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Sample records for vapour laser isotope

  1. In situ measurement of CO2 and water vapour isotopic compositions at a forest site using mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ryuichi; Matsumi, Yutaka; Takanashi, Satoru; Nakai, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Tomoki; Ouchi, Mai; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi; Nakano, Takashi; Kurita, Naoyuki; Muramoto, Kenichiro; Kodama, Naomi

    2016-12-01

    We conducted continuous, high time-resolution measurements of CO2 and water vapour isotopologues ((16)O(12)C(16)O, (16)O(13)C(16)O and (18)O(12)C(16)O for CO2, and H2(18)O for water vapour) in a red pine forest at the foot of Mt. Fuji for 9 days from the end of July 2010 using in situ absorption laser spectroscopy. The δ(18)O values in water vapour were estimated using the δ(2)H-δ(18)O relationship. At a scale of several days, the temporal variations in δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(18)O-H2O are similar. The orders of the daily Keeling plots are almost identical. A possible reason for the similar behaviour of δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(18)O-H2O is considered to be that the air masses with different water vapour isotopic ratios moved into the forest, and changed the atmosphere of the forest. A significant correlation was observed between δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(13)C-CO2 values at nighttime (r(2)≈0.9) due to mixing between soil (and/or leaf) respiration and tropospheric CO2. The ratios of the discrimination coefficients (Δa/Δ) for oxygen (Δa) and carbon (Δ) isotopes during photosynthesis were estimated in the range of 0.7-1.2 from the daytime correlations between δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(13)C-CO2 values.

  2. Measurements of Isotopic Composition of Vapour on the Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, M.; Landais, A.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Genthon, C.; Prie, F.; Kerstel, E.; Kassi, S.; Arnaud, L.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Vignon, E.

    2015-12-01

    The oldest ice core records are obtained on the East Antarctic plateau. The composition in stable isotopes of water (δ18O, δD, δ17O) permits to reconstruct the past climatic conditions over the ice sheet and also at the evaporation source. Paleothermometer accuracy relies on good knowledge of processes affecting the isotopic composition of surface snow in Polar Regions. Both simple models such as Rayleigh distillation and global atmospheric models with isotopes provide good prediction of precipitation isotopic composition in East Antarctica but post deposition processes can alter isotopic composition on site, in particular exchanges with local vapour. To quantitatively interpret the isotopic composition of water archived in ice cores, it is thus essential to study the continuum water vapour - precipitation - surface snow - buried snow. While precipitation and snow sampling are routinely performed in Antarctica, climatic conditions in Concordia, very cold (-55°C in average) and very dry (less than 1000ppmv), impose difficult conditions to measure the water vapour isotopic composition. New developments in infrared spectroscopy enable now the measurement of isotopic composition in water vapour traces (down to 20ppmv). Here we present the results of a campaign of measurement of isotopic composition in Concordia in 2014/2015. Two infrared spectrometers have been deployed or the first time on top of the East Antarctic Plateau allowing a continuous vapour measurement for a month. Comparison of the results from infrared spectroscopy with cryogenic trapping validates the relevance of the method to measure isotopic composition in dry conditions. Identification of different behaviour of isotopic composition in the water vapour associated to turbulent or stratified regime indicates a strong impact of meteorological processes in local vapour/snow interaction.

  3. Erratum to: Measurement of copper vapour laser-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erratum to: Measurement of copper vapour laser-induced deformation of dielectric-coated mirror surface by. Michelson interferometer. A WAHID. ∗. , S KUNDU, J S B SINGH, A K SINGH, A KHATTAR,. S K MAURYA, J S DHUMAL and K DASGUPTA. Laser & Plasma Technology Division, Beam Technology Development ...

  4. Laser-Induced Chemical Vapour Deposition of Silicon Carbonitride

    OpenAIRE

    Besling, W.; van der Put, P.; Schoonman, J.

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced Chemical Vapour Deposition of silicon carbonitride coatings and powders has been investigated using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and ammonia as reactants. An industrial CW CO2-laser in parallel configuration has been used to heat up the reactant gases. HMDS dissociates in the laser beam and reactive radicals are formed which increase rapidly in molecular weight by an addition mechanism. Dense polymer-like silicon carbonitride thin films and nanosized powders are formed depending ...

  5. A rapid method for the sampling of atmospheric water vapour for isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leon I; Yakir, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture is widely applied in the environmental sciences. Traditional methods for obtaining isotopic compositional data from ambient moisture have required complicated sampling procedures, expensive and sophisticated distillation lines, hazardous consumables, and lengthy treatments prior to analysis. Newer laser-based techniques are expensive and usually not suitable for large-scale field campaigns, especially in cases where access to mains power is not feasible or high spatial coverage is required. Here we outline the construction and usage of a novel vapour-sampling system based on a battery-operated Stirling cycle cooler, which is simple to operate, does not require any consumables, or post-collection distillation, and is light-weight and highly portable. We demonstrate the ability of this system to reproduce delta(18)O isotopic compositions of ambient water vapour, with samples taken simultaneously by a traditional cryogenic collection technique. Samples were collected over 1 h directly into autosampler vials and were analysed by mass spectrometry after pyrolysis of 1 microL aliquots to CO. This yielded an average error of distillation lines, slurry maintenance or mains power is not feasible. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Continuous measurements of isotopic composition of water vapour on the East Antarctic Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water stable isotopes in central Antarctic ice cores are critical to quantify past temperature changes. Accurate temperature reconstructions require one to understand the processes controlling surface snow isotopic composition. Isotopic fractionation processes occurring in the atmosphere and controlling snowfall isotopic composition are well understood theoretically and implemented in atmospheric models. However, post-deposition processes are poorly documented and understood. To quantitatively interpret the isotopic composition of water archived in ice cores, it is thus essential to study the continuum between surface water vapour, precipitation, surface snow and buried snow. Here, we target the isotopic composition of water vapour at Concordia Station, where the oldest EPICA Dome C ice cores have been retrieved. While snowfall and surface snow sampling is routinely performed, accurate measurements of surface water vapour are challenging in such cold and dry conditions. New developments in infrared spectroscopy enable now the measurement of isotopic composition in water vapour traces. Two infrared spectrometers have been deployed at Concordia, allowing continuous, in situ measurements for 1 month in December 2014–January 2015. Comparison of the results from infrared spectroscopy with laboratory measurements of discrete samples trapped using cryogenic sampling validates the relevance of the method to measure isotopic composition in dry conditions. We observe very large diurnal cycles in isotopic composition well correlated with temperature diurnal cycles. Identification of different behaviours of isotopic composition in the water vapour associated with turbulent or stratified regime indicates a strong impact of meteorological processes in local vapour/snow interaction. Even if the vapour isotopic composition seems to be, at least part of the time, at equilibrium with the local snow, the slope of δD against δ18O prevents us from identifying

  7. Study of Laser Created Metal Vapour Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    one to two intracavity beam expander and a grating . A 50 cm focal length lens was used to slightly focus the laser beam within the Heat-cross oven...cros ed heat pipe. The incident laser energy was 205 rO. FIG. 1 0 Lower trace is from PDl and represents incident laser pulse. Upper trace corresponds...from 100 to below I i 1%. This had the unfortunate effect of also reduc- ing the already weak ion ISE signal. To compen- sate for this the diameter

  8. Rotatory power of sodium vapour oriented by laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicchi, P. (Siena Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Moi, L.; Zambon, B. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy). Lab. di Fisica Atomica e Moleculare)

    1979-01-11

    In this paper the rotatory power of sodium vapour is studied when laser light is used as pumping as well as analysis light. The possibility of having an analysis light whose frequency may be varied in a range larger than the interval between the D/sub 1/ and D/sub 2/ atomic lines allows us to get for the first time the complete shape of the rotation curve and to measure a rotation different from zero even for frequencies very far from the resonance ones. The complete orientation in the vapour caused by the laser pumping-light power permits to obtain very high rotation values. In a cell containing Na and 200 Torr of Ne, we measured, at 185/sup 0/C, 10/sup 0//cm of specific rotation. The dependence of the optical activity on the buffer gas pressure and on the frequency of the pumping light is also studied.

  9. Modelling and interpreting the isotopic composition of water vapour in convective updrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bolot

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic compositions of water vapour and its condensates have long been used as tracers of the global hydrological cycle, but may also be useful for understanding processes within individual convective clouds. We review here the representation of processes that alter water isotopic compositions during processing of air in convective updrafts and present a unified model for water vapour isotopic evolution within undiluted deep convective cores, with a special focus on the out-of-equilibrium conditions of mixed-phase zones where metastable liquid water and ice coexist. We use our model to show that a combination of water isotopologue measurements can constrain critical convective parameters, including degree of supersaturation, supercooled water content and glaciation temperature. Important isotopic processes in updrafts include kinetic effects that are a consequence of diffusive growth or decay of cloud particles within a supersaturated or subsaturated environment; isotopic re-equilibration between vapour and supercooled droplets, which buffers isotopic distillation; and differing mechanisms of glaciation (droplet freezing vs. the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process. As all of these processes are related to updraft strength, particle size distribution and the retention of supercooled water, isotopic measurements can serve as a probe of in-cloud conditions of importance to convective processes. We study the sensitivity of the profile of water vapour isotopic composition to differing model assumptions and show how measurements of isotopic composition at cloud base and cloud top alone may be sufficient to retrieve key cloud parameters.

  10. One year observation of water vapour isotopic composition at Ivittuut, Southern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Delmotte, Marc; Cattani, Olivier; Sodemann, Harald; Risi, Camille

    2013-04-01

    In September 2011, an automatic continuous water vapour isotopic composition monitoring instrument has been installed in the atmospheric station of Ivittuut (61.21° N, 48.17° W), southern Greenland. Precipitation has been regularly sampled on site at event to weekly scales and analysed in our laboratory for isotopic composition. Meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction) and atmospheric composition (CO2, CH4, Atmospheric Potential Oxygen) are also continuously monitored at Ivittuut. The meteorological context of our observation period will be assessed by comparison with the local climatology. The water vapour analyser is a Picarro Wavelength Scanned Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS, model L2120i). It is automatically and regularly calibrated on the VSMOW scale using measurements of the isotopic composition of vaporized reference water standards using the Picarro Syringe Delivery Module (SDM). As measurements are sensitive to humidity level, an experimentally estimated calibration response function is used to correct our isotopic measurements. After data treatment, successive isotopic measurements of reference waters have a standard deviation of around 0.35 per mil for δ18O and 2.3 per mil for δD. Our instrumentation protocol and data quality control method will be presented, together with our one year δ18O, δD and d-excess measurements in water vapour and precipitation. The relationship between surface water vapour isotopic composition and precipitation isotopic composition will be investigated based on a distillation model. Specific difficulties linked to our low maintenance remote station will also be discussed. The processes responsible for the synoptic variability of Ivittuut water vapour isotopic composition will be investigated by comparing our observational dataset with (i) atmospheric back-trajectories and (ii) results from an isotopically-enabled atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM

  11. Rain- vapour isotopic interaction over the south-west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyil Ravisankar, Lekshmy; Madhavan, Midhun; Rengaswamy, Ramesh

    2015-04-01

    Boundary layer water vapor isotopic composition (δv) is an important factor that controls the isotopic composition of evaporation flux and modulating the δ18O of tree ring cellulose through plant physiological cycle. But due to the difficult sampling procedure for water vapor, δv has rarely been quantified. Since many simple isotopic models require δvas an input, mostly we assume that the water vapor is in isotopic equilibrium with δof monthly rain (δr). Here we present simultaneous observations of water vapour (~ 300 samples) and rainfall (~200 samples) isotopic ratios from two stations in the south-west coast of India (both the stations are located in the west of Western Ghats), sampled during April- October, 2012. Daily rain water and water vapour (cryogenic trapping method) were collected according to the IAEA protocol and the isotopic analyses (D and 18O) were done using a Thermo Fisher Delta V+ Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. We observe that, water vapour and rain are close to the equilibrium values during pre monsoon (April-May, ɛ = δr - δv= 8.9 ± 1.4 ), summer monsoon (June-September, ɛ = 9.0 ± 1.8 ) and North- East (NE) monsoon (October, ɛ = 7.9 ± 2.9 ) seasons. However, some individual rain events show more deviations from the equilibrium values. NE monsoon rainfall and water vapour are isotopically more depleted in 18O compared to the pre monsoon and summer monsoon seasons, in which the depletion is more in rain (~4 ) compared to water vapour (~2 ). This is because of the 18O enrichment of ground level vapour due to local evapo- transpiration (stations are at the leeward side of the Ghats), while rainfall is directly formed from the NE monsoon clouds which is more depleted in 18O. These results will be useful for the interpretation of δ18O of tree rings from south west.

  12. Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Water isotope records such as speleothems provide extensive evidence of past tropical hydrological changes. During Heinrich events, isotopic changes in monsoon regions have been interpreted as implying a widespread drying through the Northern Hemisphere tropics and an anti-phased precipitation response in the south. Here, we examine the sources of this variability using a water isotope-enabled general circulation model, Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We incorporate a new suite of vapour source distribution tracers to help constrain the impact of precipitation source region changes on the isotopic composition of precipitation and to identify nonlocal amount effects. We simulate a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with a large freshwater input to the region as an idealised analogue to iceberg discharge during Heinrich events. An increase in monsoon intensity, defined by vertical wind shear, is modelled over the South American domain, with small decreases simulated over Asia. Simulated isotopic anomalies agree well with proxy climate records, with lighter isotopic values simulated over South America and enriched values across East Asia. For this particular abrupt climate event, we identify which climatic change is most likely linked to water isotope change – changes in local precipitation amount, monsoon intensity, water vapour source distributions or precipitation seasonality. We categorise individual sites according to the climate variability that water isotope changes are most closely associated with, and find that the dominant isotopic controls are not consistent across the tropics – simple local explanations, in particular, fall short of explaining water isotope variability at all sites. Instead, the best interpretations appear to be site specific and often regional in scale.

  13. Laser diagnostics of chemical vapour deposition of diamond films

    CERN Document Server

    Wills, J B

    2002-01-01

    Cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) has been used to make diagnostic measurements of chemically activated CH sub 4 / H sub 2 gas mixtures during the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of thin diamond films. Absolute absorbances, concentrations and temperatures are presented for CH sub 3 , NH and C sub 2 H sub 2 in a hot filament (HF) activated gas mixture and CH, C sub 2 and C sub 2 H sub 2 in a DC arc plasma jet activated mixture. Measurements of the radical species were made using a pulsed dye laser system to generate tuneable visible and UV wavelengths. These species have greatest concentration in the hottest, activated regions of the reactors. Spatial profiling of the number densities of CH sub 3 and NH radicals have been used as stringent tests of predictions of radical absorbance and number densities made by 3-D numerical simulations, with near quantitative agreement. O sub 2 has been shown to reside in the activated region of the Bristol DC arc jet at concentrations (approx 10 sup 1 sup 3 molecules / cm...

  14. Hydrogen and carbon vapour pressure isotope effects in liquid fluoroform studied by density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, Takao; Mitome, Ryota; Yanase, Satoshi [Sophia Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    2017-06-01

    H/D and {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C vapour pressure isotope effects (VPIEs) in liquid fluoroform (CHF{sub 3}) were studied at the MPW1PW91/6-31 ++ G(d) level of theory. The CHF{sub 3} monomer and CHF{sub 3} molecules surrounded by other CHF{sub 3} molecules in every direction in CHF{sub 3} clusters were used as model molecules of vapour and liquid CHF{sub 3}. Although experimental results in which the vapour pressure of liquid {sup 12}CHF{sub 3} is higher than that of liquid {sup 12}CDF{sub 3} and the vapour pressure of liquid {sup 13}CHF{sub 3} is higher than that of liquid {sup 12}CHF{sub 3} between 125 and 212 K were qualitatively reproduced, the present calculations overestimated the H/D VPIE and underestimated the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C VPIE. Temperature-dependent intermolecular interactions between hydrogen and fluorine atoms of neighbouring molecules were required to explain the temperature dependences of both H/D and {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C VPIEs.

  15. Influence of sea ice cover on evaporation and water vapour isotopic composition in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Werner, Martin; Meyer, Hanno; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Rabe, Benjamin; Behrens, Melanie; Schönicke, Lutz; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian

    2017-04-01

    Since July 2015, water stable isotopes (HDO and H218O) have been measured at two Arctic facilities: during the summer on board of the research vessel Polarstern, and year-round at the Siberian coastal site of Samoylov, situated in the Lena delta (N 72°22', E 126°29'), close to the Laptev Sea. In both places, the isotopic composition of water vapour is analysed continuously in surface air. Additional isotopic measurements are performed on a daily basis in ocean surface water samples taken on Polarstern and on an event basis from precipitation sampled in Samoylov. The two Polarstern summer campaigns cover a large region of the western Artic Ocean, including a one-month campaign in the central and eastern Arctic crossing the North Pole in September 2015, with very cold conditions (up to -20°C). Combining ocean and atmospheric observations from Polarstern allows an evaluation of local surface water evaporation and its isotopic fingerprint relative to the oceanic and meteorological conditions as well as the partial sea ice cover. In the central and eastern Arctic, a large area of complete sea ice cover also revealed a strong impact on the advected moisture above the ice cap under very cold conditions. A first year of Siberian observations at Samoylov depicted a large seasonal variability, with extremely dry and isotopically depleted winter values. Contrasted seasonal isotopic regimes might be utilized for identifying moisture sources changes in the region, such as ocean surface closure by sea ice, or freezing of the Lena River. Besides documenting the present meteorology and changes in the Arctic, our measurements will contribute to a better interpretation of regional paleoclimate records based on water isotopes and to the evaluation of climate models in the Arctic. A first model-data comparison of our measurements with simulation results by the isotope-enabled atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso have revealed relevant model biases in the Arctic realm.

