HPD in the transverse plane. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% CIs and Bland-Altman analysis were used to assess intra- and interobserver measurement's repeatability. The ICC of the ITU for the same observer was adequate for all the parameters (p pushing under epidural analgesia. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: The intrapartum transperineal ultrasound parameters can be used with contraction and pushing under epidural analgesia. What the results of this study add to what we know: ITU may be used to evaluate the difficulty of instrumental delivery/to evaluate the difficulty of instrumentation in vaginal operative deliveries and this study concludes that ITU is reproducible during uterine contraction with pushing. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Therefore, ITU could be used without difficulty with an adequate intra- and interobserver correlation for the prediction of instrumentation difficulty in operative vaginal deliveries.

  9. Equivalence of the spinning superparticle descriptions with Grassmann variables or with c-number spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Pavsic, M.

    1988-05-01

    A remarkable equivalence is established between the theories of spinning particles or superparticles using anticommuting Grassmann variables on the one hand and commuting c-number spinors on the other. We consider both real and complex Grassmann variables and map the equations of motion and the supersymmetry transformation from one theory to another. The more intuitive c-number theory allows us to generalize the notion of Zitterbewegung to strings and membranes. (A hidden supersymmetry exists in the classical model of the Dirac electron.) (author). 12 refs

  10. Variable-number tandem repeats as molecular markers for biotypes of Pasteuria ramosa in Daphnia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Laurence; Nong, Guang; Preston, James F; Ebert, Dieter

    2007-06-01

    Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) have been identified in populations of Pasteuria ramosa, a castrating endobacterium of Daphnia species. The allelic polymorphisms at 14 loci in laboratory and geographically diverse soil samples showed that VNTRs may serve as biomarkers for the genetic characterization of P. ramosa isolates.

  11. Criterion for the nuclearity of spaces of functions of infinite number of variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gali, I.M.

    1977-08-01

    The paper formulates a new necessary and sufficient condition for the nuclearity of spaces of infinite number of variables, and defines new nuclear spaces which play an important role in the field of functional analysis and quantum field theory. Also the condition for nuclearity of the infinite weighted tensor product of nuclear spaces is given

  12. Role of updraft velocity in temporal variability of global cloud hydrometeor number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Lee, Dongmin; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how dynamical and aerosol inputs affect the temporal variability of hydrometeor formation in climate models will help to explain sources of model diversity in cloud forcing, to provide robust comparisons with data, and, ultimately, to reduce the uncertainty in estimates of the aerosol indirect effect. This variability attribution can be done at various spatial and temporal resolutions with metrics derived from online adjoint sensitivities of droplet and crystal number to relevant inputs. Such metrics are defined and calculated from simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.1 (CAM5.1). Input updraft velocity fluctuations can explain as much as 48% of temporal variability in output ice crystal number and 61% in droplet number in GEOS-5 and up to 89% of temporal variability in output ice crystal number in CAM5.1. In both models, this vertical velocity attribution depends strongly on altitude. Despite its importance for hydrometeor formation, simulated vertical velocity distributions are rarely evaluated against observations due to the sparsity of relevant data. Coordinated effort by the atmospheric community to develop more consistent, observationally based updraft treatments will help to close this knowledge gap.

  13. The role of updraft velocity in temporal variability of cloud hydrometeor number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sylvia; Nenes, Athanasios; Lee, Dong Min; Oreopoulos, Lazaros

    2016-04-01

    Significant effort has been dedicated to incorporating direct aerosol-cloud links, through parameterization of liquid droplet activation and ice crystal nucleation, within climate models. This significant accomplishment has generated the need for understanding which parameters affecting hydrometer formation drives its variability in coupled climate simulations, as it provides the basis for optimal parameter estimation as well as robust comparison with data, and other models. Sensitivity analysis alone does not address this issue, given that the importance of each parameter for hydrometer formation depends on its variance and sensitivity. To address the above issue, we develop and use a series of attribution metrics defined with adjoint sensitivities to attribute the temporal variability in droplet and crystal number to important aerosol and dynamical parameters. This attribution analysis is done both for the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.1. Within the GEOS simulation, up to 48% of temporal variability in output ice crystal number and 61% in droplet number can be attributed to input updraft velocity fluctuations, while for the CAM simulation, they explain as much as 89% of the ice crystal number variability. This above results suggest that vertical velocity in both model frameworks is seen to be a very important (or dominant) driver of hydrometer variability. Yet, observations of vertical velocity are seldomly available (or used) to evaluate the vertical velocities in simulations; this strikingly contrasts the amount and quality of data available for aerosol-related parameters. Consequentially, there is a strong need for retrievals or measurements of vertical velocity for addressing this important knowledge gap that requires a significant investment and effort by the atmospheric community. The attribution metrics as a

  14. Understanding Cirrus Ice Crystal Number Variability for Different Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Betancourt, Ricardo Morales; Barahona, Donifan; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Along with minimizing parameter uncertainty, understanding the cause of temporal and spatial variability of the nucleated ice crystal number, Ni, is key to improving the representation of cirrus clouds in climate models. To this end, sensitivities of Ni to input variables like aerosol number and diameter provide valuable information about nucleation regime and efficiency for a given model formulation. Here we use the adjoint model of the adjoint of a cirrus formation parameterization (Barahona and Nenes, 2009b) to understand Ni variability for various ice-nucleating particle (INP) spectra. Inputs are generated with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, and simulations are done with a theoretically derived spectrum, an empirical lab-based spectrum and two field-based empirical spectra that differ in the nucleation threshold for black carbon particles and in the active site density for dust. The magnitude and sign of Ni sensitivity to insoluble aerosol number can be directly linked to nucleation regime and efficiency of various INP. The lab-based spectrum calculates much higher INP efficiencies than field-based ones, which reveals a disparity in aerosol surface properties. Ni sensitivity to temperature tends to be low, due to the compensating effects of temperature on INP spectrum parameters; this low temperature sensitivity regime has been experimentally reported before but never deconstructed as done here.

  15. Study of Variable Turbulent Prandtl Number Model for Heat Transfer to Supercritical Fluids in Vertical Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ran; Dai, Xiaoye; Wang, Dabiao; Shi, Lin

    2018-06-01

    In order to improve the prediction performance of the numerical simulations for heat transfer of supercritical pressure fluids, a variable turbulent Prandtl number (Prt) model for vertical upward flow at supercritical pressures was developed in this study. The effects of Prt on the numerical simulation were analyzed, especially for the heat transfer deterioration conditions. Based on the analyses, the turbulent Prandtl number was modeled as a function of the turbulent viscosity ratio and molecular Prandtl number. The model was evaluated using experimental heat transfer data of CO2, water and Freon. The wall temperatures, including the heat transfer deterioration cases, were more accurately predicted by this model than by traditional numerical calculations with a constant Prt. By analyzing the predicted results with and without the variable Prt model, it was found that the predicted velocity distribution and turbulent mixing characteristics with the variable Prt model are quite different from that predicted by a constant Prt. When heat transfer deterioration occurs, the radial velocity profile deviates from the log-law profile and the restrained turbulent mixing then leads to the deteriorated heat transfer.

  16. Association between number of cell phone contracts and brain tumor incidence in nineteen U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard G

    2011-02-01

    Some concern has arisen about adverse health effects of cell phones, especially the possibility that the low power microwave-frequency signal transmitted by the antennas on handsets might cause brain tumors or accelerate the growth of subclinical tumors. We analyzed data from the Statistical Report: Primary Brain Tumors in the United States, 2000-2004 and 2007 cell phone subscription data from the Governing State and Local Sourcebook. There was a significant correlation between number of cell phone subscriptions and brain tumors in nineteen US states (r = 0.950, P cell phone subscriptions and brain tumors could be due solely to the fact that some states, such as New York, have much larger populations than other states, such as North Dakota, multiple linear regression was performed with number of brain tumors as the dependent variable, cell phone subscriptions, population, mean family income and mean age as independent variables. The effect of cell phone subscriptions was significant (P = 0.017), and independent of the effect of mean family income (P = 0.894), population (P = 0.003) and age (0.499). The very linear relationship between cell phone usage and brain tumor incidence is disturbing and certainly needs further epidemiological evaluation. In the meantime, it would be prudent to limit exposure to all sources of electro-magnetic radiation.

  17. The number of subjects per variable required in linear regression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2015-06-01

    To determine the number of independent variables that can be included in a linear regression model. We used a series of Monte Carlo simulations to examine the impact of the number of subjects per variable (SPV) on the accuracy of estimated regression coefficients and standard errors, on the empirical coverage of estimated confidence intervals, and on the accuracy of the estimated R(2) of the fitted model. A minimum of approximately two SPV tended to result in estimation of regression coefficients with relative bias of less than 10%. Furthermore, with this minimum number of SPV, the standard errors of the regression coefficients were accurately estimated and estimated confidence intervals had approximately the advertised coverage rates. A much higher number of SPV were necessary to minimize bias in estimating the model R(2), although adjusted R(2) estimates behaved well. The bias in estimating the model R(2) statistic was inversely proportional to the magnitude of the proportion of variation explained by the population regression model. Linear regression models require only two SPV for adequate estimation of regression coefficients, standard errors, and confidence intervals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 86, quarter ending March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Summaries are presented for 37 enhanced oil recovery contracts being supported by the Department of Energy. The projects are grouped into gas displacement methods, thermal recovery methods, geoscience technology, reservoir characterization, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Each summary includes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress, as well as information on contract dates, size of award, principal investigator, and company or facility doing the research.

  19. Premature Ventricular Contraction Coupling Interval Variability Destabilizes Cardiac Neuronal and Electrophysiological Control: Insights from Simultaneous Cardio-Neural Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, David; Rajendran, Pradeep S.; Chui, Ray W.; Ajijola, Olujimi A.; Irie, Tadanobu; Talebi, Ramin; Salavatian, Siamak; Vaseghi, Marmar; Bradfield, Jason S.; Armour, J. Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2017-01-01

    Background Variability in premature ventricular contraction (PVC) coupling interval (CI) increases the risk of cardiomyopathy and sudden death. The autonomic nervous system regulates cardiac electrical and mechanical indices, and its dysregulation plays an important role in cardiac disease pathogenesis. The impact of PVCs on the intrinsic cardiac nervous system (ICNS), a neural network on the heart, remains unknown. The objective was to determine the effect of PVCs and CI on ICNS function in generating cardiac neuronal and electrical instability using a novel cardio-neural mapping approach. Methods and Results In a porcine model (n=8) neuronal activity was recorded from a ventricular ganglion using a microelectrode array, and cardiac electrophysiological mapping was performed. Neurons were functionally classified based on their response to afferent and efferent cardiovascular stimuli, with neurons that responded to both defined as convergent (local reflex processors). Dynamic changes in neuronal activity were then evaluated in response to right ventricular outflow tract PVCs with fixed short, fixed long, and variable CI. PVC delivery elicited a greater neuronal response than all other stimuli (P<0.001). Compared to fixed short and long CI, PVCs with variable CI had a greater impact on neuronal response (P<0.05 versus short CI), particularly on convergent neurons (P<0.05), as well as neurons receiving sympathetic (P<0.05) and parasympathetic input (P<0.05). The greatest cardiac electrical instability was also observed following variable (short) CI PVCs. Conclusions Variable CI PVCs affect critical populations of ICNS neurons and alter cardiac repolarization. These changes may be critical for arrhythmogenesis and remodeling leading to cardiomyopathy. PMID:28408652

  20. Premature Ventricular Contraction Coupling Interval Variability Destabilizes Cardiac Neuronal and Electrophysiological Control: Insights From Simultaneous Cardioneural Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, David; Rajendran, Pradeep S; Chui, Ray W; Ajijola, Olujimi A; Irie, Tadanobu; Talebi, Ramin; Salavatian, Siamak; Vaseghi, Marmar; Bradfield, Jason S; Armour, J Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2017-04-01

    Variability in premature ventricular contraction (PVC) coupling interval (CI) increases the risk of cardiomyopathy and sudden death. The autonomic nervous system regulates cardiac electrical and mechanical indices, and its dysregulation plays an important role in cardiac disease pathogenesis. The impact of PVCs on the intrinsic cardiac nervous system, a neural network on the heart, remains unknown. The objective was to determine the effect of PVCs and CI on intrinsic cardiac nervous system function in generating cardiac neuronal and electric instability using a novel cardioneural mapping approach. In a porcine model (n=8), neuronal activity was recorded from a ventricular ganglion using a microelectrode array, and cardiac electrophysiological mapping was performed. Neurons were functionally classified based on their response to afferent and efferent cardiovascular stimuli, with neurons that responded to both defined as convergent (local reflex processors). Dynamic changes in neuronal activity were then evaluated in response to right ventricular outflow tract PVCs with fixed short, fixed long, and variable CI. PVC delivery elicited a greater neuronal response than all other stimuli ( P <0.001). Compared with fixed short and long CI, PVCs with variable CI had a greater impact on neuronal response ( P <0.05 versus short CI), particularly on convergent neurons ( P <0.05), as well as neurons receiving sympathetic ( P <0.05) and parasympathetic input ( P <0.05). The greatest cardiac electric instability was also observed after variable (short) CI PVCs. Variable CI PVCs affect critical populations of intrinsic cardiac nervous system neurons and alter cardiac repolarization. These changes may be critical for arrhythmogenesis and remodeling, leading to cardiomyopathy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Inclusive B-meson hadroproduction in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schienbein, I. [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie]|[CNRS/IN2P3, Inst. National Polytechnique de Grenoble (France); Spiesberger, H. [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2007-05-15

    We calculate the cross section for the inclusive hadroproduction of B mesons as a function of transverse momentum p{sub T} at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the general- mass variable-flavor-number scheme using realistic non-perturbative fragmentation functions that are obtained through a global fit to e{sup +}e{sup -} data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC exploiting their universality and scaling violations. We find good agreement with recent p anti p data taken by the CDF Collaboration in run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. We also present comparisons with NLO results obtained in two other schemes. (orig.)

  2. Are Macro variables good predictors? A prediction based on the number of total medals acquired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Shafiee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of effort is spent on forecasting the outcome of sporting events. Moreover, there are large quantities of data regarding the outcomes of sporting events and the factors which are assumed to contribute to those outcomes. In this paper we tried to predict the success of nations at the Asian Games through macro-economic, political, social and cultural variables. we used the information of variables include urban population, Education Expenditures, Age Structure, GDP Real Growth Rate, GDP Per Capita, Unemployment Rate, Population, Inflation Average, current account balance, life expectancy at birth and Merchandise Trade for all of the participating countries in Asian Games from 1970 to 2006 in order to build the model and then this model was tested by the information of variables in 2010. The prediction is based on the number of total medals acquired each country. In this research we used WEKA software that is a popular suite of machine learning software written in Java. The value of correlation coefficient between the predicted and original ranks is 90.42%. Neural Network Model, between 28 countries mentioned, predicts their ranks according to the maximum difference between predicted and original ranks of 19 countries (67.85% is 3, the maximum difference between predicted and original ranks of 8 countries (28.57% is between 4 to 6 and the difference between predicted and original ranks of 1 countries (3.57% is more than 6.

  3. DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium leprae strains using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) - fragment length analysis (FLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ronald W; Rivest, Jason; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2011-07-15

    The study of the transmission of leprosy is particularly difficult since the causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, cannot be cultured in the laboratory. The only sources of the bacteria are leprosy patients, and experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice. Thus, many of the methods used in modern epidemiology are not available for the study of leprosy. Despite an extensive global drug treatment program for leprosy implemented by the WHO, leprosy remains endemic in many countries with approximately 250,000 new cases each year. The entire M. leprae genome has been mapped and many loci have been identified that have repeated segments of 2 or more base pairs (called micro- and minisatellites). Clinical strains of M. leprae may vary in the number of tandem repeated segments (short tandem repeats, STR) at many of these loci. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis has been used to distinguish different strains of the leprosy bacilli. Some of the loci appear to be more stable than others, showing less variation in repeat numbers, while others seem to change more rapidly, sometimes in the same patient. While the variability of certain VNTRs has brought up questions regarding their suitability for strain typing, the emerging data suggest that analyzing multiple loci, which are diverse in their stability, can be used as a valuable epidemiological tool. Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) has been used to study leprosy evolution and transmission in several countries including China, Malawi, the Philippines, and Brazil. MLVA involves multiple steps. First, bacterial DNA is extracted along with host tissue DNA from clinical biopsies or slit skin smears (SSS). The desired loci are then amplified from the extracted DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fluorescently-labeled primers for 4-5 different loci are used per reaction, with 18 loci being amplified in a total of four reactions. The PCR products may be subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to verify the

  4. A multi locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA scheme for Streptococcus agalactiae genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mereghetti Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilocus sequence typing (MLST is currently the reference method for genotyping Streptococcus agalactiae strains, the leading cause of infectious disease in newborns and a major cause of disease in immunocompromised children and adults. We describe here a genotyping method based on multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR analysis (MLVA applied to a population of S. agalactiae strains of various origins characterized by MLST and serotyping. Results We studied a collection of 186 strains isolated from humans and cattle and three reference strains (A909, NEM316 and 2603 V/R. Among 34 VNTRs, 6 polymorphic VNTRs loci were selected for use in genotyping of the bacterial population. The MLVA profile consists of a series of allele numbers, corresponding to the number of repeats at each VNTR locus. 98 MLVA genotypes were obtained compared to 51 sequences types generated by MLST. The MLVA scheme generated clusters which corresponded well to the main clonal complexes obtained by MLST. However it provided a higher discriminatory power. The diversity index obtained with MLVA was 0.960 compared to 0.881 with MLST for this population of strains. Conclusions The MLVA scheme proposed here is a rapid, cheap and easy genotyping method generating results suitable for exchange and comparison between different laboratories and for the epidemiologic surveillance of S. agalactiae and analyses of outbreaks.

  5. Changes in Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' through Insect Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Katoh

    Full Text Available Citrus greening (huanglongbing is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. The disease is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' among which 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' has the widest distribution. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is commonly transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. A previous study showed that isolates of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' were clearly differentiated by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR profiles at four loci in the genome. In this study, the VNTR analysis was further validated by assessing the stability of these repeats after multiplication of the pathogen upon host-to-host transmission using a 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strain from Japan. The results showed that some tandem repeats showed detectable changes after insect transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the repeat numbers VNTR 002 and 077 of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' change through psyllid transmission. VNTRs in the recipient plant were apparently unrelated to the growing phase of the vector. In contrast, changes in the number of tandem repeats increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods, whereas changes were not observed through psyllid transmission after relatively short acquisition and inoculation access periods, up to 20 and 19 days, respectively.

  6. [Evaluation of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) isolates of Mycobacterium bovis in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Naima; Muller, Borna; Djamel, Yala; Fadéla, Boulahbal; Rachid, Ouzrout; Jakob, Zinsstag; Djamel, Guetarni

    2010-01-01

    The discriminatory potency of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), based on 7 loci (MIRU 26, 27 and 5 ETRs A, B, C, D, E) was assayed on Mycobacterium bovis strains obtained from samples due to tuberculosis in two slaughterhouses in Algeria. The technique of MIRU-VNTR has been evaluated on 88 strains of M. bovis and one strain of M. caprea and shows 41 different profiles. Results showed that the VNTR were highly discriminatory with an allelic diversity of 0.930 when four loci (ETR A, B, C and MIRU 27) were highly discriminatory (h>0.25) and three loci (ETR D and E MIRU 26) moderately discriminatory (0.11VNTR loci were highly discriminatory be adequate for the first proper differentiation of strains of M. bovis in Algeria. The VNTR technique has proved a valuable tool for further development and application of epidemiological research for the of tuberculosis transmission in Algeria.

  7. The discovery, function and development of the variable number tandem repeats in different Mycobacterium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaogang; Li, Weimin; Xu, Shaofa; Huang, Hairong

    2016-09-01

    The method of genotyping by variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) facilitates the epidemiological studies of different Mycobacterium species worldwide. Until now, the VNTR method is not fully understood, for example, its discovery, function and classification. The inconsistent nomenclature and terminology of VNTR is especially confusing. In this review, we first describe in detail the VNTRs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), as this pathogen resulted in more deaths than any other microbial pathogen as well as for which extensive studies of VNTRs were carried out, and then we outline the recent progress of the VNTR-related epidemiological research in several other Mycobacterium species, such as M. abscessus, M. africanum, M. avium, M. bovis, M. canettii, M. caprae, M. intracellulare, M. leprae, M. marinum, M. microti, M. pinnipedii and M. ulcerans from different countries and regions. This article is aimed mainly at the practical notes of VNTR to help the scientists in better understanding and performing this method.

  8. On the strong law of large numbers for $\\varphi$-subgaussian random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Zajkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    For $p\\ge 1$ let $\\varphi_p(x)=x^2/2$ if $|x|\\le 1$ and $\\varphi_p(x)=1/p|x|^p-1/p+1/2$ if $|x|>1$. For a random variable $\\xi$ let $\\tau_{\\varphi_p}(\\xi)$ denote $\\inf\\{a\\ge 0:\\;\\forall_{\\lambda\\in\\mathbb{R}}\\; \\ln\\mathbb{E}\\exp(\\lambda\\xi)\\le\\varphi_p(a\\lambda)\\}$; $\\tau_{\\varphi_p}$ is a norm in a space $Sub_{\\varphi_p}=\\{\\xi:\\;\\tau_{\\varphi_p}(\\xi)1$) there exist positive constants $c$ and $\\alpha$ such that for every natural number $n$ the following inequality $\\tau_{\\varphi_p}(\\sum_{i=1...

  9. Prompt neutrinos from atmospheric charm in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzke, M.; Garzelli, M.V.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.; Moch, S.; Sigl, G.

    2017-08-01

    We present predictions for the prompt-neutrino flux arising from the decay of charmed mesons and baryons produced by the interactions of high-energy cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere, making use of a QCD approach on the basis of the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme for the description of charm hadroproduction at NLO, complemented by a consistent set of fragmentation functions. We compare the theoretical results to those already obtained by our and other groups with different theoretical approaches. We provide comparisons with the experimental results obtained by the IceCube Collaboration in two different analyses and we discuss the implications for parton distribution functions.

  10. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available The predominant bioserotypes of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in China are 2/O: 9 and 3/O: 3; no pathogenic O: 8 strains have been found to date. Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA based on seven loci was able to distinguish 104 genotypes among 218 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates in China and from abroad, showing a high resolution. The major pathogenic serogroups in China, O: 3 and O: 9, were divided into two clusters based on MLVA genotyping. The different distribution of Y. enterocolitica MLVA genotypes maybe due to the recent dissemination of specific clones of 2/O: 9 and 3/O: 3 strains in China. MLVA was a helpful tool for bacterial pathogen surveillance and investigation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica outbreaks.

  11. Three loop contributions to the matrix elements in the variable flavor number scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes; Hasselhuhn, Alexander [DESY (Germany); Schneider, Carsten [RISC, JKU Linz (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    The variable flavor number scheme may be used to describe parton distributions in the transition region in which one heavy quark gradually becomes a light flavor. We present first three-loop results to the massive operator matrix elements A{sub gg} and A{sub gq} for the contributions due to bubble topologies {proportional_to}T{sub F}{sup 2} n{sub f} at general values of the Mellin variable N. The calculation has been performed using higher transcendental functions and by applying modern summation technologies encoded in the package Sigma. These massive operator matrix elements describe the universal contributions in the matching of different flavor sectors, which are the logarithmic and constant contributions in the ratio of m{sup 2}{sub H}/Q{sup 2}, with Q{sup 2} the virtuality and m{sub H} the respective heavy quark mass. The framework allows to derive heavy quark parton distributions which are of relevance for calculating specific processes at hadron-hadron colliders.

  12. Interleukin 6 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) gene polymorphism in centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, C; Solfrizzi, V; D'Introno, A; Colacicco, A M; Capurso, S A; Semeraro, C; Capurso, A; Panza, F

    2007-11-01

    Recent population-based studies identified the magnitude of interleukin 6 (IL6) serum levels as a marker for functional disability, and a predictor of disability and mortality among the elderly. We investigated whether there was evidence in Southern Italy of an association between the IL6 gene variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism and extreme longevity, and tested for the possible interaction of apolipoprotein E (APOE) alleles with the IL6 VNTR alleles. Four alleles coding for variants of four different lengths have been identified: allele A [760 base pairs (bp)], allele B (680 bp), allele C (640 bp), and allele D (610 bp). IL6 VNTR and APOE allele and genotype frequencies were studied in a total of 61 centenarians and 94 middle-aged subjects from Southern Italy. The IL6 VNTR allele B was overrepresented in the younger control group compared with centenarians (odds ratio: 0.56, 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.88, Bonferroni p-value VNTR alleles and APOE alleles on the odds ratios to reach extreme longevity were evaluated for the smallest number of subjects in centenarians and younger controls. Our findings suggested that the presence of the IL6 VNTR allele B could be detrimental for reaching extreme longevity.

  13. A novel multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) method for Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yolande; Soler, Charles; Gérôme, Patrick; Vong, Rithy; Macnab, Christine; Appere, Géraldine; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Propionibacterium acnes plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acne and is responsible for severe opportunistic infections. Numerous typing schemes have been developed that allow the identification of phylotypes, but they are often insufficient to differentiate subtypes. To better understand the genetic diversity of this species and to perform epidemiological analyses, high throughput discriminant genotyping techniques are needed. Here we describe the development of a multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) method. Thirteen VNTRs were identified in the genome of P. acnes and were used to genotype a collection of clinical isolates. In addition, publically available sequencing data for 102 genomes were analyzed in silico, providing an MLVA genotype. The clustering of MLVA data was in perfect congruence with whole genome based clustering. Analysis of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) element uncovered new spacers, a supplementary source of genotypic information. The present MLVA13 scheme and associated internet database represents a first line genotyping assay to investigate large number of isolates. Particular strains may then be submitted to full genome sequencing in order to better analyze their pathogenic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. MULTIPLE-LOCUS VARIABLE-NUMBER TANDEM REPEAT ANALYSIS OF BRUCELLA ISOLATES FROM THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumkrong, Khurawan; Chankate, Phanita; Tonyoung, Wittawat; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Kerdsin, Anusak; Kalambaheti, Thareerat

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis-induced abortion can result in significant economic loss to farm animals. Brucellosis can be transmitted to humans during slaughter of infected animals or via consumption of contaminated food products. Strain identification of Brucella isolates can reveal the route of transmission. Brucella strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of farm animal, cow milk and from human blood cultures. Multiplex PCR was used to identify Brucella species, and owing to high DNA homology among Brucella isolates, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) based on the number of tandem repeats at 16 different genomic loci was used for strain identification. Multiplex PCR categorized the isolates into B. abortus (n = 7), B. melitensis (n = 37), B. suis (n = 3), and 5 of unknown Brucella spp. MLVA-16 clustering analysis differentiated the strains into various genotypes, with Brucella isolates from the same geographic region being closely related, and revealed that the Thai isolates were phylogenetically distinct from those in other countries, including within the Southeast Asian region. Thus, MLVA-16 typing has utility in epidemiological studies.

  15. The effects of variability on the number-flux-density relationship for radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the number-flux-density relationship for radio sources requires a population of sources whose properties evolve with cosmological epoch, at least in models where the redshifts are all taken to be cosmological. In particular, the surveys made at metre wavelengths show, for bright sources, a slope of the log N -log S curve which is steeper than the value -1.5 expected in a static, non-evolving Euclidean universe. Here, N is the number of radio sources brighter than flux density S. Expansion without evolution in conventional geometrical models predicts slopes flatter than -1.5. If the radio survey is carried out at higher frequencies (typically 2.7 or 5 GHz - 11 or 6 cm wavelength), the slope of the log N -log S curve is steeper than -1.5 but not so steep as the slopes found for the low-frequency surveys. Many of the sources found in high-frequency surveys have radio spectra with relatively higher flux-densities in the centimetre range; these sources are frequently variable at high frequencies, with time-scales from a month or two upwards. Some possible effects of the variations on the observed counts of radio sources are considered. (author)

  16. On the functional form of particle number size distributions: influence of particle source and meteorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugerone, Katia; De Michele, Carlo; Ghezzi, Antonio; Gianelle, Vorne; Gilardoni, Stefania

    2018-04-01

    Particle number size distributions (PNSDs) have been collected periodically in the urban area of Milan, Italy, during 2011 and 2012 in winter and summer months. Moreover, comparable PNSD measurements were carried out in the rural mountain site of Oga-San Colombano (2250 m a.s.l.), Italy, during February 2005 and August 2011. The aerosol data have been measured through the use of optical particle counters in the size range 0.3-25 µm, with a time resolution of 1 min. The comparison of the PNSDs collected in the two sites has been done in terms of total number concentration, showing higher numbers in Milan (often exceeding 103 cm-3 in winter season) compared to Oga-San Colombano (not greater than 2×102 cm-3), as expected. The skewness-kurtosis plane has been used in order to provide a synoptic view, and select the best distribution family describing the empirical PNSD pattern. The four-parameter Johnson system-bounded distribution (called Johnson SB or JSB) has been tested for this aim, due to its great flexibility and ability to assume different shapes. The PNSD pattern has been found to be generally invariant under site and season changes. Nevertheless, several PNSDs belonging to the Milan winter season (generally more than 30 %) clearly deviate from the standard empirical pattern. The seasonal increase in the concentration of primary aerosols due to combustion processes in winter and the influence of weather variables throughout the year, such as precipitation and wind speed, could be considered plausible explanations of PNSD dynamics.

  17. Development of a Hierarchical Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing Scheme for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Yang, Chongguang; Pang, Yu; Zhao, Yanlin; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Molecular typing based on variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis is a promising tool for identifying transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the currently proposed 15- and 24-locus VNTR sets (VNTR-15/24) only have limited resolution and contain too many loci for large-scale typing in high burden countries. To develop an optimal typing scheme in China, we evaluated the resolution and robustness of 25 VNTR loci, using population-based collections of 1362 clinical isolates from six provinces across the country. The resolution of most loci showed considerable variations among regions. By calculating the average resolution of all possible combinations of 20 robust loci, we identified an optimal locus set with a minimum of 9 loci (VNTR-9) that could achieve comparable resolution of the standard VNTR-15. The VNTR-9 had consistently high resolutions in all six regions, and it was highly concordant with VNTR-15 for defining both clustered and unique genotypes. Furthermore, VNTR-9 was phylogenetically informative for classifying lineages/sublineages of M. tuberculosis. Three hypervariable loci (HV-3), VNTR 3232, VNTR 3820 and VNTR 4120, were proved important for further differentiating unrelated clustered strains based on VNTR-9. We propose the optimized VNTR-9 as first-line method and the HV-3 as second-line method for molecular typing of M. tuberculosis in China and surrounding countries. The development of hierarchical VNTR typing methods that can achieve high resolution with a small number of loci could be suitable for molecular epidemiology study in other high burden countries. PMID:24586989

  18. Variable-number-of-tandem-repeats analysis of genetic diversity in Pasteuria ramosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, L; Ebert, D

    2008-05-01

    Variable-number-of-tandem-repeats (VNTR) markers are increasingly being used in population genetic studies of bacteria. They were recently developed for Pasteuria ramosa, an endobacterium that infects Daphnia species. In the present study, we genotyped P. ramosa in 18 infected hosts from the United Kingdom, Belgium, and two lakes in the United States using seven VNTR markers. Two Daphnia species were collected: D. magna and D. dentifera. Six loci showed length polymorphism, with as many as five alleles identified for a single locus. Similarity coefficient calculations showed that the extent of genetic variation between pairs of isolates within populations differed according to the population, but it was always less than the genetic distances among populations. Analysis of the genetic distances performed using principal component analysis revealed strong clustering by location of origin, but not by host Daphnia species. Our study demonstrated that the VNTR markers available for P. ramosa are informative in revealing genetic differences within and among populations and may therefore become an important tool for providing detailed analysis of population genetics and epidemiology.

  19. Retention and Curve Number Variability in a Small Agricultural Catchment: The Probabilistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Banasik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the curve number (CN and the retention parameter (S of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS-CN method in a small agricultural, lowland watershed (23.4 km2 to the gauging station in central Poland has been assessed using the probabilistic approach: distribution fitting and confidence intervals (CIs. Empirical CNs and Ss were computed directly from recorded rainfall depths and direct runoff volumes. Two measures of the goodness of fit were used as selection criteria in the identification of the parent distribution function. The measures specified the generalized extreme value (GEV, normal and general logistic (GLO distributions for 100-CN and GLO, lognormal and GEV distributions for S. The characteristics estimated from theoretical distribution (median, quantiles were compared to the tabulated CN and to the antecedent runoff conditions of Hawkins and Hjelmfelt. The distribution fitting for the whole sample revealed a good agreement between the tabulated CN and the median and between the antecedent runoff conditions (ARCs of Hawkins and Hjelmfelt, which certified a good calibration of the model. However, the division of the CN sample due to heavy and moderate rainfall depths revealed a serious inconsistency between the parameters mentioned. This analysis proves that the application of the SCS-CN method should rely on deep insight into the probabilistic properties of CN and S.

  20. GIS Based Distributed Runoff Predictions in Variable Source Area Watersheds Employing the SCS-Curve Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Mendoza, G.; Lyon, S. W.; Gerard Marchant, P.; Walter, M. T.; Schneiderman, E.

    2003-04-01

    Because the traditional Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) approach continues to be ubiquitously used in GIS-BASED water quality models, new application methods are needed that are consistent with variable source area (VSA) hydrological processes in the landscape. We developed within an integrated GIS modeling environment a distributed approach for applying the traditional SCS-CN equation to watersheds where VSA hydrology is a dominant process. Spatial representation of hydrologic processes is important for watershed planning because restricting potentially polluting activities from runoff source areas is fundamental to controlling non-point source pollution. The methodology presented here uses the traditional SCS-CN method to predict runoff volume and spatial extent of saturated areas and uses a topographic index to distribute runoff source areas through watersheds. The resulting distributed CN-VSA method was incorporated in an existing GWLF water quality model and applied to sub-watersheds of the Delaware basin in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State. We found that the distributed CN-VSA approach provided a physically-based method that gives realistic results for watersheds with VSA hydrology.

  1. Variable-flavor-number scheme in analysis of heavy-quark electro-production data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S.; Moch, S.

    2009-08-01

    We check the impact of the factorization scheme employed in the calculation of the heavy-quark deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) electro-production on the PDFs determined in the NNLO QCD analysis of the world inclusive neutral-current DIS data combined with the ones on the neutrino-nucleon DIS di-muon production and the fixed-target Drell-Yan process. The charm-quark DIS contribution is calculated in the general-mass variable-flavor-number (GMVFN) scheme: At asymptotically large values of the momentum transfer Q it is given by the zero-mass 4-flavor scheme and at the value of Q equal to the charm-quark mass it is smoothly matched with the 3-flavor scheme using the Buza-Matiounine-Smith-van Neerven prescription. The PDFs obtained in this variant of the fit are very similar to the ones obtained in the fit with a 3-flavor scheme employed. Our 5-flavor PDFs derived from the 3-flavor ones using the NNLO matching conditions are used to calculate the rates of W ± /Z and t anti t production at the Tevatron collider and the LHC at NNLO. (orig.)

  2. Variable number of tandem repeats of 9 Plasmodium vivax genes among Southeast Asian isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Yun, Seung-Gyu; Lu, Feng; Cheng, Yang; Han, Jin-Hee; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Park, Won Sun; Hong, Seok-Ho; Lim, Chae-Seung; Cao, Jun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Cui, Liwang; Han, Eun-Taek

    2017-06-01

    The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) provides valuable information about both the functional and evolutionary aspects of genetic diversity. Comparative analysis of 3 Plasmodium falciparum genomes has shown that more than 9% of its open reading frames (ORFs) harbor VNTRs. Although microsatellites and VNTR genes of P. vivax were reported, the VNTR polymorphism of genes has not been examined widely. In this study, 230 P. vivax genes were analyzed for VNTRs by SERV, and 33 kinds of TR deletions or insertions from 29 P. vivax genes (12.6%) were found. Of these, 9 VNTR fragments from 8 P. vivax genes were used for PCR amplification and sequence analysis to examine the genetic diversity among 134 isolates from four Southeast Asian countries (China, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Myanmar) with different malaria endemicity. We confirmed the existence of extensive polymorphism of VNTR fragments in field isolates. This detection provides several suitable markers for analysis of the molecular epidemiology of P. vivax field isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New polymorphisms within the variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) 7 locus of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Ahmad; Zschöck, Michael; Ewers, Christa; Eisenberg, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) is a frequently employed typing method of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates. Based on whole genome sequencing in a previous study, allelic diversity at some VNTR loci seems to over- or under-estimate the actual phylogenetic variance among isolates. Interestingly, two closely related isolates on one farm showed polymorphism at the VNTR 7 locus, raising concerns about the misleading role that it might play in genotyping. We aimed to investigate the underlying basis of VNTR 7-polymorphism by analyzing sequence data for published genomes and field isolates of MAP and other M. avium complex (MAC) members. In contrast to MAP strains from cattle, strains from sheep displayed an "imperfect" repeat within VNTR 7, which was identical to respective allele types in other MAC genomes. Subspecies- and strain-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two novel (16 and 56 bp) repeats were detected. Given the combination of the three existing repeats, there are at least five different patterns for VNTR 7. The present findings highlight a higher polymorphism and probable instability of VNTR 7 locus that needs to be considered and challenged in future studies. Until then, sequencing of this locus in future studies is important to correctly assign the underlying allele types.(1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 7th pandemic Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Connie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seven pandemics of cholera have been recorded since 1817, with the current and ongoing pandemic affecting almost every continent. Cholera remains endemic in developing countries and is still a significant public health issue. In this study we use multilocus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs analysis (MLVA to discriminate between isolates of the 7th pandemic clone of Vibrio cholerae. Results MLVA of six VNTRs selected from previously published data distinguished 66 V. cholerae isolates collected between 1961–1999 into 60 unique MLVA profiles. Only 4 MLVA profiles consisted of more than 2 isolates. The discriminatory power was 0.995. Phylogenetic analysis showed that, except for the closely related profiles, the relationships derived from MLVA profiles were in conflict with that inferred from Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP typing. The six SNP groups share consensus VNTR patterns and two SNP groups contained isolates which differed by only one VNTR locus. Conclusions MLVA is highly discriminatory in differentiating 7th pandemic V. cholerae isolates and MLVA data was most useful in resolving the genetic relationships among isolates within groups previously defined by SNPs. Thus MLVA is best used in conjunction with SNP typing in order to best determine the evolutionary relationships among the 7th pandemic V. cholerae isolates and for longer term epidemiological typing.

  5. Genotypic characterization by multi locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis international Bordetella pertussis vaccine strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fatah Moghadam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 1930's first whole cell pertussis vaccines became available to the public heralding a dramatic success in overcoming the global burden of the disease. To date only a handful of B. pertussis strains have been used by international/local pertussis vaccine manufacturers. Inevitable well-documented genetic changes in the world population of this pathogen have prompted serious questions on suitability of traditional vaccine strains protect human against currently circulating wild isolates of Bordetella pertussis. Objective: Analyzing the genetic diversity within the most frequently-used vaccine strains of B. pertussis in the world Methods: A recently developed multi locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA genotyping system along with a bioinforamtic piece of analysis was conducted on 11 strain / substrains of B137, B203 (10536, C393, Cs, E476, Tohama I, J445 (134, B202 and J446 (509 plus 2 sub-strains of 134 and 509 that are used at Razi institute for preparation of pertussis vaccine. In this study have used 6 individual loci of VNTR1, VNTR3a, VNTR3b, VNTR4, VNTR5 and VNTR6. Findings: Six distinct genotypes were recognized among the examined strains by comparing our data with the Dutch MLVA databank. These were all new and not reported before in the database. Conclusion: This observation reiterates on necessity for detection of predominant native strains to include in vaccine preparations suitable for different countries.

