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Sample records for var mei qing

  1. Qing Wang

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Qing Wang. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 29 Issue 3 June 2006 pp 313-316 Composites. Anisotropic properties of aligned SWNT modified poly (methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites · Weixue Li Qing Wang Jianfeng Dai · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  2. QING LIN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QING LIN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 4 September 2017 pp 535-544 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Effects of genetic variants of the bovine WNT8A gene on nine important growth traits in beef cattle · YONG-ZHEN HUANG YONG ZOU QING LIN HUA HE LI ZHENG ZI-JING ZHANG YONG-LONG DANG ...

  3. QING YING LIU

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. QING YING LIU. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 40 Issue 7 December 2017 pp 1329-1333. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 hybridized CdS nanoparticles · QING YING LIU YI LING QI YI FAN ZHENG XU CHUN SONG.

  4. Xiao Qing Li

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. Xiao Qing Li. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 78 Issue 3 March 2012 pp 439-449 Research Articles. Modulation instability of an intense laser beam in an unmagnetized electron–positron–ion plasma · San Qiu Liu Wei Tang Xiao Qing Li · More Details ...

  5. Zhu Qing Wang

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Zhu Qing Wang. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 121 Issue 4 July 2009 pp 543-548. Highly sensitive optical chemosensor for the detection of Cu using a rhodamine B spirolatam · Gen Hua Wu Dong Xiang Wang Da Yu Wu Yuan Gao Zhu Qing Wang.

  6. Dan Performer Mei Lanfang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The convention of performing female characters (dan characters) in Beijing opera, as practised by its most prominent male performer of female characters Mei Lanfang, and its and his cultural context and aesthetic aim...

  7. Historical Relics and Qing Rule Over Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In October 1720, when the Qing troops had driven the Zungar forces out of Tibet, the Qing court started to reform the govemment system of the region that was geared to control by Tibetans of the upper ruling class.

  8. Zhang Qing and His Meticulous Chinese Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JULIE; M.SEGRAVES

    2002-01-01

    ZHANG Qing was initially drawn to the bird and flower paint-ings of the Tang and Song dynasties (7th-12th centuries). Later,Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) artist Ren Bonian, famous for hispaintings of figures, also became an important influence.Although Zhang Qing considers his style to be firmly rooted in tradi-

  9. Collar of Lady's Wear in Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-jun

    2007-01-01

    The research is started with a query that whether the width of collar in Qing Dynasty Is too small. The paper bases on the statistics which come from the collection of the Costume Museum of Donghua University. compares the results with the natlonal standard specification, then analyzes the structure and shape of collars in Qing Dynasty, and tells the relationship between collar and the garment. Furthermore, the paper discusses the function of lady's collar in Qing Dynasty and gives a suggestion that collar being an Indicator to distinguish women's wear from children's wear.

  10. Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, K.; Markwitz, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report gives an overview about the technique and experimental study of medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) as a quantitative technique to determine and analyse the composition and geometrical structure of crystalline surfaces and near surface-layers by measuring the energy and yield of the backscattered ions. The use of a lower energy range of 50 to 500 keV accelerated ions impinging onto the target surface and the application of a high-resolution electrostatic energy analyser (ESA) makes medium energy ion scattering spectroscopy into a high depth resolution and surface-sensitive version of RBS with less resulting damage effects. This report details the first steps of research in that field of measurement technology using medium energetic backscattered ions detected by means of a semiconductor radiation detector instead of an ESA. The study of medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) has been performed using the 40 keV industrial ion implanter established at GNS Sciences remodelled with supplementary high voltage insulation for the ion source in order to apply voltages up to 45 kV, extra apertures installed in the beamline and sample chamber in order to set the beam diameter accurately, and a semiconductor radiation detector. For measurement purposes a beam of positive charged helium ions accelerated to an energy of about 80 keV has been used impinging onto target surfaces of lead implanted into silicon (PbSi), scandium implanted into aluminium (ScAl), aluminium foil (Al) and glassy carbon (C). First results show that it is possible to use the upgraded industrial implanter for medium energy ion scattering. The beam of 4 He 2+ with an energy up to 88 keV has been focussed to 1 mm in diameter. The 5 nA ion beam hit the samples under 2 x 10 -8 mbar. The results using the surface barrier detector show scattering events from the samples. Cooling of the detector to liquid nitrogen temperatures reduced the electronic noise in the backscattering spectrum close to zero. A

  11. MEIS1 functions as a potential AR negative regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Liang; Li, Mingyang; Feng, Fan; Yang, Yutao; Hang, Xingyi; Cui, Jiajun; Gao, Jiangping

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in human prostate carcinoma progression and transformation. However, the activation of AR is regulated by co-regulators. MEIS1 protein, the homeodomain transcription factor, exhibited a decreased level in poor-prognosis prostate tumors. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between MEIS1 and AR. We found that overexpression of MEIS1 inhibited the AR transcriptional activity and reduced the expression of AR target gene. A potential protein–protein interaction between AR and MEIS1 was identified by the immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Furthermore, MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment to androgen response element in prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter sequences. In addition, MEIS1 promoted the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT in the presence of R1881. Finally, MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our data suggests that MEIS1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor. - Highlights: • A potential interaction was identified between MEIS1 and AR signaling. • Overexpression of MEIS1 reduced the expression of AR target gene. • MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation. • MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells

  12. MEIS1 functions as a potential AR negative regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Liang [Department of Urology, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Department of Urology, Civil Aviation General Hospital/Civil Aviation Medical College of Peking University, Beijing 100123 (China); Li, Mingyang [Department of Gastroenterology, Nan Lou Division, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Feng, Fan [Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yang, Yutao [Beijing Institute for Neuroscience, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Hang, Xingyi [National Scientific Data Sharing Platform for Population and Health, Beijing 100730 (China); Cui, Jiajun, E-mail: cuijn@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Cancer and Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Gao, Jiangping, E-mail: jpgao@163.com [Department of Urology, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in human prostate carcinoma progression and transformation. However, the activation of AR is regulated by co-regulators. MEIS1 protein, the homeodomain transcription factor, exhibited a decreased level in poor-prognosis prostate tumors. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between MEIS1 and AR. We found that overexpression of MEIS1 inhibited the AR transcriptional activity and reduced the expression of AR target gene. A potential protein–protein interaction between AR and MEIS1 was identified by the immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Furthermore, MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment to androgen response element in prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter sequences. In addition, MEIS1 promoted the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT in the presence of R1881. Finally, MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our data suggests that MEIS1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor. - Highlights: • A potential interaction was identified between MEIS1 and AR signaling. • Overexpression of MEIS1 reduced the expression of AR target gene. • MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation. • MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells.

  13. Structural Equation and Mei Conserved Quantity of Mei Symmetry for Appell Equations in Holonomic Systems with Unilateral Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Liqun; Cui Jinchao; Zhang Yaoyu; Luo Shaokai

    2009-01-01

    Structural equation and Mei conserved quantity of Mei symmetry for Appell equations in holonomic systems with unilateral constraints are investigated. Appell equations and differential equations of motion for holonomic mechanic systems with unilateral constraints are established. The definition and the criterion of Mei symmetry for Appell equations in holonomic systems with unilateral constraints under the infinitesimal transformations of groups are also given. The expressions of the structural equation and Mei conserved quantity of Mei symmetry for Appell equations in holonomic systems with unilateral constraints expressed by Appell functions are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results. (general)

  14. Evaluation of the Market introduction Energy Innovations (MEI) subsidy scheme; Evaluatie van de MEI-regeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W.; Smekens, K.; Lako, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Warmenhoven, H. [De Gemeynt, Klarenbeek (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    This report contains the outcomes of an evaluation study of the Market introduction Energy Innovations (MEI) subsidy scheme. This scheme is targeted to the horticultural sector and aims to stimulate and accelerate the early market introduction of innovative energy systems in greenhouses. The subsidy scheme was initiated in 2007 and has provided subsidies twice a year since then. Based on project and data analysis, stakeholder interviews and a workshop, the evaluation concludes that the MEI scheme has made a positive contribution to the innovation process in the sector, but that the scheme could have been implemented more efficiently [Dutch] De regeling Marktintroductie energie-innovaties (MEI) is in 2007 ingesteld door het toenmalige Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit. Het doel van de MEI-regeling is het stimuleren en versnellen van de vroege marktintroductie van innovatieve energiesystemen in de glastuinbouw. ECN en De Gemeynt hebben een evaluatie uitgevoerd van de MEI-regeling. De centrale conclusie is dat de regeling een positieve bijdrage heeft geleverd aan het innovatieproces in de glastuinbouwsector.

  15. Regulation of Centromere Localization of the Drosophila Shugoshin MEI-S332 and Sister-Chromatid Cohesion in Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Cristina; Kashevsky, Helena; Pinto, Belinda; Clarke, Astrid; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    The Shugoshin (Sgo) protein family helps to ensure proper chromosome segregation by protecting cohesion at the centromere by preventing cleavage of the cohesin complex. Some Sgo proteins also influence other aspects of kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Although many Sgo members require Aurora B kinase to localize to the centromere, factors controlling delocalization are poorly understood and diverse. Moreover, it is not clear how Sgo function is inactivated and whether this is distinct from delocalization. We investigated these questions in Drosophila melanogaster, an organism with superb chromosome cytology to monitor Sgo localization and quantitative assays to test its function in sister-chromatid segregation in meiosis. Previous research showed that in mitosis in cell culture, phosphorylation of the Drosophila Sgo, MEI-S332, by Aurora B promotes centromere localization, whereas Polo phosphorylation promotes delocalization. These studies also suggested that MEI-S332 can be inactivated independently of delocalization, a conclusion supported here by localization and function studies in meiosis. Phosphoresistant and phosphomimetic mutants for the Aurora B and Polo phosphorylation sites were examined for effects on MEI-S332 localization and chromosome segregation in meiosis. Strikingly, MEI-S332 with a phosphomimetic mutation in the Aurora B phosphorylation site prematurely dissociates from the centromeres in meiosis I. Despite the absence of MEI-S332 on meiosis II centromeres in male meiosis, sister chromatids segregate normally, demonstrating that detectable levels of this Sgo are not essential for chromosome congression, kinetochore biorientation, or spindle assembly. PMID:25081981

  16. Tumorigenic and Antiproliferative Properties of the TALE-Transcription Factors MEIS2D and MEIS2A in Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Anja; Schulz, Catrine; Kolb, Jasmine; Koster, Jan; Wehner, Sibylle; Czaplinski, Sebastian; Khilan, Abdulghani; Rohrer, Hermann; Harter, Patrick N; Klingebiel, Thomas; Langer, Julian D; Geerts, Dirk; Schulte, Dorothea

    2018-04-15

    Neuroblastoma is one of only a few human cancers that can spontaneously regress even after extensive dissemination, a poorly understood phenomenon that occurs in as many as 10% of patients. In this study, we identify the TALE-homeodomain transcription factor MEIS2 as a key contributor to this phenomenon. We identified MEIS2 as a MYCN-independent factor in neuroblastoma and showed that in this setting the alternatively spliced isoforms MEIS2A and MEIS2D exert antagonistic functions. Specifically, expression of MEIS2A was low in aggressive stage 4 neuroblastoma but high in spontaneously regressing stage 4S neuroblastoma. Moderate elevation of MEIS2A expression reduced proliferation of MYCN -amplified human neuroblastoma cells, induced neuronal differentiation and impaired the ability of these cells to form tumors in mice. In contrast, MEIS2A silencing or MEIS2D upregulation enhanced the aggressiveness of the tumor phenotype. Mechanistically, MEIS2A uncoupled a negative feedback loop that restricts accumulation of cellular retinoic acid, an effective agent in neuroblastoma treatment. Overall, our results illuminate the basis for spontaneous regression in neuroblastoma and identify an MEIS2A-specific signaling network as a potential therapeutic target in this common pediatric malignancy. Significance: This study illuminates the basis for spontaneous regressions that can occur in a common pediatric tumor, with implications for the development of new treatment strategies. Cancer Res; 78(8); 1935-47. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Technische Documentatie en Handleiding voor MEI 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorschot MMP van; Linders D; LAE

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this technical documentation is to clearly establish the key ideas and methods used during development of the MEI-model. This document introduces in this way the technical set-up of the model for application developers and administrators. In describing how MEI (version 2) works

  18. Kultuuriruum ja Natalie Mei prostitutsiooniteemalised joonistused / Kai Stahl

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stahl, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Analüüsitakse feministliku lugemise ja Juri Lotmani kultuurisemiootika abil kultuuri ja "mittekultuuri" vahelist piiriala, keskendudes viisidele, kuidas Natalie Mei erines oma joonistustega kunsti üldpildist - rikkudes traditsionaalset pildikoodi, ironiseerib Mei selle teema domineerivat käsitlust ja pildilist kuvamist, luues naiskunstnikuna uue vaatenurga

  19. A STUDY ON PRINTMAKING IN MING AND QING DYNSTIES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽媛

    2017-01-01

    Ming and Qing Dynasties printmaking have a unique form of expression, color and content. This article focuses on the artistic characteristics of the woodcut New Year paintings in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Ming and Qing printmaking simple, natural, bold. Ming and Qing Dynasties folk woodcut New Year paintings of the composition of the pursuit of integrity, rich, sym-metrical, so that the composition of the screen harmony and unity. It is worth learning for our absorption.

  20. A design method of oscillatory De-Qing circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Wenquan

    1988-01-01

    With some particular advantages the oscillatory De-Qing circuit now is widely used. However its design is very complex. By means of a quantitative analysis for this circuit a group of design formulas is obtained. According to these design formulas the maximum allowable charging inductance L c , the De-Qing network resistance R and capacitance C can easily be determined, if the PFN capacitance C N , the maximum pulse frequency F max , and percentage regulation η are given. Simple and direct formulas for specific situation are listed. Finally, a design example is given and a comparison with experimental result is made, which shows that the design method is feasible and reliable

  1. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Qing dynasty porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huansheng; He, Wenquan; Tang, Jiayong; Yang, Fujia; Wang, Jianhua

    1996-09-01

    The major and minor chemical compositions and trace element content of white glaze made in Qing dynasty at kuan kiln have been determined by PIXE. Experimental results show that trace element contents RbSrZr are useful to distinguish the place of production of ancient porcelain. In the porcelain from different kilns situated in a same province, the trace element contents can be different from each other. Determining and comparing the major and minor compositions and trace elemental concentrations in white glaze by PIXE technique, we can distinguish a precious Qing dynasty porcelain made at kuan kiln from a fake.

  2. Accidents protection of the de-Qing regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Wenquan; Yang Fangxin; Zhu Genfa; Chen Zhenhua

    1992-01-01

    The de-Qing circuit is widely used in regulating and stabilizing HV pulse voltage in radar and electron linac. however its malfunction may cause damage to the microwave tube and pulse generator. Thus it is necessary to set up a protection circuit. The principle and problems for design are presented. Two examples employed successfully in electron linac are provided

  3. Such Stuff as Qing Borderlands are Made On

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Bello

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kwangmin Kim. Borderland Capitalism: Turkestan Produce, Qing Silver, and the Birth of an Eastern Market. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2016. 299 pp. $65 (cloth. Jonathan Schlesinger. A World Trimmed with Fur: Wild Things, Pristine Places, and the Natural Fringes of Qing Rule. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2017. 271 pp. $65 (cloth. The titular stuffs, silver and fur, of the two books reviewed here reveal the material basis of the books’ arguments. Nevertheless, the primary resources exploited directly by authors Kwangmin Kim and Jonathan Schlesinger were the ink and paper of the archival documents in languages other than Chinese, most especially in Manchu, that they consulted in the course of their research. In these books’ reliance on non-Chinese sources, Borderland Capitalism and A World Trimmed with Fur are representative of a growing body of Qing scholarship in English that delineates the empire within multilingual parameters that do not marginalize its borderlands. Instead, in these works, borderlands are integrated with central concerns of imperial commerce and imperial identity, as well as linked solidly to pervasive global trade patterns stretching well beyond the already-vast bounds of the Qing Empire. This reorientation is made possible largely because detailed documentation of local borderland dynamics exists, largely in Manchu, for periods of their formation, consolidation, and onset of decline from the mid-seventeenth into the early nineteenth centuries...

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of the Qing Dai in patients with intractable ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Narasaka, Toshiaki; Endo, Shinji; Matsui, Hirofumi; Yanaka, Akinori; Hirayama, Aki; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2013-05-07

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that may become intractable when treated with conventional medications such as aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and azathioprine. The herbal medicine Qing Dai has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine to treat UC patients, but there is a lack of published data on the efficacy of Qing Dai in UC treatment. We report several cases of patients with intractable UC who take Qing Dai in a retrospective observational study. Furthermore, we explore the mechanisms of action of Qing Dai. Nine patients with active UC who received conventional medications but wished to receive Qing Dai as an alternative medication were included in our analysis. The UC severity level was determined based on the clinical activity index (CAI). Additionally, 5 of the 9 patients were endoscopically evaluated according to the Matts grading system. Each patient received 2 g/d of Qing Dai orally and continued taking other medications for UC as prescribed. Electron spin resonance was applied to explore the mechanisms of action of Qing Dai. After 4 mo of treatment with Qing Dai, the CAI score decreased from 8.3 ± 2.4 to 2.4 ± 3.4 (mean ± SD; P Qing Dai possesses strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Qing Dai showed significant clinical and endoscopic efficacy in patients who failed to respond to conventional medications. Scavenging of hydroxyl radicals appears to be a potential mechanism through which Qing Dai acts, but the significance of the scavenging ability of Qing Dai with respect to the anti-inflammatory effect in UC patients warrants further investigation.

  5. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  6. An optimum design of R-C oscillatory De-Qing circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dezhang; Pan Linghe; Yang Tianlu

    1990-01-01

    An optimum design of R-C oscillatory De-Qing circuit has been developed for voltage regulation of the pulse modulator. When a new coefficient T 3 /T is introduced, the selection of De-Qing circuit parameters will become quite simple and the optimum parameters can be calculated directly. The De-Qing circuit parameters calculated will be effective in the whole range of the percentage regulation η from zero to maximum design value. The limit value of η is 0.36 or 0.29, theoretically, when the time constant of the De-Qing circuit is 3RC or 5RC respectively

  7. Holocene Evolution of Qing'ao Embayment, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, A. D.; Yu, F.; Chen, B.; Zheng, Z.; Wang, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Holocene evolution of the Qing'ao embayment, Nan'ao Island, southern China, is primarily the result of the interaction of tectonic activity, climate variation and changes in relative sea level. Characterizing the evolutionary history of the relatively small Qing'ao embayment during the Holocene will help improve our understanding of the driving mechanisms of coastal evolution in the area. To reconstruct the Holocene evolution history we analyzed the grain size, loss on ignition (LOI) and carbonate content of modern and core samples. Modern environmental analogs were examined in surface samples ranging from the coastal sand dunes through to offshore. The results of these modern samples suggest that dune sand (mean size of ~2.33Phi) are slightly finer than beach sand (mean size of 2.13Phi), and nearshore sediment is much coarser than offshore sediment (mean size of 5.90Phi). This modern analogs were then applied to 8 percussion cores from the Qing'ao embayment. A chronological framework obtained from 11 radiocarbon samples suggests that the embayment started to accept deposition since early Holocene, ~8500 cal. yr. BP. Three main phases of Holocene evolution were identified. A basin wide shell-rich sand sheet forms the basal Holocene facies and overlies clay rich presumably Pleistocene sediments or bedrock. This facies records an initial sedimentation phase associated with the early Holocene transgression into the embayment (~8500-6000 cal. yr. BP). The basal facies grades upward to a mixed sandy-mud facies which includes lagoonal clayey-silts, flood tide delta sands and records an estuarine phase lasting from ~6000-1000 cal. yr. BP that appears coincident with falling regional sea levels. Coincident with the estuarine phase is a period of coastal dune building recorded as yet undated massive sands that are found in the upper fill. Toward the end of the estuarine phase it is apparent that dune migration has restricted the lagoon entrance and that this was

  8. Lie-Mei symmetry and conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao-Wei; Li Yuan-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The Rosenberg problem is a typical but not too complicated problem of nonholonomic mechanical systems. The Lie—Mei symmetry and the conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem are studied. For the Rosenberg problem, the Lie and the Mei symmetries for the equation are obtained, the conserved quantities are deduced from them and then the definition and the criterion for the Lie—Mei symmetry of the Rosenberg problem are derived. Finally, the Hojman conserved quantity and the Mei conserved quantity are deduced from the Lie—Mei symmetry. (general)

  9. Lie-Mei symmetry and conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    The Rosenberg problem is a typical but not too complicated problem of nonholonomic mechanical systems. The Lie—Mei symmetry and the conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem are studied. For the Rosenberg problem, the Lie and the Mei symmetries for the equation are obtained, the conserved quantities are deduced from them and then the definition and the criterion for the Lie—Mei symmetry of the Rosenberg problem are derived. Finally, the Hojman conserved quantity and the Mei conserved quantity are deduced from the Lie—Mei symmetry.

  10. A Historical and Jurisprudential Analysis of Suzerain-Vassal State Relationships in the Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shiming

    2006-01-01

    Studies of suzerain-vassal state relationships in the Qing dynasty have been a focus of domestic and overseas academic circles.This paper examines the origins,semiotics,and legal principles of suzerain-vassal state relationships in the Qing dynasty with some innovative viewpoints.

  11. De novo MEIS2 mutation causes syndromic developmental delay with persistent gastro-esophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Atsushi; Isidor, Bertrand; Piloquet, Hugues; Corre, Pierre; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-09-01

    MEIS2 aberrations are considered to be the cause of intellectual disability, cleft palate and cardiac septal defect, as MEIS2 copy number variation is often observed with these phenotypes. To our knowledge, only one nucleotide-level change-specifically, an in-frame MEIS2 deletion-has so far been reported. Here, we report a female patient with a de novo nonsense mutation (c.611C>G, p.Ser204*) in MEIS2. She showed severe intellectual disability, moderate motor/verbal developmental delay, cleft palate, cardiac septal defect, hypermetropia, severe feeding difficulties with gastro-esophageal reflux and constipation. By reviewing this patient and previous patients with MEIS2 point mutations, we found that feeding difficulty with gastro-esophageal reflux appears to be one of the core clinical features of MEIS2 haploinsufficiency, in addition to intellectual disability, cleft palate and cardiac septal defect.

  12. Meis1 Is Required for Adult Mouse Erythropoiesis, Megakaryopoiesis and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Erin Miller

    Full Text Available Meis1 is recognized as an important transcriptional regulator in hematopoietic development and is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of leukemia, both as a Hox transcription factor co-factor and independently. Despite the emerging recognition of Meis1's importance in the context of both normal and leukemic hematopoiesis, there is not yet a full understanding of Meis1's functions and the relevant pathways and genes mediating its functions. Recently, several conditional mouse models for Meis1 have been established. These models highlight a critical role for Meis1 in adult mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS as a mediator of Meis1 function in this compartment. There are, however, several reported differences between these studies in terms of downstream progenitor populations impacted and effectors of function. In this study, we describe further characterization of a conditional knockout model based on mice carrying a loxP-flanked exon 8 of Meis1 which we crossed onto the inducible Cre localization/expression strains, B6;129-Gt(ROSA26Sor(tm1(Cre/ERTNat/J or B6.Cg-Tg(Mx1-Cre1Cgn/J. Findings obtained from these two inducible Meis1 knockout models confirm and extend previous reports of the essential role of Meis1 in adult HSC maintenance and expansion and provide new evidence that highlights key roles of Meis1 in both megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis. Gene expression analyses point to a number of candidate genes involved in Meis1's role in hematopoiesis. Our data additionally support recent evidence of a role of Meis1 in ROS regulation.

  13. Conformal invariance and conserved quantities of Appell systems under second-class Mei symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Ping, Luo; Jing-Li, Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the new concept of the conformal invariance and the conserved quantities for Appell systems under second-class Mei symmetry. The one-parameter infinitesimal transformation group and infinitesimal transformation vector of generator are described in detail. The conformal factor in the determining equations under second-class Mei symmetry is found. The relationship between Appell system's conformal invariance and Mei symmetry are discussed. And Appell system's conformal invariance under second-class Mei symmetry may lead to corresponding Hojman conserved quantities when the conformal invariance satisfies some conditions. Lastly, an example is provided to illustrate the application of the result. (general)

  14. Eyebrow Shapes of Chinese Empresses of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Yoo, Seong Kyung

    2018-03-14

    The aim of this study was to analyze eyebrow shapes in portraits of Chinese empresses of Ming and Qing dynasties.The frontal portraits of 20 Ming empresses and 24 of Qing in which the eye and eyebrows were identifiable were measured and analyzed. The arch shape did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between Ming and Qing. The head-up type (66.6%) was significantly more common (P Qing empresses were classified as 5 arch types: L (Lamas), A (Anastasia), H (Hwang), M (Empress Ma), and D (Empress Du). In Ming, type-H (45.0%) was the most frequent, followed by type-D (25.0%). In Qing, type-L (45.8%) was the most frequent, followed by type-H (16.7%) and type-D (16.7%). The relative eyebrow width (REW) of Ming and Qing was 1.59 ± 0.28. The REW of Qing (1.63 ± 0.30) and Ming (1.55 ± 0.26) did not differ significantly. The relative medial height (RMH, 1.05 ± 0.20) and relative lateral height (RLH; 1.05 ± 0.21) were the same, and greater than the relative mid-pupillary height (RPH; 0.84 ± 0.19; P Qing (1.02 ± 0.16) did not differ significantly. The RLH likewise did not differ significantly between Ming (1.01 ± 0.21) and Qing (1.08 ± 0.22). However, the RPH of Ming (0.91 ± 0.21) was significantly (P = 0.042) greater than Qing (0.79 ± 0.17). The relative brow thickness (RBT) of Qing (0.13 ± 0.06) was significantly (p = 0.033) greater than Ming (0.17 ± 0.06). The RBT of Ming and Qing was 0.15 ± 0.06 and increased with time (P = 0.023).The results of this study may be useful for brow lift or the tattooing.

  15. Indepth exploration on history of Qing doctors traveling to Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Saka, S; Okada, K

    1999-04-01

    During the one hundred years and more from the beginning of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century, about 16 Chinese doctors, at the invitation of Japanese, went to Japan successively by trade ships to practice medicine and teach Chinese medicine. They also conducted academic exchanges with Japanese doctors. Because both the Japanese authorities of that time and the emperor of Qing dynasty implemented the policy of closing the country, they could only do things in certain areas within limited time. By consulting a vast amount of data and following the footprints of some of the Chinese doctors in Japan, the author has got things into shape about the comings and goings of the doctors who went to Japan during the century and their activities, with the stressed point laid on the achievements of such influential doctors as Zhu Laizhang, Zhu Zizhang, Zhou Qilai, Zhao Songyang, Li Renshan, Hu Zhaoxin and so on.

  16. [Chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of Jilan glaze of Ming and Qing official kilns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-ming; Zhang, Mao-lin; Li, Qi-jiang; Wu, Juan; Quan, Kui-shan; Cao, Jian-wen

    2012-08-01

    Color glazes of Ming and Qing official kilns are excellent representatives of the famous ancient Chinese porcelains. The study of official ware with Jilan glaze has been an important topic. But it made slow progress due to the rarity of samples with strict production management and using system. The recipes, chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of the Jilan samples excavated from official kilns in the Ming and Qing dynasties were first discussed by systematical testing with the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and color difference meter. The results showed that the porcelain stone content in Jilan bodies of official kiln in the Ming dynasty is higher than the samples of the Qing dynasty. The manganese content in Jilan glazes of the Ming dynasty is higher than that in the Qing dynasty, while the glaze ash addition and the lightness value in the glaze are opposite.

  17. Danshen enhanced the estrogenic effects of Qing E formula in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Mei; Li, Jin; Liu, Er-Wei; Wang, Hong; Fan, Guan-Wei; Wang, Yue-Fei; Zhu, Yan; Ma, Shang-Wei; Gao, Xiu-Mei

    2016-06-23

    Menopause is characterized by a decrease in life quality due to the appearance of uncomfortable symptoms. Nowadays, Understanding menopause-associated pathophysiology and developing new strategies to improve the treatment of menopausal-associated symptoms is an important issue. Our study was to evaluate the synergistic effects of Danshen (salvia miltiorrhiza bunge) and the phytoestrogenic effects of 3 modified Qing E formulas, to explore a better formula for menopausal disorders. 100 rats were randomized into 5 groups: Sham (Sham operation group), OVX (model group of ovariectomized rat), BDL (group with low concentration of Qing E Formula), BDH (group with high concentration of Qing E Formula) and BDD (group with high concentration of Qing E Formula Plus Danshen), receiving vehicle and extract of different modified Qing E formula respectively. The food intake, body weight, uterus weight, blood levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and cholesterol fractions were assessed. The mammary glands and uterus were morphologically analyzed. The bone density of tibias were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Additionally, luciferase induction assays were performed in Hela cells with the mixtures derived from Qing E formula plus Danshen (BDD). Qing E formula plus Danshen significantly increased the uterus wet weight, enhanced the thickness of uterine wall, endometrial epithelium and glandular epithelium, improved trabecular bone and total density evidently, reduced the levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TG, possessed notable estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonist activity. Qing E formula plus Danshen exerted more evident estrogen-like effects, thus it has a potential therapeutic use to treat menopausal disorders.

  18. Qing-Qi Rickshaw : A Boon Or Bane For Public Transportation? A Study Of Road Traffic Injury Patterns Involving Qing-Qi Rickshaws In Karachi Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzammil, Muhammad; Minhas, Muhammad Saeed; Effendi, Jahanzeb; Jahanzeb, Syed; Mughal, Ayesha; Qadir, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    The three-wheeler Qing-qi and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) auto-rickshaws were introduced in Karachi to meet the transportation demand of the growing population. These vehicles have directly or indirectly been implicated in a number of road traffic violations as well as road accidents. This study aims to describe the crash characteristics and injury patterns for Qing-qi rickshaw occupants and other road users hit by Qing-qi rickshaw in Karachi, Pakistan. An Observational/ Descriptive study was conducted at Accident & Emergency and Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi Pakistan from July 2014 to June 2015.All patients who came with Qing-qi rickshaw accident in Accident & Emergency (A&E) of JPMC were included. Crash characteristics, details of injuries, injury severity parameters and outcome were documented in detailed interviews. Four hundred and eighty-six rickshaw related injuries were noted in road traffic accidents by Qing-gi rickshaw. Age range was 2-85 (43.5±58.68). 350 injured victims were males and 136 were females. By occupation most victims were laborers and daily wage workers (45%) and students (21%). Overloading of vehicle with more than two passengers was found in (28.5%). The most common cause of injury was collision with a moving vehicle (56%), followed by fall from rickshaw. The most common contributing factor was the overloading of rickshaw and roll over on turning (61%). Injury severity on arrival were mild (49%), moderate were (32%), and severe were (19%). Injuries related to head and neck (26%), face (14%), thorax and abdomen (5%), lower extremity and pelvic girdle (31%) and upper extremity (23%) were observed. Qing-qi rickshaw injuries are common and these vehicles are vulnerable to road traffic accidents. Occupants and road users are both at risk of injuries.

  19. Aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in progressive supranuclear palsy treated with qing fei tang: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Ichiro; Kato-Motozaki, Yuko; Ikeda, Tokuhei; Takahashi, Kazuya; Tagami, Atsuro; Ishida, Chiho; Komai, Kiyonobu

    2015-03-26

    Qing fei tang, which is used for various respiratory diseases, is useful for reducing relapse of aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in stroke, but the effect remains unknown in Parkinson's syndrome. We report two cases of Japanese patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and relapsing aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia, which was successfully prevented by qing fei tang. Two Japanese men with progressive supranuclear palsy and receiving total enteral feeding (patient one (66-years-old) and patient two (76-years-old)) had experienced recurrent aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia, which was unresponsive to conventional therapy. The respiratory infection developed twice at intervals of two months in patient one, and nine times at almost monthly intervals in patient two. Thereafter, they were given qing fei tang. After administration of qing fei tang, the respiratory infection reoccurred only once; after 5.5 months for patient one, and six months for patient two. Both of our patients clearly showed a reduced incidence of respiratory infection. Both of our patients clearly showed a reduced incidence of respiratory infection after the administration of qing fei tang. Qing fei tang could be useful for the prevention of recurrent aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in progressive supranuclear palsy.

  20. Meis1: effects on motor phenotypes and the sensorimotor system in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaro V. Salminen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MEIS1 encodes a developmental transcription factor and has been linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS in genome-wide association studies. RLS is a movement disorder leading to severe sleep reduction and has a substantial impact on the quality of life of patients. In genome-wide association studies, MEIS1 has consistently been the gene with the highest effect size and functional studies suggest a disease-relevant downregulation. Therefore, haploinsufficiency of Meis1 could be the system with the most potential for modeling RLS in animals. We used heterozygous Meis1-knockout mice to study the effects of Meis1 haploinsufficiency on mouse behavioral and neurological phenotypes, and to relate the findings to human RLS. We exposed the Meis1-deficient mice to assays of motor, sensorimotor and cognitive ability, and assessed the effect of a dopaminergic receptor 2/3 agonist commonly used in the treatment of RLS. The mutant mice showed a pattern of circadian hyperactivity, which is compatible with human RLS. Moreover, we discovered a replicable prepulse inhibition (PPI deficit in the Meis1-deficient animals. In addition, these mice were hyposensitive to the PPI-reducing effect of the dopaminergic receptor agonist, highlighting a role of Meis1 in the dopaminergic system. Other reported phenotypes include enhanced social recognition at an older age that was not related to alterations in adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis previously shown to be implicated in this behavior. In conclusion, the Meis1-deficient mice fulfill some of the hallmarks of an RLS animal model, and revealed the role of Meis1 in sensorimotor gating and in the dopaminergic systems modulating it.

  1. mei-9/sup a/ mutant of Drosophila melanogaster increases mutagen sensitivity and decreases excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.B.; Golino, M.D.; Setlow, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The mei-9/sup a/ mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, which reduces meiotic recombination in females, is deficient in the excision of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers in both sexes. Assays were performed in primary cultures and established cell lines derived from embryos. An endonuclease preparation from M. luteus, which is specific for pyrimidine dimers, was employed to monitor uv-induced dimers in cellular DNA. The rate of disappearance of endonuclease-sensitive sites from DNA of control cells is 10-20 times faster than that from mei-9/sup a/ cells. The mutant mei-218, which is also deficient in meiotic recombination, removes nuclease-sensitive sites at control rates. The mei-9/sup a/ cells exhibit control levels of photorepair, postreplication repair and repair of single strand breaks. In mei-9 cells DNA synthesis and possibly postreplication repair are weakly sensitive to caffeine. Larvae which are hemizygous for either of the two mutants that define the mei-9 locus are hypersensitive to killing by the mutagens methyl methanesulfonate, nitrogen mustard and 2-acetylaminofluorene. Larvae hemizygous for the mei-218 mutant are insensitive to each of these reagents. These data demonstrate that the mei-9 locus is active in DNA repair of somatic cells. Thus functions involved in meiotic recombination are also active in DNA repair in this higher eukaryote. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestions that the mei-9 locus functions in the exchange events of meiosis. The mei-218 mutation behaves differently in genetic tests and our data suggest its function may be restricted to meiosis. These studies demonstrate that currently recognized modes of DNA repair can be efficiently detected in primary cell cultures derived from Drosophila embryos

  2. The Story and Significance of Prince Chanhua Offering Tribute to and Requesting a New Title from the Qing Court in the Early Qing Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengRuiling; ChenGuansheng

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of Chinese and Tibetan historical materials, Mr. Z. Ahmad in his Sino-Tibetan Relations in the 17th Century, published in 1970, gave a description of Prince Chanhua(lit. Prince of the Propagation of the Doctrine of the Buddha)repeatedly requesting a new title from the Qing court during the reign of Emperor Shunzhi.

  3. Hoxa2 Selectively Enhances Meis Binding to Change a Branchial Arch Ground State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shilu; Donaldson, Ian J.; Zannino, Denise A.; Hensman, James; Rattray, Magnus; Losa, Marta; Spitz, François; Ladam, Franck; Sagerström, Charles; Bobola, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hox transcription factors (TFs) are essential for vertebrate development, but how these evolutionary conserved proteins function in vivo remains unclear. Because Hox proteins have notoriously low binding specificity, they are believed to bind with cofactors, mainly homeodomain TFs Pbx and Meis, to select their specific targets. We mapped binding of Meis, Pbx, and Hoxa2 in the branchial arches, a series of segments in the developing vertebrate head. Meis occupancy is largely similar in Hox-positive and -negative arches. Hoxa2, which specifies second arch (IIBA) identity, recognizes a subset of Meis prebound sites that contain Hox motifs. Importantly, at these sites Meis binding is strongly increased. This enhanced Meis binding coincides with active enhancers, which are linked to genes highly expressed in the IIBA and regulated by Hoxa2. These findings show that Hoxa2 operates as a tissue-specific cofactor, enhancing Meis binding to specific sites that provide the IIBA with its anatomical identity. PMID:25640223

  4. Press Reviews of Mei Lanfang in the Soviet Union, 1935, by Female Writers: Neher Versus Shaginyan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2016-01-01

    There are two interesting female exceptions to the all-male chorus reviewing the Chinese performer of female roles Mei Lanfang and his troupe in the local newspapers during Mei's Soviet tour in the spring of 1935. One is the well-established Russian writer Marietta Shaginyan (1888-1982), whose......, and to uncover why Neher's expert professional analysis has so far been unduly and sadly neglected. To further set off their contrasting views of Mei Lanfang and Chinese theatre, I compare these to the more well-known viewpoints of Sergei Tretyakov and Bertolt Brecht....

  5. Introduction to the characteristics of the education of law in the late Qing dynasty and its influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱孟静

    2015-01-01

    The modern law education began in the late Qing dynasty.Education of law in the late Qing dynasty got the development by leaps and bounds at the beginning of the start,after the government’s drive and the response of the society,to satisfy the need of improving political and constitutionalism.

  6. Introduction to the characteristics of the education of law in the late Qing dynasty and its influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱孟静

    2015-01-01

    The modern law education began in the late Qing dynasty. Education of law in the late Qing dynasty got the development by leaps and bounds at the beginning of the start, after the government's drive and the response of the society, to satisfy the need of improving political and constitutionalism.

  7. A tale of TALE, PREP1, PBX1, and MEIS1: Interconnections and competition in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Francesco; Bruckmann, Chiara; Penkov, Dmitry; Dardaei, Leila

    2017-05-01

    We report the latest structural information on PREP1 tumor suppressor, the specific "oncogene" and "tumor suppressive" signatures of MEIS1 and PREP1, the molecular rules regulating PREP1 and MEIS1 binding to DNA, and how these can change depending on the interaction with PBX1, cell-type, neoplastic transformation, and intracellular concentration. As both PREP1 and MEIS1 interact with PBX1 they functionally compete with each other. PREP1, PBX1, and MEIS1 TALE-class homeodomain transcription factors act in an interdependent and integrated way in experimental tumorigenesis. We also pool together the plethora of data available in human cancer databanks and connect them with the available molecular information. The emerging picture suggests that a similarly basic approach might be used to better dissect and define other oncogenes and suppressors and better understand human cancer. © 2017 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Biochemistry of the tale transcription factors PREP, MEIS, and PBX in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, E; Penkov, D; Mateos, D; De Florian, G; Torres, M; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    TALE (three amino acids loop extension) homeodomain transcription factors are required in various steps of embryo development, in many adult physiological functions, and are involved in important pathologies. This review focuses on the PREP, MEIS, and PBX sub-families of TALE factors and aims at giving information on their biochemical properties, i.e., structure, interactors, and interaction surfaces. Members of the three sets of protein form dimers in which the common partner is PBX but they can also directly interact with other proteins forming higher-order complexes, in particular HOX. Finally, recent advances in determining the genome-wide DNA-binding sites of PREP1, MEIS1, and PBX1, and their partial correspondence with the binding sites of some HOX proteins, are reviewed. These studies have generated a few general rules that can be applied to all members of the three gene families. PREP and MEIS recognize slightly different consensus sequences: PREP prefers to bind to promoters and to have PBX as a DNA-binding partner; MEIS prefers HOX as partner, and both PREP and MEIS drive PBX to their own binding sites. This outlines the clear individuality of the PREP and MEIS proteins, the former mostly devoted to basic cellular functions, the latter more to developmental functions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Meis1 regulates Foxn4 expression during retinal progenitor cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Islam

    2013-09-01

    The transcription factor forkhead box N4 (Foxn4 is a key regulator in a variety of biological processes during development. In particular, Foxn4 plays an essential role in the genesis of horizontal and amacrine neurons from neural progenitors in the vertebrate retina. Although the functions of Foxn4 have been well established, the transcriptional regulation of Foxn4 expression during progenitor cell differentiation remains unclear. Here, we report that an evolutionarily conserved 129 bp noncoding DNA fragment (Foxn4CR4.2 or CR4.2, located ∼26 kb upstream of Foxn4 transcription start site, functions as a cis-element for Foxn4 regulation. CR4.2 directs gene expression in Foxn4-positive cells, primarily in progenitors, differentiating horizontal and amacrine cells. We further determined that the gene regulatory activity of CR4.2 is modulated by Meis1 binding motif, which is bound and activated by Meis1 transcription factor. Deletion of the Meis1 binding motif or knockdown of Meis1 expression abolishes the gene regulatory activity of CR4.2. In addition, knockdown of Meis1 expression diminishes the endogenous Foxn4 expression and affects cell lineage development. Together, we demonstrate that CR4.2 and its interacting Meis1 transcription factor play important roles in regulating Foxn4 expression during early retinogenesis. These findings provide new insights into molecular mechanisms that govern gene regulation in retinal progenitors and specific cell lineage development.