  16. Towards absolute laser spectroscopic CO2 isotope ratio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of isotope composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is necessary to identify sources and sinks of this key greenhouse gas. In the last years, laser spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) have been shown to perform accurate isotope ratio measurements for CO2 and other gases like water vapour (H2O) [1,2]. Typically, isotope ratios are reported in literature referring to reference materials provided by e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, there could be some benefit if field deployable absolute isotope ratio measurement methods were developed to address issues such as exhausted reference material like the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard. Absolute isotope ratio measurements would be particularly important for situations where reference materials do not even exist. Here, we present CRDS and TDLAS-based absolute isotope ratios (13C/12C ) in atmospheric CO2. We demonstrate the capabilities of the used methods by measuring CO2 isotope ratios in gas standards. We compare our results to values reported for the isotope certified gas standards. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant uncertainty budgets on the CRDS and TDLAS absolute isotope ratio measurements are presented, and traceability is addressed. We outline the current impediments in realizing high accuracy absolute isotope ratio measurements using laser spectroscopic methods, propose solutions and the way forward. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] B. Kühnreich, S. Wagner, J. C. Habig,·O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, V. Ebert, Appl. Phys. B 119:177-187 (2015). [2] E. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439-449 (2008).

  17. Measuring variations of δ18O and δ2H in atmospheric water vapour using two commercial laser-based spectrometers: an instrument characterisation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfahl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Variations of stable water isotopes in water vapour have become measurable at a measurement frequency of about 1 Hz in recent years using novel laser spectroscopic techniques. This enables us to perform continuous measurements for process-based investigations of the atmospheric water cycle at the time scales relevant for synoptic and mesoscale meteorology. An important prerequisite for the interpretation of data from automated field measurements lasting for several weeks or months is a detailed knowledge about instrument properties and the sources of measurement uncertainty. We present here a comprehensive characterisation and comparison study of two commercial laser spectroscopic systems based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (Picarro and off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Research. The uncertainty components of the measurements were first assessed in laboratory experiments, focussing on the effects of (i water vapour mixing ratio, (ii measurement stability, (iii uncertainties due to calibration and (iv response times of the isotope measurements due to adsorption-desorption processes on the tubing and measurement cavity walls. Based on the experience from our laboratory experiments, we set up a one-week field campaign for comparing measurements of the ambient isotope signals from the two laser spectroscopic systems. The optimal calibration strategy determined for both instruments was applied as well as the correction functions for water vapour mixing ratio effects. The root mean square difference between the isotope signals from the two instruments during the field deployment was 2.3‰ for δ2H, 0.5‰ for δ18O and 3.1‰ for deuterium excess. These uncertainty estimates from field measurements compare well to those found in the laboratory experiments. The present quality of measurements from laser spectroscopic instruments combined with a calibration system opens new possibilities for investigating the atmospheric

  18. Copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubarev, F A; Fedorov, K V; Evtushenko, G S [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fedorov, V F; Shiyanov, D V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    We report the development of a copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns. To lengthen the pulse, the discharge current was limited using a compound switch comprising a pulsed hydrogen thyratron and a tacitron. This technique permits limiting the excitation of the working levels at the initial stage of the discharge development to lengthen the inversion lifetime. The longest duration of a laser pulse was reached in tubes 25 and 50 mm in diameter for a pulse repetition rate of 2 – 4 kHz. (lasers and laser beams)

  19. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  20. Investigation of the vapour-plasma plume in the welding of titanium by high-power ytterbium fibre laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovskiy, D. P.; Petrovskii, V. N.; Uspenskiy, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The vapour-plasma plume produced in the welding of 6-mm thick VT-23 titanium alloy plates by ytterbium fibre laser radiation of up to 10 kW power is studied in the protective Ar gas medium. High-speed video filming of the vapour-plasma plume is used to visualise the processes occurring during laser welding. The coefficient of inverse bremsstrahlung by the welding plasma plume is calculated from the data of the spectrometric study.

  1. Enhanced performance of a wide-aperture copper vapour laser with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... A wide-aperture copper vapour laser was demonstrated at ∼ 10 kHz rep-rate with hydrogen additive in its buffer gas. Maximum power in excess of ∼ 50 W (at 10 kHz) was achieved by adding 1.96% hydrogen to the neon buffer gas at 20 mbar total gas pressure. This increase in output power was about ...

  2. Measurement of copper vapour laser-induced deformation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-14

    Feb 14, 2014 ... Author Affiliations. A Wahid1 S Kundu1 J S B Singh1 A K Singh1 A Khattar1 S K Maurya1 J S Dhumal1 K Dasgupta1. Laser & Plasma Technology Division, Beam Technology Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India ...

  3. Water Vapour Propulsion Powered by a High-Power Laser-Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Y.; Uchida, S.

    Most of the laser propulsion schemes now being proposed and developed assume neither power supplies nor on-board laser devices and therefore are bound to remote laser stations like a kite via a laser beam “string”. This is a fatal disadvantage for a space vehicle that flies freely though it is often said that no need of installing an energy source is an advantage of a laser propulsion scheme. The possibility of an independent laser propulsion space vehicle that carries a laser source and a power supply on board is discussed. This is mainly due to the latest development of high power laser diode (LD) technology. Both high specific impulse-low thrust mode and high thrust-low specific impulse mode can be selected by controlling the laser output by using vapour or water as a propellant. This mode change can be performed by switching between a high power continuous wave (cw), LD engine for high thrust with a low specific impulse mode and high power LD pumping Q-switched Nd:YAG laser engine for low thrust with the high specific impulse mode. This paper describes an Orbital Transfer Vehicle equipped with the above-mentioned laser engine system and fuel cell that flies to the Moon from a space platform or space hotel in Earth orbit, with cargo shipment from lunar orbit to the surface of the Moon, including the possibility of a sightseeing trip.

  4. Partitioning understory evapotranspiration in semi-arid ecosystems in Namibia using the isotopic composition of water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Gaj, Marcel; Holtorf, Kim-Kirsten; Gröngröft, Alexander; Brokate, Ralph; Himmelsbach, Thomas; Eschenbach, Annette

    2016-04-01

    In dry environments with a sparse vegetation cover, understory evapotranspiration is a major component of the ecosystem water balance. Consequently, knowledge on the size of evapotranspiration fluxes and the driving factors is important for our understanding of the hydrological cycle. Understory evapotranspiration is made up of soil evaporation and plant transpiration. Soil evaporation can be measured directly from patches free of vegetation. However, when understory vegetation is present distinguishing between soil evaporation and plant transpiration is challenging. In this study, we aim to partition understory evapotranspiration based on an approach that combines the measurements of water-vapour fluxes using the closed chamber method with measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapour. The measurements were done in the framework of SASSCAL (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management). The study sites were located in three different semi-arid ecosystems in Namibia: thornbush savanna, Baikiaea woodland and shrubland. At each site measurements were done under tree canopies as well as at unshaded areas between the canopies. We measured evaporation from the bare soil and evapotranspiration from patches covered with herbaceous species and shrubs using a transparent chamber connected with an infrared gas analyser (LI-8100A, LICOR Inc.). The stable isotope composition of water vapour inside the chamber and depth profiles of soil water stable isotopes were determined in-situ using a tuneable off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscope (OA-ICOS, Los Gatos Research, DLT 100). Xylem samples were extracted using the cryogenic vacuum extraction method and the isotopic composition of the extracted water was measured subsequently with a cavity-ring-down spectrometer (CRDS L2120-i, Picarro Inc.). We will present the quantified fluxes of understory evapotranspiration measured in the three different ecosystems, show the

  5. Isotopic resolution of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide by NIR diode laser spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Steffen; Salffner, Katharina; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectroscopy with tunable diode lasers allows the simultaneous detection of the three most important isotopologues of carbon dioxide (12CO2, 13CO2, 12C18O16O) and carbon monoxide (12CO, 13CO, 12C18O). The flexible and compact fiber-optic tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) allows selective measurements of CO2 and CO with high isotopic resolution without sample preparation since there is no interference with water vapour. For each species, linear ...

  6. Development of a laser system of the laboratory AVLIS complex for producing isotopes and radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'yachkov, A. B.; Gorkunov, A. A.; Labozin, A. V.; Mironov, S. M.; Panchenko, V. Ya; Firsov, V. A.; Tsvetkov, G. O.

    2018-01-01

    The use of atomic vapour laser isotope separation (AVLIS) for solving a number of urgent problems (formation of 177Lu radionuclides for medical applications, 63Ni radionuclides for betavoltaic power supplies and 150Nd isotope for searching for neutrinoless double β decay and neutrino mass) is considered. An efficient threestep scheme of photoionisation of neodymium atoms through the 50474-cm-1 autoionising state with radiation wavelengths of the corresponding stages of λ1 = 6289.7 Å, λ2 = 5609.4 Å and λ3 = 5972.1 Å is developed. The average saturation intensity of the autoionising transition is ~6 W cm-2, a value consistent with the characteristics of the previously developed photoionisation schemes for lutetium and nickel. A compact laser system for the technological AVLIS complex, designed to produce radionuclides and isotopes under laboratory conditions, is developed based on the experimental results.

  7. The stable isotopic composition of water vapour above Corsica during the HyMeX SOP1 campaign: insight into vertical mixing processes from lower-tropospheric survey flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, Harald; Aemisegger, Franziska; Pfahl, Stephan; Bitter, Mark; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Feuerle, Thomas; Graf, Pascal; Hankers, Rolf; Hsiao, Gregor; Schulz, Helmut; Wieser, Andreas; Wernli, Heini

    2017-05-01

    Stable isotopes of water vapour are powerful indicators of meteorological processes on a broad range of scales, reflecting evaporation, condensation, and air mass mixing processes. With the recent advent of fast laser-based spectroscopic methods, it has become possible to measure the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapour in situ at a high temporal resolution. Here we present results from such comprehensive airborne spectroscopic isotope measurements in water vapour over the western Mediterranean at a high spatial and temporal resolution. Measurements have been acquired by a customized Picarro L2130-i cavity-ring down spectrometer deployed onboard the Dornier 128 D-IBUF aircraft together with a meteorological flux measurement package during the HyMeX SOP1 (Hydrological cycle in Mediterranean Experiment special observation period 1) field campaign in Corsica, France, during September and October 2012. Taking into account memory effects of the air inlet pipe, the typical time resolution of the measurements was about 15-30 s, resulting in an average horizontal resolution of about 1-2 km. Cross-calibration of the water vapour measurements from all humidity sensors showed good agreement under most flight conditions but the most turbulent ones. In total 21 successful stable isotope flights with 59 flight hours have been performed. Our data provide quasi-climatological autumn average conditions and vertical profiles of the stable isotope parameters δD, δ18O, and d-excess during the study period. A d-excess minimum in the overall average profile is reached in the region of the boundary-layer top, possibly caused by precipitation evaporation. This minimum is bracketed by higher d-excess values near the surface caused by non-equilibrium fractionation, and a maximum above the boundary layer related to the increasing d-excess in very depleted and dry high-altitude air masses. Repeated flights along the same pattern reveal pronounced day-to-day variability

  8. Line-shape study of water vapour by tunable diode laser spectrometer in the 822 832 nm wavelength region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Ray, B.; Biswas, D.; Ghosh, P. N.

    2004-11-01

    A near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer is set up to measure the air-induced broadening coefficients and the line-strength parameters of water-vapour overtone transitions within the (2,1,1)←(0,0,0) band in the 822 832 nm wavelength region. A Hitachi HL8311 E double hetero-junction structure diode laser is used as a probe. The diode laser controller is home-built and stable within ±10 μA and ±10 mK, respectively. The laser-head mount has a simple design and provides easy access whenever changing of the laser head is required. The diode laser emission wavelength is thermally tuned between 50 °C and 12 °C. Thermal tuning of the diode laser emission wavelength is used to reveal the mode structure of the diode laser and to probe the overtone-band transitions of water vapour within its operating wavelength range. Current tuning of the diode laser is used at a fixed laser temperature to study the transitions one at a time. A balanced detector is used to improve the S/N ratio of the spectrum. A phase sensitive detection technique is followed to obtain the first-derivative spectra of the overtone transitions. The first-derivative spectra have been recorded at different air pressures inside the sample cell while the water-vapour pressure is kept fixed. The first-derivative spectrum is numerically integrated to obtain the original line shape. The original line shape is fitted with a Voigt profile by using a nonlinear least-squares fit program to extract the air-broadening coefficient and the line-strength parameter. The data obtained in our work is compared with the results of the HITRAN database.

  9. Laser spectroscopy of neutron deficient Sn isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the ground state properties of neutron-deficient Sn isotopes towards the doubly-magic nucleus $^{100}$Sn. Nuclear spins, changes in the rms charge radii and electromagnetic moments of $^{101-121}$Sn will be measured by laser spectroscopy using the CRIS experimental beam line. These ground-state properties will help to clarify the evolution of nuclear structure properties approaching the $\\textit{N = Z =}$ 50 shell closures. The Sn isotopic chain is currently the frontier for the application of state-of-the-art ab-initio calculations. Our knowledge of the nuclear structure of the Sn isotopes will set a benchmark for the advances of many-body methods, and will provide an important test for modern descriptions of the nuclear force.

  10. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in wood constituents of Pinus halepensis as indicators of precipitation, temperature and vapour pressure deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrio, J.P.; Voltas, J. [E.T.S.E.A.-Universitat de Lleida (Spain). Dept. de Produccio Vegetal i Ciencia Forestal

    2005-04-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions ({delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 18}O) in tree rings have been shown to bear relevant climatic signals. However, little is known about the interrelationship between both isotopes in wood constituents for species from other than relatively wet climates. We hypothesized that in a species adapted to temporary droughts (e.g. Pinus halepensis Mill.) the signal derived from {delta}{sup 18}O in precipitation would be hidden by the strong variability in leaf transpirative enrichment. To test this assumption, we compared the effect of precipitation, temperature and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C along 23 sites covering the ecological range for this species. We extracted the cores from the south side of four to six adult dominant trees per aspect (north/south) within each site. For each aspect and site, fragments of the period 1975-1999 were pooled and milled to a fine powder. To further test the postulated need for cellulose purification in the assessment of climatic information, we studied these relationships in whole and extracted wood, holocellulose and lignin. In all wood fractions, {delta}{sup 13}C was related to annual precipitation [r=0.58 (P< 0.01) to 0.78 (P< 0.001)] and VPD [r=0.53 (P< 0.01) to 0.57 (P< 0.01)]. In contrast, for {delta}{sup 18}O only holocellulose showed consistent relationships with climatic data, being strongly significant for VPD [r=0.66 (P< 0.001)]. However, it was unrelated to modelled {delta}{sup 18}O in precipitation, confirming that transpirative enrichment (driven by VPD) dampened the source signal in P. halepensis. The relationships between {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O were generally poor, regardless of the wood constituent, suggesting that although both variables were somewhat related to transpirative demand, they were relatively independent. This was further confirmed by building stepwise models using both isotopes to predict annual and seasonal

  11. Recent results on neutron rich tin isotopes by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J E; Essabaa, S; Fedosseev, V; Geithner, W; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Horn, R; Kappertz, S; Lassen, J; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Le Scornet, G; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Neugart, R; Obert, J; Oms, J; Ouchrif, A; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Ravn, H L; Sauvage, J; Verney, D

    2001-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron rich tin isotopes using the COMPLIS experimental setup. The nuclear charge radii of the even-even isotopes from A=108 to 132 are compared to the results of macroscopic and microscopic calculations. The improvements and optimizations needed to perform the isotope shift measurement on $^{134}$Sn are presented.

  12. The δ18O of Atmospheric Water Vapour is Recorded in the Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Leaf water and Organic Molecules at High Relative Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, M. M.; Goldsmith, G. R.; Schmid, L.; Siegwolf, R. T.; Gessler, A.; Saurer, M.