  6. Clinical Trials With Large Numbers of Variables: Important Advantages of Canonical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2016-01-01

    Canonical analysis assesses the combined effects of a set of predictor variables on a set of outcome variables, but it is little used in clinical trials despite the omnipresence of multiple variables. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of canonical analysis as compared with traditional multivariate methods using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). As an example, a simulated data file with 12 gene expression levels and 4 drug efficacy scores was used. The correlation coefficient between the 12 predictor and 4 outcome variables was 0.87 (P = 0.0001) meaning that 76% of the variability in the outcome variables was explained by the 12 covariates. Repeated testing after the removal of 5 unimportant predictor and 1 outcome variable produced virtually the same overall result. The MANCOVA identified identical unimportant variables, but it was unable to provide overall statistics. (1) Canonical analysis is remarkable, because it can handle many more variables than traditional multivariate methods such as MANCOVA can. (2) At the same time, it accounts for the relative importance of the separate variables, their interactions and differences in units. (3) Canonical analysis provides overall statistics of the effects of sets of variables, whereas traditional multivariate methods only provide the statistics of the separate variables. (4) Unlike other methods for combining the effects of multiple variables such as factor analysis/partial least squares, canonical analysis is scientifically entirely rigorous. (5) Limitations include that it is less flexible than factor analysis/partial least squares, because only 2 sets of variables are used and because multiple solutions instead of one is offered. We do hope that this article will stimulate clinical investigators to start using this remarkable method.

  7. A variable turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt number model study for scramjet applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keistler, Patrick

    A turbulence model that allows for the calculation of the variable turbulent Prandtl (Prt) and Schmidt (Sct) numbers as part of the solution is presented. The model also accounts for the interactions between turbulence and chemistry by modeling the corresponding terms. Four equations are added to the baseline k-zeta turbulence model: two equations for enthalpy variance and its dissipation rate to calculate the turbulent diffusivity, and two equations for the concentrations variance and its dissipation rate to calculate the turbulent diffusion coefficient. The underlying turbulence model already accounts for compressibility effects. The variable Prt /Sct turbulence model is validated and tuned by simulating a wide variety of experiments. Included in the experiments are two-dimensional, axisymmetric, and three-dimensional mixing and combustion cases. The combustion cases involved either hydrogen and air, or hydrogen, ethylene, and air. Two chemical kinetic models are employed for each of these situations. For the hydrogen and air cases, a seven species/seven reaction model where the reaction rates are temperature dependent and a nine species/nineteen reaction model where the reaction rates are dependent on both pressure and temperature are used. For the cases involving ethylene, a 15 species/44 reaction reduced model that is both pressure and temperature dependent is used, along with a 22 species/18 global reaction reduced model that makes use of the quasi-steady-state approximation. In general, fair to good agreement is indicated for all simulated experiments. The turbulence/chemistry interaction terms are found to have a significant impact on flame location for the two-dimensional combustion case, with excellent experimental agreement when the terms are included. In most cases, the hydrogen chemical mechanisms behave nearly identically, but for one case, the pressure dependent model would not auto-ignite at the same conditions as the experiment and the other

  8. Hydroxyl layer: trend of number density and intra-annual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, G. R.; Hartogh, P.; Berger, U.; Grygalashvyly, M.

    2015-06-01

    The layer of vibrationally excited hydroxyl (OH*) near the mesopause in Earth's atmosphere is widely used to derive the temperature at this height and to observe dynamical processes such as gravity waves. The concentration of OH* is controlled by the product of atomic hydrogen, with ozone creating a layer of enhanced concentration in the mesopause region. However, the basic influences on the OH* layer are atomic oxygen and temperature. The long-term monitoring of this layer provides information on a changing atmosphere. It is important to know which proportion of a trend results from anthropogenic impacts on the atmosphere and which proportion reflects natural variations. In a previous paper (Grygalashvyly et al., 2014), the trend of the height of the layer and the trend in temperature were investigated particularly in midlatitudes on the basis of our coupled dynamic and chemical transport model LIMA (Leibniz Institute Middle Atmosphere). In this paper we consider the trend for the number density between the years 1961 and 2009 and analyze the reason of the trends on a global scale. Further, we consider intra-annual variations. Temperature and wind have the strongest impacts on the trend. Surprisingly, the increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs) has no clear influence on the chemistry of OH*. The main reason for this lies in the fact that, in the production term of OH*, if atomic hydrogen increases due to increasing humidity of the middle atmosphere by methane oxidation, ozone decreases. The maximum of the OH* layer is found in the mesopause region and is very variable. The mesopause region is a very intricate domain marked by changeable dynamics and strong gradients of all chemically active minor constituents determining the OH* chemistry. The OH* concentration responds, in part, very sensitively to small changes in these parameters. The cause for this behavior is given by nonlinear reactions of the photochemical system being a nonlinear enforced chemical oscillator

  9. Hydroxyl layer: trend of number density and intra-annual variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Sonnemann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The layer of vibrationally excited hydroxyl (OH* near the mesopause in Earth's atmosphere is widely used to derive the temperature at this height and to observe dynamical processes such as gravity waves. The concentration of OH* is controlled by the product of atomic hydrogen, with ozone creating a layer of enhanced concentration in the mesopause region. However, the basic influences on the OH* layer are atomic oxygen and temperature. The long-term monitoring of this layer provides information on a changing atmosphere. It is important to know which proportion of a trend results from anthropogenic impacts on the atmosphere and which proportion reflects natural variations. In a previous paper (Grygalashvyly et al., 2014, the trend of the height of the layer and the trend in temperature were investigated particularly in midlatitudes on the basis of our coupled dynamic and chemical transport model LIMA (Leibniz Institute Middle Atmosphere. In this paper we consider the trend for the number density between the years 1961 and 2009 and analyze the reason of the trends on a global scale. Further, we consider intra-annual variations. Temperature and wind have the strongest impacts on the trend. Surprisingly, the increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs has no clear influence on the chemistry of OH*. The main reason for this lies in the fact that, in the production term of OH*, if atomic hydrogen increases due to increasing humidity of the middle atmosphere by methane oxidation, ozone decreases. The maximum of the OH* layer is found in the mesopause region and is very variable. The mesopause region is a very intricate domain marked by changeable dynamics and strong gradients of all chemically active minor constituents determining the OH* chemistry. The OH* concentration responds, in part, very sensitively to small changes in these parameters. The cause for this behavior is given by nonlinear reactions of the photochemical system being a nonlinear enforced

  10. Spoligotyping and variable number tandem repeat analysis of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from cattle in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Martins Parreiras

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed spoligotyping and 12-mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs typing to characterise Mycobacterium bovis isolates collected from tissue samples of bovines with lesions suggestive for tuberculosis during slaughter inspection procedures in abattoirs in Brazil. High-quality genotypes were obtained with both procedures for 61 isolates that were obtained from 185 bovine tissue samples and all of these isolates were identified as M. bovis by conventional identification procedures. On the basis of the spoligotyping, 53 isolates were grouped into nine clusters and the remaining eight isolates were unique types, resulting in 17 spoligotypes. The majority of the Brazilian M. bovis isolates displayed spoligotype patterns that have been previously observed in strains isolated from cattle in other countries. MIRU-VNTR typing produced 16 distinct genotypes, with 53 isolates forming eight of the groups, and individual isolates with unique VNTR profiles forming the remaining eight groups. The allelic diversity of each VNTR locus was calculated and only two of the 12-MIRU-VNTR loci presented scores with either a moderate (0.4, MIRU16 or high (0.6, MIRU26 discriminatory index (h. Both typing methods produced similar discriminatory indexes (spoligotyping h = 0.85; MIRU-VNTR h = 0.86 and the combination of the two methods increased the h value to 0.94, resulting in 29 distinct patterns. These results confirm that spoligotyping and VNTR analysis are valuable tools for studying the molecular epidemiology of M. bovis infections in Brazil.

  11. [Discriminatory power of variable number on tandem repeats loci for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H X; Cai, C; Liu, J Y; Zhang, Z G; Yuan, M; Jia, J N; Sun, Z G; Huang, H R; Gao, J M; Li, W M

    2017-06-10

    Objective: Using the standard genotype method, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), we constructed a VNTR database to cover all provinces and proposed a set of optimized VNTR loci combinations for each province, in order to improve the preventive and control programs on tuberculosis, in China. Methods: A total of 15 loci VNTR was used to analyze 4 116 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, isolated from national survey of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis, in 2007. Hunter-Gaston Index (HGI) was also used to analyze the discriminatory power of each VNTR site. A set combination of 12-VNTR, 10-VNTR, 8-VNTR and 5-VNTR was respectively constructed for each province, based on 1) epidemic characteristics of M. tuberculosis lineages in China, with high discriminatory power and genetic stability. Results: Through the completed 15 loci VNTR patterns of 3 966 strains under 96.36 % (3 966/4 116) coverage, we found seven high HGI loci (including QUB11b and MIRU26) as well as low stable loci (including QUB26, MIRU16, Mtub21 and QUB11b) in several areas. In all the 31 provinces, we found an optimization VNTR combination as 10-VNTR loci in Inner Mongolia, Chongqing and Heilongjiang, but with 8-VNTR combination shared in other provinces. Conclusions: It is necessary to not only use the VNTR database for tracing the source of infection and cluster of M. tuberculosis in the nation but also using the set of optimized VNTR combinations in monitoring those local epidemics and M. tuberculosis (genetics in local) population.

  12. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis for molecular typing of Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chermette René

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis (MLVA is a prominent subtyping method to resolve closely related microbial isolates to provide information for establishing genetic patterns among isolates and to investigate disease outbreaks. The usefulness of MLVA was recently demonstrated for the avian major pathogen Chlamydophila psittaci. In the present study, we developed a similar method for another pathogen of birds: the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Results We selected 10 VNTR markers located on 4 different chromosomes (1, 5, 6 and 8 of A. fumigatus. These markers were tested with 57 unrelated isolates from different hosts or their environment (53 isolates from avian species in France, China or Morocco, 3 isolates from humans collected at CHU Henri Mondor hospital in France and the reference strain CBS 144.89. The Simpson index for individual markers ranged from 0.5771 to 0.8530. A combined loci index calculated with all the markers yielded an index of 0.9994. In a second step, the panel of 10 markers was used in different epidemiological situations and tested on 277 isolates, including 62 isolates from birds in Guangxi province in China, 95 isolates collected in two duck farms in France and 120 environmental isolates from a turkey hatchery in France. A database was created with the results of the present study http://minisatellites.u-psud.fr/MLVAnet/. Three major clusters of isolates were defined by using the graphing algorithm termed Minimum Spanning Tree (MST. The first cluster comprised most of the avian isolates collected in the two duck farms in France, the second cluster comprised most of the avian isolates collected in poultry farms in China and the third one comprised most of the isolates collected in the turkey hatchery in France. Conclusions MLVA displayed excellent discriminatory power. The method showed a good reproducibility. MST analysis revealed an interesting clustering with a

  13. Characterization of Dutch Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis using a Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikawaty, R.; Brouwer, E.C.; Jansen, M.D.; Duijkeren, van E.; Mevius, D.J.; Verhoef, J.; Fluit, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Current typing methods for Staphylococcus aureus have important drawbacks. We evaluated a Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) scheme with 6 loci which lacks most drawbacks on 85 bovine mastitis isolates from The Netherlands. For each locus the number of repeat units (RU) was

  14. Variability of the nucleoli number in the progenies of intact and UV-irradiated clonogenic Hela cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheryavaya, N.A.; Zavol'naya, E.S.; Vakhtin, Yu.B.

    1981-01-01

    The coefficient of the ''nucleoli number'' character heritability (h 2 ) in the population of intact Hela cells equals 0.21 to 0.33. UV-irradiation enhances almost equally both the intraclonic and population variability of the nucleoli number and, as a result, the coefficient of the ''nucleoli number'' character heritability does not change in the population of UV-irradiated Hela cells

  15. Variability of the nucleoli number in the progenies of intact and UV-irradiated clonogenic Hela cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheryavaya, N.A.; Zavol' naya, E.S.; Vakhtin, Yu.B. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Tsitologii)

    1981-01-01

    The coefficient of the ''nucleoli number'' character heritability (h/sup 2/) in the population of intact Hela cells equals 0.21 to 0.33. UV-irradiation enhances almost equally both the intraclonic and population variability of the nucleoli number and, as a result, the coefficient of the ''nucleoli number'' character heritability does not change in the population of UV-irradiated Hela cells.

  16. RODOS User's Group: Final project report. Contract number: F14P- CT98-0075

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M. (eds.)

    2001-03-01

    Prior to 1998, the development of RODOS, a decision support system designed for the management of nuclear emergencies, had been carried out almost entirely by research scientists and engineers. The end-users/operators had little or no input into this development. To redress this situation, the RODOS Users Group (RUG) was established in 1998 under a Concerted Action Contract between the European Commission and STUK. The main objectives of this group were to encourage the emergency management community to use such a system, to provide a forum for end-users to share their experience in the use of such systems and to provide feedback from the end-users to the model and system developers in regard to operational problems and required improvements. The contract, which commenced on 1st September 1998, was for a period of two years. During this period, RUG established a www homepage, planned and performed two nuclear accident exercises and held four meetings. Technically the Web page operated very well. State-of-the-art Internet technology provided an efficient communication channel at low cost. The membership of the RUG was, however, too low to maintain a lively and ongoing discussion in parallel with the RODOS project Web page. This experience would suggest that it might have been better to have operated a Web page for RUG on the RODOS project Web-site rather than an independent RUG Web-site. Exercises based on fixed accident scenarios proved to be an appropriate means of highlighting issues that needed to be discussed between users and developers and to stimulate and motivate the end-users to maintain and further develop the system. Such exercises also promoted further activity in the field of emergency management. The organisation and administration of realistic exercises are time consuming, laborious and expensive. It is therefore very important that the maximum benefit is achieved from such exercises. The use of analytical evaluation methods could be better employed

  17. The transition matrix element Agq(N) of the variable flavor number scheme at O(α3s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablinger, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C.; Manteuffel, A. von

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the massive operator matrix element A (3) gq (N) to 3-loop order in Quantum Chromodynamics at general values of the Mellin variable N. This is the first complete transition function needed in the variable flavor number scheme obtained at O(α 3 s ). A fist independent recalculation is performed for the contributions ∝ N F of the 3-loop anomalous dimension γ (2) gq (N).

  18. The transition matrix element Agq(N) of the variable flavor number scheme at O(αs3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablinger, J.; Blümlein, J.; De Freitas, A.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Manteuffel, A. von; Round, M.; Schneider, C.; Wißbrock, F.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the massive unpolarized operator matrix element A gq (3) (N) to 3-loop order in Quantum Chromodynamics at general values of the Mellin variable N. This is the first complete transition function needed in the variable flavor number scheme obtained at O(α s 3 ). A first independent recalculation is performed for the contributions ∝N F of the 3-loop anomalous dimension γ gq (2) (N)

  19. Variability of Measurement of Patellofemoral Indices with Knee Flexion and Quadriceps Contraction: An MRI-Based Anatomical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugharne, Edward; Bali, Navi; Purushothamdas, Sanjay; Almallah, Faris; Kundra, Rik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of varying knee flexion and quadriceps activity on patellofemoral indices measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods MRI of the knee was performed in 20 patients for indications other than patellar or patellofemoral pathology. Axial and sagittal sequences were performed in full extension of the knee with the quadriceps relaxed, full extension of the knee with the quadriceps contracted, 30° flexion of the knee with the quadriceps relaxed, and 30° flexion with the quadriceps contracted. Bisect offset, patella tilt angle, Insall-Salvati ratio and Caton-Deschamps index were measured. Results With the knee flexed to 30° and quadriceps relaxed, the mean values of patellar tilt angle, bisect offset, Insall-Salvati ratio and Caton-Deschamps index were all within normal limits. With the knee extended and quadriceps contracted, the mean patellar tilt angle (normal value, patellofemoral indices. MRI taken with the knee in 30° of flexion allows more reliable assessment of the patellofemoral joint and minimises the confounding effect of quadriceps contraction. PMID:27894177

  20. Area vs. density: influence of visual variables and cardinality knowledge in early number comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Mendoza, Roberto A; Soto-Alba, Elia E; Arias-Trejo, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Current research in the number development field has focused in individual differences regarding the acuity of children's approximate number system (ANS). The most common task to evaluate children's acuity is through non-symbolic numerical comparison. Efforts have been made to prevent children from using perceptual cues by controlling the visual properties of the stimuli (e.g., density, contour length, and area); nevertheless, researchers have used these visual controls interchangeably. Studies have also tried to understand the relation between children's cardinality knowledge and their performance in a number comparison task; divergent results may in fact be rooted in the use of different visual controls. The main goal of the present study is to explore how the usage of different visual controls (density, total filled area, and correlated and anti-correlated area) affects children's performance in a number comparison task, and its relationship to children's cardinality knowledge. For that purpose, 77 preschoolers participated in three tasks: (1) counting list elicitation to test whether children could recite the counting list up to ten, (2) give a number to evaluate children's cardinality knowledge, and (3) number comparison to evaluate their ability to compare two quantities. During this last task, children were asked to point at the set with more geometric figures when two sets were displayed on a screen. Children were exposed only to one of the three visual controls. Results showed that overall, children performed above chance in the number comparison task; nonetheless, density was the easiest control, while correlated and anti-correlated area was the most difficult in most cases. Only total filled area was sensitive to discriminate cardinal principal knowers from non-cardinal principal knowers. How this finding helps to explain conflicting evidence from previous research, and how the present outcome relates to children's number word knowledge is discussed.

  1. DNF Tautologies with a Limited Number of Occurrences of Every Variable

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Savický, Petr; Sgall, Jiří

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 238, 1-2 (2000), s. 495-498 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/98/0717; GA AV ČR IAA1019602; GA ČR GA201/97/P038; GA MŠk ME 103 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : disjunctive normal form * tautology * occurences of variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.417, year: 2000

  2. Imported brucellosis in Denmark: Molecular identification and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) genotyping of the bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, H.; Dargis, R.; Christensen, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction was used to identify Brucella species isolated from humans in Denmark. Consecutive analysis of referred bacteria and re-examination of historical isolates identified all as Brucella melitensis. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) placed...... the isolates in the previously defined 'East Mediterranean' B. melitensis group....

  3. The effect of the number of seed variables on the performance of Cooke′s classical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggstaff, Justin W.; Mazzuchi, Thomas A.; Sarkani, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    In risk analysis, Cooke′s classical model for aggregating expert judgment has been widely used for over 20 years. However, the validity of this model has been the subject of much debate. Critics assert that this model′s scoring rule may unintentionally reward experts who manipulate their quantile estimates in order to receive a greater weight. In addition, the question of the number of seed variables required to ensure adequate performance of Cooke′s classical model remains unanswered. In this study, we conduct a comprehensive examination of the model through an iterative, cross validation test to perform an out-of-sample comparison between Cooke′s classical model and the equal-weight linear opinion pool method on almost all of the expert judgment studies compiled by Cooke and colleagues to date. Our results indicate that Cooke′s classical model significantly outperforms equally weighting expert judgment, regardless of the number of seed variables used; however, there may, in fact, be a maximum number of seed variables beyond which Cooke′s model cannot outperform an equally-weighted panel. - Highlights: • We examine Cooke′s classical model through an iterative, cross validation test. • The performance-based and equally weighted decision makers are compared. • Results strengthen Cooke′s argument for a two-fold cross-validation approach. • Accuracy test results show strong support in favor of Cooke′s classical method. • There may be a maximum number of seed variables that ensures model performance

  4. First worldwide proficiency study on variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, J.L. de; Kremer, K.; Kodmon, C.; Supply, P.; Soolingen, D. van

    2012-01-01

    Although variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing has gained recognition as the new standard for the DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, external quality control programs have not yet been developed. Therefore, we organized the first multicenter proficiency

  5. In situ formation and spatial variability of particle number concentration in a European megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, M.; Sciare, J.; Freutel, F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Borbon, A.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Merkel, M.; Crippa, M.; Kostenidou, E.; Psichoudaki, M.; Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Petäjä, T.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Beekmann, M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particle number size distributions were measured in Paris, France, during summer (1-31 July 2009) and winter (15 January to 15 February 2010) at three fixed ground sites and using two mobile laboratories and one airplane. The campaigns were part of the Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation (MEGAPOLI) project. New particle formation (NPF) was observed only during summer on approximately 50 % of the campaign days, assisted by the low condensation sink (about 10.7 ± 5.9 × 10-3 s-1). NPF events inside the Paris plume were also observed at 600 m altitude onboard an aircraft simultaneously with regional events identified on the ground. Increased particle number concentrations were measured aloft also outside of the Paris plume at the same altitude, and were attributed to NPF. The Paris plume was identified, based on increased particle number and black carbon concentration, up to 200 km away from the Paris center during summer. The number concentration of particles with diameters exceeding 2.5 nm measured on the surface at the Paris center was on average 6.9 ± 8.7 × 104 and 12.1 ± 8.6 × 104 cm-3 during summer and winter, respectively, and was found to decrease exponentially with distance from Paris. However, further than 30 km from the city center, the particle number concentration at the surface was similar during both campaigns. During summer, one suburban site in the NE was not significantly affected by Paris emissions due to higher background number concentrations, while the particle number concentration at the second suburban site in the SW increased by a factor of 3 when it was downwind of Paris.

  6. Interleaved Buck Converter with Variable Number of Active Phases and a Predictive Current Sharing Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Garcia, O.; Oliver, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of an interleaved Buck converter is typically low at light load conditions because of the switching losses in each of the switching stages. Improvements in the converter efficiency can be achieved by dynamically changing the number of active phases depending on the load current....... This paper addresses the issues related to the transient response of the converter when the number of active phases is changed by a digital control scheme. The problem arises because the current in the individual phases of the interleaved Buck converter will not be equal immediately after the controller has...... changed the number of active phases. This paper proposes a current equalisation scheme that adjusts the duty cycle of each phase in a manner that ensures equal average inductor current in all active phases in one or two PWM periods. The current equalisation scheme relies on the measurement of the output...

  7. Obstacles to Scientific Research in Light of a Number of Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algadheeb, Nourah A.; Almeqren, Monira A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the scientific research obstacles facing faculty members in the College of Education at Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University (PNU) and to determine the differences in the obstacles according to age, academic rank, scientific specialty, marital status, number of completed studies, and time since the last…

  8. Low numbers of repeat units in variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) regions of white spot syndrome virus are correlated with disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, T T T; Zwart, M P; Phuong, N T; de Jong, M C M; Vlak, J M

    2012-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen in shrimp farming systems worldwide including the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The genome of WSSV is characterized by the presence of two major 'indel regions' found at ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 (WSSV-Thailand) and three regions with variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) located in ORF75, ORF94 and ORF125. In the current study, we investigated whether or not the number of repeat units in the VNTRs correlates with virus outbreak status and/or shrimp farming practice. We analysed 662 WSSV samples from individual WSSV-infected Penaeus monodon shrimp from 104 ponds collected from two important shrimp farming regions of the Mekong Delta: Ca Mau and Bac Lieu. Using this large data set and statistical analysis, we found that for ORF94 and ORF125, the mean number of repeat units (RUs) in VNTRs was significantly lower in disease outbreak ponds than in non-outbreak ponds. Although a higher mean RU number was observed in the improved-extensive system than in the rice-shrimp or semi-intensive systems, these differences were not significant. VNTR sequences are thus not only useful markers for studying WSSV genotypes and populations, but specific VNTR variants also correlate with disease outbreaks in shrimp farming systems. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Drivers of Seasonal Variability in Marine Boundary Layer Aerosol Number Concentration Investigated Using a Steady State Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrmann, Johannes; Wood, Robert; McGibbon, Jeremy; Eastman, Ryan; Luke, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol particles affect the climate through their interaction with MBL clouds. Although both MBL clouds and aerosol particles have pronounced seasonal cycles, the factors controlling seasonal variability of MBL aerosol particle concentration are not well constrained. In this paper an aerosol budget is constructed representing the effects of wet deposition, free-tropospheric entrainment, primary surface sources, and advection on the MBL accumulation mode aerosol number concentration (Na). These terms are then parameterized, and by assuming that on seasonal time scales Na is in steady state, the budget equation is rearranged to form a diagnostic equation for Na based on observable variables. Using data primarily collected in the subtropical northeast Pacific during the MAGIC campaign (Marine ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) GPCI (GCSS Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison) Investigation of Clouds), estimates of both mean summer and winter Na concentrations are made using the simplified steady state model and seasonal mean observed variables. These are found to match well with the observed Na. To attribute the modeled difference between summer and winter aerosol concentrations to individual observed variables (e.g., precipitation rate and free-tropospheric aerosol number concentration), a local sensitivity analysis is combined with the seasonal difference in observed variables. This analysis shows that despite wintertime precipitation frequency being lower than summer, the higher winter precipitation rate accounted for approximately 60% of the modeled seasonal difference in Na, which emphasizes the importance of marine stratocumulus precipitation in determining MBL aerosol concentrations on longer time scales.

  10. Dynamic of Mutational Events in Variable Number Tandem Repeats of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bustamante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available VNTRs regions have been successfully used for bacterial subtyping; however, the hypervariability in VNTR loci is problematic when trying to predict the relationships among isolates. Since few studies have examined the mutation rate of these markers, our aim was to estimate mutation rates of VNTRs specific for verotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7. The knowledge of VNTR mutational rates and the factors affecting them would make MLVA more effective for epidemiological or microbial forensic investigations. For this purpose, we analyzed nine loci performing parallel, serial passage experiments (PSPEs on 9 O157:H7 strains. The combined 9 PSPE population rates for the 8 mutating loci ranged from 4.4 × 10−05 to 1.8 × 10−03 mutations/generation, and the combined 8-loci mutation rate was of 2.5 × 10−03 mutations/generation. Mutations involved complete repeat units, with only one point mutation detected. A similar proportion between single and multiple repeat changes was detected. Of the 56 repeat mutations, 59% were insertions and 41% were deletions, and 72% of the mutation events corresponded to O157-10 locus. For alleles with up to 13 UR, a constant and low mutation rate was observed; meanwhile longer alleles were associated with higher and variable mutation rates. Our results are useful to interpret data from microevolution and population epidemiology studies and particularly point out that the inclusion or not of O157-10 locus or, alternatively, a differential weighting data according to the mutation rates of loci must be evaluated in relation with the objectives of the proposed study.

  11. Basketball lay-up - foot loading characteristics and the number of trials necessary to obtain stable plantar pressure variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, YaoHui K; Quek, Raymond K K; Kong, Pui W

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed (1) to profile the plantar loading characteristics when performing the basketball lay-up in a realistic setting and (2) to determine the number of trials necessary to establish a stable mean for plantar loading variables during the lay-up. Thirteen university male basketball players [age: 23.0 (1.4) years, height: 1.75 (0.05) m, mass: 68.4 (8.6) kg] performed ten successful basketball lay-ups from a stationary position. Plantar loading variables were recorded using the Novel Pedar-X in-shoe system. Loading variables including peak force, peak pressure, and pressure-time integral were extracted from eight foot regions. Performance stability of plantar loading variables during the take-off and landing steps were assessed using the sequential averaging technique and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). High plantar loadings were experienced at the heel during the take-off steps, and both the heel and forefoot regions upon landing. The sequential estimation technique revealed a five-eight trial range to achieve a stable mean across all plantar loading variables, whereas ICC analysis was insensitive to inter-trial differences of repeated lay-up performances. Future studies and performance evaluation protocols on plantar loading during basketball lay-ups should include at least eight trials to ensure that the measurements obtained are sufficiently stable.

  12. Dynamics of chromosome number and genome size variation in a cytogenetically variable sedge (Carex scoparia var. scoparia, Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyong-Sook; Weber, Jaime A; Hipp, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    High intraspecific cytogenetic variation in the sedge genus Carex (Cyperaceae) is hypothesized to be due to the "diffuse" or non-localized centromeres, which facilitate chromosome fission and fusion. If chromosome number changes are dominated by fission and fusion, then chromosome evolution will result primarily in changes in the potential for recombination among populations. Chromosome duplications, on the other hand, entail consequent opportunities for divergent evolution of paralogs. In this study, we evaluate whether genome size and chromosome number covary within species. We used flow cytometry to estimate genome sizes in Carex scoparia var. scoparia, sampling 99 plants (23 populations) in the Chicago region, and we used meiotic chromosome observations to document chromosome numbers and chromosome pairing relations. Chromosome numbers range from 2n = 62 to 2n = 68, and nuclear DNA 1C content from 0.342 to 0.361 pg DNA. Regressions of DNA content on chromosome number are nonsignificant for data analyzed by individual or population, and a regression model that excludes slope is favored over a model in which chromosome number predicts genome size. Chromosome rearrangements within cytogenetically variable Carex species are more likely a consequence of fission and fusion than of duplication and deletion. Moreover, neither genome size nor chromosome number is spatially autocorrelated, which suggests the potential for rapid chromosome evolution by fission and fusion at a relatively fine geographic scale (<350 km). These findings have important implications for ecological restoration and speciation within the largest angiosperm genus of the temperate zone.

  13. Inference of haplotypic phase and missing genotypes in polyploid organisms and variable copy number genomic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balding David J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The power of haplotype-based methods for association studies, identification of regions under selection, and ancestral inference, is well-established for diploid organisms. For polyploids, however, the difficulty of determining phase has limited such approaches. Polyploidy is common in plants and is also observed in animals. Partial polyploidy is sometimes observed in humans (e.g. trisomy 21; Down's syndrome, and it arises more frequently in some human tissues. Local changes in ploidy, known as copy number variations (CNV, arise throughout the genome. Here we present a method, implemented in the software polyHap, for the inference of haplotype phase and missing observations from polyploid genotypes. PolyHap allows each individual to have a different ploidy, but ploidy cannot vary over the genomic region analysed. It employs a hidden Markov model (HMM and a sampling algorithm to infer haplotypes jointly in multiple individuals and to obtain a measure of uncertainty in its inferences. Results In the simulation study, we combine real haplotype data to create artificial diploid, triploid, and tetraploid genotypes, and use these to demonstrate that polyHap performs well, in terms of both switch error rate in recovering phase and imputation error rate for missing genotypes. To our knowledge, there is no comparable software for phasing a large, densely genotyped region of chromosome from triploids and tetraploids, while for diploids we found polyHap to be more accurate than fastPhase. We also compare the results of polyHap to SATlotyper on an experimentally haplotyped tetraploid dataset of 12 SNPs, and show that polyHap is more accurate. Conclusion With the availability of large SNP data in polyploids and CNV regions, we believe that polyHap, our proposed method for inferring haplotypic phase from genotype data, will be useful in enabling researchers analysing such data to exploit the power of haplotype-based analyses.

  14. Variability of sub-micrometer particle number size distributions and concentrations in the Western Mediterranean regional background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cusack

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the daily and seasonal variability of particle number size distributions and concentrations, performed at the Montseny (MSY regional background station in the western Mediterranean from October 2010 to June 2011. Particle number concentrations at MSY were shown to be within range of various other sites across Europe reported in literature, but the seasonality of the particle number size distributions revealed significant differences. The Aitken mode is the dominant particle mode at MSY, with arithmetic mean concentrations of 1698 cm3, followed by the accumulation mode (877 cm−3 and the nucleation mode (246 cm−3. Concentrations showed a strong seasonal variability with large increases in particle number concentrations observed from the colder to warmer months. The modality of median size distributions was typically bimodal, except under polluted conditions when the size distribution was unimodal. During the colder months, the daily variation of particle number size distributions are strongly influenced by a diurnal breeze system, whereby the Aitken and accumulation modes vary similarly to PM1 and BC mass concentrations, with nocturnal minima and sharp day-time increases owing to the development of a diurnal mountain breeze. Under clean air conditions, high levels of nucleation and lower Aitken mode concentrations were measured, highlighting the importance of new particle formation as a source of particles in the absence of a significant condensation sink. During the warmer months, nucleation mode concentrations were observed to be relatively elevated both under polluted and clean conditions due to increased photochemical reactions, with enhanced subsequent growth owing to elevated concentrations of condensable organic vapours produced from biogenic volatile organic compounds, indicating that nucleation at MSY does not exclusively occur under clean air conditions. Finally, mixing of air masses between polluted and non

  15. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Neisseria meningitidis yields groupings similar to those obtained by multilocus sequence typing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouls, Leo M; Ende, Arie van der; Damen, Marjolein; Pol, Ingrid van de

    2006-01-01

    We identified many variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci in the genomes of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, and C and utilized a number of these loci to develop a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Eighty-five N. meningitidis serogroup B and C isolates obtained

  16. Investigating the Variability in Cumulus Cloud Number as a Function of Subdomain Size and Organization using large-domain LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in supercomputing have introduced a "grey zone" in the representation of cumulus convection in general circulation models, in which this process is partially resolved. Cumulus parameterizations need to be made scale-aware and scale-adaptive to be able to conceptually and practically deal with this situation. A potential way forward are schemes formulated in terms of discretized Cloud Size Densities, or CSDs. Advantages include i) the introduction of scale-awareness at the foundation of the scheme, and ii) the possibility to apply size-filtering of parameterized convective transport and clouds. The CSD is a new variable that requires closure; this concerns its shape, its range, but also variability in cloud number that can appear due to i) subsampling effects and ii) organization in a cloud field. The goal of this study is to gain insight by means of sub-domain analyses of various large-domain LES realizations of cumulus cloud populations. For a series of three-dimensional snapshots, each with a different degree of organization, the cloud size distribution is calculated in all subdomains, for a range of subdomain sizes. The standard deviation of the number of clouds of a certain size is found to decrease with the subdomain size, following a powerlaw scaling corresponding to an inverse-linear dependence. Cloud number variability also increases with cloud size; this reflects that subsampling affects the largest clouds first, due to their typically larger neighbor spacing. Rewriting this dependence in terms of two dimensionless groups, by dividing by cloud number and cloud size respectively, yields a data collapse. Organization in the cloud field is found to act on top of this primary dependence, by enhancing the cloud number variability at the smaller sizes. This behavior reflects that small clouds start to "live" on top of larger structures such as cold pools, favoring or inhibiting their formation (as illustrated by the attached figure of cloud mask

  17. Characterization of the variable-number tandem repeats in vrrA from different Bacillus anthracis isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.J.; Walthers, E.A.; Richmond, K.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    PCR analysis of 198 Bacillus anthracis isolates revealed a variable region of DNA sequence differing in length among the isolates. Five Polymorphisms differed by the presence Of two to six copies of the 12-bp tandem repeat 5{prime}-CAATATCAACAA-3{prime}. This variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) region is located within a larger sequence containing one complete open reading frame that encodes a putative 30-kDa protein. Length variation did not change the reading frame of the encoded protein and only changed the copy number of a 4-amino-acid sequence (QYQQ) from 2 to 6. The structure of the VNTR region suggests that these multiple repeats are generated by recombination or polymerase slippage. Protein structures predicted from the reverse-translated DNA sequence suggest that any structural changes in the encoded protein are confined to the region encoded by the VNTR sequence. Copy number differences in the VNTR region were used to define five different B. anthracis alleles. Characterization of 198 isolates revealed allele frequencies of 6.1, 17.7, 59.6, 5.6, and 11.1% sequentially from shorter to longer alleles. The high degree of polymorphism in the VNTR region provides a criterion for assigning isolates to five allelic categories. There is a correlation between categories and geographic distribution. Such molecular markers can be used to monitor the epidemiology of anthrax outbreaks in domestic and native herbivore populations. 22 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Evolutionary history of the PER3 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR): idiosyncratic aspect of primate molecular circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Flávia Cal; Ribeiro, Amanda Oliveira; Tufik, Sérgio; Torres, Laila Brito; Oliveira, José Américo; Mello, Luiz Eugênio Araújo Moraes; Cavalcante, Jeferson Souza; Pedrazzoli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The PER3 gene is one of the clock genes, which function in the core mammalian molecular circadian system. A variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) locus in the 18th exon of this gene has been strongly associated to circadian rhythm phenotypes and sleep organization in humans, but it has not been identified in other mammals except primates. To better understand the evolution and the placement of the PER3 VNTR in a phylogenetical context, the present study enlarges the investigation about the presence and the structure of this variable region in a large sample of primate species and other mammals. The analysis of the results has revealed that the PER3 VNTR occurs exclusively in simiiforme primates and that the number of copies of the primitive unit ranges from 2 to 11 across different primate species. Two transposable elements surrounding the 18th exon of PER3 were found in primates with published genome sequences, including the tarsiiforme Tarsius syrichta, which lacks the VNTR. These results suggest that this VNTR may have evolved in a common ancestor of the simiiforme branch and that the evolutionary copy number differentiation of this VNTR may be associated with primate simiiformes sleep and circadian phenotype patterns.

  19. Evolutionary history of the PER3 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR: idiosyncratic aspect of primate molecular circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cal Sabino

    Full Text Available The PER3 gene is one of the clock genes, which function in the core mammalian molecular circadian system. A variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR locus in the 18th exon of this gene has been strongly associated to circadian rhythm phenotypes and sleep organization in humans, but it has not been identified in other mammals except primates. To better understand the evolution and the placement of the PER3 VNTR in a phylogenetical context, the present study enlarges the investigation about the presence and the structure of this variable region in a large sample of primate species and other mammals. The analysis of the results has revealed that the PER3 VNTR occurs exclusively in simiiforme primates and that the number of copies of the primitive unit ranges from 2 to 11 across different primate species. Two transposable elements surrounding the 18th exon of PER3 were found in primates with published genome sequences, including the tarsiiforme Tarsius syrichta, which lacks the VNTR. These results suggest that this VNTR may have evolved in a common ancestor of the simiiforme branch and that the evolutionary copy number differentiation of this VNTR may be associated with primate simiiformes sleep and circadian phenotype patterns.