  10. The Rise of Women's Modern Schooling in Late Qing China (1840-1911)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    The rise of women's modern schooling in late Qing China was deemed to be, by the historical trend of modern China, a progress that coincided with China's modernization and national self-strengthening movement after the humiliating defeat of the Opium War. This article is an examination of this process from 1840 to 1911, which had undergone three…

  11. Analysis on voltage stability of PFN in modulator using De-Qing network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Zhang Yongming; Zhu Fuquan

    1987-01-01

    Using the numerical simulation of PFN charging circuit and De-Qing network, a study of voltage stability of BEPC 80 MW klystron pulse modulator has been carried out. The results presented in the paper indicate the quantitative correlation between leakage inductance and voltage stability

  12. Effect of Qing Nao tablet on blood stasis model of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xuejun; Hao, Shaojun; Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Xiaobin; Xie, Guoqi; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Qing Nao tablet on mouse model of blood stasis syndrome, 60 mice, male and female, were randomly divided into 6 groups, were fed with large, small doses of Qing Nao tablet suspension, Naoluotong saline suspension and the same volume (group 2, 0.1ml/10g), administer 1 times daily, orally for 15 days. Intragastric administration for first days, in addition to the 1 group saline group every day in the hind leg intramuscular saline, the other 5 groups each rat day hind leg muscle injection of dexamethasone 0.8mg/kg intramuscular injection every day, 1 times, 15 days. 1 hour continuous intramuscular injection and intramuscular drug perfusion on the sixteenth day after mice. The eyeball blood, heparin after whole blood viscosity test. Compared with the control group, model group, high and low shear viscosity were significantly increased (Pgroup, high dose group and Qing Nao tablet Naoluotong group can significantly reduce the viscosity at high shear and (Pgroup can significantly reduce high shear and shear viscosity (Pgroup can significantly reduce the low shear viscosity (Pgroup can significantly reduce the low shear viscosity (Pgroup were lower high cut, low shear viscosity and trend The potential (P>0.05). The Qing Nao tablet has a good effect on the model of blood stasis in mice.

  13. Human Capital in Qing China: Economic Determinism or a History of Failed Opportunities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.; Foldvari, P.; van Leeuwen, B.

    2014-01-01

    The traditional education system in Qing China has been widely debated over the past decades. Some have argued it was efficient and furthered economic growth, while others have stressed its inefficient nature, which led to the introduction of the modern education system in the closing decades of the

  14. Qing Dai attenuates nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in gastrointestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Rie; Tamura, Masato; Matsui, Hirofumi; Nagano, Yumiko; Suzuki, Hideo; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2015-01-01

    Treatments with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have increased the number of patients with gastrointestinal complications. Qing Dai has been traditionally used in Chinese herbal medicine for various inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis. We previously reported that Qing Dai suppressed inflammations by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ulcerative colitis patients. Thus, Qing Dai can attenuate the production of ROS, which play an important role in NSAID-induced gastrointestinal injuries. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether Qing Dai decreased mitochondrial ROS production in NSAID-treated gastrointestinal cells by examining cellular injury, mitochondrial membrane potentials, and ROS production with specific fluorescent indicators. We also performed electron paramagnetic resonance measurement in isolated mitochondria with a spin-trapping reagent (CYPMPO or DMPO). Treatments with indomethacin and aspirin induced cellular injury and mitochondrial impairment in the gastrointestinal cells. Under these conditions, mitochondrial alterations were observed on electron microscopy. Qing Dai prevented these complications by suppressing ROS production in gastrointestinal cells. These results indicate that Qing Dai attenuated the ROS production from the NSAID-induced mitochondrial alteration in the gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Qing Dai treatment may be considered effective for the prevention NSAID-induced gastrointestinal injury.

  15. Anti-virus effect of traditional Chinese medicine Yi-Fu-Qing granule on acute respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anyuan; Xie, Yanying; Qi, Fanghua; Li, Jie; Wang, Peng; Xu, Shulan; Zhao, Lin

    2009-08-01

    Yi-Fu-Qing granule is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infections. The present study sought to investigate the anti-virus effects of Yi-Fu-Qing granule on acute respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human adenoviruses type 3 (Ad3). The cytotoxicity of Yi-Fu-Qing granule was evaluated by the neutral red assay on HeLa cells. The antiviral effect of Yi-Fu-Qing granule was tested by observing the cytopathogenic effect (CPE) with a compound mixture of Isatis leaf as the positive control drug. The results indicated that the highest non-toxicity concentration of Yi-Fu-Qing granule on Hela cells was 1:100. The CPE reduction assay showed that Yi-Fu-Qing granule inhibited RSV and Ad3 replication at a concentration of 1:100. Thus, Yi-Fu-Qing granule may have a significant antivirus effect on acute respiratory tract infections with RSV and Ad3 infections and this could prove useful for further antivirus research on acute respiratory tract infections.

  16. Basic Theory of Fractional Conformal Invariance of Mei Symmetry and its Applications to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shao-Kai; Dai, Yun; Yang, Ming-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Tian

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a basic theory of fractional dynamics, i.e., the fractional conformal invariance of Mei symmetry, and find a new kind of conserved quantity led by fractional conformal invariance. For a dynamical system that can be transformed into fractional generalized Hamiltonian representation, we introduce a more general kind of single-parameter fractional infinitesimal transformation of Lie group, the definition and determining equation of fractional conformal invariance are given. And then, we reveal the fractional conformal invariance of Mei symmetry, and the necessary and sufficient condition whether the fractional conformal invariance would be the fractional Mei symmetry is found. In particular, we present the basic theory of fractional conformal invariance of Mei symmetry and it is found that, using the new approach, we can find a new kind of conserved quantity; as a special case, we find that an autonomous fractional generalized Hamiltonian system possesses more conserved quantities. Also, as the new method's applications, we, respectively, find the conserved quantities of a fractional general relativistic Buchduhl model and a fractional Duffing oscillator led by fractional conformal invariance of Mei symmetry.

  17. Arginine Methylation Regulates MEIS2 Nuclear Localization to Promote Neuronal Differentiation of Adult SVZ Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jasmine; Anders-Maurer, Marie; Müller, Tanja; Hau, Ann-Christin; Grebbin, Britta Moyo; Kallenborn-Gerhardt, Wiebke; Behrends, Christian; Schulte, Dorothea

    2018-04-10

    Adult neurogenesis is regulated by stem cell niche-derived extrinsic factors and cell-intrinsic regulators, yet the mechanisms by which niche signals impinge on the activity of intrinsic neurogenic transcription factors remain poorly defined. Here, we report that MEIS2, an essential regulator of adult SVZ neurogenesis, is subject to posttranslational regulation in the SVZ olfactory bulb neurogenic system. Nuclear accumulation of MEIS2 in adult SVZ-derived progenitor cells follows downregulation of EGFR signaling and is modulated by methylation of MEIS2 on a conserved arginine, which lies in close proximity to nested binding sites for the nuclear export receptor CRM1 and the MEIS dimerization partner PBX1. Methylation impairs interaction with CRM1 without affecting PBX1 dimerization and thereby allows MEIS2 nuclear accumulation, a prerequisite for neuronal differentiation. Our results describe a form of posttranscriptional modulation of adult SVZ neurogenesis whereby an extrinsic signal fine-tunes neurogenesis through posttranslational modification of a transcriptional regulator of cell fate. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  19. Mei symmetry and conservation laws of discrete nonholonomic dynamical systems with regular and irregular lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Gang-Ling; Chen Li-Qun; Fu Jing-Li; Hong Fang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Noether symmetry and Mei symmetry of discrete nonholonomic dynamical systems with regular and the irregular lattices are investigated. Firstly, the equations of motion of discrete nonholonomic systems are introduced for regular and irregular lattices. Secondly, for cases of the two lattices, based on the invariance of the Hamiltomian functional under the infinitesimal transformation of time and generalized coordinates, we present the quasi-extremal equation, the discrete analogues of Noether identity, Noether theorems, and the Noether conservation laws of the systems. Thirdly, in cases of the two lattices, we study the Mei symmetry in which we give the discrete analogues of the criterion, the theorem, and the conservative laws of Mei symmetry for the systems. Finally, an example is discussed for the application of the results

  20. Arginine Methylation Regulates MEIS2 Nuclear Localization to Promote Neuronal Differentiation of Adult SVZ Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Kolb

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Adult neurogenesis is regulated by stem cell niche-derived extrinsic factors and cell-intrinsic regulators, yet the mechanisms by which niche signals impinge on the activity of intrinsic neurogenic transcription factors remain poorly defined. Here, we report that MEIS2, an essential regulator of adult SVZ neurogenesis, is subject to posttranslational regulation in the SVZ olfactory bulb neurogenic system. Nuclear accumulation of MEIS2 in adult SVZ-derived progenitor cells follows downregulation of EGFR signaling and is modulated by methylation of MEIS2 on a conserved arginine, which lies in close proximity to nested binding sites for the nuclear export receptor CRM1 and the MEIS dimerization partner PBX1. Methylation impairs interaction with CRM1 without affecting PBX1 dimerization and thereby allows MEIS2 nuclear accumulation, a prerequisite for neuronal differentiation. Our results describe a form of posttranscriptional modulation of adult SVZ neurogenesis whereby an extrinsic signal fine-tunes neurogenesis through posttranslational modification of a transcriptional regulator of cell fate. : A hallmark of adult neurogenesis is its strong dependence on physiological stimuli and environmental signals. Schulte and colleagues show that the nuclear localization and activity of a transcriptional regulator of adult neurogenesis is controlled by posttranslational modification. Their results link intrinsic control over neuron production to external signals and help to explain how adult neurogenesis can occur “on demand.” Keywords: subventricular zone, stem cell niche, posttranslational modification, controlled nuclear import, TALE-homdomain protein, MEIS2, PBX1, CRM1, neurogenesis, stem cell niche

  1. [Analysis of Xin'an imperial medical officials in the Ming and Qing Dynasties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, S M; Liu, B S; Lu, X

    2017-01-28

    Xin'an imperial medical officials of the Ming and Qing Dynasties was a special group of Xin'an doctors. It had exerted a positive and active impact on the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Rooted in the Xin'an region, with higher literacy and noble medical ethics and medical knowhow, through the imperial enlistment, examination, and other ways to enter the palace as imperial medical officials. During their tenure, they wrote books and communicated and merged with the folk medicine actively. After retiring, they were still involved actively in folk medicine activities, thus promoting and influencing the development of local medicine. The formation of Xin'an community of imperial medical officials in the Ming and Qing Dynasties was closely related to the prosperity of regional culture and commerce, and the development of medicine in Xin'an region.

  2. [A brief investigation on Gu Dehua, a female healer from Wuzhong in the Qing Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z K; Song, W J

    2016-09-28

    The female healer is a special community in traditional Chinese medical professionals. Since the Song-Yuan Dynasties, although the literati class holding the social voices and the male healers acting as medical orthodoxy were always suspicious of the female healers' behaviors and their medical morality, and tarnished their images through all kinds of media. Meanwhile, the female healers were still badly needed on the account of recognition of distinction between sexes between both sexes due to the rising of neo-Confucianism. An excellent female healer could still earn wide respect from the society. Gu Dehua was a famous female healer from Wuzhong in the Qing Dynasty's Daoguang-Xianfeng period. By investigating Gu Delua's family conditions, deeds and works, and her career, the community of the female healers in the Ming-Qing Dynasties can be thus understood.

  3. The Images of Jesus in the Emergence of Christian Spirituality in Ming and Qing China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobai Chu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Images of Jesus Christ played an important role in the emergence of Christian spirituality in Ming and Qing China. Of the great many images that we know from this period, this paper introduces five of them: Jesus as infant, criminal, gate, brother, and pig. The paper unfolds the historical, anthropological, and theological layers of these images to reveal the original tension between Christian spirituality and Chinese culture. The central thesis of the paper therefore is that this tension is reflected in the images of Jesus Christ and, moreover, that analyzing this tension allows us to achieve a more profound understanding of the emergence of Christian spirituality in Ming, Qing, and perhaps even today’s China.

  4. The Effects of Different Compatibilities of Qing'e Formula on Scopolamine?induced Learning and Memory Impairment in the Mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao‑Ping Zheng; Fang‑Di Hu; Li Yang; Yu‑Ling Ma; Bo‑Lu Sun; Chang‑Hong Wang; Zheng‑Tao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Qing'e formula (QEF) is a well?known traditional Chinese prescription that has been clinically employed for treatment of bone disease for hundreds of years. Objective: The present study aims to observe the effects of different compatibilities of QEF on the scopolamine?induced learning and memory impairment in the mouse, and further to explore its action mechanisms and compatibility rationality. Materials and Methods: The learning and memory alterations in the mouse were evaluated using the step?down test and Morris water maze (MWM) test; the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain?derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus were measured using colorimetric method or immunohistochemistry. Results: The results showed that different compatibilities of QEF significantly prolonged latency in the step?down test, shortened escape latency in the navigation test, increased the percentage of residence time, and the percentage of swimming distance in the target quadrant in the probe trial session. In addition, our results also found that different compatibilities of QEF remarkably inhibited AChE activity and increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus of mice. What's more, the group after being treated with whole recipe (QF) showed the highest level of improvement. Conclusions: These findings not only suggest that QEF may effectively ameliorate cognitive deficits through inhibiting AChE activity and increasing BDNF expression in the hippocampus but also elucidate the rationality of QEF.

  5. Fumigation treatment of Four Yellow Qing Ling Water with artificial tears for dry eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical efficacy of fumigation treatment of traditional Chinese medicine(Four Yellow Qing Ling Waterfor dry eye, and to provide the reference for clinical treatment of dry eye. METHODS: Totally 82 patients(164 eyeswere randomly divided into two groups from June 2016 to December 2016 in Ophthalmology Department of our hospital. The patients in control group were given artificial tears; the patients in the observation group were given artificial tears and fumigation treatment of traditional Chinese(Four Yellow Qing Ling Wateronce a day. After treatment for 14d, the Schirmer Ⅰ test(SⅠt, break-up time(BUT, cornea fluorescein staining(FLand clinical efficacy of two groups were compared. RESULTS: The efficiency rate of observation group was significantly better than the control group(87.8% vs 70.7%, Pvs 6.38±2.52mm/5min, Pvs 6.35±2.29s, Pvs 1.26±0.84, PCONCLUSION: The fumigation treatment of traditional Chinese medicine(Four Yellow Qing Ling Watercombined with artificial tears for dry eyes can improve the clinical symptoms of dry eye syndrome.

  6. China’s Selection of Foreign Laws for Succession in the Late Qing Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the selection of a target country for succession of foreign laws by China of the late Qing Dynasty as well as the channels and approaches based on documentation in the Chinese language. According to this article, the selection was mostly limited by information, the national situation and political system, objectives, international environment, legal tradition as well as human and material resources, of which the national situation, political system and objectives serve as key factors. In this case, historically, China of the late Qing Dynasty looked at the United States, Britain, France and Germany before settling on Japan as the target country for the succession of foreign laws; and with respect to the channels and approaches for the succession, several relatively effective channels and approaches, such as studying aboard, translating foreign texts, making survey trips and hiring foreign experts, were employed. Such selection by China of the late Qing Dynasty for the purpose of succession of foreign laws provide us with useful references for thinking about law succession and the current exchange of laws and cultures b etween China and foreign countries.

  7. Principal Component Analysis of Chinese Porcelains from the Five Dynasties to the Qing Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C. T.; Hua, Younan

    1992-10-01

    This is a study of the possibility of identifying antique Chinese porcelains according to the period or dynasty, using major and minor chemical components (SiO2 , Al2O3 , Fe2O3 , K2O, Na2O, CaO and MgO) from the body of the porcelain. Principal component analysis is applied to published data on 66 pieces of Chinese procelains made in Jingdezhen during the Five Dynasties and the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. It is shown that porcelains made during the Five Dynasties and the Yuan (or Ming) and Qing Dynasties can be segregated completely without any overlap. However, there is appreciable overlap between the Five Dynasties and the Song Dynasty, some overlap between the Song and Ming Dynasties and also between the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. Interestingly, Qing procelains are well separated from all the others. The percentage of silica in the porcelain body decreases and that of alumina increases with recentness with the exception of the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, where this trend is reversed.

  8. Meis2 is essential for cranial and cardiac neural crest development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machoň, Ondřej; Mašek, Jan; Machoňová, Olga; Krauss, S.; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, Nov 6 (2015) ISSN 1471-213X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/2042; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11214 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Meis2 * Persistent truncus arteriosus * Neural crest * Craniofacial skeleton * Cranial nerves Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.096, year: 2015

  9. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...... hundrede år var blevet fortalt mundtligt videre på egnen, og hun forsøgte – med forskellige midler – at få bragt denne version af historien frem i offentligheden....

  10. Paulus var kristendommens Lenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro.......En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro....

  11. "To Feel at Home in the Wonderful World of Modern Science": New Chinese Historiography and Qing Intellectual History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Ori

    2017-09-01

    Argument In recent decades a large body of scholarship on the first half of twentieth-century China has successfully shown the ways in which history and historiography had been constructed at the time, as well as the links between history, national identity, education, and politics that was forged during this period. In this paper, I examine Qing intellectual history, in particular that of the mid or "High Qing." I discuss the development of the historiography of this field in the early twentieth century by drawing on the larger developments in historiography; by demonstrating how these developments had shaped Qing intellectual history for later times; by focusing on the historical actors' sense of the importance of "science," being "scientific," and "modernization"; and, by unraveling the intimate connections to older historiographical narratives going back all the way to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  12. The Qing and Russia in Central Asia : A Comparative Study of Motives for Political Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Løvold, Thomas Ohren

    2009-01-01

    The Peoples Republic of China’s Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region, or eastern Central Asia, is an area that has recently seen large scale ethnic unrest, as the native Uygurs have protested violently against Chinese domination in the region. This thesis is a discussion of the background for why Xinjiang today is under Chinese rule. To and a half centuries ago, in 1755-59, the Manchu Qing dynasty (1636-1911) conquered Xinjiang and incorporated it into their state, and this conquest contributed s...

  13. Comportamiento meiótico de diferentes especies de lulo, Solanum sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Maricela Pareja Ordóñez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis del comportamiento meiótico de las especies de lulo S. hirtum, S. quitoense y S. sessiliflorum, siguiendo la metodología convencional para los estudios de microsporogénesis. Se tomaron botones florales en diferentes estados de desarrollo, fijándolos por 24 horas en una solución de tres partes de etanol por una parte de ácido acético, saturada con trazas de cristales de cloruro férrico. Para la preparación de las placas se siguió la técnica de aplastamiento, se liberaron las células madres del grano de polen y finalmente se hicieron las observaciones bajo microscopía de luz. El análisis mostró que la meiosis se presenta en longitudes de antera que van desde los 2,79 mm hasta los 4,45 mm. La normalidad meiótica fue del 100%, tanto para meiosis I, como para la meiosis II. El índice meiótico en las tres especies fue del 99,98% lo cual indica que son buenos parentales y que pueden utilizarse en programas de cruzamiento. Las tres especies evaluadas tienen igual número de cromosomas (2n=2X=24. La frecuencia de anormalidades durante el proceso meiótico fue baja para S. hirtum, y alta para S. quitoense; sin embargo, la viabilidad polínica fue de gran magnitud (91,2-97,3%.

  14. Colitis with wall thickening and edematous changes during oral administration of the powdered form of Qing-dai in patients with ulcerative colitis: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Satoru; Araki, Toshimitsu; Okita, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Akira; Hamada, Yasuhiko; Katsurahara, Masaki; Horiki, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Misaki; Shimoyama, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Kusunoki, Masato

    2018-03-16

    Orally administered Qing-dai, called indigo naturalis in Latin, is reportedly useful for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. We herein describe two patients with ulcerative colitis who developed colitis with wall thickening and edematous changes during oral administration of the powdered form of Qing-dai. In Case 1, a 35-year-old man developed colitis similar to ischemic colitis with bloody stool that recurred each time he ingested Qing-dai. He had no signs of recurrence upon withdrawal of Qing-dai. In Case 2, a 43-year-old woman underwent ileocecal resection for treatment of an intussusception 2 months after beginning oral administration of Qing-dai. Edema and congestion but no ulceration were present in the mucosa of the resected specimen. Both patients exhibited abdominal pain with bloody diarrhea, and abdominal computed tomography showed marked wall edema affecting an extensive portion of the large bowel.

  15. The Characters of Leap Years in Qing Calendars (1644-1911)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dalong

    In Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) three different calendars had been put into use which titles are Xiyang Xinfa Lishu (Treatise on Astronomy and Calendrical Science according to the New Method in West 1645-1666) Yuzhi Lixiang Kaocheng (Compendium of Calendrical Science and Astronomy compiled by Imperial Order 1725-1742) and Yuzhi Lixiang Kaocheng Houbian (Sequel Compendium of Calendrical Science and Astronomy compiled by Imperial Order 1742-1911). The characters of leap years in the three calendars are different for the last one which is selected the year of 1723 as it epoch and named as Guimao Yuan Li. This calendar is based on the 33-year pattern of leap years (there is a rather exact accord between days and years over this interval with eight days being intercalated per 33 years) and is slightly different from the former two calendars. Therefore the calendars of Qing Dynasty complied by Western Jesuits and Chinese astronomers can be regarded as the remarkable achievements in the history of calendar in the world.

  16. Levels of the ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor MEL-26 are inversely correlated with MEI-1/katanin microtubule-severing activity during both meiosis and mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jacque-Lynne F A; Lu, Chenggang; Raharjo, Eko; McNally, Karen; McNally, Francis J; Mains, Paul E

    2009-06-15

    The MEI-1/MEI-2 microtubule-severing complex, katanin, is required for oocyte meiotic spindle formation and function in C. elegans, but the microtubule-severing activity must be quickly downregulated so that it does not interfere with formation of the first mitotic spindle. Post-meiotic MEI-1 inactivation is accomplished by two parallel protein degradation pathways, one of which requires MEL-26, the substrate-specific adaptor that recruits MEI-1 to a CUL-3 based ubiquitin ligase. Here we address the question of how MEL-26 mediated MEI-1 degradation is triggered only after the completion of MEI-1's meiotic function. We find that MEL-26 is present only at low levels until the completion of meiosis, after which protein levels increase substantially, likely increasing the post-meiotic degradation of MEI-1. During meiosis, MEL-26 levels are kept low by the action of another type of ubiquitin ligase, which contains CUL-2. However, we find that the low levels of meiotic MEL-26 have a subtle function, acting to moderate MEI-1 activity during meiosis. We also show that MEI-1 is the only essential target for MEL-26, and possibly for the E3 ubiquitin ligase CUL-3, but the upstream ubiquitin ligase activating enzyme RFL-1 has additional essential targets.

  17. Retinoic acid-independent expression of Meis2 during autopod patterning in the developing bat and mouse limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mandy K; Hockman, Dorit; Curry, Lyle; Cunningham, Thomas J; Duester, Gregg; Logan, Malcolm; Jacobs, David S; Illing, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The bat has strikingly divergent forelimbs (long digits supporting wing membranes) and hindlimbs (short, typically free digits) due to the distinct requirements of both aerial and terrestrial locomotion. During embryonic development, the morphology of the bat forelimb deviates dramatically from the mouse and chick, offering an alternative paradigm for identifying genes that play an important role in limb patterning. Using transcriptome analysis of developing Natal long-fingered bat (Miniopterus natalensis) fore- and hindlimbs, we demonstrate that the transcription factor Meis2 has a significantly higher expression in bat forelimb autopods compared to hindlimbs. Validation by reverse transcriptase and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and whole mount in situ hybridisation shows that Meis2, conventionally known as a marker of the early proximal limb bud, is upregulated in the bat forelimb autopod from CS16. Meis2 expression is localised to the expanding interdigital webbing and the membranes linking the wing to the hindlimb and tail. In mice, Meis2 is also expressed in the interdigital region prior to tissue regression. This interdigital Meis2 expression is not activated by retinoic acid (RA) signalling as it is present in the retained interdigital tissue of Rdh10 (trex/trex) mice, which lack RA. Additionally, genes encoding RA-synthesising enzymes, Rdh10 and Aldh1a2, and the RA nuclear receptor Rarβ are robustly expressed in bat fore- and hindlimb interdigital tissues indicating that the mechanism that retains interdigital tissue in bats also occurs independently of RA signalling. Mammalian interdigital Meis2 expression, and upregulation in the interdigital webbing of bat wings, suggests an important role for Meis2 in autopod development. Interdigital Meis2 expression is RA-independent, and retention of interdigital webbing in bat wings is not due to the suppression of RA-induced cell death. Rather, RA signalling may play a role in the thinning

  18. Between the Living and the Dead: Trauma Medicine and Forensic Medicine in the Mid-Qing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Li

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of forensic medicine on therapeutic medicine through a case study of Qian Xiuchang and Hu Tingguang, two Chinese doctors who specialized in treating traumatic injuries. During the early nineteenth century, both men compiled medical treatises that sought to improve on a scholarly model of "rectifying bones" articulated in 1742 by the Imperially-Compiled Golden Mirror of the Medical Lineage . Both texts also incorporated information from forensic medicine, including official inquest diagrams and checklists promulgated by the Qing government. I show that they drew on these forensic materials to help address two interlinked medical issues: understanding the effects of injury on different parts of the body, and clarifying the location and form of the body's bones. Overall, I suggest that the exchange of ideas between the realm of therapeutic medicine and forensic medicine was an important epistemological strategy that doctors and officials alike employed to improve their knowledge of the material body.

  19. Apatite fission track dating and thermal history of Qing-He region in Altay Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Zengkuan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yuan Wanming; Dong Jinquan; Gao Shaokai

    2005-01-01

    Fission track ages (FTA) and track lengths of apatite from Qing-He diorite intrusion in Altay Mountains are measured. Apatite fission track ages of three diorite samples is range from (78±5) Ma to (95 ± 5) Ma, and the lengths of horizontal confined spontaneous fission tracks are (13.2 ± 1.2)-(13.5 ±1.3) μm. The distribution of the track length is narrow and symmetrical with a mean length of approximately 13.3 μm and a standard deviation of around 0.1 μm. The inverse modeling results show that thermal history of this region has four stages, two rapid uplift of this region still existed magmatic intrusion and tectonic movements in Yanshanian. (authors)

  20. The Dangers of 'Warming and Replenishing' (wenbu ) during the Ming to Qing Epistemic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Through a case study of Zhao Xianke's One Principle through Medicine ( Yiguan ) (1617?) and Xu Dachun's (1693-1771) denouncements of this text, my article zooms in on divergent discourses on the safety and efficacy of medicinal substances and compounds in late imperial China. Although Xu Dachun's fierce attacks on the popular 'warming and replenishing' ( wenbu ) therapies can be situated in an epistemic shift from the cosmology of 'Song learning' ( songxue ) towards the philology of 'Han learning' ( hanxue ) and 'evidential research' ( kaozheng ), I argue that more complex issues were at stake as well. Changed political, social, ethical, and economic realities shaped new and multifaceted perceptions of the nature of medicine, the medical profession, and the usage of medicinals in the aftermath of the Ming to Qing transition.

  1. [Chinese books on human anatomy published in the late Qing dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideshi

    2007-12-01

    Quanti-chanwei (1881) is the first technical book on human anatomy written in Chinese and brought to Modern China. It was compiled and translated on the basis of Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical (first edition in 1858) by Henry Gray. Quanti-chanwei was published with intent to establish Chinese translations for terms referring to anatomy, and it gained broad support from medical missionaries who mainly served in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Fuzhou at that time. Quanti-tongkao (1886) was also complied and translated on the basis of Gray' Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical. It was published from Jingshi Tongwen Guan, The Academy of Foreign Languages in the Qing dynasty, and they selected different words for the translation into Chinese from Quanti-chanwei. Thus, although Gray' Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical played a great role in the introduction of Western Medicine into Modern China, there was no accordance between the national government and the provinces regarding Chinese translations for terms referring to anatomy.

  2. Protective effect of a Chinese Medicine formula He-Ying-Qing-Re Formula on diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor-yue; Zhang, Yinjian; Feng, Yibin

    2015-07-01

    He-Ying-Qing-Re Formula (HF) is a formula modified from "Si-Miao-Yong-An Decoction", a traditional Chinese medical classic emerged in the Qing dynasty and has been reported for treatment of vascular diseases. HF, containing 8 herbs, has been used in local hospital for decades as a complementary method for diabetic retinopathy (DR) with retinal vascular dysfunction. Clinical reports revealed HF could ameliorate vision defects, microaneurysms, hemorrhages and macular edema. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-DR action of HF and its underlying mechanism experimentally. Chromatographic fingerprinting of HF and rodent model of DR were established; hypoglycemic effect of HF was measured by fasting, random blood glucose and glucose tolerance test; vascular degeneration was measured by retinal digestion; blood-retina-barrier (BRB) permeability was assessed with Evans Blue leakage assay. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were measured in vitro and in vivo level; Migration of retinal vascular endothelial cells were determined by wound healing and transwell chamber assays; permeability of endothelial monolayer was monitored with dextran transport. AGEs-related proteins and signaling were measured with immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and arctin were identified as major components in HF; HF suppresses retinal vasculature degeneration and BRB permeability damage without significant inhibition on hyperglycemia; HF reduces in vitro and in vivo formation of AGEs and AGEs-induced migration as well as permeability of retinal vascular endothelial cells. Expression of tight junction proteins Zo-1 and Claudin-1 was increased while activation of AGEs receptor and downstream signaling Akt were suppressed upon HF treatment. HF exhibits protective effect against diabetic retinopathy, which may be associated with inhibition on AGEs and recovery on endothelial dysfunction via modulation of tight junction and AGEs downstream signaling

  3. Zlatko Meić - The Recipient of the Annual State Reward for Science 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinajstić, N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The life and career of Professor Zlatko Meić is described in some detail. He was born in 1938 in Šid (Srijem and educated in Varaždin (elementary school, 1945–1952 and high school, 1952–1957, and in Zagreb (Faculty of Technology, 1957–1962. He did diploma research under the guidance of Siniša Maričić at the Rugjer Bošković Institute. He obtained his master's degree in 1967 and soon after the Ph. D. in 1969 at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in Zagreb under the supervision of Professor Milan Randić. He spent his career at the Rugjer Bošković Institute and the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics. His field of research was molecular spectroscopy where he made his mark and was internationally recognized for the high quality of his work. In the Department of Chemistry, he was associated with the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry where he was the Head of the Laboratory from 2000 to 2007. There he modernized the teaching of analytical chemistry and introduced a new lecture course Identification of chemical compounds by spectroscopic methods. Professor Meić had many of students due to his likeable personality, and willingness to help students and younger colleagues seeking advice and encouragement.

  4. Biochemical studies of DNA strand break repair and molecular characterization of mei-41, a gene involved in DNA break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveri, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to repair X-irradiation induced single-strand DNA breaks was examined in mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. This analysis demonstrated that examined stocks possess a normal capacity to repair X-ray induced single-strand breaks. One of the mutants in this study, mei-41, has been shown to be involved in a number of DNA metabolizing functions. A molecular characterization of this mutant is presented. A cDNA hybridizing to genomic DNA both proximal and distal to a P element inducing a mei-41 mutation was isolated from both embryonic and adult female recombinant lambda phage libraries. A 2.2 kilobase embryonic cDNA clone was sequenced; the sequence of an open reading frame was identified which would predict a protein of 384 amino acids with a molecular weight of 43,132 daltons. An examination of homologies to sequences in protein and nucleic acid data bases revealed no sequences with significant homology to mei-41, however, two potential Zinc-finger domains were identified. Analysis of RNA hybridizing to the embryonic cDNA demonstrated the existence of a major 2.2 kilobase transcript expressed primarily in embryos and adult flies. An examination of the transcription of this gene in mei-41 mutants revealed significant variation from wild-type, an indication that the embryonic cDNA does represent a mei-41 transcript. Expression in tissues from adult animals demonstrated that the 2.2 kilobase RNA is expressed primarily in reproductive tissues. A 3.8kb transcript is the major species of RNA in the adult head and thorax. Evidence is presented which implies that expression of the mei-41 gene is strongly induced by exposure of certain cells to mutagens

  5. [Clinical study of bi yan qing du ke li and nasal care in treatment of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hua

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effect of bi yan qing du ke li combined with Nasal Care on the titers of EB virus VCA/IgA and nasopharyngeal symptoms in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) after radiotherapy. Sixty NPC patients underwent-radiotherapy were randomly divided into study group (bi yan qing du ke li combined with nasal care, n=30) and control group (bi yan qing du ke li group, n=30). After treatment, the geometric mean titer of VCA/IgA was 20.5 in study group and 55.6 in control group, respectively (P qing du ke li combined with Nasal Care can significantly decrease the titers of VCA/IgA in NPC patients after-radiotherapy and improve the nasopharyngeal symptoms, which might be helpful to decrease the recurrence rate of NPC.

  6. Research on the Distribution and Characteristics of Moso Ethnic Costume during the Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Linjun

    2014-01-01

    The “Moso” (麽些) during the Ming and Qing dynasties includes present day Naxi, as well as the present day Mongolians in the areas of Muli, Yanyuan, and the “Nari” and“Namuyi” branches of the Tibetan . The Moso were distributed in the present day area of Lijiang , Diqing, Nujiang;the Mangkang area of Changdu;the Muli, Yanyuan, and Yanbian areas of Liangs-han Prefecture; and Batang and Litang of Ganzi Prefecture .Due to the special geographic environ-ment as well as policies implemented by various dynasties regarding the ethnic people in the border areas, the Moso formed a kind of culture with their own characteristics during the long process of histo-ry.In different historical periods , the Moso's cos-tume and culture also differed-some parts there were passed down , but there was also innovation and development .The regional characteristics of the Moso costume were obvious during the Ming and Qing dynasties.This article, from the perspec-tive historical geography , will discuss the geo-graphical distribution , evolution and formation of Moso costume during the Ming and Qing periods .   Costume is a marker of an “ethnic group” , and it includes both clothes and ornaments .Seen from the vertical line of history , the costume of Moso people has various characteristics in various periods;and seen from the horizontal line of histo-ry, the costume has very obvious regional differ-ences.There are few records on Moso costumes before the Ming dynasty .Only a few records are found, for example, in the shiji· xinanyi liezhuan ( An Account of the Southwestern Yi in The Records of the Historian) , xintangshu· nanman zhuan ( An Account of the Southern Barbarians in the New Tang History) .Since the Ming dynasty , there are more records about the Moso in Han Chinese litera-ture in which new characteristics of Moso costume could be noted .A kind of regional distribution of Moso costume appeared , including the Lijiang cos-tume zone , and the Yanyuan

  7. Pharmacokinetics and efficiency of brain targeting of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 given as Nao-Qing microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Shu, Ya-Jun; Cheng, Jia-Yin; Liang, Run-Cheng; Dian, Shao-Na; Lv, Xiao-Xun; Yang, Meng-Qi; Huang, Shu-Ling; Chen, Gang; Yang, Fan

    2015-02-01

    Nao-Qing solution has been shown to be clinically effective in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The purpose of this study was to improve the pharmacokinetics and brain uptake of Nao-Qing, administered as an oil-in-water microemulsion. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given Nao-Qing microemulsion by intranasal or intragastric routes. Samples of blood, brain, heart, liver, lung and kidney were collected at pre-determined time intervals, and the contents of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 (active ingredients of the Nao-Qing microemulsion) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that contents of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 in Nao-Qing microemulsion was 8475.13 ± 54.61 μg/ml and 6633.42 ± 527.27 μg/ml, respectively, and that the particle size, pH and viscosity of the microemulsion were 19.9 ± 5.07 nm, 6.1 and 3.056 × 10(-3 )Pas, respectively. Absorption of ginsenoside Rg1 was higher than that of ginsenoside Rb1, which was barely detectable after intragastric administration; furthermore, the concentration of ginsenoside Rg1 in blood and other tissues at each time point was lower for intragastric than for intranasal administration. Compared with intragastric administration, intranasal administration resulted in a shorter tmax (0.08 versus 1 h), a higher Cmax (16.65 versus 11.29 μg/ml), and a higher area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) (592.91 versus 101.70 μgċh/ml) in the brain. The relative rates of uptake (Re) and the ratio of peak concentration (Ce) in the brain were 126.31% and 147.48% for ginsenoside Rg1, respectively. These data illustrate that intranasal administration can promote the absorption of drugs in Nao-Qing microemulsion and achieve fast effect.

  8. Da Danmark var en slavenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Louise Alberg; Brunbech, Peter Johan Yding; Poulsen, Jens Aage

    I mere end 250 år var Danmark en stor kolonimagt. Skt. Jan, Skt. Thomas og Skt. Croix, eller U.S. Virgin Islands, som de kaldes i dag, var danske kolonier, hvor der bl.a. blev dyrket sukkerrør og bomuld. Det hårde arbejde blev udført af slaver, som man fra slutningen af 1600-tallet begyndte at tr...