    2016-12-01

    The oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ18O) of water and organic molecules in plants hold information about plant physiology, ecohydrology, and environmental conditions. For instance, the δ18O ratio of leaf water reflects both the δ18O ratios of water in the soil and in the atmosphere. This water, which is incorporated into organic molecules at the time of synthesis, thus serves to record the environment in which the plant was growing. However, how δ18O of atmospheric water vapour affects the δ18O ratio of organic molecules remains poorly understood. In order to investigate the effects of fog and rain (e.g. high atmospheric water availability) on δ18O ratios of leaf water and organic molecules, we exposed oak tree saplings (Quercus robur) in wet and dry soil treatments to 18O-depleted water vapour at ca. 90% relative humidity for 5 h. We harvested plant material over 24 h to trace the movement of the isotopic label in water and organics throughout the plant from the leaves to the stem. The atmospheric water vapour caused a strong 18O-depletion in leaf and xylem water, as well as in leaf carbohydrates, with the most negative ratios observed at the end of the fogging. Moreover, the label was clearly observed in twig and stem phloem carbohydrates following a short delay. A detailed compound-specific isotope analysis of the leaf carbohydrates revealed that the label caused an 18O-depletion in fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Quercitol, an oak-specific alditol, did not show 18O-depletion. Clear soil moisture treatment effects were only observed for twig phloem carbohydrates, with a stronger 18O-depletion in wet plants than in dry plants, suggesting retarded leaf-to-phloem sugar export in trees under drought. We demonstrate that labelling with 18O-depleted water is a potential tool to trace the movement and incorporation of oxygen stable isotopes in plants. We clearly show that changes in δ18O of atmospheric water vapour are quickly imprinted on leaf water and

  13. Advances in laser-based isotope ratio measurements : selected applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstel, E.; Gianfrani, L.

    Small molecules exhibit characteristic ro-vibrational transitions in the near- and mid-infrared spectral regions, which are strongly influenced by isotopic substitution. This gift of nature has made it possible to use laser spectroscopy for the accurate analysis of the isotopic composition of

  14. Atomic Beam Laser Spectrometer for In-field Isotopic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Actinide Analytical Chemistry Group

    2016-06-22

    This is a powerpoint presentation for the DTRA quarterly program review that goes into detail about the atomic beam laser spectrometer for in-field isotopic analysis. The project goals are the following: analysis of post-detonation debris, determination of U and Pu isotopic composition, and fieldable prototype: < 2ft3, < 1000W.

  15. Laser spectroscopy of gallium isotopes using the ISCOOL RFQ cooler

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Kowalska, M; Ware, T; Procter, T J

    2007-01-01

    We propose to study the radioisotopes of gallium (Z=31) by collinear laser spectroscopy using the ISCOOL RFQ ion cooler. The proposed measurements on $^{62-83}$Ga will span both neutron-deficient and neutron-rich isotopes. Of key interest is the suggested development of a proton-skin in the neutron-deficient isotopes. The isotope shifts measured by laser spectroscopy will be uniquely sensitive to this feature. The measurements will also provide a wealth of new information on the gallium nuclear spins, static moments and nuclear charge radii.

  16. Increasing the output power of single 808-nm laser diodes using diamond submounts produced by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashkinazi, E E; Bezotosnyi, V V; Bondarev, Vadim Yu; Kovalenko, V I; Konov, Vitalii I; Krokhin, Oleg N; Oleshchenko, V A; Pevtsov, Valerii F; Popov, Yurii M; Popovich, A F; Ral' chenko, Viktor G; Cheshev, E A

    2012-11-30

    We have designed and fabricated submounts from synthetic diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition and developed an economical process for metallising such submounts. Laser diode chips having an 808-nm emission wavelength, 3-mm-long cavity and 130-mm-wide stripe contact were mounted on copper heat sinks with the use of diamond submounts differing in quality. The devices were tested for more than 150 h in continuous mode at an output power of 8 W on diamond with a thermal conductivity of 700 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, and no changes in their output power were detected. On diamond with a thermal conductivity of 1600 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, stable cw operation for 24 h at an output power of 12 W was demonstrated. (letters)

  17. Development of Laser Application Technology for Stable Isotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Do Young; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Kwon, Duck Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Tl-203 is used as a source material to produce Tl-201 radioisotope which is produced in a cyclotron by irradiating the enriched Tl-203 target. Tl-201 is a radiopharmaceutical for SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) to diagnose heart diseases and tumors. This Project aim to develop laser application technology to product stable isotopes such as Tl-203, Yb-168, and Yb-176. For this, photoion extraction device, atomic beam generator, dye lasers, and high power IR lasers are developed.

  18. Matrix effects in laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Staci, E-mail: staci.brown@cepast.famu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida A and M University, 2077 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Ford, Alan, E-mail: alan.ford@alakaidefense.com [Alakai Defense Systems, 197 Replacement Ave, Suite 102, Fort Leonard Wood, MO 65473 (United States); Akpovo, Charlemagne C., E-mail: charlemagne.akpovo@cepast.famu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida A and M University, 2077 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Martinez, Jorge, E-mail: jmartinez@cepast.famu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida A and M University, 2077 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Johnson, Lewis, E-mail: lewis@cepast.famu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida A and M University, 2077 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can be used for the detection of isotopes of elements via isotopic shifts in diatomic species in a technique known as laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry (LAMIS). While LAMIS works quite well for isotopic analysis of pure compounds under optimal conditions, it is desirable for it to be applicable for a variety of compounds and matrices. However, the LIBS plasma emission associated with LAMIS depends on several parameters, including the applied electric field of the laser pulse, the physical properties of the material being investigated, and the presence of additional elements other than the element of interest. In this paper, we address some of the pitfalls arising from these dependencies when using LAMIS for the determination of the relative isotopic abundance of boron-containing materials with varying chemical matrices. - Highlights: • LAMIS usually determines isotopic composition of boron compounds within 3 percent. • LaBO{sub 3} and some boron-containing mixtures yield inaccurate LAMIS results. • Higher laser energy reduces variability but does not remedy poor LAMIS outcomes.

  19. The study of nitrogen inclusion in carbon nanotubes obtained by catalytic laser-induced chemical vapour deposition (C-LCVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morjan, I. P.; Morjan, I.; Ilie, A.; Scarisoreanu, M.; Gavrila, L.; Dumitrache, F.; Vasile, E.; Turcu, R.; Miron, C.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes were grown on Fe2O3 nanoparticles deposited on silicon substrates, by laser-induced chemical vapour deposition of acetylene/ammonia mixtures. The concentration of the nitrogen has been controlled in the range 1-6 atomic% by adjusting the flow rate of ammonia, pressure and laser power. XPS and Raman spectroscopy were used to quantitatively assess the compositional and structural properties of the nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (Nsbnd CNTs). First order Raman spectra were deconvoluted assuming five vibrational modes and the integrated peak intensity ratio ID/IG and I2D/IG of all samples are displayed. We demonstrate that the relative amount of sp2 Cdbnd C carbon has the same trend as ID4/IG and the pyrrolic relative amount exhibits the same trend as I2D4/IG. The high resolution TEM images are consistent with the Raman and XPS results, revealing that the surface of the Nsbnd CNTs outer walls becomes more distorted at the highest content of N while the inner walls of the nanotube preserve a high crystallinity, corresponding to the lowest ID/IG ratio.

  20. Laser spectrometer for CO2 clumped isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Ivan; Kluge, Tobias; Janssen, Christof

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide clumped isotope thermometry has proven to be a reliable method for biogeochemical and atmospheric research. We present a new laser spectroscopic instrument for doubly-substituted isotopologues analysis. In contrast to a conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), tunable laser direct absorption spectroscopy (TLDAS) has the advantage of isotopologue-specific determination free of isobaric interferences. Tunable infrared laser based spectrometer for clumped isotope analysis is being developed in collaboration between Heidelberg University, Germany, and LERMA-IPSL, CNRS, France. The instrument employs two continuous intraband cascade lasers (ICL) tuned at 4439 and 4329 nm. The spectral windows covered by the lasers contain absorption lines of the six most abundant CO2 isotopologues, including the two doubly substituted species 16O13C18O and 16O13C17O, and all singly substituted isotopologues with 13C, 18O and 17O. A Herriott-type multi-pass cell provides two different absorption pathlengths to compensate the abundance difference between singly- and doubly-substituted isotopologues. We have reached the sub-permill precision required for clumped isotope measurements within the integration time of several seconds. The test version of the instrument demonstrates a performance comparable to state of the art IRMS. We highlight the following features of the instrument that are strong advantages compared to conventional mass spectrometry: measurement cycle in the minute range, simplified sample preparation routine, table-top layout with a potential for in-situ applications.

  1. Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron Rich Bismuth Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS344 :\\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is to measure the optical isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of bismuth isotopes across the N=126 shell closure in order to extract the change in mean square charge radii ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle$) and static moments. These include the first isotones of lead to be measured directly above the shell closure and will provide new information on the systematics of the kink ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle)$ seen in the lead isotopic chain. After two very successful runs the programme has been extended to include the neutron deficient isotopes below $^{201}$Bi to study the systematics across the $i_{13/2}$ neutron sub-shell closure at N=118.\\\\ \\\\ During the initial 2 runs (9 shifts) the isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of three new isotopes, $ ^{210,212,213}$Bi and the 9$^{-}$ isomer of $^{210}$Bi have been measured. The accuracy of the previous measurements of $^{205,206,208}$Bi have been greatly improved. The samples of $ ^{208,210,210^{m}}$Bi were prepared by c...

  2. Development and airborne operation of a compact water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannone, Rosario Q.; Kassi, Samir; Jost, Hans-Juerg; Chenevier, Marc; Romanini, Daniele; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dhaniyala, Suresh; Snels, Marcel; Kerstel, Erik R. T.; Jost, Hans-Jürg

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive laser spectrometer, named IRIS (water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer), was developed for the in situ detection of the isotopic composition of water vapour in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Isotope ratio measurements can be used to quantify troposphere-stratosphere

  3. Enhanced performance of a wide-aperture copper vapour laser with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kW of electrical power under various combinations of storage capacitor, charging voltage and operating frequency (repetition-rate). 3. Results and discussion. After assembly and proper conditioning of the laser head to the extent that it was suitable for experiments with additives, the CVL was operated with pure neon and.

  4. Large Deformation Change in Iridium Isotopes from Laser Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Verney; L. Cabaret; J. Crawford; H.T. Duong; J. Genevey; G. Hubert; F. Ibrahim; M. Krieg; F. Le Blanc; J.K.P. Lee; G. Le Scornet; D. Lunney; J. Obert; J. Oms; J. Pinard; J.C. Putaux; B. Roussiere; J. Sauvage; V. Sebastian

    1999-12-31

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron-deficient iridium isotopes. The hyperfine structure and isotope shift of the optical Ir I transition 5d{sup 7}6s{sup 2} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} {yields}5d{sup 7}6s6p {sup 6}F{sub 11/2} have been studied for the {sup 182-189}Ir, {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and {sup 191,193}Ir isotopes. The nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments were obtained from the hyperfine splitting measurements and the changes of the mean square charge radii from the isotope shift measurements. A large deformation change between {sup 187}Ir and {sup 186}Ir and between {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and {sup 186}Ir{sup g} has been observed.

  5. Laser spectroscopy on neutron rich sodium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, G; Jacquinot, P; Juncar, P; Klapisch, Robert; Liberman, S; Pinard, J; Thibault, C; Vialle, J L

    1976-01-01

    The authors describe results with single-mode dye lasers in high- resolution atomic line spectroscopy. Optical pumping and magnetic resonance detection of Na D-lines provide values of static nuclear groundstate properties.

  6. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Dynamics of a plasma formed by a surface optical-discharge in a metal vapour interacting with a cw CO2 laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, A. E.; Levin, A. V.; Petrov, A. L.

    1995-02-01

    A surface optical-discharge plasma was formed in a metal vapour under normal conditions by steady-state irradiation with a cw CO2 laser delivering radiation of moderate (2-4.5 MW cm-2) intensity. This plasma strongly screened the irradiated surface. Under the selected experimental conditions the optical discharge was not a continuous (steady-state) process. The plasma cloud was displaced along the beam out of the waist to a region where the laser radiation intensity was almost an order of magnitude less than the threshold for excitation of the optical-discharge plasma in the vapour. A strong screening of the metal surface, which could even completely stop evaporation of the metal, was observed. Self-oscillations of the optical-discharge plasma were observed for the first time in a vapour interacting with cw CO2 radiation: this was attributed to screening of the target surface. Within one period of the self-oscillations there were additional hf plasma pulsations which led to stratification of the plasma cloud. The results obtained were interpreted.

  7. High-resolution laser spectroscopy of nickel isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    This proposal aims to measure the nuclear ground-state spins, moments and mean-square charge radii of $^{56-71}$Ni using collinear laser spectroscopy. This will enable direct measurements of isotopes in the region of shell closure $^{56}$Ni, structural change $^{68}$Ni and monopole migration beyond N = 40. Optical spectroscopy serves as a detailed probe not only of the changing single-particle behaviour, but also for the study of collective properties such as size and shape. Measurements of the most neutron-rich isotopes available at ISOLDE will critically test models which seek to extrapolate the data to the doubly magic region of $^{78}$Ni.

  8. Nuclear moments of neutron deficient iridium isotopes from laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verney, D.; Le Blanc, F. [IN2P3 CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (France); Cabaret, L. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton (France); Crawford, J. [McGill University, Physics Department (Canada); Duong, H.T. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton (France); Genevey, J. [IN2P3 CNRS/UJF, Institut des Sciences Nucleaires (France); Huber, G. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Ibrahim, F. [IN2P3 CNRS/UJF, Institut des Sciences Nucleaires (France); Krieg, M. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Lee, J.K.P. [McGill University, Physics Department (Canada); Lunney, D. [IN2P3 CNRS, CSNSM (France); Obert, J.; Oms, J. [IN2P3 CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (France); Pinard, J. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton (France); Putaux, J.C.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J. [IN2P3 CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (France); Sebastian, V. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2000-08-15

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron deficient iridium isotopes. The hyperfine structure and isotope shift of the optical Ir I transition 5d{sup 7}6s{sup 24}F{sub 9/2} {sup {yields}} 5d{sup 7}6s6p {sup 6}F{sub 11/2} at 351.5 nm have been studied for the {sup 182-189}Ir, {sup 186}Ir{sup 1}m and {sup 191,193}Ir isotopes. The nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments were obtained from the HFS measurements and the changes of the mean square charge radii from the IS measurements. A large mean square charge radius change between {sup 187}Ir and {sup 186}Ir and between {sup 186}Ir{sup 1}m and {sup 186}Ir{sup 1}g has been observed.

  9. Standoff Detection of Uranium and its Isotopes by Femtosecond Filament Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Kyle C; Ghebregziabher, Isaac; Jovanovic, Igor

    2017-03-08

    The ability to perform not only elementally but also isotopically sensitive detection and analysis at standoff distances is impor-tant for remote sensing applications in diverse ares, such as nuclear nonproliferation, environmental monitoring, geophysics, and planetary science. We demonstrate isotopically sensitive real-time standoff detection of uranium by the use of femtosecond filament-induced laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry. A uranium oxide molecular emission isotope shift of 0.05 ± 0.007 nm is reported at 593.6 nm. We implement both spectroscopic and acoustic diagnostics to characterize the properties of uranium plasma generated at different filament-uranium interaction points. The resulting uranium oxide emis-sion exhibits a nearly constant signal-to-background ratio over the length of the filament, unlike the uranium atomic and ionic emission, for which the signal-to-background ratio varies significantly along the filament propagation. This is explained by the different rates of increase of plasma density and uranium oxide density along the filament length resulting from spectral and temporal evolution of the filament along its propagation. The results provide a basis for the optimal use of filaments for standoff detection and analysis of uranium isotopes and indicate the potential of the technique for a wider range of remote sensing applications that require isotopic sensitivity.

  10. Standoff Detection of Uranium and its Isotopes by Femtosecond Filament Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Kyle C.; Ghebregziabher, Isaac; Jovanovic, Igor

    2017-03-01

    The ability to perform not only elementally but also isotopically sensitive detection and analysis at standoff distances is impor-tant for remote sensing applications in diverse ares, such as nuclear nonproliferation, environmental monitoring, geophysics, and planetary science. We demonstrate isotopically sensitive real-time standoff detection of uranium by the use of femtosecond filament-induced laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry. A uranium oxide molecular emission isotope shift of 0.05 ± 0.007 nm is reported at 593.6 nm. We implement both spectroscopic and acoustic diagnostics to characterize the properties of uranium plasma generated at different filament-uranium interaction points. The resulting uranium oxide emis-sion exhibits a nearly constant signal-to-background ratio over the length of the filament, unlike the uranium atomic and ionic emission, for which the signal-to-background ratio varies significantly along the filament propagation. This is explained by the different rates of increase of plasma density and uranium oxide density along the filament length resulting from spectral and temporal evolution of the filament along its propagation. The results provide a basis for the optimal use of filaments for standoff detection and analysis of uranium isotopes and indicate the potential of the technique for a wider range of remote sensing applications that require isotopic sensitivity.

  11. Laser isotope separation and proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, Werner

    2015-02-15

    There is an ongoing discussion on the proliferation danger of laser enrichment of uranium by the Silex process. Here this risk is compared to that of other processes, in particular centrifuges. The two methods need a similar size of the plant for a comparable production rate (in separative work units per year) and the time and costs for their construction do not differ much. This conclusion from published material does not depend on technical details of Silex. But enough details are known to allow for additional conclusions: Whereas the selectivity (enrichment factor) in the Silex process seems higher, the energy consumption is probably larger. Due to the laser's repetition rate being insufficient for the molecular beam, the method has probably a low depletion factor; this is a serious disadvantage for cascading for high enrichment such as for bomb uranium, although it may be acceptable for low enrichment without cascading for reactor purposes.