  20. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  1. Importance of Viral Sequence Length and Number of Variable and Informative Sites in Analysis of HIV Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitsky, Vlad; Moyo, Sikhulile; Lei, Quanhong; DeGruttola, Victor; Essex, M

    2015-05-01

    To improve the methodology of HIV cluster analysis, we addressed how analysis of HIV clustering is associated with parameters that can affect the outcome of viral clustering. The extent of HIV clustering and tree certainty was compared between 401 HIV-1C near full-length genome sequences and subgenomic regions retrieved from the LANL HIV Database. Sliding window analysis was based on 99 windows of 1,000 bp and 45 windows of 2,000 bp. Potential associations between the extent of HIV clustering and sequence length and the number of variable and informative sites were evaluated. The near full-length genome HIV sequences showed the highest extent of HIV clustering and the highest tree certainty. At the bootstrap threshold of 0.80 in maximum likelihood (ML) analysis, 58.9% of near full-length HIV-1C sequences but only 15.5% of partial pol sequences (ViroSeq) were found in clusters. Among HIV-1 structural genes, pol showed the highest extent of clustering (38.9% at a bootstrap threshold of 0.80), although it was significantly lower than in the near full-length genome sequences. The extent of HIV clustering was significantly higher for sliding windows of 2,000 bp than 1,000 bp. We found a strong association between the sequence length and proportion of HIV sequences in clusters, and a moderate association between the number of variable and informative sites and the proportion of HIV sequences in clusters. In HIV cluster analysis, the extent of detectable HIV clustering is directly associated with the length of viral sequences used, as well as the number of variable and informative sites. Near full-length genome sequences could provide the most informative HIV cluster analysis. Selected subgenomic regions with a high extent of HIV clustering and high tree certainty could also be considered as a second choice.

  2. Molecular characterization of Leptospira sp by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA from clinical samples: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Pailhoriès

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection for which diagnosis is difficult. It has appeared as a global emerging infectious disease over recent years. Genotype determination often requires a Leptospira strain obtained by culture, which is a long and fastidious technique. A method based on multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA to determine the genotype of Leptospira interrogans, performed directly on blood or urine samples, is proposed. This method was applied to a fatal case of leptospirosis for which the geographical origin of infection was unknown. This technique will allow a genotype to be obtained for L. interrogans, even when cultures remain negative.

  3. Integer linear models with a polynomial number of variables and constraints for some classical combinatorial optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Maculan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present integer linear models with a polynomial number of variables and constraints for combinatorial optimization problems in graphs: optimum elementary cycles, optimum elementary paths and optimum tree problems.Apresentamos modelos lineares inteiros com um número polinomial de variáveis e restrições para problemas de otimização combinatória em grafos: ciclos elementares ótimos, caminhos elementares ótimos e problemas em árvores ótimas.

  4. Development and validation of a single-tube multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis for Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette A T P Brink

    Full Text Available Genotyping of Klebsiella pneumoniae is indispensable for management of nosocomial infections, monitoring of emerging strains--including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producers-, and general epidemiology. Such objectives require a high-resolution genotyping method with a fixed scheme that allows (1 long-term retrospective and prospective assessment, (2 objective result readout and (3 library storage for database development and exchangeable results. We have developed a multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA using a single-tube fluorescently primed multiplex PCR for 8 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs and automated fragment size analysis. The type allocation scheme was optimized using 224 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates, which yielded 101 MLVA types. The method was compared to the gold standard multilocus sequence typing (MLST using a subset of these clinical isolates (n = 95 and found to be highly concordant, with at least as high a resolution but with considerably less hands-on time. Our results position this MLVA scheme as an appropriate, high-throughput and relatively low-cost tool for K. pneumoniae epidemiology.

  5. The influence of climate variability on numbers of three waterbird species in Western Port, Victoria, 1973 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Loyn, Richard H.

    2006-05-01

    Seasonal and annual movements of Australian waterbirds are generally more complex than those of their Northern Hemisphere counterparts, and long-term data are needed to understand their relationships with climatic variables. This paper explores a long-term (1973 2002) set of waterbird counts from coastal Victoria and relates them to climatic data at local and continental scales. Three species (Black Swan Cygnus atratus, White-faced Heron Egretta novaehollandiae and Grey Teal Anas gracilis) were chosen for this analysis. Black Swans have large local breeding populations near the study region; White-faced Herons have smaller local breeding populations and Grey Teal breed extensively in ephemeral inland floodplains, such as those in the Murray-Darling Basin. All showed significant relationships with streamflow, regional rainfall and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) at appropriate scales and time-lags, with streamflow explaining the most variance. Black Swans showed a strong seasonal cycle in abundance and local climate variables had the greatest influence on the counts. Numbers were positively correlated with streamflow in southern Victoria three to six seasons before each count. Broader-scale climatic patterns were more important for the other two species. Numbers of White-faced Herons were positively correlated with streamflow or rainfall over various parts of Australia seven to nine seasons before each count. Numbers of Grey Teal showed weak seasonal cycles, and were negatively correlated with rainfall in Victoria or the Murray-Darling Basin in the seasons before or during each count, and positively with streamflow in the Murray-Darling Basin 15 18 months before each count.

  6. Accuracy, calibration and clinical performance of the EuroSCORE: can we reduce the number of variables?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Castelvecchio, Serenella; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Frigiola, Alessandro; Pelissero, Gabriele

    2010-03-01

    The European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) is currently used in many institutions and is considered a reference tool in many countries. We hypothesised that too many variables were included in the EuroSCORE using limited patient series. We tested different models using a limited number of variables. A total of 11150 adult patients undergoing cardiac operations at our institution (2001-2007) were retrospectively analysed. The 17 risk factors composing the EuroSCORE were separately analysed and ranked for accuracy of prediction of hospital mortality. Seventeen models were created by progressively including one factor at a time. The models were compared for accuracy with a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and area under the curve (AUC) evaluation. Calibration was tested with Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics. Clinical performance was assessed by comparing the predicted with the observed mortality rates. The best accuracy (AUC 0.76) was obtained using a model including only age, left ventricular ejection fraction, serum creatinine, emergency operation and non-isolated coronary operation. The EuroSCORE AUC (0.75) was not significantly different. Calibration and clinical performance were better in the five-factor model than in the EuroSCORE. Only in high-risk patients were 12 factors needed to achieve a good performance. Including many factors in multivariable logistic models increases the risk for overfitting, multicollinearity and human error. A five-factor model offers the same level of accuracy but demonstrated better calibration and clinical performance. Models with a limited number of factors may work better than complex models when applied to a limited number of patients. Copyright (c) 2009 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Variable Copy Number, Intra-Genomic Heterogeneities and Lateral Transfers of the 16S rRNA Gene in Pseudomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, Josselin; Nsigue-Meilo, Sandrine; Besaury, Ludovic; Quillet, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Even though the 16S rRNA gene is the most commonly used taxonomic marker in microbial ecology, its poor resolution is still not fully understood at the intra-genus level. In this work, the number of rRNA gene operons, intra-genomic heterogeneities and lateral transfers were investigated at a fine-scale resolution, throughout the Pseudomonas genus. In addition to nineteen sequenced Pseudomonas strains, we determined the 16S rRNA copy number in four other Pseudomonas strains by Southern hybridization and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and studied the intra-genomic heterogeneities by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and sequencing. Although the variable copy number (from four to seven) seems to be correlated with the evolutionary distance, some close strains in the P. fluorescens lineage showed a different number of 16S rRNA genes, whereas all the strains in the P. aeruginosa lineage displayed the same number of genes (four copies). Further study of the intra-genomic heterogeneities revealed that most of the Pseudomonas strains (15 out of 19 strains) had at least two different 16S rRNA alleles. A great difference (5 or 19 nucleotides, essentially grouped near the V1 hypervariable region) was observed only in two sequenced strains. In one of our strains studied (MFY30 strain), we found a difference of 12 nucleotides (grouped in the V3 hypervariable region) between copies of the 16S rRNA gene. Finally, occurrence of partial lateral transfers of the 16S rRNA gene was further investigated in 1803 full-length sequences of Pseudomonas available in the databases. Remarkably, we found that the two most variable regions (the V1 and V3 hypervariable regions) had probably been laterally transferred from another evolutionary distant Pseudomonas strain for at least 48.3 and 41.6% of the 16S rRNA sequences, respectively. In conclusion, we strongly recommend removing these regions of the 16S rRNA gene during the intra-genus diversity studies. PMID:22545126

  8. The massive 3-loop operator matrix elements with two masses and the generalized variable flavor number scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Schoenwald, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Goedicke, A. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Wissbrock, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC)

    2017-12-15

    We report on our latest results in the calculation of the two-mass contributions to 3-loop operator matrix elements (OMEs). These OMEs are needed to compute the corresponding contributions to the deep-inelastic scattering structure functions and to generalize the variable flavor number scheme by including both charm and bottom quarks. We present the results for the non-singlet and A{sub gq,Q} OMEs, and compare the size of their contribution relative to the single mass case. Results for the gluonic OME A{sub gg,Q} are given in the physical case, going beyond those presented in a previous publication where scalar diagrams were computed. We also discuss our recently published two-mass contribution to the pure singlet OME, and present an alternative method of calculating the corresponding diagrams.

  9. The effect of the number of consecutive night shifts on diurnal rhythms in cortisol, melatonin and heart rate variability (HRV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Garde, Anne Helene; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge from field studies on how many consecutive night shifts are required for adaptation of diurnal rhythms in cortisol, melatonin and heart rate variability (HRV) to night work. METHODS: A systematic search of the databases Pub...... recordings for HRV. Most of the studies in the review were small studies with less than 30 participants, and most studies evaluated diurnal rhythms after only two consecutive night shifts whereas only six studies used seven or more consecutive night shifts. The majority of studies found that adaptation...... to night work had not occurred after two consecutive night shifts, whereas a small number found evidence for full adaptation after seven consecutive night shifts based on diurnal rhythms in cortisol and melatonin. CONCLUSION: There are methodological differences in the field studies analyzing diurnal...

  10. Detection of a variable number of ribosomal DNA loci by fluorescent in situ hybridization in Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, E A; Faivre-Rampant, P; Schneider, C; Darmency, M A

    1996-10-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to related Populus species (2n = 19) in order to detect rDNA loci. An interspecific variability in the number of hybridization sites was revealed using as probe an homologous 25S clone from Populus deltoides. The application of image analysis methods to measure fluorescence intensity of the hybridization signals has enabled us to characterize major and minor loci in the 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA. We identified one pair of such rDNA clusters in Populus alba; two pairs, one major and one minor, in both Populus nigra and P. deltoides; and three pairs in Populus balsamifera, (two major and one minor) and Populus euroamericana (one major and two minor). FISH results are in agreement with those based on RFLP analysis. The pBG13 probe containing 5S sequence from flax detected two separate clusters corresponding to the two size classes of units that coexist within 5S rDNA of most Populus species. Key words : Populus spp., fluorescent in situ hybridization, FISH, rDNA variability, image analysis.

  11. Estimating Composite Curve Number Using an Improved SCS-CN Method with Remotely Sensed Variables in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihao Weng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The rainfall and runoff relationship becomes an intriguing issue as urbanization continues to evolve worldwide. In this paper, we developed a simulation model based on the soil conservation service curve number (SCS-CN method to analyze the rainfall-runoff relationship in Guangzhou, a rapid growing metropolitan area in southern China. The SCS-CN method was initially developed by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA, and is one of the most enduring methods for estimating direct runoff volume in ungauged catchments. In this model, the curve number (CN is a key variable which is usually obtained by the look-up table of TR-55. Due to the limitations of TR-55 in characterizing complex urban environments and in classifying land use/cover types, the SCS-CN model cannot provide more detailed runoff information. Thus, this paper develops a method to calculate CN by using remote sensing variables, including vegetation, impervious surface, and soil (V-I-S. The specific objectives of this paper are: (1 To extract the V-I-S fraction images using Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis; (2 To obtain composite CN by incorporating vegetation types, soil types, and V-I-S fraction images; and (3 To simulate direct runoff under the scenarios with precipitation of 57mm (occurred once every five years by average and 81mm (occurred once every ten years. Our experiment shows that the proposed method is easy to use and can derive composite CN effectively.

  12. Brucella 'HOOF-Prints': strain typing by multi-locus analysis of variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halling Shirley M

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there are very few tools available for subtyping Brucella isolates for epidemiological trace-back. Subtyping is difficult because of the genetic homogeneity within the genus. Sequencing of the genomes from three Brucella species has facilitated the search for DNA sequence variability. Recently, hypervariability among short tandem repeat sequences has been exploited for strain-typing of several bacterial pathogens. Results An eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence was discovered in nine genomic loci of the B. abortus genome. Eight loci were hypervariable among the three Brucella species. A PCR-based method was developed to identify the number of repeat units (alleles at each locus, generating strain-specific fingerprints. None of the loci exhibited species- or biovar-specific alleles. Sometimes, a species or biovar contained a specific allele at one or more loci, but the allele also occurred in other species or biovars. The technique successfully differentiated the type strains for all Brucella species and biovars, among unrelated B. abortus biovar 1 field isolates in cattle, and among B. abortus strains isolated from bison and elk. Isolates from the same herd or from short-term in vitro passage exhibited little or no variability in fingerprint pattern. Sometimes, isolates from an animal would have multiple alleles at a locus, possibly from mixed infections in enzootic areas, residual disease from incomplete depopulation of an infected herd or molecular evolution within the strain. Therefore, a mixed population or a pool of colonies from each animal and/or tissue was tested. Conclusion This paper describes a new method for fingerprinting Brucella isolates based on multi-locus characterization of a variable number, eight-base pair, tandem repeat. We have named this technique "HOOF-Prints" for Hypervariable Octameric Oligonucleotide Finger-Prints. The technique is highly discriminatory among Brucella species, among

  13. [Evaluation of different sets of variable number of tandem repeats ioci for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Luo, Tao; Yang, Chongguang; Liu, Qingyun; Gao, Qian

    2015-10-01

    To identify a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method that is suitable for molecular epidemiological study of tuberculosis in China. We systematically evaluated the commonly used VNTR typing methods, including 4 methods (MIRU-12, VNTR-15/VNTR-24 and VNTR "24+4") proposed by foreign colleagues and 2 methods (VNTR-L15 and VNTR"9+3") developed by domestic researchers using population-based collection of 891 clinical isolates from 5 provinces across the country. The order (from high to low) of discriminatory power for the 6 VNTR typing methods was VNTR"24+4", VNTR"9+3", VNTR-24, VNTR-15, VNTR-L15 and MIRU-12. The discriminatory power of VNTR"9+3" was comparable with VNTR"24+4" and higher than that of VNTR-15/24. The concordance for defining clustered and unique genotypes between VNTR"9+3" and VNTR"24+4" was 96.59%. Our results suggest that VNTR"9+3" is a suitable method for molecular typing of M. tuberculosis in China by considering its high discriminatory power, high consistency with VNTR"24+4" and relative small number of VNTR locus.

  14. First Worldwide Proficiency Study on Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; Kremer, Kristin; Ködmön, Csaba; Supply, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Although variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing has gained recognition as the new standard for the DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, external quality control programs have not yet been developed. Therefore, we organized the first multicenter proficiency study on 24-locus VNTR typing. Sets of 30 DNAs of MTBC strains, including 10 duplicate DNA samples, were distributed among 37 participating laboratories in 30 different countries worldwide. Twenty-four laboratories used an in-house-adapted method with fragment sizing by gel electrophoresis or an automated DNA analyzer, nine laboratories used a commercially available kit, and four laboratories used other methods. The intra- and interlaboratory reproducibilities of VNTR typing varied from 0% to 100%, with averages of 72% and 60%, respectively. Twenty of the 37 laboratories failed to amplify particular VNTR loci; if these missing results were ignored, the number of laboratories with 100% interlaboratory reproducibility increased from 1 to 5. The average interlaboratory reproducibility of VNTR typing using a commercial kit was better (88%) than that of in-house-adapted methods using a DNA analyzer (70%) or gel electrophoresis (50%). Eleven laboratories using in-house-adapted manual typing or automated typing scored inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities of 80% or higher, which suggests that these approaches can be used in a reliable way. In conclusion, this first multicenter study has documented the worldwide quality of VNTR typing of MTBC strains and highlights the importance of international quality control to improve genotyping in the future. PMID:22170917

  15. Low numbers of repeat units in variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) regions of white spot syndrome virus are correlated with disease outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen in shrimp farming systems worldwide including the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The genome of WSSV is characterized by the presence of two major 'indel regions' found at ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 (WSSV-Thailand) and three regions with variable

  16. Association between Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL1RN) Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Polymorphism and Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Naderi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Mahboubeh; Amininia, Shadi; Bahari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Mohsen; Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim; Ghavami, Saeid

    2015-02-01

    Macrophages and T-lymphocytes are involved in immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Macrophage produces interleukin (IL)-1 as an inflammatory mediator. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-Ra) is a natural antagonist of IL-1 receptors. In this study we aimed to examine the possible association between the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) gene and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in a sample of Iranian population. Our study is a case-control study and we examined the VNTR of the IL1RN gene in 265 PTB and 250 healthy subjects by PCR. Neither the overall chi-square comparison of PTB and control subjects nor the logistic regression analysis indicated any association between VNTR IL1RN polymorphism and PTB. Our data suggest that VNTR IL1RN polymorphism may not be associated with the risk of PTB in a sample of Iranian population. Larger studies with different ethnicities are needed to find out the impact of IL1RN VNTR polymorphism on risk of developing TB.

  17. [Analytical procedure of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis and effective use of analysis results for tuberculosis control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachisu, Yushi; Hashimoto, Ruiko; Kishida, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis is one of the methods for molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. VNTR analysis is a method based on PCR, provides rapid highly reproducible results and higher strain discrimination power than the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis widely used in molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genetic lineage compositions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates differ among the regions from where they are isolated, and allelic diversity at each locus also differs among the genetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, the combination of VNTR loci that can provide high discrimination capacity for analysis is not common in every region. The Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (JATA) 12 (15) reported a standard combination of VNTR loci for analysis in Japan, and the combination with hypervariable (HV) loci added to JATA12 (15), which has very high discrimination capacity, was also reported. From these reports, it is thought that data sharing between institutions and construction of a nationwide database will progress from now on. Using database construction of VNTR profiles, VNTR analysis has become an effective tool to trace the route of tuberculosis infection, and also helps in decision-making in the treatment course. However, in order to utilize the results of VNTR analysis effectively, it is important that each related organization cooperates closely, and analysis should be appropriately applied in the system in which accurate control and private information protection are ensured.

  18. Features of Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in Yersinia pestis and the Development of a Hierarchical Genotyping Scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    Full Text Available Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs that are widely distributed in the genome of Yersinia pestis proved to be useful markers for the genotyping and source-tracing of this notorious pathogen. In this study, we probed into the features of VNTRs in the Y. pestis genome and developed a simple hierarchical genotyping system based on optimized VNTR loci.Capillary electrophoresis was used in this study for multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA in 956 Y. pestis strains. The general features and genetic diversities of 88 VNTR loci in Y. pestis were analyzed with BioNumerics, and a "14+12" loci-based hierarchical genotyping system, which is compatible with single nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenic analysis, was established.Appropriate selection of target loci reduces the impact of homoplasies caused by the rapid mutation rates of VNTR loci. The optimized "14+12" loci are highly discriminative in genotyping and source-tracing Y. pestis for molecular epidemiological or microbial forensic investigations with less time and lower cost. An MLVA genotyping datasets of representative strains will improve future research on the source-tracing and microevolution of Y. pestis.

  19. [Usefulness of the variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis for complex infections of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunematsu, Noriko; Goto, Mieko; Saiki, Yumiko; Baba, Michiko; Udagawa, Tadashi; Kazumi, Yuko

    2008-09-01

    The bacilli which were isolated from a patient suspected of the mixed infections with Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare, were analyzed. The genotypes of M. avium in the sedimented fractions of treated sputum and in some colonies isolated from Ogawa medium were compared by the Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeats (VNTR). A woman, aged 57. Mycobacterial species isolated from some colonies by culture in 2004 and 2006 and from the treated sputum in 2006, were determined by DNA sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Also, by using VNTR, the genotype of mycobacteria was analyzed. [Results] (1) The colony isolated from Ogawa medium in 2004 was monoclonal M. avium. (2) By VNTR analyses of specimens in 2006, multiple acid-fast bacteria were found in the sputum sediment and in isolated bacteria from Ogawa medium. (3) By analyses of 16S rRNA DNA sequence, M. avium and M. intracellulare were found in the colonies isolated from the sputum sediment and the Ogawa medium in 2006. (4) The same VNTR patterns were obtained in M. avium in 2004 and 2006 when single colony was analyzed. (5) From the showerhead and culvert of the bathroom in the patient's house, M. avium was not detected. By VNTR analyses, it was considered that the mixed infections of M. avium and M. intracellulare had been generated during treatment in this case. Therefore, in the case of suspected complex infection, VNTR analysis would be a useful genotyping method in M. avium complex infection.

  20. Estimation of expected number of accidents and workforce unavailability through Bayesian population variability analysis and Markov-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas Moura, Márcio das; Azevedo, Rafael Valença; Droguett, Enrique López; Chaves, Leandro Rego; Lins, Isis Didier

    2016-01-01

    Occupational accidents pose several negative consequences to employees, employers, environment and people surrounding the locale where the accident takes place. Some types of accidents correspond to low frequency-high consequence (long sick leaves) events, and then classical statistical approaches are ineffective in these cases because the available dataset is generally sparse and contain censored recordings. In this context, we propose a Bayesian population variability method for the estimation of the distributions of the rates of accident and recovery. Given these distributions, a Markov-based model will be used to estimate the uncertainty over the expected number of accidents and the work time loss. Thus, the use of Bayesian analysis along with the Markov approach aims at investigating future trends regarding occupational accidents in a workplace as well as enabling a better management of the labor force and prevention efforts. One application example is presented in order to validate the proposed approach; this case uses available data gathered from a hydropower company in Brazil. - Highlights: • This paper proposes a Bayesian method to estimate rates of accident and recovery. • The model requires simple data likely to be available in the company database. • These results show the proposed model is not too sensitive to the prior estimates.

  1. Sensori-motor synchronisation variability decreases as the number of metrical levels in the stimulus signal increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Guy

    2014-03-01

    Timing performance becomes less precise for longer intervals, which makes it difficult to achieve simultaneity in synchronisation with a rhythm. The metrical structure of music, characterised by hierarchical levels of binary or ternary subdivisions of time, may function to increase precision by providing additional timing information when the subdivisions are explicit. This hypothesis was tested by comparing synchronisation performance across different numbers of metrical levels conveyed by loudness of sounds, such that the slowest level was loudest and the fastest was softest. Fifteen participants moved their hand with one of 9 inter-beat intervals (IBIs) ranging from 524 to 3,125 ms in 4 metrical level (ML) conditions ranging from 1 (one movement for each sound) to 4 (one movement for every 8th sound). The lowest relative variability (SD/IBI<1.5%) was obtained for the 3 longest IBIs (1600-3,125 ms) and MLs 3-4, significantly less than the smallest value (4-5% at 524-1024 ms) for any ML 1 condition in which all sounds are identical. Asynchronies were also more negative with higher ML. In conclusion, metrical subdivision provides information that facilitates temporal performance, which suggests an underlying neural multi-level mechanism capable of integrating information across levels. © 2013.

  2. NUMBER OF SUCCESSIVE CYCLES NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE STABILITY OF SELECTED GROUND REACTION FORCE VARIABLES DURING CONTINUOUS JUMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmes M.W. Brownjohn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of inherent variability in all human cyclical movements, such as walking, running and jumping, data collected across a single cycle might be atypical and potentially unable to represent an individual's generalized performance. The study described here was designed to determine the number of successive cycles due to continuous, repetitive countermovement jumping which a test subject should perform in a single experimental session to achieve stability of the mean of the corresponding continuously measured ground reaction force (GRF variables. Seven vertical GRF variables (period of jumping cycle, duration of contact phase, peak force amplitude and its timing, average rate of force development, average rate of force relaxation and impulse were extracted on the cycle-by-cycle basis from vertical jumping force time histories generated by twelve participants who were jumping in response to regular electronic metronome beats in the range 2-2.8 Hz. Stability of the selected GRF variables across successive jumping cycles was examined for three jumping rates (2, 2.4 and 2.8 Hz using two statistical methods: intra-class correlation (ICC analysis and segmental averaging technique (SAT. Results of the ICC analysis indicated that an average of four successive cycles (mean 4.5 ± 2.7 for 2 Hz; 3.9 ± 2.6 for 2.4 Hz; 3.3 ± 2.7 for 2.8 Hz were necessary to achieve maximum ICC values. Except for jumping period, maximum ICC values took values from 0.592 to 0.991 and all were significantly (p < 0.05 different from zero. Results of the SAT revealed that an average of ten successive cycles (mean 10.5 ± 3.5 for 2 Hz; 9.2 ± 3.8 for 2.4 Hz; 9.0 ± 3.9 for 2.8 Hz were necessary to achieve stability of the selected parameters using criteria previously reported in the literature. Using 10 reference trials, the SAT required standard deviation criterion values of 0.49, 0.41 and 0.55 for 2 Hz, 2.4 Hz and 2.8 Hz jumping rates, respectively, in order to approximate

  3. A simulation study of sample size demonstrated the importance of the number of events per variable to develop prediction models in clustered data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynants, L.; Bouwmeester, W.; Moons, K. G. M.; Moerbeek, M.; Timmerman, D.; Van Huffel, S.; Van Calster, B.; Vergouwe, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to investigate the influence of the amount of clustering [intraclass correlation (ICC) = 0%, 5%, or 20%], the number of events per variable (EPV) or candidate predictor (EPV = 5, 10, 20, or 50), and backward variable selection on the performance of prediction models.

  4. New staff contract policy

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  5. Diversity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains collected from india using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)-PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Sathish; Kuppanan, Suresh; Nandagopal, Balaji; Sridharan, Gopalan

    2013-08-01

    Typhoid fever is endemic in India, and a seasonal increase of cases is observed annually. In spite of effective therapies and the availability of vaccines, morbidity is widespread owing to the circulation of multiple genetic variants, frequent migration of asymptomatic carriers, unhygienic food practices and the emergence of multidrug resistance and thus continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries, particularly in India. Classical methods of strain typing such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, ribotyping, random amplification of polymorphic DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism are either laborious and technically complicated or less discriminatory. We investigated the molecular diversity of Indian strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) isolated from humans from different parts of India to establish the molecular epidemiology of the organism using the variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)-PCR analysis. The electrophoretic band pattern was analysed using the GelCompar II software program. Of the 94 strains tested for three VNTRs loci, 75 VNTR genotypes were obtained. Of the three VNTRs tested in this study, VNTR1 was amplified in all the strains except one and found to be predominant. VNTR2 was amplified only in 57 strains with a Simpson diversity index of 0.93 indicating the high variability of this region within the strains. VNTR3 was amplified in 90 strains. The discriminatory power of this typing tool has been greatly enhanced by this VNTR2 region as the other two regions could not discriminate strains significantly. In our study, about 55 % of the strains amplified all three VNTR regions and 39 % of the strains lacked the VNTR2 region. Among the three VNTR regions tested, the majority of the strains produced similar banding pattern for any two regions grouped into a cluster. The strains grouped as a genotype were from the same geographical location. Strains collected from each geographical region were also

  6. Genotyping of Bacillus anthracis strains based on automated capillary 25-loci Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeats Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is highly monomorphic which makes differentiation between strains difficult. A Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR Analysis (MLVA assay based on 20 markers was previously described. It has considerable discrimination power, reproducibility, and low cost, especially since the markers proposed can be typed by agarose-gel electrophoresis. However in an emergency situation, faster genotyping and access to representative databases is necessary. Results Genotyping of B. anthracis reference strains and isolates from France and Italy was done using a 25 loci MLVA assay combining 21 previously described loci and 4 new ones. DNA was amplified in 4 multiplex PCR reactions and the length of the resulting 25 amplicons was estimated by automated capillary electrophoresis. The results were reproducible and the data were consistent with other gel based methods once differences in mobility patterns were taken into account. Some alleles previously unresolved by agarose gel electrophoresis could be resolved by capillary electrophoresis, thus further increasing the assay resolution. One particular locus, Bams30, is the result of a recombination between a 27 bp tandem repeat and a 9 bp tandem repeat. The analysis of the array illustrates the evolution process of tandem repeats. Conclusion In a crisis situation of suspected bioterrorism, standardization, speed and accuracy, together with the availability of reference typing data are important issues, as illustrated by the 2001 anthrax letters event. In this report we describe an upgrade of the previously published MLVA method for genotyping of B. anthracis and apply the method to the typing of French and Italian B. anthracis strain collections. The increased number of markers studied compared to reports using only 8 loci greatly improves the discrimination power of the technique. An Italian strain belonging to the

  7. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist and Interleukin-4 Genes Variable Number Tandem Repeats Are Associated with Adiposity in Malaysian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yean Kok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA intron 2 86 bp repeat and interleukin-4 (IL4 intron 3 70 bp repeat are variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs that have been associated with various diseases, but their role in obesity is elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of IL1RA and IL4 VNTRs with obesity and adiposity in 315 Malaysian subjects (128 M/187 F; 23 Malays/251 ethnic Chinese/41 ethnic Indians. The allelic distributions of IL1RA and IL4 were significantly different among ethnicities, and the alleles were associated with total body fat (TBF classes. Individuals with IL1RA I/II genotype or allele II had greater risk of having higher overall adiposity, relative to those having the I/I genotype or I allele, respectively, even after controlling for ethnicity [Odds Ratio (OR of I/II genotype = 12.21 (CI = 2.54, 58.79; p=0.002; II allele = 5.78 (CI = 1.73, 19.29; p=0.004]. However, IL4 VNTR B2 allele was only significantly associated with overall adiposity status before adjusting for ethnicity [OR = 1.53 (CI = 1.04, 2.23; p=0.03]. Individuals with IL1RA II allele had significantly higher TBF than those with I allele (31.79±2.52 versus 23.51±0.40; p=0.005. Taken together, IL1RA intron 2 VNTR seems to be a genetic marker for overall adiposity status in Malaysian subjects.

  8. Using a topographic index to distribute variable source area runoff predicted with the SCS curve-number equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Steve W.; Walter, M. Todd; Gérard-Marchant, Pierre; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2004-10-01

    Because the traditional Soil Conservation Service curve-number (SCS-CN) approach continues to be used ubiquitously in water quality models, new application methods are needed that are consistent with variable source area (VSA) hydrological processes in the landscape. We developed and tested a distributed approach for applying the traditional SCS-CN equation to watersheds where VSA hydrology is a dominant process. Predicting the location of source areas is important for watershed planning because restricting potentially polluting activities from runoff source areas is fundamental to controlling non-point-source pollution. The method presented here used the traditional SCS-CN approach to predict runoff volume and spatial extent of saturated areas and a topographic index, like that used in TOPMODEL, to distribute runoff source areas through watersheds. The resulting distributed CN-VSA method was applied to two subwatersheds of the Delaware basin in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State and one watershed in south-eastern Australia to produce runoff-probability maps. Observed saturated area locations in the watersheds agreed with the distributed CN-VSA method. Results showed good agreement with those obtained from the previously validated soil moisture routing (SMR) model. When compared with the traditional SCS-CN method, the distributed CN-VSA method predicted a similar total volume of runoff, but vastly different locations of runoff generation. Thus, the distributed CN-VSA approach provides a physically based method that is simple enough to be incorporated into water quality models, and other tools that currently use the traditional SCS-CN method, while still adhering to the principles of VSA hydrology.

  9. High mutation rates explain low population genetic divergence at copy-number-variable loci in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin-Sheng; Yeh, Francis C; Hu, Yang; Deng, Li-Ting; Ennos, Richard A; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2017-02-22

    Copy-number-variable (CNV) loci differ from single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) sites in size, mutation rate, and mechanisms of maintenance in natural populations. It is therefore hypothesized that population genetic divergence at CNV loci will differ from that found at SNP sites. Here, we test this hypothesis by analysing 856 CNV loci from the genomes of 1184 healthy individuals from 11 HapMap populations with a wide range of ancestry. The results show that population genetic divergence at the CNV loci is generally more than three times lower than at genome-wide SNP sites. Populations generally exhibit very small genetic divergence (G st  = 0.05 ± 0.049). The smallest divergence is among African populations (G st  = 0.0081 ± 0.0025), with increased divergence among non-African populations (G st  = 0.0217 ± 0.0109) and then among African and non-African populations (G st  = 0.0324 ± 0.0064). Genetic diversity is high in African populations (~0.13), low in Asian populations (~0.11), and intermediate in the remaining 11 populations. Few significant linkage disequilibria (LDs) occur between the genome-wide CNV loci. Patterns of gametic and zygotic LDs indicate the absence of epistasis among CNV loci. Mutation rate is about twice as large as the migration rate in the non-African populations, suggesting that the high mutation rates play dominant roles in producing the low population genetic divergence at CNV loci.

  10. Influence of IL-1RN intron 2 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism on bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, A; Hosseini, S H; Taheri, M; Hosseni-khah, Z; Hajilooi, M; Mazaheri, Z

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence point to the role of neurobiological mechanisms and genetic background in bipolar disorder (BD). The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is the principal regulator of IL-1α and IL-1β bioactivities. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms of the IL-1Ra gene (IL1RN) in conferring susceptibility to BD. In total, 217 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for BD and 212 controls were recruited for the study. Genotyping of IL1RN was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of VNTR of 86 base pairs in intron 2 of IL1RN. The genotype distribution of IL1RN polymorphism was significantly different between BD patients and controls. The IL1RN*1/2 genotype was more prevalent in BD patients than in controls (44.2 vs. 30.2%, p = 0.003). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that IL1RN*1/2 heterozygotes had a significantly higher risk for BD (OR 1.83 and 95% CI 1.22-2.74, p = 0.003). Further stratification of the BD patients into IL1RN*2 allele carrier and noncarrier subgroups revealed a strong association between IL1RN*2 carriage and prolongation of the disease (p = 0.02). These findings suggest a positive association between VNTR polymorphism in IL1RN and BD. Additional studies, particularly with a prospective approach, are necessary to clarify the precise role of the VNTR polymorphism on the disease in different ethnic populations. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Chinese Brucella strains isolated from 1953 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Zhong; Cui, Bu-Yun; Piao, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Hong-Yan; Li, Lan-Yu; Liu, Xi; Xiao, Pei; Zhao, Zhong-Zhi; Xu, Li-Qing; Jiang, Hai; Li, Zhen-Jun

    2017-05-02

    Brucellosis was a common human and livestock disease caused by Brucella strains, the category B priority pathogens by the US Center for Disease Control (CDC). Identified as a priority disease in human and livestock populations, the increasing incidence in recent years in China needs urgent control measures for this disease but the molecular background important for monitoring the epidemiology of Brucella strains at the national level is still lacking. A total of 600 Brucella isolates collected during 60 years (from 1953 to 2013) in China were genotyped by multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and the variation degree of MLVA11 loci was calculated by the Hunter Gaston Diversity Index (HGDI) values. The charts and map were processed by Excel 2013, and cluster analysis and epidemiological distribution was performed using BioNumerics (version 5.1). The 600 representative Brucella isolates fell into 104 genotypes with 58 singleton genotypes by the MLVA11 assay, including B. melitensis biovars 2 and 3 (five main genotypes), B. abortus biovars 1 and 3 (two main genotypes), B. suis biovars 1 and 3 (three main genotypes), and B. canis (two main genotypes) respectively. While most B. suis biovar 1 and biovar 3 were respectively found in northern provinces and southern provinces, B. melitensis and B. abortus strains were dominant in China. Canine Brucellosis was only found in animals without any human cases reported. Eight Brucellosis epidemic peaks emerged during the 60 years between 1953 and 2013: 1955 - 1959, 1962 - 1969, 1971 - 1975, 1977 - 1983, 1985 - 1989, 1992 - 1997, 2000 - 2008 and 2010 - 2013 in China. Brucellosis has its unique molecular epidemiological patterns with specific spatial and temporal distribution according to MLVA. IDOP-D-16-00101.

  12. Transnational Law of Public Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF THOSE VARIABLES THAT HAVE A SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE ON THE EXPECTED NUMBER OF DAYS OF STAYING IN THE CENTRE DEVELOPMENT REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available I started from the assumption that there are more variables that have a significant influence on the expected number of days of staying in the Centre Development Region. To identify those variables this paper includes the analysis of variance with two variables that are not interacting, in this case the dependent variable is the question "How many days did you plan to stay in Centre Development Region?" and the independent variables are: "What is the purpose of your stay?" "What is the highest level of education?". Given that there are cases when interactions occur between variables, I also analyzed the interaction effects between the two independent variables. The paper also includes an ANOVA analysis with three variables between which interactions relationships occur. After identifying the dependency relations between the variables I found that the inclusion of the third variable, namely the "Marital status" of respondents, adds value to the model. Following the results obtained by ANOVA analysis, I identified those socio-demographic characteristics that, in my opinion, companies that operate on tourist market in the Center Development Region should consider when fundamenting marketing strategies in tourism.

  14. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  15. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  16. The transition matrix element A{sub gq}(N) of the variable flavor number scheme at O(α{sub s}{sup 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J. [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Blümlein, J.; De Freitas, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Hasselhuhn, A. [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Manteuffel, A. von [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Institute of Physics, J. Gutenberg University, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Round, M. [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Schneider, C. [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Wißbrock, F. [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    We calculate the massive unpolarized operator matrix element A{sub gq}{sup (3)}(N) to 3-loop order in Quantum Chromodynamics at general values of the Mellin variable N. This is the first complete transition function needed in the variable flavor number scheme obtained at O(α{sub s}{sup 3}). A first independent recalculation is performed for the contributions ∝N{sub F} of the 3-loop anomalous dimension γ{sub gq}{sup (2)}(N)

  17. Petroleomics by electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry coupled to partial least squares with variable selection methods: prediction of the total acid number of crude oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Luciana A; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Tose, Lílian V; Romão, Wanderson; de Souza, Douglas D; de Castro, Eustáquio V R; de Oliveira, Mirela S L; Dias, Júlio C M; Poppi, Ronei J

    2014-10-07

    Negative-ion mode electrospray ionization, ESI(-), with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was coupled to a Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression and variable selection methods to estimate the total acid number (TAN) of Brazilian crude oil samples. Generally, ESI(-)-FT-ICR mass spectra present a power of resolution of ca. 500,000 and a mass accuracy less than 1 ppm, producing a data matrix containing over 5700 variables per sample. These variables correspond to heteroatom-containing species detected as deprotonated molecules, [M - H](-) ions, which are identified primarily as naphthenic acids, phenols and carbazole analog species. The TAN values for all samples ranged from 0.06 to 3.61 mg of KOH g(-1). To facilitate the spectral interpretation, three methods of variable selection were studied: variable importance in the projection (VIP), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and elimination of uninformative variables (UVE). The UVE method seems to be more appropriate for selecting important variables, reducing the dimension of the variables to 183 and producing a root mean square error of prediction of 0.32 mg of KOH g(-1). By reducing the size of the data, it was possible to relate the selected variables with their corresponding molecular formulas, thus identifying the main chemical species responsible for the TAN values.

  18. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  19. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  20. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  1. Large-scale studies of the HphI insulin gene variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism in relation to Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S K; Gjesing, A P; Rasmussen, S K

    2004-01-01

    The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose-induced ins......The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose...

  2. The Magic Number 70 (Plus or Minus 20): Variables Determining Performance in the Rodent Odor Span Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, L. Brooke; Bruce, Katherine; Galizio, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The olfactory span task (OST) uses an incrementing non-matching to sample procedure such that the number of stimuli to remember increases during the session. The number of consecutive correct responses (span length) and percent correct as a function of the memory load have been viewed as defining rodent working memory capacity limitations in…

  3. Examination of egg number and egg weight variables and their effects on daily management in aviary systems for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.; Keen, A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Characteristics of egg numbers and mean egg weight were examined for their usefulness in the daily management of aviary systems for laying hens. 2. A number of 3238 brown Isabrown/Warren hens were housed in 1 compartment, a separated part of the house where the hens could move around freely, of a

  4. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat profiling of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from blood cultures and gallbladder specimens from Makassar, South-Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Hatta

    Full Text Available Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicate disease prevention and control.