  9. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Oral Qing-Dai in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis: A Single-Center Open-Label Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Naganuma, Makoto; Kiyohara, Hiroki; Arai, Mari; Ono, Keiko; Mori, Kiyoto; Saigusa, Keiichiro; Nanki, Kosaku; Takeshita, Kozue; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Mutaguchi, Makoto; Mizuno, Shinta; Bessho, Rieko; Nakazato, Yoshihiro; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Inoue, Nagamu; Ogata, Haruhiko; Iwao, Yasushi; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine Qing-Dai (also known as indigo naturalis) has been used to treat various inflammatory conditions. However, not much has been studied about the use of oral Qing-Dai in the treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Studies exploring alternative treatments for UC are of considerable interest. In this study, we aimed at prospectively evaluating the safety and efficacy of Qing-Dai for UC patients. The open-label, prospective pilot study was conducted at Keio University Hospital. A total of 20 patients with moderate UC activity were enrolled. Oral Qing-Dai in capsule form was taken twice a day (daily dose, 2 g) for 8 weeks. At week 8, the rates of clinical response, clinical remission, and mucosal healing were 72, 33, and 61%, respectively. The clinical and endoscopic scores, CRP levels, and fecal occult blood results were also significantly improved. We observed 2 patients with mild liver dysfunction; 1 patient discontinued due to infectious colitis and 1 patient discontinued due to mild nausea. This is the first prospective study indicating that oral Qing-Dai is effective for inducing remission in patients with moderate UC activity and can be tolerated. Thus, Qing-Dai may be considered an alternative treatment for patients, although further investigation is warranted. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Let me sing your songs: how Finns found xöömei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Heikkilä

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The author of this essay, musician and founder of the Throat Singing Association of Finland (1997, tells the story of how an association of throat singing practitioners came to be in Finland, and how to teach this art to those wishing to learn it. The story also covers the author’s own musical preferences and his life-changing visit to a week-long workshop led by Boris Salchak from Tuva in 1995. Two years later, the author and other aficionados of Tuvan xöömei founded the Throat Singing Association and started holding festivals featuring invited Tuvan singers and throat singing courses. The author describes his collaboration with renowned Tuvan performers, as well as throat singing scholars from the USA, the Netherlands, UK, Italy, etc. The author holds that throat (or overtone singing is a special sound practice. Tuvan practices can be compared with similar techniques developed by indigenous peoples of Africa, North America, Japan and Tibet. Throat singing as a practice is closely linked to specific ancient worldviews of peoples and cultures living close to nature. Finns are also considered living in close proximity to nature, which may explain their partiality to throat signing. Dozens actively practice xöömei and hundreds have experienced it, which is a much larger percentage than in other European states. In the essay, the author also focuses on the throat singing courses he has been giving for a while and shares his observations of his students, their motivation, specific training techniques and adapting them to the desires and intentions of his students. He believes that almost everybody can learn singing, and most people can have a command of throat singing. The essay also covers the main problems that aspiring throat singers can face, as well as specific styles of the xöömei, concluding with the idea that it is impossible to master throat singing in a short period of time. The key to success is only found in regular and extensive

  11. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  12. Introduction: Paving the Old-New Way from Qing to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Ori

    2017-09-01

    The funeral procession of Sheng Xuanhuai (, 1844-1916) - the renowned Qing scholar-official, financier, and "father of Chinese industrialism" - meandered through the streets of Shanghai on 18 November 1917. The funeral was a grand event, one that was purportedly documented in film, later to be distributed as the first "news short-film" () in China. The North China Herald reported on the event in some detail, at times in rather florid language, and suggested that "the cortege was splendid and impressive, bringing back the days of the Manchu emperors. The ceremonial costumes, the musical instruments and much more of the accoutrements dated back to the days of the Empire" ("Sheng Kung-pao's Funeral," 1917, 467-68). And indeed, the procession included a variety of ritual customs and insignia from Qing (1644-1911) times: imperial banners, ancestral tablets, Buddhist and Daoist priests, paper artifacts, and much more. Simultaneously, nonetheless, other kinds of participants and objects - new and not of imperial pedigree - were part of and intermixed with the older materials: certificates of rank were carried on cars; boy scouts and college students marched alongside the priests; many of the participants arrived by train (mainly from Sheng's hometown, Suzhou); and as the Shanghai portion of the procession ended, it continued by steamer to Suzhou. The conclusion of the North China Herald account, however, seems to have emphasized a dichotomy of old and new rather than a joyful mix of the two: Hundreds of men, dressed in the ancient costume of the old dynasties, bore a strong contrast to the eight behind them, sons of intimate friends of the deceased. They were on horseback and wore high silk hats, frock coats and white breeches tucked in riding boots. Truly the passing of the old and the entering of the new. (Ibid.; emphasis added) This view - the old giving way to the new - was not just an off-hand (Western) journalistic analysis; it was part of a larger discourse about

  13. The C. elegans anaphase promoting complex and MBK-2/DYRK kinase act redundantly with CUL-3/MEL-26 ubiquitin ligase to degrade MEI-1 microtubule-severing activity after meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenggang; Mains, Paul E

    2007-02-15

    The C. elegans embryo supports both meiotic and mitotic spindles, requiring careful regulation of components specific to each spindle type. The MEI-1/katanin microtubule-severing complex is required for meiosis but must be inactivated prior to mitosis. Downregulation of MEI-1 depends on MEL-26, which binds MEI-1, targeting it for degradation by the CUL-3 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Here we report that other protein degradation pathways, involving the anaphase promoting complex (APC) and the MBK-2/DYRK kinase, act in parallel to MEL-26 to inactivate MEI-1. At 25 degrees all mel-26(null) embryos die due to persistence of MEI-1 into mitosis, but at 15 degrees a significant portion of embryos hatch due to lower levels of ectopic MEI-1, suggesting that a redundant pathway also regulates MEI-1 degradation at 15 degrees. Previously the MBK-2/DYRK kinase was suggested to trigger MEL-26 mediated MEI-1 degradation. However, mbk-2 enhances the incomplete lethality of mel-26(null) at 15 degrees, arguing that MEL-26 acts in parallel to MBK-2. APC mutants behave similarly. In mel-26 embryos, ectopic MEI-1 remains until the onset of gastrulation, but in mbk-2; apc embryos, MEI-1 only persists through the first mitosis. We propose that mbk-2 and apc couple the initial phase of MEI-1 degradation to meiotic exit, after which MEL-26 completes MEI-1 degradation.

  14. ToF-MEIS stopping measurements in thin SiC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnarsson, M.K.; Khartsev, S.; Primetzhofer, D.; Possnert, G.; Hallén, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic stopping in thin, amorphous, SiC films has been studied by time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering and conventional Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Amorphous SiC films (8, 21 and 36 nm) were prepared by laser ablation using a single crystalline silicon carbide target. Two kinds of substrate films, one with a lower atomic mass (carbon) and one with higher atomic mass (iridium) compared to silicon has been used. Monte Carlo simulations have been used to evaluate electronic stopping from the shift in energy for the signal scattered from Ir with and without SiC. The two kinds of samples are used to illustrate the strength and challenges for ToF-MEIS compared to conventional RBS

  15. Preventive effect of Chinese traditional medicine-Qing-Xue granula on radiation induced lung injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaozhen; Ji Wei; Jiang Heng; Zhao Lujun; Yang Weizhi; Yang Yufei; Wang Luhua

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether oral administration of Chinese traditional medicine, Qing-Xue granula, can prevent mouse lung injury caused by thoracic radiation. Methods: 128 BalB/C mice were divided into 4 groups: control (C) group; radiation (R) group; radiation plus high dose Qing-Xue granula (H) group and radiation plus median dose Qing-Xue granula (M) group. The H and M groups were fed 0.64 g and 0.32 g of Qing-Xue granula dissolved in 0.5 ml saline once daily for two months,which were 4 and 2 times of human dosage, respectively. Whole thorax radiation of 12 Gy was delivered with a single ventral-dorsal field with 6 MV X-ray. Group C and group R received 21 days of 0.5 ml saline feeding. Mice were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 or 6 months after radiation. Macrophage cell count of lung lavage fluid and hydroxyproline content of left lung were assayed, and the lung fibrosis was scored according to the Ashcroft's criteria. The plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration were assayed with ELISA method. The One-way ANOVA was used to test the significance of any differences between groups at each time point. Results: The macrophage cell number of lung lavage fluid was significantly lower in the 1 st month in group M than in group R (2:4, q =3.92, P 0.05). The hydroxyproline content of group H was significantly lower than group R in the 1 st and 6 th months (q =3.62, 3.54, all P nd , 4 th and 6 th months (q=3.38 -4.16, all P st month (q=3.53, P 0.05). The VEGF concentration was significantly higher in group R than group C since the 2 nd month (q =3.12 - 3.78, P nd and 6 th months (q =3.08 - 3.92, all P<0.05). Conclusions: Oral Chinese traditional medicine, Qing-Xue granula, could prevent radiation induced lung fibrosis in mice, especially at high dosage. The degree of elevation of VEGF in plasma was not parallel with that of lung fibrosis. (authors)

  16. Epidemics in Ming and Qing China: Impacts of changes of climate and economic well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Li, Guodong; Winterhalder, Bruce; Lee, Harry F

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the mechanism of epidemics with the impacts of climate change and socio-economic fluctuations in the Ming and Qing Dynasties in China (AD 1368-1901). Using long-term and high-quality datasets, this study is the first quantitative research that verifies the 'climate change → economy → epidemics' mechanism in historical China by statistical methods that include correlation analysis, Granger causality analysis, ARX, and Poisson-ARX modeling. The analysis provides the evidences that climate change could only fundamentally lead to the epidemics spread and occurrence, but the depressed economic well-being is the direct trigger of epidemics spread and occurrence at the national and long term scale in historical China. Moreover, statistical modeling shows that economic well-being is more important than population pressure in the mechanism of epidemics. However, population pressure remains a key element in determining the social vulnerability of the epidemics occurrence under climate change. Notably, the findings not only support adaptation theories but also enhance our confidence to address climatic shocks if economic buffering capacity can be promoted steadily. The findings can be a basis for scientists and policymakers in addressing global and regional environmental changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vasa promotes Drosophila germline stem cell differentiation by activating mei-P26 translation by directly interacting with a (U)-rich motif in its 3' UTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Niankun; Han, Hong; Lasko, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Vasa (Vas) is a DEAD-box RNA-binding protein required in Drosophila at several steps of oogenesis and for primordial germ cell (PGC) specification. Vas associates with eukaryotic initiation factor 5B (eIF5B), and this interaction has been implicated in translational activation of gurken mRNA in the oocyte. Vas is expressed in all ovarian germline cells, and aspects of the vas-null phenotype suggest a function in regulating the balance between germline stem cells (GSCs) and their fate-restricted descendants. We used a biochemical approach to recover Vas-associated mRNAs and obtained mei-P26, whose product represses microRNA activity and promotes GSC differentiation. We found that vas and mei-P26 mutants interact, and that mei-P26 translation is substantially reduced in vas mutant cells. In vitro, Vas protein bound specifically to a (U)-rich motif in the mei-P26 3' untranslated region (UTR), and Vas-dependent regulation of GFP-mei-P26 transgenes in vivo was dependent on the same (U)-rich 3' UTR domain. The ability of Vas to activate mei-P26 expression in vivo was abrogated by a mutation that greatly reduces its interaction with eIF5B. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that Vas promotes germ cell differentiation by directly activating mei-P26 translation in early-stage committed cells.

  18. Measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, L.K.; Barker, A.R.; Briere, R.A.; Makoff, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Patterson, J.R.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Somalwar, S.V.; Wah, Y.W.; Winstein, B.; Winston, R.; Woods, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Swallow, E.C.; Bock, G.J.; Coleman, R.; Enagonio, J.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Ramberg, E.; Stanfield, K.; Tschirhart, R.; Yamanaka, T.; Gollin, G.D.; Karlsson, M.; Okamitsu, J.K.; Debu, P.; Peyaud, B.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) has been made using the full E731 data set. We find Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)=(7.4±5.2±2.9)x10 -4 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  19. Mei-p26 cooperates with Bam, Bgcn and Sxl to promote early germline development in the Drosophila ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    Full Text Available In the Drosophila female germline, spatially and temporally specific translation of mRNAs governs both stem cell maintenance and the differentiation of their progeny. However, the mechanisms that control and coordinate different modes of translational repression within this lineage remain incompletely understood. Here we present data showing that Mei-P26 associates with Bam, Bgcn and Sxl and nanos mRNA during early cyst development, suggesting that this protein helps to repress the translation of nanos mRNA. Together with recently published studies, these data suggest that Mei-P26 mediates both GSC self-renewal and germline differentiation through distinct modes of translational repression depending on the presence of Bam.

  20. Mei-P26 Cooperates with Bam, Bgcn and Sxl to Promote Early Germline Development in the Drosophila Ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhang, Qiao; Carreira-Rosario, Arnaldo; Maines, Jean Z.; McKearin, Dennis M.; Buszczak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the Drosophila female germline, spatially and temporally specific translation of mRNAs governs both stem cell maintenance and the differentiation of their progeny. However, the mechanisms that control and coordinate different modes of translational repression within this lineage remain incompletely understood. Here we present data showing that Mei-P26 associates with Bam, Bgcn and Sxl and nanos mRNA during early cyst development, suggesting that this protein helps to repress the translation of nanos mRNA. Together with recently published studies, these data suggest that Mei-P26 mediates both GSC self-renewal and germline differentiation through distinct modes of translational repression depending on the presence of Bam. PMID:23526974

  1. [Exploration on an overview of history (from Chunqiu to Ming and Qing Dynasties) and species of Chinese exotic traditional medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min-Ru; Wang, Tian-Tian; Lu, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Yu-Ying

    2017-05-01

    This paper collected and analyzed literatures about starting of traditional medicine and trading of different medicine from Chunqiu Zhanguo to Ming and Qing Dynasties, in order to preliminarily explore on an overview of specie of chinese exotic traditional medicine and trade of different country in different dynasty(from Chunqiu to Ming and Qing Dynasties), as well as the amount of exotic medicine over two thousand years. (remove repeating and doubtful species), find peculiarity of exotic medicine, sreen species that used to develop the Silk Route and establish quality standards.Finally, We get conclusions are as follows. First, primary,.prosperous and declining stages of development of exotic traditional medicine are Qin and Han, Song-Jin-Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, respectively. Second, according to literature, the stage that has the most species of exotic medicine is song dynasty,approximately have 300. Removing repeating and doubtful species, the believable species are approximate 230 to 250. Meanwhile, the unknown species are approximate 30, which may be different name of one medicine or processed goods, now these medicines are named as "doubtful species". Third, the medicinal parts of exotic medicine are different from Chinese medicine of Han nation. The number of Resin, fruits and seeds kind are more than root and rhizomes kind,mineral medicines are more than animal. Fourth, the major producing area of exotic medicine is some countries and territories related to the Silk Route in the history. Ultimately, this paper preliminarily figure out basic information of exotic medicine of different dynasty in China,that provide reference for learning study and decision of industrial development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. A New type of conserved quantity deduced from Mei symmetry of nonholonomic systems in terms of quasi-coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Pang; Jian-Hui, Fang; Ming-Jiang, Zhang; Peng, Lin; Kai, Lu

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the new type of conserved quantity which is directly induced by Mei symmetry of nonholonomic systems in terms of quasi-coordinates. A coordination function is introduced, and the conditions for the existence of the new conserved quantities as well as their forms are proposed. Some special cases are given to illustrate the generalized significance of the new type conserved quantity. Finally, an illustrated example is given to show the application of the nonholonomic system's results. (general)

  3. PPM1K Regulates Hematopoiesis and Leukemogenesis through CDC20-Mediated Ubiquitination of MEIS1 and p21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoye Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In addition to acting as building blocks for biosynthesis, amino acids might serve as signaling regulators in various physiological and pathological processes. However, it remains unknown whether amino acid levels affect the activities of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. By using a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor of the intracellular levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, we could monitor the dynamics of BCAA metabolism in HSCs. A mitochondrial-targeted 2C-type Ser/Thr protein phosphatase (PPM1K promotes the catabolism of BCAAs to maintain MEIS1 and p21 levels by decreasing the ubiquitination-mediated degradation controlled by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CDC20. PPM1K deficiency led to a notable decrease in MEIS1/p21 signaling to reduce the glycolysis and quiescence of HSCs, followed by a severe impairment in repopulation activities. Moreover, the deletion of Ppm1k dramatically extended survival in a murine leukemia model. These findings will enhance the current understanding of nutrient signaling in metabolism and function of stem cells. : Liu et al. show that the dynamics of BCAA metabolism in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and leukemia-initiating cells (LICs can be monitored by a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor. PPM1K promotes BCAA catabolism and maintains the glycolysis and quiescence of HSCs/LICs through the downregulation of CDC20-mediated ubiquitination of MEIS1 and p21. Keywords: branched-chain amino acids, PPM1K, ubiquitination, CDC20, MEIS1/p21, hematopoietic stem cells, leukemia-initiating cells

  4. Required cavity HOM deQing calculated from probability estimates of coupled bunch instabilities in the APS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, L.

    1993-01-01

    A method of determining the deQing requirement of individual cavity higher-order modes (HOM) for a multi-cavity RF system is presented and applied to the APS ring. Since HOM resonator frequency values are to some degree uncertain, the HOM frequencies should be regarded as random variables in predicting the stability of the coupled bunch beam modes. A Monte Carlo simulation provides a histogram of the growth rates from which one obtains an estimate of the probability of instability. The damping of each HOM type is determined such that the damping effort is economized, i.e. no single HOM dominates the specified growth rate histogram

  5. A case study on the impact of variable emission rates on the calculated MEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, R.A.; Chadbourne, J.

    1994-12-31

    When regulatory agencies require dispersion modeling to evaluate air quality impacts, the emissions modeled are the maximum allowable emissions. This requires an assumption that the source will constantly emit the maximum amount of each contaminant allowed by rule or by permit condition. For most sources, the actual emissions are typically much lower than the maximum allowed. Some years ago the Agency considered this issue through the ExEx policy to provide for specified {open_quotes}expected exceedances{close_quotes} while still meeting ambient standards. Emissions of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals from a cement kiln, using hazardous waste to replace fossil fuels, provides a useful example of the effect of variable emissions. The Boiler and Industrial Furnace (BIF) rule at 40 C.F.R. 266 subpart H specifies that allowable emission of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead and thallium inter alia can be determined through dispersion modeling. Section 266.103(b)(v) specifies that the location of the most exposed individual (MEI) and dilution faction ({mu}g/m{sup 3} / g/sec) for the maximum annual average value must be determined. In addition, risk specific doses and reference air concentration (RSDs and RACs in {mu}g/m{sup 3}) are published in BIF appendix IV and V based on 70 years of exposure.

  6. Zebrafish hoxd4a acts upstream of meis1.1 to direct vasculogenesis, angiogenesis and hematopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseervatham Anusha Amali

    Full Text Available Mice lacking the 4th-group paralog Hoxd4 display malformations of the anterior vertebral column, but are viable and fertile. Here, we report that zebrafish embryos having decreased function of the orthologous hoxd4a gene manifest striking perturbations in vasculogenesis, angiogenesis and primitive and definitive hematopoiesis. These defects are preceded by reduced expression of the hemangioblast markers scl1, lmo2 and fli1 within the posterior lateral plate mesoderm (PLM at 13 hours post fertilization (hpf. Epistasis analysis revealed that hoxd4a acts upstream of meis1.1 but downstream of cdx4 as early as the shield stage in ventral-most mesoderm fated to give rise to hemangioblasts, leading us to propose that loss of hoxd4a function disrupts hemangioblast specification. These findings place hoxd4a high in a genetic hierarchy directing hemangioblast formation downstream of cdx1/cdx4 and upstream of meis1.1. An additional consequence of impaired hoxd4a and meis1.1 expression is the deregulation of multiple Hox genes implicated in vasculogenesis and hematopoiesis which may further contribute to the defects described here. Our results add to evidence implicating key roles for Hox genes in their initial phase of expression early in gastrulation.

  7. Two New Monoterpene Glycosides from Qing Shan Lu Shui Tea with Inhibitory Effects on Leukocyte-Type 12-Lipoxygenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zhi Fang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the inhibitory effect of 12 Chinese teas on leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase (LOX activity. Tea catechins such as epigallocatechin gallate have been known to exhibit leukocyte-type 12-LOX inhibition. Qing Shan Lu Shui, which contains lower catechin levels than the other tested teas, suppressed leukocyte-type 12-LOX activity. To characterize the bioactive components of Qing Shan Lu Shui, leukocyte-type 12-LOX inhibitory activity–guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanol extract of the tea was performed, resulting in the isolation of two new monoterpene glycosides: liguroside A (1 and B (2. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were characterized as (2E,5E-7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octadienyl-O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1″→3′-(4′″-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and (2E,5E-7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octa-dienyl- O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1″→3′-(4′″-O-cis-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively, based on spectral and chemical evidence. Ligurosides A (1 and B (2 showed inhibitory effects on leukocyte-type 12-LOX activity, with IC50 values of 1.7 and 0.7 μM, respectively.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of He-Ying-Qing-Re formula on retinal ganglion cell in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Xu, Yu; Tan, Hor-Yue; Li, Sha; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yinjian; Feng, Yibin

    2018-03-25

    He-Ying-Qing-Re Formula (HF) was empirically modified from Si-Miao-Yong-An Decoction (SD), which was recorded in the literature of Divine Doctor's Secret Transmission, and has been utilized for centuries to treat vasculopathy through clearing heat and accelerating bloodstream. HF has been used as an effective holistic treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) for decades and experimentally reported to ameliorate retinal condition in diabetic mice. Our study aims to investigate the effect of HF in preventing sustained hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia-associated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) cell death and its possible mechanism. Chromatographic fingerprint of HF was obtained upon the UPLC-based analytic system; Diabetic retinopathy was established in streptozotocin (STZ) injection-induced hyperglycemic mice; Alterations of retinal structure was assayed by H&E staining. Expression of PSD-95 and CHOP in retinae was assessed by immunofluorescence; RGC cell line (mRGC) was used for in vitro study. Cell death was analyzed by flow cytometry; Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA); Apoptosis-related proteins and signaling were monitored with immunoblotting and colorimetric assay. Chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin were identified in HF. HF attenuates the loss of RGCs, thinning of inner retinal layers in diabetic mice. Furthermore, expressions of Brn3a and PSD-95 were restored while CHOP level was downregulated upon HF treatment. In vitro study, HF alleviates H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis of mRGCs and loss of postsynaptic protein via scavenging ROS and suppressing ATF4/CHOP-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-related pro-apoptotic factors, probably as cleaved-caspase-3, and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MARK). Meanwhile, both pro-survival protein levels like Bcl-2/Bcl-xL and postsynaptic protein of PSD-95 were upregulated upon HF treatment. HF administration was a valid

  9. UNC-89 (obscurin) binds to MEL-26, a BTB-domain protein, and affects the function of MEI-1 (katanin) in striated muscle of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J; Qadota, Hiroshi; Mains, Paul E; Benian, Guy M

    2012-07-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system is involved in degradation of old or damaged sarcomeric proteins. Most E3 ubiquitin ligases are associated with cullins, which function as scaffolds for assembly of the protein degradation machinery. Cullin 3 uses an adaptor to link to substrates; in Caenorhabditis elegans, one of these adaptors is the BTB-domain protein MEL-26 (maternal effect lethal). Here we show that MEL-26 interacts with the giant sarcomeric protein UNC-89 (obscurin). MEL-26 and UNC-89 partially colocalize at sarcomeric M-lines. Loss of function or gain of function of mel-26 results in disorganization of myosin thick filaments similar to that found in unc-89 mutants. It had been reported that in early C. elegans embryos, a target of the CUL-3/MEL-26 ubiquitylation complex is the microtubule-severing enzyme katanin (MEI-1). Loss of function or gain of function of mei-1 also results in disorganization of thick filaments similar to unc-89 mutants. Genetic data indicate that at least some of the mel-26 loss-of-function phenotype in muscle can be attributed to increased microtubule-severing activity of MEI-1. The level of MEI-1 protein is reduced in an unc-89 mutant, suggesting that the normal role of UNC-89 is to inhibit the CUL-3/MEL-26 complex toward MEI-1.

  10. Comportamiento meiótico de diferentes especies de lulo, Solanum sp Meiotic behavior of lulo species, Solanum sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Maricela Pareja Ordóñez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis del comportamiento meiótico de las especies de lulo S. hirtum, S. quitoense y S. sessiliflorum, siguiendo la metodología convencional para los estudios de microsporogénesis. Se tomaron botones florales en diferentes estados de desarrollo, fijándolos por 24 horas en una solución de tres partes de etanol por una parte de ácido acético, saturada con trazas de cristales de cloruro férrico. Para la preparación de las placas se siguió la técnica de aplastamiento, se liberaron las células madres del grano de polen y finalmente se hicieron las observaciones bajo microscopía de luz. El análisis mostró que la meiosis se presenta en longitudes de antera que van desde los 2,79 mm hasta los 4,45 mm. La normalidad meiótica fue del 100%, tanto para meiosis I, como para la meiosis II. El índice meiótico en las tres especies fue del 99,98% lo cual indica que son buenos parentales y que pueden utilizarse en programas de cruzamiento. Las tres especies evaluadas tienen igual número de cromosomas (2n=2X=24. La frecuencia de anormalidades durante el proceso meiótico fue baja para S. hirtum, y alta para S. quitoense; sin embargo, la viabilidad polínica fue de gran magnitud (91,2-97,3%.An analysis of meiotic behavior of lulo species S. hirtum, S. quitoense and S. sessiliflorum, following the conventional methodology for studies of microsporogenesis was realized. Flower buds were taken at different stages of development, fixing them for 24 hours in a solution of three parts of ethanol per one part of acetic acid, saturated with traces of ferric chloride crystals. For the preparation of the slides following the technique of squash, releasing pollen mother cells and finally made the observations under light microscopy. The analysis showed that meiosis occurs in anther ranging from 2.79 to 4.45 mm. Meiotic normality was 100% for both meiosis I and II. The meiotic index in all three species was 99,98% indicating that they are

  11. Spatiotemporal distribution of PAX6 and MEIS2 expression and total cell numbers in the ganglionic eminence in the early developing human forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen B; Lutterodt, Melissa C; Laursen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The development of the human neocortex is a complex and highly regulated process involving a time-related expression of many transcription factors including the homeobox genes Pax6 and Meis2. During early development, Pax6 is expressed in nuclei of radial glia cells in the neocortical proliferative...... in the same time window. We demonstrate by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry that the two homeobox genes are expressed during early fetal brain development in humans. PAX6 mRNA and protein were located in the proliferative zones of the neocortex and in single cells in the cortical preplate at 7...... in the proliferative zones of the human fetal neocortex and a higher expression of MEIS2 than PAX6 was observed in these areas at 9 fetal weeks. Further, MEIS2 was expressed at a very high level in the developing ganglionic eminence and at a more moderate level in the cortical plate....

  12. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  13. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; 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Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; 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Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  14. Küresel Tarih Yaklaşimina Göre Qing İmperatorluğu’nun Çöküşü: Yeni Bir Kavrayiştan Söz Edilebilir mi? (The Fall of the Qing Empire in a Global History Perspective: New Insights?)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douw, L.M.; Sina Akşin, S.; Balci, S.; Bariş, B.

    2010-01-01

    This essay is meant to provide background materials for the comparison of the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 and the nearly simultaneous fall of the Qing Dynasty in China in 1911. This will be done by summarizing several of the academic debates, which since the 1990s have profoundly changed the

  15. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  16. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  17. 76 FR 36951 - In the Matter of Shiming U.S., Inc., Si Mei Te Food Ltd. (f/k/a China Discovery Acquisition Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Food Ltd. (f/k/a China Discovery Acquisition Corp.), Sierra International Group, Inc., and SJ... concerning the securities of Si Mei Te Food Ltd. (f/k/a China Discovery Acquisition Corp.) because it has not.... Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in...

  18. Tales of Recombinant Femininity: "The Reincarnation of Golden Lotus," the "Chin P'ing Mei," and the Politics of Melodrama in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Examines the film "The Reincarnation of Golden Lotus" and the text upon which it is loosely based, the "Chin P'ing Mei," and the relationship between it and modern Chinese culture. States that the film's screenplay is much less an adaptation of the source novel than it is a female-centered reworking of a particular narrative…

  19. [Effect of Kou Yan Qing Ke Li on the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gong; Li, Zhang; Zehui, Feng; Xudong, He

    2016-02-01

    The effect of Kou Yan Qing Ke Li on the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis was investigated in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Sixty patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma to be treated with radiotherapy were randomized into two groups: the experimental and control groups. The experimental group (30 patients) was treated with Kou Yan Qing Ke Li during the full course of radiotherapy. The control group (30 patients) rinsed their mouths in the same way with mouth washes containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection, lidocaine, dexamethasone, vitamin B2 and B2 gargle liquid mixture, when grade 2 and above radiation-induced oral mucositis appeared in the process of radiation. Radiation-induced oral mucositis was assessed according to the radiation therapy oncology group criteria. The time of occurrence and degree of pain grade were compared between the two groups. The first onset of oral mucositis in the experimental group (12.40 d ± 2.74 d) was later than that in the control group (9.46 d ± 1.39 d) (t = 5.241, P Qing Ke Li could delay the time of occurrence of radiation-induced oral mucositis, reduce the severity of radiation stomatitis, alleviate the pain of patients, improve the clinical symptoms of patients, and effectively prevent and treat radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  20. A Primary Study on the Recording Method of Interior Decoration in Qing Dynasty - A Case Study of Interior Decoration of Jingfu Palace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, X.; He, B.; Zhuang, L.

    2017-08-01

    The existing interior decoration of Qing Dynasty is the master of that of each dynasty, with its diversified forms and complicated functions. As early as 1920s, the Rehabilitation Committee of Qing court recorded the interior furnishing in the Forbidden City by using Chinese traditional documentary method. Today, along with the constantly updated techniques, the recording method for the current situation of interior decoration has gradually developed from two-dimensional drawings into digital and comprehensive record. However, the current research results are mostly limited to a single field. This paper takes the digital record and reproduction about the current situation of interior decoration in Jingfu Palace in the Forbidden City as an example. Through the use of photogrammetry, 3D laser scanning, virtual display and other technology and equipment at the forefront of architectural field, it makes qualitative and quantitative record about the interior decoration inside Jingfu Palace. By combing with the interpretation of historical documents, it restores the original design ideas hidden behind the current situation of interior decoration, so as to summarize the best recording and reproducing method of interior decoration of Qing Dynasty.

  1. The Tangdan Copper Mines and the 1733 Earthquake: A Mining Community before the Boom in the Far Southwest of Qing China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanny Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the official records, copper mines in the southwest of the Qing empire seem to suddenly appear in the late 1730s. In part, this impression is an effect of government attention. Copper, which was the most important metal for casting cash coins, became a pressing concern when imports of Japanese copper dwindled. The government responded by developing domestic resources. Seemingly overnight, Yunnan mines reached impressive levels of productivity and replaced imports. For several decades, the Tangdan mines in northeastern Yunnan supplied most of the copper consumed by the centrally important metropolitan mints. The sudden boom is remarkable and not entirely plausible. This article reassesses the history of Qing-period mining by examining a particular case study. It explores an essay about the Dongchuan earthquake of 1733 that provides a glimpse at the empire’s leading copper mines on the eve of the recorded boom. A close analysis of figures, mining technology, and organizational structures reveals that the mines had been developed by mining entrepreneurs and migrant workers for a considerable period of time outside government attention, operating in a gray zone of unlicensed exploitation. The studied case permits a new assessment of the role of the state and of nonstate players in the industry. Moreover, it throws a new light on the image of Qing society and economy created by the official emphasis on agriculture and the actual role of the nonagrarian sector.

  2. A Primary Study on the Recording Method of Interior Decoration in Qing Dynasty – A Case Study of Interior Decoration of Jingfu Palace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Rong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing interior decoration of Qing Dynasty is the master of that of each dynasty, with its diversified forms and complicated functions. As early as 1920s, the Rehabilitation Committee of Qing court recorded the interior furnishing in the Forbidden City by using Chinese traditional documentary method. Today, along with the constantly updated techniques, the recording method for the current situation of interior decoration has gradually developed from two-dimensional drawings into digital and comprehensive record. However, the current research results are mostly limited to a single field. This paper takes the digital record and reproduction about the current situation of interior decoration in Jingfu Palace in the Forbidden City as an example. Through the use of photogrammetry, 3D laser scanning, virtual display and other technology and equipment at the forefront of architectural field, it makes qualitative and quantitative record about the interior decoration inside Jingfu Palace. By combing with the interpretation of historical documents, it restores the original design ideas hidden behind the current situation of interior decoration, so as to summarize the best recording and reproducing method of interior decoration of Qing Dynasty.

  3. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  4. Los cromosomas meióticos de la rana arborícola Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La rana arborícola mexicana Smilisca baudinii, es una especie de rana común en Centroamérica. Sin embargo, la biología y genética de la especie, es pobremente conocida a pesar de su importancia para mantener en equilibrio ecológico las selvas tropicales. Con el propósito de contribuir con el conocimiento biológico de esta especie, establecimos el cariotipo típico en meiosis en especímenes recolectados en Tabasco, México, mediante procedimientos citogenéticos estándares. El estudio, se fundamentó en el análisis de 131 dispersiones cromosómicas en estadio meiótico de dos adultos de la especie (una hembra y un macho. El análisis de las metafases, permitió establecer el número modal haploide de 1n=12 cromosomas bivalentes. La fórmula cromosómica del cariotipo haploide, se integró por 12 cromosomas birrámeos caracterizado por 12 pares de cromosomas bivalentes metacéntricos-submetacéntricos (msm. Los conteos en meiosis, hacen suponer como número diploide de cromosomas a un complemento integrado por 2n=24 cromosomas birrámeos. No fue posible observar presencia de cromosomas sexuales, entre las dispersiones meióticas del espécimen hembra y macho. Los resultados sugieren que la estructura cromosómica de S. baudinii, es compartida ampliamente entre las especies de la familia Hylidae y los cromosomas "B" son estructuras importantes en la diversificación de las especies.

  5. Differential expression of Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 during limb development associated with diversification of limb morphology in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mengyao; Wang, Yao; Fang, Lu; Irwin, David M; Zhu, Tengteng; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of self-powered flight using wings. Differing from mouse or human limbs, four elongated digits within a broad wing membrane support the bat wing, and the foot of the bat has evolved a long calcar that spread the interfemoral membrane. Our recent mRNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq) study found unique expression patterns for genes at the 5' end of the Hoxd gene cluster and for Tbx3 that are associated with digit elongation and wing membrane growth in bats. In this study, we focused on two additional genes, Meis2 and Mab21l2, identified from the mRNA-Seq data. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) we validated the mRNA-Seq results for differences in the expression patterns of Meis2 and Mab21l2 between bat and mouse limbs, and further characterize the timing and location of the expression of these two genes. These analyses suggest that Meis2 may function in wing membrane growth and Mab21l2 may have a role in AP and DV axial patterning. In addition, we found that Tbx3 is uniquely expressed in the unique calcar structure found in the bat hindlimb, suggesting a role for this gene in calcar growth and elongation. Moreover, analysis of the coding sequences for Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 showed that Meis2 and Mab21l2 have high sequence identity, consistent with the functions of genes being conserved, but that Tbx3 showed accelerated evolution in bats. However, evidence for positive selection in Tbx3 was not found, which would suggest that the function of this gene has not been changed. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that the modulation of the spatiotemporal expression patterns of multiple functional conserved genes control limb morphology and drive morphological change in the diversification of mammalian limbs.

  6. CREB, NF-Y and MEIS1 conserved binding sites are essential to balance Myostatin promoter/enhancer activity during early myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Carla Vermeulen Carvalho; Mantovani, Carolina Stefano; Fontoura, Marina Alves; Yusuf, Faisal; Brand-Saberi, Beate; Alvares, Lúcia Elvira

    2017-10-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a strong inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth in human and other vertebrates. Its transcription is controlled by a proximal promoter/enhancer (Mstn P/E) containing a TATA box besides CREB, NF-Y, MEIS1 and FXR transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), which are conserved throughout evolution. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of these TFBSs on Mstn P/E activity and evaluate the potential of their putative ligands as Mstn trans regulators. Mstn P/E mutant constructs were used to establish the role of conserved TFBSs using dual-luciferase assays. Expression analyses were performed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization in C2C12 myoblasts and E10.5 mouse embryos, respectively. Our results revealed that CREB, NF-Y and MEIS1 sites are required to balance Mstn P/E activity, keeping Mstn transcription within basal levels during myoblast proliferation. Furthermore, our data showed that NF-Y site is essential, although not sufficient, to mediate Mstn P/E transcriptional activity. In turn, CREB and MEIS1 binding sites seem to depend on the presence of NF-Y site to induce Mstn P/E. FXR appears not to confer any effect on Mstn P/E activity, except in the absence of all other conserved TFBS. Accordingly, expression studies pointed to CREB, NF-Y and MEIS1 but not to FXR factors as possible regulators of Mstn transcription in the myogenic context. Altogether, our findings indicated that CREB, NF-Y and MEIS1 conserved sites are essential to control basal Mstn transcription during early myogenesis, possibly by interacting with these or other related factors.

  7. Weinig VVT-instellingen met VAR : onderzoek naar VAR's in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corina de Feijter; Pieterbas Lalleman

    V&VN is op zoek gegaan naar alle actieve Verpleegkundige en/of Verzorgende Adviesraden (VAR) in Nederland. Het blijkt dat in totaal 144 zorginstellingen (24%) een VAR hebben. Vooral in de VVT-sector is het aantal VAR’s laag: 13%.

  8. Molecular and physiological diversity among Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and var. aleophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Largeteau, M.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Savoie, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic and physiological variability of Verticillium fungicola var. aleophilum responsible for Agaricus bisporus dry bubble disease in North America is well documented but little is known about the var. fungicola affecting European crops. Variability was assessed within this variety and

  9. Over de verspreiding binnen Nederland van Bidens connata var. fallax (Warnst.) Sherf en var. anomala Farw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, Koos (J.) F.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of recent observations and study of herbarium material it might tentatively be concluded that var. anomala (with erecto-patent barb hairs on achenes as well as on the bristles) is becoming more common since 1954 and might be locally replacing the hitherto more common var. fallax (with

  10. Study of the analgesic activities, chronic toxicity and addictive potential of Jia-Yuan-Qing pill in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y E; Teng, Li-Rong; Wang, Zhen-Zuo; Zhao, Min; Meng, Qing-Fan; Lu, Jia-Hui; Tian, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zheng, Xiaoyi; Wang, D I; Teng, LE-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Jia-Yuan-Qing pill (JYQP) composed of Porcellio laevis Latreille, Corydalis Rhizoma and Radix Cynanchi Paniculati at a ratio of 9:7:7 has been found to be an effective analgesic agent. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety, addictive potential and anti-cancer pain activity of JYQP in a rat model. During the 6-month chronic toxicity test, no significant changes in general behavior, defecation, postural abnormalities, dietary or water intake or blood biochemical parameters were observed in male and female rats. Although a high dose of JYQP (5 g/kg) caused swelling of the liver, spleen and kidney in male and female rats, no pathological changes were observed in all organs examined via hematoxylin and eosin staining. The analgesic effect of JYQP on bone cancer pain was successfully confirmed in a rat model of Walker 256 cell-induced bone cancer. In contrast to morphine, in a physical dependence test, JYQP produced no withdrawal symptoms following chronic administration. The data from this study provide experimental evidence supporting the clinical use of JYQP as an effective, safe and non-addictive agent for the treatment of bone cancer pain.

  11. Promoting the Effect of the Qing Dynasty Imperial Garden Architectural Component Library on the Digitalization of Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindan, C.; Junsong, Z.; Jiujun, Z.

    2015-08-01

    With the development of computer technology and practical verification, digital virtual technology has matured and is increasingly being widely applied to cultural heritage protection and research. With this advancement in technology, there is pressing need to simplify heritage-related puzzles. Thus the main question that has increasingly become the most central and fundamental problem in heritage digitalization work is how to choose the "proper technology" that provides support directly, accurately and rapidly for the research, protection and exchange of cultural heritage. Based on the principles of "authenticity" and "completeness" found in the Venice Charter in regards to dealing with cultural heritage; this paper proposes the concept of the component library which facilitates the improvement and efficiency of virtual reconstruction, provides a visual discussion platform for cultural heritage protection, virtual scene construction, accuracy assessment, and multi-space-time exhibition; thereby implementing the spirit of tolerance and respect found in the Nara Document on Authenticity. The paper further aims to illustrate the significance of the Qing dynasty imperial garden architectural component library for cultural heritage study and protection, the principles for virtual library construction, use and maintenance of the library, and classification approaches, and also provide some suggestions about making high quality 3D models and effective means for database integration.

  12. An explorative study of the ecological design of residence architecture in Ming and Qing dynasties in Yangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Man

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently ecologicalization has become a key aspect of architecture designs. As studies deepen, the bountiful ecological ideas and design methods represented in Chinese traditional architectural culture are increasingly valued. There remain as of today quite a few residence mansions built in Ming and Qing dynasties in Yangzhou-a city famous for its history and culture. The distinctive regional culture and architectural style that those architectures embody has received worldwide attention in the academic field. By weighing on the shaping of architectural forms, choice in connection genres and structuring measures as well as sorting through and studying on the ecologicalized architectural design practices such as reemploying local materials, deeper understanding of traditional architecture will be achieved for us to better inherit and develop traditional architectural culture. Hence in-depth studies on contemporary ecological architecture and sustainable development will be of greater practical significance. Furthermore, it is beneficial to expand ideas on ecological design, truly integrate architectures into the setting to give expression to the ecological and culture features of them and provide theoretic support for creating new architecture with diversified culture implications and ecological features in light of actual conditions in an orderly manner.

  13. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  14. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  15. Fiscal 1998 overseas geological structure survey. Japan-China joint coal survey Mei-Xian project; 1998 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Mei-Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japan-China joint coal survey was made through seismic prospecting by Japanese group and drilling prospecting by Chinese group. Mei-Xian mine property includes coal seams of the Jurassic period, and is covered with the quaternary period stratum without any coal seam. The base of the quaternary period stratum exists at depth of 50-400m, while the coal seams at depth of 300-700m. Among 11 existing seams, the 1st and 5th seams are main objects for prospecting. The 5th seam of 0.2-8.96m (2.95m in average) thick is the most expected important one, distributing all over the mine property. The 5th seam also has branch seams spreading over 2.5km from east to west and 1.2km from south to north in the center part of the mine property. The 1st seam of 0-8.62m (2.90m in average) thick is most thick in the south part of the mine property. The theoretical amount of coal deposits in the whole coal seam is estimated to be nearly 290,000,000t by Chinese group (nearly 50% of it in the 5th seam). That is also estimated to be nearly 346,000,000t by Japanese group (155,000,000t in the 5th seam). Both 1st and 5th seams are composed of sub-bituminous coal. (NEDO)

  16. Rediscovery of Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia (Balsaminaceae from NE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gogoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia Hook.f. rediscovered after a lapse of 139 years from Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh. Earlier it was known only – from its type locality in Manipur. Detailed morphological description of I. laevigata var. laevigata and var. grandifolia have been provided based on fresh plant collections.