  12. The Leuven isotope separator on-line laser ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, Y; Franchoo, S; Huyse, M; Gentens, J; Kruglov, K; Müller, W F; Prasad, N V S; Raabe, R; Reusen, I; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Van Roosbroeck, J; Vermeeren, L; Weissman, L

    2002-01-01

    An element-selective laser ion source has been used to produce beams of exotic radioactive nuclei and to study their decay properties. The operational principle of the ion source is based on selective resonant laser ionization of nuclear reaction products thermalized and neutralized in a noble gas at high pressure. The ion source has been installed at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL), which is coupled on-line to the cyclotron accelerator at Louvain-la-Neuve. sup 5 sup 4 sup , sup 5 sup 5 Ni and sup 5 sup 4 sup , sup 5 sup 5 Co isotopes were produced in light-ion-induced fusion reactions. Exotic nickel, cobalt and copper nuclei were produced in proton-induced fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U. The b decay of the sup 6 sup 8 sup - sup 7 sup 4 Ni, sup 6 sup 7 sup - sup 7 sup 0 Co, sup 7 sup 0 sup - sup 7 sup 5 Cu and sup 1 sup 1 sup 0 sup - sup 1 sup 1 sup 4 Rh isotopes has been studied by means of beta-gamma and gamma-gamma spectroscopy. Recently, the laser ion source has been used to produce neutron-d...

  13. Accurate Hf isotope determinations of complex zircons using the "laser ablation split stream" method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher M Fisher; Jeffery D Vervoort; S Andrew DuFrane

    2014-01-01

      The "laser ablation split stream" (LASS) technique is a powerful tool for mineral-scale isotope analyses and in particular, for concurrent determination of age and Hf isotope composition of zircon...

  14. Mass-independent fractionation of oxygen isotopes during H2O2 formation by gas-phase discharge from water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Ignatiev, Alexander V.; Budnitskiy, Sergey Y.; Yakovenko, Victoria V.; Vysotskiy, Sergey V.

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important atmospheric component involved in various gas-phase and aqueous-phase transformation processes in the Earth's atmosphere. A study of mass-independent 17O anomalies in H2O2 can provide additional insights into the chemistry of the modern atmosphere and, possibly, of the ancient atmosphere. Here, we report the results of laboratory experiments to study the fractionation of three oxygen isotopes (16O, 17O, and 18O) during H2O2 formation from products of water vapour dissociation. The experiments were carried out by passing an electrical discharge through a gaseous mixture of helium and water at atmospheric pressure. The effect of the presence of O2 in the gas mixture on the isotopic composition of H2O2 was also investigated. All of the experiments showed that H2O2 produced under two different conditions (with or without O2 added in the gas mixtures) was mass-independently fractionated (MIF). We found a positive MIF signal (∼1.4‰) in the no-O2 added experiments, and this signal increased to ∼2.5‰ once O2 was added (1.6% mixing ratio). We suggest that if O2 concentrations are very low, the hydroxyl radical recombination reaction is the dominant pathway for H2O2 formation and is the source of MIF in H2O2. Although H2O2 formation via a hydroxyl radical recombination process is limited in the modern atmosphere, it would be possible in the Archean atmosphere when O2 was a trace constituent, and H2O2 would be mass-independently fractionated. The anomalous 17O excess, which was observed in H2O2 produced by spark discharge experiments, may provide useful information about the radical chemistry of the ancient atmosphere and the role of H2O2 in maintaining and controlling the atmospheric composition.

  15. Development of new duplex treatments on 100Cr6steel combining Thermochemical Treatments, Laser Shock Peening and Physical Vapour Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osés, J.; Fuentes, G. G.; Santo Domingo, S.; Miguel, I.; Gimeno, S.; Carreras, L.; Peyre, P.; Gorny, C.

    2017-05-01

    100Cr6 steel (AISI 52100) is one of the most used steel grades in the manufacturing of through hardening bearings mainly due to its properties: controlled impurities during steel making process, high hardenability and well known mechanical properties such as wear and fatigue resistance on clean environments. These characteristics play an important role on the performance of a bearing together with the bearing design, loads and environment. However, there is an increasing set of demanding applications where the above mentioned steel does not fulfil the required needs and thus, bearing manufacturers continuously work on the development of technologies to improve the bearing performance. Nowadays thermochemical treatments (TCT), such as carbonitriding are being applied to this steel in order to enhance the performance of such pieces in contaminated environment, where particles can produce defects on the raceway, increasing the onset of defects that eventually lead to premature fail. These treatments induce the formation of carbides and nitrides which are directly related to the enhancement of the wear resistance and also to increasing the amount of Retained Austenite (RA) in the surface which may have a beneficial effect as it delays the crack propagation on subsurface regions, then increasing bearing fatigue life. In this work, different TCTs have been applied to 100Cr6 steel flat samples. Using a tribometer (ball-on-disc configuration) and a grinding machine, surface and in-depth wear resistance measurements have been carried out, obtaining wear resistance profiles that have been correlated with the microstructure, microhardness profiles and RA content. The most promising TCT has been combined either with Laser Shock Peening (LSP) treatments or carbonaceous Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) coatings with the aim of improving not only the wear resistance but also the CoF of the duplex treated sample. The results obtained on flat samples are promising; the combination

  16. Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Measuring Uranium Isotopes in Femtosecond Laser Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Brumfield, Brian E.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hartig, Kyle C.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2017-05-30

    We present the first two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy measurements of uranium isotopes in femtosecond laser ablation plasmas. A new method of signal normalization is presented to reduce noise in absorption-based measurements of laser ablation.

  17. Stable isotope analysis using tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Joseph F.; Sauke, Todd B.; Loewenstein, Max

    1992-01-01

    Ratios of C-12/C-13 in CO2 have been measured using a tunable diode laser (TDL) spectrometer to an accuracy of better than 0.4 percent. These results were made possible by the use of state-of-the-art high-temperature TDLs, an etalon and wavenumber calibration technique, high-speed assembly language controlled data acquisition, and the ratioing of absorbances from simultaneously acquired sample and reference data scans. The dual beam spectrometer that is employed uses the sweep integration technique in a spectral region where adjacent spectral lines are of approximately equal absorbance at the expected isotopic abundances.

  18. Determination of osmium isotope abundances by high resolution laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieder, R.; Sorgalla, K.H.; Herr, W.

    1981-01-01

    A new optical method for isotopic abundance determinations based on Laser saturation spectroscopy is described. The technique has been applied on gaseous OsO/sub 4/ at low pressure, using a single mode CO/sub 2/-Laser at lambda = 10,4 ..mu..m. Compared with the linear absorption spectroscopy, the saturation method has the advantage that higher sensitivity is easiliy achieved by phase sensitive detection. As an example radiogenic /sup 187/Os in a molybdenite from S.W. Africa is measured and the age of the ore, determined by the Re/Os-method is (5.3 +- 0.4) x 10/sup 8/ years. Further, the /sup 186/Os(n,..gamma..)/sup 187/Os cross section was evaluated by breeding Os-isotopes from Rhenium in a high flux nuclear reactor. In this case, a cross section ratio R = sigmasub(eff)(/sup 186/Os)/ sigmasub(eff)(/sup 187/Os) = O.245 was obtained. The /sup 186/Os-resonance integral was estimated to be Isub(infinite) = 375 +- 90 b. Certain implications of R, with respect to the age of the universe (duration of the nucleosynthesis) are pointed out.

  19. Carbon isotope discrimination during branch photosynthesis of Fagus sylvatica: field measurements using laser spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Lydia; Sturm, Patrick; Hammerle, Albin; Siegwolf, Rolf; Wingate, Lisa; Ogée, Jérôme; Baur, Thomas; Plüss, Peter; Barthel, Matti; Buchmann, Nina; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    On-line measurements of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination ((13)Δ) under field conditions are sparse. Hence, experimental verification of the natural variability of instantaneous (13)Δ is scarce, although (13)Δ is, explicitly and implicitly, used from leaf to global scales for inferring photosynthetic characteristics. This work presents the first on-line field measurements of (13)Δ of Fagus sylvatica branches, at hourly resolution, using three open branch bags and a laser spectrometer for CO₂ isotopologue measurements (QCLAS-ISO). Data from two August/September field campaigns, in 2009 and 2010, in a temperate forest in Switzerland are shown. Diurnal variability of (13)Δ was substantial, with mean diurnal amplitudes of ~9‰ and maximum diurnal amplitudes of ~20‰. The highest (13)Δ were generally observed during early morning and late afternoon, and the lowest (13)Δ during midday. An assessment of propagated standard deviations of (13)Δ demonstrated that the observed diurnal variation of (13)Δ was not a measurement artefact. Day-to-day variations of (13)Δ were summarized with flux-weighted daily means of (13)Δ, which ranged from 15‰ to 23‰ in 2009 and from 18‰ to 29‰ in 2010, thus displaying a considerable range of 8-11‰. Generally, (13)Δ showed the expected negative relationship with intrinsic water use efficiency. Diurnal and day-to-day variability of (13)Δ was, however, always better predicted by that of net CO₂ assimilation, especially in 2010 when soil moisture was high and vapour pressure deficit was low. Stomatal control of leaf gas exchange, and consequently (13)Δ, could only be identified under drier conditions in 2009.

  20. The Laboratory for Laser Energetics’ Hydrogen Isotope Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmayda, W.T., E-mail: wshm@lle.rochester.edu; Wittman, M.D.; Earley, R.F.; Reid, J.L.; Redden, N.P.

    2016-11-01

    The University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics has commissioned a hydrogen Isotope Separation System (ISS). The ISS uses two columns—palladium on kieselguhr and molecular sieve—that act in a complementary manner to separate the hydrogen species by mass. The 4-sL per day throughput system is compact and has no moving parts. The columns and the attendant gas storage and handling subsystems are housed in a 0.8 -m{sup 3} glovebox. The glovebox uses a helium cover gas that is continuously processed to extract oxygen and water vapor that permeates through the glovebox gloves and any tritium that is released while attaching or detaching vessels to add feedstock to or drawing product from the system. The isotopic separation process is automated and does not require manual intervention. A total of 315 TBq of tritium was extracted from 23.6 sL of hydrogen with tritium purities reaching 99.5%. Deuterium was the sole residual component in the processed gas. Raffinate contained 0.2 TBq of activity was captured for reprocessing. The total emission from the system to the environment was 0.4 GBq over three weeks.

  1. Ion beam production and study of radioactive isotopes with the laser ion source at ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosseev, Valentin; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce; Rothe, Sebastian; Seiffert, Christoph; Wendt, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    At ISOLDE the majority of radioactive ion beams are produced using the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This ion source is based on resonant excitation of atomic transitions by wavelength tunable laser radiation. Since its installation at the ISOLDE facility in 1994, the RILIS laser setup has been developed into a versatile remotely operated laser system comprising state-of-the-art solid state and dye lasers capable of generating multiple high quality laser beams at any wavelength in the range of 210-950 nm. A continuous programme of atomic ionization scheme development at CERN and at other laboratories has gradually increased the number of RILIS-ionized elements. At present, isotopes of 40 different elements have been selectively laser-ionized by the ISOLDE RILIS. Studies related to the optimization of the laser-atom interaction environment have yielded new laser ion source types: the laser ion source and trap and the versatile arc discharge and laser ion source. Depending on the specific experimental requirements for beam purity or versatility to switch between different ionization mechanisms, these may offer a favourable alternative to the standard hot metal cavity configuration. In addition to its main purpose of ion beam production, the RILIS is used for laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes. In an ongoing experimental campaign the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of long isotopic chains have been measured by the extremely sensitive in-source laser spectroscopy method. The studies performed in the lead region were focused on nuclear deformation and shape coexistence effects around the closed proton shell Z = 82. The paper describes the functional principles of the RILIS, the current status of the laser system and demonstrated capabilities for the production of different ion beams including the high-resolution studies of short-lived isotopes and other applications of RILIS lasers for ISOLDE experiments. This article belongs to the Focus on

  2. In-source laser spectroscopy of polonium isotopes: From atomic physics to nuclear structure

    CERN Multimedia

    Rothe, S

    2014-01-01

    The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source RILIS [1] at the CERN-ISOLDE on-line radioactive ion beam facility is essential for ion beam production for the majority of experiments, but it is also powerful tool for laser spectroscopy of rare isotopes. A series of experiments on in-source laser spectroscopy of polonium isotopes [2, 3] revealed the nuclear ground state properties of 191;211;216;218Po. However, limitations caused by the isobaric background of surface-ionized francium isotopes hindered the study of several neutron rich polonium isotopes. The development of the Laser Ion Source and Trap (LIST) [4] and finally its integration at ISOLDE has led to a dramatic suppression of surface ions. Meanwhile, the RILIS laser spectroscopy capabilities have advanced tremendously. Widely tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) lasers were installed to complement the established dye laser system. Along with a new data acquisition system [5], this more versatile laser setup enabled rst ever laser spectroscopy of the radioact...

  3. Laser spectroscopy measurements of neutron-rich tellurium isotopes by COMPLIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifi, R., E-mail: sifi@ipno.in2p3.fr; Blanc, F. Le; Barre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS (France); Cabaret, L. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton (France); Crawford, J. [Mc Gill University, Physics Department (Canada); Ducourtieux, M.; Essabaa, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS (France); Genevey, J. [Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, IN2P3-CNRS (France); Huber, G.; Kowalska, M. [Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Lau, C. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS (France); Lee, J. K. P. [Mc Gill University, Physics Department (Canada); Scornet, G. Le [CERN, 1211 (Switzerland); Oms, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS (France); Pinard, J. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton (France); Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS (France); Seliverstov, M. [Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Stroke, H. [New York University, Department of physics (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Laser spectroscopy based on resonant ionization of laser-desorbed atoms has been used to study the neutron-rich tellurium isotopes with the COMPLIS facility at ISOLDE-CERN. Isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of several neutron-rich Te isotopes: {sup 120-136}Te and {sup 123m-133m}Te have been measured. From the hyperfine structure we have extracted magnetic and quadrupole moments. Changes in the mean square charge radii have been deduced and their comparison with the known data for the other elements near Z = 50 is presented. The experimental {delta} < r{sup 2}> values are compared with those obtained from relativistic mean field calculations.

  4. Isotope analysis of water by means of near-infrared dual-wavelength diode laser spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gianfrani, L.; Gagliardi, G.; Burgel, M. van; Kerstel, E.R.Th.; Gianfrani, I.; Galgiardi, G.

    2003-01-01

    A novel diode laser spectrometer was developed using dual-wavelength multiplexing, ensuring ideal conditions for high-precision and simultaneous measurements of the H-2/H-1, O-17/O-16, and O-18/O-16 isotope ratios in water. A 1.4-mum diode laser probed a (HOH)-O-16/(HOH)-H-2 line pair near 7198

  5. Isotope-selective laser photodetachment for {sup 129}I accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tone, E-mail: takahashi.ton@d.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Tomita, Hideki; Nakayama, Motoi; Adachi, Yoshitaka [Nagoya University (Japan); Sonnenschein, Volker [Johannes Gutenberg University (Germany); Iguchi, Tetsuo [Nagoya University (Japan); Wendt, Klaus [Johannes Gutenberg University (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    A pulsed injection-locked Ti:Sapphire laser and a negative ion laser ablation source are developed for compact accelerator mass spectrometry assisted by isotope-selective laser photodetachment. An output of about 60 mW at a repetition rate of 1 kHz is available using intracavity second-harmonic generation with a bandwidth of 20 MHz. A negative iodine ion pulse with a width of 100 ns is obtained by laser ablation of a NH{sub 4}I sample. The negative ion source and the injection-locked Ti:Sapphire laser are suitable for trace analysis of {sup 129}I.

  6. Shape evolution for neutron-deficient bismuth isotopes studied by resonance laser ionization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molkanov, P. L.; Barzakh, A. E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2017-11-01

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for bismuth isotopes at the 306.77 nm atomic transition has been carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes at Synchrocyclotron) facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. New data on isotope shifts for 189-198,211Bi isotopes and isomers have been obtained. The changes in the mean-square charge radii were deduced. The large isomer shift has been observed for the intruder isomer states of Bi with spin I = 1/2 ( A = 193, 195, 197). This testifies to the shape coexistence in these nuclei with the intruder isomer states more deformed than the ground states. Marked deviation from the nearly spherical behavior for ground states of the even-neutron Bi isotopes at N < 109 is demonstrated, in contrast to the Pb and Tl isotopic chains.