  5. It is possible to predict Sangiovese wine quality through a limited number of variables measured on the vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Bucelli

    2010-12-01

    Significance and impact of the study: It is now possible to predict the quality of Sangiovese wines with a few selected grape parameters. Because of the wide variability in soil and climatic condition of the viticultural areas of the Province of Siena, where the method was developed, and the strong climatic contrast between the years when the method was validated, the use of both matching table and multiple regression is recommended for VPS prediction in Mediterranean environments.

  6. Use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) typing to characterize Salmonella Typhimurium DT41 broiler breeder infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litrup, E.; Christensen, H.; Nordentoft, Steen

    2010-01-01

    To characterize isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium DT41 obtained from infected flocks of broiler breeders by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) and compare results with a diverse strain collection from Germany and United Kingdom and isolates from Danish patients. A total...

  7. The Effect of Unequal Samples, Heterogeneity of Covariance Matrices, and Number of Variables on Discriminant Analysis Classification Tables and Related Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Debra; Woehlke, Paula

    To assess the effect on discriminant analysis in terms of correct classification into two groups, the following parameters were systematically altered using Monte Carlo techniques: sample sizes; proportions of one group to the other; number of independent variables; and covariance matrices. The pairing of the off diagonals (or covariances) with…

  8. Class Evolution Tree: A Graphical Tool to Support Decisions on the Number of Classes in Exploratory Categorical Latent Variable Modeling for Rehabilitation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriston, Levente; Melchior, Hanne; Hergert, Anika; Bergelt, Corinna; Watzke, Birgit; Schulz, Holger; von Wolff, Alessa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to develop a graphical tool that can be used in addition to standard statistical criteria to support decisions on the number of classes in explorative categorical latent variable modeling for rehabilitation research. Data from two rehabilitation research projects were used. In the first study, a latent profile analysis was…

  9. Optimization of Standard In-House 24-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Direct Application to Clinical Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; Akkerman, Onno W.; Schurch, Anita C.; Mulder, Arnout; van der Werf, Tjip S.; van der Zanden, Adri G. M.; van Ingen, Jakko; van Soolingen, Dick

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing with a panel of 24 loci is the current gold standard in the molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. However, because of technical problems, a part of the loci often cannot be amplified by multiplex PCRs. Therefore, a considerable

  10. A Predominant Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Cluster of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates among Asylum Seekers in the Netherlands and Denmark, Deciphered by Whole-Genome Sequencing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jajou, Rana; de Neeling, Albert; Rasmussen, Erik Michael; Norman, Anders; Mulder, Arnout; van Hunen, Rianne; de Vries, Gerard; Haddad, Walid; Anthony, Richard; Lillebaek, Troels; van der Hoek, Wim; van Soolingen, Dick

    In many countries,Mycobacterium tuberculosisisolates are routinely subjected to variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing to investigateM. tuberculosistransmission. Unexpectedly, cross-border clusters were identified among African refugees in the Netherlands and Denmark, although transmission in

  11. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M.N.; Kremer, K.; Lan, N.T.; Buu, T.N.; Cobelens, F.G.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Haas, P. de; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard

  12. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, Mai N. T.; Kremer, Kristin; Lan, Nguyen T. N.; Buu, Tran N.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Tiemersma, Edine W.; de Haas, Petra; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard in typing of

  13. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  14. Correlation of Metabolic Variables with the Number of ORFs in Human Pathogenic and Phylogenetically Related Non- or Less-Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambila-Tapia, Aniel Jessica Leticia; Poot-Hernández, Augusto Cesar; Garcia-Guevara, Jose Fernando; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya

    2016-06-01

    To date, a few works have performed a correlation of metabolic variables in bacteria; however specific correlations with these variables have not been reported. In this work, we included 36 human pathogenic bacteria and 18 non- or less-pathogenic-related bacteria and obtained all metabolic variables, including enzymes, metabolic pathways, enzymatic steps and specific metabolic pathways, and enzymatic steps of particular metabolic processes, from a reliable metabolic database (KEGG). Then, we correlated the number of the open reading frames (ORF) with these variables and with the proportions of these variables, and we observed a negative correlation with the proportion of enzymes (r = -0.506, p < 0.0001), metabolic pathways (r = -0.871, p < 00.0001), enzymatic reactions (r = -0.749, p < 00.0001), and with the proportions of central metabolism variables as well as a positive correlation with the proportions of multistep reactions (r = 0.650, p < 00.0001) and secondary metabolism variables. The proportion of multifunctional reactions (r: -0.114, p = 0.41) and the proportion of enzymatic steps (r: -0.205, p = 0.14) did not present a significant correlation. These correlations indicate that as the size of a genome (measured in the number of ORFs) increases, the proportion of genes that encode enzymes significantly diminishes (especially those related to central metabolism), suggesting that when essential metabolic pathways are complete, an increase in the number of ORFs does not require a similar increase in the metabolic pathways and enzymes, but only a slight increase is sufficient to cope with a large genome.

  15. Cell number, tissue thickness and protein content as measures for development and variability in cultured neocortex explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B. M.; Ruijter, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of neuronal number, explant thickness and amount of protein was studied in several series of rat neocortex explants, cultured up to 21 days in vitro (DIV). In contrast to the dimensions of the explant, which rapidly stabilized, the amount of protein showed a prolonged increase with

  16. Estimating Composite Curve Number Using an Improved SCS-CN Method with Remotely Sensed Variables in Guangzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Fenglei; Deng, Yingbin; Hu, Xuefei; Weng, Qihao

    2013-01-01

    The rainfall and runoff relationship becomes an intriguing issue as urbanization continues to evolve worldwide. In this paper, we developed a simulation model based on the soil conservation service curve number (SCS-CN) method to analyze the rainfall-runoff relationship in Guangzhou, a rapid growing metropolitan area in southern China. The SCS-CN method was initially developed by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and is on...

  17. Variability and relationship among Mixolab and Falling Number evaluation based on influence of fungal α-amylase addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, Georgiana Gabriela; Mironeasa, Silvia; Mironeasa, Costel

    2012-08-15

    In bread-making technology, α-amylase activity is routinely measured with a Falling Number device to predict wheat flour quality. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using Mixolab parameters to assess the Falling Number (FN) index. The effects of different doses of fungal α-amylase addition on the Mixolab characteristics and FN index values were investigated. Principal component analysis was performed in order to illustrate the relationships between the Mixolab parameters and the FN index. To highlight the linear combination between the FN index values and the Mixolab parameters used to evaluate starch pasting properties (C3, C4, C5 and point differences C34 and C54), a multivariate prediction model was developed. Greatest precision (R = 0.728) was obtained for the linear regression FN = f(C4, C54) model. This model was tested on a different sample set than the one on which it was built. A high correlation was obtained between predictive model and measured FN index values (r = 0.896, P = 0.01). The model provides a framework to predict the evolution of the FN index, which is predicted by the torque for cooking stability (C4) and the difference between points C5 and C4 (C54). The obtained results suggested that the Mixolab device could be a reliable instrument for evaluation of the FN index values. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Le, Quynh Thi Phuong; Garnier, J.; Janeau, J.-L.; Rochelle-Newall, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main water source for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an annual survey of Escherichia coli (EC) and Total Coliforms (TC) in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. The objective of this work was to obtain information on faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) numbers over an annual cycle and, secondly, to determine the die-off rates of these bacterial indicators. Monthly observations at 10 stations from July 2013-June 2014 showed that TC and EC reached as high as 39100 cfu (colony forming units) 100 ml-1 and 15300 colonies 100 ml-1, respectively. We observed a significant seasonal difference for TC (p < 0.05) with numbers being higher during the wet season. In contrast, no significant seasonal difference was found for EC. The FIB die-off rates ranged from 0.01 d-1 to a maximum of 1.13 d-1 for EC and from 0.17 d-1 to 1.33 d-1 for TC. Die-off rates were significantly higher for free bacteria than for total (free + particle attached) bacteria, suggesting that particle attachment provided a certain level of protection to FIB in this system.

  19. 24 CFR 983.203 - HAP contract information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract information. 983.203... DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Housing Assistance Payments Contract § 983.203 HAP contract information. The HAP contract must specify: (a) The total number of contract units by number of bedrooms; (b...

  20. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  1. FINAL REPORT: DOE CONTRACT NUMBER FG0205ER64026 Biological Neutron Scattering: A Collaboration with the Oak Ridge Center for Structural Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, Jill [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-01-12

    The overarching goal of this project was to promote applications of small-angle scattering in structural molecular biology by providing model examples of cutting edge applications that demonstrate the unique capabilities and potential of the DOE national user facilities at Oak Ridge, especially the newly commissioned BioSANS. The approach taken was three-fold: (1) to engage in high impact collaborative research projects that would benefit from small-angle neutron scattering to both demonstrate the power of the technique while expanding the potential user community; (2) to provide access to scattering facilities established at the University of Utah to as broad a set of researchers as possible to increase the expertise in small-angle scattering generally; and (3) to develop new methods and tools for small-angle scattering. To these ends, three major research collaborations were pursued that resulted in a significant body of published work where neutron scattering and contrast variation played a major role. These major collaborations involved studies of protein complexes involved in (1) bacterial transcription regulation and adaptive response (a DOE/BER priority area); (2) regulation of cardiac muscle; and (3) neuronal disorders. In addition, to broaden the impact of the project, smaller collaborative efforts were supported that used either small-angle X-ray or neutron scattering. Finally, the DOE supported facilities at the University of Utah were made available to researchers on a service basis and a number of independent groups took advantage of this opportunity. In all of this work, there was an emphasis on the training of students and post docs in scattering techniques, and a set of publications (a book chapter, a review, and an encyclopedia article) were produced to guide the non-specialist potential user of scattering techniques in successful applications of the techniques. We also developed a suite of user friendly web-based computational tools currently

  2. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  3. Longitudinal survey of Staphylococcus aureus in cystic fibrosis patients using a multiple-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnaud Gilles; Moissenet Didier; Corvol Harriet; Fauroux Brigitte; Corbineau Gaëlle; Hormigos Katia; Vu-Thien Hoang; Pourcel Christine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is frequent and may be due to colonization by a few pathogenic lineages. Systematic genotyping of all isolates, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is necessary to identify such lineages and follow their evolution in patients. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA/VNTR) was used to survey S. aureus clinical isolates in a French ...

  4. Combination of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem Repeats for Genotyping a Homogenous Population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains in China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Tao; Yang, Chongguang; Gagneux, Sebastien; Gicquel, Brigitte; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian

    2012-01-01

    The standard 15- and 24-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) genotyping methods have demonstrated adequate discriminatory power and a small homoplasy effect for tracing tuberculosis (TB) transmission and predicting Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages in European and North American countries. However, its validity for the definition of transmission in homogenous M. tuberculosis populations in settings with high TB burdens has been questioned. Here, we genotyped a population-based collect...

  5. Influence of number of sets on blood pressure and heart rate variability after a strength training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Tiago; Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark; Miranda, Humberto; Bentes, Claudio M; dos Reis, Victor Machado de Ribeiro; Simão, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of 1, 3, and 5 sets of strength training (ST), on heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure. Eleven male volunteers (age: 26.1 ± 3.6 years; body mass: 74.1 ± 8.1 kg; height: 172 ± 4 cm) with at least 6 months previous experience in ST participated in the study. After determining the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load for the bench press (BP), lat pull down (LPD), shoulder press (SP), biceps curl (BC), triceps extension (TE), leg press (LP), leg extension (LE), and leg curl (LC), the participants performed 3 different exercise sequences in a random order and 72 hours apart. During the first sequence, subjects performed a single set of 8-10 repetitions, at 70% 1RM, and with 2-minute rest interval between exercises. Exercises were performed in the following order: BP, LPD, SP, BC, TE, LP, LE, and LC. During the second sequence, subjects performed the same exercise sequence, with the same intensity, 2-minute rest interval between sets and exercises, but with 3 consecutive sets of each exercise. During the third sequence, the same protocol was followed but with 5 sets of each exercise. Before and after the training sessions, blood pressure and HRV were measured. The statistical analysis demonstrated a greater duration of postexercise hypotension after the 5-set program vs. the 1 set or 3 sets (p ≤ 0.05). However, the 5-set program promoted a substantial cardiac stress, as demonstrated by HRV (p ≤ 0.05). These results indicate that 5 sets of 8-10 repetitions at 70% 1RM load may provide the ideal stimulus for a postexercise hypotensive response. Therefore, ST composed of upper- and lower-body exercises and performed with high volumes are capable of producing significant and extended postexercise hypotensive response. In conclusion, strength and conditioning professionals can prescribe 5 sets per exercises if the goal is to reduce blood pressure after training. In addition, these findings may have

  6. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how......When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  7. Turnkey contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langetepe, G.

    1977-01-01

    To make energy available economically and in sufficient quantity is a main point for the future of an industrial and more for a developing country. The investment costs and the availability of a power plant and in particular for a nuclear power plant are the most significant factors in the economic operation of the plant. In the phase before signing the contract the essential decisions are made with high influence in the economic operation and the availability of the plant. A turn-key contract offers good possibilities to minimize the risks referring a) the plant quality and functionality, b) the plant investment cost, c) the plant completion date, d) the handling of the licensing procedures, e) the availability of the operation. The lecture mentions the points which are of high influence for a successful erection and operation period and which must be clarified before signing the contract between the buyer and supplier of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  8. FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT Southwest United States of America – Distributed Technology Training Consortia (SWUSA-DTTC) Contract Number: DE-EE0006339

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Kodie [Electricore, Inc., Santa Clarita, CA (United States)

    2014-12-29

    workforce preparedness through the inclusion of data collection and analysis, power systems expertise, and application-specific training activities which build on fundamental principles, modeling and simulation tools, field-immersed training and methods of performance validation. The outcome of the program was to result in better prepared and greater number of graduates ready to contribute to the field of power systems which depend upon the safe, reliable and efficient generation sources which make up an increasingly diverse mix of renewable power. Additionally, the program was to deliver critical training modules which are intended to support mid-career professionals and be woven into utility training programs used all over the country. Discontinuation Summary On September 29, 2014, Electricore received notice of discontinuation of federal funding under subject Award DE-EE0006339. DOE’s notice of discontinuation was the first indication provided to Electricore that the work completed against Task 1 - Program Planning and Evaluation during Budget Period 1 was inadequate. Significantly, the discontinuation was based in large part on the erroneous assertion that many of the tasks were incomplete as indicated in the Continuation Application. However, the Continuation Application was submitted July 29, 2014, while the period of performance for this last quarter in Budget Period 1 did not end until September 30, 2014. Accordingly, the performance for this last quarter in Budget Period 1 will be reported in the upcoming Quarterly Report which is not due until October 30, 2014. Nevertheless, in response to DOE’s letter and in further support of Electricore’s Continuation Application, we are providing a detailed status demonstrating adherence to all program requirements for each Task 1, Budget Period 1 SOPO activity and milestones in response to the DOE review.

  9. Identification of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) Sequences in Legionella pneumophila and Development of an Optimized Multiple-Locus VNTR Analysis Typing Scheme▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourcel, Christine; Visca, Paolo; Afshar, Baharak; D'Arezzo, Silvia; Vergnaud, Gilles; Fry, Norman K.

    2007-01-01

    The utility of a genotypic typing assay for Legionella pneumophila was investigated. A multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) scheme using PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis is proposed based on eight minisatellite markers. Panels of well-characterized strains were examined in a multicenter analysis to validate the assay and to compare its performance to that of other genotyping assays. Excellent typeability, reproducibility, stability, and epidemiological concordance were observed. The MLVA type or profile is composed of a string of allele numbers, corresponding to the number of repeats at each VNTR locus, separated by commas, in a predetermined order. A database containing information from 99 L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains and four strains of other serogroups and their MLVA profiles, which can be queried online, is available from http://bacterial-genotyping.igmors.u-psud.fr/. PMID:17251393

  10. Inclusive photoproduction of D*± mesons at next-to-leading order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.; Schienbein, I.; Spiesberger, H.

    2009-02-01

    We discuss the inclusive production of D *± mesons in γp collisions at DESY HERA, based on a calculation at next-to-leading order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme. In this approach, MS subtraction is applied in such a way that large logarithmic corrections are resummed in universal parton distribution and fragmentation functions and finite mass terms are taken into account. We present detailed numerical results for a comparison with data obtained at HERA and discuss various sources of theoretical uncertainties. (orig.)

  11. Molecular Methods for Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae with Special Emphasis on the Development and Validation of a Multi-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Assay (MLVA)

    OpenAIRE

    Radtke, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Molekylære metoder for typing av Streptococcus agalactiae med særlig vektlegging av utvikling og validering av et multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats assay (MLVA) Sammendraget: Streptococcus agalactiae eller gruppe B streptokokker (GBS) forårsaker livsfarlige infeksjoner hos nyfødte, gravide eller voksne med kroniske sykdommer. Den forårsaker også jurbetennelse i storfe. Typing av GBS gir innblikk i bakteriens epidemiologi og dens fylogenetiske slektskap. Ulike deler av bakterie...

  12. Inclusive photoproduction of D{sup *{+-}} mesons at next-to-leading order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schienbein, I. [Univ. Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie; Spiesberger, H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2009-02-15

    We discuss the inclusive production of D{sup *{+-}} mesons in {gamma}p collisions at DESY HERA, based on a calculation at next-to-leading order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme. In this approach, MS subtraction is applied in such a way that large logarithmic corrections are resummed in universal parton distribution and fragmentation functions and finite mass terms are taken into account. We present detailed numerical results for a comparison with data obtained at HERA and discuss various sources of theoretical uncertainties. (orig.)

  13. Inclusive photoproduction of bottom quarks for low and medium pT in the general-mass variable-flavour-number scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Spiesberger, H.; Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch

    2015-09-01

    We present predictions for b-quark production in photoproduction and compare with experimental data from HERA. Our theoretical predictions are obtained at next-to-leading-order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme, an approach which takes into account the finite mass of the b quarks. We use realistic evolved nonperturbative fragmentation functions obtained from fits to e + e - data. We find in general good agreement of data with both the GM-VFNS and the FFNS calculations, while the more precise ZEUS data seem to prefer the GM-VFNS predictions.

  14. Optimal Long-term Contracting with Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfeng Yu; Bin Wei; Zhiguo He

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces profitability uncertainty into an infinite-horizon variation of the classic Holmstrom and Milgrom (1987) model, and studies optimal dynamic contracting with endogenous learning. The agent's potential belief manipulation leads to the hidden information problem, which makes incentive provisions intertemporally linked in the optimal contract. We reduce the contracting problem into a dynamic programming problem with one state variable, and characterize the optimal contract w...

  15. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  16. Overview of the adjustable fixed-commitment contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, G.T.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of key decisions, made by the Administration during the past few weeks, in the area of uranium enrichment contracting. The new AFC contract will afford sufficient contract relief, taking the place of ''Open Seasons''

  17. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. Contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of the electric power industry in Ontario was discussed with particular reference to the procurement of contracts and why the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) must be contracting to resolve many of Ontario's electricity issues. As Ontario increasingly relies on imports and natural gas-fired generation, the price of electricity continues to rise given that supply is at a low level. In addition to the generation gap, there are also several transmission constrained areas in Ontario, particularly in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The OPA announced 2 projects totalling 1900 MW to relieve congestion. According to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the total potential opportunity for new generation by 2015 is about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts. OPA is expected to launch procurement processes for up to 1000 MW of cogeneration, 250 MW of province-wide conservation initiatives, 1900 MW of generation in the western part of the GTA, and 600 MW of generation in downtown Toronto. New nuclear capacity is also anticipated in addition to renewables and conservation/demand management (CDM) initiatives. The OPA's competitive procurement processes will include requests for expressions of interest, requests for qualifications and requests for proposals. The challenge of balancing the technical complexities and realities of procuring generation assets with the need for a fair procurement process was discussed. Contracts will be designed to react to market signals and will include 3 styles: tariff style, tolling style and standard offer contract. OPA will make every effort to balance generator and ratepayer interests. 6 figs

  19. Efficient DoA Tracking of Variable Number of Moving Stochastic EM Sources in Far-Field Using PNN-MLP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Stanković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient neural network-based approach for tracking of variable number of moving electromagnetic (EM sources in far-field is proposed in the paper. Electromagnetic sources considered here are of stochastic radiation nature, mutually uncorrelated, and at arbitrary angular distance. The neural network model is based on combination of probabilistic neural network (PNN and the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP networks and it performs real-time calculations in two stages, determining at first the number of moving sources present in an observed space sector in specific moments in time and then calculating their angular positions in azimuth plane. Once successfully trained, the neural network model is capable of performing an accurate and efficient direction of arrival (DoA estimation within the training boundaries which is illustrated on the appropriate example.

  20. Variability and decline in the number of severe tropical cyclones making land-fall over eastern Australia since the late nineteenth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaghan, Jeff [Bureau of Meteorology, Brisbane (Australia); Power, Scott B. [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    Recent studies have raised concerns that tropical cyclones (TCs), particularly severe TCs, have become more frequent in many places in response to global warming. Other studies discuss errors in TC data that can cause large inaccuracies in some of the observed trends. Additional studies conclude that TCs are likely to become more intense in the future in response to global warming, while regional modelling studies for the south-west Pacific near north-eastern Australia project an intensification of TCs and either a decrease or no change in TC numbers. Here we describe and use a new data base of severe land-falling TCs for eastern Australia derived from numerous historical sources, that has taken over a decade to develop. It provides one of the world's longest reliable records of tropical cyclone activity, and allows us to document changes over much longer periods than has been done previously for the Southern Hemisphere. Land-fall numbers are shown to vary a great deal on interannual, decadal and longer time-scales. The interannual variability is consistent with previous studies using much shorter data sets: land-fall numbers are well-simulated as a Poisson process and are modulated by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Land-falls occurred almost twice as often in La Nina years as they did in El Nino years, and multiple land-falls only occurred during La Nina years. The statistical link between land-falls and pre-season values of the Southern Oscillation Index provides a modest predictive capability. Decadal variability in ENSO drives some of the decadal variability in land-fall numbers. The sign and magnitude of trends calculated over 30 years periods vary substantially, highlighting that caution needs to be taken in making inferences about trends based on e.g. satellite era data only. The linear trend in the number of severe TCs making land-fall over eastern Australia declined from about 0.45 TCs/year in the early 1870s to about 0.17 TCs/year in recent

  1. Identification of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) Sequences in Acinetobacter baumannii and Interlaboratory Validation of an Optimized Multiple-Locus VNTR Analysis Typing Scheme▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourcel, Christine; Minandri, Fabrizia; Hauck, Yolande; D'Arezzo, Silvia; Imperi, Francesco; Vergnaud, Gilles; Visca, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for nosocomial outbreaks, mostly occurring in intensive care units. Due to the multiplicity of infection sources, reliable molecular fingerprinting techniques are needed to establish epidemiological correlations among A. baumannii isolates. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) has proven to be a fast, reliable, and cost-effective typing method for several bacterial species. In this study, an MLVA assay compatible with simple PCR- and agarose gel-based electrophoresis steps as well as with high-throughput automated methods was developed for A. baumannii typing. Preliminarily, 10 potential polymorphic variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) were identified upon bioinformatic screening of six annotated genome sequences of A. baumannii. A collection of 7 reference strains plus 18 well-characterized isolates, including unique types and representatives of the three international A. baumannii lineages, was then evaluated in a two-center study aimed at validating the MLVA assay and comparing it with other genotyping assays, namely, macrorestriction analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR-based sequence group (SG) profiling. The results showed that MLVA can discriminate between isolates with identical PFGE types and SG profiles. A panel of eight VNTR markers was selected, all showing the ability to be amplified and good amounts of polymorphism in the majority of strains. Independently generated MLVA profiles, composed of an ordered string of allele numbers corresponding to the number of repeats at each VNTR locus, were concordant between centers. Typeability, reproducibility, stability, discriminatory power, and epidemiological concordance were excellent. A database containing information and MLVA profiles for several A. baumannii strains is available from http://mlva.u-psud.fr/. PMID:21147956

  2. Effect of study design and setting on tuberculosis clustering estimates using Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Jessica; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Cohen, Theodore; McHugh, Timothy D; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2015-01-21

    To systematically review the evidence for the impact of study design and setting on the interpretation of tuberculosis (TB) transmission using clustering derived from Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) strain typing. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, Web of Science and Scopus were searched for articles published before 21st October 2014. Studies in humans that reported the proportion of clustering of TB isolates by MIRU-VNTR were included in the analysis. Univariable meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of study design and setting on the proportion of clustering. The search identified 27 eligible articles reporting clustering between 0% and 63%. The number of MIRU-VNTR loci typed, requiring consent to type patient isolates (as a proxy for sampling fraction), the TB incidence and the maximum cluster size explained 14%, 14%, 27% and 48% of between-study variation, respectively, and had a significant association with the proportion of clustering. Although MIRU-VNTR typing is being adopted worldwide there is a paucity of data on how study design and setting may influence estimates of clustering. We have highlighted study design variables for consideration in the design and interpretation of future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Variable Saline Concentrations for Initial Resuscitation Following Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2017-0008 Variable Saline Concentrations for Initial Resuscitation Following Polytrauma Dr. Michael Goodman...Following Polytrauma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-10-2-6140 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8650-14-2-6B29 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Michael...established. We investigated the utility of standard variable saline concentrations (0.9%, 3%, 23.4%) in a murine polytrauma model of traumatic brain injury

  4. Retractable Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  5. SU-E-T-230: Creating a Large Number of Focused Beams with Variable Patient Head Tilt to Improve Dose Fall-Off for Brain Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J; Ma, L [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a treatment delivery and planning strategy by increasing the number of beams to minimize dose to brain tissue surrounding a target, while maximizing dose coverage to the target. Methods: We analyzed 14 different treatment plans via Leksell PFX and 4C. For standardization, single tumor cases were chosen. Original treatment plans were compared with two optimized plans. The number of beams was increased in treatment plans by varying tilt angles of the patient head, while maintaining original isocenter and the beam positions in the x-, y- and z-axes, collimator size, and beam blocking. PFX optimized plans increased beam numbers with three pre-set tilt angles, 70, 90, 110, and 4C optimized plans increased beam numbers with tilt angles increasing arbitrarily from range of 30 to 150 degrees. Optimized treatment plans were compared dosimetrically with original treatment plans. Results: Comparing total normal tissue isodose volumes between original and optimized plans, the low-level percentage isodose volumes decreased in all plans. Despite the addition of multiple beams up to a factor of 25, beam-on times for 1 tilt angle versus 3 or more tilt angles were comparable (<1 min.). In 64% (9/14) of the studied cases, the volume percentage decrease by >5%, with the highest value reaching 19%. The addition of more tilt angles correlates to a greater decrease in normal brain irradiated volume. Selectivity and coverage for original and optimized plans remained comparable. Conclusion: Adding large number of additional focused beams with variable patient head tilt shows improvement for dose fall-off for brain radiosurgery. The study demonstrates technical feasibility of adding beams to decrease target volume.

  6. SU-E-T-230: Creating a Large Number of Focused Beams with Variable Patient Head Tilt to Improve Dose Fall-Off for Brain Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, J; Ma, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a treatment delivery and planning strategy by increasing the number of beams to minimize dose to brain tissue surrounding a target, while maximizing dose coverage to the target. Methods: We analyzed 14 different treatment plans via Leksell PFX and 4C. For standardization, single tumor cases were chosen. Original treatment plans were compared with two optimized plans. The number of beams was increased in treatment plans by varying tilt angles of the patient head, while maintaining original isocenter and the beam positions in the x-, y- and z-axes, collimator size, and beam blocking. PFX optimized plans increased beam numbers with three pre-set tilt angles, 70, 90, 110, and 4C optimized plans increased beam numbers with tilt angles increasing arbitrarily from range of 30 to 150 degrees. Optimized treatment plans were compared dosimetrically with original treatment plans. Results: Comparing total normal tissue isodose volumes between original and optimized plans, the low-level percentage isodose volumes decreased in all plans. Despite the addition of multiple beams up to a factor of 25, beam-on times for 1 tilt angle versus 3 or more tilt angles were comparable (<1 min.). In 64% (9/14) of the studied cases, the volume percentage decrease by >5%, with the highest value reaching 19%. The addition of more tilt angles correlates to a greater decrease in normal brain irradiated volume. Selectivity and coverage for original and optimized plans remained comparable. Conclusion: Adding large number of additional focused beams with variable patient head tilt shows improvement for dose fall-off for brain radiosurgery. The study demonstrates technical feasibility of adding beams to decrease target volume

  7. cn.FARMS: a latent variable model to detect copy number variations in microarray data with a low false discovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevert, Djork-Arné; Mitterecker, Andreas; Mayr, Andreas; Klambauer, Günter; Tuefferd, Marianne; De Bondt, An; Talloen, Willem; Göhlmann, Hinrich; Hochreiter, Sepp

    2011-07-01

    Cost-effective oligonucleotide genotyping arrays like the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 are still the predominant technique to measure DNA copy number variations (CNVs). However, CNV detection methods for microarrays overestimate both the number and the size of CNV regions and, consequently, suffer from a high false discovery rate (FDR). A high FDR means that many CNVs are wrongly detected and therefore not associated with a disease in a clinical study, though correction for multiple testing takes them into account and thereby decreases the study's discovery power. For controlling the FDR, we propose a probabilistic latent variable model, 'cn.FARMS', which is optimized by a Bayesian maximum a posteriori approach. cn.FARMS controls the FDR through the information gain of the posterior over the prior. The prior represents the null hypothesis of copy number 2 for all samples from which the posterior can only deviate by strong and consistent signals in the data. On HapMap data, cn.FARMS clearly outperformed the two most prevalent methods with respect to sensitivity and FDR. The software cn.FARMS is publicly available as a R package at http://www.bioinf.jku.at/software/cnfarms/cnfarms.html.

  8. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contract so different from other contracts. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by these two concepts.

  9. Aerodynamic Effects of High Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade With Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At

  10. HYPOTHETIC FIVE-DIMESION SPACE OF BASIC FACTORS EXTRACTED FROM THE FACTOR ANLYSIS OF CERTAIN NUMBERS OF MORPHOLOGIC, MOBILE AND MANIFEST MOBILE VARIABLES

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    Goran Šekeljić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was made on sample of 183 schoolboys and school girls attending the fourth grade of the elementary school. It was conducted in order to examine the possibilities of the adoption of an alternative curriculum which contains the elemements of basket ball game. After an experimental treatament, the effects of the teaching were estmated in these segments of antropological space: antropometrical, mobile and manifest mobile space concerning the basic elements of basketball technique. It was applicated the method of canonic corelated analysis which means that there were determined statistically important coefficient of correlation based on certain number of prmal and basic vectors of morphological, mobile and manifest mobile variables. According to the results of the research we can expect that five-dimension hypothetic model should present some kind of base for an eventual progress: methods of Teaching Physical Education, cibernetic navigation of the training technology such as the selection of the pupils who are able to play basketball.

  11. [Rapid, simple genotyping method by the variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Japan--analytical procedure of JATA (12)-VNTR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shinji; Murase, Yoshiro; Mitarai, Satoshi; Sugawara, Isamu; Kato, Seiya

    2008-10-01

    The discriminatory power of each locus in variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) analyses was evaluated for development of the genotyping method of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in Japan. By using 325 TB strains collected from whole Japan and 24 mass infection cases (74 isolates), IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spoligotyping and VNTR (35 loci) were analyzed. We excluded 4 loci (VNTRs 2163a, 3232, 3820, and 4120) and selected in top 12 loci (VNTRs 0424, 0960, 1955, 2074, 2163b, 2372, 2996, 3155, 3192, 3336, 4052, and 4156). The cluster rate of IS6110 RFLP was higher than that of 12-locus [Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (JATA)] VNTR. And in comparison of the discriminatory power of 12-locus JATA VNTR and that of Supply (15)-VNTR, the JATA (12)-VNTR was superior, even though less loci analyses. Therefore, this JATA (12)-VNTR could be used for TB genotyping in areas where Beijing strains are prevalent.

  12. A multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Norwegian salmon-processing factories and from listeriosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunestad, B T; Truong, T T T; Lindstedt, B-A

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Listeria monocytogenes isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and the processing environment in three different Norwegian factories, and compare these to clinical isolates by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). The 65 L. monocytogenes isolates obtained gave 15 distinct MLVA profiles. There was great heterogeneity in the distribution of MLVA profiles in factories and within each factory. Nine of the 15 MLVA profiles found in the fish-associated isolates were found to match human profiles. The MLVA profile 07-07-09-10-06 was the most common strain in Norwegian listeriosis patients. L. monocytogenes with this profile has previously been associated with at least two known listeriosis outbreaks in Norway, neither determined to be due to fish consumption. However, since this profile was also found in fish and in the processing environment, fish should be considered as a possible food vehicle during sporadic cases and outbreaks of listeriosis.

  13. Genotyping analysis of Helicobacter pylori using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis in five regions of China and Japan

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    Zhang Jinyong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori is the major causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The population of H. pylori shows a high genomic variability among isolates. And the polymorphism of repeat-units of genomics had participated the important process of evolution. Its long term colonization of the stomach caused different clinical outcomes, which may relate to the high degree of genetic variation of H. pylori. A variety of molecular typing tools have been developed to access genetic relatedness in H. pylori isolates. However, there is still no standard genotyping system of this bacterium. The MLVA (Multi-locus of variable number of tandem repeat analysis method is useful for performing phylogenetic analysis and is widely used in bacteria genotyping; however, there's little application in H. pylori analysis. This article is the first application of the MLVA method to investigate H. pylori from different districts and ethnic groups of China. Results MLVA of 12 VNTR loci with high discrimination power based on 30 candidates were performed on a collection of 202 strains of H. pylori which originated from five regions of China and Japan. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MLVA profiles. 12 VNTR loci presented with high various polymorphisms, and the results demonstrated very close relationships between genotypes and ethnic groups. Conclusions This study used MLVA methodology providing a new perspective on the ethnic groups and distribution characteristics of H. pylori.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIPLE-LOCUS VARIABLE NUMBER OF TANDEM REPEAT ANALYSIS (MLVA FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND ITS APPLICATION TO HELICOBACTER PYLORI ISOLATES FROM ROSTOV REGION,RUSSIA

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    Sorokin VM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Stomach infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is the second most common infectious disease of humans. The severe pathological consequences of this infection include gastric and duodenal ulcer disease, the development of gastric mucosal atrophy, gastric carcinoma, and, more rarely, malignant tumors of the lymphoma. H. pylori infections cause very high morbidity and mortality and are of particular concern in developing countries, where H. pylori prevalences as high as 90% have been reported. The population of H. pylori shows a high genomic variability among isolates. And the polymorphism of repeat-units of genomics had participated the important process of evolution. A variety of molecular typing tools have been developed to access genetic relatedness in H. pylori isolates. However, there is still no standard genotyping system of this bacterium. The MLVA (Multi-Locus of Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis method is useful for performing phylogenetic analysis and is widely used in bacteria genotyping; however, there's little application in H. pylori analysis. This article is the first application of the MLVA method to investigate H. pylori isolates in Russia. MLVA of 4 VNTR loci with high discrimination power based on 10 candidates were performed on a collection of 22 strains of H. pylori which originated from Rostov region of Russia. This method provides a starting point on which improvements to the method and comparisons to other techniques can be made.

  15. Choreography Synthesis as Contract Agreement

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    Julien Lange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a formal model for distributed systems, where each participant advertises its requirements and obligations as behavioural contracts, and where multiparty sessions are started when a set of contracts allows to synthesise a choreography. Our framework is based on the CO2 calculus for contract-oriented computing, and borrows concepts and results from the session type literature. It supports sessions where the number of participants is not determined beforehand, and keeps CO2's ability to rule out participants that are culpable if contracts are not fulfilled at runtime. We show that we have progress and session fidelity in CO2, as a result of the honesty of participants — i.e., their ability to always adhere to their contracts.

  16. Aerodynamic Effects of Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade with Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie Brynn; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The high turbulence study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for ten incidence angles ranging from +15.8 to 51.0. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12105 to 2.12106 and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 0.25 - 0.4 for the low Tu tests and 8- 15 for the high Tu study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitchyaw probe located in a survey plane 7 axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At the extreme positive and negative incidence angles, the data show substantial differences in the exit flow field. These differences are attributable to both the higher inlet Tu directly and to the thinner inlet endwall

  17. Variability of rRNA Operon Copy Number and Growth Rate Dynamics of Bacillus Isolated from an Extremely Oligotrophic Aquatic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Anistro, Jorge A.; Eguiarte-Fruns, Luis E.; Delgado-Sapién, Gabriela; Márquez-Zacarías, Pedro; Gasca-Pineda, Jaime; Learned, Jennifer; Elser, James J.; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela; Souza, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The ribosomal RNA (rrn) operon is a key suite of genes related to the production of protein synthesis machinery and thus to bacterial growth physiology. Experimental evidence has suggested an intrinsic relationship between the number of copies of this operon and environmental resource availability, especially the availability of phosphorus (P), because bacteria that live in oligotrophic ecosystems usually have few rrn operons and a slow growth rate. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a complex aquatic ecosystem that contains an unusually high microbial diversity that is able to persist under highly oligotrophic conditions. These environmental conditions impose a variety of strong selective pressures that shape the genome dynamics of their inhabitants. The genus Bacillus is one of the most abundant cultivable bacterial groups in the CCB and usually possesses a relatively large number of rrn operon copies (6–15 copies). The main goal of this study was to analyze the variation in the number of rrn operon copies of Bacillus in the CCB and to assess their growth-related properties as well as their stoichiometric balance (N and P content). We defined 18 phylogenetic groups within the Bacilli clade and documented a range of from six to 14 copies of the rrn operon. The growth dynamic of these Bacilli was heterogeneous and did not show a direct relation to the number of operon copies. Physiologically, our results were not consistent with the Growth Rate Hypothesis, since the copies of the rrn operon were decoupled from growth rate. However, we speculate that the diversity of the growth properties of these Bacilli as well as the low P content of their cells in an ample range of rrn copy number is an adaptive response to oligotrophy of the CCB and could represent an ecological mechanism that allows these taxa to coexist. These findings increase the knowledge of the variability in the number of copies of the rrn operon in the genus Bacillus and give insights about the

  18. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  19. Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit–Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) Genotyping of Mycobacterium intracellulare for Strain Comparison with Establishment of a PCR-Based Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakhiaeva, Elena; McNulty, Steven; Brown Elliott, Barbara A.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra D.; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Wilson, Rebecca W.; Turenne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Strain comparison is important to population genetics and to evaluate relapses in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease, but the “gold standard” of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is time-consuming and complex. We used variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) for fingerprinting of respiratory isolates of M. intracellulare from patients with underlying bronchiectasis, to establish a nonsequence-based database for population analysis. Different genotypes identified by PFGE underwent species identification using a 16S rRNA gene multiplex PCR. Genotypes of M. intracellulare were confirmed by internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequencing and characterized using seven VNTR primers. The pattern of VNTR amplicon sizes and repeat number defined each specific VNTR type. Forty-two VNTR types were identified among 84 genotypes. PFGE revealed most isolates with the same VNTR type to be clonal or exhibit similar grouping of bands. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) showed minimal pattern diversity between VNTR types compared to PFGE. Fingerprinting of relapse isolates from 31 treated patients using VNTR combined with 16S multiplex PCR unambiguously and reliably distinguished different genotypes from the same patient, with results comparable to those of PFGE. VNTR for strain comparison is easier and faster than PFGE, is as accurate as PFGE, and does not require sequencing. Starting with a collection of 167 M. intracellulare isolates, VNTR distinguished M. intracellulare into 42 clonal groups. Comparison of isolates from different geographic areas, habitats, and clinical settings is now possible. PMID:23175249

  20. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping of mycobacterium intracellulare for strain comparison with establishment of a PCR-based database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakhiaeva, Elena; McNulty, Steven; Brown Elliott, Barbara A; Falkinham, Joseph O; Williams, Myra D; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Wilson, Rebecca W; Turenne, Christine; Wallace, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    Strain comparison is important to population genetics and to evaluate relapses in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease, but the "gold standard" of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is time-consuming and complex. We used variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) for fingerprinting of respiratory isolates of M. intracellulare from patients with underlying bronchiectasis, to establish a nonsequence-based database for population analysis. Different genotypes identified by PFGE underwent species identification using a 16S rRNA gene multiplex PCR. Genotypes of M. intracellulare were confirmed by internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequencing and characterized using seven VNTR primers. The pattern of VNTR amplicon sizes and repeat number defined each specific VNTR type. Forty-two VNTR types were identified among 84 genotypes. PFGE revealed most isolates with the same VNTR type to be clonal or exhibit similar grouping of bands. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) showed minimal pattern diversity between VNTR types compared to PFGE. Fingerprinting of relapse isolates from 31 treated patients using VNTR combined with 16S multiplex PCR unambiguously and reliably distinguished different genotypes from the same patient, with results comparable to those of PFGE. VNTR for strain comparison is easier and faster than PFGE, is as accurate as PFGE, and does not require sequencing. Starting with a collection of 167 M. intracellulare isolates, VNTR distinguished M. intracellulare into 42 clonal groups. Comparison of isolates from different geographic areas, habitats, and clinical settings is now possible.