  17. B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage ...

  18. Qing-Hua Granule induces GLP-1 secretion via bitter taste receptor in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junyan; Xu, Jie; Hou, Ruifang; Jin, Xin; Wang, Jingyi; Yang, Na; Yang, Li; Liu, Li; Tao, Feng; Lu, Hao

    2017-05-01

    Qing-Hua Granule (QHG), the modified formulation of a classical Chinese prescription named Gegen Qinlian Decoction, was clinically employed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, the potential mechanism is unknown. We investigate whether QHG induces GLP-1 secretion via activation of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) pathway in the gastrointestinal tract of db/db mice. The db/db mice were intragastrically (i.g.) administered QHG (low/medium/high dose) once daily for 8 weeks. GLP-1 secretion was evaluated. The bitter receptor signaling pathway, which regulates GLP-1 secretion, including TAS2R5 (a subtype of TAS2R), α-gustducin (Gαgust), 1-phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 (PLCβ2), transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5), was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The biochemical observations of ileum and pancreas tissue were detected histopathologically. Acquity Ultra Performance LCTM - Micromass ZQ 2000 (UPLC-MS) was used for the phytochemical analysis. QHG exhibited significant and dose-dependent effect on GLP-1 secretion in db/db mice, along with significant up-regulation of TAS2R5 mRNA level and activation of TAS2R pathway (p<0.05). In addition, QHG improved the histopathological structure of ileum and pancreatic tissue. Seventeen compounds were identified in QHG. In conclusion, QHG induces GLP-1 secretion in db/db mice, most likely through the bitter taste receptor pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Network pharmacology-based identification of key pharmacological pathways of Yin-Huang-Qing-Fei capsule acting on chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Zhang, Yanqiong; Ren, Weiqiong; Dong, Ling; Li, Junfang; Geng, Ya; Zhang, Yi; Li, Defeng; Xu, Haiyu; Yang, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    For decades in China, the Yin-Huang-Qing-Fei capsule (YHQFC) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis, with good curative effects. Owing to the complexity of traditional Chinese herbal formulas, the pharmacological mechanism of YHQFC remains unclear. To address this problem, a network pharmacology-based strategy was proposed in this study. At first, the putative target profile of YHQFC was predicted using MedChem Studio, based on structural and functional similarities of all available YHQFC components to the known drugs obtained from the DrugBank database. Then, an interaction network was constructed using links between putative YHQFC targets and known therapeutic targets of chronic bronchitis. Following the calculation of four topological features (degree, betweenness, closeness, and coreness) of each node in the network, 475 major putative targets of YHQFC and their topological importance were identified. In addition, a pathway enrichment analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database indicated that the major putative targets of YHQFC are significantly associated with various pathways involved in anti-inflammation processes, immune responses, and pathological changes caused by asthma. More interestingly, eight major putative targets of YHQFC (interleukin [IL]-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, FCER1G, CCL11, and EPX) were demonstrated to be associated with the inflammatory process that occurs during the progression of asthma. Finally, a molecular docking simulation was performed and the results exhibited that 17 pairs of chemical components and candidate YHQFC targets involved in asthma pathway had strong binding efficiencies. In conclusion, this network pharmacology-based investigation revealed that YHQFC may attenuate the inflammatory reaction of chronic bronchitis by regulating its candidate targets, which may be implicated in the major pathological processes of the asthma pathway.

  20. Improving cachectic symptoms and immune strength of tumour-bearing mice in chemotherapy by a combination of Scutellaria baicalensis and Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Chan, Yi-Lin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2012-05-01

    Cancer cachexia is characterised by the loss of body mass and directly compromises immune response and the quality of life of cancer patients. In the present study, we set out to investigate the role of Chinese herbs as anticancer medicines and/or chemotherapeutic adjuvants to increase therapeutic efficacy and/or ameliorate given side-effects in animal model. Twelve kinds of herbs were chosen from the ingredients of major Chinese herbal medicines, and their effects on the antioxidant activity were investigated. To obtain the anticancer effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) when consumed with minimal side-effects, we investigated the combination effect of Scutellaria baicalensis and Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang that may enhance the anticancer activity of 5-FU on subcutaneous tumour growth in C57BL/6 mice challenged with Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang, a multiple-component herbal extract, was shown to have high anti-oxidation activity, while S. baicalensis (Chinese skullcap) was demonstrated to have high tumour-growth inhibition activity. Thus, S. baicalensis and Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang were evaluated for their combinaton effects on the cancer-induced cachectic murine upon receiving 5-FU chemotherapy. As a result, tumour masses and losses of carcass and/or gastrocnemius muscle were found to be significantly decreased. This combination otherwise increased both Th1/Th2 ratio and NK cytotoxicity. In the mice receiving with or without 5-FU, the serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) increased by all means but otherwise decreased when the herbal combination was administrated. Additionally, the expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and muscle RING finger protein-1 (MuRF-1) decreased in the gastrocnemius muscle when the herbal combination was applied. Our results revealed that the combination of S. baicalensis and Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang is able to ameliorate cachectic symptoms and positively stimulate anti-tumour immunity while undergoing

  1. Phylogenetic characterisation of circulating, clinical influenza isolates from Bali, Indonesia: preliminary report from the BaliMEI project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adisasmito, W; Budayanti, S N; Aisyah, D N; Gallo Cassarino, T; Rudge, J W; Watson, S J; Kozlakidis, Z; Smith, G J D; Coker, R

    2017-08-23

    Human influenza represents a major public health concern, especially in south-east Asia where the risk of emergence and spread of novel influenza viruses is particularly high. The BaliMEI study aims to conduct a five year active surveillance and characterisation of influenza viruses in Bali using an extensive network of participating healthcare facilities. Samples were collected during routine diagnostic treatment in healthcare facilities. In addition to standard clinical and molecular methods for influenza typing, next generation sequencing and subsequent de novo genome assembly were performed to investigate the phylogeny of the collected patient samples. The samples collected are characteristic of the seasonally circulating influenza viruses with indications of phylogenetic links to other samples characterised in neighbouring countries during the same time period. There were some strong phylogenetic links with sequences from samples collected in geographically proximal regions, with some of the samples from the same time-period resulting to small clusters at the tree-end points. However this work, which is the first of its kind completely performed within Indonesia, supports the view that the circulating seasonal influenza in Bali reflects the strains circulating in geographically neighbouring areas as would be expected to occur within a busy regional transit centre.

  2. The CCR4 Deadenylase Acts with Nanos and Pumilio in the Fine-Tuning of Mei-P26 Expression to Promote Germline Stem Cell Self-Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Willy; Chartier, Aymeric; Rojas-Rios, Patricia; Busseau, Isabelle; Simonelig, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Summary Translational regulation plays an essential role in Drosophila ovarian germline stem cell (GSC) biology. GSC self-renewal requires two translational repressors, Nanos (Nos) and Pumilio (Pum), which repress the expression of differentiation factors in the stem cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying this translational repression remain unknown. Here, we show that the CCR4 deadenylase is required for GSC self-renewal and that Nos and Pum act through its recruitment onto specific mRNAs. We identify mei-P26 mRNA as a direct and major target of Nos/Pum/CCR4 translational repression in the GSCs. mei-P26 encodes a protein of the Trim-NHL tumor suppressor family that has conserved functions in stem cell lineages. We show that fine-tuning Mei-P26 expression by CCR4 plays a key role in GSC self-renewal. These results identify the molecular mechanism of Nos/Pum function in GSC self-renewal and reveal the role of CCR4-NOT-mediated deadenylation in regulating the balance between GSC self-renewal and differentiation. PMID:24286029

  3. The CCR4 deadenylase acts with Nanos and Pumilio in the fine-tuning of Mei-P26 expression to promote germline stem cell self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Willy; Chartier, Aymeric; Rojas-Rios, Patricia; Busseau, Isabelle; Simonelig, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Translational regulation plays an essential role in Drosophila ovarian germline stem cell (GSC) biology. GSC self-renewal requires two translational repressors, Nanos (Nos) and Pumilio (Pum), which repress the expression of differentiation factors in the stem cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying this translational repression remain unknown. Here, we show that the CCR4 deadenylase is required for GSC self-renewal and that Nos and Pum act through its recruitment onto specific mRNAs. We identify mei-P26 mRNA as a direct and major target of Nos/Pum/CCR4 translational repression in the GSCs. mei-P26 encodes a protein of the Trim-NHL tumor suppressor family that has conserved functions in stem cell lineages. We show that fine-tuning Mei-P26 expression by CCR4 plays a key role in GSC self-renewal. These results identify the molecular mechanism of Nos/Pum function in GSC self-renewal and reveal the role of CCR4-NOT-mediated deadenylation in regulating the balance between GSC self-renewal and differentiation.

  4. Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense var. nov. (Lamiaceae from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Dinç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense M. Dinç & S. Doğu (Lamiaceae, a new variety from Aksaray in Central Anatolia, is described and illustrated. The new variety is similar to the typical one in its calyx teeth uncinate at tip and subequal to the tube with conspicious midvein. It is readily distinguished from var. pruinosum by its general appearance, indumentum, and floral organ pigmentation. The map showing the distributions of the varieties was given.

  5. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  6. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the

  7. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie. Flowering Trees Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 89-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/04/0089-0089. Resonance ...

  8. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Hvorfor faldt Kina bagud i kapløbet med Vesten?« spørger David Favrholdt i sidste nummer af Weekendavisen. Var der overhovedet noget kapløb? Forudsætter et kapløb ikke, at man har et fælles mål? Spørgsmålet implicerer, at Vesten har vundet og indplacerer samtidig klodens øvrige kulturer i forhold....... Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske......, indiske, kinesiske, arabiske, næsten ingen romerske) koncentreret om kombinationen af indiske tal og aritmetik og græsk logik og geometri« (s. 317). En unik begivenhed, som er forekommet én gang i verdenshistorien. Det giver derfor ingen mening at spørge, hvorfor det ikke skete andre steder. Hvis det var...

  9. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarc...hive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Embryo.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive

  10. Comparative pharmacokinetics of swertiamarin in rats after oral administration of swertiamarin alone, Qing Ye Dan tablets and co-administration of swertiamarin and oleanolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-li; Li, Hong-liang; He, Jian-chang; Feng, En-fu; Shi, Pan-pan; Liu, Yue-qiong; Liu, Chang-xiao

    2013-08-26

    Qing Ye Dan is a well-known herbal drug that is widely used to treat viral hepatitis in the Yi and Hani minority regions in the Yunnan province of China. An LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine the levels of swertiamarin in rat plasma. Swertiamarin and naringin (internal standard, IS) were extracted from rat plasma using solid-phase extraction (SPE) to purify the samples. The pharmacokinetics of the following different administration methods of swertiamarin in rats were studied: oral administration of swertiamarin alone, a Qing Ye Dan tablet (QYDT) and co-administration of swertiamarin and oleanolic acid, with each method delivering approximately 20mg/kg of swertiamarin. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic profiles were constructed by using the software DAS (version 2.1.1), and the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared using an unpaired Student's t-test. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0-∞, Vz/F and CLz/F were significantly different (P<0.05) among the three types of swertiamarin administration. The data indicate that oleanolic acid and the other ingredients present in QYDT could affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of swertiamarin in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang shows preventive effect of asthma in an allergic asthma mouse model through neurotrophin regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigates the effect of Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (XQLT) on neurotrophin in an established mouse model of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p)-induced acute allergic asthma and in a LA4 cell line model of lung adenoma. The effects of XQLT on the regulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and immunoglobulin E were measured. Methods LA4 cells were stimulated with 100 μg/ml Der p 24 h and the supernatant was collected for ELISA analysis. Der p-stimulated LA4 cells with either XQLT pre-treatment or XQLT co-treatment were used to evaluate the XQLT effect on neurotrophin. Balb/c mice were sensitized on days 0 and 7 with a base-tail injection of 50 μg Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) that was emulsified in 50 μl incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA). On day 14, mice received an intra-tracheal challenge of 50 μl Der p (2 mg/ml). XQLT (1g/Kg) was administered orally to mice either on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 as a preventive strategy or on day 15 as a therapeutic strategy. Results XQLT inhibited expression of those NGF, BDNF and thymus-and activation-regulated cytokine (TARC) in LA4 cells that were subjected to a Der p allergen. Both preventive and therapeutic treatments with XQLT in mice reduced AHR. Preventive treatment with XQLT markedly decreased NGF in broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and BDNF in serum, whereas therapeutic treatment reduced only serum BDNF level. The reduced NGF levels corresponded to a decrease in AHR by XQLT treatment. Reduced BALF NGF and TARC and serum BDNF levels may have been responsible for decreased eosinophil infiltration into lung tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed that p75NTR and TrkA levels were reduced in the lungs of mice under both XQLT treatment protocols, and this reduction may have been correlated with the prevention of the asthmatic reaction by XQLT. Conclusion XQLT alleviated allergic inflammation including AHR, Ig

  12. Los cromosomas meióticos de la rana arborícola Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La rana arborícola mexicana Smilisca baudinii, es una especie de rana común en Centroamérica. Sin embargo, la biología y genética de la especie, es pobremente conocida a pesar de su importancia para mantener en equilibrio ecológico las selvas tropicales. Con el propósito de contribuir con el conocimiento biológico de esta especie, establecimos el cariotipo típico en meiosis en especímenes recolectados en Tabasco, México, mediante procedimientos citogenéticos estándares. El estudio, se fundamentó en el análisis de 131 dispersiones cromosómicas en estadio meiótico de dos adultos de la especie (una hembra y un macho. El análisis de las metafases, permitió establecer el número modal haploide de 1n=12 cromosomas bivalentes. La fórmula cromosómica del cariotipo haploide, se integró por 12 cromosomas birrámeos caracterizado por 12 pares de cromosomas bivalentes metacéntricos-submetacéntricos (msm. Los conteos en meiosis, hacen suponer como número diploide de cromosomas a un complemento integrado por 2n=24 cromosomas birrámeos. No fue posible observar presencia de cromosomas sexuales, entre las dispersiones meióticas del espécimen hembra y macho. Los resultados sugieren que la estructura cromosómica de S. baudinii, es compartida ampliamente entre las especies de la familia Hylidae y los cromosomas "B" son estructuras importantes en la diversificación de las especies.Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae. The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the

  13. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding coint...... the effects of capital liberalization on the determination of money, income, prices, and interest rates in a small open economy...

  14. Identification of metabolites in human and rat urine after oral administration of Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang granule using ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Qiang; Qi, Wen; Yan, Shuai; Qu, Jialin; Makino, Toshiaki; Yuan, Dan

    2017-09-01

    Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang is a traditional Chinese formula used for the treatment of cold syndrome, bronchitis, and nasal allergies for thousands of years. However, the in vivo integrated metabolism of its multiple components and the active chemical constituents of Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang remain unknown. In this study, a method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was established for the detection and identification of the metabolites in human and rat urine after oral administration of Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang. A total of 19 compounds were detected or tentatively identified in human urine samples, including eight prototypes and 11 metabolites. Also, a total of 50 compounds were detected or tentatively identified in rat urine samples, including 15 prototypes and 35 metabolites detected with either a highly sensitive extracted ion chromatogram method or the MS E determination using Mass Fragment software. Our results indicated that phase Ⅱ reactions (e.g. glucuronidation and sulfation) were the main metabolic pathways of flavones, while phase I reactions (e.g. demethylation and hydroxylation) were the major metabolic reaction for alkaloids, lignans, and ginger essential oil. This investigation provided important structural information on the metabolism of Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang and provided evidence to obtain a more comprehensive metabolic profile. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Caramel colour and process contaminants in foods and beverages: Part II - Occurrence data and exposure assessment of 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) and 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Van Holderbeke, M; Cornelis, C; Jacobs, G; Sioen, I; De Maeyer, M; Vinkx, C; Vanermen, G

    2018-07-30

    In Europe, 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) and 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) are - to a certain level - allowed to be present in the food colours ammonia caramel (E 150c) and sulphite ammonia caramel (E 150d). Besides their presence in food colours, exposure to these contaminants may also include other dietary sources. This study describes the occurrence of THI and 4-MEI in a wide variety of food products (n = 522) purchased from the Belgian market and their dietary intake in Belgian consumers from 15 years old onwards. THI was found to be present in 22.4% of the investigated foods at a level up to 551 µg/kg. For 4-MEI (57.7% quantifiable), concentrations up to 2,835 µg/kg were observed. The average dietary intake amounted to 0.02-0.36 µg kg -1  bw -1  day for THI and 0.4-3.7 µg kg -1  bw -1  day for 4-MEI. Coffee, cola and beer were contributing most to the dietary THI and 4-MEI intake in Belgium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Narrative Analysis on the KangMei Pharmaceutical Advertisement%康美药业广告叙事学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志华

    2015-01-01

    企业面对竞争激烈的市场,产品同质化的现状,如何创造广告传播的有效就成为其面临的难题之一。而康美药业股份有限公司作为相对年轻的药企,利用央视这一平台,采用音乐电视广告片的形式,并且多年坚持投放,使得企业品牌价值得到提升,企业形象深入人心。该文以康美药业广告音乐MV《康美之恋》为叙事文本,借助叙事学的相关理论,从叙事主体和接受主体两个方面进行分析,发现康美药业广告的成功之处在于其成功的叙事能力。%The fierce competition of market and the current situation of product homogeneity have made it a great problem for the validity of advertising communication. As a relatively young drug firms, KangMei Pharmaceutical Company makes full use of the platform of the CCTV, adopting the music television commercials and repeating the advertisement years after years. It is in this way that the KangMei Pharmaceutical Company has made a great success in enhancing the brand value and wining support for the cor⁃porate image. With the aid of relevant narrative theory, this thesis intends to analyze the narrative text of the KangMei Pharmaceuti⁃cal advertisement from the perspectives of narrative subject and acceptance subject, thus unveiling the key of the KangMei Pharma⁃ceutical advertisement’s success is its great narrative ability.

  17. Abnormal meiotic behavior in three species of Crotalaria Comportamento meiótico anormal em três espécies de Crotalaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the meiotic behavior and pollen grain viability of three species of Crotalaria. Slides for meiotic analysis were prepared by the air-drying technique. Pollen grain viability was measured by three staining procedures (Alexander's solution, tetrazolium chloride and fluorescein diacetate and in vitro germination in a sucrose solution. Eight bivalents were observed, confirming previous reports on populations from other regions of Brazil, as well as from other countries. All species showed abnormal meiotic behavior as follows: in Crotalaria micans, cytomixis and abnormal chromosome pairing in diakinesis; in C. spectabilis, abnormal chromosome pairing in diplotene; in C. zanzibarica, shrunk nuclei in leptotene and zygotene. Pollen grains of all three species show low viability, which may be associated with the irregularities of the meiotic behavior.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o comportamento meiótico e a viabilidade dos grãos de pólen de três espécies de Crotalaria. A análise meiótica foi realizada por meio da técnica de secagem ao ar. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi avaliada por testes de coloração (corante de Alexander, cloreto de tetrazólio e diacetato de fluoresceína e por teste de germinação em solução de sacarose. Foram observados oito bivalentes, confirmando relatos prévios em populações de outras regiões do Brasil e de outros países. As três espécies apresentaram comportamento meiótico irregular: em Crotalaria micans, citomixia e pareamento irregular na diacinese; em C. spectabilis, pareamento irregular no diplóteno; e em C. zanzibarica, núcleo fortemente condensado nas fases de leptóteno e zigóteno. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen das três espécies é baixa, o que pode estar associado às irregularidades do comportamento meiótico.

  18. Mei Symmetry and New Conserved Quantities of Tzénoff Equations for the Variable Mass Higher-Order Nonholonomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shi-Wang; Wang Jian-Bo; Chen Xiang-Wei; Xie Jia-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems, and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system. We study the Mei symmetry of Tzénoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived. The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented. This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system. (general)

  19. Spatial-temporal analysis on climate variation in early Qing dynasty (17th -18th century) using China's chronological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Hui Elaine; Wang, Pao-Kuan; Fan, I.-Chun; Liao, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change in the form of extreme, variation, and short- or mid-term fluctuation is now widely conceived to challenge the survival of the human beings and the societies. Meanwhile, improving present and future climate modeling needs a comprehensive understanding of the past climate patterns. Although historical climate modeling has gained substantive progress in recent years based on the new findings from dynamical meteorology, phenology, or paleobiology, less known are the mid- to short-term variations or lower-frequency variabilities at different temporal scale and their regional expressions. Enabling accurate historical climate modeling would heavily rely on the robustness of the dataset that could carry specific time, location, and meteorological information in the continuous temporal and spatial chains. This study thus presents an important methodological innovation to reconstruct historical climate modeling at multiple temporal and spatial scales through building a historical climate dataset, based on the Chinese chronicles compiled in a Zhang (2004) edited Compendium of Chinese Meteorological Records of the Last 3,000 Years since Zhou Dynasty (1100BC). The dataset reserves the most delicate meteorological data with accurate time, location, meteorological event, duration, and other phonological, social and economic impact information, and is carefully digitalized, coded, and geo-referenced on the Geographical Information System based maps according to Tan's (1982) historical atlas in China. The research project, beginning in January 2015, is a collaborative work among scholars across meteorology, geography, and historical linguistics disciplines. The present research findings derived from the early 100+ years of the Qing dynasty include the following. First, the analysis is based on the sampling size, denoted as cities/counties, n=1398 across the Mainland China in the observation period. Second, the frequencies of precipitation, cold

  20. [Comprehension and explanation of meridians and collaterals theory in the background of the spread of western medicine into the East in the Ming and Qing Dynasties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Yun

    2010-06-01

    In the background of the spread of western medicine into the East in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Chinese doctors who had accepted western medicine referred to western medical knowledge and began to use the methods of anatomical observation and demonstrating to explain the objective structure of meridians and collaterals. They tried to adopt the artery and vessel explaining the shape of meridian and the blood circle and pulmonary respiration explaining the circulation of Ying-Wei. When the anatomy structures could not perfectly equal to meridians and collaterals, some doctors put forward the gasification feature of meridian to explain the reason. These results suggest that there are difference between meridians and collaterals and pure anatomy concepts, which serves as significant reference and edification for later generations.

  1. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  2. The organic materials in the Five Northern Provinces' Assembly Hall: disclosing the painting technique of the Qing dynasty painters in civil buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluveras-Tenorio, A.; Bonaduce, I.; Sabatini, F.; Degano, I.; Blaensdorf, C.; Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Ma, L.; Colombini, M. P.

    2015-11-01

    The beiwusheng huiguan (`Meeting hall of the Five Northern Dynasties') is a building complex from the Qing dynasty (1636-1912 ad) located in Wafangdian, near Ziyang, in the south of the Chinese Province of Shaanxi. Two of the preserved halls are richly decorated with wall paintings dated probably in 1848 ad and representing scenes of the `Romance of the Three Kingdoms' and Confucian moral tales. They are a rare example of well-preserved mural paintings of high artistic value inside civil buildings. The aims of this paper are the chemical characterization and localization of organic materials used as binders and colorants in the wall paintings. A multi-analytical approach, consisting in the combined use of gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques (GC/MS and Py-GC/MS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), was chosen for these purposes. Proteinaceous materials (animal glue and egg), saccharide material (fruit tree gum) and a siccative oil were identified in different paint layers supplying invaluable information about the painting technique used. Moreover, the analyses of organic dyes allowed identifying indigo and gallic acid in more than one sample adding fundamental information about Chinese artists' techniques in mural paintings, missing from the previous studies. To shed light on the gilding technique, the distribution of the painting materials was achieved by means of synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR micro-FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (SR micro-XRF). The results obtained from the multi-analytical approach enabled us to determine the organic materials both binders and organic colorants used by Chinese artisans, highlighting the high technical level achieved in nineteenth century. The binding media and the organic colorants identified, as well as their distribution, allowed the discussion on the painting technique used by the artists of the Qing dynasty giving information for the

  3. Cardenolide glycosides from Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark S; Towerzey, Leanne; Pham, Ngoc B; Hyde, Edward; Wadi, Sao Khemar; Guymer, Gordon P; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    Extracts from dried leaf and stems of Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Celastraceae) collected in South East Queensland, Australia, were active in an assay that measured Ca(2+) driven expression of IL-2/luciferase designed to identify inhibitors of the ICRAC channel. Bioassay-guided isolation using C18 and polyamide column chromatography, HPLC (Phenyl and C18) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) led to the isolation of digitoxigenin (1) and three cardenolide glycosides, glucoside 2, quinovoside 3 and the new natural product xyloside 4, as the active components with low nM activity in the reporter assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. VAR IPP-IPC Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Pérez Monsalve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the relationship of the two main Price indicators in the Colombian economy, the IPP and the IPC. For this purpose, we identified the theory comprising both indexes to then develop a vector autoregressive model, which shows the reaction to shocks both in itself as in the other variable, whose impact continues propagating in the long term. Additionally, the work presents a simulation of the VAR model through the Monte Carlo method, verifying the coincidence in distributions of probability and volatility levels, as well as the existence correlation over time

  5. denV gene of bacteriophage T4 restores DNA excision repair to mei-9 and mus201 mutants of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banga, S.S.; Boyd, J.B.; Valerie, K.; Harris, P.V.; Kurz, E.M.; de Riel, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The denV gene of bacteriophage T4 was fused to a Drosophila hsp70 (70-kDa heat shock protein) promoter and introduced into the germ line of Drosophila by P-element-mediated transformation. The protein product of that gene (endonuclease V) was detected in extracts of heat-shocked transformants with both enzymological and immunoblotting procedures. That protein restores both excision repair and UV resistance to mei-9 and mus201 mutants of this organism. These results reveal that the denV gene can compensate for excision-repair defects in two very different eukayotic mutants, in that the mus201 mutants are typical of excision-deficient mutants in other organisms, whereas the mei-9 mutants exhibit a broad pleiotropism that includes a strong meiotic deficiency. This study permits an extension of the molecular analysis of DNA repair to the germ line of higher eukaryotes. It also provides a model system for future investigations of other well-characterized microbial repair genes on DNA damage in the germ line of this metazoan organism

  6. Distinct regulation of c-myb gene expression by HoxA9, Meis1 and Pbx proteins in normal hematopoietic progenitors and transformed myeloid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassé, E; Volpe, G; Walton, D S; Wilson, N; Del Pozzo, W; O'Neill, L P; Slany, R K; Frampton, J; Dumon, S

    2012-01-01

    The proto-oncogenic protein c-Myb is an essential regulator of hematopoiesis and is frequently deregulated in hematological diseases such as lymphoma and leukemia. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the aberrant expression of c-Myb in myeloid leukemia, we analyzed and compared c-myb gene transcriptional regulation using two cell lines modeling normal hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and transformed myelomonocytic blasts. We report that the transcription factors HoxA9, Meis1, Pbx1 and Pbx2 bind in vivo to the c-myb locus and maintain its expression through different mechanisms in HPCs and leukemic cells. Our analysis also points to a critical role for Pbx2 in deregulating c-myb expression in murine myeloid cells cotransformed by the cooperative activity of HoxA9 and Meis1. This effect is associated with an intronic positioning of epigenetic marks and RNA polymerase II binding in the orthologous region of a previously described alternative promoter for c-myb. Taken together, our results could provide a first hint to explain the abnormal expression of c-myb in leukemic cells

  7. Mei Symmetry and New Conserved Quantities of Tzénoff Equations for the Variable Mass Higher-Order Nonholonomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Wang; WANG Jian-Bo; CHEN Xiang-Wei; XIE Jia-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems,and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system.We study the Mei symmetry of Tzénoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived.The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented.This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system.%Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems, and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system. We study the Mei symmetry of Tzenoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived. The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented. This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system.

  8. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAPI staining and PARP SDS-PAGE tests showed 60 μM quercetin could induce potential apoptotic activity in HepG2 liver cancer cells. Conclusion: Quercetin was the major cytotoxicity constituent in S. bodinieri var. delicate. Keywords: Apoptotic activity, Quercetin, Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate, HepG2 liver cancer ...

  9. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  10. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. ... Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by ..... µg/mL; G. silvatica leaves, LC50 = 117.9 µg/mL.

  11. ESTIMASI NILAI VaR PORTOFOLIO MENGGUNAKAN FUNGSI ARCHIMEDEAN COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AULIA ATIKA PRAWIBTA SUHARTO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk explains the magnitude of the worst losses occurred in financial products investments with a certain level of confidence and time interval. The purpose of this study is to estimate the VaR of portfolio using Archimedean Copula family. The methods for calculating the VaR are as follows: (1 calculating the stock return; (2 calculating descriptive statistics of return; (3 checking for the nature of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity effects on stock return data; (4 checking for the presence of extreme value by using Pareto tail; (5 estimating the parameters of Achimedean Copula family; (6 conducting simulations of Archimedean Copula; (7 estimating the value of the stock portfolio VaR. This study uses the closing price of TLKM and GGRM. At 90% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 0.9562%, 1.0189%, 0.9827% respectively. At 95% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 1.2930%, 1.2522%, 1.3152% respectively. At 99% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 2.0327%, 1.9164%, is 1.8678% respectively. In conclusion estimation of VaR using Clayton copula yields the highest VaR.

  12. Een nieuwe naam voor Arenaria serpyllifolia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutermann, W.; Mennema, J.

    1983-01-01

    The name Arenaria serpyllifoiia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd is illegitimate, because of the existence of the earlier non-synonymous A. serpyllifolia0 macrocarpa Godron. As on the level of variety no other name is available, we call the taxon A renaria serpylli/olia L. var. Iloydn (Jord.) Gutermann et

  13. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  14. Karakteristik Penderita Penyakit Jantung Bawaan pada Anak di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang Periode Januari 2010 – Mei 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penyakit jantung bawaan (PJB merupakan defek lahir yang sering ditemukan dan merupakan penyebab kematian terbanyak dari semua jenis kelainan bawaan. Banyak penelitian yang menunjukkan bahwa adanya variasi secara geografik yang penting pada insiden PJB. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui variasi karakteristik dari penderita PJB anak di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan melihat karakteristik penderita anak dengan PJB pada data rekam medik. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 55pasien anak yang menderita penyakit jantung bawaan di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang dari Januari 2010 sampai Mei 2012. Mayoritas penderita adalah perempuan (61,8%, dan mayoritas umur sampel terdapat pada kelompok umur kurang dari 1 tahun (56.4%. Jenis PJB terbanyak adalah TF (21,8% dan gejala yang paling sering dijumpai adalah sesak nafas (50,9%. Sebanyak (34,5% penderita memiliki penyakit kongenital lain, dengan penyakit nonsindroma terbanyak adalah atresia ani dan omfalokel dengan masing-masing (22,2% dan penyakit sindroma terbanyak adalahsindroma Down (40%. Gagal tumbuh terdapat pada (49,1% penderita. Nilai Hb PJB sianotik lebih tinggi berbanding asianotik. Tingkat tindakan operatif kasus PJB anak di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang adalah 1,8%. Terdapat variasi karakteristik dari penderita PJB yang ada di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang.Kata kunci: penyakit jantung bawaan, anak, variasi karakteristik Abstract Congenital heart disease (CHD is a common birth defect, and a leading cause of deaths linked to birth defects. Many studies show that the presence of significant geographic variation in the incidence of CHD. The objective of this study was to determine the variation of the characteristics of patients with CHD in Dr. M. Djamil Hospital Padang. This research is a descriptive research by observing at the characteristics of children with CHD using the medical record data. The total sample of this study was 55

  15. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  16. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  17. Chromosome behaviour in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata is unusual in that its twelve chromosomes are arranged in a ring at meiosis. The order of the chromosomes has been established, and each chromosome arm has been designated a letter in accordance with the segmental interchange theory. Chromosomes are often irregularly orientated at metaphase I. Chromosomes at anaphase I are generally distributed equally (6-6, 58.75%) although not necessarily balanced. Due to adjacent distribution, 7-5 distribution at anaphase I was frequently observed (24.17%), and due to lagging, 6-1-5 and 5-2-5 distributions were also observed (10.83% and 3.33% respectively). Three types of abnormal distribution, 8-4, 7-1-4 and 6-2-4 were observed very infrequently (2.92% total), and their possible origins are discussed. Irregularities, such as adjacent distribution and lagging, undoubtedly reduce the fertility of the plant because of the resulting unbalanced gametes.

  18. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  19. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    in their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be valid......Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...

  20. How can the origin of the decay var-phi →3π be determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achasov, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the interference pattern in the region √s = 1.05 GeV in the reaction e + e - →ω, var-phi →3π can be used to determine unambiguously whether the decay var-phi →3π occurs because of var-phi ω mixing, var-phi →ω→3π, or because of the direct transition var-phi →3π. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Activation and clustering of a Plasmodium falciparum var gene are affected by subtelomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Tang, Jingyi; Sumardy, Fransisca; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Selvarajah, Shamista A; Josling, Gabrielle A; Day, Karen P; Petter, Michaela; Brown, Graham V

    2017-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching. Here we show that transcription of a var gene did not require decreased colocalisation with clusters of telomeres, supporting var expression site formation in situ. However following recombination within adjacent subtelomeric sequences, the same var gene was persistently activated and did colocalise less with telomeric clusters. Thus, participation in stable, heterochromatic, telomere clusters and var switching are independent but are both affected by subtelomeric sequences. The var expression site colocalised with the euchromatic mark H3K27ac to a greater extent than it did with heterochromatic H3K9me3. H3K27ac was enriched within the active var gene promoter even when the var gene was transiently repressed in mature parasites and thus H3K27ac may contribute to var gene epigenetic memory. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  3. Molt disruption and mortality of Locusta migratoria var. manilensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGRs) on the oriental migratory locust Locusta migratoria var. manilensis were assessed. Under laboratory conditions, at the highest tested dose rate of 300 ppm, the percent mortality and molt inhibition after two weeks for the five tested ...

  4. ClinVar data parsing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This software repository provides a pipeline for converting raw ClinVar data files into analysis-friendly tab-delimited tables, and also provides these tables for the most recent ClinVar release. Separate tables are generated for genome builds GRCh37 and GRCh38 as well as for mono-allelic variants and complex multi-allelic variants. Additionally, the tables are augmented with allele frequencies from the ExAC and gnomAD datasets as these are often consulted when analyzing ClinVar variants. Overall, this work provides ClinVar data in a format that is easier to work with and can be directly loaded into a variety of popular analysis tools such as R, python pandas, and SQL databases.

  5. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1College of Health Technology, Zawan, Plateau State.2Department of ... Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). ... White Blood cell Count (WBC) count and lymphocytosis in the differential count.

  6. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  7. An orientin derivative isolated from Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Freddy A.; Castellanos, Leonardo; López, César; Palacios, Lizeth; Duque, Carmenza; Pacheco, Ricardo; Guzmán, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima (banana passion fruit) is an edible fruit widespread in the Andean highlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The fruit is used for juices as well as for the sedative properties of the leaves. As a contribution to the chemical characterization of this species, a new compound, 4'- methoxyluteolin-8-C-6”acetylglucopyranoside, was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima leaves and identified by spectroscopical data (NMR, MS, UV).

  8. Da abort ikke var en sag for kvinden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Annette Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet.......Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet....

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Appel-da-Silva, Marcelo C.; Narvaez, Gabriel A.; Perez, Leandro R.R.; Drehmer, Laura; Lewgoy, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administrat...

  10. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  11. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  12. Yi Qi Qing Re Gao-containing serum inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced rat mesangial cell proliferation by suppressing the Wnt pathway and TGF-β1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Sun, Xueyan; Zhan, Yongli; Liu, Huijie; Wen, Yumin; Mao, Huimin; Dong, X I; Li, Ping

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Yi Qi Qing Re Gao-containing serum (YQ-S) on rat mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and to investigate the underlying mechanism. MCs were divided into the control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated, YQ-S and fosinopril-containing serum (For-S) groups, and cultured for 48 h. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation of MCs. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were conducted to detect the expression levels of Wnt4, β-catenin and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in MCs. The results indicated that YQ-S inhibited LPS-induced MC proliferation. The Wnt4 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression levels were reduced in the YQ-S group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Furthermore, the Wnt4, β-catenin and TGF-β1 protein expression levels were suppressed in the YQ-S group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Therefore, YQ-S appears to inhibit MC proliferation, and its mechanism may involve the inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway and downregulation of TGF-β1 expression.

  13. The anti-hyperplasia, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of Qing Ye Dan and swertiamarin in testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinying; Gu, Ye; Li, Lun

    2017-01-04

    Qing Ye Dan (QYD) is the whole plant of Swertia mileensis and used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and so on. This study was to investigate the effects of QYD and its main component swertiamarin on BPH induced by testosterone in rats. The prostatic expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (βFGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected by immunohistochemistry assay. Prostatic levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory-related factors were also analyzed. Additionally, the prostatic expressions of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-β, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, B-cell CLL/lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured by western blot. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated factors were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. It showed that QYD and swertiamarin ameliorated the testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia and collagen deposition, attenuated the over-expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF, EGF, βFGF, PCNA, AR and ER-α, reduced the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, enhanced the expression of ER-β, inhibited the oxidative stress and local inflammation, as well as relieved prostatic EMT. It suggested that QYD and swertiamarin had prostatic protective potential against BPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis)

    OpenAIRE

    Spini, Vanessa B.M.G.; Kerr, Warwick Estevam

    2000-01-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these c...

  15. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ......Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations......, and another in which the cointegrating relations are estimated recursively from a likelihood function, where the short-run parameters have been concentrated out. We suggest graphical procedures based on recursively estimated eigenvalues to evaluate the constancy of the long-run parameters in the model...

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine, Qing Ying Tang, ameliorates the severity of acute lung injury induced by severe acute pancreatitis in rats via the upregulation of aquaporin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenming; Xu, Junfeng; Sun, Deguang; Zhang, Rixin; Liang, Rui; Wang, Liming; Fan, Rong

    2014-12-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) is expressed in lung endothelial cells and regulates water transport; thus, AQP-1 plays an important role in a number of edema-associated lung diseases. Qing Yin Tang (QYT), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to effectively reduce the mortality rate of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The current study aimed to investigate the detailed mechanisms underlying the effects of QYT on ALI induced by SAP, particularly the effects on the expression levels of AQP-1 in the lung tissue. ALI was established in Wister rats who were subsequently divided into four groups: SHAM, ALI, dexamethasone (DEX) and QYT groups (n=8 per group). In the QYT group, 20 ml/kg QYT was administered by gavage immediately following the induction of SAP. Blood and lung tissues were collected 8 h following the induction of pancreatitis. The lung wet/dry ratio, as well as the levels of blood gases, serum amylase and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were measured at 4, 8 and 12 h following SAP-associated ALI induction surgery. The expression levels of AQP-1 in the lung tissue were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed with regard to the levels of serum amylase, wet/dry ratio, partial pressure of oxygen, serum TNF-α and pathological changes in the pulmonary tissue between the QYT and DEX groups; however, a statistically significant difference was observed when compared with the ALI group. The expression levels of AQP-1 significantly increased (P<0.05) and lung edema was alleviated in the QYT and DEX groups, when compared with ALI group. Therefore, the expression level of AQP-1 is associated with pulmonary edema. QYT protects the lungs from injury induced by SAP via the upregulation of AQP-1, which suppresses TNF-α expression.

  17. Qing-Xin-Jie-Yu Granules in addition to conventional treatment for patients with stable coronary artery disease (QUEST Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengyao; Guo, Ming; Mao, Huimin; Gao, Zhuye; Xu, Hao; Shi, Dazhuo

    2016-09-15

    Recurrent cardiovascular event remains high in stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), especially in patients with multiple risk factors, despite a high rate of use conventional treatment. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a promising complementary and alternative medicine for treating SCAD, while evidence for its effect on long-term survival is limited. This study was designed to test if Chinese herbal medicine in addition to conventional treatment is more effective than conventional treatment alone in reducing major adverse cardiac event (MACE) for SCAD patients with multiple risk factors during a 1-year follow-up. This is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 1500 patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive the Qing-Xin-Jie-Yu Granules (QXJYG) or the placebo granules, twice daily for 6 months. The primary outcome is the combined outcomes including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and revascularization. The secondary outcome is the combined outcomes including all-cause mortality, re-admission for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), heart failure, malignant supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmia influencing hemodynamics, ischemic stroke, and other thromboembolic events during 1-year follow-up. The assessment is performed at baseline (before randomization), 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomization. This is the first multicenter trial sponsored by the national funding of China to evaluate TCM in combination with conventional treatment on 1-year survival in high-risk SCAD patients. If successful, it will provide an evidence-based complementary therapeutic approach for reducing MACE from SCAD. The trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on December 28, 2013. The registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-13004370 .