  7. Lagrangian process attribution of isotopic variations in near-surface water vapour in a 30-year regional climate simulation over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dütsch, Marina; Pfahl, Stephan; Meyer, Miro; Wernli, Heini

    2018-02-01

    Stable water isotopes are naturally available tracers of moisture in the atmosphere. Due to isotopic fractionation, they record information about condensation and evaporation processes during the transport of air parcels, and therefore present a valuable means for studying the global water cycle. However, the meteorological processes driving isotopic variations are complex and not very well understood so far, in particular on short (hourly to daily) timescales. This study presents a Lagrangian method for attributing the isotopic composition of air parcels to meteorological processes, which provides new insight into the isotopic history of air parcels. It is based on the temporal evolution of the isotope ratios, the humidity, the temperature, and the location of the air parcels. Here these values are extracted along 7-day backward trajectories started every 6 hours from near the surface in a 30-year regional climate simulation over Europe with the isotope-enabled version of the model of the Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling (COSMOiso). The COSMOiso simulation has a horizontal resolution of 0.25° and is driven at the lateral boundaries by a T106 global climate simulation with the isotope-enabled version of the European Centre Hamburg model (ECHAMwiso). Both simulations are validated against measurements from the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which shows that nesting COSMOiso within ECHAMwiso improves the representation of δ2H and deuterium excess in monthly accumulated precipitation. The method considers all isotopic changes that occur inside the COSMOiso model domain, which, on average, correspond to more than half of the mean and variability in both δ2H and deuterium excess at the air parcels' arrival points. Along every trajectory, the variations in the isotope values are quantitatively decomposed into eight process categories (evaporation from the ocean, evapotranspiration from land, mixing with moister air, mixing with drier air

  8. Laser Ablation - Optical Cavity Isotopic Spectrometer (LAOCIS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses NASA astrobiology objectives, particularly the need for a compact instrument capable of in situ isotopic measurements. We propose the...

  9. Radioactive Carbon Isotope Monitoring System Based on Cavity Ring-down Laser Spectroscopy for Decommissioning Process of Nuclear Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Hideki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Takiguchi, Yu; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    In decommissioning process of nuclear facilities, large amount of radioactive isotopes are discharged as waste. Radioactive carbon isotope (14C) is one of the key nuclides to determine the upper limit of concentration in the waste disposal. In particular, 14C on the graphite reactor decommissioning should be separated from stable carbon isotopes (12C and 13C) and monitored for the public health and safety. We propose an isotope analysis system based on cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy (CRDS) to monitor the carbon isotopes (12C, 13C and 14C) in the isotope separation process for the graphite reactor decommissioning. This system is compact and suitable for a continuous monitoring, because the concentration of molecules including the carbon isotope is derived from its photo absorbance with ultra high sensitive laser absorption spectroscopy. Here are presented the necessary conditions of CRDS system for 14C isotope analysis through the preliminary experimental results of 13C isotope analysis with a prototype system.

  10. Drivers of radial growth and carbon isotope discrimination of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) across continental gradients in precipitation, vapour pressure deficit and irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree-ring characteristics including stable isotope composition are commonly used to reconstruct climate variables and establish mechanisms that underlie oscillations in modes of climate variability. However, divergence from the assumption of a single, primary biophysical control ...

  11. Laser isotope separation in nuclear-waste by-product utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrin, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    Various by-products in spent nuclear fuels including strategic metals are uniquely useful and of high intrinsic value. Isotope separation is necessary to achieve the full benefits of fission-product partitioning, increasing the specific activity of radioactive modifications or reducing the intrinsic radiation associated with various elements. The atomic-vapor laser-isotope-separation process, under large-scale development for uranium enrighment, applies to most of the spent-fuel nuclides and offers attractive benefit to costs. 11 figures.

  12. Laser Ablation - Optical Cavity Isotopic Spectrometer (LAOCIS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the detailed conceptual development of a device for analyzing key isotopic composition in surface materials without sample preparation. We will combine...

  13. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  14. Collisionless dissociation and isotopic enrichment of SF6 using high-powered CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, M. C.; Billman, K. W.

    1977-01-01

    Dissociation of S-32F6 and the resultant isotopic enrichment of S-34F6 using high-powered CO2 laser radiation has been studied with higher experimental sensitivity than previously reported. Enrichment factors have been measured as a function of laser pulse number, wavelength, energy and time duration. A geometry independent dissociation cross section is introduced and measured values are presented. Threshold energy densities, below which no dissociation was observed, were also determined.

  15. Mode-Locked CO Laser for Isotope Separation of Uranium Employing Condensation Repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Y. Baranov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we have suggested a technical solution of a CO laser facility for industrial separation of uranium used in the production of fuel for nuclear power plants. There has been used a method of laser isotope separation of uranium, employing condensation repression in a free jet. The laser operation with nanosecond pulse irradiation can provide acceptable efficiency in the separating unit and the high effective coefficient of the laser with the wavelength of 5.3 μm. Receiving a uniform RF discharge under medium pressure and high Mach numbers in the gas stream solves the problem of an electron beam and cryogenic cooler of CO lasers. The laser active medium is being cooled while it is expanding in the nozzle; a low-current RF discharge is similar to a non-self-sustained discharge. In the present work, we have developed a calculation model of optimization and have defined the parameters of a mode-locked CO laser with an RF discharge in the supersonic stream. The CO laser average power of 3 kW is sufficient for efficient industrial isotope separation of uranium at one facility.

  16. Laser Spectroscopy Study on the Neutron-Rich and Neutron-Deficient Te Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to perform laser spectroscopy measurements on the Te isotopes. This will give access to fundamental properties of the ground and rather long-lived isomeric states such as the change in the mean square charge radius ($\\delta\\langle$r$^2_c\\rangle$) and the nuclear moments. For these medium-mass isotopes, at this moment the optical resolution obtained with RILIS is not high enough to perform isotope shift measurements. Thus we will use the COMPLIS experimental setup which allows Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) on laser desorbed atoms. The 5p$^{4}$ $^{3}$P$_{2} \\rightarrow$ 5p$^{3}$ 6s $^{3}$S$_{1}$ and 5p$^{4}$ $^{3}$P$_{2} \\rightarrow$ 5p$^{3}$ 6s $^{5}$S$_{2}$ optical transitions have been used to perform, on the stable Te isotopes, the tests required by the INTC committee. For this purpose stable-ion sources have been built and Te isotopes have been delivered as stable beams by the injector coupled to the COMPLIS setup. ISOLDE offers the opportunity for studying the Te isotope series over a ...

  17. 41Ca ultratrace determination with isotopic selectivity > 10(12) by diode-laser-based RIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, P; Bushaw, B A; Blaum, K; Diel, S; Geppert, C; Nähler, A; Trautmann, N; Nörtershäuser, W; Wendt, K

    2001-07-01

    41Ca ultratrace determination by diode-laser-based resonance ionization mass spectrometry with extremely high isotopic selectivity is presented. Application to environmental dosimetry of nuclear reactor components, to cosmochemical investigations of production cross sections, and biomedical isotope-tracer studies of human calcium kinetics are discussed. Future investigations are possible use in 41Ca-radiodating. Depending on the application, 41Ca isotopic abundances in the range of 10(-9) to 10(-15) relative to the dominant stable isotope 40Ca must be determined. Either double- or triple-resonance optical excitation with narrow-band extended cavity diode lasers and subsequent non-resonant photoionization of calcium in a collimated atomic beam were used. The resulting photoions are detected with a quadrupole mass spectrometer optimized for background reduction and neighboring mass suppression. Applying the full triple-resonance scheme provides a selectivity of approximately 5 x 10(12) in the suppression of neighboring isotopes and > 10(8) for isobars, together with an overall detection efficiency of approximately 5 x 10(-5). Measurements on a variety of sample types are discussed; the accuracy and reproducibility of the resulting 41Ca/40Ca isotope ratios was better than 5%.

  18. Structure of potassium isotopes studied with collinear laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082445

    By exploring the structure of different nuclei, one can learn about the interaction between the nucleons, their building blocks. In this field of research, there is a strong interplay between experiment and theory. In particular, theory has a crucial role in the interpretation of the experimental results, while new experimental results provide testing ground and directions for theorists. In the light- and mid-mass regions of the nuclear chart, the shell model is very successful and widely used for calculations of the ground- as well as excited- states properties. It is based on associated larger energy gaps between single particle energy levels for isotopes with certain proton (Z) and neutron (N) numbers, which are called "magic numbers". It was believed that these numbers (8, 20, 28, ...) are preserved for all nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. However, during the last decades studies of the isotopes with an unbalanced number of protons and neutrons revealed that in these isotopes the shell gaps could chan...

  19. All-diode-laser cooling of Sr+ isotope ions for analytical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyunghun; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuta; Miyabe, Masabumi; Wakaida, Ikuo; Hasegawa, Shuichi

    2017-06-01

    Trapping and cooling of Sr+ isotope ions by an all-diode-laser system has been demonstrated in order to develop a novel mass spectrometric technique in combination with ion trap-laser cooling. First, we constructed external cavity diode lasers and associated stabilization apparatus for laser cooling of Sr+ ions. The transition frequencies confirmed by optogalvanic spectroscopy enabled successful cooling of 88Sr+ ions. An image of two trapped ions has been captured by CCD camera. Minor isotopes, 84Sr+ and 86Sr+, were also cooled and trapped. From an analysis of the observed spectra of a string crystal of each isotope, the isotope shifts of the cooling transition (5s 2S1/2 → 5p 2P1/2) of Sr+ ions were determined to be +371(8) MHz for Δν84-88 and +169(8) MHz for Δν86-88. In the case of the repumping transition (4d 2D3/2 → 5p 2P1/2), Δν84-88 and Δν86-88 were measured to be -833(6) and -400(5) MHz, respectively. These values are in good agreement with previously reported values.

  20. Stable isotope ratio measurements on highly enriched water samples by means of laser spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trigt, R; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Visser, GH; Meijer, H.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using laser spectrometry (LS) to analyze isotopically highly enriched water samples (i.e., delta H-2 less than or equal to 15000 parts per thousand, delta O-18 less than or equal to 1200 parts per thousand), as often used in the biomedical doubly labeled water (DLW)

  1. Characterization of extreme ultraviolet laser ablation mass spectrometry for actinide trace analysis and nanoscale isotopic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Tyler; Kuznetsov, Ilya; Willingham, David; Naes, Benjamin E.; Eiden, Gregory C.; Zhu, Zihua; Chao, W.; Rocca, Jorge J.; Menoni, Carmen S.; Duffin, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize Extreme Ultraviolet Time-of-Flight (EUV TOF) Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry for high spatial resolution elemental and isotopic analysis. We compare EUV TOF results with Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to orient the EUV TOF method within the overall field of analytical mass spectrometry. Using the well-characterized NIST 61x glasses, we show that the EUV ionization approach produces relatively few molecular ion interferences in comparison to TOF SIMS. We demonstrate that the ratio of element ion to element oxide ion is adjustable with EUV laser pulse energy and that the EUV TOF instrument has a sample utilization efficiency of 0.014%. The EUV TOF system also achieves a lateral resolution of 80 nm and we demonstrate this lateral resolution with isotopic imaging of closely spaced particles or uranium isotopic standard materials.

  2. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.raeder@fys.kuleuven.be; Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Heggen, Henning, E-mail: heggen@triumf.ca [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Institute of Applied Physics, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 7, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lassen, Jens, E-mail: lassen@triumf.ca; Teigelhöfer, Andrea [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

  3. Two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy of uranium isotopes in femtosecond laser ablation plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mark C; Brumfield, Brian E; LaHaye, Nicole; Harilal, Sivanandan S; Hartig, Kyle C; Jovanovic, Igor

    2017-06-19

    We demonstrate measurement of uranium isotopes in femtosecond laser ablation plumes using two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2DFS). The high-resolution, tunable CW-laser spectroscopy technique clearly distinguishes atomic absorption from 235U and 238U in natural and highly enriched uranium metal samples. We present analysis of spectral resolution and analytical performance of 2DFS as a function of ambient pressure. Simultaneous measurement using time-resolved absorption spectroscopy provides information on temporal dynamics of the laser ablation plume and saturation behavior of fluorescence signals. The rapid, non-contact measurement is promising for in-field, standoff measurements of uranium enrichment for nuclear safety and security.

  4. Two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy of uranium isotopes in femtosecond laser ablation plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Brumfield, Brian E.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hartig, Kyle C.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2017-06-19

    We demonstrate measurement of uranium isotopes in femtosecond laser ablation plumes using two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2DFS). The high-resolution, tunable CW-laser spectroscopy technique clearly distinguishes atomic absorption from 235U and 238U in natural and highly enriched uranium metal samples. We present analysis of spectral resolution and analytical performance of 2DFS as a function of ambient pressure. Simultaneous measurement using time-resolved absorption spectroscopy provides information on temporal dynamics of the laser ablation plume and saturation behavior of fluorescence signals. The rapid, non-contact measurement is promising for in-field, standoff measurements of uranium enrichment for nuclear safety and security applications.

  5. Laser fluorescence on radio-active isotopes produced in very low yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, M. P.; Billowes, J.; Grant, I. S.; Evans, D. E.; Griffith, J. A. R.; Wells, S. A.; Eastham, D. A.; Groves, J.; Smith, J. R. H.; Tolfree, D. W. L.; Walker, P. M.

    1990-08-01

    East particle-photon coincidence techniques, developed at Daresbury with strontium isotopes, allow ultrasensitive laser fluorescence spectroscopy of beams of radio-active isotopes which can only be produced in very low yields. The technique has now been applied to neutron-deficient barium isotopes down to120Ba. From measured hyperfine splittings and isotope shifts, nuclear moments and changes in mean square radii have been determined. The work has revealed an abrupt increase in the mean square radius for121Ba large enough to disrupt the systematic staggering of nuclear size seen for the series. In a recent experiment an isomeric state of127Ba with a half-life of about 2 seconds has been produced in a very low yield; nevertheless we have succeeded in obtaining a fluorescence spectrum.

  6. In-source laser spectroscopy of mercury isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    This proposal follows on from the Letter of Intent, I-153. The neutron-deficient mercury isotopes are one of the prime examples of shape coexistence anywhere in the nuclear chart. Wide-ranging and complementary experimental and theoretical approaches have been used to investigate their structure over the last few years, however mean-square charge radii are unknown for isotopes with $\\textit{A}$ < 181. It is proposed to measure the isotope shift (IS) and hyperfine structure (HFS) of the 253-nm transition in $^{177-182}$Hg in an attempt to study the propagation of the famous odd-even staggering behaviour. At the other end of the chain, no information exists on the optical spectroscopy of Hg isotopes beyond the $\\textit{N}$ = 126 shell closure. There is a well-known "kink" in mean-square charge radii beyond this point in the even $\\textit{Z}$ $\\geq$ 82 elements. It is proposed to measure the IS of $^{207,208}$Hg in order to provide the first information on this effect below $\\textit{Z}$ = 82.

  7. Modelling of multifrequency IRMPD for laser isotope separation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The process of infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) of molecules is of great fundamental importance and has practical significance, such as isotope separation etc. Unfortunately, a clear insight into the process has been hindered by the bewildering array of important variables affecting MPD. The dissociation ...

  8. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, S., E-mail: s.raeder@gsi.de [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bastin, B. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Block, M. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Creemers, P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Ferrer, R. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fléchard, X. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Franchoo, S. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire (IPN) d’Orsay, 91406 Orsay, Cedex (France); Ghys, L. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heinke, R. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hijazi, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  9. Measurement of sulfur isotope compositions by tunable laser spectroscopy of SO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Lance E; Brunner, Benjamin; Truong, Kasey N; Mielke, Randall E; Webster, Christopher R; Coleman, Max

    2007-12-15

    Sulfur isotope measurements offer comprehensive information on the origin and history of natural materials. Tunable laser spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique for isotope analysis that has proven itself readily adaptable for in situ terrestrial and planetary measurements. Measurements of delta(34)S in SO2 were made using tunable laser spectroscopy of combusted gas samples from six sulfur-bearing solids with delta(34)S ranging from -34 to +22 per thousand (also measured with mass spectrometry). Standard deviation between laser and mass spectrometer measurements was 3.7 per thousand for sample sizes of 200 +/- 75 nmol SO(2). Although SO(2)(g) decreased 9% over 15 min upon entrainment in the analysis cell from wall uptake, observed fractionation was insignificant (+0.2 +/- 0.6 per thousand). We also describe a strong, distinct (33)SO(2) rovibrational transition in the same spectral region, which may enable simultaneous delta(34)S and Delta(33)S measurements.

  10. New techniques of laser spectroscopy on exotic isotopes of gallium and francium

    CERN Document Server

    Procter, Thomas John

    The neutron-deficient gallium isotopes down to ${N}$=32 have had their hyperfine structures and isotope shifts measured via collinear laser spectroscopy using the COLLAPS (COllinear LAser sPectroScopy) beam line. The ground-state spin of $^{63}$Ga has been determined as ${I}$ = 3/2 and its magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments were measured to be $\\mu$ = +1.469(5) $_{\\mu N}$ and ${ Q}$s = +0.212(14) b respectively. The nuclear moments of $^{70}$Ga were measured to be ${\\mu}$= +0.571(2) $_{\\mu}$ and ${Q}$s = +0.105(7) b. New isotope shift results were combined with previously measured values of the neutron-rich isotopes and the changes in mean-square charge radii of the entire gallium isotope chain were investigated. Analysis of the trend in the neutron-deficient charge radii demonstrated that there is no evidence of anomalous charge radii behaviour in gallium in the region of ${N}$=32. A sudden increase of the charge radii was observed at the ${N}$=50 shell gap and an inversion of the normal odd-eve...