  1. Association between the dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitudes in female Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstein, Richard P; Monakhov, Mikhail V; Lu, Yunfeng; Jiang, Yushi; Lai, Poh San; Chew, Soo Hong

    2015-08-22

    Twin and family studies suggest that political attitudes are partially determined by an individual's genotype. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) exon III repeat region that has been extensively studied in connection with human behaviour, is a plausible candidate to contribute to individual differences in political attitudes. A first United States study provisionally identified this gene with political attitude along a liberal-conservative axis albeit contingent upon number of friends. In a large sample of 1771 Han Chinese university students in Singapore, we observed a significant main effect of association between the DRD4 exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitude. Subjects with two copies of the 4-repeat allele (4R/4R) were significantly more conservative. Our results provided evidence for a role of the DRD4 gene variants in contributing to individual differences in political attitude particularly in females and more generally suggested that associations between individual genes, and neurochemical pathways, contributing to traits relevant to the social sciences can be provisionally identified. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Genetic diversity of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C ST-4821 in China based on multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis.

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    Xiaoying Shan

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis sequence type (ST-4821 was first reported in China in 2003, and a new hyper-virulent lineage has been designated as the ST-4821 complex. A large number of N. meningitidis ST-4821 strains have been identified in China since 2003; however, the microevolution characteristics of this complex are unclear. Different combinations of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR loci were used in multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA to analyze 118 N. meningitidis serogroup C ST-4821 strains isolated from seventeen provinces between 2003 and 2012. Additionally, MLVA with five VNTR loci was performed due to its high discriminatory power. One hundred and eighteen isolates were found to comprise 112 subtypes based on MLVA, and 16 outbreak-associated strains were clustered into one group. These data indicate a high level of diversity for N. meningitidis ST-4821 due to microevolution in the last decade. In addition, the results revealed high similarity between isolates from the same geographic origins, which is helpful when monitoring the spread of N. meningitidis serogroup C ST-4821 and will provide valuable information for the control and prevention of bacterial meningitis in China.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus from 152 cases of bovine, ovine and caprine mastitis investigated by Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonier, Dominique; Sobral, Daniel; Feßler, Andrea T; Jacquet, Eric; Gilbert, Florence B; Schwarz, Stefan; Treilles, Michaël; Bouloc, Philippe; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2014-10-02

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in ruminants. In the present retrospective study, we evaluated the potential interest of a previously described automated multiple loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Assay (MLVA) comprising 16 loci as a first line tool to investigate the population structure of S. aureus from mastitis. We determined the genetic diversity of S. aureus strains from cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle (n = 118, of which 16 were methicillin-resistant), sheep (n = 18) and goats (n = 16). The 152 strains could be subdivided into 115 MLVA genotypes (including 14 genotypes for the ovine strains and 15 genotypes for the caprine strains). This corresponds to a discriminatory index (D) value of 0.9936. Comparison with published MLVA data obtained using the same protocol applied to strains from diverse human and animal origins revealed a low number (8.5%) of human-related MLVA genotypes among the present collection. Eighteen percent of the S. aureus mastitis collection belonged to clonal complexes apparently not associated with other pathological conditions. Some of them displayed a relatively low level of diversity in agreement with a restricted ecological niche. These findings provide arguments suggesting that specific S. aureus lineages particularly adapted to ruminant mammary glands have emerged and that MLVA is a convenient tool to provide a broad overview of the population, owing to the availability via internet of databases compiling published MLVA genotypes.

  4. Association between the dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitudes in female Han Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstein, Richard P.; Monakhov, Mikhail V.; Lu, Yunfeng; Jiang, Yushi; Lai, Poh San; Chew, Soo Hong

    2015-01-01

    Twin and family studies suggest that political attitudes are partially determined by an individual's genotype. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) exon III repeat region that has been extensively studied in connection with human behaviour, is a plausible candidate to contribute to individual differences in political attitudes. A first United States study provisionally identified this gene with political attitude along a liberal–conservative axis albeit contingent upon number of friends. In a large sample of 1771 Han Chinese university students in Singapore, we observed a significant main effect of association between the DRD4 exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitude. Subjects with two copies of the 4-repeat allele (4R/4R) were significantly more conservative. Our results provided evidence for a role of the DRD4 gene variants in contributing to individual differences in political attitude particularly in females and more generally suggested that associations between individual genes, and neurochemical pathways, contributing to traits relevant to the social sciences can be provisionally identified. PMID:26246555

  5. Comparison of the capillary and agarose electrophoresis based multiple locus VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) analysis (MLVA) on Mycobacterium bovis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, A O; Venter, E H; Hutamo, K; Godfroid, J

    2010-09-28

    Electrophoretic techniques that can be used for genotyping of bacterial pathogens ranges from manual, low-cost, agarose gels to high-throughput capillary electrophoresis sequencing machines. These two methods are currently employed in the electrophoresis of PCR products used in multiple locus VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) analysis (MLVA), i.e. the agarose electrophoresis (AE) and the capillary electrophoresis (CE). Some authors have suggested that clusters generated by AE are less reliable than those generated by CE and that the latter is a more sensitive technique than the former when typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates. Because such a claim could have significant consequences for investigators in this field, a comparison was made on 19 Belgian Mycobacterium bovis strains which had previously been genotyped using CE VNTR analysis. The VNTR profiles of the CE VNTR analysis were compared with those obtained by AE VNTR analysis at 14 VNTR loci. Our results indicated that there were no differences in copy numbers at all loci tested when the copy numbers obtained by the AE VNTR analysis were compared with those obtained by CE VNTR analysis. The use of AE VNTR analysis in mycobacterial genotyping does not alter the sensitivity of the MLVA technique compared with the CE VNTR analysis. The AE VNTR can therefore be regarded as a viable alternative in moderately equipped laboratories that cannot afford the expensive equipment required for CE VNTR analysis and data obtained by AE VNTR analysis can be shared between laboratories which use the CE VNTR method. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii isolated from small feral and wild mammals in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Nobuo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Mu, Jung-Jung; Arent, Zbigniew; Okano, Shou; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Mizutani Muto, Maki; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Taylor, Kyle R; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Thi Thu Ha, Hoang; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of a worldwide zoonosis, leptospirosis, maintained by various mammals. Each Leptospira serovar is frequently associated with a particular maintenance host, and recently, Leptospira genotype-host association has also been suggested to limit serovars to restricted areas. We investigated the molecular characteristics of L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii which were isolated from small feral and wild animals in four East Asian states using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA using 11 loci was performed on 110 L. interrogans serogroups from Japan (79 strains of 5 serogroups from 3 animal species), Philippines (21; 3; 2), Taiwan (7; 2; 3), and Vietnam (3; 1; 1). A MLVA method using 4 loci for L. borgpetersenii was established and performed on 52 isolates from Japan (26; 3; 7), Philippines (13; 1; 2), and Taiwan (13; 1; 3). In L. interrogans, serogroups Autumnalis and Hebdomadis appeared more genetically diverse than serogroups Bataviae, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, or Pyrogenes. The former serogroup strains with the exception of one Hebdomadis strain were isolated from Apodemus speciosus while all the latter serogroup strains with the exception of Grippotyphosa were isolated from Rattus norvegicus. L. borgpetersenii was isolated from at least 11 animal species while L. interrogans was isolated from five species, which might suggest a wider host range for L. borgpetersenii. Broad host preference in a single genotype was also observed, which colonized not only different species of the same genera but also multiple animal genera. This study demonstrates that there may be variability in the range of genetic diversity among different Leptospira serogroups, which may be attributed to maintenance host animals and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Development of a Multiple Loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) to Unravel the Intra-Pathovar Structure of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Populations Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarroni, Serena; Gallipoli, Lorenzo; Taratufolo, Maria C.; Butler, Margi I.; Poulter, Russell T. M.; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles; Balestra, Giorgio M.; Mazzaglia, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial canker of kiwifruit by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an emblematic example of a catastrophic disease of fruit crops. In 2008 a new, extremely virulent form of the pathogen emerged and rapidly devastated many Actinidia spp. orchards all over the world. In order to understand differences in populations within this pathovar and to elucidate their diffusion and movements on world scale, it is necessary to be able to quickly and on a routine basis compare new isolates with previous records. In this report a worldwide collection of 142 strains was analyzed by MLVA, chosen as investigative technique for its efficacy, reproducibility, simplicity and low cost. A panel of 13 Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) loci was identified and used to describe the pathogen population. The MLVA clustering is highly congruent with the population structure as previously established by other molecular approaches including whole genome sequencing and correlates with geographic origin, time of isolation and virulence. For convenience, we divided the VNTR loci in two panels. Panel 1 assay, using six loci, recognizes 23 different haplotypes, clustered into ten complexes with highest congruence with previous classifications. Panel 2, with seven VNTR loci, provides discriminatory power. Using the total set of 13 VNTR loci, 58 haplotypes can be distinguished. The recent hypervirulent type shows very limited diversity and includes, beside the strains from Europe, New Zealand and Chile, a few strains from Shaanxi, China. A broad genetic variability is observed in China, but different types are also retrievable in Japan and Korea. The low virulent strains cluster together and are very different from the other MLVA genotypes. Data were used to generate a public database in MLVAbank. MLVA represents a very promising first-line assay for large-scale routine genotyping, prior to whole genome sequencing of only the most relevant samples. PMID:26262683

  8. Improving resolution of public health surveillance for human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection: 3 years of prospective multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintchenko Vitali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA can assist in identifying clusters of STM cases that might otherwise have gone unrecognised, as well as sources of sporadic and outbreak cases. This paper describes the dynamics of human STM infection in a prospective study of STM MLVA typing for public health surveillance. Methods During a three-year period between August 2007 and September 2010 all confirmed STM isolates were fingerprinted using MLVA as part of the New South Wales (NSW state public health surveillance program. Results A total of 4,920 STM isolates were typed and a subset of 4,377 human isolates was included in the analysis. The STM spectrum was dominated by a small number of phage types, including DT170 (44.6% of all isolates, DT135 (13.9%, DT9 (10.8%, DT44 (4.5% and DT126 (4.5%. There was a difference in the discriminatory power of MLVA types within endemic phage types: Simpson's index of diversity ranged from 0.109 and 0.113 for DTs 9 and 135 to 0.172 and 0.269 for DTs 170 and 44, respectively. 66 distinct STM clusters were observed ranging in size from 5 to 180 cases and in duration from 4 weeks to 25 weeks. 43 clusters had novel MLVA types and 23 represented recurrences of previously recorded MLVA types. The diversity of the STM population remained relatively constant over time. The gradual increase in the number of STM cases during the study was not related to significant changes in the number of clusters or their size. 667 different MLVA types or patterns were observed. Conclusions Prospective MLVA typing of STM allows the detection of community outbreaks and demonstrates the sustained level of STM diversity that accompanies the increasing incidence of human STM infections. The monitoring of novel and persistent MLVA types offers a new benchmark for STM surveillance. A part of this study was presented at the MEEGID

  9. New Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA) Scheme for Fine-Scale Monitoring and Microevolution-Related Study of Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum Phylotype I Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinard, Jérémy; Latreille, Anne; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial wilt caused by the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) is considered one of the most harmful plant diseases in the world. Special attention should be paid to R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I due to its large host range, its worldwide distribution, and its high evolutionary potential. So far, the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of this bacterium are poorly understood. Until now, the genetic structure of the RSSC has been analyzed on the worldwide and regional scales. Emerging questions regarding evolutionary forces in RSSC adaptation to hosts now require genetic markers that are able to monitor RSSC field populations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) approach for its ability to discriminate genetically close phylotype I strains and for population genetics studies. We developed a new MLVA scheme (MLVA-7) allowing us to genotype 580 R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I strains extracted from susceptible and resistant hosts and from different habitats (stem, soil, and rhizosphere). Based on specificity, polymorphism, and the amplification success rate, we selected seven fast-evolving variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) markers. The newly developed MLVA-7 scheme showed higher discriminatory power than the previously published MLVA-13 scheme when applied to collections sampled from the same location on different dates and to collections from different locations on very small scales. Our study provides a valuable tool for fine-scale monitoring and microevolution-related study of R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I populations. IMPORTANCE Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of adaptation of plant pathogens to new hosts or ecological niches has become a key point for the development of innovative disease management strategies, including durable resistance. Whereas the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence or pathogenicity changes have been studied thoroughly, the

  10. Large Diversity of Porcine Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 in Eight European Countries Assessed by Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurtti, Sini; Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Virtanen, Sonja; Martínez, Pilar Ortiz; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-06-01

    A total of 253 multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types among 634 isolates were discovered while studying the genetic diversity of porcine Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates from eight different European countries. Six variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9 were used to study the isolates from 82 farms in Belgium (n = 93, 7 farms), England (n = 41, 8 farms), Estonia (n = 106, 12 farms), Finland (n = 70, 13 farms), Italy (n = 111, 20 farms), Latvia (n = 66, 3 farms), Russia (n = 60, 10 farms), and Spain (n = 87, 9 farms). Cluster analysis revealed mainly country-specific clusters, and only one MLVA type consisting of two isolates was found from two countries: Russia and Italy. Also, farm-specific clusters were discovered, but same MLVA types could also be found from different farms. Analysis of multiple isolates originating either from the same tonsils (n = 4) or from the same farm, but 6 months apart, revealed both identical and different MLVA types. MLVA showed a very good discriminatory ability with a Simpson's discriminatory index (DI) of 0.989. DIs for VNTR loci V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9 were 0.916, 0.791, 0.901, 0.877, 0.912, and 0.785, respectively, when studying all isolates together, but variation was evident between isolates originating from different countries. Locus V4 in the Spanish isolates and locus V9 in the Latvian isolates did not differentiate (DI 0.000), and locus V9 in the English isolates showed very low discriminatory power (DI 0.049). The porcine Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were diverse, but the variation in DI demonstrates that the well discriminating loci V2A, V5, V6, and V7 should be included in MLVA protocol when maximal discriminatory power is needed.

  11. SRBreak: A read-depth and split-read framework to identify breakpoints of different events inside simple copy-number variable regions

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    HOANG T NGUYEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Copy-number variation (CNV has been associated with increased risk of complex diseases. High throughput sequencing (HTS technologies facilitate the detection of copy-number variable regions (CNVRs and their breakpoints. This helps in understanding genome structures of genomes as well as their evolution process. Various approaches have been proposed for detecting CNV breakpoints, but currently it is still challenging for tools based on a single analysis method to identify breakpoints of CNVs. It has been shown, however, that pipelines which integrate multiple approaches are able to report more reliable breakpoints. Here, based on HTS data, we have developed a pipeline to identify approximate breakpoints (±10 bp relating to different ancestral events within a specific CNVR. The pipeline combines read-depth and split-read information to infer breakpoints, using information from multiple samples to allow an imputation approach to be taken. The main steps involve using a normal mixture model to cluster samples into different groups, followed by simple kernel-based approaches to maximise information obtained from read-depth and split-read approaches, after which common breakpoints of groups are inferred. The pipeline uses split-read information directly from CIGAR strings of BAM files, without using a re-alignment step. On simulated data sets, it was able to report breakpoints for very low-coverage samples including those for which only single-end reads were available. When applied to three loci from existing human resequencing data sets (NEGR1, LCE3, IRGM the pipeline obtained good concordance with results from the 1000 Genomes Project (92%, 100% and 82%, respectively.The package is available at https://github.com/hoangtn/SRBreak, and also as a docker-based application at https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/hoangtn/srbreak/.

  12. The DUB/USP17 deubiquitinating enzymes: A gene family within a tandemly repeated sequence, is also embedded within the copy number variable Beta-defensin cluster

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    Scott Christopher J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DUB/USP17 subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes were originally identified as immediate early genes induced in response to cytokine stimulation in mice (DUB-1, DUB-1A, DUB-2, DUB-2A. Subsequently we have identified a number of human family members and shown that one of these (DUB-3 is also cytokine inducible. We originally showed that constitutive expression of DUB-3 can block cell proliferation and more recently we have demonstrated that this is due to its regulation of the ubiquitination and activity of the 'CAAX' box protease RCE1. Results Here we demonstrate that the human DUB/USP17 family members are found on both chromosome 4p16.1, within a block of tandem repeats, and on chromosome 8p23.1, embedded within the copy number variable beta-defensin cluster. In addition, we show that the multiple genes observed in humans and other distantly related mammals have arisen due to the independent expansion of an ancestral sequence within each species. However, it is also apparent when sequences from humans and the more closely related chimpanzee are compared, that duplication events have taken place prior to these species separating. Conclusions The observation that the DUB/USP17 genes, which can influence cell growth and survival, have evolved from an unstable ancestral sequence which has undergone multiple and varied duplications in the species examined marks this as a unique family. In addition, their presence within the beta-defensin repeat raises the question whether they may contribute to the influence of this repeat on immune related conditions.

  13. Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis of Respiratory and Household Water Biofilm Isolates of “Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” with Establishment of a PCR Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakhiaeva, Elena; Howard, Susan T.; Brown Elliott, Barbara A.; McNulty, Steven; Newman, Kristopher L.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Turenne, Christine

    2016-01-01

    “Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” is an important cause of pulmonary disease. It is acquired from environmental sources, but there is no methodology for large population studies. We evaluated the potential of variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis. Clinical and household biofilm M. avium isolates underwent molecular identification. Testing for IS901 was done to separate M. avium subsp. avium from M. avium subsp. hominissuis. VNTR types were defined using VNTR loci, and subtyping was performed using 3′ hsp65 and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Forty-nine VNTR types and eight subtypes of M. avium subsp. hominissuis (IS901 negative) were identified among 416 isolates of M. avium from 121 patients and 80 biofilm sites. Of those types, 67% were found only among patient isolates, 11% only among household water isolates, and 23% among both. Of 13 VNTR types that included ≥4 patients, the majority (61.5%) represented geographic clustering (same city). Most VNTR types with multiple patients belonged to the same 3′ hsp65 sequence code (sequevar). A total of 44 isolates belonging to four M. avium subsp. hominissuis VNTR types (8%), including three with the rare Mav-F ITS sequence and 0/8 subspecies, produced amplicons with IS901 PCR primers. By sequencing, all 44 amplicons were not IS901 but ISMav6, which was recently observed in Japan but had not been previously described among U.S. isolates. VNTR analysis of M. avium subsp. hominissuis isolates is easier and faster than pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Seven VNTR loci separated 417 isolates into 49 types. No isolates of M. avium subsp. avium were identified. The distributions of the VNTR copy numbers, the allelic diversity, and the low prevalence of ISMav6 differed from the findings for respiratory isolates reported from Japan. PMID:26739155

  14. Specific multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis genotypes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae are associated with diseases severity and macrolide susceptibility.

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    Jiuxin Qu

    Full Text Available Clinical relevance of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR analysis (MLVA in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae is unknown. A multi-center, prospective study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2012. Nine hundred and fifty-four CAP patients were consecutively enrolled. M. pneumoniae clinical isolates were obtained from throat swabs. MLVA typing was applied to all isolates. Comparison of pneumonia severity index (PSI and clinical features among patients infected with different MLVA types of M. pneumoniae were conducted. One hundred and thirty-six patients were positive with M. pneumoniae culture. The clinical isolates were clustered into 18 MLVA types. One hundred and fourteen (88.3% isolates were resistant to macrolide, covering major MLVA types. The macrolide non-resistant rate of M. pneumoniae isolates with Mpn13-14-15-16 profile of 3-5-6-2 was significantly higher than that of other types (p ≤ 0.001. Patients infected with types U (5-4-5-7-2 and J (3-4-5-7-2 had significantly higher PSI scores (p<0.001 and longer total duration of cough (p = 0.011. Therefore it seems that there is a correlation between certain MLVA types and clinical severity of disease and the presence of macrolide resistance.

  15. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

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    Huyen Mai NT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard in typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, some reports indicated that VNTR typing may be less suitable for Beijing genotype isolates. We therefore compared the performance of internationally standardized RFLP and 24 loci VNTR typing to discriminate among 100 Beijing genotype isolates from the Southern Vietnam. Methods Hundred Beijing genotype strains defined by spoligotyping were randomly selected and typed by RFLP and VNTR typing. The discriminatory power of VNTR and RFLP typing was compared using the Bionumerics software. Results Among 95 Beijing strains available for analysis, 14 clusters were identified comprising 34 strains and 61 unique profiles in 24 loci VNTR typing ((Hunter Gaston Discrimination Index (HGDI = 0.994. 13 clusters containing 31 strains and 64 unique patterns in RFLP typing (HGDI = 0.994 were found. Nine RFLP clusters were subdivided by VNTR typing and 12 VNTR clusters were split by RFLP. Five isolates (5% revealing double alleles or no signal in two or more loci in VNTR typing could not be analyzed. Conclusions Overall, 24 loci VNTR typing and RFLP typing had similar high-level of discrimination among 95 Beijing strains from Southern Vietnam. However, loci VNTR 154, VNTR 2461 and VNTR 3171 had hardly added any value to the level of discrimination.

  16. Comprehensive assessment of sequence variation within the copy number variable defensin cluster on 8p23 by target enriched in-depth 454 sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xinmin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In highly copy number variable (CNV regions such as the human defensin gene locus, comprehensive assessment of sequence variations is challenging. PCR approaches are practically restricted to tiny fractions, and next-generation sequencing (NGS approaches of whole individual genomes e.g. by the 1000 Genomes Project is confined by an affordable sequence depth. Combining target enrichment with NGS may represent a feasible approach. Results As a proof of principle, we enriched a ~850 kb section comprising the CNV defensin gene cluster DEFB, the invariable DEFA part and 11 control regions from two genomes by sequence capture and sequenced it by 454 technology. 6,651 differences to the human reference genome were found. Comparison to HapMap genotypes revealed sensitivities and specificities in the range of 94% to 99% for the identification of variations. Using error probabilities for rigorous filtering revealed 2,886 unique single nucleotide variations (SNVs including 358 putative novel ones. DEFB CN determinations by haplotype ratios were in agreement with alternative methods. Conclusion Although currently labor extensive and having high costs, target enriched NGS provides a powerful tool for the comprehensive assessment of SNVs in highly polymorphic CNV regions of individual genomes. Furthermore, it reveals considerable amounts of putative novel variations and simultaneously allows CN estimation.

  17. Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S A L; Van der Lee, T A J; Ferreira, C F; Te Lintel Hekkert, B; Zapater, M-F; Goodwin, S B; Guzmán, M; Kema, G H J; Souza, M T

    2010-11-09

    We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently, the entire genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. We screened this database for VNTR markers. Forty-two primer pairs were selected for validation, based on repeat type and length and the number of repeat units. Five VNTR markers showing multiple alleles were validated with a reference set of isolates from different parts of the world and a population from a banana plantation in Costa Rica. Polymorphism information content values varied from 0.6414 to 0.7544 for the reference set and from 0.0400 and 0.7373 for the population set. Eighty percent of the polymorphism information content values were above 0.60, indicating that the markers are highly informative. These markers allowed robust scoring of agarose gels and proved to be useful for variability and population genetics studies. In conclusion, the strategy we developed to identify and validate VNTR markers is an efficient means to incorporate markers that can be used for fungicide resistance management and to develop breeding strategies to control banana black leaf streak disease. This is the first report of VNTR-minisatellites from the M. fijiensis genome sequence.

  18. Charged Higgs production from polarized top-quark decay in the 2HDM considering the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, S.; Mohammad Moosavi Nejad, S.

    2018-05-01

    Charged Higgs bosons are predicted by some non-minimal Higgs scenarios, such as models containing Higgs triplets and two-Higgs-doublet models, so that the experimental observation of these bosons would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model. In the present work, we introduce a channel to indirect search for the charged Higgses through the hadronic decay of polarized top quarks where a top quark decays into a charged Higgs H+ and a bottom-flavored meson B via the hadronization process of the produced bottom quark, t (↑) →H+ + b (→ B + jet). To obtain the energy spectrum of produced B-mesons we present, for the first time, an analytical expression for the O (αs) corrections to the differential decay width of the process t →H+ b in presence of a massive b-quark in the General-Mass Variable-Flavor-Number (GM-VFN) scheme. We find that the most reliable predictions for the B-hadron energy spectrum are made in the GM-VFN scheme, specifically, when the Type-II 2HDM scenario is concerned.

  19. Molecular typing of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi isolates from various countries in Asia by a multiplex PCR assay on variable-number tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichun; Lee, May-Ann; Ooi, Eng-Eong; Mavis, Yeo; Tan, Ai-Ling; Quek, Hung-Hiang

    2003-09-01

    A multiplex PCR method incorporating primers flanking three variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci (arbitrarily labeled TR1, TR2, and TR3) in the CT18 strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi has been developed for molecular typing of S. enterica serovar Typhi clinical isolates from several Asian countries, including Singapore, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Nepal. We have demonstrated that the multiplex PCR could be performed on crude cell lysates and that the VNTR banding profiles produced could be easily analyzed by visual inspection after conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was highly discriminative in identifying 49 distinct VNTR profiles among 59 individual isolates. A high level of VNTR profile heterogeneity was observed in isolates from within the same country and among countries. These VNTR profiles remained stable after the strains were passaged extensively under routine laboratory culture conditions. In contrast to the S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates, an absence of TR3 amplicons and a lack of length polymorphisms in TR1 and TR2 amplicons were observed for other S. enterica serovars, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, B, and C. DNA sequencing of the amplified VNTR regions substantiated these results, suggesting the high stability of the multiplex PCR assay. The multiplex-PCR-based VNTR profiling developed in this study provides a simple, rapid, reproducible, and high-resolution molecular tool for the epidemiological analysis of S. enterica serovar Typhi strains.

  20. [Identification of novel variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci in Mycobacterium avium and development of an effective means of VNTR typing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Uchiya, Kei-Ichi; Yagi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hiroyasu; Niimi, Masaki; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Inagaki, Takayuki; Moriyama, Makoto; Nikai, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Yuta; Nakagawa, Taku; Ogawa, Kenji

    2012-07-01

    To make more effective use of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, we identified novel VNTR loci in Mycobacterium avium and used them for modified M. avium tandem repeat-VNTR (MATR-VNTR) typing. Analysis of a DNA sample extracted from a clinical isolate (strain HN135) with the FLX system genome sequencer (Roche Diagnostic System) led to discovery of several novel VNTR loci. The allelic diversity of the novel VNTR loci was evaluated for 71 clinical isolates and compared with the diversity of the MATR-VNTR loci. To improve efficacy of MATR-VNTR typing, we tested typing using 2 sets of loci selected from the newly identified loci and the MATR loci, i.e., one set containing 7 and another 16 loci. Hunter Gaston's discriminatory index (HGDI) was calculated for these sets. Six VNTR loci were newly identified, of which 5 showed a high diversity. The HGDI was 0.980 for the improved new typing using a set of 7 loci, and 0.995 for another set of 16 loci, while it was 0.992 for the conventional MATR-VNTR typing. VNTR typing with the set of the 7 loci enabled a rapid analysis, and another set of 16 loci enabled a precise analysis, as compared with conventional MATR-VNTR typing. A method that uses only VNTR loci with relatively high allelic diversity is considered to be a useful tool for VNTR typing of MAC isolates.

  1. Identification of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) Sequences in Acinetobacter pittii and Development of an Optimized Multiple-Locus VNTR Analysis Typing Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan; Li, Bo Qing; Jin, Da Zhi; He, Li Hua; Tao, Xiao Xia; Zhang, Jian Zhong

    2015-12-01

    To develop a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) assay for Acinetobacter pittii typing. Polymorphic VNTRs were searched by Tandem Repeats Finder. The distribution and polymorphism of each VNTR locus were analyzed in all the A. pittii genomes deposited in the NCBI genome database by BLAST and were evaluated with a collection of 20 well-characterized clinical A. pittii strains and one reference strain. The MLVA assay was compared with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for discriminating A. pittii isolates. Ten VNTR loci were identified upon bioinformatic screening of A. pittii genomes, but only five of them showed full amplifiability and good polymorphism. Therefore, an MLVA assay composed of five VNTR loci was developed. The typeability, reproducibility, stability, discriminatory power, and epidemiological concordance were excellent. Compared with PFGE, the new optimized MLVA typing scheme provided the same and even greater discrimination. Compared with PFGE, MLVA typing is a faster and more standardized alternative for studying the genetic relatedness of A. pittii isolates in disease surveillance and outbreak investigation. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Interleukin 6-174 G/C promoter and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) gene polymorphisms in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Cristiano; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Colacicco, Anna Maria; D'Introno, Alessia; Frisardi, Vincenza; Imbimbo, Bruno P; Lorusso, Maria; Vendemiale, Gianluigi; Denitto, Marta; Santamato, Andrea; Seripa, Davide; Pilotto, Alberto; Fiore, Pietro; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies examining the association between the interleukin 6 (IL-6)-174 C/G polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have yielded conflicting results. Furthermore, the C allele of the IL-6 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism was associated with a delayed onset and a decreased risk of AD. A total sample of 149 AD patients, and 298 age- and sex-matched unrelated caregivers from Apulia, southern Italy, were genotyped for the apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism, the VNTR polymorphism in the 3' flanking region, and the -174G/C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of IL-6 gene on chromosome 7. Furthermore, we performed a haplotype analysis on these two polymorphisms on IL-6 locus. IL-6 VNTR and -174G/C allele and genotype frequencies were similar between AD patients and controls, also after stratification for late-onset (> or =65 years) and early-onset (VNTR and -174G/C polymorphisms, not supporting a previous reported additive effect of both IL-6 polymorphisms on AD risk. Our findings did not support a role of IL-6-174 G/C and IL-6 VNTR polymorphisms in the risk of sporadic AD in southern Italy, suggesting that these polymorphisms of IL-6 gene were at most weak genetic determinants of AD. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of a highly discriminating multiplex multi-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats (MLVA) analysis for Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jaran S; Aarskaug, Tone; Skogan, Gunnar; Fykse, Else Marie; Ellingsen, Anette Bauer; Blatny, Janet M

    2009-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of cholera and may be used in bioterror actions due to the easiness of its dissemination, and the public fear for acquiring the cholera disease. A simple and highly discriminating method for connecting clinical and environmental isolates of V. cholerae is needed in microbial forensics. Twelve different loci containing variable numbers of tandem-repeats (VNTRs) were evaluated in which six loci were polymorphic. Two multiplex reactions containing PCR primers targeting these six VNTRs resulted in successful DNA amplification of 142 various environmental and clinical V. cholerae isolates. The genetic distribution inside the V. cholerae strain collection was used to evaluate the discriminating power (Simpsons Diversity Index=0.99) of this new MLVA analysis, showing that the assay have a potential to differentiate between various strains, but also to identify those isolates which are collected from a common V. cholerae outbreak. This work has established a rapid and highly discriminating MLVA assay useful for track back analyses and/or forensic studies of V. cholerae infections.

  4. Optimal long-term contracting with learning

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhiguo; Wei, Bin; Yu, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We introduce uncertainty into Holmstrom and Milgrom (1987) to study optimal long-term contracting with learning. In a dynamic relationship, the agent's shirking not only reduces current performance but also increases the agent's information rent due to the persistent belief manipulation effect. We characterize the optimal contract using the dynamic programming technique in which information rent is the unique state variable. In the optimal contract, the optimal effort is front-loaded and decr...

  5. Variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene IL-1RN: a novel association with the athlete status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryckman Kelli K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interleukin-1 (IL-1 family of cytokines is involved in the inflammatory and repair reactions of skeletal muscle during and after exercise. Specifically, plasma levels of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra increase dramatically after intense exercise, and accumulating evidence points to an effect of genetic polymorphisms on athletic phenotypes. Therefore, the IL-1 family cytokine genes are plausible candidate genes for athleticism. We explored whether IL-1 polymorphisms are associated with athlete status in European subjects. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from 205 (53 professional and 152 competitive non-professional Italian athletes and 458 non-athlete controls. Two diallelic polymorphisms in the IL-1β gene (IL-1B at -511 and +3954 positions, and a variable number tandem repeats (VNTR in intron 2 of the IL-1ra gene (IL-1RN were assessed. Results We found a 2-fold higher frequency of the IL-1RN 1/2 genotype in athletes compared to non-athlete controls (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.37-2.74, 41.0% vs. 26.4%, and a lower frequency of the 1/1 genotype (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40-0.77, 43.9% vs. 58.5%. Frequency of the IL-1RN 2/2 genotype did not differ between groups. No significant differences between athletes and controls were found for either -511 or +3954 IL-1B polymorphisms. However, the haplotype (-511C-(+3954T-(VNTR2 was 3-fold more frequent in athletes than in non-athletes (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.16-7.87. Interestingly, the IL-1RN 1/2 genotype was more frequent in professional than in non-professional athletes (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.02-3.61, 52.8% vs. 36.8%. Conclusions Our study found that variants at the IL-1ra gene associate with athletic status. This confirms the crucial role that cytokine IL-1ra plays in human physical exercise. The VNTR IL-1RN polymorphism may have implications for muscle health, performance, and/or recovery capacities. Further studies are needed to assess these specific issues. As VNTR IL-1RN

  6. Non-turnkey contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Shunji

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face with troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf. (orig./FW) [de

  7. Non-turnkey contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, S

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have a chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf.

  8. Comparison of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Markers typing and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprinting of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marttila Harri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mycobacterioses are regarded as a potential zoonotic risk and cause economical losses world wide. M. avium subsp. hominissuis is a slow-growing subspecies found in mycobacterial infected humans and pigs and therefore rapid and discriminatory typing methods are needed for epidemiological studies. The genetic similarity of M. avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins using two different typing methods have not been studied earlier. The objective of this study was to compare the IS1245 RFLP pattern and MIRU-VNTR typing to study the genetic relatedness of M. avium strains isolated from slaughter pigs and humans in Finland with regard to public health aspects. Methods A novel PCR-based genotyping method, variable number tandem repeat (VNTR typing of eight mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs, was evaluated for its ability to characterize Finnish Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis strains isolated from pigs (n = 16 and humans (n = 13 and the results were compared with those obtained by the conventional IS1245 RFLP method. Results The MIRU-VNTR results showed a discriminatory index (DI of 0,92 and the IS1245 RFLP resulted in DI 0,98. The combined DI for both methods was 0,98. The MIRU-VNTR test has the advantages of being simple, reproducible, non-subjective, which makes it suitable for large-scale screening of M. avium strains. Conclusions Both typing methods demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains of human and porcine origin. The parallel application of the methods adds epidemiological value to the comparison of the strains and their origins. The present approach and results support the hypothesis that there is a common source of M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection for pigs and humans or alternatively one species may be the infective source to the other.

  9. Association of STin2 Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) Polymorphism of Serotonin Transporter Gene with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Peng, Dangwei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background The STin2 VNTR polymorphism has a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene. We aimed to explore the relationship between STin2 VNTR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Material/Methods We recruited a total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as LPE, and 101 controls without PE complaint. Allelic variations of STin2 VNTR were genotyped using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between STin2 VNTR allelic and genotypic frequencies and LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different STin2 VNTR genotypes among LPE patients. Results The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. A significantly higher frequency of STin2.12/12 genotype was found among LPE patients versus controls (P=0.026). Frequency of patients carrying at least 1 copy of the 10-repeat allele was significantly lower compared to the control group (28.3% vs. 41.8%, OR=0.55; 95%CI=0.31–0.97, P=0.040). In the LPE group, the mean IELT showed significant difference in STin2.12/12 genotype when compared to those with STin2.12/10 and STin2.10/10 genotypes. The mean IELT in10-repeat allele carriers was 50% longer compared to homozygous carriers of the STin2.12 allele. Conclusions Our results indicate the presence of STin2.10 allele is a protective factor for LPE. Men carrying the higher expression genotype STin2. 12/12 have shorter IELT than 10-repeat allele carriers. PMID:27713390

  10. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats fingerprinting (MLVF) and virulence factor analysis of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus SCCmec type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaneini, Mohammad; Jabalameli, Leila; Iman-Eini, Hossein; Aligholi, Marzieh; Ghasemi, Amir; Nakhjavani, Farrokh Akbari; Taherikalani, Morovat; Khoramian, Babak; Asadollahi, Parisa; Jabalameli, Fereshteh

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly strains with type III staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), represent a serious human pathogen in Tehran, Iran. The disease-causing capability depends on their ability to produce a wide variety of virulent factors. The prevalence of exotoxin genes and multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats fingerprinting (MLVF) profile among MRSA isolates, from patients in Tehran, was evaluated by PCR and Multiplex-PCR. The MLVF typing of 144 MRSA isolates with type III SCCmec produced 5 different MLVF types. Generally, 97.2% (140/144) of all the isolates were positive for at least one of the tested exotoxin genes. The most prevalent genes were hld, found in 87.5% (126/144) of the isolates followed by lukE-lukD and hla found in 72.9% (105/144) and 70.1% (101/144) of the isolates, respectively. The tst gene, belonging to MLVF types I, IV and V, was found among three of the isolates from blood and wound samples. The sea gene was detected in 58.3% (84/144) of the isolates and the sed and see genes were found in one isolate with MLVF type V. The coexistence of genes was observed in the 87.5% (126/144) of the isolates. The rate of coexistence of hld with lukE-lukD, hla with lukE-lukD and sea with lukE-lukD were 66.7% (96/144), 44.4% (64/144) and 44.4% (64/144), respectively. The present study demonstrated that MRSA strains with type III SCCmec show different MLVF patterns and exotoxin profiles.