  18. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  19. Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Over a 23-Year Period Among Chinese With Newly Diagnosed Diabetes in the Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yali; Wang, Jinping; Gong, Qiuhong; Gregg, Edward W.; Yang, Wenying; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bo; Shuai, Ying; Chen, Yanyan; Engelgau, Michael M.; Cheng, Yiling; Hu, Yinghua; Bennett, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite its growing prevalence in China, the extent to which diabetes leads to excess cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality is unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We compared death rates and causes of death among 630 people with newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD) and 519 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) who, in 1986, were identified as a result of screening 110,660 adults aged 25–74 years for diabetes in Da Qing, China. RESULTS During 23 years of follow-up, 338 (56.5%) participants with NDD and 100 (20.3%) with NGT died. CVD was the predominant cause of death in those with diabetes (47.5% in men and 49.7% in women), almost half of which was due to stroke (52.3% in men and 42.3% in women). The age-standardized incidence of all-cause death was three times as high in those with NDD as in those with NGT with incidences (per 1,000 person-years) of 36.9 (95% CI 31.5–42.3) vs. 13.3 (10.2–16.5) in men (P < 0.0001) and 27.1 (22.9–31.4) vs. 9.2 (7.8–10.6) in women (P < 0.0001). The incidence of CVD deaths in men and women with NDD (17.5 [13.8–21.2] vs. 13.5 [10.5–16.5]) did not differ significantly. Significantly higher death rates attributable to renal disease and infection were also found in the NDD group. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is associated with a substantially increased risk of death in Chinese adults, especially from CVD, almost half of which is due to stroke. PMID:25887356

  20. Potential Ameliorative Effects of Qing Ye Dan Against Cadmium Induced Prostatic Deficits via Regulating Nrf-2/HO-1 and TGF-β1/Smad Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lifen; Lei, Yongfang; Chen, Jinglou; Song, Hongping; Wu, Xinying

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant with reproductive toxicity. Swertia mileensis is used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of prostatic deficits and named as Qing Ye Dan (QYD). This study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effects of QYD against Cd-induced prostatic deficits. Rat model of prostatic deficits was induced by 0.2 mg/kg/d CdCl2 subcutaneous injection for 15 days. The prostatic oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, reduced/ oxidized glutathione, total sulfhydryl groups and enzymatic antioxidant status. The prostatic inflammation was estimated by testing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers E-cadherin, fibronectin, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin were measured by qPCR analysis. Additionally, the prostatic expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), type I TGF-β receptor (TGF-βRI), Smad2, phosphorylation-Smad2 (p-Smad2), Smad3, p-Smad3, Smad7, nuclear related factor-2 (Nrf-2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), B-cell CLL/lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured by western blot assay. It was found that QYD ameliorated the Cd-induced prostatic oxidative stress and inflammation, attenuated prostatic EMT, inhibited the TGF-β1/Smad pathway, increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and enhanced the activity of Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. These results showed that QYD could ameliorate Cd-induced prostatic deficits via modulating Nrf-2/HO-1 and TGF-β1/Smad pathways. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Synergism and rules from combination of Baicalin, Jasminoidin and Desoxycholic acid in refined Qing Kai Ling for treat ischemic stroke mice model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    Full Text Available Refined Qing-Kai-Ling (QKL, a modified Chinese medicine, consists of three main ingredients (Baicalin, Jasminoidin and Desoxycholic acid, plays a synergistic effect on the treatment of the acute stage of ischemic stroke. However, the rules of the combination and synergism are still unknown. Based on the ischemic stroke mice model, all different kinds of combination of Baicalin, Jasminoidin, and Desoxycholic acid were investigated by the methods of neurological examination, microarray, and genomics analysis. As a result, it confirmed that the combination of three drugs offered a better therapeutical effect on ischemic stroke than monotherapy of each drug. Additionally, we used Ingenuity pathway Analysis (IPA and principal component analysis (PCA to extract the dominant information of expression changes in 373 ischemia-related genes. The results suggested that 5 principal components (PC1-5 could account for more than 95% energy in the gene data. Moreover, 3 clusters (PC1, PC2+PC5, and PC3+PC4 were addressed with cluster analysis. Furthermore, we matched PCs on the drug-target networks, the findings demonstrated that Baicalin related with PC1 that played the leading role in the combination; Jasminoidin related with PC2+PC5 that played a compensatory role; while Desoxycholic acid had the least performance alone which could relate with PC3+PC4 that played a compatible role. These manifestations were accorded with the principle of herbal formulae of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, emperor-minister-adjuvant-courier. In conclusion, we firstly provided scientific evidence to the classic theory of TCM formulae, an initiating holistic viewpoint of combination therapy of TCM. This study also illustrated that PCA might be an applicable method to analyze the complicated data of drug combination.

  2. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period-The Da Qing Children Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan Chen

    Full Text Available The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance.To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood.424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight. Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001 in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001 in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and triglycerides at 10 years of age.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin.

  3. Marriages Awakening the World and Shangdong’s Birthday Celebration Custom in Ming and Qing Dynasty%从«醒世姻缘传»看明清山东的寿诞礼俗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文娟; 魏红

    2014-01-01

    Marriages Awakening the World (Xingshi Yinyuan Zhuan )is an important novel aboutMmarriage and family life,published subsequent to J inpingmei Cihua and prior to A Dream of Redansions .Its vivid portrayal of etiquette in the Ming and Qing Dynasties provides bountiful material for the study on life etiquette of that historical period.This thesis makes a systematic probe into the folkways in Shandong reflected in Marriages Awakening the World so as to gain a good understanding of the panorama and characteristics of Shandong folk culture in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.To bemore exact,this study investigates birth- and birthday-celebrating customs in Shandong in detail,un-veiling their underlying cultural meanings.It also delves into the social,cultural and literary Asignificance of the life etiquette in Shandong in the Ming and Qing dynasties reflected in Marriageswakening the World .%«醒世姻缘传»是«金瓶梅词话»之后、«红楼梦»之前的一部重要的以婚姻家庭生活为题材的小说,生动地再现了当时民间礼俗的状态,为我们研究明清时期的人生礼俗提供了宝贵的资料。文章主要探讨该小说与明清山东的寿诞礼俗,分别对诞生礼俗和庆寿礼俗作了详细的描述,并揭示其中所蕴含着的文化意义;对«醒世姻缘传»所反映出的明清山东人生礼俗的社会、文化及文学意义进行阐释。

  4. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  5. To the issue of increasing efficiency of VAR compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Костянтинівна Поднебенна

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of VAR compensation of variable loads. One of the most common non-symmetric non-linear power consumers are welding power sources. Time and duration of the work of these sources vary randomly. To compensate the consumption of reactive power on the basis of consumption data from the three-phase electricity meters is inefficient. Compensation devices power should be calculated taking into account the asymmetrical consumption/generation of reactive power per phase and changing consumption patterns. Thyristor-controlled reactor, thyristor-switched capacitors, hybrid VAR compensators, active compensators (STATCOMs, «dynamic capacitors» can be used as the VAR compensation devices. Thyristor-controlled reactors can provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they have high weight and size parameters and are additional sources of higher harmonics. Thyristor-switched capacitors provide stepwise adjustment of reactive power and are subject to the current higher harmonics. Hybrid VAR compensators make it possible to isolate capacitors from the higher harmonics and ensure smooth regulation, which is achieved by active filter introduction to the reactive power compensation devices based on thyristor-switched capacitors. However, this increases the cost of a compensator and complicates its control system. STATCOMs provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they are too expensive.Perspective direction in the development of effective VAR compensation devices is «dynamic capacitor». As a result of a feasibility study the prospects for further research of electrical grids power efficiency through the development of effective devices for VAR compensation have been established

  6. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilon prime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-01-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale Λ χ ≅1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N c approximation, the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=23.6 -7.8 +12.4 x10 -4 (Imλ t /= 1.2x10 -4 ) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 , the ratio var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is in favor of the values var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=(20±9)x10 -4

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Appel-da-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line. Keywords: Saccharomyces, Probiotics, Fungemia, Critical illness, Clostridium difficile

  8. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR, which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF. We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  9. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. The food additive alpha-galactosidase and parent mycelial microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer may be safely used...

  10. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  11. Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species. PMID:8074536

  12. Micropropagation of Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala : A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro protocol has been developed for the multiplication of shoots and conservation of a rare succulent medicinal plant Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala growing wildly in Karnataka State. Proliferation of multiple shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with various ...

  13. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  14. Testing for Granger causality in large mixed-frequency VARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, T.B.; Hecq, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Granger causality testing in a mixed-frequency VAR, originally proposed by Ghysels (2012), where the difference in sampling frequencies of the variables is large. In particular, we investigate whether past information on a low-frequency variable help in forecasting a

  15. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  16. The identity of zostera marina var. angustifolia Hornemann (Potamogetonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Since Hornemann (Fl. Dan. 9, 1816, p. 3, pl. 1501) published the name Zostera marina var. angustifolia together with a very poor drawing and the extremely short diagnosis ‘foliis subenerviis’ several interpretations of the identity of this taxon have been given. Some authors regarded it as a

  17. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  18. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  19. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 1319 (2011), s. 1-60 ISSN 1725-2806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fiscal policy * financial markets * threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/baxa-0364091.pdf

  20. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  1. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  2. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  3. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comprehensive market-based scheme for VAR management and pricing in the electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Qassim Univ., Alqassim, Meldia (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to enable a power system to operate within an acceptable degree of reliability and security, the provision of VAR ancillary services from the VAR sources in electricity markets is the most effective method. The procurement of VAR services is particularly problematic for transmission operators as it relates to pricing mechanism and various technical issues during system operation. This paper proposed an integrated market-based approach for pricing VAR service in the electricity market. The paper was an extension of the authors' proposal for the provision of the VAR service from dynamic VAR sources in a competitive market-based environment. The formulation was modified to include VAR utilization payment and possible power system transition states multiple base cases and contingencies with their associated occurrence probabilities. The paper discussed the basic terms of the proposed approach including the VAR market objective and generator VAR output and its compensation. The mathematical formulation that considered VAR capacity payment, utilization payment and operating costs under the previous transition states in a unified single problem were introduced. The overall problem formulation and solution algorithm were also presented as a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. It was concluded that the proposed method was suited for the simulation and analysis of the existing VAR market. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  5. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  6. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  7. Can reported VaR be used as an indicator of the volatility of share prices? Evidence from UK banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shian Kao

    2006-01-01

    Value at Risk (VaR) is used as an indicator to measure the risks contained in a firm. With the uprising development of VaR theory and computational techniques, the VaR is nowadays adopted by banks and reported in annual reports. Since the method to calculate VaR is questioned, and the reported VaR can not be thoroughly audited, this paper attempts to find the relationship between the reported VaR and the volatility of share price for UK listed banks. This paper reviews literature about VaR an...

  8. Foco de leishmaniasis en El Hobo, municipio de El Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Cortés

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se describen las características epidemiológica e importancia de la especies de Lutzomyia presentes en un foco de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar, departamento de Bolívar. Objetivos. Obtener un conocimiento preliminar de la transmisión de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron datos epidemiológicos y se realizaron capturas de flebótomos con trampas CDC y cebo humano en la vereda El Hobo. Para establecer la sero prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral canina se hizo un estudio en perros mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. Se capturaron nueve especies de Lutzomyia: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L .cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi,L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Las especie de mayor importancia por sus implicaciones en la transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral fueron L. gomezi, y L. evansi respectivamente. Se reporta por primera vez para Bolívar especimenes de L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Se determinó una prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral del 36% en los caninos estudiados. Según los reportes epidemiológicos, en el 2002 en el municipio de Carmen de Bolívar la leishmaniasis cutánea mostró un aumento del 40% y la leishmaniasis visceral canina del 80% de los casos con respecto al 2001, debido al brote presentado en la vereda El Hobo Conclusiones. Los resultados determinan a la vereda El Hobo como una zona de riesgo potencial de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral.

  9. Identification of the relationship between Chinese Adiantum reniforme var. sinense and Canary Adiantum reniforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ye; Schneider, Harald; Zhai, Jun-Wen; Liu, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Song; Xing, Fu-Wu; Chen, Hong-Feng; Wang, Fa-Guo

    2015-02-05

    There are different opinions about the relationship of two disjunctively distributed varieties Adiantum reniforme L. var. sinense Y.X.Lin and Adiantum reniforme L. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an endangered fern only distributed in a narrowed region of Chongqing city in China, while Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme just distributed in Canary Islands and Madeira off the north-western African coast. To verify the relationship of these two taxa, relative phylogenetic analyses, karyotype analyses, microscopic spore observations and morphological studies were performed in this study. Besides, divergence time between A. reniforme var. sinense and A. reniforme var. reniforme was estimated using GTR model according to a phylogeny tree constructed with the three cpDNA markers atpA, atpB, and rbcL. Phylogenetic results and divergence time analyses--all individuals of A. reniforme var. sinense from 4 different populations (representing all biogeographic distributions) were clustered into one clade and all individuals of A. reniforme var. reniforme from 7 different populations (all biogeographic distributions are included) were clustered into another clade. The divergence between A. reniforme var. reniforme and A. reniforme var. sinense was estimated to be 4.94 (2.26-8.66) Myr. Based on karyotype analyses, A. reniforme var. reniforme was deduced to be hexaploidy with 2n = 180, X = 30, while A. reniforme var. sinense was known as tetraploidy. Microscopic spore observations suggested that surface ornamentation of A. reniforme var. reniforme is psilate, but that of A. reniforme var. sinense is rugate. Leaf blades of A. reniforme var. sinense are membranous and reniform and with several obvious concentric rings, and leaves of A. reniforme var. reniforme are pachyphyllous and coriaceous and are much rounder and similar to palm. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an independent species rather than the variety of Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme. As a result, we

  10. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  11. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  12. Cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and diabetes incidence after lifestyle intervention for people with impaired glucose tolerance in the Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 23-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Jinping; An, Yali; Gong, Qiuhong; Gregg, Edward W; Yang, Wenying; Zhang, Bo; Shuai, Ying; Hong, Jing; Engelgau, Michael M; Li, Hui; Roglic, Gojka; Hu, Yinghua; Bennett, Peter H

    2014-06-01

    Lifestyle interventions among people with impaired glucose tolerance reduce the incidence of diabetes, but their effect on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality is unclear. We assessed the long-term effect of lifestyle intervention on long-term outcomes among adults with impaired glucose tolerance who participated in the Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study. The study was a cluster randomised trial in which 33 clinics in Da Qing, China-serving 577 adults with impaired glucose tolerance-were randomised (1:1:1:1) to a control group or lifestyle intervention groups (diet or exercise or both). Patients were enrolled in 1986 and the intervention phase lasted for 6 years. In 2009, we followed up participants to assess the primary outcomes of cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and incidence of diabetes in the intention-to-treat population. Of the 577 patients, 439 were assigned to the intervention group and 138 were assigned to the control group (one refused baseline examination). 542 (94%) of 576 participants had complete data for mortality and 568 (99%) contributed data to the analysis. 174 participants died during the 23 years of follow-up (121 in the intervention group vs 53 in the control group). Cumulative incidence of cardiovascular disease mortality was 11.9% (95% CI 8.8-15.0) in the intervention group versus 19.6% (12.9-26.3) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.96; p=0.033). All-cause mortality was 28.1% (95% CI 23.9-32.4) versus 38.4% (30.3-46.5; HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.51-0.99; p=0.049). Incidence of diabetes was 72.6% (68.4-76.8) versus 89.9% (84.9-94.9; HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.40-0.76; p=0.001). A 6-year lifestyle intervention programme for Chinese people with impaired glucose tolerance can reduce incidence of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and diabetes. These findings emphasise the long-term clinical benefits of lifestyle intervention for patients with impaired glucose tolerance and provide further justification for

  13. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  14. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  15. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  16. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  17. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  18. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  19. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  20. Phytochemical study of the flavonoids of acacia nilotica var astringens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gazali, N. A.

    2006-08-01

    The barks of acaica nilotica var astringens were extracted with 95% ethanol. Qualitative tests on the alcoholic extractives were negative for alkaloids and positive for steroids, tannins and flavonoids. Fractionation of the alcoholic extract over silica gel using acetone: methanol (4:1) gave a pure compound-compound 1. The structure of compound 1 was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra and the following structure was suggested.(Author)

  1. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2018), s. 395-423 ISSN 0377-7332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fiscal policy * Financial markets * Threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economic s OBOR OECD: Applied Economic s, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/baxa-0488303.pdf

  2. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  3. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  4. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam; Selin Sayek Böke

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the d...

  5. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  6. MEIS homeobox genes in neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Dirk; Revet, Ingrid; Jorritsma, Gerda; Schilderink, Nathalie; Versteeg, Rogier

    2005-01-01

    The common pediatric tumor neuroblastoma originates from primitive neural crest-derived precursor cells of the peripheral nervous system. Neuroblastoma especially affects very young children, and can already be present at birth. Its early onset and cellular origin predict the involvement of

  7. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.

  9. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  10. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  11. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  12. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  13. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  14. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  15. The relationship between reaction kinetics and mutagenic action of monofunctional alkylating agents in higher eukaryotic systems. IV. The effects of the excision-defective mei-9L1 and mus(2)201D1 mutants on alkylation-induced genetic damage in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, E W; Dusenbery, R L; Smith, P D

    1985-04-01

    Repair-defective mutants of Drosophila melanogaster which identify two major DNA excision repair loci have been examined for their effects on alkylation-induced mutagenesis using the sex-linked recessive lethal assay as a measure of genotoxic endpoint. The alkylating agents (AAs) chosen for comparative analysis were selected on the basis of their reaction kinetics with DNA and included MMS, EMS, MNU, DMN, ENU, DEN and ENNG. Repair-proficient males were treated with the AAs and mated with either excision-defective mei-9L1 or mus(2)201D1 females or appropriate excision-proficient control females. The results of the present work suggest that a qualitative and quantitative relationship exists between the nature and the extent of chemical modification of DNA and the induction of of genetic alterations. The presence of either excision-defective mutant can enhance the frequency of mutation (hypermutability) and this hypermutability can be correlated with the Swain-Scott constant S of specific AAs such that as the SN1 character of the DNA alkylation reaction increases, the difference in response between repair-deficient and repair-proficient females decreases. The order of hypermutability of AAs with mei-9L1 relative to mei-9+ is MMS greater than MNU greater than DMN = EMS greater than iPMS = ENU = DEN = ENNG. When the percentage of lethal mutations induced in mei-9L1 females are plotted against those determined for control females, straight lines of different slopes are obtained. These mei-9L1/mei-9+ indices are: MMS = 7.6, MNU = 5.4, DMN = 2.4, EMS = 2.4 and iPMS = ENU = DEN = ENNG = 1. An identical order of hypermutability with similar indices is obtained for the mus(2)201 mutants: MMS(7.3) greater than MNU (5.4) greater than EMS(2.0) greater than ENU(1.1). Thus, absence of excision repair function has a significant effect on mutation production by AAs efficient in alkylating N-atoms in DNA but no measurable influence on mutation production by AAs most efficient in

  16. Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Silencing Is Determined by cis DNA Elements That Form Stable and Heritable Interactions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Lakshmi; Amulic, Borko; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Antigenic variation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum depends on the transcriptional regulation of the var gene family. In each individual parasite, mRNA is expressed exclusively from 1 var gene out of ∼60, while the rest of the genes are transcriptionally silenced. Both modifications to chromatin structure and DNA regulatory elements associated with each var gene have been implicated in the organization and maintenance of the silent state. Whether silencing is established at the level of entire chromosomal regions via heterochromatin spreading or at the level of individual var promoters through the action of a silencing element within each var intron has been debated. Here, we consider both possibilities, using clonal parasite lines carrying chromosomally integrated transgenes. We confirm a previous finding that the loss of an adjacent var intron results in var promoter activation and further show that transcriptional activation of a var promoter within a cluster does not affect the transcriptional activity of neighboring var promoters. Our results provide more evidence for the hypothesis that var genes are primarily silenced at the level of an individual gene, rather than by heterochromatin spreading. We also tested the intrinsic directionality of an intron's silencing effect on upstream or downstream var promoters. We found that an intron is capable of silencing in either direction and that, once established, a var promoter-intron pair is stably maintained through many generations, suggesting a possible role in epigenetic memory. This study provides insights into the regulation of endogenous var gene clusters. PMID:21317310

  17. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  18. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  19. A Brief Discussion on the Dongba Script Land Contracts from the Late Qing and Republican Periods at Bowan Village, Shangri-la County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jiquan; Zhao Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    Land contracts are important histor-ical records showing the changes in landowner rights, and reflect the social, economic, political and cultural development of a specific historical period. Dongba script land contracts are one of the significant categories of the practical texts of the Naxi that are written in Dongba pictographs, and as such are valuable to researchers. Li Xi’s article, Lijiang Baoshan Naxi xiangxing wenzi kao ( An Ex-ploration on the Bricks Inscribed with Naxi Picto-graphs in Baoshan of Lijiang) , is the earliest pub-lication related to land contracts written in Dongba pictographs. As a member of the team that com-piled Zhongguo shaoshu minzu guji zongmu tiyao · Naxi juan ( Ancient Manuscripts Contents of China’s Ethnic Minorities · Naxi Volume ) , I in-cluded seven Dongba script land contracts in the book, and provided a translation of the content of the contracts. Yu Suisheng has done a detailed re-search on several Dongba land contracts. In his Naxi dongba diqi yanjiu shuyao ( A Review of Naxi Dongba Land Contracts) , a comprehensive discus-sion on the collection, publication and research of the land titles is provided. Except from this, there has been little research on Dongba land contracts in the academic circle. Bowan village belongs to Sanba township, Shangri-la county, Yunnan province; it is a vil-lage in Baidi, the sacred place of the Naxi Dongba religion;and the Dongba culture flourished in this area throughout history. Until the 1950s, in addi-tion to being used for writing religious manuscripts, Dongba pictographs were also used to write con-tracts, record accounts or write letters. In our fieldwork, we found that Bowan village is one of the villages where Dongba literature has been well preserved in modern-day Naxi areas. This article mainly focuses on a discussion of ten Dongba script land contracts from the late Qing and Republican periods at Bowan village, and makes a preliminary research on their form, content, date of

  20. Complete plastid genome of Astragalus mongholicus var. nakaianus (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Su; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The first complete plastid genome (plastome) of the largest angiosperm genus, Astragalus, was sequenced for the Korean endangered endemic species A. mongholicus var. nakaianus. Its genome is relatively short (123,633 bp) because it lacks an Inverted Repeat (IR) region. It comprises 110 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. Similar to other closely related plastomes, rpl22 and rps16 are absent. The putative pseudogene with abnormal stop codons is atpE. This plastome has no additional inversions when compared with highly variable plastomes from IRLC tribes Fabeae and Trifolieae. Our phylogenetic analysis confirms the non-monophyly of Galegeae.

  1. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  2. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  3. Phytochemical Studies on Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Mazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae, commonly known as ‘bekhanjabaj’, is a Bangladeshi perennial herb. A combination of the normal phase column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel afforded sitosterone (1 from the petroleum ether fraction, and viscozulenic acid (2 and acetophenone (3 from the chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant . The free-radical-scavenging properties the isolated compounds 1-3 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  4. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  5. An unusual variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, A A; Weitzman, I; Domenech, E

    1994-01-01

    A fungus, recovered from a skin lesion of a patient, produced velvety to powdery, white to deep yellow colonies on Sabouraud glucose agar. Microscopically, it produced a large number of cylindric, smooth-walled, three- to eight-celled macroconidia but failed to produce microconidia on a variety of nutritional media such as rice grains, cornmeal dextrose, potato dextrose, Sabouraud glucose, oatmeal and lactrimel agars. It hydrolysed urea in 7 days, perforated hair in vitro and required thiamine for growth. This isolate represents an atypical variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sufureum subvar. perforans.

  6. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2013-01-01

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  7. Mitigation of voltage fluctuations with an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, F [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Castanheira, A

    1997-04-01

    The installation of an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) to remedy a voltage flicker problem at the TIMEU sawmill in Fort Assiniboine, Alberta, was described. The TIMEU sawmill is a 980 kVA load at the end of a 25 kV feeder. Two older style J bar type saws, each driven by a 200 Hp motor, are used to operate the wood processing services. The sawing and chipping process resulted in the generation of significant voltage flicker on the 25 kV distribution system. The AVC provided cycle per cycle reactive compensation and voltage support; no further complaints of flicker were received.

  8. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2......CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2......), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. RESULTS: Multigravidae with and without PM had similar levels of Ab to FV2, the six VAR2CSA DBL domains and different variants, while the proportion of high avidity...

  9. Further elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of E. sneedii var. sneedii were found to occur in greater abundance within the Guadalupe Mountains than was previously recorded. No additional populations morphologically intermediate between E. guadalupensis and E. sneedii were found. Taxonomic affiliation and geographic...

  10. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  11. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  12. A Stochastic Dominance Approach to the Basel III Dilemma: Expected Shortfall or VaR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) (2013) recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The BCBS (2013) noted that “a number of weaknesses have been identified with using VaR for

  13. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  14. Clinical development of a VAR2CSA-based placental malaria vaccine PAMVAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbédandé, Komi; Fievet, Nadine; Viwami, Firmine

    2017-01-01

    Background  The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC...

  15. Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner (Malvaceae, A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner is naturalized in abandoned land of central Taiwan. The distinguished characteristics of A. manihot var. pungens include the ovate-lanceolate epicalyx lobes, distinct prickly hairs all over the plant, and even over the margins of its epicalyx lobes. Descriptions, line drawings and photos of this species are provided.

  16. Essays on Imperfect Knowledge Economics, Structural Change, and Persistence in the Cointegrated VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    conrm the original intuition behind the attempt to combine IKE and the econometric approach based on the cointegrated VAR model, that the parameter-instability of IKE models could potentially be an important source of the persistence found empirically in estimated cointegrated VAR models...

  17. Waarnemingen aan Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F.W. Meyer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations during six successive years in a cultivated clone of Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F. W. Meyer made it possible to study various types of fertile, sterile, and homophyadic stems developing in this clone. As E. arvense var. varium Milde, E. arvense f. sanguineum Luerss., and E.

  18. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct

  19. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Hamilton, William L; Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-12-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  20. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and

  1. Meiotic analysis of the germoplasm of three medicinal species from Asteraceae family Análise meiótica do germoplasma de três espécies medicinais da família Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Olkoski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic characterization was carried out on 12 accessions from Aster squamatus (Spreng. Hieron., Pterocaulon polystachyum DC, and Solidago microglossa DC by studying their meiotic behavior and pollen viability. These species are from the Asteraceae family, native to Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and are important for medicinal use. Young inflorescences with four accessions of each species were collected, fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1, and conserved in ethanol 70% until use. The method used was that of squashing the anthers and coloring with acetic orcein 2%. Meiosis was regular in all accessions, presenting chromosomal associations preferentially bivalent, where n=10 was found for Aster squamatus and n=9 for Pterocaulon polystachyum, and Solidago microglossa. The studied accessions presented a Meiotic Index (MI that varied from 65% to 87% in Aster squamatus, 85% to 92% in Pterocaulon polystachyum, and 64% to 92% in Solidago microglossa, indicating meiotic stability, although irregularities appeared during the cellular division. The pollen viability estimative was high in all studied accessions. These results indicate that the studied species can be included in future studies of genetic breeding.Foi realizada a caracterização citogenética de doze acessos de Aster squamatus, Pterocaulon polystachyum e Solidago microglossa, espécies da família Asteraceae, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio do estudo do comportamento meiótico e da viabilidade polínica, que possuem grande importância para uso medicinal. Inflorescências jovens de quatro acessos de cada espécie foram fixadas em álcool-ácido acético (3:1 e conservadas em álcool 70% até o uso. O método utilizado foi o de esmagamento de anteras e a coloração com orceína acética 2%. A meiose foi regular em todos os acessos, apresentando associações cromossômicas preferencialmente em bivalentes, encontrando-se n=10 para Aster squamatus e n=9 para Pterocaulon

  2. An inhibitory switch derepressed by pbx, hox, and Meis/Prep1 partners regulates DNA-binding by pbx1 and E2a-pbx1 and is dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-pbx1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, K R; Knoepfler, P; McGrath, S; Kamps, M P

    1999-12-23

    The Pbx/Exd family of homeodomain (HD) proteins contribute to the transcriptional and developmental roles of other Hox and Meis/Prep1/Hth HD proteins through heterodimer formation. E2a-Pbx1 is an oncogenic derrivative of Pbx1 produced by the t(1;19) translocation in pediatric pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. E2a-Pbx1 heterodimerizes with Hox but not with Meis/Prep1 proteins, produces acute myeloid leukemia in mice, and blocks differentiation of cultured murine myeloid progenitors. Here, we characterize negative and positive regulatory sequences that flank the Pbx1 HD and determine their importance for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. A 25 residue predicted alpha helix preceding the Pbx1 HD bound the HD and prevented both its binding to DNA and its ability to heterodimerize with Hox proteins. Addition of 39 residues N-terminal to this inhibitory helix exposed a Pbx dimerization interface that orchestrated cooperative DNA-binding of E2a-Pbx1 and all Pbx proteins as homodimers and heterdimers. Sequences inhibiting DNA-binding and mediating Pbx dimerization coincided with those reported to have nuclear export function. An additional 103 residues N-terminal to the Pbx dimerization interface restored heterodimerization with Hox and Meis1/Prep1 proteins. This negative switch domain - comprised of the inhibitory helix and N-terminal regions required for its partner-mediated derepression - was dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. While stabilizing the heterodimer, the 310 helix C-terminal to the Pbx1 HD was also dispensable for the ability of E2a-Pbx1 to heterodimerize with Hox proteins and immortalize myeloblasts. Retention of myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1 proteins lacking all Pbx1 sequences N- or C-terminal to the HD indicates that Hox proteins, or a yet undefined factor that binds the Pbx1 HD and derepresses DNA-binding by the HD, cooperate with E2a-Pbx1 in myeloid immortalization.

  3. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  4. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  5. METODE VECTOR AUTOREGRESSIVE (VAR DALAM PERAMALAN JUMLAH WISATAWAN MANCANEGARA KE BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJOK GDE SAHITYAHUTTI RANANGGA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to model and to forecast the number of foreign tourists (Australia, China, and Japan arrival to Bali using vector autoregressive (VAR method. The estimated of VAR model obtained to forecast the number of foreign tourists to Bali is the sixth order VAR (VAR(6.We used multivariate least square method to estimate the VAR(6’s parameters.The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE in this model were as follows 6.8% in predicting the number of Australian tourists, 15.9% in predicting the number of Chinese tourists, and 9% in predicting the number of Japanese tourists. The prediction of Australian, Chinese, and Japanese tourists arrival to Bali for July 2017 to December 2017 tended  to experience up and downs that were not too high compared to the previous months.

  6. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyl var. tridactyla was found. Ampelomyces quisqualis affected hyphae, oidia, and young cleistothecia of P. mali. In contrast, in E. cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Po. tridactyle var. tridactyla, this hyperparasite colonized only hyphae and oidia. This paper for the first trime informs of A. quisqualis parasitizing on P. mali and Po. tridactyla var. tridactyla.

  7. MODEL NON LINIER GARCH (NGARCH UNTUK MENGESTIMASI NILAI VALUE at RISK (VaR PADA IHSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG TRY BAYU MAHENDRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In investment, risk measurement is important. One of risk measure is Value at Risk (VaR. There are many methods that can be used to estimate risk based on VaR framework. One of them Non Linier GARCH (NGARCH model. In this research, determination of VaR used NGARCH model. NGARCH model allowed for asymetric behaviour in the volatility such that “good news” or positive return and “bad news” or negative return. Based on calculations of VaR, the higher of the confidence level and the longer the investment period, the risk was greater. Determination of VaR using NGARCH model was less than GARCH model.

  8. [A survey on ecological environment of wild Adiantum reniforme var. sinense in Three Gorges Reservoir region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-de; Jia, Han; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating the ecological environment Adiantum reniforme var. sinense of in Three Gorges Reservoir region, and providing a reference basis for the protection of resources and artificial cultivation of A. reniforme var. sinense. By using the method of investigation, field survey and experimental analysis, the vegetation, natural geographical environment, climate, soil nutrients of A. reniforme var. sinense were studied and analyzed. The survey found that A. reniforme var. sinense distribution area reduced fast in Three Gorges region, a lot of distribution has diminished and vanished due to excessive digging, currently only in 3 towns of Wanzhou there exist 4 wild distribution areas. The growth of A. reniforme var. sinense needs an environment with low altitude, steep slope and thin soil, northeast slope, canopy height and warm and humid climate characteristics, and the soil in distribution has the characteristics of high organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium, and low available phosphorus content. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  10. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  11. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. © 2011 The Author(s)

  12. DGA-based VAR rescheduling for transmission loss reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi (India); Taylor, G.A. [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). Brunel Inst. of Power Systems; Reddy, J.B.V. [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Science and Technology; Naeem, M.H. [Multimedia Univ. (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Power losses in power transmission lines can be minimized by adjusting transformer taps and switchable VAR sources. Optimal power flow (OPF) is a static, nonlinear, multi-objective optimization challenge in which the optimal settings of control variables must be determined for minimizing the cost of generation, emissions, transmission losses and voltage and power flow deviations. OPF is important in power system operation because a small savings per hour can mean a large annual savings. This paper presented a method to reduce transmission power losses using a Differential Genetic Algorithm (DGA) for VAR rescheduling. The New England 39-bus power system was used as a test case. Power losses were minimized by changing the tap settings of various transformers and by varying the injected reactive power. The paper showed that certain buses in the system can improve the voltage profile and reduce transmission losses through reactive power injections from capacitor banks. In this study, minimum reactive power output of generators was maintained at zero to ensure that the generators did not draw reactive power. The DGA was shown to produce better results than the Conventional Genetic Algorithm in terms of power loss minimization. 12 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  13. Parasitosis intestinales en vendedores ambulantes de comida en Ciudad Bolívar, estado Bolívar, Venezuela | Intestinal parasitosis in food handlers from ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a sample of apparently healthy individuals who sold food in streets in Los Proceres of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State. Fecal samples were collected from 85 individuals, which were analyzed by means of direct examination, qualitative Kato, spontaneous sedimentation and Kinyoun staining. Each individual was filled a clinical epidemiological record and underwent anamnesis and oriented clinical examination. The assessed group comprised 50 women and 35 men with ages 14 to 57 years (mean 15.25 ± 4.21 years. From this group, 50 persons (58.82% were parasitized mainly by Blastocystis spp. (42.22%, Endolimax nana (11.11%, Entamoeba coli (6.67%, Giardia intestinalis (11.11%, Cryptosporidium spp. (11.11% and Cystoisospora belli (4.44%. There was no preference for gender or age (p > 0.05, and persons aged 20 to 25 years were the most affected group. Monoparasitism was observed in 56% (n = 28 cases and 44% (n = 22 of cases had other associated parasites, being the most frequent association between Blastocystis spp with Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among street food handlers.

  14. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  15. Physicochemical traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemane, Asgedom; Skjelvåg, Arne O

    2003-01-01

    Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) has high appreciation for its taste and obtains a premium price in local markets compared to Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). However, data on the physicochemical traits of Dekoko seeds were lacking. This paper reports on the physicochemical features of Dekoko and compares the results with that of Ater. Seed weight and seed volume were 36 and 30%, respectively, higher in Ater, while water absorption, percent seed swelling, and percent husk were higher in Dekoko. Cooking time was shorter for Dekoko than Ater seeds. Decortication reduced cooking time on average by 39 and 45 min in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Cotyledon flour of Dekoko contained 251 g crude protein, 19 g fat, 31.7 g total sugars, 370 g starch, and 130 g neutral detergent fiber per kilogram DM. These traits were significantly higher in Dekoko than in Ater, except for starch, which was higher in the latter. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine occurred in larger proportions, and collectively contributed about 39% to the total amino acids in both varieties. Lysine contributed about 7%, while sulfur containing amino acids constituted about 3.0 and 2.3% of the total amino acids in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Ca and Mg were higher in Ater, while P was higher in Dekoko. Based on the observations it was concluded that Dekoko is a suitable supplementary protein source for a cereal-based diet.

  16. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Marion; Hathaway, Marianne J; Cartwright, Megan M; Gose, Severin O; Narum, David L; Smith, Joseph D

    2009-06-29

    VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36%) were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  17. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narum David L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. Methods VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. Results From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36% were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. Conclusion These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  18. Europees procesrecht en fundamentele procedurele vereisten: de rol van artikel 6 EVRM ter invulling van de openbare orde toets onder het EEX : Een beschouwing naar aanleiding van England and Wales Court of Appeal (Civil Division 29 mei 2002 (Maronier v. Larmer))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.E. Kramer (Xandra)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn deze bijdrage wordt een uitspraak van het Engelse Court of Appeal (Maronier v. Larmer, 29 mei 2002) geanalyseerd waarin de erkenning en tenuitvoerlegging van een Neder-lands vonnis wordt geweigerd op grond van strijd met de procedurele openbare orde in de zin van art. 27 sub 1

  19. A Study of the Documents of the Supervisors of Jingdezhen Imperial Porcelain Factory of Ming and Qing Dynasties%明清时期景德镇御窑厂督陶官的文献考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁; 徐波

    2011-01-01

    在景德镇设官监造,宋时已有,元代还成立了专门的官办监陶机构"浮梁磁局"。但是宋元时期监陶官的主要职责是收取地方瓷器生产税,设置目的是为了增加国家财政收入,这与明清时期御窑厂督陶官有很大不同。明清时期,朝廷在景德镇建立御窑厂,专门烧造宫廷用瓷,并委派官员督陶。督陶官作为御窑厂的直接负责人,在御器生产过程中担当着至关重要的角色,对景德镇瓷业乃至中国瓷业的发展有着重要影响。本文通过收集和整理大量的文献史料,对明清时期景德镇御窑厂督陶官及其督陶情况进行了全面梳理和比较分析,使读者对其有一个全面清晰的认识和更为深入的理解,填补了陶瓷史中这部分研究的缺漏。%The practice of assigning porcelain production supervisors in Jingdezhen started from Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty saw the founding of a porcelain production watchdog, namely, Fuliang Porcelain Bureau. However, the major responsibility of supervisors of Song and Yuan Dynasties was mainly to collect porcelain production taxes so as to increase the national revenue, which differed greatly from that of supervisors of Ming and Qing dynasties. During Ming and Qing Dynasties, the courts decreed to establish the Impedal Porcelain Factory in Jingdezhen to produce porcelain exclusively for imperial use and to assign supervisors for porcelain production. As the direct managers of the Imperial Porcelain Factory, these supervisors played a vital role in the production of porcelain for imperial use and in the development of the porcelain industry of Jingdezhen and that of China at large. This paper has collected and summarized a great many of documents and made a thorough and comparative analysis of all the supervisors of Ming and Qing Dynasties and their supervision so as to present readers a full, clear and better understanding of this field and to fill the gap of this field in the study

  20. [Leishmaniasis transmission focus in El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Luis Alberto

    2006-10-01

    The epidemiological characteristics and the importance of the Lutzomyia species present in a leishmaniasis focus in the village El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Department of Bolivar, Colombia, are described. To obtain a preliminary assessment of leishmaniasis transmission in the village of El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar. Epidemiological data were analyzed and sandflies were collected with CDC traps and on protected human volunteers in the village of El Hobo. Sero prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was evaluated using indirect inmunofluorescence (IFAT). Nine Lutzomyia species were collected: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L. cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri. The species of greater importance based on their implication in the transmission of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis were L. gomezi, and L. evansi respectively. Specimens of L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri are reported for the first time for the Department of Bolivar. The sero prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was 36%. According to the epidemiological records, in 2002 the municipality of Carmen de Bolivar presented a 40% increase in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and an 80% increase in canine visceral leishmaniasis as compared to 2001, due to the outbreak in the village of El Hobo. The results indicate that the village of El Hobo is an area of potential risk for transmission of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

  1. A molecular epidemiological study of var gene diversity to characterize the reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in humans in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito.We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1% var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences.Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population exists.