  11. Diode laser operating on an atomic transition limited by an isotope ⁸⁷Rb Faraday filter at 780 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhiming; Hong, Yelong; Luo, Bin; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate an extended cavity Faraday laser system using an antireflection-coated laser diode as the gain medium and the isotope (87)Rb Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) as the frequency selective device. Using this method, the laser wavelength works stably at the highest transmission peak of the isotope (87)Rb FADOF over the laser diode current from 55 to 140 mA and the temperature from 15°C to 35°C. Neither the current nor the temperature of the laser diode has significant influence on the output frequency. Compared with previous extended cavity laser systems operating at frequencies irrelevant to spectacular atomic transition lines, the laser system realized here provides a stable laser source with the frequency operating on atomic transitions for many practical applications.

  12. Control strategies for laser separation of carbon isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Operation at higher energy density (fluence) to increase the yield severely degrades the enrichment ... two-stage, closed chemical cycle and is very useful for getting high enrichment level. If we need a product with .... The 50 W pulsed CO2 laser operates at 10 Hz and gives rise to 5 J energy on 10 P (20) line at 944 cm–1.

  13. Modelling of multifrequency IRMPD for laser isotope separation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    6Li, 10B, 13C, 18O, 33S etc., some in connection with energy production and others as tracers in analytical ... dissociation per pulse is necessary to attain high separation factors and high fractional yields at the same time ... A commercial CO2 laser (Lumonics TEA103-2) was used for irradiation experiments. The 2⋅2 m long ...

  14. Collinear resonant ionization laser spectroscopy of rare francium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Neyens, G; Flanagan, K; Rajabali, M M; Le blanc, F M; Ware, T; Procter, T J

    2008-01-01

    We propose a programme of collinear resonant ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) of the francium isotopes up to and including $^{201}$Fr and $^{218,219}$Fr. This work aims at answering questions on the ordering of quantum states, and effect of the ($\\pi s_{1/2}^{-1}$)1/2$^{+}$ intruder state, which is currently believed to be the ground state of $^{199}$Fr. This work will also study the edge of the region of reflection asymmetry through measurement of the moments and radii of $^{218,219}$Fr. This proposal forms the first part of a series of experiments that will study nuclei in this region of the nuclear chart. Based on the success of this initial proposal it is the intention of the collaboration to perform high resolution measurements on the isotopes of radium and radon that surround $^{201}$Fr and $^{218}$Fr and thus providing a comprehensive description of the ground state properties of this region of the nuclear chart. Recent in-source spectroscopy measurements of lead, bismuth and polonium have demonstrated a...

  15. Nuclear moments of neutron-deficient iridium isotopes from laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Verney, D; Cabaret, L A; Crawford, J; Duong, H T; Genevey, J; Huber, G; Ibrahim, F; Krieg, M; Lee, J K P; Lunney, M D; Obert, J; Oms, J; Pinard, J; Putaux, J C; Roussière, B; Sauvage, J; Sebastian, V

    2000-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron- deficient iridium isotopes. The hyperfine structure and isotope shift of the optical Ir I transition 5d/sup 7/6s/sup 2/ /sup 4/F/sub 9/2/ to 5d/sup 7/6s6p /sup 6/F/sub 11/2/ at 351.5 nm have been studied for the /sup 182-189/Ir, /sup 186/Ir/sup m/ and /sup 191,193/Ir isotopes. The nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments were obtained from the HFS measurements and the changes of the mean square charge radii from the IS measurements. A large mean square charge radius change between /sup 187/Ir and /sup 186/Ir and between /sup 186/Ir/sup m/ and /sup 186/Ir/sup g/ has been observed. (18 refs).

  16. Charge radius change in the heavy tin isotopes until A=132 from laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, F.; Essabaa, S.; Obert, J.; Oms, J.; Ouchrif, A. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Cabaret, L. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Crawford, J.E.; Lee, J.K.P. [Physics Department, Mc Gill University, H3A2T8 Montreal (Canada); Fedoseyev, V.; Mishin, V. [Institute for Spectroscopy, Troisk (Russian Federation); Geithner, W.; Horn, R.; Huber, G.; Kappertz, S.; Lassen, J.; Neugart, R. [Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Genevey, J. [Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, Universite Joseph Fourier, 38026 Grenoble cedex (France); Girod, M.; Peru, S. [Service de Physique et Techniques Nucleaires, CEA, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Le Scornet, G. [CERN, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Pinard, J.; Ravn, H.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J.; Verney, D.

    2002-10-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on the very neutron-rich tin isotopes with the COMPLIS experimental setup. Using the 5s{sup 2}5p{sup 23}P{sub 0} {yields} 5s{sup 2}5p6s{sup 3}P{sub 1} optical transition, hyperfine spectra of {sup 126-132}Sn and {sup 125m,127m,129m-131m}Sn where recorded for the first time. The variation of the mean-square charge radius ({delta} left angle r {sup 2} right angle) between these nuclei and nuclear moments of the isomers and the odd isotopes were thus measured. An odd-even staggering which inverts at A=130 is clearly observed. This indicates a small appearance of a plateau on the {delta} left angle r {sup 2} right angle which has to be confirmed by measuring the isotope shift beyond A=132. (orig.)

  17. Nuclear radii of thorium isotopes from laser spectroscopy of stored ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaelber, W.; Rink, J.; Bekk, K.; Goering, S.; Meisel, G.; Rebel, H.; Faubel, W.; Thompson, R.C.

    1989-09-01

    Isotope shifts and hyperfine splittings in optical transitions for atomic ions of the thorium isotopes /sup 227/Th to /sup 230/Th and /sup 232/Th have been measured by laser spectroscopy on stored ions. From the isotope shift data, changes of the mean square charge radii are determined. A continuous increase of the charge radius with mass number A is observed, in agreement with droplet model calculations. The results indicate that the odd-even staggering for Th is different from that one of the neighbouring isotones of Fr and Ra. There is some empirical evidence from systematics for an inversion of the staggering and the appearance of an octupole deformation at N/le/137. The hyperfine splitting for /sup 229/Th for 3 electronic levels is given. (orig.).

  18. Understanding N2O sources and sinks with laser based isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and the strongest stratospheric ozone-destroying substance released in the 21st century. Main N2O emissions are linked to different microbial pathways, therefore sources are disperse and highly variable, complicating their interpretation. Isotopic measurements have great potential to distinguish between individual source and sink processes. Developments in laser spectroscopy allow both the intramolecular distribution of 15N substitutions (15N14N16O versus 14N15N16O) and the oxygen isotopic composition of N2O to be measured in real-time, at high precision and in excellent compatibility to IRMS [1]. In a number of laboratory and pilot plant studies we investigated the isotopic signature of distinct microbial and abiotic N2O production and consumption pathways in soil and aqueous solution [e.g. 2-4]. Specific pathways were favoured by selection of the nitrogen substrates and process conditions and their isotopic signatures identified by real-time laser spectroscopic analysis. Results from our laboratory studies are in accordance with pure culture experiments and can therefore be applied to other ecosystems. High precision isotopic analysis at ambient N2O concentration is feasible by combining laser spectroscopy with automated preconcentration. Field deployment was demonstrated by real-time monitoring of the isotopic composition of N2O emissions above an intensively managed grassland in central Switzerland. The responses of the N2O isotopic signatures were analysed with respect to management events and climatic conditions [5]. In a follow-up project we combine real-time N2O isotopic analysis at a tall tower in central Switzerland with atmospheric transport simulations and a biogeochemical model of surface fluxes of N2O isotopomers. The working hypothesis is that this approach will allow us to quantify regional N2O sources, identify emission hot spots, and constrain source processes, which will significantly advance our

  19. Laser Spectroscopic Measurements of Isotope Shift and Hyperfine Structure in BISMUTH-207 and BISMUTH-208.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zuyun

    1988-12-01

    Measurements of the hyperfine spectra of 38-yr ^{207}Bi and 3.7 times 10^5-yr ^{208}Bi in the 6p^3 ^4S_{3/2} - 6p^27s ^4P_{1/2} 306.7-nm resonance line were made using laser spectroscopic methods. The atomic excitation was produced with use of the frequency doubled output of a tunable ring dye laser. Laser absorption spectroscopy was used for the ^ {208}Bi measurement, while fluorescence spectroscopy, with photon counting detection, was used for ^{208}Bi. The experiments of ^{207}Bi were performed in both zero and high (0.7515 T) magnetic fields. The latter also provided a reliable measurement of the nuclear spin of ^{207}Bi. The results obtained from the ^ {208}Bi spectra are: A(^4P _{1/2}) = 4911(17)MHz and B( ^4S_{3/2}) = -314(92)MHz. These give the values: mu = 4.523(16) mu_{N} and Q = - 0.39(12)b. The measured isotope shift is: IS( ^{208}Bi-^{209 }Bi) = 1870(63)MHz. The results for ^{207} Bi are: I = 9/2, A(^4P_{1/2 }) = 4900.0(8.1)MHz, A(^4S_ {1/2}) = -444.6(1.5)MHz and B(^4S_{1/2}) = -443(17)MHz. These give the values: mu = 4.062(8)mu_ {N} and Q = -0.55(2)b. The measured isotope shift is: IS(^{207 }Bi-^{209}Bi) = 2997(10)MHz. The isotope shift odd-even staggering parameter for ^{208}Bi, gamma = 0.752(43), was derived and used for an isotonic comparison. The measured nuclear magnetic moments are in agreement with theoretical predictions. An improved calculation of the isotope shift constant using a diffuse nuclear charge model is given and a weak, but significant, model dependence of the isotope shifts was found.

  20. Frontiers of QC Laser spectroscopy for high precision isotope ratio analysis of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim; Harris, Eliza; Eyer, Simon; Ibraim, Erkan; Tuzson, Béla

    2016-04-01

    An important milestone for laser spectroscopy was achieved when isotope ratios of greenhouse gases were reported at precision levels that allow addressing research questions in environmental sciences. Real-time data with high temporal resolution at moderate cost and instrument size make the optical approach highly attractive, complementary to the well-established isotope-ratio mass-spectrometry (IRMS) method. Especially appealing, in comparison to IRMS, is the inherent specificity to structural isomers having the same molecular mass. Direct absorption in the MIR in single or dual QCL configuration has proven highly reliable for the sta-ble isotopes of CO2, N2O and CH4. The longest time series of real-time measurements is currently available for δ13C and δ18O in CO2 at the high-alpine station Jung-fraujoch. At this well-equipped site, QCL based direct absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) measurements are ongoing since 2008 1,2. Applications of QCLAS for N2O and CH4 stable isotopes are considerably more challenging because of the lower atmospheric mixing ratios, especially for the less abundant species, such as N218O and CH3D. For high precision (automated preconcentration unit yielding an up to 500 times concentration increase and the capability to separate the target gas from spectral interferants by se-quential desorption 3. Here, we review our recent developments on high precision isotope ratio analysis of greenhouse gases, with special focus on the isotopic species of N2O and CH4. Furthermore, we show environ-mental applications illustrating the highly valuable information that isotope ratios of atmospheric trace gases can carry. For example, the intramolecular distribution of 15N in N2O gives important information on the geochemical cycle of N2O4-6, while the analysis of δ13C and δ D in CH4 may be applied to disentangle microbial, fossil and landfill sources 7. 1 Sturm, P., Tuzson, B., Henne, S. & Emmenegger, L. Tracking isotopic signatures of CO2 at the high

  1. Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isselhardt, Brett H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) has been developed as a method to measure relative uranium isotope abundances. In this approach, RIMS is used as an element-selective ionization process to provide a distinction between uranium atoms and potential isobars without the aid of chemical purification and separation. We explore the laser parameters critical to the ionization process and their effects on the measured isotope ratio. Specifically, the use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of 235U/238U ratios to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. By broadening the bandwidth of the first laser in a 3-color, 3-photon ionization process from a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz to about 10 GHz, the variation in sequential relative isotope abundance measurements decreased from >10% to less than 0.5%. This procedure was demonstrated for the direct interrogation of uranium oxide targets with essentially no sample preparation. A rate equation model for predicting the relative ionization probability has been developed to study the effect of variation in laser parameters on the measured isotope ratio. This work demonstrates that RIMS can be used for the robust measurement of uranium isotope ratios.

  2. New experimental setup for boron isotopes separation by laser assisted retardation of condensation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyakhov, K. A.; Lee, H. J. [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Proposed static model corresponds to the two-cycle iterative scheme for boron isotopes separation. This rather simple model helps to understand combined action of all important parameters and relations between them on boron isotopes separation by SILARC method. These parameters include carrier gas choice, molar fraction at what BCl{sub 3} gas is dissolved in carrier gas, laser intensity, providing minimum of energy expenses and the largest output, optimal gas pressure and temperature in backing and downstream chambers, optimal irradiation cell and skimmer chamber dimensions, optimal nozzle throughput. It was suggested a method for finding optimal values of these parameters based on global minimum or energy spent on production of unit of isotope, which is analog of Separative Work Unit (SWU). It was shown that the most optimal carrier gas, corresponding to this minimum, among other considered-N{sub 2},NO{sub 2},SF{sub 6}, is Ar. Restriction on the maximal irradiation chamber length, caused by dimerization rate, is also considered. Two types of industrial scale irradiation cells are compared. The first one has the only large throughput slit nozzle, while the second one has numerous small nozzles arranged in parallel arrays for better overlap with laser beam. It is shown that the last one outperforms the former one significantly. We calculated that our experimental setup, provided argon is used as a carrier gas, can yield ∼50mg/hr of boron-10. It is interesting to compare this production rate with traditional method of industrial boron isotopes separation by low temperature distillation, Ref. In this method production rate is practically the same, but energy expenses per separated isotope are substantially smaller: ∼1 eV/atom instead of ∼10{sup 3} eV/atom as for SILARC method. The largest fraction of energy expenses in our SILARC-based method comes from compressor operation.

  3. Collinear laser spectroscopy of manganese isotopes using optical pumping in ISCOOL

    CERN Multimedia

    Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Flanagan, K; Rajabali, M M; Reponen, M; Campbell, P; Procter, T J

    Recently, optical pumping of ions has been achieved inside an ion beam cooler-buncher. By illuminating the central axis of the cooler with laser light, subsequent decay populates selected ionic metastable states. This population enhancement is retained as the ion beam is delivered to an experimental station. In the case of collinear laser spectroscopy, transitions can then be excited from a preferred metastable level, rather than the ground-state. This proposal seeks to establish and develop the technique for ISCOOL. As a test of efficiency, this will be applied to the study of $^{55-66}$Mn isotopes using collinear laser spectroscopy-expanding an earlier study where the benefit of the technique was demonstrated. This will provide nuclear spins, magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole moments and changes in mean-square charge radii across N = 40 shell closure candidate and into a region where an onset of deformation, and a new "island of inversion" is predicted.

  4. Iron isotope composition of particles produced by UV-femtosecond laser ablation of natural oxides, sulfides, and carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Abzac, Francois-Xavier; Beard, Brian L; Czaja, Andrew D; Konishi, Hiromi; Schauer, James J; Johnson, Clark M

    2013-12-17

    The need for femtosecond laser ablation (fs-LA) systems coupled to MC-ICP-MS to accurately perform in situ stable isotope analyses remains an open question, because of the lack of knowledge concerning ablation-related isotopic fractionation in this regime. We report the first iron isotope analysis of size-resolved, laser-induced particles of natural magnetite, siderite, pyrrhotite, and pyrite, collected through cascade impaction, followed by analysis by solution nebulization MC-ICP-MS, as well as imaging using electron microscopy. Iron mass distributions are independent of mineralogy, and particle morphology includes both spheres and agglomerates for all ablated phases. X-ray spectroscopy shows elemental fractionation in siderite (C-rich agglomerates) and pyrrhotite/pyrite (S-rich spheres). We find an increase in (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratios of +2‰, +1.2‰, and +0.8‰ with increasing particle size for magnetite, siderite, and pyrrhotite, respectively. Fe isotope differences in size-sorted aerosols from pyrite ablation are not analytically resolvable. Experimental data are discussed using models of particles generation by Hergenröder and elemental/isotopic fractionation by Richter. We interpret the isotopic fractionation to be related to the iron condensation time scale, dependent on its saturation in the gas phase, as a function of mineral composition. Despite the isotopic variations across aerosol size fractions, total aerosol composition, as calculated from mass balance, confirms that fs-LA produces a stoichiometric sampling in terms of isotopic composition. Specifically, both elemental and isotopic fractionation are produced by particle generation processes and not by femtosecond laser-matter interactions. These results provide critical insights into the analytical requirements for laser-ablation-based stable isotope measurements of high-precision and accuracy in geological samples, including the importance of quantitative aerosol transport to the ICP.

  5. Rate equation model of laser induced bias in uranium isotope ratios measured by resonance ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isselhardt, B. H.; Prussin, S. G.; Savina, M. R.; Willingham, D. G.; Knight, K. B.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2016-01-01

    Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) has been developed as a method to measure uranium isotope abundances. In this approach, RIMS is used as an element-selective ionization process between uranium atoms and potential isobars without the aid of chemical purification and separation. The use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of the U-235/U-238 ratio to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. In application, isotope standards are used to identify and correct bias in measured isotope ratios, but understanding laser-induced bias from first-principles can improve the precision and accuracy of experimental measurements. A rate equation model for predicting the relative ionization probability has been developed to study the effect of variations in laser parameters on the measured isotope ratio. The model uses atomic data and empirical descriptions of laser performance to estimate the laser-induced bias expected in experimental measurements of the U-235/U-238 ratio. Empirical corrections are also included to account for ionization processes that are difficult to calculate from first principles with the available atomic data. Development of this model has highlighted several important considerations for properly interpreting experimental results.