  11. Application of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing To Discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum Strains Associated with English Watercourses and Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

    2013-01-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

  12. Length of Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeats in the Carboxyl Ester Lipase (CEL) Gene May Confer Susceptibility to Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis but Not Alcoholic Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeld, Karianne; Beer, Sebastian; Johnstone, Marianne; Zimmer, Constantin; Mössner, Joachim; Ruffert, Claudia; Krehan, Mario; Zapf, Christian; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Johansson, Stefan; Bugert, Peter; Miyajima, Fabio; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Brown, Laura J; Winn, Simon A; Davies, Kelly; Latawiec, Diane; Gunson, Bridget K; Criddle, David N; Pirmohamed, Munir; Grützmann, Robert; Michl, Patrick; Greenhalf, William; Molven, Anders; Sutton, Robert; Rosendahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) contributes to fatty acid ethyl ester metabolism, which is implicated in alcoholic pancreatitis. The CEL gene harbours a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) region in exon 11. Variation in this VNTR has been linked to monogenic pancreatic disease, while conflicting results were reported for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Here, we aimed to investigate a potential association of CEL VNTR lengths with alcoholic CP. Overall, 395 alcoholic CP patients, 218 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) serving as controls with a comparable amount of alcohol consumed, and 327 healthy controls from Germany and the United Kingdom (UK) were analysed by determination of fragment lengths by capillary electrophoresis. Allele frequencies and genotypes of different VNTR categories were compared between the groups. Twelve repeats were overrepresented in UK ACP patients (P = 0.04) compared to controls, whereas twelve repeats were enriched in German ALC compared to alcoholic CP patients (P = 0.03). Frequencies of CEL VNTR lengths of 14 and 15 repeats differed between German ALC patients and healthy controls (P = 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). However, in the genotype and pooled analysis of VNTR lengths no statistical significant association was depicted. Additionally, the 16-16 genotype as well as 16 repeats were more frequent in UK ALC than in alcoholic CP patients (P = 0.034 and 0.02, respectively). In all other calculations, including pooled German and UK data, allele frequencies and genotype distributions did not differ significantly between patients and controls or between alcoholic CP and ALC. We did not obtain evidence that CEL VNTR lengths are associated with alcoholic CP. However, our results suggest that CEL VNTR lengths might associate with ALC, a finding that needs to be clarified in larger cohorts.

  13. Extent of Mycobacterium bovis transmission among animals of dairy and beef cattle and deer farms in South Korea determined by variable-number tandem repeats typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Sungmo; Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae-Myoung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2015-04-17

    Identifying sources of Mycobacterium bovis transmission would be essential for establishing effective control programs of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a major zoonosis threatening human health worldwide. As an effort to determine the extent of M. bovis transmission among dairy and beef cattle and deer populations, a mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU)-variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method was employed for analysis of 131 M. bovis isolates from 59 Holstein dairy cattle, 39 Korean beef cattle, and 33 deer. Of 31 MIRU-VNTR markers, 15 showed allelic diversity. The most discriminatory locus for M. bovis isolates was VNTR 3336 (h=0.59) followed by QUB 26, MIRU 31, VNTR 2401, and VNTR 3171 which showed high discriminatory power (h=0.43). The combined VNTR loci had an allelic diversity of 0.83. On the basis of the VNTR profiles of 30 VNTR loci, 24 genotypes were identified, and two genotypes were highly prevalent among all M. bovis isolates (33.6% and 19.1%, respectively), thus indicating that more than 50% of the isolates shared common molecular characteristics. Six additional genotypes were common in 2 of the 3 animal species, suggesting a wide interspecies transmission of M. bovis. This study thus demonstrates that MIRU-VNTR typing is useful in differentiation of M. bovis isolates and that M. bovis transmission occurs frequently among farmed animal species, highlighting the importance of bovine TB control programs in different animal species which are often raised in the same villages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spectrum of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Gene Mutations in Hamadan and Lorestan Provinces of Iran and Their Associations with Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Alibakhshi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is one of the most common known inherited metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the status of molecular defects in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH gene in western Iranian PKU patients (predominantly from Kermanshah, Hamadan, and Lorestan provinces during 2014-2016. Additionally, the results were compared with similar studies in Iran. Nucleotide sequence analysis of all 13 exons and their flanking intronic regions of the PAH gene was performed in 18 western Iranian PKU patients. Moreover, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR located in the PAH gene was studied. The results revealed a mutational spectrum encompassing 11 distinct mutations distributed along the PAH gene sequence on 34 of the 36 mutant alleles (diagnostic efficiency of 94.4%. Also, four PAH VNTR alleles (with repeats of 3, 7, 8 and 9 were detected. The three most frequent mutations were IVS9+5G>A, IVS7-5T>C, and p.P281L with the frequency of 27.8%, 11%, and 11%, respectively. The results showed that there is not only a consanguineous relation, but also a difference in PAH characters of mutations between Kermanshah and the other two parts of western Iran (Hamadan and Lorestan. Also, it seems that the spectrum of mutations in western Iran is relatively distinct from other parts of the country, suggesting that this region might be a special PAH gene distribution region. Moreover, our findings can be useful in the identification of genotype to phenotype relationship in patients, and provide future abilities for confirmatory diagnostic testing, prognosis, and predict the severity of PKU patients.

  15. Spectrum of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Gene Mutations in Hamadan and Lorestan Provinces of Iran and Their Associations with Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibakhshi, Reza; Moradi, Keivan; Biglari, Mostafa; Shafieenia, Samaneh

    2018-05-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most common known inherited metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the status of molecular defects in phenylalanine hydroxylase ( PAH ) gene in western Iranian PKU patients (predominantly from Kermanshah, Hamadan, and Lorestan provinces) during 2014-2016. Additionally, the results were compared with similar studies in Iran. Nucleotide sequence analysis of all 13 exons and their flanking intronic regions of the PAH gene was performed in 18 western Iranian PKU patients. Moreover, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) located in the PAH gene was studied. The results revealed a mutational spectrum encompassing 11 distinct mutations distributed along the PAH gene sequence on 34 of the 36 mutant alleles (diagnostic efficiency of 94.4%). Also, four PAH VNTR alleles (with repeats of 3, 7, 8 and 9) were detected. The three most frequent mutations were IVS9+5G>A, IVS7-5T>C, and p.P281L with the frequency of 27.8%, 11%, and 11%, respectively. The results showed that there is not only a consanguineous relation, but also a difference in PAH characters of mutations between Kermanshah and the other two parts of western Iran (Hamadan and Lorestan). Also, it seems that the spectrum of mutations in western Iran is relatively distinct from other parts of the country, suggesting that this region might be a special PAH gene distribution region. Moreover, our findings can be useful in the identification of genotype to phenotype relationship in patients, and provide future abilities for confirmatory diagnostic testing, prognosis, and predict the severity of PKU patients.

  16. IL1 receptor antagonist gene IL1-RN variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism and cancer risk: a literature review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA and IL1beta (IL1β, members of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL1 family, play a potential role against infection and in the pathogenesis of cancers. The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR polymorphism in the second intron of the IL1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1-RN and a polymorphism in exon 5 of IL1B (IL1B+3954C>T, rs1143634 have been suggested in predisposition to cancer risk. However, studies have shown inconsistent results. To validate any association, a meta-analysis was performed with 14,854 cases and 19,337 controls from 71 published case-control studies for IL1-RN VNTR and 33 eligible studies contained 7,847 cases and 8917 controls for IL1B +3954. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated from comparisons to assess the strength of the association. There was significant association between the IL1-RN VNTR polymorphism and the risk of cancer for any overall comparison. Furthermore, cancer type stratification analysis revealed that there were significantly increased risks of gastric cancer, bladder cancer and other cancer groups. Infection status analysis indicated that the H. pylori or HBV/HCV infection and IL1-RN VNTR genotypes were independent factors for developing gastric or hepatocellular cancers. In addition, a borderline significant association was observed between IL1B+3954 polymorphism and the increased cancer risk. Although some modest bias could not be eliminated, this meta-analysis suggested that the IL1-RN VNTR polymorphisms may contribute to genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer. More studies are needed to further evaluate the role of the IL1B+3954 polymorphism in the etiology of cancer.

  17. The Epidemiological Significance and Temporal Stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats-Based Method Applied to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to validate the epidemiological significance and temporal stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing in a genetically and geographically diverse set of clinical isolates from patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in China. Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 982 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from four population-based investigations in China. Apart from the currently applied 24-locus MIRU-VNTR, six additional hypervariable loci were analyzed in order to validate the MIRU-VNTR combinations in terms of their epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance. In vitro temporal stability was analyzed for both individual MIRU-VNTR loci, and for several combinations of loci. In the present study, four MIRU-VNTR combinations, including the hypervariable loci 3820, 3232, 2163a, and 4120, were evaluated. All of these combinations obtained a Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI value over 0.9900 with a reduced clustering proportion (from 32.0% to 25.6%. By comparing epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance, we found that the performances of the four MIRU-VNTR combinations were comparable to the insertion sequence 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP, and significantly better than that of 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping alone. The proportion of temporally stable loci ranged from 90.5% to 92.5% within the combined MIRU-VNTR genotyping, which is higher than IS6110-RFLP (85.4%. By adding four hypervariable loci to the standard 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping, we obtained a high discriminatory power, stability and epidemiological significance. This algorithm could therefore be used to improve tuberculosis transmission surveillance and outbreak investigation in China.

  18. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  19. The Level of Psychological Burnout at the Teachers of Students with Autism Disorders in Light of a Number of Variables in Al-Riyadh Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyat, Omar Khalil

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at measuring the level of the psychological burnout in the teachers of students that have autism symptoms in Al-Riyadh area--kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In light of variables. These variables are the gender, the teaching place, the academic qualification of the teachers, the experience of the teachers, the age of the teachers, and…

  20. Contract policy for CERN staff members

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Public information meeting on Monday 28 September 2009 at 10.00 a.m. With effect from 1 August 2009, new provisions regarding staff employment contract policy have entered into force. These provisions are set out in: The Staff Rules and Regulations and Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 4). Further details are available in: Frequently Asked Questions. The new provisions are outlined below: Limited-duration contracts From 1 August 2009, limited-duration contracts will be awarded for a maximum period of five years (instead of four years previously) and no extensions beyond five years will be granted. Contracts for periods shorter than five years can be exceptionally awarded, e.g. for a project whose mission or financial resources are time-limited. Indefinite contracts : award procedure A number of changes have been introduced regarding the procedure for the award of indefinite contracts. From now on, posts leading to the award of an indefinite contract will be opened at le...

  1. Comparison of Variable Number Tandem Repeat and Short Tandem Repeat Genetic Markers for Qualitative and Quantitative Chimerism Analysis Post Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossallam, G.I.; Smith, A.G.; Mcfarland, C.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of donor chimerism has become a routine procedure for the documentation of engraftment after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Quantitative analysis of chimerism kinetics has been shown to predict graft failure or relapse. In this study, we compared the use of variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and short tandem repeats (STR) as polymorphic genetic markers in chimerism analysis. This study included qualitative and quantitative assessment of both techniques to assess informative yield and sensitivity. Patients and Methods: We analyzed 206 samples representing 40 transplant recipients and their HLA identical sibling donors. A panel of six VNTR loci, 15 STR loci and 1 sex chromosome locus was used. Amplified VNTR products were visualized in an ethidium bromide stained gel. STR loci were amplified using fluorescent primers, and the products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. VNTR and STR analysis gave comparable qualitative results in the majority of cases. The incidence of mixed chimerism (Me) by STR analysis was 45% compared to 32% in cases evaluated by VNTR analysis. STR markers were more informative; several informative loci could be identified in all patients. Unique alleles for both patient and donor could be identified in all patients by STR versus 32/40 by VNTR analysis. The STR markers were also more sensitive in the detection of chimerism. The size of VNTR alleles and differences between the size of donor and recipient VNTR alleles affected the sensitivity of detection. With both techniques, quantitative assessment of chimerism showed some discrepancies between the estimated and the calculated percentage of donor DNA. Discordance between the two estimates was observed in 8/19 patients with Me. However, sequential monitoring of the relative band intensity of VNTR alleles offered some insight into the direction of change in engraftment over time. The higher yield of informative loci with STR and the automated measurement of

  2. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis profiles of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from different retail foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Nakamura, Hiromi; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-05-16

    Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) isolates were recovered from local retail markets and the Osaka Municipal Central Wholesale Market in Japan. Retail food samples were collected for analysis in Osaka Japan from 2005 to 2008 and consisted of 32 beef, 28 pork, 20 poultry, 136 fish, 66 fruits and vegetables and 51 ready-to-eat (RTE) food samples. A total of 82 DEC strains were recovered from 64 (19%) food samples with the highest prevalence in poultry (100%, 20/20), followed by pork (54%, 15/28), beef (28%, 9/32), fruits and vegetables (12%, 8/66), fish (6.6%, 9/136) and RTE foods (5.9%, 3/51). Most of the strains belonged to E. coli possessing the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) gene (EAST1EC; n=62, P3 antimicrobial agents. Isolates resistant to >5 antimicrobials were only found in the meat samples, while isolates from the fruits and vegetables as well as RTE foods showed resistance to only 1 or 2 antimicrobial agents. Sixty one percent of EAST1EC, 56% of EPEC and all of the EAEC and ETEC were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial agent. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used in this study for genotyping of DEC. The 82 isolates collected for this study showed 77 distinct MLVA profiles located among 3 branches. The Simpson's Index of Diversity (D) was 99.9% at its highest. The high diversity of these food strains would suggest their originating from a variety of sources and environments. In conclusion, retail food samples in Japan were contaminated with DEC; EAST1EC, a putative DEC, were detected at high rates in poultry, pork and beef. Isolates resistant to >3 antimicrobials were found only in raw meat and fish. Food animals may act as the reservoir for multi-resistant bacteria. Due to the finding that nearly 1/3 of EAST1EC strains were resistant to >3 antimicrobials, additional surveillance for EAST1EC should be initiated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Limitations of variable number of tandem repeat typing identified through whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a national and herd level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Christina; Barkema, Herman W; Stevenson, Karen; Zadoks, Ruth N; Biek, Roman; Kao, Rowland; Trewby, Hannah; Haupstein, Deb; Kelton, David F; Fecteau, Gilles; Labrecque, Olivia; Keefe, Greg P; McKenna, Shawn L B; De Buck, Jeroen

    2015-03-08

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative bacterium of Johne's disease in dairy cattle, is widespread in the Canadian dairy industry and has significant economic and animal welfare implications. An understanding of the population dynamics of MAP can be used to identify introduction events, improve control efforts and target transmission pathways, although this requires an adequate understanding of MAP diversity and distribution between herds and across the country. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers a detailed assessment of the SNP-level diversity and genetic relationship of isolates, whereas several molecular typing techniques used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of MAP, such as variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, target relatively unstable repetitive elements in the genome that may be too unpredictable to draw accurate conclusions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of bovine MAP isolates in Canadian dairy herds using WGS and then determine if VNTR typing can distinguish truly related and unrelated isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 3,039 SNPs identified through WGS of 124 MAP isolates identified eight genetically distinct subtypes in dairy herds from seven Canadian provinces, with the dominant type including over 80% of MAP isolates. VNTR typing of 527 MAP isolates identified 12 types, including "bison type" isolates, from seven different herds. At a national level, MAP isolates differed from each other by 1-2 to 239-240 SNPs, regardless of whether they belonged to the same or different VNTR types. A herd-level analysis of MAP isolates demonstrated that VNTR typing may both over-estimate and under-estimate the relatedness of MAP isolates found within a single herd. The presence of multiple MAP subtypes in Canada suggests multiple introductions into the country including what has now become one dominant type, an important finding for Johne's disease control. VNTR typing often failed to

  4. Pacta sunt servanda versus the social role of contracts: the case of Brazilian agriculture contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Leles Rezende

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the instability created by contradictory court decisions related with contract breaches. Forward marketing contracts represent an important source of resources to finance Brazilian agriculture, however a large number of contract breaches were observed during a period of marked increase in soy prices. The study analyzed 161 judicial appeal decisions and a survey was carried with 70 farmers. The results show the difference of judges' interpretation and the existence of second order effects. The effects of court decisions were more requirements of guarantees and the reduction in the number of contracts. Those soybean farmers who did not breach their contracts have also been negatively affected by the strategic reactions of trading and processing companies. The concept of "social function of the contract" introduced in Brazilian civil code led to a higher degree of instability in contracts, raising transaction costs and motivating private economic sanctions.

  5. 75 FR 39034 - Public Housing Annual Contributions Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Contributions Contract AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Contributions Contract (ACC) with certain requirements applicable to all project and other requirements... Contributions Contract. OMB Approval Number: 2577-New. Form Numbers: Certain information collections do not have...

  6. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  7. 78 FR 72572 - Operational Contract Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... contract support (OCS), including OCS program management, contract support integration, and integration of... integration, and the integration of DoD contractor personnel into contingency operations outside the United... significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Public Law 96-511, ``Paperwork...

  8. Reviving Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellecy, Ryan

    2003-12-01

    Ulysses contracts have faced paternalism objections since they first were proposed. Since the contracts are designed to override a present request from a legally competent patient in favor of a past request made by that patient, enforcement of these contracts was argued to be unjustifiable strong paternalism. Recent legal developments and new theories of practical reasoning suggest that the discussion of Ulysses contracts should be revived. This paper argues that with a proper understanding of the future-directed planning embodied in Ulysses contracts, the charge of strong paternalism can be answered, and the enforcement of some Ulysses contracts may be justified under the rubric of weak paternalism.

  9. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  10. The 3rd annual Australian contract mining conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Papers discussed: the termination of contract debate - implications for the industry; contract industry`s outlook; viability of contract mining at ERA`s Ranger mine in the Northern Territory; obtaining superior operational performance, and reducing risk, using mining contractors; industry consolidation, contracts and market trends; mining equipment financing - the operating lease alternative; Portman Mining Ltd.; development of contract mining within the coal operations of Eastern Australia; case study - Thiess. contractors` experience in operating the Collinsville coal mine for the MIM/Itochu joint venture; integrating contractor management on mines with duty of care; the risk variables; and conflicting objectives - mine optimisation and the underground contract.

  11. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Markers in the Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease of Banana (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease (commonly known as black Sigatoka), is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently the whole genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. This sequence was screened for the presence of Variable Num...

  12. TraceContract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  13. Determinants of Service Contract Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    5–24. Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research , 14(3), 396–402. Ausink...for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research , 16(1), 64–73. Coalition of Service Industries (CSI). (2007...with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research , 18, 39–50. GAO. (2001a, May). Contract management: Trends and

  14. Energy conservation. Federal shared energy savings contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Milans, Flora H.; Kirk, Roy J.; Welker, Robert A.; Sparling, William J.; Butler, Sharon E.; Irwin, Susan W.

    1989-04-01

    A number of impediments have discouraged federal agencies from using shared energy savings contracts. As of November 30, 1988, only two federal agencies - the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the Department of the Army -had awarded such contracts even though they can yield significant energy and cost savings. The three major impediments we identified were uncertainty about the applicability of a particular procurement policy and practice, lack of management incentives, and difficulty in measuring energy and cost savings. To address the first impediment, the Department of Energy (DOE) developed a manual on shared energy savings contracting. The second impediment was addressed when the 100th Congress authorized incentives for federal agencies to enter into shared savings contracts. DOE addressed the third impediment by developing a methodology for calculating energy consumption and cost savings. However, because of differing methodological preferences, this issue will need to be addressed on a contract-by-contract basis. Some state governments and private sector firms are using performance contracts to reduce energy costs in their buildings and facilities. We were able to identify six states that were using performance contracts. Five have established programs, and all six states have projects under contract. The seven energy service companies we contacted indicated interest in federal shared energy savings contracting

  15. 78 FR 68829 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... DFARS 252.232-7007, Limitation of Government's Obligation. DFARS subpart 232.7, Contract [[Page 68830...; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contract Financing AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... and OMB Number: Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) Part 232, Contract Financing...

  16. Matrix representation of hypercomplex numbers and of analytical functions of hypercomplex variable; Rappresentazione matriciale dei numeri ipercomplessi e delle funzioni analitiche di variabile ipercomplessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catoni, Francesco [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Cannata, Roberto [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Funzione Centrale INFO; Nichelatti, Enrico [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1997-10-01

    Systems of hypercomplex numbers, which had been studied and developed at the end of the last century, are nowadays quite unknown to the scientific community. It is believed that study of their applications ended just before one of the fundamental discoveries of our century, Einstein`s equivalence between space and time. Owing to this equivalence, not-defined quadratic forms - which are in a quite strong relationship with hypercomplex numbers possessing divisors of the zero - have got concrete physical meaning. The aim of this work is to study these systems of numbers and to describe them in terms of a familiar mathematical tool, i.e. matrix algebra. Moreover, they will show how hypercomplex numbers possessing divisors of the zero candidate themselves to be the most proper mathematical language for treatment of propagative phenomena.

  17. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  18. Concept of contracting authority

    OpenAIRE

    Kasiliauskaitė, Vitalija

    2016-01-01

    Concept of Contracting Authority Law on Public Procurement the procurement concept implies the conclusion that public procurement be declared only such purchases are carried out by the contracting authority. The contracting authorities can be a subject of state and municipal management institutes, whose assignment authority is determined by a functional approach. Also, contracting authorities may be public and legal entities, but that the public interest and operates non-commercial activities...

  19. Inflation Forecast Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new type of incentive contract for central bankers: inflation forecast contracts, which make central bankers’ remunerations contingent on the precision of their inflation forecasts. We show that such contracts enable central bankers to influence inflation expectations more effectively, thus facilitating more successful stabilization of current inflation. Inflation forecast contracts improve the accuracy of inflation forecasts, but have adverse consequences for output. On balanc...

  20. Comparative Study of IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Netherlands, Based on a 5-Year Nationwide Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, J.L. de; Ingen, J. van; Vries, G. de; Erkens, C.; Sebek, M.; Mulder, A.; Sloot, R.; Brandt, A.M. van den; Enaimi, M.; Kremer, K.; Supply, P.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  1. Comparative study of IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism and variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the Netherlands, based on a 5-year nationwide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; van Ingen, Jakko; de Vries, Gerard; Erkens, Connie; Sebek, Maruschka; Mulder, Arnout; Sloot, Rosa; van den Brandt, Anne-Marie; Enaimi, Mimount; Kremer, Kristin; Supply, Philip; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  2. Conformal maps and group contractions in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonatsos, D.

    2011-01-01

    In mathematics, a conformal map is a function which preserves angles. We show how this procedure can be used in the framework of the Bohr Hamiltonian, leading to a Hamiltonian in a curved space, in which the mass depends on the nuclear deformation β, while it remains independent of the collective variable γ and the three Euler angles. This Hamiltonian is proved to be equivalent to that obtained using techniques of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics. Group contraction is a procedure in which a symmetry group is reduced into a group of lower symmetry in a certain limiting case. Examples are provided in the large boson number limit of the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model by a) the contraction of the SU(3) algebra into the [R 5 ]SO(3) algebra of the rigid rotator, consisting of the angular momentum operators forming SO(3), plus 5 mutually commuting quantities, the quadrupole operators, b) the contraction of the O(6) algebra into the [R 5 ]SO(5) algebra of the γ-unstable rotator. We show how contractions can be used for constructing symmetry lines in the interior of the symmetry triangle of the IBA model. (author)

  3. Teaching about Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  4. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  5. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... a risk that taxpayer funds will be spent on contracts that are wasteful, inefficient, subject to... mission. In such cases, the agency must ensure that the risks associated with noncompetitive contracts are...

  6. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  7. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  8. Duration in Production Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  9. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  10. Development of new multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Listeria innocua and its application in a food processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hajime; Ohshima, Chihiro; Nakagawa, Miku; Thanatsang, Krittaporn; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Chaturongkasumrit, Yuphakhun; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2014-01-01

    Listeria innocua is an important hygiene indicator bacterium in food industries because it behaves similar to Listeria monocytogenes, which is pathogenic to humans. PFGE is often used to characterize bacterial strains and to track contamination source. However, because PFGE is an expensive, complicated, time-consuming protocol, and poses difficulty in data sharing, development of a new typing method is necessary. MLVA is a technique that identifies bacterial strains on the basis of the number of tandem repeats present in the genome varies depending on the strains. MLVA has gained attention due to its high reproducibility and ease of data sharing. In this study, we developed a MLVA protocol to assess L. innocua and evaluated it by tracking the contamination source of L. innocua in an actual food manufacturing factory by typing the bacterial strains isolated from the factory. Three VNTR regions of the L. innocua genome were chosen for use in the MLVA. The number of repeat units in each VNTR region was calculated based on the results of PCR product analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE). The calculated number of repetitions was compared with the results of the gene sequence analysis to demonstrate the accuracy of the CE repeat number analysis. The developed technique was evaluated using 60 L. innocua strains isolated from a food factory. These 60 strains were classified into 11 patterns using MLVA. Many of the strains were classified into ST-6, revealing that this MLVA strain type can contaminate each manufacturing process in the factory. The MLVA protocol developed in this study for L. innocua allowed rapid and easy analysis through the use of CE. This technique was found to be very useful in hygiene control in factories because it allowed us to track contamination sources and provided information regarding whether the bacteria were present in the factories.

  11. Development of new multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA for Listeria innocua and its application in a food processing plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Takahashi

    Full Text Available Listeria innocua is an important hygiene indicator bacterium in food industries because it behaves similar to Listeria monocytogenes, which is pathogenic to humans. PFGE is often used to characterize bacterial strains and to track contamination source. However, because PFGE is an expensive, complicated, time-consuming protocol, and poses difficulty in data sharing, development of a new typing method is necessary. MLVA is a technique that identifies bacterial strains on the basis of the number of tandem repeats present in the genome varies depending on the strains. MLVA has gained attention due to its high reproducibility and ease of data sharing. In this study, we developed a MLVA protocol to assess L. innocua and evaluated it by tracking the contamination source of L. innocua in an actual food manufacturing factory by typing the bacterial strains isolated from the factory. Three VNTR regions of the L. innocua genome were chosen for use in the MLVA. The number of repeat units in each VNTR region was calculated based on the results of PCR product analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE. The calculated number of repetitions was compared with the results of the gene sequence analysis to demonstrate the accuracy of the CE repeat number analysis. The developed technique was evaluated using 60 L. innocua strains isolated from a food factory. These 60 strains were classified into 11 patterns using MLVA. Many of the strains were classified into ST-6, revealing that this MLVA strain type can contaminate each manufacturing process in the factory. The MLVA protocol developed in this study for L. innocua allowed rapid and easy analysis through the use of CE. This technique was found to be very useful in hygiene control in factories because it allowed us to track contamination sources and provided information regarding whether the bacteria were present in the factories.

  12. Operational Contract Support: Economic Impact Evaluation and Measures of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT OPERATIONAL CONTRACT SUPPORT: ECONOMIC IMPACT EVALUATION AND MEASURES...DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPERATIONAL CONTRACT SUPPORT: ECONOMIC IMPACT EVALUATION AND MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS 5...evaluation, expeditionary economics , operational contract support, measure of effectiveness 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 89 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  13. Nucleotide Variability at Its Limit? Insights into the Number and Evolutionary Dynamics of the Sex-Determining Specificities of the Honey Bee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Sarah; Ferretti, Luca; Schöning, Caspar; Kinuthia, Wanja; Willemsen, David; Hasselmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the evolutionary processes driving nucleotide variation in multiallelic genes is limited by the number of genetic systems in which such genes occur. The complementary sex determiner (csd) gene in the honey bee Apis mellifera is an informative example for studying allelic diversity and the underlying evolutionary forces in a well-described model of balancing selection. Acting as the primary signal of sex determination, diploid individuals heterozygous for csd develop into females, whereas csd homozygotes are diploid males that have zero fitness. Examining 77 of the functional heterozygous csd allele pairs, we established a combinatorical criteria that provide insights into the minimum number of amino acid differences among those pairs. Given a data set of 244 csd sequences, we show that the total number of csd alleles found in A. mellifera ranges from 53 (locally) to 87 (worldwide), which is much higher than was previously reported (20). Using a coupon-collector model, we extrapolate the presence of in total 116–145 csd alleles worldwide. The hypervariable region (HVR) is of particular importance in determining csd allele specificity, and we provide for this region evidence of high evolutionary rate for length differences exceeding those of microsatellites. The proportion of amino acids driven by positive selection and the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions in the HVR-flanking regions reach values close to 1 but differ with respect to the HVR length. Using a model of csd coalescence, we identified the high originating rate of csd specificities as a major evolutionary force, leading to an origin of a novel csd allele every 400,000 years. The csd polymorphism frequencies in natural populations indicate an excess of new mutations, whereas signs of ancestral transspecies polymorphism can still be detected. This study provides a comprehensive view of the enormous diversity and the evolutionary forces shaping a multiallelic gene. PMID:24170493

  14. Nucleotide variability at its limit? Insights into the number and evolutionary dynamics of the sex-determining specificities of the honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Sarah; Ferretti, Luca; Schöning, Caspar; Kinuthia, Wanja; Willemsen, David; Hasselmann, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Deciphering the evolutionary processes driving nucleotide variation in multiallelic genes is limited by the number of genetic systems in which such genes occur. The complementary sex determiner (csd) gene in the honey bee Apis mellifera is an informative example for studying allelic diversity and the underlying evolutionary forces in a well-described model of balancing selection. Acting as the primary signal of sex determination, diploid individuals heterozygous for csd develop into females, whereas csd homozygotes are diploid males that have zero fitness. Examining 77 of the functional heterozygous csd allele pairs, we established a combinatorical criteria that provide insights into the minimum number of amino acid differences among those pairs. Given a data set of 244 csd sequences, we show that the total number of csd alleles found in A. mellifera ranges from 53 (locally) to 87 (worldwide), which is much higher than was previously reported (20). Using a coupon-collector model, we extrapolate the presence of in total 116-145 csd alleles worldwide. The hypervariable region (HVR) is of particular importance in determining csd allele specificity, and we provide for this region evidence of high evolutionary rate for length differences exceeding those of microsatellites. The proportion of amino acids driven by positive selection and the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions in the HVR-flanking regions reach values close to 1 but differ with respect to the HVR length. Using a model of csd coalescence, we identified the high originating rate of csd specificities as a major evolutionary force, leading to an origin of a novel csd allele every 400,000 years. The csd polymorphism frequencies in natural populations indicate an excess of new mutations, whereas signs of ancestral transspecies polymorphism can still be detected. This study provides a comprehensive view of the enormous diversity and the evolutionary forces shaping a multiallelic gene.

  15. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  16. Analysis of three variable number terminal repeat loci is sufficient to characterize the deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprints of a panel of human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anding, Allyson L; Reiss, Tanika; Germain, Glen S

    2003-01-01

    Using primers for the MCT118, YNZ22, and COL2A1 loci in polymerase chain reaction analysis we could distinguish among the approximately 20 cell lines routinely maintained in our laboratory. We also demonstrated that the cell line NB-1691 (a neuroblastoma) and its xenograft had an identical number of repeats at two loci. Rh30 (a rhabdomyosarcoma) made resistant to rapamycin was identical to its parent line and to a subline that had reverted to sensitivity after it was cultured without rapamycin in the medium.

  17. Association studies of the copy-number variable ß-defensin cluster on 8p23.1 in adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taudien Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human ß-defensins are a family of antimicrobial peptides located at the mucosal surface. Both sequence multi-site variations (MSV and copy-number variants (CNV of the defensin-encoding genes are associated with increased risk for various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis and acute pancreatitis. In a case–control study, we investigated the association between MSV in DEFB104 as well as defensin gene (DEF cluster copy number (CN, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC and chronic pancreatitis (CP. Results Two groups of PDAC (N=70 and CP (N=60 patients were compared to matched healthy control groups CARLA1 (N=232 and CARLA2 (N=160, respectively. Four DEFB104 MSV were haplotyped by PCR, cloning and sequencing. DEF cluster CN was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Neither the PDAC nor the CP cohorts show significant differences in the DEFB104 haplotype distribution compared to the respective control groups CARLA1 and CARLA2, respectively. The diploid DEF cluster CN exhibit a significantly different distribution between PDAC and CARLA1 (Fisher’s exact test P=0.027, but not between CP and CARLA2 (P=0.867. Conclusion Different DEF cluster b CN distribution between PDAC patients and healthy controls indicate a potential protective effect of higher CNs against the disease.

  18. Influence of IL-1RN intron 2 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism on the age at onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromadzka, Grazyna; Członkowska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wilson's disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive copper storage disease characterized with diverse clinical pictures with the hepatic and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms manifesting at variable age. On the basis of the existing knowledge on possible copper-proinflammatory cytokines interactions, we hypothesized that in WND hereditary, over-/underexpression of PC or anti-inflammatory cytokines may have an impact on the course of the disease. We analyzed the clinical manifestations of WND in relationship to polymorphisms within genes for interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN intron 2 VNTR polymorphism), interleukin-1α (IL1A G4845T), IL-1β (IL1B C-511T), IL-6 (IL6 G-174C), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF G-308A) in a total sample of 332 patients. The IL1B C-511T and IL1RN VNTR polymorphisms had an impact on copper metabolism parameters. None of the studied gene polymorphisms had effect on the mode of WND manifestation (neuropsychiatric vs. hepatic). Carriership of the IL1RN *2 allele was related to earlier WND onset, especially among patients with neuropsychiatric form of the disease (median 27.5 vs. 32.0 years, p = .003). Because of the crucial modulatory role of IL1ra on IL-1α and IL-1β proinflammatory functions, IL1ra and its interactions may play a role in the pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative process in WND; our results need to be replicated, possibly in different ethnic groups.

  19. Effect of nozzle and vertical-tail variables on the performance of a 3-surface F-15 model at transonic Mach numbers. [Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergraft, O. C., Jr.; Bare, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of twin two dimensional nozzles and twin baseline axisymmetric nozzles installed on a fully metric 0.047 scale model of the F-15 three surface configuration (canards, wing, horizontal tails). The effects on performance of two dimensional nozzle in flight thrust reversing, locations and orientation of the vertical tails, and deflections of the horizontal tails were also determined. Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20 over an angle of attack range from -2 deg to 15 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet off to about 6.5.

  20. Number distribution of leakage neutrons for single neutron emission event and one source emission event in multiplying medium for two variables - a GEANT4 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Arup Singha; Raman, Anand; Chaudhury, Probal; Thomas, Renju G.

    2018-01-01

    A quantitative knowledge about the neutron multiplying character of a neutron multiplying medium such as High enriched Uranium (HEU), Weapon Graded plutonium (WGPu) and similar special nuclear materials is essential for improving the probability of detection of these materials to check against illicit trafficking. The objective of this study is to gain a deeper insight in to the neutron and gamma multiplication behaviour of these materials. The leakage number distribution of neutron and gamma initiated by a source emission event (Spontaneous Fission) as well as single neutron emission event has been obtained in the course of this study. The computations for this study were carried out through GEANT4 simulation and also with the help of FREYA incorporated into it. This helped to carry out a detailed analysis of each history more realistically and obtain more reliable results

  1. Analysis of the Latitudinal Variability of Tropospheric Ozone in the Arctic Using the Large Number of Aircraft and Ozonesonde Observations in Early Summer 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancellet, Gerard; Daskalakis, Nikos; Raut, Jean Christophe; Quennehen, Boris; Ravetta, Francois; Hair, Jonathan; Tarasick, David; Schlager, Hans; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Thompson, Anne M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the paper are to: (1) present tropospheric ozone (O3) climatologies in summer 2008 based on a large amount of measurements, during the International Polar Year when the Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements, and Models of Climate Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport (POLARCAT) campaigns were conducted (2) investigate the processes that determine O3 concentrations in two different regions (Canada and Greenland) that were thoroughly studied using measurements from 3 aircraft and 7 ozonesonde stations. This paper provides an integrated analysis of these observations and the discussion of the latitudinal and vertical variability of tropospheric ozone north of 55oN during this period is performed using a regional model (WFR-Chem). Ozone, CO and potential vorticity (PV) distributions are extracted from the simulation at the measurement locations. The model is able to reproduce the O3 latitudinal and vertical variability but a negative O3 bias of 6-15 ppbv is found in the free troposphere over 4 km, especially over Canada. Ozone average concentrations are of the order of 65 ppbv at altitudes above 4 km both over Canada and Greenland, while they are less than 50 ppbv in the lower troposphere. The relative influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) and of ozone production related to the local biomass burning (BB) emissions is discussed using differences between average values of O3, CO and PV for Southern and Northern Canada or Greenland and two vertical ranges in the troposphere: 0-4 km and 4-8 km. For Canada, the model CO distribution and the weak correlation (less than 30%) of O3 and PV suggests that stratosphere troposphere exchange (STE) is not the major contribution to average tropospheric ozone at latitudes less than 70 deg N, due to the fact that local biomass burning (BB) emissions were significant during the 2008 summer period. Conversely over Greenland, significant STE is found according to the better O3 versus PV

  2. Copyright Preemption of Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This Article argues that both courts and scholars are wrong in their categorical approaches to preemption of contracts under the Copyright Act, and proposes an intermediate approach that recognizes the importance of both contract rights and federal policy in preemption analysis. First, it argues that both courts and scholars have misapplied preemption law to breach of contract claims. Although the two sides tend to favor opposite results, they take equally categorical approaches. Categori...

  3. Modeling and simulation of aggregation of membrane protein LAT with molecular variability in the number of binding sites for cytosolic Grb2-SOS1-Grb2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Nag

    Full Text Available The linker for activation of T cells (LAT, the linker for activation of B cells (LAB, and the linker for activation of X cells (LAX form a family of transmembrane adaptor proteins widely expressed in lymphocytes. These scaffolding proteins have multiple binding motifs that, when phosphorylated, bind the SH2 domain of the cytosolic adaptor Grb2. Thus, the valence of LAT, LAB and LAX for Grb2 is variable, depending on the strength of receptor activation that initiates phosphorylation. During signaling, the LAT population will exhibit a time-varying distribution of Grb2 valences from zero to three. In the cytosol, Grb2 forms 1:1 and 2:1 complexes with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS1. The 2:1 complex can bridge two LAT molecules when each Grb2, through their SH2 domains, binds to a phosphorylated site on a separate LAT. In T cells and mast cells, after receptor engagement, receptor phosphoyrlation is rapidly followed by LAT phosphorylation and aggregation. In mast cells, aggregates containing more than one hundred LAT molecules have been detected. Previously we considered a homogeneous population of trivalent LAT molecules and showed that for a range of Grb2, SOS1 and LAT concentrations, an equilibrium theory for LAT aggregation predicts the formation of a gel-like phase comprising a very large aggregate (superaggregate. We now extend this theory to investigate the effects of a distribution of Grb2 valence in the LAT population on the formation of LAT aggregates and superaggregate and use stochastic simulations to calculate the fraction of the total LAT population in the superaggregate.