  2. A Molecular Epidemiological Study of var Gene Diversity to Characterize the Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Smith, Terry-Ann; Peterson, Ingrid; Brown, Stuart M.; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Kortok, Moses M.; Marsh, Kevin; Daily, Johanna P.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Mboup, Souleymane; Day, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences. Conclusions/Significance Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population

  3. 通过韩半岛铁搭看明清时代江南的水田农业%Paddy Field Farming of the Jiangnan Region in the Ming and Qing Dynasties Seen from the Pitchfork from Korean Penninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔德卿

    2012-01-01

    Pitchfork, firstly appeari ng in Wangzhen Agriculture Books, was distributed around the southern region of the Korean peninsula since the 2nd century BC and from there went over to China before the Tang dynasty. This is far different in production technique from the pitchfork of China after the Yuan dynasty, and the production technique and the shape of the pitchfork of the Korean peninsula in those days are still continuing up to this time. There are multiple factors in the widespread distribution of pitchfork in Jiangnan re- gion. Before anything else, the change in social circumstances of the Ming and Qing dynasties decreased the household landholding area and increased the production of commercial crops and the chances for employed labor. It therefore provided for the conditions to supplement the loss from the failure to use cattle ploughing and to compensate the labor productivity of hoes with the mutually-aided farming. The paddy fields' strong clay soil also made it unsuitable to introduce the ploughs from Jiangdong. In the farming in Jiangnan of the Ming and Qing dynasties, as a result, the pitchfork came to establish itself as a main farming tool for the deep ploughing and heavy fertilizer.%铁搭是具有2—4个铁齿的耕地专用农具,是一种为江南水田的深耕起到决定性作用的代耕用具。本文论证铁搭在唐朝时期由韩半岛的济州岛传播到中国的过程。明清时代的铁搭可与江东犁媲美,它时于引领江南农业经济发展所起的实质性作用是功不可没的。而韩半岛南部则早在一世纪起就已出现铁搭,因为和汉魏王朝的交易活跃的原因,铁搭虽然有很早传来的可能性,但根据在北宋时期扬州的铁搭形态上猜测,比起三韩时代,三国时代(韩)即中国唐代之前传来的可能性更高。

  4. A novel virus-like particle based vaccine platform displaying the placental malaria antigen VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø

    2015-01-01

    , this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA. This study demonstrates that the described Avi-L1 VLP-platform may serve as a versatile system for facilitating optimal VLP......SA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however...

  5. iVAR: a program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series using vector autoregressive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces iVAR, an R program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series on the basis of vector autoregressive (VAR) models. We conducted a simulation study to compare iVAR with three methods for handling missing data: listwise deletion, imputation with sample means and variances, and multiple imputation ignoring time dependency. The results showed that iVAR produces better estimates for the cross-lagged coefficients than do the other three methods. We demonstrate the use of iVAR with an empirical example of time series electrodermal activity data and discuss the advantages and limitations of the program.

  6. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0 ± 28.3) and (225.0 ± 21.2) µg/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0 ± 2.0) µg/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0 ± 1.0) µg/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects.

  7. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  8. [Correlation between distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms and contents of steroidal saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wen-hua; Xiao, Guo-sheng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the varying pattern of the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus, was observed during the cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the correlations between number of rhizospheric microorganisms and the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were also studied. The results showed that the rhizospheric microorganism source of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was rich. The distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungus, actinomycetes, potassium-solubilizing bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, organic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) collected from different origin places existed significant difference (P the amount of actinomycetes > the amount of fungus. The medicinal quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was influenced by their habits, and the increase of cultivation years caused the obvious decrease of the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, the increase of cultivation years will cause the variation of the soil micro-ecology flora, and decrease the nutrient absorption and the utilization of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which will make the decrease of the medical quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  9. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  10. Phosphorylation of SU(VAR3-9 by the chromosomal kinase JIL-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Boeke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The histone methyltransferase SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role in the formation of heterochromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus. Several studies have shown that the formation of condensed chromatin is highly regulated during development, suggesting that SU(VAR3-9's activity is regulated as well. However, no mechanism by which this may be achieved has been reported so far. As we and others had shown previously that the N-terminus of SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role for its activity, we purified interaction partners from Drosophila embryo nuclear extract using as bait a GST fusion protein containing the SU(VAR3-9 N-terminus. Among several other proteins known to bind Su(VAR3-9 we isolated the chromosomal kinase JIL-1 as a strong interactor. We show that SU(VAR3-9 is a substrate for JIL-1 in vitro as well as in vivo and map the site of phosphorylation. These findings may provide a molecular explanation for the observed genetic interaction between SU(VAR3-9 and JIL-1.

  11. Sporozoite Route of Infection Influences In Vitro var Gene Transcription of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Controlled Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimonte, Sandra; Bruske, Ellen I; Hass, Johanna; Supan, Christian; Salazar, Carmen L; Held, Jana; Tschan, Serena; Esen, Meral; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Koch, Iris; Berger, Jürgen; Bachmann, Anna; Sim, Betty K L; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-15

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by the multicopy var gene family. Each parasite possesses about 60 var genes, and switching between active var loci results in antigenic variation. In the current study, the effect of mosquito and host passage on in vitro var gene transcription was investigated. Thirty malaria-naive individuals were inoculated by intradermal or intravenous injection with cryopreserved, isogenic NF54 P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) generated from 1 premosquito culture. Microscopic parasitemia developed in 22 individuals, and 21 in vitro cultures were established. The var gene transcript levels were determined in early and late postpatient cultures and in the premosquito culture. At the early time point, all cultures preferentially transcribed 8 subtelomeric var genes. Intradermal infections had higher var gene transcript levels than intravenous infections and a significantly longer intrahost replication time (P = .03). At the late time point, 9 subtelomeric and 8 central var genes were transcribed at the same levels in almost all cultures. Premosquito and late postpatient cultures transcribed the same subtelomeric and central var genes, except for var2csa  The duration of intrahost replication influences in vitro var gene transcript patterns. Differences between premosquito and postpatient cultures decrease with prolonged in vitro growth. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cloning of the Repertoire of Individual Plasmodium falciparum var Genes Using Transformation Associated Recombination (TAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christoph D.; Bühlmann, Tobias; Louis, Edward J.; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS) of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member. PMID:21408186

  13. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  14. BASIC ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES of Ammannia auriculata var. arenaria (LYTHRACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define some anatomical characteristics of Ammannia auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth Koehne (Lythraceae to ensure a proper identification of the species and prevent confusion with other plants. Roots, leaves and stems of the plants were fixed in Formalin-Aceto-Alcohol (FAA, stained with various dyes, examined under a microscope and their photos were taken. The microscopic investigations of the plant parts revealed that 1 the leaf anatomy showed partly mezophyte character, the stem and roots beared aquatic characters with a wide aeranchymatic cortex and 2 thick lignified secondary xylem tissue in the roots and stems were located outwards of the stele. The results were compared with those of similar studies.

  15. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  16. Citogenética de Guazuma ulmifolia var. Ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una metodología de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para obtener por vez primera el cariotipo somático de una población de Guazuma ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. El número cromosómico diploide 2n = 16 obtenido a partir de meristemos radiculares confirma recuentos anteriores. La fórmula cariotípica fue 14m + 2st con una ligera asimetría (T.F.% = 42,19. La longitud cromosómica total haploide fue de 11,65 µm con un intervalo cromosómico de 1,11 - 2,05 µm. Los organizadores nucleolares asociados a constricciones secundarias ubicados en el par 3 (m y el polimorfismo que exhibe el par 8 (st pueden ser empleados como marcadores citogenéticos en futuros estudios de otras especies y variedades del género.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferro, M.A.; Prina, A.R.; Moscone, E.A.; Kwasniewska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  18. Forecasting Macedonian Business Cycle Turning Points Using Qual Var Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the usefulness of leading indicators in business cycle research and forecast. Initially we test the predictive power of the economic sentiment indicator (ESI within a static probit model as a leading indicator, commonly perceived to be able to provide a reliable summary of the current economic conditions. We further proceed analyzing how well an extended set of indicators performs in forecasting turning points of the Macedonian business cycle by employing the Qual VAR approach of Dueker (2005. In continuation, we evaluate the quality of the selected indicators in pseudo-out-of-sample context. The results show that the use of survey-based indicators as a complement to macroeconomic data work satisfactory well in capturing the business cycle developments in Macedonia.

  19. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  20. Solidification Mapping of a Nickel Alloy 718 Laboratory VAR Ingot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Trevor J.; Taleff, Eric M.; Lopez, Felipe; Beaman, Joe; Williamson, Rodney

    The solidification microstructure of a laboratory-scale Nickel alloy 718 vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot was analyzed. The cylindrical, 210-mm-diameter ingot was sectioned along a plane bisecting it length-wise, and this mid-plane surface was ground and etched using Canada's reagent to reveal segregation contrast. Over 350 photographs were taken of the etched mid-plane surface and stitched together to form a single mosaic image. Image data in the resulting mosaic were processed using a variety of algorithms to extract quantities such as primary dendrite orientation, primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) as a function of location. These quantities were used to calculate pool shape and solidification rate during solidification using existing empirical relationships for Nickel Alloy 718. The details and outcomes of this approach, along with the resulting comparison to experimental processing conditions and computational models, are presented.

  1. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-10-23

    Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  2. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  3. Positive selection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with multiple var2csa-type PfEMP1 genes during the course of infection in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective...... advantage over parasites with a single var2csa gene. Accumulation of parasites with multiple copies of the var2csa gene during the course of pregnancy was also correlated with the development of antibodies involved in blocking VAR2CSA adhesion. The data suggest that multiplicity of var2csa-type genes...

  4. Occurrence of pathotypes of Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella (Jones Boerema in the Olsztyn district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The causal agents of leaves and pods spot-pot of peas and field peas in the Olsztyn district was the fungus Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Investigated isolates of P. medicaginis var. pinodella differed by macroscopic and microscopic features. From diseases leaves and pods of peas and field peas obtained also saprophytic fungi among which Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Stemphylium botryosum, Sordaria fimicola and mycelia sterilia were dominated. In the study on the identification and distribution of pathotypes of P. medicaginis var. pinodella six pathotypes were identified among which pathotype 3 were dominated. The identified pathotypes differed by macroscopic and microscopic features.

  5. Application of superconducting coils to VAR control in electric power systems: a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1979-11-01

    During the last eight years, static VAR-control systems with thyristor-controlled, room-temperature reactors have been used in electrical systems for voltage control and system stabilization. In this proposal, we describe a new static VAR-control system that uses an asymmetrically controlled Graetz bridge and a superconducting dc coil. Preliminary studies indicate that the proposed system will have lower overall losses and that its capital cost and electrical characteristics are comparable to those of a conventional system. Three- and four-year programs for developing the electronic circuitry and superconducting coils for VAR control, culminating in the installation and testing of an approx. 40-MVAR system, are proposed

  6. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes......, var1, var2csa and var3 are found conserved in most parasite genomes. The most severe forms of malaria disease are caused by parasites expressing a subset of antigenically conserved PfEMP1 variants. Thus the ubiquitous and conserved VAR3 PfEMP1 is of particular interest to the research field. Evidence...... of VAR3 expression on the infected erythrocyte surface has never been presented, and var3 genes have been proposed to be transcribed and expressed differently from the rest of the var gene family members. METHODS: In this study, parasites expressing VAR3 PfEMP1 were generated using anti-VAR3 antibodies...

  7. A rapid method for simultaneous determination of 52 marker compounds in Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Qi, Wen; Xu, Cong; Makino, Toshiaki; Yuan, Dan

    2014-11-01

    Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (XQLT) is a classical Chinese medicine formula. It is generally used for the treatment of common cold, bronchial asthma, and allergic rhinitis in Asia. In this study, a multicomponent quantification fingerprinting approach based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been developed for the analysis of compounds in XQLT in 14.5 min. A total of 52 compounds were identified by co-chromatography of sample extract with authentic standards and comparing the retention time, UV spectra, molecular ions and characteristic fragment ions with those of authentic standards, or tentatively identified by MS(E) determination along with Mass Fragment software. Moreover, the method was validated for the simultaneous quantification of 16 components in XQLT commercial products. The method is practical for comprehensive standardization of XQLT and holistic comparison of its commercial products from different manufacturers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa B.M.G. Spini

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these crosses, in the F2 generation, 612 plants with inflorescence like gaillon and 48 plants with inflorescence like cauliflower were obtained, in a proportion similar to 15:1, implying that 2 pairs of genes entered into formation of the cauliflower inflorescence type. In order to study flower color, 339 plants were analyzed: 274 presented white flowers and 65, yellow flowers, denoting that this caracter is determined by 1 pair of genes, white being dominant over yellow; white flowers had a slighly higher adaptive value in our population. The characteristic waxy leaf showed a proportion of 3 waxy plants for 1 not waxy, indicating the action of one pair of genes.A couve-flor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis é um vegetal anual e tem seu cultivo no Brasil limitado às regiões Sul e Sudeste, com pequena produção no Nordeste e Centro-Oeste. Uma variedade de couve da China, "kaai laan" ou "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produz sementes em altas temperaturas e, portanto, é apta a produzir sementes no Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Gaillon e couve-flor foram cruzados. Foram feitos 55 cruzamentos usando 10 plantas de gaillon como mãe e 4 plantas de couve-flor como doadores de pólen. Desses cruzamentos, na geração F2, 612 plantas com inflorescência tipo gaillon e 48 plantas com inflorescência tipo couve-flor foram obtidas, em proporção similar a 15:1, demonstrando que 2 pares de genes estão envolvidos na formação da inflorescência em couve

  9. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  10. ESTIMATING RISK ON THE CAPITAL MARKET WITH VaR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The two basic questions that every investor tries to answer before investment are questions about predicting return and risk. Risk and return are generally considered two positively correlated sizes, during the growth of risk it is expected increase of return to compensate the higher risk. The quantification of risk in the capital market represents the current topic since occurrence of securities. Together with estimated future returns it represents starting point of any investment. In this study it is described the history of the emergence of VaR methods, usefulness in assessing the risks of financial assets. Three main Value at Risk (VaR methodologies are decribed and explained in detail: historical method, parametric method and Monte Carlo method. After the theoretical review of VaR methods it is estimated risk of liquid stocks and portfolio from the Croatian capital market with historical and parametric VaR method, after which the results were compared and explained.

  11. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, Alexandra; Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  12. Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var Compensator (SSVC) ... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Journal Home ... The problems associated with the flow of reactive power in transmission and distribution lines are well known.

  13. Equisetum hyemale L. var. affine (Engelm.) A.A. Eaton in Schoorl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swolfs, Aart G.

    1996-01-01

    A giant form of the Northamerican Equisetum hyemale var. affine has been planted a decade ago near the coast, where it has naturalized since. It is suggested that other Northamerican introductions of this extremely variable taxon may have remained unnoticed.

  14. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  15. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens , var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA ( ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL , and trnL-F ) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx .

  16. Influence of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. cruenta) on mice leukocytes increase

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Jony

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beetroot is a flavonoid-containing Mediterranean plant used for food and medicinal purposes. Objectives: To determine the influence of Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract consumption in increasing albino mice leukocytes. Design: Experimental study. Setting: School N° 1182 bioterium. Biologic material: Twenty male Balb/c albino mice weighing 24 g average. Interventions: Two groups of ten mice each were formed; the experimental group received Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract at 250...

  17. Characterization of flavonoids in Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima by HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS n

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Min; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Liu, Ke-Di; Qiao, Xue; Li, Bei-Jia; Cheng, Jun; Feng, Jie; Guo, De-An; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima is a Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of gynecological diseases. An HPLC/DAD/ESI-MSn method was established for the rapid separation and characterization of bioactive flavonoids in M. nitida var. hirsutissima. A total of 32 flavonoids were detected, of which 14 compounds were unambiguously characterized by comparing their retention time, UV, and MS spectra with those of the reference standards, and the others were tentatively identified based o...

  18. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  19. Exact eigenstates and open-quotes trivialityclose quotes of λ(var-phi *var-phi)2 theory in the Feshbach-Villars formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darewych, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The complex scalar (Klein-Gordon) quantum field theory (QFT) with a λ(var-phi * var-phi) 2 interaction is considered in the Feshbach-Villars formulation. It is shown that exact few-particle eigenstates of the QFT Hamiltonian can be obtained. The resulting relativistic few-body equations correspond to Klein-Gordon particles interacting via delta-function, or open-quotes contact,close quotes potentials. Momentum-space solutions of the two-body equation yield a open-quotes trivialclose quotes unity S matrix. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  1. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  2. The effect of extract of Punica granatum var. pleniflora for treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanji, Shahin; Larki, Behrouz; Bakhtari, Azizollah

    2014-06-01

    Herbal drugs are considered alternative agents and have been used for several years around the world. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common problems recognized by dentists and skin specialists. This problem is characterized by recurring, painful, small oral mucosal ulcers with a round or oval aspect that mostly appear in keratinized mucosa, cheeks, and on the surface of the mouth under the tongue. In our experiment, the alcoholic and water extracts of Punica granatum var. pleniflora, P. granatum var. Sweet Alak, and P. granatum var. Saveh Black were tested on minor RAS. The study was carried out using the double-blind method. The study population consisted of 210 participants, of whom 69 were females (32%) and 141 were males (68%). In addition to checking several factors, the pain and the degree of the participant's satisfaction had been determined based on visual analog scale. Data analysis was done in the form of a nonparametric method using Kruskal-Wallis test and SPSS version 20 software. The results show that the alcoholic and water extracts of P. granatum var. pleniflora have a meaningful therapeutic effect on minor RAS. Results from the antioxidant activity and its relation to total phenolics show that P. granatum var. pleniflora and P. granatum var. Sweet Alak are rich in phenols. The water and alcoholic extracts of P. granatum varpleniflora decreased the entire time of complete treatment, and the treatment was meaningfully satisfactory for patients who participated in this experiment.

  3. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  4. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  5. Characterization of the antigenicity of Cpl1, a surface protein of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian-Piao; Liu, Ling-Li; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Candy C Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Guo, Yong-Hui; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Che, Xiao-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an important fungal pathogen. The capsule is a well established virulence factor and a target site for diagnostic tests. The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence. The protein product Cpl1 has been proposed to be a secreted protein, but the characteristics of this protein have not been reported. Here we sought to characterize Cpl1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cpl1 of C. neoformans var. neoformans and the Cpl1 orthologs identified in C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii formed a distinct cluster among related fungi; while the putative ortholog found in Trichosporon asahii was distantly related to the Cryptococcus cluster. We expressed Cpl1 abundantly as a secreted His-tagged protein in Pichia pastoris. The protein was used to immunize guinea pigs and rabbits for high titer mono-specific polyclonal antibody that was shown to be highly specific against the cell wall of C. neoformans var. neoformans and did not cross react with C. gattii, T. asahii, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and Penicillium spp. Using the anti-Cpl1 antibody, we detected Cpl1 protein in the fresh culture supernatant of C. neoformans var. neoformans and we showed by immunostaining that the Cpl1 protein was located on the surface. The Cpl1 protein is a specific surface protein of C. neoformans var. neoformans. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  6. Efficient transformation and expression of gfp gene in Valsa mali var. mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Gengwu; Wu, Shujing; Liu, Huixiang; Wang, Hongkai

    2015-01-01

    Valsa mali var. mali, the causal agent of valsa canker of apple, causes great loss of apple production in apple producing regions. The pathogenic mechanism of the pathogen has not been studied extensively, thus a suitable gene marker for pathogenic invasion analysis and a random insertion of T-DNA for mutants are desirable. In this paper, we reported the construction of a binary vector pKO1-HPH containing a positive selective gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph), a reporter gene gfp conferring green fluorescent protein, and an efficient protocol for V. mali var. mali transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A transformation efficiency up to about 75 transformants per 10(5) conidia was achieved when co-cultivation of V. mali var. mali and A. tumefaciens for 48 h in A. tumefaciens inductive medium agar plates. The insertions of hph gene and gfp gene into V. mali var. mali genome verified by polymerase chain reaction and southern blot analysis showed that 10 randomly-selected transformants exhibited a single, unique hybridization pattern. This is the first report of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of V. mali var mali carrying a 'reporter' gfp gene that stably and efficiently expressed in the transformed V. mali var. mali species.

  7. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  8. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2013-11-09

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects

  9. Chiasma failures and chromosome association in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1982-01-01

    In Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata (2n = 2x = 12), the most frequent meiotic configuration was the chain-of-12 chromosomes (36%) and the second most frequent was the ring-of-12 chromosomes (25.6%). All six possible two-chain situations and eleven of the twelve possible three-chain situations were observed. A maximum of five chains was observed in four cells. The size of chains ranged from on through twelve chromosomes. The mean number of chiasma failures was 1.36 +/- 0.07 per cell and 0.1133 per pair of chromosome arms. Because the observed frequencies of various configurations agree with the expected, which were calculated under the assumption that chiasma failure is equally likely at each of the twelve positions around the ring, it was concluded that chiasma failures occurred at random among the arm-positions. Due to the lengths of arm-pairs in the ring vary considerably, the randomness may mean that chiasma formation was restricted to small terminal regions on all chromosomes.

  10. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  11. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. birkoli leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-11-01

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D ( 1 H- 1 H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC 50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC 50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI 50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin ® as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI 50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  12. Foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, R B; Wang, S L

    1967-01-01

    An experimental investigation established the effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. globigii) from aqueous suspension by use of a cationic surfactant. For P. fluorescens, 5.0 mueq/ml of NaCl, KCl, Na(2)SO(4), K(2)SO(4), CaCl(2), CaSO(4), MgCl(2), or MgSO(4) produced increases in the cell concentration in the residual suspension (not carried into the foam) from 2.9 x 10(5) up to 1.6 x 10(6) to 2.8 x 10(7) cells per milliliter (initial suspensions contain from 3.3 x 10(7) to 4.8 x 10(7) cells per milliliter). The exceptional influence of magnesium was overcome by bringing the cells into contact first with the surfactant and then the salt. For B. subtilis, the presence of 5.0 mueq/ml of any of the eight salts increased the residual cell concentration by one order of magnitude from 1.2 x 10(4) to about 4.0 x 10(5) cells per milliliter. This occurred regardless of the sequence of contact as long as the surfactant contact period was sufficient. The presence of salts increased collapsed foam volumes with P. fluorescens and decreased collapsed foam volumes with B. subtilis.

  13. MORFOGÉNESIS IN VITRO DE Pseudotsuga menziesii VAR. glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Carrillo-Benítez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la respuesta morfogénica a partir de embriones cigóticos cultivados in vitro de semilla almacenada (un año de Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca recolectada en Tlaxcala. Las semillas fueron desinfestadas con detergente y H2O2 (3 % v/v durante 48 h en agitación a 50 rpm, cultivadas en el medio de Murashige y Skoog (1962 sin reguladores. La germinación ocurrió después de siete días y posteriormente subcultivados a un medio MS con 2,4-D (3 mg·L-1 y BA (1 mg·L-1. Con los callos obtenidos en un medio HS se evaluaron tres concentraciones de ABA para promover formación de estructuras embrionarias, presentándose el mejor tratamiento con concentración de 10.0 mg·L-1 (P<.0001. El mejor desarrollo de plántulas se presentó empleando un medio Murashige y Skoog (1962 con sacarosa al 6 %. Se usaron micorrizas para mejor adaptación de plántulas a suelo. No hubo formación de raíces.

  14. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Dianthus elegans var. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Kiymet; Sarikahya, Nazli Boke; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Kirmizigul, Suheyla

    2018-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Dianthus elegans var. elegans afforded two previously undescribed saponins, named dianosides M-N (1-2), together with four oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides (3-6). Their structures were elucidated as 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α, 28β-dioic acid (1) and 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α-oic acid, 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glycosyl ester (2) by chemical and extensive spectroscopic methods including IR, 1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Both of the saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against HEK-293, A-549 and HeLa human cancer cells using the MTT method. All compounds showed no substantial cytotoxic activity against tested cell lines. However, dianosides M-N and the n-butanol fraction exhibited considerable haemolysis in human erythrocyte cells. The immunomodulatory properties of dianosides M-N were also evaluated in activated whole blood cells by PMA plus ionomycin. Dianosides M-N increased IL-1β concentration significantly whereas the n-butanol fraction slightly augmented IL-1β secretion. All compounds did not change IL-2 and IFN-γ levels considerably.

  15. The R + var-epsilon R2 cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents the study of a model cosmology based on the R + var-epsilon R 2 gravitational Lagrangian. It may be roughly divided into two distinct parts. First, the classical inflationary scenario is developed. Then, the formalism of quantum cosmology is employed to determined initial conditions for the classical model. In the work on the classical model, the evolution equations for an isotropic and homogeneous universe are solved to exhibit both early-time inflation and a smooth transition to subsequent radiation-dominated behavior. Then perturbations on this isotropic background are evolved through the model to provide constraints on the model parameters from the observational limits on anisotropy today. In the work on the wave function, the two boundary conditions of Vilenkin and Hartle and Hawking are compared. The wave functions obtained are restricted to the initial edge of classical Lorentzian inflationary trajectories as distributions over initial conditions for the classical inflationary model. It is found that Vilenkin's wave function prefers the universe to undergo a great deal of inflation, whereas Hartle and Hawking's wave function prefers the universe to undergo little inflation. Finally, both boundary conditions are shown to require the inhomogeneous perturbative modes start out in their ground states

  16. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow.

  17. VAR control in distribution systems by using artificial intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkar, M.A. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia). School of Engineering and Science

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviewed artificial intelligence techniques used in VAR control systems. Reactive power controls in distribution systems were also reviewed. While artificial intelligence methods are widely used in power control systems, the techniques require extensive human knowledge bases and experiences in order to operate correctly. Expert systems use knowledge and interface procedures to solve problems that often require human expertise. Expert systems often cause knowledge bottlenecks as they are unable to learn or adopt to new situations. While neural networks possess learning ability, they are computationally expensive. However, test results in recent neural network studies have demonstrated that they work well in a variety of loading conditions. Fuzzy logic techniques are used to accurately represent the operational constraints of power systems. Fuzzy logic has an advantage over other artificial intelligence techniques as it is able to remedy uncertainties in data. Evolutionary computing algorithms use probabilistic transition rules which can search complicated data to determine optimal constraints and parameters. Over 95 per cent of all papers published on power systems use genetic algorithms. It was concluded that hybrid systems using various artificial intelligence techniques are now being used by researchers. 69 refs.

  18. Ortopnea y hemoptisis en un varón joven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Varón de 21 años visitado en urgencias por ortopnea, hemoptisis y disnea. La radiografía detectó redistribución en hemitórax izquierdo, el ecocardiograma una masa intraauricular izquierda que protruía en el ventrículo izquierdo a través de la válvula mitral, produciendo obstrucción crítica, y la tomografía computarizada (TC una masa que ocupaba la aurícula izquierda desde la vena pulmonar superior izquierda (Fig. 1. Por vía transeptal superior se reseca una masa multilobulada de 6 × 7 cm, con base de implantación en el techo auricular (Fig. 2, que se reconstruyó con pericardio autólogo. La histopatología confirma el diagnóstico de leiomiosarcoma de vena pulmonar muy diferenciado. Al paciente se le dio el alta a los siete días.

  19. la Universidad Simón Bolívar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brand Barajas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación es un estudio de caso sobre la identidad institucional de los docentes de la Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB desde la filosofía, ideario y misión, los cuales la definen como una institución de educación superior privada católica con carisma franciscano. La pregunta central es: ¿cómo se ha identificado el docente con la USB? Los propósitos parten de un análisis de los documentos de la universidad para explicitar la identidad y, a partir de ello, conocer el perfil del docente para explorar cómo se relaciona con la institución. Se tiene como supuesto que la falta de una definición explícita de la identidad institucional por parte de la USB obstaculiza la identificación del docente. El andamiaje teórico se basa en la construcción y reconstrucción colectiva de la identidad institucional.

  20. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical observation of Qing Court’s bone-setting manipulation on obso-lete ankle sprain%宫廷正骨手法治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿伍提·艾克木; 李俊海; 林留洋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effects of bone-setting work,a traditional practice for the Qing Court,on the obsolete ankle sprain.Methods 54 patients with obsolete ankle sprain were treated with the bone-setting manipulation.The therapeutic effects were assessed by comparing the ankle function scores of before and after treatment,according to Baird-Jackson ankle scoring system.Results After treatment,the scores of pain,stability,walking ability,running ability,working ability,range of motion,as well as the total scores were significantly higher than those of before treatment(P <0.05). The total effective rate was 1 00.0% with 46 cured (85.2%),7 markedly improved (1 3.0%),1 im-proved (1 .8%)and none of ineffective.According to Baird-Jackson criteria,36 cases got the scores of 96 to 1 00,1 4 ones got the scores of 91 to 95 and 4 cases got 81 to 90,with the excellent and good rate was 92.6%.Conclusion The efficiency of the Qing Court’s practice of bone-setting on obsolete ankle sprain was proved.%目的:观察宫廷正骨手法治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤的疗效。方法对54例陈旧性踝关节扭伤的患者采用宫廷正骨手法治疗。治疗前后对患者的踝关节功能情况按照贝尔德-杰克逊(Baird-Jackson)踝关节评分标准进行评分,比较治疗前、后踝关节功能评分,并评定临床疗效。结果治疗后踝关节疼痛、稳定性、行走能力、跑步能力、工作能力、活动范围方面的评分及踝关节总评分较治疗前均显著提高(P <0.05)。治疗后54例中痊愈46例(85.2%),显效7例(13.0%),有效1例(1.8%),无效0例(0%),总有效率为100.0%。治疗后根据 Baird-Jackson 踝关节评分标准评定疗效,优36例,良 1 4例,可 4例,差0例,优良率为92.6%。结论宫廷正骨手法治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤具有较好的疗效。

  2. Qing brick tea (QBT) aqueous extract protects monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice against metabolic syndrome and involves up-regulation Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenqi; Xiao, Changyi; Hu, Jun; Chen, Biaoxin; Wang, Chunyan; Cui, Bangping; Deng, Pengyi; Yang, Jian; Deng, Zhifang

    2018-04-18

    Qing brick tea (QBT), traditional and popular beverage for Chinese people, is an important post-fermentation dark tea. Our present study was performed to investigate the ameliorative effects of QBT aqueous extract on metabolic syndrome (Mets) in monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice and the potential mechanisms. Monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice were used to evaluate the anti-Mets effects of QBT. Content levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein carbonylation, antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) in the skeletal muscle were assessed by commercial kits, respectively. Western blot and Q-PCR were used to detect the expressions of Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway and downstream antioxidant factors. In addition, activity of AKT signaling and expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the skeletal muscle were investigated by western blot. QBT treatment limited gain of body weight, waistline and LEE index, improved insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, reduced lipid level in MSG mice. Content levels of MDA, ROS and protein carbonylation in skeletal muscle of QBT group were significantly improved compared to those of MSG mice. The antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD, GPx, CAT, and GR were increased in skeletal muscle of MSG mice intervened with QBT. After 20-week QBT treatment, Nrf2 signaling pathway and downstream antioxidant factors were both increased in the skeletal muscle. In addition, QBT treatment improved insulin signaling by preferentially augmenting AKT signaling, as well as increased the protein expression of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle. Our results showed that QBT intake was effective in protecting monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice against metabolic syndrome and involved in the Nrf2 signaling pathway in the skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2018

  3. Drosophila mutations at the mei-9 and mus(2)201 loci which block excision of thymine dimers also block induction of unscheluded DNA synthesis by methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, UV light and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusenbery, R.L.; McCormick, S.C.; Smith, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    The mei-9 and mus(2)201 mutants of Drosophila melanogaster were identified as mutagen-sensitive mutants on the basis of larval hypersensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate and characterized as excision repair-deficient on the basis of a greatly reduced capacity to excise thymine dimers from cellular DNA. The high degree of larval cytotoxicity observed with a variety of other chemical and physical agents indicated that these mutants may be unable to excise other important classes of DNA adducts. We have measured the ability of the single mutants and the double mutant combination mei-9;mus(2)201 to perform the resynthesis step in excision repair by means of an autoradiographic analysis of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced in a mixed population of primary cells in culture. The 3 strains exhibit no detectable UDS activity in response to applied doses of 1.5-6.0 mM methyl methanesulfonate, 1.0-4.5 nM N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or 10-40 J/m 2 254-nm UV light, dose ranges in which control cells exhibit a strong dose-dependent UDS response. The mei-9 and mei-9;mus(2)201 mutants also have no detectable UDS response to X-ray doses of 300-1.800 rad, whereas the mus(2)201 mutant exhibits a reduced, but dose-dependent, response over this range. These data correlate well with the degree of larval hypersensitivity of the strains and suggest that mutations at both loci block the excision repair of a wide variety of DNA damage prior to the resynthesis step. (orig.)

  4. Genomic resources and draft assemblies of the human and porcine varieties of scabies mites, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofiz, Ehtesham; Holt, Deborah C; Seemann, Torsten; Currie, Bart J; Fischer, Katja; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2016-06-02

    The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is a parasitic arachnid and cause of the infectious skin disease scabies in humans and mange in other animal species. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where secondary group A streptococcal and Staphylococcus aureus infections of scabies sores are thought to drive the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We sequenced the genome of two samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis obtained from unrelated patients with crusted scabies located in different parts of northern Australia using the Illumina HiSeq. We also sequenced samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from a pig model. Because of the small size of the scabies mite, these data are derived from pools of thousands of mites and are metagenomic, including host and microbiome DNA. We performed cleaning and de novo assembly and present Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis draft reference genomes. We have constructed a preliminary annotation of this reference comprising 13,226 putative coding sequences based on sequence similarity to known proteins. We have developed extensive genomic resources for the scabies mite, including reference genomes and a preliminary annotation.

  5. 滋水清肝饮联合针刺法治疗儿童抽动障碍的临床研究%Clinical research on Zi Shui Qing Gan Decoction combined with acupuncture treatment for tic disorder in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷二航

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of Zi Shui Qing Gan Decoction combined with acupuncture treatment for tic disorder in children.Methods:64 children with tic disorder were selected.They were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group with 32 cases in each.The patients in the control group were treated with acupuncture,while the patients in the observation group were treated with Zi Shui Qing Gan Decoction combined with acupuncture treatment.We compared the clinical efficacy of the two groups.Results:The effective rate of observation group of 93.8%was significantly higher than 78.1%in the control group(P < 0.05).Conclusion:The clinical effect of Zi Shui Qing Gan Decoction combined with acupuncture treatment for tic disorder in children was significant.%目的:探讨滋水清肝饮联合针刺法治疗儿童抽动障碍的临床疗效。方法:收治儿童抽动障碍患儿64例,随机分为对照组和观察组各32例,对照组采用针刺法治疗,观察组采用滋水清肝饮联合针刺法治疗,比较两组临床疗效。结果:观察组治疗有效率93.8%,明显高于对照组的78.1%(P<0.05)。治疗后,与对照组相比,观察组的YGTSS评分显著降低(P<0.05)。结论:滋水清肝饮联合针刺法治疗儿童抽动障碍的临床疗效显著。

  6. 从“辽燕旧界”到“华夷大界”——朝鲜人笔下的山海关意象%From "the Boundary Beween Liao and Yan" to "the Boundary Beween Hua and Yi" : Shanhaiguan as Described by Koreans in the Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄普基

    2012-01-01

    明朝时期,朝鲜人并无以山海关为界、关内外华夷不同的“分界”概念。但明清易代,政治局面的巨变促使朝鲜人大大地强化了华夷分界的意识,以致最终认定山海关为明晰的“界线”。具体而言,清时期朝鲜人对关内的种种自然、人文景观往往表现出令人惊叹的宽容和肯定;相反,对关外却持着过于苛刻的否定态度。然而,有趣的是,清时期朝鲜人对关内外分界意识逐渐强化之时,两地的文化差距实际上却在日益缩小。而且,关内永平府与关外辽西之间,其相似性甚至大于差异性。%The concept that Shanhaiguan was the boundary between Chinese and foreigners did not exist at all among Koreans in the Ming Dynasty, but the concept was greatly strengthened but great political changes during the Ming-Qing transition. Koreans was surprisingly tolerant and positive towards the natural and humane landscape inside the Pass, but was overly severe and negative towards the landscape outside the Pass in the Qing Dynasty. Interestingly, the cultural distinction between inside the Pass and outside the Pass was reduced day by day while the boundary conception was gradually being strengthened in the Qing Dynasty, even though the resemblance was more than the distinction between inside the Pass and outside the Pass.

  7. Trans-acting GC-rich non-coding RNA at var expression site modulates gene counting in malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizetti, Julien; Barcons-Simon, Anna; Scherf, Artur

    2016-11-16

    Monoallelic expression of the var multigene family enables immune evasion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its human host. At a given time only a single member of the 60-member var gene family is expressed at a discrete perinuclear region called the 'var expression site'. However, the mechanism of var gene counting remains ill-defined. We hypothesize that activation factors associating specifically with the expression site play a key role in this process. Here, we investigate the role of a GC-rich non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene family composed of 15 highly homologous members. GC-rich genes are positioned adjacent to var genes in chromosome-central gene clusters but are absent near subtelomeric var genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that GC-rich ncRNA localizes to the perinuclear expression site of central and subtelomeric var genes in trans. Importantly, overexpression of distinct GC-rich ncRNA members disrupts the gene counting process at the single cell level and results in activation of a specific subset of var genes in distinct clones. We identify the first trans-acting factor targeted to the elusive perinuclear var expression site and open up new avenues to investigate ncRNA function in antigenic variation of malaria and other protozoan pathogens. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Comparative ozone responses of cutleaf coneflowers (Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata, var. ampla) from Rocky Mountain and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Howard S; Johnson, Jennifer; Kohut, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. digitata) is native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and an ozone bioindicator species. Variety ampla, whose ozone sensitivity is less well known, is native to Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). In the early 2000s, researchers found putative ozone symptoms on var. ampla and rhizomes were sent to Appalachian State University to verify that the symptoms were the result of ozone exposure. In 2011, potted plants were exposed to ambient ozone from May to August. These same plants were grown in open-top chambers (OTCs) in 2012 and 2013, and exposed to charcoal-filtered (CF), non-filtered (NF), elevated ozone (EO), NF+50ppb in 2012 for 47days and NF+30/NF+50ppb ozone in 2013 for 36 and 36days, respectively. Ozone symptoms similar to those found in ROMO (blue-black adaxial stippling) were reproduced both in ambient air and in the OTCs. Both varieties exhibited foliar injury in the OTCs in an exposure-dependent manner, verifying that symptoms resulted from ozone exposure. In two of the three study years, var. digitata appeared more sensitive than var. ampla. Exposure to EO caused reductions in ambient photosynthetic rate (A) and stomatal conductance (g s ) for both varieties. Light response curves indicated that ozone reduced A, g s , and the apparent quantum yield while it increased the light compensation point. In CF air, var. ampla had higher light saturated A (18.2±1.04 vs 11.6±0.37μmolm -2 s -1 ), higher light saturation (1833±166.7 vs 1108±141.7μmolm -2 s -1 ), and lower Ci/Ca ratio (0.67±0.01 vs 0.77±0.01) than var. digitata. Coneflowers in both Parks are adversely affected by exposure to ambient ozone and if ozone concentrations increase in the Rocky Mountains, greater amounts of injury on var. ampla can be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of SABATH methyltransferase in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Qin, Shuang-Shuang; Zeng, Xiang-Mei; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    To clone SABATH methyltransferase (rLjSABATHMT) gene in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, and compare the gene expression and intron sequence of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous in L. japonica with L. japonica var. chinensis. It provide a basis for gene regulate the formation of L. japonica floral scents. The cDNA and genome sequences of LjSABATHMT from L. japonica var. chinensis were cloned according to the gene fragments in cDNA library. The LjSABATHMT protein was characterized by bioinformatics analysis. SABATH family phylogenetic tree were built by MEGA 5.0. The transcripted level of SABATHMT orthologous were analyzed in different organs and different flower periods of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis using RT-PCR analysis. Intron sequences of SABATHMT orthologous were also analyzied. The cDNA of LjSABATHMT was 1 251 bp, had a complete coding frame with 365 amino acids. The protein had the conservative SABATHMT domain, and phylogenetic tree showed that it may be a salicylic acid/benzoic acid methyltransferase. Higher expression of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous was found in flower. The intron sequence of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis had rich polymorphism, and two SNP are unique genotype of L. japonica var. chinensis. The motif elements in two orthologous genes were significant differences. The intron difference of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous could be inducing to difference of gene expression between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. These results will provide important base on regulating active compounds of L. japonica.

  10. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, David C; Craig, John C; Raheem, K Saki

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications.