  6. Acousto-optically tuned isotopic CO{sub 2} lasers for long-range differential absorption LIDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.C.; Busch, G.E.; Hewitt, C.J.; Remelius, D.K.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Strauss, C.E.M.; Wilson, C.W.

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing 2--100 kHz repetition rate CO{sub 2} lasers with milliJoule pulse energies, rapid acousto-optic tuning and isotopic gas mixes, for Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) applications. The authors explain the tuning method, which uses a pair of acousto-optic modulators and is capable of random access to CO{sub 2} laser lines at rates of 100 kHz or more. The laser system is also described, and they report on performance with both normal and isotopic gas mixes.

  7. Measurement of the Carbon Isotopic Composition of Methane Using Helicoidal Laser Eigenstates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, D.; Le Floch, A.; Bretenaker, F.; Guenot, P.

    1996-06-01

    The spatially generalized Jones matrix formalism is used to design a laser cavity to make intracavity measurements of the carbon isotopic composition of methane. the method is based on a double optical lever effect for helicoidally polarized eigenstates, permitting to measure successively the ^{12}CH_4 and ^{13}CH_4 concentrations. To choose the probed isotope, one simply tunes the frequency of the laser by Zeeman effect. The experiment exhibits a good agreement with the predictions and permits to measure the ^{13}CH4/^{12}CH_4 composition ratio of methane with an uncertainty of the order of ± 0.07% for a sample containing only 6× 10^{-9} mole of methane. On utilise le formalisme des matrices de Jones généralisées spatialement pour concevoir une cavité laser permettant la mesure intra-cavité de la composition isotopique du carbone présent dans le méthane. La méthode est fondée sur une double application de l'effet de levier optique pour les états propres hélicoïdaux, permettant de mesurer successivement les concentrations de ^{12}CH_4 et de ^{13}CH_4. Pour passer d'un isotope à l'autre, on ajuste simplement la fréquence du laser par effet Zeeman. L'expérience est en bon accord avec les prédictions et permet d'effectuer la mesure du rapport isotopique ^{13}CH4/^{12}CH_4 avec une fourchette d'incertitude de ± 0,07% pour des échantillons de gaz ne contenant que 6× 10^{-9} mole de méthane.

  8. Developing a western Siberia reference site for tropospheric water vapour isotopologue observations obtained by different techniques (in situ and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gribanov

    2014-06-01

    water cycle, affected by changes in air mass origin, non-convective and convective processes and continental recycling. Novel remote sensing and in situ measuring techniques have recently offered opportunities for monitoring atmospheric water vapour isotopic composition. Recently developed infrared laser spectrometers allow for continuous in situ measurements of surface water vapour δDv and δ18Ov. So far, very few intercomparisons of measurements conducted using different techniques have been achieved at a given location, due to difficulties intrinsic to the comparison of integrated with local measurements. Nudged simulations conducted with high-resolution isotopically enabled general circulation models (GCMs provide a consistent framework for comparison with the different types of observations. Here, we compare simulations conducted with the ECHAM5-wiso model with two types of water vapour isotopic data obtained during summer 2012 at the forest site of Kourovka, western Siberia: hourly ground-based FTIR total atmospheric columnar δDv amounts, and in situ hourly Picarro δDv measurements. There is an excellent correlation between observed and predicted δDv at surface while the comparison between water column values derived from the model compares well with FTIR estimates.

  9. Ground-state properties of K-isotopes from laser and $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Lievens, P; Rajabali, M M; Krieger, A R

    By combining high-resolution laser spectroscopy with $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy on polarized K-beams we aim to establish the ground-state spins and magnetic moments of the neutron-rich $^{48,49,50,51}$K isotopes from N=29 to N=32. Spins and magnetic moments of the odd-K isotopes up to N=28 reveal an inversion of the ground-state, from the normal $\\,{I}$=3/2 ($\\pi{d}_{3/2}^{-1}$) in $^{41-45}$K$\\to\\,{I}$=1/2 ($\\pi{s}_{1/2}^{-1}$) in $^{47}$K. This inversion of the proton single particle levels is related to the strong proton $d_{3/2}$ - neutron $f_{7/2}$ interaction which lowers the energy of the $\\pi{d}_{3/2}$ single particle state when filling the $\

  10. Least destructive sampling of human remains using laser drilling for Sr isotope analysis by TIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmes, Malte; Moffat, Ian; Grün, Rainer; Armstrong, Richard; Kinsley, Les; McMorrow, Linda

    2013-04-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) measured in ancient human remains can be used to reconstruct migration patterns of ancient human populations. This application is based on the fact that different geologic regions have distinct Sr isotope signatures that are cycled through the soils, plants and rivers, and eventually enter the food cycle. Sr isotope ratios measured in skeletal remains (bones and teeth) reflect the average of dietary Sr that was consumed when the tissue was formed, allowing the investigation of human migration between geologically distinct terrains. The analysis of human remains is always a sensitive topic requiring minimal damage to the sample, while at the same time providing highly precise and accurate results. Samples can be analysed either by solution methods like thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), or by in-situ laser ablation MC-ICP-MS. For TIMS a drill is used to extract a small amount of sample, which is then digested in acid and Sr is separated out using ion exchange chromatography. This technique provides highly precise and accurate results, because any isobaric interferences are removed during chemical separation. The drawback is that drilling may cause visible damage to the sample, restricting access to precious human remains. LA-MC-ICP-MS analysis is very fast and nearly destruction free. However, the accuracy and precision of LA-MC-ICP-MS is limited by a number of factors including large instrumental mass discrimination, laser-induced isotopic and elemental fractionations and molecular interferences on 87Sr. Its application thus requires rigorous data reduction, which can introduce significant uncertainties into the analysis. This is especially true for samples with relatively low Sr concentrations such as human teeth (e.g., Woodhead et al., 2005; Horstwood et al., 2008; Vroon et al., 2008). In addition, LA-MC-ICP-MS has traditionally required a flat sample surface, thus an unbroken tooth needs to be cut, which is rather

  11. In-gas-cell laser ionization studies of plutonium isotopes at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjalainen, I.; Moore, I. D.; Kron, T.; Raeder, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Tomita, H.; Trautmann, N.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K.

    2016-06-01

    In-gas-cell resonance laser ionization has been performed on long-lived isotopes of Pu at the IGISOL facility, Jyväskylä. This initiates a new programme of research towards high-resolution optical spectroscopy of heavy actinide elements which can be produced in sufficient quantities at research reactors and transported to facilities elsewhere. In this work a new gas cell has been constructed for fast extraction of laser-ionized elements. Samples of 238-240,242Pu and 244Pu have been evaporated from Ta filaments, laser ionized, mass separated and delivered to the collinear laser spectroscopy station. Here we report on the performance of the gas cell through studies of the mass spectra obtained in helium and argon, before and after the radiofrequency quadrupole cooler-buncher. This provides valuable insight into the gas phase chemistry exhibited by Pu, which has been additionally supported by measurements of ion time profiles. The resulting monoatomic yields are sufficient for collinear laser spectroscopy. A gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of the Pu samples shows a good agreement with the assay provided by the Mainz Nuclear Chemistry department.

  12. In-gas-cell laser ionization studies of plutonium isotopes at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjalainen, I., E-mail: ilkka.pohjalainen@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Moore, I.D., E-mail: iain.d.moore@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Kron, T. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Raeder, S. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sonnenschein, V.; Tomita, H. [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Trautmann, N. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, Fritz-Straßmann-Weg 2, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Voss, A. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Wendt, K. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    In-gas-cell resonance laser ionization has been performed on long-lived isotopes of Pu at the IGISOL facility, Jyväskylä. This initiates a new programme of research towards high-resolution optical spectroscopy of heavy actinide elements which can be produced in sufficient quantities at research reactors and transported to facilities elsewhere. In this work a new gas cell has been constructed for fast extraction of laser-ionized elements. Samples of {sup 238–240,242}Pu and {sup 244}Pu have been evaporated from Ta filaments, laser ionized, mass separated and delivered to the collinear laser spectroscopy station. Here we report on the performance of the gas cell through studies of the mass spectra obtained in helium and argon, before and after the radiofrequency quadrupole cooler-buncher. This provides valuable insight into the gas phase chemistry exhibited by Pu, which has been additionally supported by measurements of ion time profiles. The resulting monoatomic yields are sufficient for collinear laser spectroscopy. A gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of the Pu samples shows a good agreement with the assay provided by the Mainz Nuclear Chemistry department.

  13. Optimization of post-run corrections for water stable isotope measurements by laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2013-04-01

    Light stable isotope analyses of hydrogen and oxygen of water are used in numerous aquatic studies from various scientific fields. The advantage of using stable isotope ratios is that water molecules serve as ubiquitous and already present natural tracers. Traditionally, the samples were analyzed in the laboratory by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Within recent years these analyses have been revolutionized by the development of new isotope ratio laser spectroscopy (IRIS) systems that are said to be cheaper, more robust and mobile compared to IRMS. Although easier to operate, laser systems also need thorough calibration with international reference materials and raw data need correction for analytical effects. A major issue in systems that use liquid injection via a vaporizer module is the memory effect, i.e. the carry-over from the previous analyzed sample in a sequence. This study presents an optimized and simple post-run correction procedure for liquid water injection developed for a Picarro water analyzer. The Excel(TM) template will rely exclusively on standard features implemented in MS Office without the need to run macros, additional code written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) or to use a database-related software such as MS Access or SQL Server. These protocols will maximize precision, accuracy and sample throughput via an efficient memory correction. The number of injections per unknown sample can be reduced to 4 or less. This procedure meets the demands of faster throughput with reduced costs per analysis. Procedures were verified by an international proficiency test and traditional IRMS techniques. The template is available free for scientific use from the corresponding author or the journals web site (van Geldern and Barth, 2012). References van Geldern, R. and Barth, J.A.C. (2012) Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 10:1024-1036 [doi: 10.4319/lom.2012.10.1024

  14. Determination of the isotope shift of $^{190}$Hg by on-line laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, C; Kluge, H J; Kremmling, H; Kuhl, Th; Otten, E W

    1977-01-01

    By use of a pulsed tunable dye laser the isotope shift of (T/sub 1/2 /=20 min) /sup 190/Hg in the 6s/sup 2/ /sup 1/S/sub 0/-6s6p/sup 3/P /sub 1/, lambda =2537 AA line has been measured at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE/CERN. The preliminary result relative to /sup 204/Hg is IS/sup 204/190/=31.8(3) GHz. (15 refs).

  15. Isotope selective analysis of CO2 with tunable diode laser (TDL) spectroscopy in the NIR

    OpenAIRE

    Hörner, Gerald; Lau, Steffen; Kantor, Zoltan; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2006-01-01

    The performance of a home-built tunable diode laser (TDL) spectrometer, aimed at multi-line detection of carbon dioxide, has been evaluated and optimized. In the regime of the (3001)III / (000) band of 12CO2 around 1.6 μm, the dominating isotope species 12CO2, 13CO2, and 12C18O16O were detected simultaneously without interference by water vapor. Detection limits in the range of few ppmv were obtained for each species utilizing wavelength modulation (WM) spectroscopy with balanced detection in...

  16. Seeking excellence: An evaluation of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses by isotope-ratio and laser-absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, L. I.; Terzer-Wassmuth, S.; Douence, C.; Araguas-Araguas, L.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2018-01-01

    RationaleWater stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O values) are widely used tracers in environmental studies; hence, accurate and precise assays are required for providing sound scientific information. We tested the analytical performance of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses using dual-inlet and continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometers and laser spectrometers through a water isotope inter-comparison test.MethodsEight test water samples were distributed by the IAEA to international stable isotope laboratories. These consisted of a core set of five samples spanning the common δ-range of natural waters, and three optional samples (highly depleted, enriched, and saline). The fifth core sample contained unrevealed trace methanol to assess analyst vigilance to the impact of organic contamination on water isotopic measurements made by all instrument technologies.ResultsFor the core and optional samples ~73 % of laboratories gave acceptable results within 0.2 ‰ and 1.5 ‰ of the reference values for δ18O and δ2H, respectively; ~27 % produced unacceptable results. Top performance for δ18O values was dominated by dual-inlet IRMS laboratories; top performance for δ2H values was led by laser spectrometer laboratories. Continuous-flow instruments yielded comparatively intermediate results. Trace methanol contamination of water resulted in extreme outlier δ-values for laser instruments, but also affected reactor-based continuous-flow IRMS systems; however, dual-inlet IRMS δ-values were unaffected.ConclusionsAnalysis of the laboratory results and their metadata suggested inaccurate or imprecise performance stemmed mainly from skill- and knowledge-based errors including: calculation mistakes, inappropriate or compromised laboratory calibration standards, poorly performing instrumentation, lack of vigilance to contamination, or inattention to unreasonable isotopic outcomes. To counteract common errors, we recommend that

  17. Sequencing of Isotope-Labeled Small RNA Using Femtosecond Laser Ablation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata-Nishimura, Mizuki; Ando, Yoshinari; Kobayashi, Tohru; Matsuo, Yukari; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Kawai, Jun

    2010-04-01

    A novel method for the analysis of sequences of small RNAs using nucleotide triphosphates labeled with stable isotopes has been developed using time-of-flight mass spectroscopy combined with femtosecond laser ablation (fsLA-TOF-MS). Small RNAs synthesized with nucleotides enriched in 13C and 15N were efficiently atomized and ionized by single-shot fsLA and the isotope ratios 13C/12C and 15N/14N were evaluated using the TOF-MS method. By comparing the isotope ratios among four different configurations, the number of nucleotide contents of the control RNA sample were successfully reproduced.

  18. Nuclear shape staggering in very neutron deficient Hg isotopes detected by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dabkiewicz, P; Fischer, H; Kühl, T; Kluge, H J; Kremmling, H; Otten, E W; Schüssler, H A

    1977-01-01

    The isotope shift in the lambda =2537 AA line of the even isotopes /sup 206/Hg, /sup 190/Hg, /sup 188/Hg, /sup 186/Hg, /sup 184/Hg as well as of the I=13/2 isomers of /sup 191/Hg, /sup 189/Hg, /sup 187 /Hg, /sup 185/Hg has been measured using a tunable dye laser at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. The resulting delta (r/sup 2/) values follow the line, extrapolated from the chain /sup 205/Hg-/sup 187/Hg which is known to have spherical nuclear shape at the heavy end changing smoothly to slight oblate deformation for the lighter isotopes. Previous measurements of the I=1/2 groundstates of /sup 181 /Hg. /sup 183/Hg and /sup 185/Hg revealed a sharp shape transition to strong deformation. Combined with the new results the following effects can be proved from the model-independent quantity delta (r/sup 2/): 1) the existence of odd even-shape staggering, 2) the coexistence of very different shapes in one nucleus, 3) the absence of mixing of the different shapes. (26 refs).

  19. IR laser extraction technique applied to oxygen isotope analysis of small biogenic silica samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespin, Julien; Alexandre, Anne; Sylvestre, Florence; Sonzogni, Corinne; Paillès, Christine; Garreta, Vincent

    2008-04-01

    An IR-laser fluorination technique is reported here for analyzing the oxygen isotope composition (delta18O) of microscopic biogenic silica grains (phytoliths and diatoms). Performed after a controlled isotopic exchanged (CIE) procedure, the laser fluorination technique that allows one to visually check the success of the fluorination reaction is faster than the conventional fluorination technique and allows analyzing delta18O of small to minute samples (1.6-0.3 mg) as required for high-resolution paleoenvironmental reconstructions. The long-term reproducibility achieved with the IR laser-heating fluorination/O2 delta18O analysis is lower than or equal to +/-0.26 per thousand (1 SD; n = 99) for phytoliths and +/-0.17 per thousand (1 SD; n = 47) for diatoms. When several CIE are taken into account in the SD calculation, the resulting reproducibility is lower than or equal to +/-0.51 per thousand for phytoliths (1 SD; n = 99; CIE > 5) and +/-0.54 per thousand (1 SD; n = 47; CIE = 13) for diatoms. A minimum reproducibility of +/-0.5 per thousand leads to an estimated uncertainty on delta18Osilica close to +/-0.5 per thousand. Resulting uncertainties on reconstructed temperature and delta18Oforming water are, respectively, +/-2 degrees C and +/-0.5 per thousand and fit in the precisions required for intertropical paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Several methodological points such as optimal extraction protocols and the necessity or not of performing two CIE prior to oxygen extraction are assessed.

  20. Nd Isotope and U-Th-Pb Age Mapping of Single Monazite Grains by Laser Ablation Split Stream Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C. M.; Hanchar, J. M.; Miller, C. F.; Phillips, S.; Vervoort, J. D.; Martin, W.