  4. Comparison of a Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) Method for Typing Mycobacterium avium with Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-VNTR and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, Takayuki; Nishimori, Kei; Yagi, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Moriyama, Makoto; Nakagawa, Taku; Shibayama, Takami; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Nikai, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections are increasing annually in various countries, including Japan, but the route of transmission and pathophysiology of the infection remain unclear. Currently, a variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing method using the Mycobacterium avium tandem repeat (MATR) loci (MATR-VNTR) is employed in Japan for epidemiological studies using clinical isolates of M. avium. In this study, the usefulness of this MATR-VNTR typing method was compared with that of ...

  5. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new......Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...

  6. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  7. Typing and Evaluation of the Genetic Relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Food Samples by the Multiple-Locus Variable number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Sadeghi kalani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:Listeria monocytogenes cause listeriosis and fatal infections in humans. The aim of this study was typing and evaluation of the genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes strains from food samples using MLVA technique. Materials and Methods: 317 food samples were collected from 2009 to 2013 in Tehran,Iran. After final diagnosis of L. monocytogenes DNA was extracted to perform of MLVA technique, and also PCR products were analyzed by Gene Tools software. The number of tandem repeats was determined by using special equation for each selected locus. Also typing of strains was done. Results: 24 samples of 317 food samples were positive for L. monocytogenes using standard laboratory techniques. A total 13 different types were determined by MLVA technique that type 2 and type 3 were the most abundant types by 6 and 4 strains, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study showed the presence of L. monocytogenes in dairy products and meat samples, therefore all people, especially pregnant women should observe health tips when using these products. The results of typing showed that L. monocytogenes strains from different sources can have the same origin. MLVA technique is easy with high accuracy and this method can be used in typing and evaluation of the genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes for determination the source of contamination.

  8. Contract on using computer resources of another

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Mihajlo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractual relations involving the use of another's property are quite common. Yet, the use of computer resources of others over the Internet and legal transactions arising thereof certainly diverge from the traditional framework embodied in the special part of contract law dealing with this issue. Modern performance concepts (such as: infrastructure, software or platform as high-tech services are highly unlikely to be described by the terminology derived from Roman law. The overwhelming novelty of high-tech services obscures the disadvantageous position of contracting parties. In most cases, service providers are global multinational companies which tend to secure their own unjustified privileges and gain by providing lengthy and intricate contracts, often comprising a number of legal documents. General terms and conditions in these service provision contracts are further complicated by the '.service level agreement', rules of conduct and (nonconfidentiality guarantees. Without giving the issue a second thought, users easily accept the pre-fabricated offer without reservations, unaware that such a pseudo-gratuitous contract actually conceals a highly lucrative and mutually binding agreement. The author examines the extent to which the legal provisions governing sale of goods and services, lease, loan and commodatum may apply to 'cloud computing' contracts, and analyses the scope and advantages of contractual consumer protection, as a relatively new area in contract law. The termination of a service contract between the provider and the user features specific post-contractual obligations which are inherent to an online environment.

  9. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  10. Contract Teachers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  11. Whither Performance Contracting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman S.

    This report describes briefly performance contracts; discusses their shortcomings, pitfalls, and advantages; and gives some insight into the future development of this new concept. Two shortcomings of performance contracting include (1) teaching to the test and (2) board abdication of its responsibility for making final decisions about educational…

  12. Comparing contracting performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    . Hypotheses are suggested for the role of culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration for contracting performance between and across the countries. Arguments are tested against data from on four comparable national surveys of private delivery of park and road maintenance services in local...

  13. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts. In this p...

  14. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  15. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  16. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  17. 41 CFR 105-1.109 - Numbering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Numbering. 105-1.109 Section 105-1.109 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.109 Numbering. ...

  18. ENFORCEMENT OF MORTGAGE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. BELU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chattel mortgage contract is the expression of a real guarantee that gives the creditor precedence over other creditors, in addition to the general pledge upon the belongings of the debtor. It refers to the sale of mortgaged movable assets, exclusively or prioritized in favor of the mortgaging creditor, in case the debtor does not comply with his / her commitments, under the signed mortgage contract. Beginning from this purpose, shared by both sides (as the chattel mortgage contract is synallagmatic, in case the debtor is unable to fulfill his / her commitments, the sides reach a situation of enforcement of the signed chattel mortgage contract. Given the legal status of the chattel mortgage contract [Art. 2387-2477 Noul Cod Civil , Universul Juridic, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-673-792-0], the principle of binding force of the contract and the principle according to which signed legal conventions will entail legal effects, the Romanian law maker developed the proper legal framework for the enforcement of the chattel mortgage contract. [art. 622 si urm. Noul Cod de Procedură Civilă, ed. Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-27-0459-9].

  19. JURIDICAL WILL IN CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian CIONGARU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the business law, almost all judicial relationships of private law are obligational juridical relationships which are made up of legal acts and facts. The most important legal act is the contract since it is the basis of the social life in any community meaning that it represents the most important economic and juridical instrument for the participants to a contract. The persons are free and equal in society and, consequently, no power is valid and fundamental unless it relies on their consent, namely on a contract. So, the existence of a civil contract relies on the principles of consensualism, a perception based on moral rules to observe one’s promises, to have good faith and to observe the interests of your fellow creature. The exterior manifestation, the expression or declaration of the juridical will constitutes the consent of such person in making the structure of contract. The declared will must correspond to the person’s real will and the adoption and declaration of the juridical will must take place consciously. Any contract that does not derive from juridical will is null and the civilizing character is inexistent. The principles giving sense to consensualism is the one of agreement between parties so as to produce legal effects by itself and it is enough for the conclusion of a contract, regardless of the form in which it is exteriorized, a principle expressed by the Latin adagio pacta sunt servanda.

  20. Bottlenecks and contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The report surveys the central points in the literature about contracts on geographical price differences and transmission rights in the power market. It is commonly believed that such contracts may reduce market power and contribute to better network investments. The theoretical debate is in part unfinished and largely based on very stylised assumptions. There is some indication that such contracts may not be very useful in practice. But they may be useful in some cases, perhaps in particular when power is transported outside limited surplus areas and for certain investment decisions where there is no systems operator with a natural responsibility

  1. Contract management survey 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-10-01

    Spending on clinical contracts continues to outpace spending on business services, but may be leveling off. The 12th annual Contract Management Survey shows that the performance of clinical vendors is now comparable to business service vendors in meeting savings targets. Both business and clinical vendors are receiving higher marks from hospital leaders, but execs quickly respond to low marks by bringing the service back in-house of changing vendors. This report examines trends in outsourcing, satisfaction levels, the decision-making process, contract features and performance, and spending.

  2. 2001 contract management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    For the second year running, hospitals are spending more on clinical outsourcing than on business services. The Eleventh Annual Contract Services Survey shows that, in clinical areas, executives use outsourcing to acquire specialized expertise with cost savings secondary. Reducing costs and FTEs are the primary reasons for outsourcing business operations. Business service contracts are more likely to meet expectations for cost savings. Overall, satisfaction levels are up, but in some areas there's still a lot of room for improvement. This report examines current trends in outsourcing, strategies for the future, satisfaction levels, the decisionmaking process, contract features, and costs.

  3. The contract - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The contract is the last and final step of project planning and the first step of project implementation. The contract has to specify in detail and to the point, as concisely as possible, the complete scope of supplies and work, define all technical particulars and requirements, put forward the conditions of legal, regulatory, administrative and financial procedure, prepare for operating and maintenance instructions to be issued after commissioning. In short, the contract is expected to be a reliable instrument during the manufacturing and construction period as well as a guide-book to assist the owner afterwards in the operation and maintenance of the plant. (orig./FW) [de

  4. Insurance risk with variable number of policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Kulkarni, V.G.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we consider an insurance company selling life insurance policies. New policies are sold at random points in time, and each policy stays active for an exponential amount of time with rate µ, during which the policyholder pays premiums continuously at rate r. When the policy expires,

  5. Use of multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) to investigate genetic diversity of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from human, food, and veterinary sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateva, Gergana; Pedersen, Karl; Sørensen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    -locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and compared results with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinations for 100 S. Typhimurium strains isolated in Bulgaria during 2008-2012 (50 veterinary/food and 50 human isolates). Results showed that isolates were divided into 80 and 34 groups using......). No clustering of isolates related to susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobials, source of isolation, or year of isolation was observed. Some MLVA types were found in both human and veterinary/food isolates, indicating a possible route of transmission. A majority (83%) of the isolates were found...

  6. Lack of support for a role of the insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats minisatellite (INS-VNTR) locus in fetal growth or type 2 diabetes-related intermediate traits in United Kingdom populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Simon M S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Knight, Beatrice; Turner, Tina; Metcalf, Bradley S; Voss, Linda D; Davies, David; McCarthy, Anne; Wilkin, Terence J; Smith, George Davey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Frayling, Timothy M

    2004-01-01

    The insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats minisatellite (INS-VNTR) class III allele is associated with altered fetal growth, type 2 diabetes risk (especially when paternally inherited), and insulin and IGF2 gene expression. Further studies are needed to establish the role of the INS-VNTR in fetal growth and assess whether its effects depend on the parent of origin. We analyzed the INS-VNTR-linked -23 Hph1 polymorphism in 2283 subjects, comprising 1184 children and 1099 parents. There were no differences (P VNTR was nominally associated (P VNTR in fetal growth and nominal association with type 2 diabetes-related intermediate traits.

  7. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  8. Industrial Services Contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Industrial Services contracts at CERN, including the probable expenditure in 2006 and the estimated expenditure for 2007. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note of the revised amount in 2006 for Industrial Services contracts referred to in this document of 138.02 MCHF at 2006 prices compared to the previously anticipated amount of 122.67 MCHF at 2005 prices; - to take note that the estimated amount in 2007 for the contracts referred to in this document will be 112.54 MCHF at 2006 prices; - for the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is also invited to approve the requests for the contracts presented and highlighted in the Annexes.

  9. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At its September 2000 meeting, the Finance Committee approved a second one-year extension of the four existing temporary labour contracts (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE) until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the estimated annual expenditure on temporary labour in 2001 will amount to approximately 4 500 000 Swiss francs against the previously estimated 6 000 000 Swiss francs; - to approve the extension of the four existing contracts by six months to 30 June 2002 for an overall amount not exceeding 1 500 000 Swiss francs; - to take note that new contracts for the Swiss part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in December 2001 and that new contracts for the French part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in the course of 2002.

  10. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  11. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  12. Contracting as a Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer (PCO)–program manager (PM) relationship in...marketing terms, finding that disconfirmed expectations lead to consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The former approach presents the idea that if an...individual exerts effort, the expectation is that successful performance will occur leading to a desired result. In contracting, the theory might be

  13. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  14. Avoiding surety contracts in bankruptcy procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiber Dragor

    2015-01-01

    does not mean that the guarantor gives up his right to claim from the debtor the amount paid because otherwise such transaction would represent an indirect gift rather than surety. This does mean that there is no remuneration for surety - a benefit the guarantor could expect from entering into a surety contract. Therefore, the author rejects the approach followed by a number of Serbia's courts that bankruptcy trustee may request a declaration that, in accordance with the rules on avoiding debtor's transactions, a surety contract has no legal effects.

  15. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  16. Group contractions in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concini, C. De; Vitiello, G.

    1979-01-01

    General theorems are given for SU(n) and SO(n). A projective geometry argument is also presented with disclosure of the occurrence a group contraction mechanism as a geometric consequence of spontaneous breakdown of symmetry. It is also shown that a contraction of the conformal group gives account of the number of degrees of freedom of an n-pseudoparticle system in an Euclidean SU(2) gauge invariant Yang-Mills theory, in agreement with the result obtained by algebraic geometry methods. Low-energy theorems and ordered states symmetry patterns are observable manifestations of group contractions. These results seem to support the conjecture that the transition from quantum to classical physics involves a group contraction mechanism. (author)

  17. Digital breast tomosynthesis: observer performance of clustered microcalcification detection on breast phantom images acquired with an experimental system using variable scan angles, angular increments, and number of projection views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Helvie, Mark A; Zelakiewicz, Scott; Schmitz, Andrea; Noroozian, Mitra; Paramagul, Chintana; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Nees, Alexis V; Neal, Colleen H; Carson, Paul; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Wei, Jun

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the dependence of microcalcification cluster detectability on tomographic scan angle, angular increment, and number of projection views acquired at digital breast tomosynthesis ( DBT digital breast tomosynthesis ). A prototype DBT digital breast tomosynthesis system operated in step-and-shoot mode was used to image breast phantoms. Four 5-cm-thick phantoms embedded with 81 simulated microcalcification clusters of three speck sizes (subtle, medium, and obvious) were imaged by using a rhodium target and rhodium filter with 29 kV, 50 mAs, and seven acquisition protocols. Fixed angular increments were used in four protocols (denoted as scan angle, angular increment, and number of projection views, respectively: 16°, 1°, and 17; 24°, 3°, and nine; 30°, 3°, and 11; and 60°, 3°, and 21), and variable increments were used in three (40°, variable, and 13; 40°, variable, and 15; and 60°, variable, and 21). The reconstructed DBT digital breast tomosynthesis images were interpreted by six radiologists who located the microcalcification clusters and rated their conspicuity. The mean sensitivity for detection of subtle clusters ranged from 80% (22.5 of 28) to 96% (26.8 of 28) for the seven DBT digital breast tomosynthesis protocols; the highest sensitivity was achieved with the 16°, 1°, and 17 protocol (96%), but the difference was significant only for the 60°, 3°, and 21 protocol (80%, P .99). The conspicuity of subtle and medium clusters with the 16°, 1°, and 17 protocol was rated higher than those with other protocols; the differences were significant for subtle clusters with the 24°, 3°, and nine protocol and for medium clusters with 24°, 3°, and nine; 30°, 3°, and 11; 60°, 3° and 21; and 60°, variable, and 21 protocols (P tomosynthesis provided higher sensitivity and conspicuity than wide-angle DBT digital breast tomosynthesis for subtle microcalcification clusters. © RSNA, 2014.

  18. The Use of Performance Incentives in DOD Contracting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildebrandt, Gregory G

    1998-01-01

    .... Such contracts may have renewed policy relevance today because of both the change from detailed design-to-performance specifications and the implementation of Cost as an Independent Variable (CAIV...

  19. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen:1.\tCandidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2.\tThe criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following:staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract;in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consid...

  20. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen: 1. Candidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2. The criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following: staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract; in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consideration fo...

  1. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L 021/PE, L 022/PE, L 023/PE and L 024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) reached the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. At CERN?s request, in September 1999 the Finance Committee approved an extension of these contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs (CERN/FC/4196). In December 1999, one of the five contractors, FIRCROFT, withdrew from its contract for 2000. Following the satisfactory execution of the four remaining contracts during 2000, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2001 for the second of the two optional years provided for in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the extension of the existing contracts until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices.

  2. Networks and informal contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  3. The legality of unilateral increase of interest rate in banking loan contracts under Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis spread in 2008 through the world and reached Serbia, rendered the repayment of banking loans indexed in foreign currencies, mostly in CHF at the time, even more difficult. The growing number of non-performing loans inevitably led to an increase in number of the court proceedings in which the debtors made attempts to have the loan contracts declared null and void. In these proceedings, the courts needed to take a stand on some typical clauses in loan contracts and on some banking practices that the debtors considered to be contrary to the principle of good faith, which, before the crisis, was hardly ever given judicial epilogue. In the majority of cases, two types of clauses proved to be unlawful: a clause establishing a right of the bank to subsequently, i.e. after the formation of the contract, and unilaterally, i.e. without a specific consent of the debtor, change (regularly increase the interest rate for the remainder of the credit period; and a clause establishing the right of the bank to apply different exchange rates, i.e. the buying rate to the disbursement of the loan, and the selling rate to the value of credit installments. These clauses certainly existed even before the crisis, but the difficulties in performing the loans caused by the crisis was the social propelling force that brought these cases within the sight of the judiciary. In this paper the author analyzes the reaction of courts, and subsequently that of the legislator, to the clause in loan contracts entitling the bank to unilaterally increase the variable interest rate after the formation of contract. The application of this clause was usually conditioned on significant changes in international financial markets or changes in the costs of the sources of financing, while in some cases the conditions of the application of the clause were simply changes in the business policy of the bank or the need to operate with profit. In any case, these are

  4. Capitation, contracts, and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts

  5. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  6. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  7. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  8. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  9. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  10. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  11. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  12. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  13. Is Contract Law Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This lecture was delivered on 17 March 2010. Alan Schwartz, Sterling Professor of Law; Professor of Management, Yale University This Lecture argues that much of the contract law in the cases (the US, the UK and Canada) and in the codes (Europe and Latin America) is unnecessary. To say that a law is unnecessary is to say that it does not perform a useful social function. The argument below thus sets out the functions that contract laws today are thought to serve, and then shows that many of...

  14. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  15. Do contracts help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable team structure exists if teams produce public goods or if the quota is two. However, these existence results no longer hold if efforts are verifiable....

  16. Statutes and contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    and commissive acts. The findings show that the language of the law characteristically selects patterns of regulative distinct from, for example, the patterns typically selected in everyday conversational English. The characteristics of the language of the law can be interpreted within the adherence to legal......This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...

  17. Consensus, contracts, and committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J D

    1991-08-01

    Following a brief account of the puzzle that ethics committees present for the Western Philosophical tradition, I will examine the possibility that social contract theory can contribute to a philosophical account of these committees. Passing through classical as well as contemporary theories, particularly Rawls' recent constructivist approach, I will argue that social contract theory places severe constraints on the authority that may legitimately be granted to ethics committees. This, I conclude, speaks more about the suitability of the theory to this level of analysis than about the ethics committee phenomenon itself.

  18. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  19. Study of heavy meson production in p-Pb collisions at p√(S)=5.02 TeV in the general-mass variable-flavour-number scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Spiesberger, H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Inst. fuer Physik; Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics and Dept. of Physics

    2017-03-16

    We study inclusive charm and bottom production, for both D and B mesons, in p-Pb collisions at the LHC. Numerical results for p{sub T} -differential production cross sections are obtained at next-to-leading-order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme. We compare our results with recent data from ALICE and CMS at a center-of-mass energy of 5 TeV and find good agreement. A comparison with p-p cross sections does not reveal the presence of nuclear initial-state interaction effects that could be expected to become visible as deviations of the ratio of p-Pb and p-p cross sections from one.

  20. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  1. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tirole, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  2. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  3. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  4. Startpoints via weak contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  5. Copyright or Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okerson, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Most authors and publishers of electronic information believe that current copyright law does not address technical capabilities or reader uses and have turned to contracts or licenses to define the rights of owners and users. Discusses copyrights, fair use, and licenses and highlights licensing's unresolved issues: use and users; archiving;…

  6. The Effect of Forging Variables on the Supersolvus Heat-Treatment Response of Powder-Metallurgy Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0160 THE EFFECT OF FORGING VARIABLES ON THE SUPERSOLVUS HEAT-TREATMENT RESPONSE OF POWDER - METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS... POWDER - METALLURGY NICKEL- BASE SUPERALLOYS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR...treatment (SSHT) of two powder - metallurgy , gamma–gamma prime superalloys, IN-100 and LSHR, was established. For this purpose, isothermal, hot

  7. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  8. A three-source capture-recapture estimate of the number of new HIV diagnoses in children in France from 2003–2006 with multiple imputation of a variable of heterogeneous catchability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héraud-Bousquet Vanina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all HIV infections in children worldwide are acquired through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT during pregnancy, labour, delivery or breastfeeding. The objective of our study was to estimate the number and rate of new HIV diagnoses in children less than 13 years of age in mainland France from 2003–2006. Methods We performed a capture-recapture analysis based on three sources of information: the mandatory HIV case reporting (DOVIH, the French Perinatal Cohort (ANRS-EPF and a laboratory-based surveillance of HIV (LaboVIH. The missing values of a variable of heterogeneous catchability were estimated through multiple imputation. Log-linear modelling provided estimates of the number of new HIV infections in children, taking into account dependencies between sources and variables of heterogeneous catchability. Results The three sources observed 216 new HIV diagnoses after record-linkage. The number of new HIV diagnoses in children was estimated at 387 (95%CI [271–503] from 2003–2006, among whom 60% were born abroad. The estimated rate of new HIV diagnoses in children in mainland France was 9.1 per million in 2006 and was 38 times higher in children born abroad than in those born in France. The estimated completeness of the three sources combined was 55.8% (95% CI [42.9 – 79.7] and varied according to the source; the completeness of DOVIH (28.4% and ANRS-EPF (26.1% were lower than that of LaboVIH (33.3%. Conclusion Our study provided, for the first time, an estimated annual rate of new HIV diagnoses in children under 13 years old in mainland France. A more systematic HIV screening of pregnant women that is repeated during pregnancy among women likely to engage in risky behaviour is needed to optimise the prevention of MTCT. HIV screening for children who migrate from countries with high HIV prevalence to France could be recommended to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Requirements on a B2B e-contract language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelov, S.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic contracts are the instrument to govern electronic trading relationships between business parties. A number of efforts exist in both the academic and industrial worlds to define an e-contract specification language. However, these efforts lack either universality or completeness. The main

  10. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  11. Reconciling Contracts and Relational Governance through Strategic Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Østergaard, Kim

    2018-01-01

    on contract types, such as strategic versus conventional, may reconcile the enduring research controversy between the substitution and complements perspectives. Practical implications: Today, formal contracts with foreign distributors tend to resemble “prenuptial agreements”. The opportunity for relational...

  12. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  13. Interpretation of Written Contracts in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the leading principles governing interpretation of written contracts under English law. This is a comprehensive and incisive analysis of the current law and of the relevant doctrines, including the equitable principles of rectification, as well as the powers of appeal courts or of the High Court when hearing an appeal from an arbitral award. The topic of interpretation of written contracts is fast-moving. It is of fundamental importance because this is the most significant commercial focus for dispute and because of the number of cross-border transactions to which English law is expressly applied by businesses.

  14. The effects of hospitals' governance on optimal contracts: bargaining vs. contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Matteo M; Miraldo, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    We propose a two-stage model to study the impact of different hospitals' governance frameworks on the optimal contracts designed by third-party payers when patients' disease severity is the private information of the hospital. In the second stage, doctors and managers interact within either a bargaining or a contracting scenario. In the contracting scenario, managers offer a contract that determines the payment to doctors, and doctors decide how many patients to treat. In the bargaining scenario, doctors and managers strategically negotiate on both the payment to doctors and the number of patients to treat. We derive the equilibrium doctors' payments and number of treated patients under both scenarios. We then derive the optimal contract offered by the government to the hospital in the first stage. Results show that when the cost of capital is sufficiently low, the informational rent is lower, and the social welfare is higher, in the contracting scenario. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    contracting command xv KO contracting officer KTR contractor LSC lead service component MGAA Mesopotamia Group Atlas Apache NAT National Afghanistan...and Contract Authority Understanding the roles of contracting versus command authority and command relationships is a fundamental that must be...Audit 12-7 (2012) described the CENTCOM-JTSCC (C- JTSCC) formation and command relationship : In April 2010, CENTCOM issued a fragmentary order to

  16. Evaluation of the value of availability and dispatchability in IPP contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camporeale, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Consolidated Edison's resource plan relies on power from Independent Power Producers (IPPs) for a portion of future generation requirements. The additional restriction of obtaining this capacity through a bidding process requires the utility to evaluate a large number of potential contracts with different combinations of price, availability, and dispatchability. This paper discusses the theoretical considerations and outlines the methodology adopted for Consolidated Edison's first request for proposal. The value of an IPP contract is a function of the variable energy cost compared to the system avoided costs. For example, there is a value for availability only in those hours when contract cost is below the avoided cost and there is a penalty for non-dispatchability only in those hours when the contract cost is higher than the avoided cost. The best method to determine the value of an IPP contract would be to simulate the operation of the system with and without the IPP purchase using a perfect production cost model. In reality no model is perfect and there are trade-offs because not all aspects of system operation are captured. Performing a detailed production cost simulation for every proposal would be burdensome. Therefore, it was decided that a simplified methodology was needed. An additional benefit of a simplified approach is that the IPPs could score their own proposals and use this value as input into their final pricing scheme. The method developed relies on detailed production cost simulations to generate hourly avoided costs. A comparison of these avoided costs to the IPP variable costs becomes the basis for the calculation of the value of availability or dispatchability. This methodology can be applied consistently to all supply side resources; baseload or peaking, gas, oil or coal fired. This allows for the evaluation of all bid proposals on an equal basis

  17. Organization and management of the LHC civil-engineering contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, T

    1999-01-01

    Since July 1994, the CERN Civil Engineering group within the ST division has been preparing and engaging contracts related to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. Several of these contracts have values in excess of 10 MCHF and will be executed over a number of years; as such they represent an important part of the infrastructure works required for the LHC. To date, in excess of two hundred and fifty companies have been consulted in relation to these contracts. Contracts or orders have been placed with over thirty companies or joint ventures of companies from nearly all the CERN Member States. This paper aims to show the inter-relationships between these contracts and how the Civil Engineering group is carrying out the management of these important LHC contracts. The organization of the group will be explained along with the roles of individual members within the group.

  18. Current problems associated with nuclear plant construction contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albano, Raffaele.

    1977-01-01

    The expansion of nuclear electricity generating programmes has brought to the fore the problems associated with construction of this type of power plant. The paper analyses the contracts for such construction and describes the most common, the turnkey contract. The present tendency is to limit the scope of turnkey contracts to the nuclear system or simply to the reactor and this is especially common in advanced nuclear countries such as the US, Canada, Japan, UK and France, and this is also the case in Italy where the question of contracting nuclear plants is debated. In Germany the power utilities hold a large number of shares in the manufacturing industry and the turnkey contract is therefore more economically attractive. A detailed description of the contracting procedure is provided, including the suppliers' and purchasers' responsibilities, plant commissioning tests and handing over of the plant to the operator. (NEA) [fr

  19. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  20. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  1. Contracting in a Foreign Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodeschin, Darrin

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis investigates and compares the different contracting structures of the U.S. Army, the UN, and Apple as well as the duties and responsibilities of the contracting individuals within these organizations...

  2. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  3. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  4. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  5. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  6. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting... services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities requiring...

  7. Contracting for Complex Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    asymmetries, and barriers to market entry and exit (e.g., Mankiw , et al., 2002). Goods may be non-rivalrous or non-excludable so that transferable property...investments. Expenditures are asset specific to the extent they have no economic value outside the product being produced (Williamson, 2005). For...example, some research in the US space program produced economic value outside the contract (e.g., Tang), while other research produced little value

  8. Contract types - turnkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    Turnkey or the turnkey type of contract refers to a system of management according to which one organization accepts total responsibility for completing all parts and all phases of a project. In the case of a power project the turnkey contractor undertakes to design the plant, supply or procure and erect the equipment, build the station and put it into operation. (orig./FW) [de

  9. Between Status and Contract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Keiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with unfree labour in Germany from the early modern age until the beginning of the 20th century. It presents the main conclusions of a book published in 2013 on this subject in German. Unfree labour is not identified in the first place with slavery or any other labour relationship based on status. Instead, this study aims at an analysis of freedom and coercion in contractual labour relationships. It will be argued that in Germany contractual labour relationships before 1800 were embedded in a legal system that strongly restricted contractual autonomy and aimed at the suppression of free labour markets. The scope of this legislation was to guarantee efficient labour performance, which was not only perceived as being in the personal interest of an employer, but as a fundamental element of the common good. After 1800 the system changed to more incentive-based legislation that established freedom of contract for labour relations. Nevertheless, coercion in order to perform the contractual duties of a work contract remained important for many groups of workers, especially farmhands and industrial workers. The last criminal sanctions for breaches of labour contracts were only abolished in the revolution of 1919. This development shows the difficulties German law had in extending the principles of private law to workers. When a system of free labour was fully established, the issue of unemployment and economic problems, especially in the Weimar Republic, required a new system of protective rules. The history of free market based labour contracts in Germany was therefore very short, with state intervention shi ing from control and coercion to social assistance.

  10. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  11. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  12. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  13. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  14. The economics of energy service contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, S. [University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom). Sussex Energy Group, SPRU -Science and Technology Policy Research

    2007-01-15

    Energy service contracting can provide a cost-effective route to overcoming barriers to energy efficiency. Energy service contracts allow the client to reduce operating costs, transfer risk and concentrate attention on core activities. However, the energy services model may only be appropriate for a subset of energy services and energy using organisations. A challenge for both business strategy and public policy is to identify those situations in which energy service contracting is most likely to be appropriate and the conditions under which it is most likely to succeed. Energy service contracting is a form of outsourcing. It will only be chosen where the expected reduction in the production cost of supplying energy services can more than offset the transaction cost of negotiating and managing the relationship with the energy service provider. Production costs will be determined by a combination of the physical characteristics of the energy system and the technical efficiency of the relevant organisational arrangements, including economies of scale and specialisation. Transaction costs, in turn, will be determined by the complexity of the energy service, the 'specificity' of the investments made by the contractor, the competitiveness of the energy services market and the relevant legal, financial and regulatory rules. This paper develops these ideas into a general framework that may be used to assess the feasibility of energy service contracting in different circumstances. The framework leads to a number of hypotheses that are suitable for empirical test. (author)

  15. The economics of energy service contracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, Steve [Univ. of Sussex (United Kingdom). SPRU

    2005-07-01

    Energy service contracting can provide a cost-effective route to overcoming barriers to energy efficiency. Energy service contracts allow the client to reduce operating costs, transfer risk and concentrate attention on core activities. However, the energy services model may only be appropriate for a subset of energy services and energy using organisations. A challenge for both business strategy and public policy is to identify those situations in which energy service contracting is most likely to be appropriate and the conditions under which it is most likely to succeed. Energy service contracting is a form of outsourcing. It will only be chosen where the expected reduction in the production cost of supplying energy services can more than offset the transactions cost of negotiating and managing the relationship with the energy service provider. Production costs will be determined by a combination of the physical characteristics of the energy system and the technical efficiency of the relevant organisational arrangements, including economies of scale and specialisation. Transaction costs, in turn, will be determined by the complexity of the energy service, the 'specificity' of the investments made by the contractor, the 'contestability' of the energy services market and the relevant legal, financial and regulatory rules. This paper develops these ideas into a general framework that may be used to assess the feasibility of energy service contracting in different circumstances. The framework leads to a number of hypotheses that are suitable for empirical test.

  16. The economics of energy service contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Energy service contracting can provide a cost-effective route to overcoming barriers to energy efficiency. Energy service contracts allow the client to reduce operating costs, transfer risk and concentrate attention on core activities. However, the energy services model may only be appropriate for a subset of energy services and energy using organisations. A challenge for both business strategy and public policy is to identify those situations in which energy service contracting is most likely to be appropriate and the conditions under which it is most likely to succeed. Energy service contracting is a form of outsourcing. It will only be chosen where the expected reduction in the production cost of supplying energy services can more than offset the transaction cost of negotiating and managing the relationship with the energy service provider. Production costs will be determined by a combination of the physical characteristics of the energy system and the technical efficiency of the relevant organisational arrangements, including economies of scale and specialisation. Transaction costs, in turn, will be determined by the complexity of the energy service, the 'specificity' of the investments made by the contractor, the competitiveness of the energy services market and the relevant legal, financial and regulatory rules. This paper develops these ideas into a general framework that may be used to assess the feasibility of energy service contracting in different circumstances. The framework leads to a number of hypotheses that are suitable for empirical test

  17. Practical guide on contract of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chiho

    1991-12-01

    This book gives descriptions of practical guide on contract of technology, which deals with basic of contract like meaning, function term, singing and sealing, contract and stamp tax, common things on contract of research like keeping secret and prevention and treat of dispute, compensation for damages, notice, expiration date of contract and measurement at end of contract, contract of joint research such as meaning and necessity, note at contract, check list at contract, and return of the research product.

  18. Contracting between firms: empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 185 contracts signed between a buyer and 89 suppliers to test how moral-hazard and hold-up problems affect contract design. Our data allow us to study both static and dynamic effects. If a supplier’s products are more critical to the buyer, contracts contain more clauses that address

  19. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  20. Service quality in contracted facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Pradhan, Nousheen Akber; Zaidi, Shehla; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Yousuf, Farheen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the readiness of contracted and non-contracted first-level healthcare facilities in Pakistan to deliver quality maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. A balanced scorecard (BSC) was used as the assessment framework. Using a cross-sectional study design, two rural health centers (RHCs) contracted out to Aga Khan Health Service, Pakistan were compared with four government managed RHCs. A BSC was designed to assess RHC readiness to deliver good quality MNH care. In total 20 indicators were developed, representing five BSC domains: health facility functionality, service provision, staff capacity, staff and patient satisfaction. Validated data collection tools were used to collect information. Pearson χ2, Fisher's Exact and the Mann-Whitney tests were applied as appropriate to detect significant service quality differences among the two facilities. Contracted facilities were generally found to be better than non-contracted facilities in all five BSC domains. Patients' inclination for facility-based delivery at contracted facilities was, however, significantly higher than non-contracted facilities (80 percent contracted vs 43 percent non-contracted, p=0.006). The study shows that contracting out initiatives have the potential to improve MNH care. This is the first study to compare MNH service delivery quality across contracted and non-contracted facilities using BSC as the assessment framework.

  1. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    that could inform such strategic purchasing decisions. 14 We used the unique contract identification number to check for cross -organization...beds, mattresses, dressers , footlockers) Other (stools, rugs, seats, cabinets, tables, folding chairs, paintings) Generators Various power generators

  2. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  3. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) fingerprinting (MLVF) and antibacterial resistance profiles of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa among burnt patients in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Sotoudeh, Nazli; Jabalameli, Leila; Aligholi, Marzieh; Khoramian, Babak; Taherikalani, Morovat; Emaneini, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing trait was present in 48 out of the 112 (42.8%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from burn wound infections during a 12-month period. The presence of oxa-10, per-1, veb-1 and ges genes and the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) fingerprinting (MLVF) of 112 P. aeruginosa strains were determined by PCR and multiplex PCR. Disk diffusion methods were used to determine the susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobial agents as instructed by CLSI. All ESBL isolates were resistant to aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and ofloxacin. Fewer than 60% of ESBL isolates were resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam but more than 90% were resistant to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ticarcillin and tobramycin. The most prevalent ESBL genes included oxa-10 (70%) and per-1 (50%) followed by veb-1 (31.3%). The gene encodes GES enzyme did not detect in any isolates. A total of 100 P. aeruginosa strains were typed by MLVF typing method. MLVF produced 42 different DNA banding patterns. These data indicate that different MLVF types infect burn wounds in patients at a hospital in Tehran and also suggest an alarming rate of ESBL-producing isolates in this test location. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of chimerism in pediatric recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) a comparison between two methods: real-time PCR (qPCR) vs. variable number tandem repeats PCR (VNTR PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletzel, Morris; Huang, Wei; Olszewski, Marie; Khan, Sana

    2013-01-01

    Post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) chimerism monitoring is important to assess relapse and therapeutic intervention. The purpose of our study is to compare two methods variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) vs. quantitative real- time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in terms of determining chimerism. 127 (peripheral blood n=112, bone marrow n=15) samples were simultaneously tested by VNTR using APO-B, D1S80, D1S111, D17S30, gene loci SRY and ZP3 and qPCR using 34 assays (CA001-CA034) that are designed to a bi-allelic insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism in the human genome. Samples were separated in three subsets: total WBC, T-cell and Myeloid cells. Extraction of DNA was performed then quantified. We analyzed column statistics, paired t-test and regression analysis for both methods. There was complete correlation between the two methods. The simplicity and rapidity of the test results from the qPCR method is more efficient and accurate to assess chimerism.

  5. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  6. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  7. U.S. Naval Academy Officials Did Not Adhere to Contracting and Gift Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    Report No. DODIG-2012-017 November 7, 2011 U.S. Naval Academy Officials Did Not Adhere to Contracting and Gift Policies...Contracting and Gift Policies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...HERITAGE AND HISTORY COMMAND SUBJECT: U.S. Naval Academy Officials Did Not Adhere to Contracting and Gift Policies (Report No. DODIG-2012-017) We are

  8. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  9. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  10. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  11. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  12. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  13. The Danish Contracting System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Levring, Peter

    The paper is mainly concerned with the institutional framework of the Danish construction industry, describing structures, rules and actors' roles within a perspective of nationally defined procedural guidelines on construction projects. These aspects are treated under the concept of a "contracting...... system". After a short introduction to the structure and activities of the industry the post-war development is reviewed, in particular emphasising the importance of the early industrialisation process which in an international perspective represents quite unique features. Furthermore the most recent...

  14. A 'new' psychological contract for nurses: some management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, S J

    1996-03-01

    Changes within the health services are raising a number of employment issues for nurses. The idea that a professional qualification and a job will lead to security of employment and career development is rapidly changing. These assumptions, the 'old' psychological contract, is giving way to new expectations from employers and employees; the emergence of a 'new' psychological contract. A psychological contract is an implicit agreement between employer and employee that each party will treat the other fairly. Such contracts are maintained by virtue of all parties wanting to seek agreement on issues where possible and to maintain trust. While such a contract is not a legally binding agreement it is nonetheless a binding understanding between people. Changes to this psychological contract can have important implications for individuals and their employer in terms of work and organizational commitment. This paper will discuss some of the issues surrounding psychological contracts and the impact of violating them. It will also discuss, from a management perspective, how psychological contracts develop between employer and employee, and how to form a 'new' psychological contract based upon mutual benefit and shared values.

  15. Engineering and Statistical Research Institute contract reports to May, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuns, A; Morrison, B A

    1983-06-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide information on certain Canadian agricultural research contracts which are completed, published and available for loan. These contracts reports are documentation of research contracted out to non-federal government agencies, universities or individuals. Reports on contracts under the control of the Engineering and Statistical Research Institute are written by the contractor, and are reviewed by the scientific authority. Some reports date back to 1973, when the initial contracting program began. The first program was called DREAM (Development, Research, and Evaluation in Agricultural Mechanization). In 1977-78, projects under the Energy in Agriculture program were added. This was the beginning of the AERD (Agricultural Enginering Research and Development) program. In 1981, energy research had expanded and came under a separate progam called ERDAF (Energy Research and Development in Agriculture and Food). The remaining contract work stayed with the AERD program. This publication lists only contracts completed having final reports, and available contract reports with separate listings sorted by contract file number, title, author or subject.

  16. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    that a large number of legal disputes are inhibited by the nonexistence of institutions able to verify and enforce contracts. An in-depth analysis of six cases of open conflict provides support for such a presumption and highlights the crucial role of an adequate market design.

  17. 77 FR 23369 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Business Administration (SBA) may not accept a sole- source 8(a) contract in excess of $20 million for... is no conflict with the law. Execution of the J&A prior to the SBA's initiation of contract... small number of businesses that have been awarded 8(a) contracts over the $20 million threshold may be...