  11. Mutations at the mei-41, mus(1)101, mus(1)103, mus(2)205 and mus(3)310 loci of Drosophila exhibit differential UDS responses with different DNA-damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusenbery, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    5 mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster, reported to perform normal or only slightly reduced excision repair of UV damage, were examined by an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. 2 mutants, classified as completely or partially proficient for both excision and postreplication repair of UV damage, mus(1)103 and mus(2)205, were found to give positive UDS responses only for UV damage. These mutants exhibit no measurable UDS activity following DNA damage by several different alkylating agents and X-rays. 3 mutants, classified as having no defect in excision repair, but measurable defects in postreplication repair of UV damage, exhibit 3 different response patterns. The mutant mei-41 exhibits a highly positive UDS response following damage by all agents, consistent with its prior classification as excision-repair-proficient, but postreplication-repair-deficient for UV damage. The mutant mus(1)101, however, exhibits a strong positive UDS response following only UV damage and appears to be blocked in the excision repair of damage produced by both alkylating agents and X-irradiation. Finally, mus(3)310 exhibits no UDS response to alkylation, X-ray or UV damage. This is not consistent with its previous classification. Results obtained w0272the qualitative in vitro UDS assay are entirely consistent with the results from two separate in vivo measures of excision repair deficiency followign DNA damage, larval hypersensitivity to killing and hypermutability in the sex-linked recessive lethal test. (Auth.)

  12. El complejo sinaptonémico en conejo cariotipo meiótico obtenido a partir de complejos sinaptonémicos en microesparcidos de espermatocitos paquiténicos

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    Juan José Filgueira D.

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Espermatocitos de conejo, fueron procesados mediante una técnica modificada de microesparcidos, que contribuyó a aumentar el conocimiento sobre el Complejo Sinaptonemico (CS y la sinapsis meiótica de los cromosomas del conejo. Los núcleos paquiténicos en microesparcidos, mostraron 22 Complejos inaptonémicos completamente formados que permitieron clasificarlos de acuerdo a la posición del centrómero; en los 22 grupos centroméricos, se determinaron las longitudes totales de los Complejos Sinaptonémicos, así como las correspondientes longitudes de los brazos de los bivalentes, para realizar un Idiograma. Los Complejos Sinaptonémicos (CS, aparecieron con restos de membrana nuclear en sus extremos y tres bivalentes presentaron residuos del nucleolo. El proceso de microesparcido fue seguido por microscopia óptica y se observe, como la técnica desarrollada para obtener los microesparcidos Hamada “de gota pendiente” aumentó la densidad de CSs por unidad de área. Las observaciones de los microesparcidos en grillas a traves del microscopio electrónico fueron corroboradas por observaciones de microesparcidos en placa, teñidos con plata, para microscopia de luz.

  13. Alastrim, varíola é? Is allastrim small pox?

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    Luiz Antonio Teixeira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma controvérsia científica havida em São Paulo entre 1910 e 1913, que opôs dois destacados médicos da cidade: Antonio Carini, diretor do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, e Emílio Ribas, diretor do Serviço Sanitário. A questão em jogo era a classificação de uma doença que reinava no estado. Para Carini tratava-se de varíola, para Ribas era uma entidade mórbida chamada de alastrim. A polêmica teve início na Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia e, posteriormente, migrou para outros fóruns, incorporando novos personagens. A apresentação e discussão dessa controvérsia objetiva contribuiu para a compreensão do processo de construção e estabilização de um consenso científico no campo das ciências biomédicas.Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of São Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emílio Ribas, director of the Serviço Sanitário, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  14. [Micromorphology of pejibaye leaflets Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae) var. diamonds-10].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chacón, Ethel; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Rodríguez-Arrieta, Alexander; Gómez-Alpízar, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Bactris gasipaes is widely cultivated for the consumption of palm hearts and fruits. The present work describes the micro morphological characteristics of leaflets from adult plants of B. gasipaes, thornless variety Diamantes-10, collected in the Diamantes Experimental Station in Guápiles, Costa Rica. We collected 25 leaflets and analyses were performed with a combination of microscopy techniques: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study their structure. Our results showed that leaflets have abundant epicuticular wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Analyses from the epidermis indicated that it is composed of isodiametric cells, and it is also evident that hypodermis cells have rectangular shape and are larger than the other epidermal cells. We observed stomata on both surfaces, but they were more abundant in the abaxial surface. On the other hand, the epidermis showed the presence of trichomes with three different morphologies. In the parenchyma, cells are large and not well defined, and we observed the presence of astroesclereids, and compact groups of fiber bundles between parenchyma cells. The central vein has several vascular bundles, arranged in a continuous manner, and they are surrounded by sclerotic tissue; some of these fibers presented live protoplasts. All minor veins showed the same anatomy as the central vein. In these veins, the vessel elements of protoxylem and metaxylem showed scalariform ornaments on their walls. Phloem is located towards the adaxial surface of the vein and we observed sieve and companion cells surrounded by fibers and parenchyma cells. The companion cells presented branched plasmodesmata attached to a sieve element, and in these elements we found protein bodies called P-protein. The main anatomical difference in the leaflets of the var. Diamantes-10, compared to the other varieties of B. gasipaes K, is the lack of thorns; the other morphological features seem to be conserved.

  15. Chemical Constituents from Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula

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    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening program of Saudi plants for their potential biological activity, the methanolic extract of Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula as well as its different fractions were tested for its possible cytoxicity in prostate cancer (PC3 and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines using the MTT assay. In the present study, three spirostan saponins and one flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the active n-butanol fraction through a bio-guided fractionation approach. Two new saponin glycosides were identified as 23-β-D-glucopyranosyl (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and (25R-spirost-5-en-3-ol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3. In addition, two known compounds were also isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6 β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their MS, one dimensional and extensive two dimensional NMR spectral data. Among the isolated metabolites, compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity in both PC3 and HT29 cell lines with an IC 50 values of 14.8 and 19.5 m g/mL, respectively.

  16. Inheritance of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L R A; Rodrigues, R; Pimenta, S; Correa, J W S; Araújo, M S B; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P

    2017-04-20

    Since 2008, Brazil is the largest consumer of agrochemicals, which increases production costs and risks of agricultural products, environment, and farmers' contamination. Sweet pepper, which is one of the main consumed vegetables in the country, is on top of the list of the most sprayed crops. The bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp, is one of the most damaging diseases of pepper crops. Genetic resistant consists of a suitable way of disease control, but development of durable resistant cultivars as well as understanding of plant-bacterium interaction is being a challenge for plant breeders and pathologists worldwide. Inheritance of disease resistance is often variable, depending on genetic background of the parents. The knowledge of the genetic base controlling such resistance is the first step in a breeding program aiming to develop new genotypes, bringing together resistance and other superior agronomic traits. This study reports the genetic basis of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum using mean generation analysis from crosses between accessions UENF 2285 (susceptible) and UENF 1381 (resistant). The plants of each generation were grown in a greenhouse and leaflets were inoculated with bacterial strain ENA 4135 at 10 5 CFU/mL in 1.0 cm 2 of the mesophyll. Evaluations were performed using a scoring scale whose grades ranged from 1.0 (resistant) to 5.0 (susceptible), depending on symptom manifestation. Genetic control of bacterial spot has a quantitative aspect, with higher additive effect. The quantitative analysis showed that five genes were the minimum number controlling bacterial spot resistance. Additive effect was higher (6.06) than dominant (3.31) and explained 86.36% of total variation.

  17. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz dan Mean Absolute Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agus Sartono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952 used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991 introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attempt to assess the VaR of two portfolios using delta normal method and historical simulation. We use the secondary data from the Jakarta Stock Exchange – LQ45 during 2003. We find that there is a weak-positive correlation between deviation standard and return in both portfolios. The VaR nolmal delta based on mean absolute deviation method eventually is higher than the VaR normal delta based on mean variance method. However, based on the historical simulation the VaR of two methods is statistically insignificant. Thus, the deviation standard is sufficient measures of portfolio risk.Keywords: optimalisasi portofolio, mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, value-at-risk, metode delta normal, metode simulasi historis

  18. Population genomics of the immune evasion (var genes of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa E Barry

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Var genes encode the major surface antigen (PfEMP1 of the blood stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Differential expression of up to 60 diverse var genes in each parasite genome underlies immune evasion. We compared the diversity of the DBLalpha domain of var genes sampled from 30 parasite isolates from a malaria endemic area of Papua New Guinea (PNG and 59 from widespread geographic origins (global. Overall, we obtained over 8,000 quality-controlled DBLalpha sequences. Within our sampling frame, the global population had a total of 895 distinct DBLalpha "types" and negligible overlap among repertoires. This indicated that var gene diversity on a global scale is so immense that many genomes would need to be sequenced to capture its true extent. In contrast, we found a much lower diversity in PNG of 185 DBLalpha types, with an average of approximately 7% overlap among repertoires. While we identify marked geographic structuring, nearly 40% of types identified in PNG were also found in samples from different countries showing a cosmopolitan distribution for much of the diversity. We also present evidence to suggest that recombination plays a key role in maintaining the unprecedented levels of polymorphism found in these immune evasion genes. This population genomic framework provides a cost effective molecular epidemiological tool to rapidly explore the geographic diversity of var genes.

  19. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  20. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  1. PERHITUNGAN VaR PORTOFOLIO SAHAM MENGGUNAKAN DATA HISTORIS DAN DATA SIMULASI MONTE CARLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAYAN ARTHINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is the maximum potential loss on a portfolio based on the probability at a certain time.  In this research, portfolio VaR values calculated from historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data. Historical data is processed so as to obtain stock returns, variance, correlation coefficient, and variance-covariance matrix, then the method of Markowitz sought proportion of each stock fund, and portfolio risk and return portfolio. The data was then simulated by Monte Carlo simulation, Exact Monte Carlo Simulation and Expected Monte Carlo Simulation. Exact Monte Carlo simulation have same returns and standard deviation  with historical data, while the Expected Monte Carlo Simulation satistic calculation similar to historical data. The results of this research is the portfolio VaR  with time horizon T=1, T=10, T=22 and the confidence level of 95 %, values obtained VaR between historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data with the method exact and expected. Value of VaR from both Monte Carlo simulation is greater than VaR historical data.

  2. Value at risk (VaR in uncertainty: Analysis with parametric method and black & scholes simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Banda Ortiz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available VaR is the most accepted risk measure worldwide and the leading reference in any risk management assessment. However, its methodology has important limitations which makes it unreliable in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. For this reason, the aim of this work is to test the VaR accuracy when is employed in contexts of volatility, for which we compare the VaR outcomes in scenarios of both stability and uncertainty, using the parametric method and a historical simulation based on data generated with the Black & Scholes model. VaR main objective is the prediction of the highest expected loss for any given portfolio, but even when it is considered a useful tool for risk management under conditions of markets stability, we found that it is substantially inaccurate in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. In addition, we found that the Black & Scholes simulations lead to underestimate the expected losses, in comparison with the parametric method and we also found that those disparities increase substantially in times of crisis. In the first section of this work we present a brief context of risk management in finance. In section II we present the existent literature relative to the VaR concept, its methods and applications. In section III we describe the methodology and assumptions used in this work. Section IV is dedicated to expose the findings. And finally, in Section V we present our conclusions.

  3. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  4. Testing popular VaR models in EU new member and candidate states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of allowing banks to calculate their capital requirement based on their internal VaR models, and the impact of regulation changes on banks in transitional countries has not been well studied. This paper examines whether VaR models that are created and suited for developed markets apply to the volatile stock markets of EU new member and candidate states (Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Turkey. Nine popular VaR models are tested on five stock indexes from EU new member and candidate states. Backtesting results show that VaR models commonly used in developed stock markets are not well suited for measuring market risk in these markets. Presented findings bear very important implications that have to be addressed by regulators and risk practitioners operating in EU new member andcandidate states. Risk managers have to start thinking outside the frames set by their parent companies or else investors present in these markets may find themselves in serious trouble, dealing with losses that they have not been expecting. National regulators have to take into consideration that simplistic VaR models that are widely used in some developed countries are not well suited for these illiquid and developing stock markets.

  5. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eGardiner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  6. Evidence of strain structure in Plasmodium falciparum var gene repertoires in children from Gabon, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Karen P; Artzy-Randrup, Yael; Tiedje, Kathryn E; Rougeron, Virginie; Chen, Donald S; Rask, Thomas S; Rorick, Mary M; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Luty, Adrian J F; Pascual, Mercedes

    2017-05-16

    Existing theory on competition for hosts between pathogen strains has proposed that immune selection can lead to the maintenance of strain structure consisting of discrete, weakly overlapping antigenic repertoires. This prediction of strain theory has conceptual overlap with fundamental ideas in ecology on niche partitioning and limiting similarity between coexisting species in an ecosystem, which oppose the hypothesis of neutral coexistence. For Plasmodium falciparum , strain theory has been specifically proposed in relation to the major surface antigen of the blood stage, known as Pf EMP1 and encoded by the multicopy multigene family known as the var genes. Deep sampling of the DBLα domain of var genes in the local population of Bakoumba, West Africa, was completed to define whether patterns of repertoire overlap support a role of immune selection under the opposing force of high outcrossing, a characteristic of areas of intense malaria transmission. Using a 454 high-throughput sequencing protocol, we report extremely high diversity of the DBLα domain and a large parasite population with DBLα repertoires structured into nonrandom patterns of overlap. Such population structure, significant for the high diversity of var genes that compose it at a local level, supports the existence of "strains" characterized by distinct var gene repertoires. Nonneutral, frequency-dependent competition would be at play and could underlie these patterns. With a computational experiment that simulates an intervention similar to mass drug administration, we argue that the observed repertoire structure matters for the antigenic var diversity of the parasite population remaining after intervention.

  7. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of SU(VAR)3-9 distribution in chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, Daniil A; Laktionov, Petr P; Posukh, Olga V; Belyakin, Stepan N; Koryakov, Dmitry E

    2018-03-01

    Histone modifications represent one of the key factors contributing to proper genome regulation. One of histone modifications involved in gene silencing is methylation of H3K9 residue. Present in the chromosomes across different eukaryotes, this epigenetic mark is controlled by SU(VAR)3-9 and its orthologs. Despite SU(VAR)3-9 was discovered over two decades ago, little is known about the details of its chromosomal distribution pattern. To fill in this gap, we used DamID-seq approach and obtained high-resolution genome-wide profiles for SU(VAR)3-9 in two somatic (salivary glands and brain ganglia) and two germline (ovarian nurse cells and testes) tissues of Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of tissue and developmental expression of SU(VAR)3-9-bound genes indicates that in the somatic tissues tested, as well as in the ovarian nurse cells, SU(VAR)3-9 tends to associate with transcriptionally silent genes. In contrast, in the testes, SU(VAR)3-9 shows preferential association with testis-specific genes, and its binding appears dynamic during spermatogenesis. In somatic cells, the mere presence/absence of SU(VAR)3-9 binding correlates with lower/higher expression. No such correlation is found in the male germline. Interestingly, transcription units in piRNA clusters (particularly flanks thereof) are frequently targeted by SU(VAR)3-9, and Su(var)3-9 mutation affects the expression of select piRNA species. Our analyses suggest a context-dependent role of SU(VAR)3-9. In euchromatin, SU(VAR)3-9 may serve to fine-tune the expression of individual genes, whereas in heterochromatin, chromosome 4, and piRNA clusters, it may act more broadly over large chromatin domains.

  9. Effect of the irradiation on Salmonella enteretidis var. typhimurium with gamma rays from 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.; Norberg, A.N.; Norberg, J.B.M.; Santos Souza, R.C. dos; Silva Tavares, P.R. da

    1988-01-01

    The use of ionizinf radiation to the destruction of microrganisms responsible for food deterioration, and productive of feeding toxinfections constitute their usefulness for actually peaceful goals of nuclear energy. The feeding toxinfections are, among us, produced in their most part by Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurim. One hundred nineteen samples of milk containing about 150.000 bacteria per ml, by means doses ranging from 100 to 1.100 gy, two samples of surviving bacteria were again irradiated by doses up to 2.5000 Gy. The bacteria not previously irradiated were throughly killed by means of doses of 1.100 Gy. Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium was inactivated by means of 1.200 and 1.900 Gy doses. It was concluded that 60-Cobalt gamma radiation minimal lethal dose to Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium is 1.200 Gy; the re-irradiation to the survivors prompts the forthcoming of more resistant germs. (author) [pt

  10. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early...... in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose...... of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low...

  11. Tamarix arborea var. arborea and Tamarix parviflora: Two species valued for their adaptability to stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisafi, Francesca; Oddo, Elisabetta; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Inzerillo, Simone; Russo, Gianni; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.

  12. Application of static var compensator on large synchronous motors based on linear optimization control design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, J.; Fath Abadi, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of static var compensators, on an electrical distribution network containing two large synchronous motors, one of which is excited via a three-phase thyristor bridge rectifier. The second machine is excited via a diode bridge rectifier. Based on linear optimization control, the measurable feedback signals are applied to the control system loops of static var compensators and the excitation control loop of the first synchronous motor. The phase equations method was used to develop a computer program to model the distribution network. Computer results were obtained to demonstrate the system performance for some abnormal modes of operation. These results show that employing static var compensators based on the linear optimization control design for electrical distribution networks containing large synchronous motors is beneficial and may be considered a first stage of the system design

  13. The Burr X Pareto Distribution: Properties, Applications and VaR Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ç. Korkmaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new three-parameter Pareto distribution is introduced and studied. We discuss various mathematical and statistical properties of the new model. Some estimation methods of the model parameters are performed. Moreover, the peaks-over-threshold method is used to estimate Value-at-Risk (VaR by means of the proposed distribution. We compare the distribution with a few other models to show its versatility in modelling data with heavy tails. VaR estimation with the Burr X Pareto distribution is presented using time series data, and the new model could be considered as an alternative VaR model against the generalized Pareto model for financial institutions.

  14. INDUCING RESISTANCE IN COTTON AGAINST COLLETOTRICHUM GOSSYPII VAR. CEPHALOSPORIOIDES WITH ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, baccharis (Baccharis trimera, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, basil (Ocimum basilicum and eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora in inducing resistance in cotton plants against C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. The inductive effect of the essential oils was evaluated in plants growing in pots in the environment, which were treated with 1% essential oil at 47 days of age. 24 hours after elicitor treatment the plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.5 x 105 conidia mL-1 of C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. Five evaluations were performed disease and calculated the area under the disease progress curve. All essential oils showed potential for inducing resistance against cotton C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides.

  15. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  16. Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nian-Hui; Xu, Yu-Lan; Wang, Da-Wei; Chen, Shi; Li, Gen-Qian

    2017-02-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae), a species native to southwestern China, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure in order to provide information for the conservation and management of this species. Using next-generation sequencing, a total of 2349 putative simple sequence repeat primer pairs were designed. Eighteen polymorphic markers in 60 individuals belonging to four populations of P. kesiya var. langbianensis were identified and characterized with two to 11 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.800 and 0.000 to 0.840, respectively. Each of these loci cross-amplified in the closely related species P. massoniana , P. densata , P. tabuliformis , and P. yunnanensis , with one to seven alleles per locus. The new markers are promising tools to study the population genetics of P. kesiya var. langbianensis and related species.

  17. Dynamics of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G response in a cohort of senegalese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, N G; Salanti, A; Le-Hesran, J-Y

    2006-01-01

    demonstrated that a single P. falciparum infection was able to trigger a VAR2CSA-specific antibody response. Among women with infected placentas, women with high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels at enrollment were more likely to present with a past infection than with an acute/chronic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VAR2...... (VSAPAM). Several studies have shown that 1 var gene, var2csa, is transcribed at high levels and expressed in CSA-binding Plasmodium falciparum parasites. METHODS: Plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G (IgG) in Senegalese women were measured during pregnancy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay......, using 3 recombinant proteins representing 3 domains of the var2csa gene product. RESULTS: The 3 recombinant proteins were specifically recognized by plasma from pregnant women but not by control plasma. A parity-dependent recognition pattern was observed with 2 of the 3 VAR2CSA antigens. A kinetic study...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  19. Several domains from VAR2CSA can induce Plasmodium falciparum adhesion-blocking antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanti, Ali; Resende, Mafalda; Ditlev, Sisse B

    2010-01-01

    . In this study, it is demonstrated that other domains of VAR2CSA also can induce antibodies with inhibitory activity. METHODS: All VAR2CSA domains from the 3D7 and HB3 parasites were produced in Baculovirus-transfected insect cells. Groups of three rats per protein were immunized and anti-sera were tested...

  20. [Effect of Water Extracts from Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus on It's Seed Germination and Physiological Characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Duo-yong; Fu, Xue-yan; Rong, Jia-wang; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Distilled water(CK), water extracts of rhizosphere soil(50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL) were applied to test their effect on early growth and physiological characteristics of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. The water extracts from rhizospher soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly increased seedling emergence rate, root length and vigor index of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling when at the concentration of 100 mg/mL or below, however,there was no significant effect at 200 mg/mL or higher. The water extracts from rhizosphere soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly reduced the SOD activity in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling at 400 mg/mL and POD activity at 200 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL,while significantly increased the MDA content. Water extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus rhizosphere soil significantly affected Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth in a concentration-dependent manner, generally, low concentrations increased the SOD and POD activity which improved seed germination and seedling growth, while high concentrations caused cell membrane damage of the seedling.

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Brassica rapa var. peruviridis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Brassica rapa var. peruviridis 名詞... 一般 * * * * コマツナ コマツナ コマツナ Thesaurus2015 200906099324987960 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Brassica rapa var . peruviridis

  2. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P var. (P var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  3. Erasing the Epigenetic Memory and Beginning to Switch—The Onset of Antigenic Switching of var Genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastman, Yair; Noble, Robert; Recker, Mario; Dzikowski, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is regulated by transcriptional switches among members of the var gene family, each expressed in a mutually exclusive manner and encoding a different variant of the surface antigens collectively named PfEMP1. Antigenic switching starts when the first merozoites egress from the liver and begin their asexual proliferation within red blood cells. By erasing the epigenetic memory we created parasites with no var background, similar to merozoites that egress from the liver where no var gene is expressed. Creating a null-var background enabled us to investigate the onset of antigenic switches at the early phase of infection. At the onset of switching, var transcription pattern is heterogeneous with numerous genes transcribed at low levels including upsA vars, a subtype that was implicated in severe malaria, which are rarely activated in growing cultures. Analysis of subsequent in vitro switches shows that the probability of a gene to turn on or off is not associated with its chromosomal position or promoter type per se but on intrinsic properties of each gene. We concluded that var switching is determined by gene specific associated switch rates rather than general promoter type or locus associated switch rates. In addition, we show that fine tuned reduction in var transcription increases their switch rate, indicating that transcriptional perturbation can alter antigenic switching. PMID:22461905

  4. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  5. Potential for wind extraction from 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplotnik, Žiga; Žagar, Nedjeljka

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the potential of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) to retrieve the unobserved wind field from observations of atmospheric tracers and the mass field through internal model dynamics and the multivariate relationships in the background-error term for 4D-Var. The presence of non-linear moist dynamics makes the wind retrieval from tracers very difficult. On the other hand, it has been shown that moisture observations strongly influence both tropical and mid-latitude wind field in 4D-Var. We present an intermediate complexity model that describes nonlinear interactions between the wind, temperature, aerosols and moisture including their sinks and sources in the framework of the so-called first baroclinic mode atmosphere envisaged by A. Gill. Aerosol physical processes, which are included in the model, are the non-linear advection, diffusion and sources and sinks that exist as dry and wet deposition and diffusion. Precipitation is parametrized according to the Betts-Miller scheme. The control vector for 4D-Var includes aerosols, moisture and the three dynamical variables. The former is analysed univariately whereas wind field and mass field are analysed in a multivariate fashion taking into account quasi-geostrophic and unbalanced dynamics. The OSSE type of studies are performed for the tropical region to assess the ability of 4D-Var to extract wind-field information from the time series of observations of tracers as a function of the flow nonlinearity, the observations density and the length of the assimilation window (12 hours and 24 hours), in dry and moist environment. Results show that the 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and temperature data is beneficial for the wind analysis with analysis errors strongly dependent on the moist processes and reliable background-error covariances.

  6. Kalman Filter or VAR Models to Predict Unemployment Rate in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to light an economic problem that frequently appears in practice: For the same variable, more alternative forecasts are proposed, yet the decision-making process requires the use of a single prediction. Therefore, a forecast assessment is necessary to select the best prediction. The aim of this research is to propose some strategies for improving the unemployment rate forecast in Romania by conducting a comparative accuracy analysis of unemployment rate forecasts based on two quantitative methods: Kalman filter and vector-auto-regressive (VAR models. The first method considers the evolution of unemployment components, while the VAR model takes into account the interdependencies between the unemployment rate and the inflation rate. According to the Granger causality test, the inflation rate in the first difference is a cause of the unemployment rate in the first difference, these data sets being stationary. For the unemployment rate forecasts for 2010-2012 in Romania, the VAR models (in all variants of VAR simulations determined more accurate predictions than Kalman filter based on two state space models for all accuracy measures. According to mean absolute scaled error, the dynamic-stochastic simulations used in predicting unemployment based on the VAR model are the most accurate. Another strategy for improving the initial forecasts based on the Kalman filter used the adjusted unemployment data transformed by the application of the Hodrick-Prescott filter. However, the use of VAR models rather than different variants of the Kalman filter methods remains the best strategy in improving the quality of the unemployment rate forecast in Romania. The explanation of these results is related to the fact that the interaction of unemployment with inflation provides useful information for predictions of the evolution of unemployment related to its components (i.e., natural unemployment and cyclical component.

  7. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. - Highlights: • Brassica juncea var. foliosa can adapt to the stress of Th(<200 μM) under hydroponic condition. • Th was selectively distributed on cell wall, membranes and soluble fraction. • Th mainly existed in low-toxicity forms which were benefit for Th tolerance.

  8. [Investigation on Main Cultivation of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Commercial Specifications Grades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He-ting; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Ming-en; Duan, Hai-yan; Peng, Hua-sheng

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the main cultivation areas of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and to clarify its present cultivation status and commercial specification grades. Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus cultivated in Hunyuan and Ying County of Shanxi, Longxi, Weiyuan and Min County of Gansu and Wuchuan, Guyang and Chifeng of Inner Mongolia were investigated, including their ecological environment, cultivation history and present situation, harvesting and processing as well as commercial specification grades. The cultivation methods of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus changed greatly in the main cultivation areas. In Gansu and Inner Mongolia, the current major cultivation method was 2 - 3 years of seedling transplantation method, while the 3 - 5 years of seed-directly-sowed method in Inner Mongolia had been almost abandoned, and the 6 - 8 years of mountain direct seeding method was still in application in Hunyuan county of Shanxi province. On the other hand, the harvest method of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus had been gradually changed from manual harvesting in ancient times to the current mechanical harvesting although the latter method did more damage to environment of cultivation areas and the resource of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus in regions Hunyuan county of Shanxi. Through investigating the processing methods of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus in different cultivation areas, it was found that processing method varied from area to area, and no unified specifications had been formulated on processing methods in market. In addition, the current processing method was too complicated in processing the slices of prepared Astragali Radix and most were self processing by farmers themselves, creating market disorders. Moreover, the Astragali Radix products were basically without grading classification but sold as bulk cargo. It is urgent to unify the specifications and grades of Astragali Radix product, and standardize

  9. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M.; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F.; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Lima, Flávia A.; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A.; Janse, Chris J.; Gamain, Benoit; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (domains DBL1X to DBL6ε) fused to a P. berghei exported protein (EMAP1) and characterize a var2CSA-based mouse model of PM. BALB/c mice were infected at midgestation with different doses of P. berghei-var2CSA (P. berghei-VAR) or P. berghei wild-type IEs. Infection with 104 P. berghei-VAR IEs induced a higher incidence of stillbirth and lower fetal weight than P. berghei. At doses of 105 and 106 IEs, P. berghei-VAR-infected mice showed increased maternal mortality during pregnancy and fetal loss, respectively. Parasite loads in infected placentas were similar between parasite lines despite differences in maternal outcomes. Fetal weight loss normalized for parasitemia was higher in P. berghei-VAR-infected mice than in P. berghei-infected mice. In vitro assays showed that higher numbers of P. berghei-VAR IEs than P. berghei IEs adhered to placental tissue. Immunization of mice with P. berghei-VAR elicited IgG antibodies reactive to DBL1-6 recombinant protein, indicating that the topology of immunogenic epitopes is maintained between DBL1-6–EMAP1 on P. berghei-VAR and recombinant DBL1-6 (recDBL1-6). Our data suggested that impairments in pregnancy caused by P. berghei-VAR infection were attributable to var2CSA expression. This model provides a tool for preclinical evaluation of protection against PM induced by approaches that target var2CSA. PMID:27045035

  10. Controlling Kuka Industrial Robots : Flexible Communication Interface JOpenShowVar.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Hatledal, Lars Ivar; Zhang, Houxiang; Fago, Massimiliano; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2015-01-01

    JOpenShowVar is a Java open-source cross-platform communication interface to Kuka industrial robots. This novel interface allows for read-write use of the controlled manipulator variables and data structures. JOpenShowVar, which is compatible with all the Kuka industrial robots that use KUKA Robot Controller version 4 (KR C4) and KUKA Robot Controller version 2 (KR C2), runs as a client on a remote computer connected with the Kuka controller via TCP/IP. Even though only soft real-time applica...

  11. Phenyl ethers from cultured lichen mycobionts of Graphis scripta var. serpentina and G. rikuzensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Nagakura, Naotaka; Hamada, Nobuo

    2003-07-01

    Spore-derived mycobionts of the lichen Graphis scripta var. serpentina and G. rikuzensis were cultivated on a malt-yeast extract medium supplemented with 10% sucrose and their metabolites were investigated. 3,3'-Dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethyldiphenyl ether was isolated from the cultures of the mycobionts of G. scripta var. serpentina, while a new phenyl ether, rikuzenol, along with two known diphenyl ethers, violaceol-I and violaceol-II, were isolated from those of G. rikuzensis. The structure of the new compound was determined by spectroscopic methods. Violaceol-I was chemically synthesized and interconversion between violaceol-I and violaceol-II was proven.

  12. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Sisse B; Florea, Raluca; Nielsen, Morten A

    2014-01-01

    adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i) the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii) the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs) are known to target epitopes...... that are less immunogenic to classical IgG and, due to their small size and protruding antigen-binding loop, able to reach and recognize cryptic, conformational epitopes which are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. The variable heavy chain (VHH) domain is the antigen-binding site of camelid HcAbs, the so...

  13. Influence of intermittent preventive treatment on antibodies to VAR2CSA in pregnant Cameroonian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated...... in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure...

  14. The cross-ecosystem impact of deer on an endangered submerged macrophyte, Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hino Takafumi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are a critical component of freshwater ecosystems and are often eaten by cervids. However, the impact of cervids on macrophytes is not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis on the endangered macrophyte Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus in a spring stream in southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. We monitored the frequency of stream habitat use by deer by using sensor cameras in photography mode for four seasons. We also monitored deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus using sensor cameras in movie mode. To quantitatively evaluate the impact of deer on R. nipponicus var. submersus, we conducted a field experiment in which deer were excluded from part of the stream. We selected 10 pairs of adjacent patches of R. nipponicus var. submersus and set up exclosures covering one patch in each pair. We assessed the frequency of deer feeding and trampling on the control patches using the sensor cameras in photography mode and measured the mean macrophyte stem length in the exclosure and control patches every month for four seasons. To compare abiotic conditions between the exclosure and control patches, we investigated canopy openness, water depth, water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, current velocity, and water quality at each patch during the growing season. The frequency of deer in the stream habitat was higher from spring to summer than in other seasons. Direct evidence of deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus was recorded using the sensor cameras. Deer often fed on and trampled on the control patches, particularly from spring to summer. The R. nipponicus var. submersus stem length was longer in the exclosure patches than in control patches (P 0.189. Stem growth of R. nipponicus var. submersus differed among seasons (P <0.001, and was low from winter to spring. In addition, exclosure and seasonality significantly affected stem length (P <0.001, and the

  15. Transient Stability Enhancement in Power System Using Static VAR Compensator (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef MOULOUDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy excitation and static VAR (unit of reactive power, volt-ampere reactive compensator (SVC controller is proposed to enhance transient stability for the power system, which based on input-output linearization technique. A three-bus system, which contains a generator and static VAR compensator (SVC, is considered in this paper, the SVC is located at the midpoint of the transmission lines. Simulation results show that the proposed controller compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system under a large sudden fault, which may occur nearly at the generator bus terminal.

  16. Disruption of var2csa gene impairs placental malaria associated adhesion phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Viebig

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy is one of the major causes of malaria related morbidity and mortality in newborn and mothers. The complications of pregnancy-associated malaria result mainly from massive adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA present in the placental intervillous blood spaces. Var2CSA, a member of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 family is the predominant parasite ligand mediating CSA binding. However, experimental evidence suggests that other host receptors, such as hyaluronic acid (HA and the neonatal Fc receptor, may also support placental binding. Here we used parasites in which var2csa was genetically disrupted to evaluate the contribution of these receptors to placental sequestration and to identify additional adhesion receptors that may be involved in pregnancy-associated malaria. By comparison to the wild-type parasites, the FCR3delta var2csa mutants could not be selected for HA adhesion, indicating that var2csa is not only essential for IE cytoadhesion to the placental receptor CSA, but also to HA. However, further studies using different pure sources of HA revealed that the previously observed binding results from CSA contamination in the bovine vitreous humor HA preparation. To identify CSA-independent placental interactions, FCR3delta var2csa mutant parasites were selected for adhesion to the human placental trophoblastic BeWo cell line. BeWo selected parasites revealed a multi-phenotypic adhesion population expressing multiple var genes. However, these parasites did not cytoadhere specifically to the syncytiotrophoblast lining of placental cryosections and were not recognized by sera from malaria-exposed women in a parity dependent manner, indicating that the surface molecules present on the surface of the BeWo selected population are not specifically expressed during the course of pregnancy-associated malaria. Taken

  17. Description of rainfall variability in Br hat -samhita of Varâha-mihira

    OpenAIRE

    Iyengar, RN

    2004-01-01

    Br hat -samhita of Varâha-mihira (5–6th century AD) provides valuable information on the approach in ancient India towards monsoon rainfall, including its measurement and forecasting. In this context, we come across a description of the expected amount of total seasonal rainfall depending on the first rains under the 27 naks atras of Indian astronomy. This provides a rough statistical picture of what might have been the rainfall and its variability in the region around Ujjain, where Varâha-mi...

  18. On Setting Day-Ahead Equity Trading Risk Limits: VaR Prediction at Market Close or Open?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Fuertes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the information content of the ex post overnight return for one-day-ahead equity Value-at-Risk (VaR forecasting. To do so, we deploy a univariate VaR modeling approach that constructs the forecast at market open and, accordingly, exploits the available overnight close-to-open price variation. The benchmark is the bivariate VaR modeling approach proposed by Ahoniemi et al. that constructs the forecast at the market close instead and, accordingly, it models separately the daytime and overnight return processes and their covariance. For a small cap portfolio, the bivariate VaR approach affords superior predictive ability than the ex post overnight VaR approach whereas for a large cap portfolio the results are reversed. The contrast indicates that price discovery at the market open is less efficient for small capitalization, thinly traded stocks.

  19. Computing Conditional VaR using Time-varying CopulasComputing Conditional VaR using Time-varying Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vaz de Melo Mendes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now widespread the use of Value-at-Risk (VaR as a canonical measure at risk. Most accurate VaR measures make use of some volatility model such as GARCH-type models. However, the pattern of volatility dynamic of a portfolio follows from the (univariate behavior of the risk assets, as well as from the type and strength of the associations among them. Moreover, the dependence structure among the components may change conditionally t past observations. Some papers have attempted to model this characteristic by assuming a multivariate GARCH model, or by considering the conditional correlation coefficient, or by incorporating some possibility for switches in regimes. In this paper we address this problem using time-varying copulas. Our modeling strategy allows for the margins to follow some FIGARCH type model while the copula dependence structure changes over time.

  20. Carbon dioxide evolution and temperature factors in early growth of plastic mulched plants. [Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus; Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, C.; Ruf, R.H. Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa) were grown in the greenhouse in redwood boxes with bare and plastic mulched soil. Soil temperature in the bare boxes was equated to the plastic mulch with buried temperature coils. Bottled CO/sub 2/ was used to bring the concentration around the plants in bare soil up to the concentration around mulched plants. Carbon dioxide was sampled in leaf canopy. The temperature treatment increased the yields of the bare soil so that they were comparable to those of the plastic mulched soil. Yields from the soil with the auxiliary CO/sub 2/ were lower than those of the mulched treatment.

  1. Sub-grouping of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 var genes based on sequence analysis of coding and non-coding regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavstsen, Thomas; Salanti, Ali; Jensen, Anja T R

    2003-01-01

    and organization of the 3D7 PfEMP1 repertoire was investigated on the basis of the complete genome sequence. METHODS: Using two tree-building methods we analysed the coding and non-coding sequences of 3D7 var and rif genes as well as var genes of other parasite strains. RESULTS: var genes can be sub...

  2. Changes in var gene mRNA levels during erythrocytic development in two phenotypically distinct Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Lavstsen, Thomas; Salanti, Ali

    2007-01-01

    , consistent with previous studies of other PfEMP1. Transcription of the pseudogene var1csa could not be detected in NF54VAR2CSA cells. CONCLUSION: The optimal sampling point for analysis of var transcripts using quantitative real-time PCR is the ring-stage, which is encouraging for the analysis of fresh...

  3. Does animal-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests.

  4. Bolívar ante la política de Cartagena en 1812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel José Forero

    1961-11-01

    Full Text Available Veintinueve años contaba Simón Bolívar en los días de su llegada a Cartagena. Imaginación ardiente, ojos vivos, ademanes colmados de actividad eran los dones visibles al instante en el futuro Libertador. Traía en el alma un gran dolor.

  5. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volumetric additive reconciliation... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and...) For a facility which uses a gauge to measure the inventory of the detergent storage tank, the total...

  6. Novel adenovirus encoded virus-like particles displaying the placental malaria associated VAR2CSA antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie C; dos Santos Marques Resende, Mafalda; Salanti, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum presents antigens on the infected erythrocyte surface that bind human receptors expressed on the vascular endothelium. The VAR2CSA mediated binding to a distinct chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) is a crucial step in the pathophysiology of placental malaria a...

  7. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Alexandra [Seminole Canada Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon [Faculty of Management, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  8. Isoprene derivatives from the leaves and callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, Piotr; Cisowski, Wojciech; Dembińska-Migas, Wanda

    2005-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Vaccinium corymbosum var bluecrop leaves and callus biomass revealed ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin in both plant materials. Beta-sitosterol was determined only in callus biomass. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by TLC co-chromatography with standards and with spectroscopic methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-MS).

  9. Choosing Expected Shortfall Over VaR in Basel III Using Stochastic Dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe compare Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) following a Stochastic Dominance (SD) approach frequently used to order distributions in terms of welfare and in portfolio selection. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) recommends bank risk managers to shift the

  10. Impact of different drying trajectories on degradation of nutritional compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Oliviero, T.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the degradation of the nutritional compounds glucoraphanin (GR) and vitamin C (Vc), and the inactivation of the enzyme myrosinase (MYR) in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) during drying with air temperatures in the range of 30e60 C. Dynamic optimization is applied to find

  11. Evidence that the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii may have evolved in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia P Litvintseva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A, are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis--an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia, and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane. This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm.

  12. Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Giardine (Belinda); J. Borg (Joseph); E. Viennas (Emmanouil); C. Pavlidis (Cristiana); K. Moradkhani (Kamran); P. Joly (Philippe); M. Bartsakoulia (Marina); C. Riemer (Cathy); W. Miller (Webb); G. Tzimas (Giannis); H. Wajcman (Henri); R.C. Hardison (Ross); G.P. Patrinos (George)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractHbVar (http://globin.bx.psu.edu/hbvar) is one of the oldest and most appreciated locus-specific databases launched in 2001 by a multi-center academic effort to provide timely information on the genomic alterations leading to hemoglobin variants and all types of thalassemia and

  13. Return predictability and intertemporal asset allocation: Evidence from a bias-adjusted VAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    with quarterly data from 1952 to 2006. The results show that correcting the VAR parameters for small-sample bias has both quantitatively and qualitatively important e¤ects on the strategic intertemporal part of optimal portfolio choice, especially for bonds: for intermediate values of risk...

  14. Effect of seed-irradiation on morphological characters yield components of brassica campestris var. sarson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.S.; Ahmad, S.

    1996-01-01

    Seed of Brassica campestris (var. Sarson) were used to study the effect of radiation of different morphological and yield parameters. Survival percentage showed drastic decrease at higher doses (75 Kr and 100 Kr). Similarly all characters showed a trend of decrease with increasing dose. LD50 for Brassica was about 50 Kr. (author)

  15. PHOSPHATE NUTRITION EFFECTS ON ALUMINUM AVOIDANCE OF MUCUNA-PRURIENS VAR UTILIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAIRIAH, K; VANNOORDWIJK, M; STULEN, [No Value; MEIJBOOM, FW; KUIPER, PJC

    The response of roots of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis to aluminium depends on the duration of exposure and the type of experiment. In a short-term study, the usual reduction of root elongation rate by Al was found. In contrast, a study for a longer period of time, 4 weeks, showed a stimulation of

  16. [Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (L.) strains from Havana to a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Díaz, Zulema; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Jinnay; Gato Armas, René; Companioni Ibañez, Ariamys; Díaz Pérez, Manuel; Bruzón Aguila, Rosa Yirian

    2012-01-01

    the integration of chemical and biological methods is one of the strategies for the vector control, due to the existing environmental problems and the concerns of the community as a result of the synthetic organic insecticide actions. The bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in liquid formulation has been widely used in the vector control programs in several countries and has shown high efficacy at lab in Cuba. to determine the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti collected in the municipalities of La Habana province to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. fifteen Aedes aegypti strains, one from each municipality, were used including larvae and pupas collected in 2010 and one reference strain known as Rockefeller. The aqueous formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bactivec, Labiofam, Cuba) was used. The bioassays complied with the World Health Organization guidelines for use of bacterial larvicides in the public health sector. The larval mortality was read after 24 hours and the results were processed by the statistical system SPSS (11.0) through Probit analysis. the evaluated mosquito strains showed high susceptibility to biolarvicide, there were no significant differences in LC50 values of Ae. aegypti strains, neither in the comparison of these values with those of the reference strain. the presented results indicate that the use of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis continues to be a choice for the control of Aedes aegypti larval populations in La Habana province.

  17. Hydropus paradoxus var. xerophyticus and a key to the taxa known from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteve-Raventós, F.; Villarreal, M.; Heykoop, M.

    2002-01-01

    Hydropus paradoxus var. xerophyticus, characterized by its long cystidia, broad spores and habitat in xerophytic basic pastures with communities of Thymus-Lavandula spp. is described as a new taxon from Spain. In addition, a key to 22 taxa known from Europe is given.

  18. The classic European hyperinflations revisited : testing the Cagan model using a cointegrated VAR approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    1994-01-01

    I tidligere studier af de klassiske Europæiske hyperinflationer antages det at stød til pengeefterspørgslen er ikke-stationære. I artiklen vises det v.h.a. kointegrationstests at denne antagelse er fejlagtig. Med udgangspunkt i en kointegreret VAR model findes det, at der under de Europæiske hype...

  19. THE STEERING TOOL OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CREDIT VAR (VALUE AT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂRBULESCU MARINELA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the economic capital, in terms of internal management or of application of regulations, financial institutions need to model the probability of future losses on a loan portfolio. This is generally made applying the Credit VaR method. Thus, unexpected losses can be assessed.

  20. Clinical laboratories collaborate to resolve differences in variant interpretations submitted to ClinVar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Steven M; Dolinsky, Jill S; Knight Johnson, Amy E; Pesaran, Tina; Azzariti, Danielle R; Bale, Sherri; Chao, Elizabeth C; Das, Soma; Vincent, Lisa; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-01

    Data sharing through ClinVar offers a unique opportunity to identify interpretation differences between laboratories. As part of a ClinGen initiative, four clinical laboratories (Ambry, GeneDx, Partners Healthcare Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, and University of Chicago Genetic Services Laboratory) collaborated to identify the basis of interpretation differences and to investigate if data sharing and reassessment resolve interpretation differences by analyzing a subset of variants. ClinVar variants with submissions from at least two of the four participating laboratories were compared. For a subset of identified differences, laboratories documented the basis for discordance, shared internal data, independently reassessed with the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines, and then compared interpretations. At least two of the participating laboratories interpreted 6,169 variants in ClinVar, of which 88.3% were initially concordant. Laboratories reassessed 242/724 initially discordant variants, of which 87.2% (211) were resolved by reassessment with current criteria and/or internal data sharing; 12.8% (31) of reassessed variants remained discordant owing to differences in the application of the ACMG-AMP guidelines. Participating laboratories increased their overall concordance from 88.3 to 91.7%, indicating that sharing variant interpretations in ClinVar-thereby allowing identification of differences and motivation to resolve those differences-is critical to moving toward more consistent variant interpretations.Genet Med advance online publication 09 March 2017.

  1. On the detection of effective marketing instruments and causality in VAR models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, C.; Otter, P.W.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic multivariate models become more and more popular in analyzing the behavior of competive marketing environments. Takada and Bass (1998), Dekimpe, Hanssens and Silva-Rosso (1999), and Dekimpe and Hanssens (1999) recommend to use Vector Autoregressive (VAR) models because they provide

  2. Evaluation of Requirements for Volt/Var Control and Optimization Function in Distribution Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Saaed; Marinelli, Mattia; Silvestro, Federico

    2012-01-01

    To meet the requirement from new visions within “smart grid” and to provide solutions for many challenges that DSOs (Distribution System Operators) are facing today, we need to develop advanced DMS (Distribution Management System) applications. A centralized Volt/Var Control (VVC) is one of the m...

  3. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which

  4. The Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkogka, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Posthumus, M.A.; Beumer, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil of the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia (mastic oil) was studied in vitro against a wide range of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms with a diffusion and a dilution method. Furthermore its chemical composition was analyzed by means of Gas Chromatography-Mass

  5. Aislamiento de poligodial de la corteza de drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Calle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto de éter de petróleo (P Eb = 40-60 "O de la corteza de Drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora, se aisló con 8% de rendimiento, poligodial ( I , un sesquiterpeno conocido, cuya estructura se confirmó por métodos espectroscópicos.

  6. The root anchorage ability of Salix alba var. tristis using a pull-out test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... In the last few years, Beijing Forestry University (China) and the University of Natural Resources and applied Life. Sciences (Austria) have examined the suitabilities and capabilities of soil bioengineering techniques under the local condition of Beijing. One of the plant species used was Salix alba var. tristis.

  7. The flexural properties of young Pinus elliottii × Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the bending strength and stiffness properties of young Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis timber from the Southern Cape, South Africa, and to evaluate the predictability of these properties from acoustic measurements on standing trees, logs and their sawn boards.

  8. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vulgaris L. var. indica Maxim. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Nam, Vu Viet; Huong, Hoang Thanh; Leclercq, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves of A. vulgaris var. indica of Vietnamese origin was analyzed by a combination of GC and GC/MS. Forty-six components were identified, of which the major ones were b-caryophyllene (24.1%) and b-cubebene (12.0%)

  9. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. var. linaloolifera from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Khien, P.V.; Chien, Ho Trung; Leclercq, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. var. linaloolifera of Vietnamese origin has been analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC/MS. Seventeen components have been identified, of which the major one was found to be linalool (91.1%)

  10. A Vector AutoRegressive (VAR) Approach to the Credit Channel for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to determine the presence and empirical significance of monetary policy and the bank lending view of the credit channel for Mauritius, which is particularly relevant at these times. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model of order three is used to examine the monetary transmission mechanism using ...

  11. A VAR Analysis Regarding Tax Evasion and Tax Pressure in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boștină Florin

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to identify the relationship that exists between tax evasion and tax pressure in Romania, between 2000 and 2013, using an autoregressive vector type of analysis. The VAR model with 3 lags can be considered as representative in order to describe autoregressive links between tax evasion and fiscal pressure in Romania.

  12. Anatomical element localization by EDXS in Grevillea exul var. exul under nickel stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabier, J.; Laffont-Schwob, I.; Notonier, R.; Fogliani, B.; Bouraima-Madjebi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Grevillea exul var. exul, an endemic serpentinic Proteaceae of New Caledonia, was chosen to study the spatial distribution of Ni because this species supports strong content of metals, which can allow important absorptions thus detectable by microanalysis. Fine transversal sections of axenic G. exul var. exul plants grown during 15 days on nickel sulphate medium were examined by EDXS microanalysis. It showed that in Ni treated plants, Ni was concentrated mostly in the phloem compared to the xylem and the epidermis, either in roots or in the basal part of the stems and was mostly in the epidermis in the upper part of the stems and not detectable in the leaves. This metal took the place of P and K in the treated plants whereas the localization of these macroelements was quite uniform in control sections. We assume that a mechanism of phloem loading is implicated to restrict Ni accumulation in G. exul var. exul. - Ni resistance mechanism in Grevillea exul var. exul plants depends on a basipetal export mechanism

  13. Anatomical element localization by EDXS in Grevillea exul var. exul under nickel stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabier, J. [Equipe Biomarqueurs et Bioindicateurs Environnementaux, Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, UMR CNRS 6116, Universite de Provence, Case 17, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: Jacques.Rabier@univ-provence.fr; Laffont-Schwob, I. [Equipe Biomarqueurs et Bioindicateurs Environnementaux, Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, UMR CNRS 6116, Universite de Provence, Case 17, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: Isabelle.Schwob@univ-provence.fr; Notonier, R. [Service commun de microscopie electronique, Universite de Provence, Case 76, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: Roger.Notonier@univ-provence.fr; Fogliani, B. [MABioM, Universite de la Nouvelle-Caledonie, BP R4, 98847 Noumea, New Caledonia (France)], E-mail: bfoglian@univ-nc.nc; Bouraima-Madjebi, S. [MABioM, Universite de la Nouvelle-Caledonie, BP R4, 98847 Noumea, New Caledonia (France)], E-mail: bouraima@univ-nc.nc

    2008-12-15

    Grevillea exul var. exul, an endemic serpentinic Proteaceae of New Caledonia, was chosen to study the spatial distribution of Ni because this species supports strong content of metals, which can allow important absorptions thus detectable by microanalysis. Fine transversal sections of axenic G. exul var. exul plants grown during 15 days on nickel sulphate medium were examined by EDXS microanalysis. It showed that in Ni treated plants, Ni was concentrated mostly in the phloem compared to the xylem and the epidermis, either in roots or in the basal part of the stems and was mostly in the epidermis in the upper part of the stems and not detectable in the leaves. This metal took the place of P and K in the treated plants whereas the localization of these macroelements was quite uniform in control sections. We assume that a mechanism of phloem loading is implicated to restrict Ni accumulation in G. exul var. exul. - Ni resistance mechanism in Grevillea exul var. exul plants depends on a basipetal export mechanism.

  14. Development of a molecular test to ensure good flowering of Viburnum Opulus Var. Roseum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromwijk, J.A.M.; Noort, van F.R.; Verhoef, N.; Balk, P.; Wordragen, van M.F.

    2013-01-01

    During wintertime Viburnum opulus var. roseum (snowball) shrubs are forced in warm greenhouses to harvest early cut flowers. Early forcing is occasionally unsuccessful. This is probably due to a lack of hours with low temperatures that is needed to break bud dormancy. To gain more insight about the

  15. Formation of trichothecenes by Fusarium solani var. coeruleum and Fusarium sambucinum in potatoes.

    OpenAIRE

    el-Banna, A A; Scott, P M; Lau, P Y; Sakuma, T; Platt, H W; Campbell, V

    1984-01-01

    Fusarium solani var. coeruleum can form deoxynivalenol in potato tubers and in liquid medium, although concentrations observed in the rot were highly variable; acetyldeoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin were detected in 1 to 3 tubers only (of 57). Trichothecenes were also detected in a very few (3 of 20) cultures of Fusarium sambucinum in potato tubers.

  16. Structural Insight into Epitopes in the Pregnancy-Associated Malaria Protein VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P; Nielsen, MA; Resende, M

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites binding specifically to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta. This sequestration of parasites is a major cause of low birth weight in infants and anemia in the mothers. VAR2CSA, a polymorphic multi-domain protein o...

  17. Syringa oblata Lindl var. alba as a source of oleuropein and related compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenadis, N.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Tsimidou, M.Z.

    2007-01-01

    The leaf methanol extract of Syringa oblata Lindl var. alba was investigated as a source of oleuropein and related compounds. The extract had a high total phenol content and a radical scavenging activity similar to that of the respective extract from Olea europaea leaves. HPLC-DAD characterisation

  18. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Varma, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmental C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates and to evaluate the relationship between genotypes, geographical origin and clinical manifestations. A total of 83 globally collected C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates from Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Colombia, and the USA, recovered from different sources (primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis, disseminated cryptococcosis, the environment, and animals), were included in the study. All isolates were confirmed to belong to genotype VNIV by molecular typing and they were further investigated by MLST analysis. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic as well as network analysis strongly suggested the existence of a recombinant rather than a clonal population structure. Geographical origin and source of isolation were not correlated with a specific MLST genotype. The comparison with a set of outgroup C. neoformans var. grubii isolates provided clear evidence that the two varieties have different population structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The phenolic extractives in southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx. var. falcata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiji Ohara; Richard W. Hemingway

    1989-01-01

    The bark of southern red oak (Quercus falcala Michx. var. falcala) is a rich source of quercitrin (quercetin-3-rhamnoside). It contains only low concentrations of (+)-catechin and no significant amounts of epicatechin or gallocatechin. The three major dimeric proanthocyanidins present are epicatechin-(4β→8)-...

  20. Response of the Cottonwood Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer

    1990-01-01

    A standardized laboratory bioassay was used to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal responses of larval and adult cottonwood leaf beetles, Chrysomela scripta F., to Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego, formulated as M-One standard powder (Mycogen Corporation, San Diego). The median lethal concentration (LC

  1. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphology and accumulation of epicuticular wax on needles of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; William C. Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have documented differences in epicuticular wax among several tree species but little attention has been paid to changes in accumulation of foliar wax that can occur during the year. We sampled current-year needles from the terminal shoots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) in late June/early...

  3. Effects of fire and restoration seeding on establishment of squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Whittaker; Scott L. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa), herein referred to simply as knapweed, is a noxious weed that invades both disturbed and healthy sagebrush communities. Fire, grazing, mining, recreation, and farming have all played a large part in the establishment of knapweed in Tintic Valley, Utah. This study was designed to look at the...

  4. The design and performance of Static Var Compensators for particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, Karsten; Genton, Charles-Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Particle accelerators, and in particular synchrotrons, represent large cycling non-linear loads connected to the electrical distribution network. This paper discusses the typical design and performance of Static Var Compensators (SVCs) to obtain the excellent power quality levels required for particle accelerator operation.

  5. Choosing Expected Shortfall over VaR in Basel III Using Stochastic Dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBank risk managers follow the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) recommendations that recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (2013, p. 3) noted that: “a

  6. The nutritive value of raw Mucuna pruriens (var. utilis ) for broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritive value of raw Mucuna pruriens (var. utilis) was studied over a 4-week period using 168 broiler chicks at 28 days of age. They were individually weighed and then randomly allocated to four dietary treatments incorporating, respectively, 0, 50, 100, and 150 g M. pruriens per kg of diet. Feed and water were ...

  7. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  8. Efficient gene replacements in ku70 disruption strain of Aspergillus chevalieri var. intermedius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus chevalieri var. intermedius is a dominant filamentous fungal species in Fuzhuan tea and is associated with the quality and health benefits of this tea. The sexual or asexual reproduction of this fungus depends on the osmotic pressure of the tea. Efforts to enhance the beneficial effects of A. chevalieri var. intermedius are hampered by difficulties in disrupting its genes. To address this issue, we identified the A. chevalieri var. intermedius homolog (Acku70 of human Ku70 and generated an Acku70 disruption strain (ΔAcku70, aiming to improve the gene replacement efficiency. ΔAcku70 grew at a slightly lower rate in vitro than the wild-type strain; however, the two strains exhibited similar sensitivity to temperature, osmotic pressure and the effects of ethyl methane sulphonate and H2O2. The replacement efficiency of veA and flbA dramatically increased in ΔAcku70 compared to that in the wild type. The efficiency of flbA replacement increased from 2.6% to 80%, whereas the frequency of veA disruption increased from 15.2% to 83.9% and from 30.8% to 86.8%. Thus, ΔAcku70 is suitable for use as a type strain for large-scale functional genomic analysis of A. chevalieri var. intermedius.

  9. Yunis-Varón syndrome caused by biallelic VAC14 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lines, Matthew A.; Ito, Yoko; Kernohan, Kristin D.; Mears, Wendy; Hurteau-Miller, Julie; Venkateswaran, Sunita; Ward, Leanne; Khatchadourian, Karine; McClintock, Jeff; Bhola, Priya; Campeau, Philippe M.; Boycott, Kym M.; Michaud, Jean; van Kuilenburg, André Bp; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Dyment, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Yunis-Varón syndrome (YVS) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising skeletal anomalies, dysmorphism, global developmental delay and intracytoplasmic vacuolation in brain and other tissues. All hitherto-reported pathogenic variants affect FIG4, a lipid phosphatase involved in

  10. La salud reproductiva del varón amenazada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Comentario: El interés mostrado por la comunidad cientifica por esclarecer la realidad de la salud reproductiva en Europa y en otros países occidentales, ha con-ducido a la redacción de una serie de recomendaciones, propuestas por expertes en el campo, que sirvan de orientación para politicas de financiación de la investigación. El debate sobre el deteriora de la salud reproductiva delvarón europeo ha llegado a su fin. Ya nadie duda de que tante los parámetras de medida directa como los indicadores indirectes de la fertilidad masculina manifiestan ese daño. Lo que es realmente novedoso en la propuesta es, de una parte, la vinculación entre el deteriora en salud reproductiva -incluida la caída secular en los niveles de testosterona circulante del varón-y el riesgode enfermedad cardiovascular y diabetes; de otra parte, la presentación formal de una hipótesis etiológica que requiere la investigación de la exposición materno-infantil a contaminantes químicos con actividad hormonal y sugiere una actitud precautoria. Los disruptores endocrinos son componentes de cosméticos, detergentes, medicamentos y alimentes de consumo y uso diario. Mientras sesudos cientificos en toda Europa abordan este asunto tratando de fortalecer la hipótesis, ¿qué corresponde a los sanitarios y responsables de políticas de salud?, lo habituai, informarse e informar. Conocer y trasmitir de forma inteligible recomendaciones en hábites de vida y exposiciones ambien-tales que sirvan para proteger a la población general de un daño que se presume importante. Desafortunadamente las noticias sobre exposición química ambiental llegan más fácilmente a las páginas de ciencia de los diarios nacionales que a las bibliotecas de los sanitarios. El mensaje no parece llegar a los foras adecuados ni en el momente oportuno. Los auto-res del artículo insisten en que el gasto en remedios terapéuticos costosos estaría mejor empleado en orientaciones preventivas. Somos de la opini

  11. [Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated by different foreign AM fungi species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou Nong; Ding, Bo; Feng, Yuan; Qi, Wen-hua; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Xiang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    After 28 foreign species of AM fungi were inoculated in sterilized soil, the effects of the AM mycorrhizal colonization and the medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed by combination of inoculation test in pot at room temperature and instrumental analysis. The results showed that, compared with control group (CK), the inoculation of foreign AM fungi in the soil influenced the spore density, mycorrhizal infection rate, and colonization intensity of AM fungi in root system of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The inoculation of foreign AM fungi enhanced the mycorrhiza viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis by increasing the activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in intraradical hyphae. The content of single steroid saponin in rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis showed variation after P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was inoculated by different foreign species of AM fungi, which was beneficial for increasing the medicine quality; however, the kinds of steroid saponin showed no difference. In a degree, there was a selectivity of symbiosis between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and foreign AM fungi. And we found that the Claroideoglomus claroideum and Racocetra coralloidea were best foreign AM fungi species for cultivating P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under field condition.

  12. [Effects of low-light stress on photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in artificial domestication cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-lin; Tian, Meng-liang; Liu, Jin-liang; Zhao, Ting-ting; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-09-01

    To decide on the optimum artificial domestication cultivation light environment for Paris polyphylla var. chinensis through investigating the effect of light intensity on leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Different low-light stress gradients' effect on the growth of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis was compared with no low-light stress treatment through calculating leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point, and then all these parameters were statistically analyzed. Light intensity had significant influence on the photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. With the strengthening of the low-light stress, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters P., AQY and light saturation point all gradually increased at first, and then decreased. However, both photosynthetic parameters Rd and light compensation point firstly decreased and then rose again. These results showed that too strong or too weak light intensity affected the optimization of photosynthetic parameters of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. The optimal illuminance for each parameter was not completely same, but they could all reach a relative ideal state when the shading ranges between 40% and 60%. However, photosynthetic parameters deteriorated rapidly when the shading surpass 80%. For artificially cultivating Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in Baoxing,Sichuan or the similar ecological region, shading 40%-60% is the optimal light environment, which can enhance the photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis and promote the accumulation of photosynthetic products.

  13. Cryptococcus neoformans in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): colonization by C n. var. gattii and investigation of environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krockenberger, M B; Canfield, P J; Malik, R

    2002-06-01

    This study is the one in a series looking at the relationship among Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, koalas and the environment. The koala was used as a natural biological sampler in an attempt to understand the dynamics of C. neoformans var. gattii in Australian environments. Evidence of asymptomatic nasal and skin colonization for extended periods by large numbers of C. n. var. gattii was obtained and geographical factors assessed. The key finding was the ability of koalas to amplify numbers of C. n. var. gattii in certain environments. Koalas were not found to be obligatory for the survival of the organism in all environments. Geographical factors alone could not explain differing rates of nasal and skin colonization in koalas in different environments. A strong association between healthy koalas and C. n. var. gattii was confirmed and C n. var. gattii was isolated from novel sources, including the turpentine gum tree (Syncarpia glomulifera), tallowwood (Eucalyptus microcorys) and flooded gum (E. grandis). It seems likely that as yet undiscovered environmental sources of C. n. var. gattii exist in eastern Australia. Further investigation of host, environmental and organism factors integral to the hostpathogen relationship will assist an understanding of the progression from colonization to tissue invasion and cryptococcosis in all species.

  14. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse B Ditlev

    Full Text Available Placental malaria is a major health problem for both pregnant women and their fetuses in malaria endemic regions. It is triggered by the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE in the intervillous spaces of the placenta and is associated with foetal growth restriction and maternal anemia. IE accumulation is supported by the binding of the parasite-expressed protein VAR2CSA to placental chondroitin sulfate A (CSA. Defining specific CSA-binding epitopes of VAR2CSA, against which to target the immune response, is essential for the development of a vaccine aimed at blocking IE adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs are known to target epitopes that are less immunogenic to classical IgG and, due to their small size and protruding antigen-binding loop, able to reach and recognize cryptic, conformational epitopes which are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. The variable heavy chain (VHH domain is the antigen-binding site of camelid HcAbs, the so called Nanobody, which represents the smallest known (15 kDa intact, native antigen-binding fragment. In this study, we have used the Nanobody technology, an approach new to malaria research, to generate small and functional antibody fragments recognizing unique epitopes broadly distributed on VAR2CSA.

  15. Antioxidant properties and global metabolite screening of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Suprama; Timson, David J; Annapure, Uday S

    2017-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the only yeast species with probiotic properties. It is considered to have therapeutic significance in gastrointestinal disorders. In the present study, a comparative physiological study between this yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BY4742) was performed by evaluating two prominent traits of probiotic species, responses to different stress conditions and antioxidant capacity. A global metabolite profile was also developed aiming to identify which therapeutically important secondary metabolites are produced. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii showed no significant difference in growth patterns but greater stress tolerance compared to S. cerevisiae. It also demonstrated a six- to 10-fold greater antioxidant potential (judged by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay), with a 70-fold higher total phenolic content and a 20-fold higher total flavonoid content in the extracellular fraction. These features were clearly differentiated by principal component analysis and further indicated by metabolite profiling. The extracellular fraction of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii cultures was found to be rich in polyphenolic metabolites: vanillic acid, cinnamic acid, phenyl ethyl alcohol (rose oil), erythromycin, amphetamine and vitamin B 6 , which results in the antioxidant capacity of this strain. The present study presents a new perspective for differentiating the two genetically related strains of yeast, S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae var. boulardii by assessing their metabolome fingerprints. In addition to the correlation of the phenotypic properties with the secretory metabolites of these two yeasts, the present study also emphasizes the potential to exploit S. cerevisiae var. boulardii in the industrial production of these metabolites. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Putative DNA G-quadruplex formation within the promoters of Plasmodium falciparum var genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences are capable of folding into an intramolecular four-stranded structure called a G-quadruplex. When found in gene promoter regions, G-quadruplexes can downregulate gene expression, possibly by blocking the transcriptional machinery. Here we have used a genome-wide bioinformatic approach to identify Putative G-Quadruplex Sequences (PQS in the Plasmodium falciparum genome, along with biophysical techniques to examine the physiological stability of P. falciparum PQS in vitro. Results We identified 63 PQS in the non-telomeric regions of the P. falciparum clone 3D7. Interestingly, 16 of these PQS occurred in the upstream region of a subset of the P. falciparum var genes (group B var genes. The var gene family encodes PfEMP1, the parasite's major variant antigen and adhesin expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes, that plays a key role in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion. The ability of the PQS found in the upstream regions of group B var genes (UpsB-Q to form stable G-quadruplex structures in vitro was confirmed using 1H NMR, circular dichroism, UV spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation experiments. Moreover, the synthetic compound BOQ1 that shows a higher affinity for DNA forming quadruplex rather than duplex structures was found to bind with high affinity to the UpsB-Q. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of non-telomeric PQS in the genome of P. falciparum that form stable G-quadruplexes under physiological conditions in vitro. These results allow the generation of a novel hypothesis that the G-quadruplex sequences in the upstream regions of var genes have the potential to play a role in the transcriptional control of this major virulence-associated multi-gene family.

  17. Accumulation of trehalose in the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum var. coprophilum in response to heat or salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Helene Friborg; Jensen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The disaccharide trehalose, known to be an effective protectant against various kinds of stress, was observed to accumulate in the cytosol of Chaetomium thermophilum var. coprophilum during heat stress. Trehalose was apparently neither involved in the defence of C. thermophilum var. coprophilum...... against high concentrations of sodium chloride nor directly linked to thermophily. In C. thermophilum var. coprophilum three different trehalose hydrolyzing activities were eluted from a mono Q anion exchange column by sodium chloride concentrations of 0.10, 0.15 and 0.24 M, respectively....

  18. Penurunan Garam Klorida Air Laut Dengan Memanfaatkan Modifikasi Pati Dari Limbah Bonggol Pisang Ambon (Musa Paradisiaca Var Sapientum)

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbani, Aulia Husna; -, Alimuddin; Saleh, Chairul

    2015-01-01

    The research of desalination the sea water by utilization of the strach bump a “Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca var sapientum)” modification has been done. Modification of starch bump “Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca var sapientum)” had be a ability better than starch bump “Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca var sapientum)” in the levels of chloride. The variation upon which to do to absorb chloride of sea water which are starch, starch been activated NaOH and starch acetate bump of a “Pisang Ambon...

  19. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses...... a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence...

  20. Ohutsoonid on meis endis / Kalle Laanet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanet, Kalle, 1965-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa 21. okt. lk. 2, Järva Teataja, Vooremaa, Koit 24. okt. lk. 2,2,6, Molodjozh Estonii 25. okt. lk. 5, Postimees : na russkom jazõke 26. okt. lk. 7, Pjarnuskii Ekspress 27. okt. lk. 7, Pärnu Postimees, Vesti Nedeli Den za Dnjom 3. nov. lk. 21,14, Sillamjaeskii Vestnik 18. nov. lk. 3. Siseminister Kalle Laanet kirjutab ohutsoonist pronkssõduri ümber, sisejulgeolekust, liikluskultuurist, teistega arvestamisest ühiskonnas, infohäiretest põhjustatud konfliktidest

  1. Chemical constituents of leaves of Senna spectabilis (DC) Irwin and Barneby var. excelsa (Schard.) Irwin and Barneby; Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Senna spectabilis (DC) Irwin and Barneby var. excelsa (Schrad.) Irwin and Barneby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabio de Oliveira; Oliveira, Irvila Ricarte de; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos, E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From leaves of Senna spectabilis var. excelsa were isolated caffeine, the triterpenes lupeol, {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, cycloeucalenol, friedelin and ursolic, oleanolic and betulinic acids, besides the steroids sitosterol and stigmasterol and their respective glucosides. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis including two-dimensional NMR methods and comparison with published spectral data. This paper deals with the first report of these compounds in S. spectabilis var. excelsa. (author)

  2. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var; La radioactivite dans un ecosysteme de montagne: le haut bassin du var

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  3. Variation in phenology and monoterpene patterns of defoliated and nondefoliated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Judith Engle; Catherine Parks; Boyd. Wickman

    1993-01-01

    Foliage was collected from paired Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) trees characterized as either "resistant" or "susceptible" western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attack. Resistant trees produced more...

  4. Induction of adhesion-inhibitory antibodies against placental Plasmodium falciparum parasites by using single domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten A; Pinto, Vera V; Resende, Mafalda

    2009-01-01

    between a parasite protein expressed on erythrocytes named variant surface antigen 2-chondroitin sulfate A (VAR2CSA) and CSA on syncytiotrophoblasts. VAR2CSA is a large polymorphic protein consisting of six Duffy binding-like (DBL), domains and with current constraints on recombinant protein production...... which induce antibodies that inhibit CSA binding of different parasite strains. In this study, we produced a large panel of VAR2CSA proteins and raised antibodies against these antigens. We show that antibodies against the DBL4 domain effectively inhibit parasite binding. As the inhibition...... was not limited to homologous parasite strains, it seems feasible to base a protective malaria vaccine on a single VAR2CSA DBL domain....

  5. Potensi minuman bubuk kedelai (var. Galunggung sebagai minuman fungsional: sifat fisikokimia, efek hipoglikemik dan hipokolesterolemik serta status antioksidan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyaningrum Aviriani

    2012-04-01

    Conclusion: Powdered soybean (var. Galunggung beverage has the potential to be developed as functional drink with several health claims, i.e. reduce glucose and cholesterol levels, and improve antioxidant status.

  6. Chloroplast microsatellite markers for Pseudotaxus chienii developed from the whole chloroplast genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qi; Zhang, Hanrui; He, Yipeng; Wang, Ting; Su, Yingjuan

    2017-03-01

    Pseudotaxus chienii (Taxaceae) is an old rare species endemic to China that has adapted well to ecological heterogeneity with high genetic diversity in its nuclear genome. However, the genetic variation in its chloroplast genome is unknown. Eighteen chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) were developed from the whole chloroplast genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei and successfully amplified in four P. chienii populations and one T. chinensis var. mairei population. Of these loci, 10 were polymorphic in P. chienii , whereas six were polymorphic in T. chinensis var. mairei . The unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.641 and 0.000 to 0.545 for P. chienii and T. chinensis var. mairei , respectively. The 18 cpSSRs will be used to further investigate the chloroplast genetic structure and adaptive evolution in P. chienii populations.

  7. Foliar-applied ethephon enhances the content of anthocyanin of black carrot roots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Glied, Stephan; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) constitute a valuable source of anthocyanins, which are used as natural red, blue and purple food colourants. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds are specialised metabolites, accumulation of which often requires elicitors...

  8. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA.

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    Susan Thrane

    Full Text Available Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of

  9. Expression of P. falciparum var Genes Involves Exchange of the Histone Variant H2A.Z at the Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petter, Michaela; Lee, Chin Chin; Byrne, Timothy J.; Boysen, Katja E.; Volz, Jennifer; Ralph, Stuart A.; Cowman, Alan F.; Brown, Graham V.; Duffy, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum employs antigenic variation to evade the human immune response by switching the expression of different variant surface antigens encoded by the var gene family. Epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications and sub-nuclear compartmentalization contribute to transcriptional regulation in the malaria parasite, in particular to control antigenic variation. Another mechanism of epigenetic control is the exchange of canonical histones with alternative variants to generate functionally specialized chromatin domains. Here we demonstrate that the alternative histone PfH2A.Z is associated with the epigenetic regulation of var genes. In many eukaryotic organisms the histone variant H2A.Z mediates an open chromatin structure at promoters and facilitates diverse levels of regulation, including transcriptional activation. Throughout the asexual, intraerythrocytic lifecycle of P. falciparum we found that the P. falciparum ortholog of H2A.Z (PfH2A.Z) colocalizes with histone modifications that are characteristic of transcriptionally-permissive euchromatin, but not with markers of heterochromatin. Consistent with this finding, antibodies to PfH2A.Z co-precipitate the permissive modification H3K4me3. By chromatin-immunoprecipitation we show that PfH2A.Z is enriched in nucleosomes around the transcription start site (TSS) in both transcriptionally active and silent stage-specific genes. In var genes, however, PfH2A.Z is enriched at the TSS only during active transcription in ring stage parasites. Thus, in contrast to other genes, temporal var gene regulation involves histone variant exchange at promoter nucleosomes. Sir2 histone deacetylases are important for var gene silencing and their yeast ortholog antagonises H2A.Z function in subtelomeric yeast genes. In immature P. falciparum parasites lacking Sir2A or Sir2B high var transcription levels correlate with enrichment of PfH2A.Z at the TSS. As Sir2A knock out parasites mature the var genes are

  10. Herencia de la resistencia a Phoma andina var. Crystalliniformis en tomate Resistance hederabillty of Phoma andina var. Eristalliniformis in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortina Guerrero Hernando Alfonso

    1988-12-01


    dificultades, la resistencia de L. hirsutum a L. esculentum, siempre que no existan efectos pleiotrópicos o de grupos de ligamiento.
    The inheritance of Phoma andina var. erystalliniformis resistanee derived from the wild species, related to tomate, Lyeopersieon hirsutum was studies at "La Selva" ICA's Experiment Station located at Rionegro (Antioquia, between may and september of 1987. The study was done by employing 6 families in which four different resistent L.
    hirsutum accessions and four susceptible L. eseulentum genotypes were used as parents. Each of the families included: the parents, the generations F1 and F2 and backcrosses from the F1 to each one of the parents. The
    researeh was carried out with an complete block design with tree replicates. The plants were scored individually, for some families 60 days after transplanting and for the remaning 80 days after transplantinq, by employing a scale in which 7 means killed plants and O no symtoms. Both, the original and the transformed data were subject the following analysis: mean components by using the scaling test (Mather and Jinks, 1971 and Cavalli test; variance components by employing Mather's methology (Mather y Jinks, 1971; different estimates of heritability and the minimum number of gene pairs differentiating the susceptible and resistent parents.
    In all the studied familles there was an additive variance with high values, a dominance variance close to zero and low environmental variance. The heritability for the resistance was high both in broad and narrow sense, The minimum number of gene pairs differentiating the resistant and susceptible parents was estimated between 3 and 4.
    Based on the aboye, it is possible to introduce in the cultivated tomato Phoma andina resistance, being important determine before to do so, possible deleterous pleitropic
    effects or deletereous linkage groups with the resistant genes.

  11. Transcription of the var genes from a freshly-obtained field isolate of Plasmodium falciparum shows more variable switching patterns than long laboratory-adapted isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Run; Zhang, Dongmei; Chen, Biaobang; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yilong; Wang, Shengyue; Pan, Weiqing

    2015-02-07

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum involves switching among multicopy var gene family and is responsible for immune evasion and the maintenance of chronic infections. Current understanding of var gene expression and switching patterns comes from experiments conducted on long laboratory-adapted strains, with little known about their wild counterparts. Genome sequencing was used to obtain 50 var genes from a parasite isolated from the China-Myanmar border. Four clones with different dominant var genes were cultured in vitro in replicates for 50 generations. Transcription of the individual var gene was detected by real-time PCR and then the switching process was analysed. The expression of multicopy var genes is mutually exclusive in clones of a wild P. falciparum isolate. The activation of distinct primary dominant var genes leads to different and favoured switching patterns in the four clones. The on/off rates of individual var genes are variable and the choice of subsequent dominant var genes are random, which results in the different switching patterns among replicates of each clonal wild P. falciparum isolate with near identical initial transcription profiles. This study suggests that the switching patterns of var genes are abundant, which consist of both conserved and random parts.

  12. The model of television in Pedro Almodóvar. Cinema vs. Televisión

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    Agustín GÓMEZ GÓMEZ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the TV model presented by Pedro Almodóvar in his filmography. Of the eighteen movies, but three, all contain, one way or another, a reference to TV in a critical sense. Through the analysis of all his films, we observe the way in which TV appears and focus on four models or functions of the TV in his work. The first one has to do with the viewing mode, which we have named “domestic model”. A second function, which we will call “realistic”, is one which means that only what appears on screen exists, but Almodóvar desecrates reality through parody. A third model is a critique of so-called junk televisión. Finally, a fourth function is the presence of other films through the TV screen to establish an intertextual relationship with a narrative purpose.

  13. Soil Type Affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae Seedling Growth in Simulated Drought Experiments

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    Alexander J. Lindsey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite, a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies.

  14. Bolívar, primer diplomático de la libertad americana

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    Rafael Gómez Hoyos

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Don Miguel Luis Amunátegui, primer biógrafo de don Andrés Bello, recopilador y comentarista meritorio de sus obras, nos dejó una falsa visión de Bolívar como diplomático de la libertad. Basado en los recuerdos del anciano humanista, cuando ya le flaqueaba la memoria, o gracias a un error suyo de apreciación, al comentar los incidentes de la misión encomendada ante el gobierno británico por la Junta Suprema de Caracas, nos relata increíble falta de tacto y descuido imperdonable en Simón Bolívar, Jefe de la Misión.

  15. Dynamic VaR Measurement of Gold Market with SV-T-MN Model

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    Fenglan Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available VaR (Value at Risk in the gold market was measured and predicted by combining stochastic volatility (SV model with extreme value theory. Firstly, for the fat tail and volatility persistence characteristics in gold market return series, the gold price return volatility was modeled by SV-T-MN (SV-T with Mixture-of-Normal distribution model based on state space. Secondly, future sample volatility prediction was realized by using approximate filtering algorithm. Finally, extreme value theory based on generalized Pareto distribution was applied to measure dynamic risk value (VaR of gold market return. Through the proposed model on the price of gold, empirical analysis was investigated; the results show that presented combined model can measure and predict Value at Risk of the gold market reasonably and effectively and enable investors to further understand the extreme risk of gold market and take coping strategies actively.

  16. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Alexander J; Kilgore, Jason S

    2013-08-01

    Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies.

  17. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  18. Bootstrap Determination of the Co-integration Rank in Heteroskedastic VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A.M.Robert

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio [PLR] co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates...... of the underlying VAR model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an i.i.d. bootstrap re-sampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we investigate...... the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap re-sampling scheme, when time-varying behaviour is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We show that the bootstrap PLR tests are asymptotically correctly sized and...

  19. PREVALENCIA DE Strongyloides stercoralis Y OTROS PARÁSITOS INTESTINALES EN INDIGENTES ALCOHÓLICOS DE CIUDAD BOLÍVAR, ESTADO BOLÍVAR, VENEZUELA | PREVALENCE OF Strongyloides stercoralis AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN ALCOHOLIC HOMELESS FROM CIUDAD BOLÍVAR, BOLÍVAR STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Devera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Between may and july 2010 a study was performed in order to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasites in alcoholic homeless who attend two Alcoholics Anonymous Centers in Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State, Venezuela. Eighty stool samples were collected, which were analyzed using the techniques of direct examination, Kato, micro-Baermann, Rugai and agar plate culture. An estimate of 61.3% of the evaluated population was parasitized. The intestinal parasite most prevalent was the chromist Blastocystis (33.8%. Among the protozoan, the most common was Endolimax nana (21.3% and among the helminths it was Strongyloides stercoralis (12.5%.

  20. Algo sobre las relaciones de Pau con Ignacio -y Cándido- Bolívar

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    Laínz, Manuel

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Some relationships of considerable interest to the history of Spanish Botany are illustrated based on documents at the author's disposa]. Ignacio's Bolívar leadership in the whole range of our Natural Sciences is well known; a leadership Cándido, his son, inherited early, it seems, and continued up to end of the civil war.Frente a las bases documentales a mi alcance, trato de ilustrar unas relaciones de no poco interés para la historia de la Botánica en España: es notoria la posición rectora de Ignacio Bolívar, durante medio siglo, en todo el ámbito de nuestras Ciencias Naturales, que su hijo Cándido parece haber tempranamente usufructuado, y conservado hasta el fin de la guerra civil.