  18. IPP fuel contracts - creating certain contracts for uncertain times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, I. [Coddington International Pty. Ltd., Milsons Point, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Coal contracts for the new Asian Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are examined. Since most IPPs will be selling to state electricity utilities, often in competition with power plant using other fuels, coal based IPPs must negotiate advantageous coal supply contracts several years before the commissioning of a plant, and must ensure security of supply for at least the life of the construction loan. A more recent trend in the developed world is the Merchant IPP, where there is no guaranteed electricity sale. Lenders are wary of IPPs relying an imported coal, and insist on binding fuel contracts, while coal companies are wary of the quantity of information demanded by these lenders. A full understanding of the risks involved is needed; and a method of price indexation for the contracts. Contracts must also specify security of supply, coal quality, freight contracts and other details. 2 figs.

  19. Characteristics of nuclear contracts. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.

    1976-01-01

    While the object of nuclear contracts is specific, these contracts are concluded according to proven techniques based on general regulations on contracts. Following a review of contract classification, they are differentiated according to the nature of the co-contracting parties, the purpose of the contract itself, the procedure for drawing up the contracts, and payment. The operations prior to the contract vary in that they may include a call for tenders, an option for delays or a letter of intent. (NEA) [fr

  20. 48 CFR 315.371 - Contract preparation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.371 Contract... the contract until the finance office certifies that the funds are available for obligation. ...

  1. Contracts in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka GRZESIOK-HOROSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present makes a contribution to the discussion on contracts in administration under Polish law. It concentrates on theoretical issues, but ones of considerable practical significance. Prior Work though relatively poorly explored, field. This paper is a result of academic considerations on the classical institution of civil law, namely a bilateral juridical act significance of this area may be demonstrated by the fact that one scientific conference and a collection of papers have been devoted to contracts in administration. as research method, the analysis of jurisprudence and doctrinal writings referring to law currently in force. The paper discusses as well the draft of the administrative law, and includes comparative remarks. put forward certain comments pertainin legislation. The authors formulate as well outline theses interesting but complicated matters. As a voice in the doctrinal dispute it can als useful for law students. Value composition. Starting from gener the binding law and proposed amendments. The functioning in foreign countries and proposals of regulatory solutions.

  2. UKAEA'S evolving contract philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)

  3. Sub-typing of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing isolates from a nosocomial outbreak: application of a 10-loci generic Escherichia coli multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Karami

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E. coli were isolated from infants hospitalized in a neonatal, post-surgery ward during a four-month-long nosocomial outbreak and six-month follow-up period. A multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA, using 10 loci (GECM-10, for 'generic' (i.e., non-STEC E. coli was applied for sub-species-level (i.e., sub-typing delineation and characterization of the bacterial isolates. Ten distinct GECM-10 types were detected among 50 isolates, correlating with the types defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, which is recognized to be the 'gold-standard' method for clinical epidemiological analyses. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, multiplex PCR genotyping of bla CTX-M, bla TEM, bla OXA and bla SHV genes and antibiotic resistance profiling, as well as a PCR assay specific for detecting isolates of the pandemic O25b-ST131 strain, further characterized the outbreak isolates. Two clusters of isolates with distinct GECM-10 types (G06-04 and G07-02, corresponding to two major PFGE types and the MLST-based sequence types (STs 131 and 1444, respectively, were confirmed to be responsible for the outbreak. The application of GECM-10 sub-typing provided reliable, rapid and cost-effective epidemiological characterizations of the ESBL-producing isolates from a nosocomial outbreak that correlated with and may be used to replace the laborious PFGE protocol for analyzing generic E. coli.

  4. Comparative Study of IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Netherlands, Based on a 5-Year Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; van Ingen, Jakko; de Vries, Gerard; Erkens, Connie; Sebek, Maruschka; Mulder, Arnout; Sloot, Rosa; van den Brandt, Anne-Marie; Enaimi, Mimount; Kremer, Kristin; Supply, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a detailed evaluation on discriminatory power and agreement with findings in a cluster investigation was performed on 3,975 tuberculosis cases during the period of 2004 to 2008. The level of discrimination of the two typing methods did not differ substantially: RFLP typing yielded 2,733 distinct patterns compared to 2,607 in VNTR typing. The global concordance, defined as isolates labeled unique or identically distributed in clusters by both methods, amounted to 78.5% (n = 3,123). Of the remaining 855 cases, 12% (n = 479) of the cases were clustered only by VNTR, 7.7% (n = 305) only by RFLP typing, and 1.8% (n = 71) revealed different cluster compositions in the two approaches. A cluster investigation was performed for 87% (n = 1,462) of the cases clustered by RFLP. For the 740 cases with confirmed or presumed epidemiological links, 92% were concordant with VNTR typing. In contrast, only 64% of the 722 cases without an epidemiological link but clustered by RFLP typing were also clustered by VNTR typing. We conclude that VNTR typing has a discriminatory power equal to IS6110 RFLP typing but is in better agreement with findings in a cluster investigation performed on an RFLP-clustering-based cluster investigation. Both aspects make VNTR typing a suitable method for tuberculosis surveillance systems. PMID:23363841

  5. Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns in Discrimination of Sporadic and Outbreak-Related Strains of Yersinia enterocolitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skurnik Mikael

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed the potential of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for discriminating 104 sporadic and outbreak-related Yersinia enterocolitica (YE bio/serotype 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 isolates. MLVA using six VNTR markers was performed in two separate multiplex PCRs, and the fluorescently labeled PCR products were accurately sized on an automated DNA sequencer. Results MLVA discriminated 82 sporadic YE 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 strains into 77 types, whereas PFGE with the restriction enzyme NotI discriminated the strains into 23 different PFGE pulsotypes. The discriminatory index for a sporadic strain was 0.862 for PFGE and 0.999 for MLVA. MLVA confirmed that a foodborne outbreak in the city of Kotka, Finland in 2003 had been caused by a multiresistant YE 4/O:3 strain that was distinctly different from those of epidemiologically unrelated strains with an identical PFGE pulsotype. The multiresistance of Y. enterocolitica strains (19% of the sporadic strains correlated significantly (p = 0.002 with travel abroad. All of the multiresistant Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to four PFGE pulsotypes that did not contain any susceptible strains. Resistance to nalidixic acid was related to changes in codons 83 or 87 that stemmed from mutations in the gyrA gene. The conjugation experiments demonstrated that resistance to CHL, STR, and SUL was carried by a conjugative plasmid. Conclusions MLVA using six loci had better discriminatory power than PFGE with the NotI enzyme. MLVA was also a less labor-intensive method than PFGE and the results were easier to analyze. The conjugation experiments demonstrated that a resistance plasmid can easily be transferred between Y. enterocolitica strains. Antimicrobial multiresistance of Y. enterocolitica strains was significantly associated with travel abroad.

  6. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a clause...

  7. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  8. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert the...

  9. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) [Reserved] (b) USAID may... Agency-specific indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using...

  10. 48 CFR 935.071 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 935.071... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 935.071 Contract clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 952.235-71, Research Misconduct, in contracts, including management and operating...

  11. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples

  12. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment......We present a declarative language for compositional specification of contracts governing the exchange of resources. It extends Eber and Peyton Jones’s declarative language for specifying financial contracts (Jones et al. in The Fun of Programming. 2003) to the exchange of money, goods and services...... amongst multiple parties and complements McCarthy’s Resources, Events and Agents (REA) accounting model (McCarthy in Account Rev. LVII(3), 554–578, 1982) with a view- independent formal contract model that supports definition of user-defined contracts, automatic monitoring under execution and user...

  13. 48 CFR 552.238-78 - Scope of Contract (Eligible Ordering Activities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containing information technology Special Item Numbers, and Schedule 84 contracts, on an optional basis... Act of 1937), school districts, colleges and other institutions of higher education, council of...

  14. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  15. Incentive contracts and time use

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Viking Eriksson; Jaime Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies on incentive contracts have primarily been concerned with the effects on employees’ productivity and earnings. The productivity increases associated with such contracts may, however, come at the expense of quality of life at or outside work. In this paper we study the effect on the employees’ non-work activities, testing whether incentive contracts lead to a change in the allocation of time across work and non-work activities. In doing so, we distinguish between two effects,...

  16. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some c...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  17. Judges, commerce and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Gava, John

    2010-01-01

    John Gava, Reader at Adelaide Law School, considers the question how should judges decide commercial cases, in particular, contract cases? He looks at the circumstances and impact of the use of contract law, with attention on common law contract and market needs. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by SALS at the IALS (Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, School of Advanced Study, Un...

  18. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  19. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  20. [The state of the psychological contract and its relation with employees' psychological health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Francisco Javier; Silla, Inmaculada; Peiró, José María; Fortes-Ferreira, Lina

    2006-05-01

    In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues.

  1. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published in early April 2011. In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened this spring is available at the following address: Indefinite contract posts - spring 2011 A second exercise will take place in autumn 2011 and, as of 2012, the indefinite contract award procedure will only be held once a year, in autumn. For more information please consult: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp  

  2. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  3. URGENSI STUDI TENTANG PROCUREMENT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Sogar Simamora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractualization is kind of goverment activity in acquiring goods, services and infrastructure as well. Procurement contract has several important function especially in enhancing economic development in a state. In Indonesia, this kind of contract also has function in empowering micro economic scale. Since the aim of procurement study is to provide equal protection between public fund interest in one hand and privat sector in the other hand, general principle of contract law must be taken into consideration together with transparency as the most important principle in government contract.

  4. Unfair contract terms in B2C contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Loos, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its textual similarity to the Unfair Terms Directive 1993, Chapter 8 of the proposed CESL, on ‘Unfair contract terms’, can benefit from two decades of interpretative experience which is likely to provide a comparably high degree of instant legal certainty to contracting parties.

  5. Contraction mode itself does not determine the level of mTORC1 activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ato, Satoru; Makanae, Yuhei; Kido, Kohei; Fujita, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Resistance training with eccentric contraction has been shown to augment muscle hypertrophy more than other contraction modes do (i.e., concentric and isometric contraction). However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle contraction mode on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling using a standardized force-time integral (load (weight) × contraction time). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: eccentric contraction, concentric contraction, and isometric contraction. The right gastrocnemius muscle was exercised via percutaneous electrical stimulation-induced maximal contraction. In experiment 1, different modes of muscle contraction were exerted using the same number of reps in all groups, while in experiment 2, muscle contractions were exerted using a standardized force-time integral. Muscle samples were obtained immediately and 3 h after exercise. Phosphorylation of molecules associated with mTORC1 activity was assessed using western blot analysis. In experiment 1, the force-time integral was significantly different among contraction modes with a higher force-time integral for eccentric contraction compared to that for other contraction modes (P contraction compared to that for isometric contraction (P contraction than for other modes of contraction (P contraction was higher than isometric contraction (P contraction modes 3 h after exercise. Our results suggest that mTORC1 activity is not determined by differences in muscle contraction mode itself. Instead, mTORC1 activity is determined by differences in the force-time integral during muscle contraction. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. Building Information Modelling and Standardised Construction Contracts: a Content Analysis of the GC21 Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Manderson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Building Information Modelling (BIM is seen as a panacea to many of the ills confronting the Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC sector. In spite of its well documented benefits the widespread integration of BIM into the project lifecycle is yet to occur. One commonly identified barrier to BIM adoption is the perceived legal risks associated with its integration, coupled with the need for implementation in a collaborative environment. Many existing standardised contracts used in the Australian AEC industry were drafted before the emergence of BIM. As BIM continues to become ingrained in the delivery process the shortcomings of these existing contracts have become apparent. This paper reports on a study that reviewed and consolidated the contractual and legal concerns associated with BIM implementation. The findings of the review were used to conduct a qualitative content analysis of the GC21 2nd edition, an Australian standardised construction contract, to identify possible changes to facilitate the implementation of BIM in a collaborative environment. The findings identified a number of changes including the need to adopt a collaborative contract structure with equitable risk and reward mechanisms, recognition of the model as a contract document and the need for standardisation of communication/information exchange.

  7. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...

  8. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    mining companies can concentrate on their core businesses while using specialists for ... 2 Definition of Contract and Owner. Mining ... equipment maintenance, scheduling and budgeting ..... No. Region. Amount Spent on. Contract Mining. ($ billion). Percent of. Total. 1 ... cost and productivity data based on a large range.

  9. Army Contract Writing System (ACWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval...Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 5 Program Status 6 Schedule 7 Performance...Program Information Program Name Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) DoD Component Army Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS

  10. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  11. On CNC Commuting Contractive Tuples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characteristic function has been an important tool for studying completely non-unitary contractions on Hilbert spaces. In this note, we consider completely non-coisometric contractive tuples of commuting operators on a Hilbert space H . We show that the characteristic function, which is now an operator-valued analytic ...

  12. Campaign contributions, lobbying and post-Katrina contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael J; Long, Michael A; Stretesky, Paul B

    2010-07-01

    This research explores the relationship between political campaign contributions, lobbying and post-Hurricane Katrina cleanup and reconstruction contracts. Specifically, a case-control study design is used to determine whether campaign contributions to national candidates in the 2000-04 election cycles and/or the employment of lobbyists and lobbying firms increased a company's probability of receiving a post-hurricane contract. Results indicate that both a campaign contribution dichotomous variable and the dollar amount of contributions are significantly related to whether a company received a contract, but that lobbying activity was not. These findings are discussed in the context of previous research on the politics of natural disasters, government contracting and governmental and corporate deviance.

  13. On contact numbers in random rod packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.; Luding, Stefan; Philipse, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Random packings of non-spherical granular particles are simulated by combining mechanical contraction and molecular dynamics, to determine contact numbers as a function of density. Particle shapes are varied from spheres to thin rods. The observed contact numbers (and packing densities) agree well

  14. Alternative staffing services. Contract transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, C

    1992-03-01

    Contract medical transcription services can be of great assistance in meeting the demands for transcription, without jeopardizing patient, physician, or institutional confidentiality. You simply must require the contract service to provide at least the same degree of protection and preservation of confidentiality that you should require inhouse. To achieve this you must make these requirements explicit, comprehensive, comprehensible, believable, and enforceable. Discuss the requirements with prospective contractors. Review them at least annually with existing contractors and when contracts are due for renewal. Be sure to specify the consequence of breaching confidentiality, and if there are breaches, enforce the terms of the contract. Consult your institution's legal counsel both in developing the contract and in enforcing its provisions. Take into consideration your department's and institution's policies, AHIMA's statement on confidentiality, as well as local, state, and federal laws. Above all, never lose sight of the patient. Ultimately, it is not patient information that you are obligated to protect. It is the patient.

  15. Smart Contract Templates: essential requirements and design options

    OpenAIRE

    Clack, Christopher D.; Bakshi, Vikram A.; Braine, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Smart Contract Templates support legally-enforceable smart contracts, using operational parameters to connect legal agreements to standardised code. In this paper, we explore the design landscape of potential formats for storage and transmission of smart legal agreements. We identify essential requirements and describe a number of key design options, from which we envisage future development of standardised formats for defining and manipulating smart legal agreements. This provides a prelimin...

  16. Production Contracts and the Spot Market Price of Hogs

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel D.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of production contracts in the hog sector has reduced the number of spot market transactions, raised concerns about price manipulation and helped to spur legislation requiring price reporting by packers. Using data from the 2002 and 2007 Censuses of Agriculture, this study looks for evidence of market manipulation by examining whether the local prevalence of contracting affects the average price received by independent producers. The empirical approach uses a fixed-effects ...

  17. Contract 98 Self-Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of LBL`s Self-Assessment required by Appendix F to Contract DE ACOO3765F00098. This self assessment covers the performance measures set forth in Appendix F except those requiring an external audit. The performance measures for LBL are in the areas of ES&H Finance, Human Services and Procurement and Property. LBL is a multi-program laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for DOE. The mission of LBL includes performing research in energy, general, and life sciences. LBL facilities include the main site on 130 acres located in the cities of Berkeley and Oakland; laboratories and offices located in buildings on the UC Berkeley Campus; and three leased buildings in the cities of Berkeley and Emeryville. 1. Involvement of Line Management in the assessment process to provide awareness and ownership. 2. Using existing assessments, audits and appraisals in lieu of a new assessment wherever possible. 3. Conduct of the assessments by individuals with functional responsibility and knowledge of the areas being assessed. 4. Interaction with individuals performing assessments at other Laboratories to enhance our learning process. As anticipated, a number of findings will require corrective action. General corrective actions are identified for key findings in this report. In early May 1993, this Laboratory will begin the development of detailed formal corrective action plans which will be entered into a laboratory automated corrective action tracking system.

  18. Standard form contracts and a smart contract future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin B. Cornelius

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With a budding market of widespread smart contract implementation on the horizon, there is much conversation about how to regulate this new technology. Discourse on standard form contracts (SFCs and how they have been adopted in a digital environment is useful toward predicting how smart contracts might be interpreted. This essay provides a critical review of the discourse surrounding digitised SFCs and applies it to issues in smart contract regulation. An exploration of the literature surrounding specific instances SFCs finds that it lacks a close examination of the textual and documentary aspects of SFCs, which are particularly important in a digital environment as a shift in medium prompts a different procedural process. Instead, common perspectives are either based on outdated notions of paper versions of these contracts or on ideologies of industry and business that do not sufficiently address the needs of consumers/users in the digital age. Most importantly, noting the failure of contract law to address the inequities of SFCs in this environment can help prevent them from being codified further with smart contracts.

  19. [Ulysses contract in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Saya, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Over the last twenty years we have witnessed a growing focus on the rights of the ill people. The debate on informed consent and a new redefinition of the therapeutic relationship is constantly evolving. With this article, we propose a critical literature review of the so-called "Ulysses contract" or "psychiatric advance directives". It refers to the will that a subject expresses in writing, or orally, about the treatments he or she wishes or does not wish to be subject to if the time comes when it may be impossible to express his/her consent. This can especially occur in those with psychiatric disorders with serious clinical involvement and remitting-relapse (typically bipolar disorder, but also chronic delusional disorders and schizophrenia). In this context, the question is whether during intercritical periods the patient may or may not leave instructions to their care-givers. This aspect opens up to a series of interdisciplinary problems. In this article, we want to show the complexity of this debate from a clinical, ethical, legal and psychodynamic point of view, emphasizing the strengths and the major criticisms of the psychiatric advance directives for each area.

  20. Landsat 6 contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

  1. INFINITY construction contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  2. IAEA research contracts. Ninth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This volume is the seventh annual publication of the summaries of final reports received during 1968 in connection with contracts and agreements awarded by the IAEA Research Contract Programme. Ninety nine such summaries are included, thus bringing to 323 the total number published so far. In every case the summary of the contractor's final report has been prepared by that member of the Agency's scientific staff who has been most closely connected with the particular branch of research concerned. The scientific data are the responsibility of the contractor, though the Agency is responsible for any additional observations. The reports presented are related to research in the field of radioactive waste management and environmental sciences; health physics and radiation protection; radiobiology; safeguards methods; nuclear reactors physics and nuclear fuels; radioisotope applications in agriculture, medicine and hydrology, food preservation by irradiation

  3. IAEA research contracts. Ninth annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-06-01

    This volume is the seventh annual publication of the summaries of final reports received during 1968 in connection with contracts and agreements awarded by the IAEA Research Contract Programme. Ninety nine such summaries are included, thus bringing to 323 the total number published so far. In every case the summary of the contractor's final report has been prepared by that member of the Agency's scientific staff who has been most closely connected with the particular branch of research concerned. The scientific data are the responsibility of the contractor, though the Agency is responsible for any additional observations. The reports presented are related to research in the field of radioactive waste management and environmental sciences; health physics and radiation protection; radiobiology; safeguards methods; nuclear reactors physics and nuclear fuels; radioisotope applications in agriculture, medicine and hydrology, food preservation by irradiation.

  4. DETERMINANTS OF GROWTH IN FRANCHISING CONTRACTS IN EMERGING MARKETS; EVIDENCES FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitki Sonmezer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the franchise sector and determine the significant factors that contribute to an increase in the number of franchiser’s contracts in Turkey. Secondary data is used from the Turkish Franchise Association and multivariate regression models are run for each sector. Our models explain the change in the number of franchise contracts with R2’s varying between .6577 and .7549. We provide evidence that success factors in increasing the number of contracts change depending on the sector firms operating in and contracts may be designed thusly to pursue success.

  5. 7 CFR 631.14 - Contract violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Contracts § 631.14 Contract violations. Contract violations, determinations and appeals will be handled in accordance with the terms of the... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations. 631.14 Section 631.14 Agriculture...

  6. 48 CFR 46.314 - Transportation contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation contracts... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.314 Transportation contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-14, Inspection of Transportation, in solicitations and contracts for freight...

  7. 24 CFR 891.560 - HAP contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract. 891.560 Section 891... Assistance § 891.560 HAP contract. (a) HAP contract. The housing assistance payments contract sets forth.... (b) HAP contract execution. (1) Upon satisfactory completion of the project, the Borrower and HUD...

  8. 77 FR 3288 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... as the baseline contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the GREP Contracts 1 product... Classification Schedule language for GREP Contracts 1. The Postal Service identifies general contract terms that... methodology, the relevant characteristics of this GREP contract are similar, if not the same, as the relevant...

  9. 77 FR 71458 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Contracts 1. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related procedural... Reseller Expedited Package (GREP) contract (Contracts 1).\\1\\ It seeks to have the instant Contract included...

  10. 48 CFR 926.7104 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 926.7104... 1993. 926.7104 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR (DEAR) 952.226-74, Displaced Employee Hiring Preference, in contracts (except for contracts for commercial items...

  11. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance, in...

  12. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract Work...

  13. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract. ...

  14. Ontologies for commitment-based smart contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijff, Joost; Weigand, Hans; Panetto, H; Debruyne, C.; Gaaloul, W.; Papazoglou, M.; Paschke, A.; Ardagna, C.A.; Meersman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts gain rapid exposure since the inception of blockchain technology. Yet there is no unified ontology for smart contracts. Being categorized as coded contracts or substitutes of conventional legal contracts, there is a need to reduce the conceptual ambiguity of smart contracts. We

  15. Payment contracts in a preventive health care system: a perspective from operations management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaesoubi, Reza; Roberts, Stephen D

    2011-12-01

    We consider a health care system consisting of two noncooperative parties: a health purchaser (payer) and a health provider, where the interaction between the two parties is governed by a payment contract. We determine the contracts that coordinate the health purchaser-health provider relationship; i.e. the contracts that maximize the population's welfare while allowing each entity to optimize its own objective function. We show that under certain conditions (1) when the number of customers for a preventive medical intervention is verifiable, there exists a gate-keeping contract and a set of concave piecewise linear contracts that coordinate the system, and (2) when the number of customers is not verifiable, there exists a contract of bounded linear form and a set of incentive-feasible concave piecewise linear contracts that coordinate the system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor Unit Interpulse Intervals During High Force Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Thompson, Brennan J

    2016-01-01

    We examined the means, medians, and variability for motor-unit interpulse intervals (IPIs) during voluntary, high force contractions. Eight men (mean age = 22 years) attempted to perform isometric contractions at 90% of their maximal voluntary contraction force while bipolar surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles. Surface EMG signal decomposition was used to determine the recruitment thresholds and IPIs of motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels ≥ 96.0%. Motor units with high recruitment thresholds demonstrated longer mean IPIs, but the coefficients of variation were similar across all recruitment thresholds. Polynomial regression analyses indicated that for both muscles, the relationship between the means and standard deviations of the IPIs was linear. The majority of IPI histograms were positively skewed. Although low-threshold motor units were associated with shorter IPIs, the variability among motor units with differing recruitment thresholds was comparable.

  17. Analysis of the 314th Contracting Squadrons Contract Management Capability Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Jr, Carl J

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project is to analyze the 314th Contracting Squadron contracting processes and requirement target areas for improvement efforts by the application of the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM...

  18. Procurement of construction services: a case study on bidding competition in Singapore public sector contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, B. L.; Yan, Y.

    2018-04-01

    There are many variables that public clients need to consider in their bidding procedure to enhance efficiency in their procurement for construction services. This paper focusses on the competitive bidding process for public sector procurement of construction services in Singapore. A distinctive feature of the Singapore government competitive bidding process is that full bidding feedback information is released to all competing bidders (and public). The specific objectives are: (i) to examine the degree of competition in the construction markets; and (ii) to examine the bidding performance of competing bidders. Based on a collection of bidding data for a 15-month period, the results show the market environment of the Singapore public sector construction contracting is highly competitive with long bidder lists. In selection of contractors, only 50% of the contracts were awarded to lowest bidders. The results also show that the competing contractors can be broadly classified into three groups based on their bidding performance in terms of number of bidding attempts, bidding success rate and bidding competitiveness. These results provide a useful insight into the bidding competition in the Singapore public sector construction contracting, especially to new market entrants and foreign contractors who want to bid for jobs in Singapore.

  19. The resurgence of selective contracting restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsteller, J A; Bovbjerg, R R; Nichols, L M; Verrilli, D K

    1997-10-01

    As managed care has spread, so has legislation to force plans to contract with any willing provider (AWP) and give patients freedom of choice (FOC). Managed care organizations' selective networks and provider integration reduce patient access to providers, along with provider access to paying patients, so many providers have lobbied for AWP-FOC laws. In opposition are managed care organizations (MCOs), which want full freedom to contract selectively to control prices and utilization. This article comprehensively describes laws in all fifty-one jurisdictions, classifies their relative strength, and assesses the implications of the laws. Most are relatively weak forms and all are limited in application by ERISA and the federal HMO Act. The article also uses an associative multivariate analysis to relate the selective contracting environments to HMO penetration rates, rural population, physician density, and other variables. States with weak laws also have higher HMO penetration and higher physician density, but smaller rural populations. We conclude that the strongest laws overly restrict the management of care, to the likely detriment of cost control. But where market power is rapidly concentrating, not restricting selective contracting could diminish long-term competition and patient access to care. In the face of uncertainty about the impact of these laws, an intermediate approach may be better than all or nothing. States should consider mandating that plans offer point-of-service options, for a separate premium. This option expands patient choice of plans at the time of enrollment and of providers at the time of care, yet maintains plans' ability to control core providers.

  20. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  1. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  2. Physics of muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called ‘descending limb’ of the isometric tetanus.

  3. Physics of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M; Truskinovsky, L

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called 'descending limb' of the isometric tetanus.

  4. Contraction ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskij, Yu.B.; Kulikov, V.V.; Nekutchaev, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge and a definition of their arising propagation mechanism accounting for the specificity of elementary pocesses characteristic of argon are presented. (author)

  5. Defense Threat Reduction Agency > Contracts > Contract Award Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration Command Senior Enlisted Leader Media News News Archive Strategic Plan Videos Mission Research Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current Justifications & Approvals Careers Who We Are Our Values Strategic Recruiting Programs Professional

  6. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-01-01

    The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is...

  7. The North Sea contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.J.C.

    1996-09-01

    The North Sea Contracting Industry provides in-depth profiles of major contracting organisations including manpower, facilities, expertise, future directions and financial details. It addresses key issues such as: how will the role of operators and contractors change toward 2000 and beyond?; how will the contractor-operator relationship develop?; will the contractors take a more speculative role in projects such as leasing and contract to produce?; does the future belong to broad skilled providers or small specialised niche players, or both?; and how will rapid technological improvements affect the industry? (author)

  8. Teachers' Psychological Contract Perceptions and Person-Environment Fit Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkasimoglu, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Modern management approaches attach great importance to both the informal and the economic aspects of the organizations. Identifying teachers' psychological contract types and fit levels of a work environment in terms of variables such as seniority, educational degree, and school type will lead to discovery of the motivational…

  9. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1 Negotiated Service Agreement, December 14, 2012... history. The Commission added International Business Reply Service Contract 1 to the competitive product...

  10. 78 FR 11699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 negotiated service agreement... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, February 11, 2013.... 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service...

  11. 48 CFR 542.1107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 542.1107 Contract... clause may be used in indefinite-delivery definite-quantity contracts for Stock or Special Order Program...

  12. 42 CFR 422.504 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage... determinations of amounts payable under the contract. (iv) Properly reflect all direct and indirect costs claimed..., contracts, and subcontracts. (vi) Franchise, marketing, and management agreements. (vii) Schedules of...

  13. Bottomland Hardwood Planting: Example Contract Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humprey, Monica

    2002-01-01

    This technical note provides an example of contract specifications that can be used as a template by USACE biologists, engineers, or contracting officers for contracting the planting of bottomland hardwood (BLH) seedlings...

  14. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  15. Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act 1970 and labour market flexibility: An exploratory assessment of contract labour use in India's formal manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Deb Kusum; Choudhury, Homagni; Singh, Jaivir

    2015-01-01

    One particularly significant piece of labour legislation in India is the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970 (CLA,1970), which regulates labour hired by firms through the offices of a labour contractor - such labour being referred to as 'contract' labour in India. This paper seeks to examine this Act and its implication for manufacturing employment in India. While empirical evidence seems to indicate the presence of large number of 'contract' workers in the Indian manufacturi...

  16. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  17. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  18. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to substitute contract units. At the discretion of the PHA and subject to all PBV requirements, the HAP contract...

  19. 23 CFR 635.121 - Contract time and contract time extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.121 Contract time and contract time extensions. (a) The STD should have adequate written procedures for the determination of contract... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract time and contract time extensions. 635.121...

  20. Price management mechanisms and the gas contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pricing objectives and risk management strategies that can be achieved through the proper use of the standard gas contract, were discussed. Main topics of discussion were: (1) gas sales contract and convertible pricing, (2) gas contract and imbedded hedging, gas contracts and exchange traded instruments, (4) gas contracts fixed for floating swaps, and OTC options and exotics, (5) options and exotic price structures, and (6) advantages and disadvantages of using the gas contract versus the swap agreement

  1. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  2. Framework for Structuring Procurement Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Borg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new framework for structuring contract types and payment methods. Concerning procurement contracts, the first important new feature of this framework is a stepwise structure with three main steps in the contract design: (1 what will be procured—should the contract only include construction, or should it include both construction and operation/maintenance (2 who will do the detailed design of the premise and (3 how many contractors will the client use? The second important new feature of this framework is that both step 2 and step 3 include a continuum of alternatives. Concerning payment methods, the new framework is primarily based on how the specific risks of the project are shared. These frameworks can be useful for policy formulation in that they can help to avoid some problematic ways of formulating policies.

  3. Contracting and Performance in Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi; Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    As part of New Public Management (NPM), contracting represents a supplement to the traditional hierarchical and rule-based managing of relations between actors in order to improve performance (Fortin and van Hassel 2000; Greve and Ejersbo 2002; Drewry et al. 2005; Verhoest 2005). To various degrees...... higher goal attainment when agency head experience that the department balance dialogue and autonomy with some element of control in the process of internal contracting (Bjørnholt and Salomonsen 2011). This implies, that effective steering include a combination of decentralized management...... and how a balanced use of internal contracting leads to a better performance. These findings are then theoretically interpreted based upon a combination of literature on agencification as well as public management. We compare contracting across all Danish agencies based on a combination of survey...

  4. Contract Reform Self Assessment Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this self assessment is to report on the Department of Energy's progress in implementing the Contract Reform initiative launched in February 1994 and to discuss remaining challenges...

  5. Contraction of the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of Roche limit is applied to the Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system to study the contraction of a spherical gas cloud (solar nebula). In the process of contraction of the solar nebula, it is assumed that the phenomenon of supersonic turbulent convection is operative and brings about the halt at various stages of contraction. It is found that the radius of the contracting solar nebula follows the Titius-Bode law. The consequences of the relation are also discussed. The aim is to attempt to explain, on the basis of the concept of Roche limit, the distribution of planets in the solar system and try to understand the physics underlying it. (Auth.)

  6. Construction contracts law and management

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Will; Murdoch, John

    2015-01-01

    The fifth edition of this bestselling textbook has been thoroughly revised to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the legislation, administration and management of construction contracts. It now includes comparisons of working with JCT, NEC3, and FIDIC contracts throughout. Introducing this topic at the core of construction law and management, this book provides students with a one-stop reference on construction contracts. Significant new material covers: procurement tendering developments in dispute settlement commentary on all key legislation, case law and contract amendments In line with new thinking in construction management research, this authoritative guide is essential reading for every construction undergraduate and an extremely useful source of reference for practitioners.

  7. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  8. Non-renewal of contracts

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    A new illegal practice is appearing in certain sectors of the Organization: the non-renewal of renewable three-year limited-duration (LD) contracts, despite a more than satisfactory performance and an obvious commitment to the Organization.

  9. Contractions of quantum algebraic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, A.; Sfetsos, K.

    2010-01-01

    A general framework for obtaining certain types of contracted and centrally extended algebras is reviewed. The whole process relies on the existence of quadratic algebras, which appear in the context of boundary integrable models. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2013 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts to indefinite contracts) was officially launched last week.  The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 9 August 2013 for a period of four weeks (until 8 September 2013). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: Information on the location of these sessions will be provided in due course on the CERN announcements page. HR Department

  11. IAEA research contracts. Fourth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This volume represents the fourth annual report on the results obtained under the Agency's research contract programme. During the short life of this programme, which is not quite six years old, a total investment of more than three million dollars has been made to support research in selected fields at institutes in 50 Member States. Extensive summaries are presented herein for all final reports relating to contracts which were completed during 1963. As it is the policy of the Agency to encourage publication in the open scientific literature of the results of work done under research contracts, a number of papers have also appeared in the appropriate journals - the Agency having been notified of 75 such publications in 1963. A complete list of references to these is given at the end of this report. The scientific data presented in the summaries of course remain the responsibility of the contractor. The Agency, however, is responsible for any additional observations. The reports presented are related to research in the field of radioactive waste management and environmental sciences; health physics and radiation protection; radiobiology; nuclear reactors physics and nuclear fuels; radioisotope applications in agriculture and medicine

  12. IAEA research contracts. Fourth annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-04-01

    This volume represents the fourth annual report on the results obtained under the Agency's research contract programme. During the short life of this programme, which is not quite six years old, a total investment of more than three million dollars has been made to support research in selected fields at institutes in 50 Member States. Extensive summaries are presented herein for all final reports relating to contracts which were completed during 1963. As it is the policy of the Agency to encourage publication in the open scientific literature of the results of work done under research contracts, a number of papers have also appeared in the appropriate journals - the Agency having been notified of 75 such publications in 1963. A complete list of references to these is given at the end of this report. The scientific data presented in the summaries of course remain the responsibility of the contractor. The Agency, however, is responsible for any additional observations. The reports presented are related to research in the field of radioactive waste management and environmental sciences; health physics and radiation protection; radiobiology; nuclear reactors physics and nuclear fuels; radioisotope applications in agriculture and medicine.

  13. Governance in Blockchain Technologies & Social Contract Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Reijers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is placed in the context of a growing number of social and political critiques of blockchain technologies. We focus on the supposed potential of blockchain technologies to transform political institutions that are central to contemporary human societies, such as money, property rights regimes, and systems of democratic governance. Our aim is to examine the way blockchain technologies canbring about - and justify - new models of governance. To do so, we draw on the philosophical works of Hobbes, Rousseau, and Rawls, analyzing blockchain governance in terms of contrasting social contract theories. We begin by comparing the justifications of blockchain governance offered by members of the blockchain developers’ community with the justifications of governance presented within social contract theories. We then examine the extent to which the model of governance offered by blockchain technologies reflects key governance themes and assumptions located within social contract theories, focusing on the notions of sovereignty, the initial situation, decentralization and distributive justice.

  14. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  15. Organisational commitment in the era of the new psychological contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonie Theron

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate organisational commitment in an organisation that had recently experienced organisational restructuring (a merger. The psychological contract that exists between employees and organisations is brittle due to many organisational changes that stem from organisational restructuring.  When psychological contracts are breached, employees may experience reduced commitment to the organisation.  The target population for this study consisted of all employees working at three recently-merged higher education institutions in the Nelson Mandela Metropolis (n=100 and a self-administered questionnaire was distributed amongst staff.  The results indicated that an increase in the number of positive human resource management (HRM practices reported by respondents correlated with a decrease in violation and breach of the psychological contract, despite organisational restructuring.  It was further revealed that effective management of the psychological contract is crucial during organisational restructuring, in order to maintain the commitment and loyalty of employees.

  16. A Liquid work-life under public service contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    for staff, however, are only poorly understood in current theory and research on public service contracting through partial concepts and a tendency to focus merely on negative outcomes. Against this shortfall, the aim in this paper is to build a conceptually and empirically richer and more authentic account......A part of the reality behind public service contracting in Denmark as well as in many other countries is that a growing number of people are employed in uncertain and temporary conditions and relations in what can be characterized as ‘liquidized’ work-lives. This reality and its consequences...... of staffs’ work-life under public service contracting. The paper relies empirically on focus group interviews in two cases of staff transfers in public service contracting with different levels of liquefaction. it is found that staff transfer is a composite experience for staff with differential outcomes...

  17. A third generation of performance contracting in danish central government?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2017-01-01

    This paper compares the content of performance contracts in Danish central government over time in order to identify whether – and if so, how – it develops. The analysis is conducted as a two-step, mixed methods study. First, a quantitative study was carried out based on a study of all performance...... contracts in Danish central government in 2002, 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2014. For each year, all performance contracts have been coded according to the number and type of targets included in them. A range of qualitative interviews was then carried out, and Ministry of Finance recommendations were consulted...... of outcomes has increased, activity-oriented targets have decreased, and targets for internal management decreased in the mid-2000s before again increasing more recently. On this basis, performance contracting in Danish central government is argued to have entered a third generation....

  18. Polytope Contractions within Weyl Group Symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szajewska, Marzena, E-mail: m.szajewska@math.uwb.edu.pl [University of Bialystok, Institute of Mathematics (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    A general scheme for constructing polytopes is implemented here specifically for the classes of the most important 3D polytopes, namely those whose vertices are labeled by integers relative to a particular basis, here called the ω-basis. The actual number of non-isomorphic polytopes of the same group has no limit. To put practical bounds on the number of polytopes to consider for each group we limit our consideration to polytopes with dominant point (vertex) that contains only nonnegative integers in ω-basis. A natural place to start the consideration of polytopes from is the generic dominant weight which were all three coordinates are the lowest positive integer numbers. Contraction is a continuous change of one or several coordinates to zero.

  19. A global perspective on foreign contract labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J E; Casco, R R

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.

  20. Nova Scotia electricity market : frameworks for renewable energy contracting and cogeneration contracting : discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The recent Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee of Nova Scotia report issued a number of recommendations regarding renewable and cogeneration sales to retail consumers, as well as recommendations for top-up, spill rates and back-up rates to complement the operation of independent generating facilities. This discussion paper examined issues which need to be addressed in order to implement the recommendations. The discussion paper also included recommendations relating to the purchase of cogeneration output by the Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) under long term power purchase agreements. The aim of the paper was to provide a basis for the further discussion of issues in preparation for the development of future rules and regulations. The first part of the document identified ways for buyers and sellers to arrange contracts, as well as issues that need to be addressed at the institutional level to enable arrangements. Options for financial contracts and physical contracts were reviewed.The second part of the document examined pricing issues in the context of both financial and physical contract arrangements. Resolutions for both sets of options were proposed. Energy pricing principles were reviewed, as well as various pricing options and issues related to the analysis of price requirements. It was concluded that in order to support the safe, reliable and economic supply of electricity, the design of the electricity market should enable maximum flexibility in contractual arrangements and facilitate competition in ways that do not harm other parties