    2015-12-01

    Monazite is a common accessory mineral that occurs in medium to high grade metamorphic and Ca-poor felsic igneous rocks, and often controls the LREE budget (including Sm and Nd) of the host rock in which it crystallizes. Moreover, it contains appreciable U and Th, making it an ideal mineral for determining U-Th-Pb ages and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions, both of which are readily determined using in situ techniques with very high spatial resolution like LA-MC-ICPMS. Here, we present the results of laser ablation split stream analyses (LASS), which allows for simultaneous determination of the age and initial Nd isotopic composition in a single analysis. Analyses were done using a 20mm laser spot that allowed for detailed Nd isotope mapping of monazite grains (~30 analyses per ~250mm sized grain). Combined with LREE ratios (e.g., Sm/Nd, Ce/Gd, and Eu anomalies) these results yield important petrogenetic constraints on the evolution of peraluminous granites from the Old Woman-Piute batholith in southeastern California. Our findings also allow an improved understanding of the causes of isotope heterogeneity in granitic rocks. U-Th-Pb age mapping across the crystals reveals a single Cretaceous age for all grains with precision and accuracy typical of laser ablation analyses (~2%). In contrast, the concurrent Nd isotope mapping yields homogeneous initial Nd isotope compositions for some grains and large initial intra-grain variations of up to 8 epsilon units in others. The grains that yield homogeneous Nd isotope compositions have REE ratios suggesting that they crystallized in a fractionally crystallizing magma. Conversely, other grains, which also record fractional crystallization of both feldspar and LREE rich minerals, demonstrate a change in the Nd isotope composition of the magma during crystallization of monazite. Comparison of inter- and intra-grain Nd isotope compositions reveals further details on the potential mechanisms responsible for isotope heterogeneity

  1. Interactions of fission product vapours with aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.G.; Newland, M.S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    Reactions between structural and reactor materials aerosols and fission product vapours released during a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) will influence the magnitude of the radiological source term ultimately released to the environment. The interaction of cadmium aerosol with iodine vapour at different temperatures has been examined in a programme of experiments designed to characterise the kinetics of the system. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique that is particularly amenable to the study of systems involving elemental iodine because of the high intensity of the fluorescence lines. Therefore this technique was used in the experiments to measure the decrease in the concentration of iodine vapour as the reaction with cadmium proceeded. Experiments were conducted over the range of temperatures (20-350{sup o}C), using calibrated iodine vapour and cadmium aerosol generators that gave well-quantified sources. The LIF results provided information on the kinetics of the process, whilst examination of filter samples gave data on the composition and morphology of the aerosol particles that were formed. The results showed that the reaction of cadmium with iodine was relatively fast, giving reaction half-lives of approximately 0.3 s. This suggests that the assumption used by primary circuit codes such as VICTORIA that reaction rates are mass-transfer limited, is justified for the cadmium-iodine reaction. The reaction was first order with respect to both cadmium and iodine, and was assigned as pseudo second order overall. However, there appeared to be a dependence of aerosol surface area on the overall rate constant, making the precise order of the reaction difficult to assign. The relatively high volatility of the cadmium iodide formed in the reaction played an important role in determining the composition of the particles. (author) 23 figs., 7 tabs., 22 refs.

  2. Laser ablation-miniature mass spectrometer for elemental and isotopic analysis of rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M P; Neidholdt, E L; Hurowitz, J; Sturhahn, W; Beard, B; Hecht, M H

    2011-09-01

    A laser ablation-miniature mass spectrometer (LA-MMS) for the chemical and isotopic measurement of rocks and minerals is described. In the LA-MMS method, neutral atoms ablated by a pulsed laser are led into an electron impact ionization source, where they are ionized by a 70 eV electron beam. This results in a secondary ion pulse typically 10-100 μs wide, compared to the original 5-10 ns laser pulse duration. Ions of different masses are then spatially dispersed along the focal plane of the magnetic sector of the miniature mass spectrometer (MMS) and measured in parallel by a modified CCD array detector capable of detecting ions directly. Compared to conventional scanning techniques, simultaneous measurement of the ion pulse along the focal plane effectively offers a 100% duty cycle over a wide mass range. LA-MMS offers a more quantitative assessment of elemental composition than techniques that detect ions directly generated by the ablation process because the latter can be strongly influenced by matrix effects that vary with the structure and geometry of the surface, the wavelength of the laser beam, and the not well characterized ionization efficiencies of the elements in the process. The above problems attendant to the direct ion analysis has been minimized in the LA-MMS by analyzing the ablated neutral species after their post-ionization by electron impaction. These neutral species are much more abundant than the directly ablated ions in the ablated vapor plume and are, therefore, expected to be characteristic of the chemical composition of the solid. Also, the electron impact ionization of elements is well studied and their ionization cross sections are known and easy to find in databases. Currently, the LA-MMS limit of detection is 0.4 wt.%. Here we describe LA-MMS elemental composition measurements of various minerals including microcline, lepidolite, anorthoclase, and USGS BCR-2G samples. The measurements of high precision isotopic ratios including (41)K

  3. Detection of radioactive isotopes by using laser Compton scattered γ-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajima, R.; Kikuzawa, N.; Nishimori, N.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Kawase, K.; Kando, M.; Minehara, E.; Toyokawa, H.; Ohgaki, H.

    2009-09-01

    Non-destructive detection and assay of nuclear materials is one of the most critical issues for both the management of nuclear waste and the non-proliferation of nuclear materials. We use laser Compton scattered (LCS) γ-ray beams and the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) for the non-destructive detection of radioactive materials. Quasi-monochromatic and energy-tunable LCS γ-ray beams help improve the signal-to-noise ratio during NRF measurements. We developed the conceptual design of a high-flux γ-ray source with an energy-recovery linac, which produces a γ-ray beam at the flux of 1013 photons/s. In this paper, we discuss the execution of simulation studies using a Monte Carlo code, results of a proof-of-principle experiment for isotope detection, and the status of the development of LCS X-ray and γ-ray facilities.

  4. Isotope selective analysis of CO(2) with tunable diode laser (TDL) spectroscopy in the NIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Gerald; Lau, Steffen; Kantor, Zoltan; Lohmannsroben, Hans-Gerd

    2004-08-01

    The performance of a home-built tunable diode laser (TDL) spectrometer, aimed at multi-line detection of carbon dioxide, has been evaluated and optimized. In the regime of the (30(0)1)(III) spectroscopy with balanced detection in a long-path absorption cell set-up. High sensitivity in conjunction with high precision -- typically +/-1 (per thousand) and +/-6 (per thousand) for 3% and 0.7% of CO(2), respectively -- renders this experimental approach a promising analytical concept for isotope-ratio determination of carbon dioxide in soil and breath gas. For a moderate (12)CO(2) line, the pressure dependence of the line profile was characterized in detail, to account for pressure effects on sensitive measurements.

  5. Hydrogen isotope correction for laser instrument measurement bias at low water vapor concentration using conventional isotope analyses: application to measurements from Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L R; Sharp, Z D; Galewsky, J; Strong, M; Van Pelt, A D; Dong, F; Noone, D

    2011-03-15

    The hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of water vapor can be measured with commercially available laser spectroscopy analyzers in real time. Operation of the laser systems in relatively dry air is difficult because measurements are non-linear as a function of humidity at low water concentrations. Here we use field-based sampling coupled with traditional mass spectrometry techniques for assessing linearity and calibrating laser spectroscopy systems at low water vapor concentrations. Air samples are collected in an evacuated 2 L glass flask and the water is separated from the non-condensable gases cryogenically. Approximately 2 µL of water are reduced to H(2) gas and measured on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. In a field experiment at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO), we ran Picarro and Los Gatos Research (LGR) laser analyzers for a period of 25 days in addition to periodic sample collection in evacuated flasks. When the two laser systems are corrected to the flask data, they are strongly coincident over the entire 25 days. The δ(2)H values were found to change by over 200‰ over 2.5 min as the boundary layer elevation changed relative to MLO. The δ(2)H values ranged from -106 to -332‰, and the δ(18)O values (uncorrected) ranged from -12 to -50‰. Raw data from laser analyzers in environments with low water vapor concentrations can be normalized to the international V-SMOW scale by calibration to the flask data measured conventionally. Bias correction is especially critical for the accurate determination of deuterium excess in dry air. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for uranium isotopic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, George Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McIntosh, Kathryn Gallagher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Judge, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dirmyer, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Campbell, Keri [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Jhanis J. [Applied Spectra Inc., Fremont, CA (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Feasibility tests were conducted using femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for rapid uranium isotopic measurements. The samples used in this study consisted of a range of pg quantities of known 235/238 U solutions as dried spot residues of 300 pL drops on silicon substrates. The samples spanned the following enrichments of 235U: 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, and 15.1%. In this direct comparison using these particular samples both pulse durations demonstrated near equivalent data can be produced on either system with respect to accuracy and precision. There is no question that either LA-ICP-MS method offers the potential for rapid, accurate and precise isotopic measurements of U10Mo materials whether DU, LEU or HEU. The LA-ICP-MS equipment used for this work is commercially available. The program is in the process of validating this work for large samples using center samples strips from Y-12 MP-1 LEU-Mo Casting #1.

  7. Large odd-even staggering in the very light platinum isotopes from laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Le Blanc, F; Cabaret, L A; Crawford, J E; Duong, H T; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Krieg, M; Lee, J K P; Lettry, Jacques; Lunney, M D; Obert, J; Oms, J; Peru, S; Putaux, J C; Roussière, B; Sauvage, J; Sebastian, V; Zemlyanoi, S G

    1998-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on very neutron-deficient platinum isotopes with the COMPLIS experimental set-up on line with the ISOLDE-Booster facility. For the first time, Hg alpha -decay was exploited to extend the very light platinum chain. Using the 5d/sup 9/6s /sup 3/D/sub 3/ to 5d/sup 9/6p /sup 3/P /sub 2/ optical transition, hyperfine spectra of /sup 182,181,180,179,178/Pt and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were recorded for the first time. The variation of the mean square charge radius between these nuclei, the magnetic moments of the odd isotopes and the quadrupole moment of /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were thus measured. A large deformation change between /sup 183/Pt/sup 9/ and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/, an odd-even staggering of the charge radius and a deformation drop from A=179 are clearly observed. All these results are discussed and compared with microscopic theoretical predictions using Hartree-Fock- Bogolyubov calculations using the Gogny force. (20 refs).

  8. Nuclear moments and deformation changes in the lightest Pt isotopes measured by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J; Duong, H T; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Ibrahim, F; Krieg, M; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Obert, J; Oms, J; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Putaux, J C; Sauvage, J; Sebastian, V; Zemlyanoi, S G; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Lettry, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements are performed with the lightest neutron-deficient platinum isotopes using the experimental setup COMPLIS installed at the ISOLDE-Booster facility. The hyperfine spectra of /sup 182-178/Pt and /sup 183m/Pt are recorded for the first time from the optical transition 5d/sup 9/6s/sup 3/D/sub 3/ to 5d/sup 9/6p/sup 3/P/sub 2/. The variation in the mean-square charge radius of these nuclei and the magnetic and quadrupole (for I>or=1) moments of the odd isotope nuclei are found. A large deformation change between the /sup 183g/Pt and /sup 183m/Pt nuclei, quite large inverted odd-even staggering of the charge radius around the neutron midshell N=104, and a nuclear deformation drop in the region A=179 are revealed. All the results are discussed in terms of nuclear shape variation and are compared with the results of Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov calculations involving the Gogny force. Comparison of the deformation measured from /sup 183g, m/Pt to the odd-odd isotone /sup 184g, m/Au shows that...

  9. Collinear Laser Spectroscopy of Manganese Isotopes using the Radio Frequency Quadrupole Cooler and Buncher at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083426

    The hyperfine structure of the odd-even $^{51−63}$Mn isotopes (N = 26 − 38) were measured using bunched beam collinear laser spectroscopy with the COLLAPS experimental setup at ISOLDE, CERN. The properties of these nuclei were investigated over the course of two experiments. During the first experiment, nuclear spins and magnetic dipole moments were extracted from spectroscopy on manganese atoms. These nuclear properties were then compared to the predictions of two large-scale shell model effective interactions (GXPF1A [1, 2] and LNPS [3]) which use different model spaces. In the case of $^{61,63}$Mn, these results show the increasing importance of neutron excitations across the proposed N = 40 subshell closure, and of proton excitations across the Z = 28 shell gap. These measurements provide the first direct proof that proton and neutron excitations across shell gaps are playing an important role in the ground state wave functions of the neutron-rich Mn isotopes. The electric quadrupole moment provides c...

  10. Isotopic imaging via nuclear resonance fluorescence with laser-based Thomson radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J. [Hayward, CA; Hartemann, Frederic V [San Ramon, CA; McNabb, Dennis P [Alameda, CA; Pruet, Jason A [Brentwood, CA

    2009-07-21

    The present invention utilizes novel laser-based, high-brightness, high-spatial-resolution, pencil-beam sources of spectrally pure hard x-ray and gamma-ray radiation to induce resonant scattering in specific nuclei, i.e., nuclear resonance fluorescence. By monitoring such fluorescence as a function of beam position, it is possible to image in either two dimensions or three dimensions, the position and concentration of individual isotopes in a specific material configuration. Such methods of the present invention material identification, spatial resolution of material location and ability to locate and identify materials shielded by other materials, such as, for example, behind a lead wall. The foundation of the present invention is the generation of quasimonochromatic high-energy x-ray (100's of keV) and gamma-ray (greater than about 1 MeV) radiation via the collision of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons. Such a process as utilized herein, i.e., Thomson scattering or inverse-Compton scattering, produces beams having diameters from about 1 micron to about 100 microns of high-energy photons with a bandwidth of .DELTA.E/E of approximately 10E.sup.-3.

  11. The importance of the poikilohydric nature of lichens as natural tracers for delta18O of ambient vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartard, Britta; Cuntz, Matthias; Lakatos, Michael; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotope composition of water is routinely used as a tracer to study water exchange processes in vascular plants and ecosystems. To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in poikilohydric organisms (i.e. lichens and bryophytes), where relative water content equilibrate with the surrounding humidity conditions and that are able to use distinct water sources such as precipitation, dew, fog and also water vapour. Moreover, lichens are ubiquitous organisms, and on a global scale, they are found in nearly all terrestrial ecosystems and also within these ecosystems they inhabit many microhabitats. As poikilohydric. especially green algal lichens are known to photosynthetically reactivate solely upon uptake of atmospheric moisture, even at non-saturated ambient humidity conditions. To understand basic isotope exchange processes on non-vascular plants, thallus water isotopic composition was studied in various green-algal lichens exposed to desiccation. The study indicates that lichens equilibrates with the isotopic composition of surrounding water vapour. We found that the thallus water of lichens exposed to high relative humidity shows fast isotopic equilibration with the surrounding vapour regardless of whether the lichen experiences water loss or vapour uptake. The time until isotopic equilibrium is achieved depends on the initial water status as well as on the lichen's specific morphology. It ranged from 5 to 12h in previously dried lichens to approximately 40h in lichens previously rehydrated with liquid water of distinct isotopic composition. Even though markedly slower, isotopic equilibration between leaf water and ambient vapour may also occur in homoiohydric plants exposed to high relative humidity. At low relative humidity, however, the apparent vapour pressure deficit between the evaporative sites and the ambient air and the increased stomatal diffusion resistance generally causes leaf water enrichment. In contrast, poikilohydric lichens lack

  12. Sulfate and sulfide sulfur isotopes (δ34S and δ33S) measured by solution and laser ablation MC-ICP-MS: An enhanced approach using external correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, Michael; Ridley, William I.; Emsbo, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Isotope ratio measurements using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) commonly use standard-sample bracketing with a single isotope standard for mass bias correction for elements with narrow-range isotope systems measured by MC-ICP-MS, e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, and Hg. However, sulfur (S) isotopic composition (δ34S) in nature can range from at least − 40 to + 40‰, potentially exceeding the ability of standard-sample bracketing using a single sulfur isotope standard to accurately correct for mass bias. Isotopic fractionation via solution and laser ablation introduction was determined during sulfate sulfur (Ssulfate) isotope measurements. An external isotope calibration curve was constructed using in-house and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Ssulfate isotope reference materials (RM) in an attempt to correct for the difference. The ability of external isotope correction for Ssulfate isotope measurements was evaluated by analyzing NIST and United States Geological Survey (USGS) Ssulfate isotope reference materials as unknowns. Differences in δ34Ssulfate between standard-sample bracketing and standard-sample bracketing with external isotope correction for sulfate samples ranged from 0.72‰ to 2.35‰ over a δ34S range of 1.40‰ to 21.17‰. No isotopic differences were observed when analyzing Ssulfide reference materials over a δ34Ssulfide range of − 32.1‰ to 17.3‰ and a δ33S range of − 16.5‰ to 8.9‰ via laser ablation (LA)-MC-ICP-MS. Here, we identify a possible plasma induced fractionation for Ssulfate and describe a new method using external isotope calibration corrections using solution and LA-MC-ICP-MS.

  13. Pu-239/Pu-240 isotope ratios determined using high resolution emission spectroscopy in a laser-induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Coleman A.; Martinez, Max A.; Veirs, D. Kirk; Cremers, David A.

    2002-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied for the determination of plutonium isotope ratios through direct observation of atomic emission from laser-induced plasmas at high resolution. The Pu-239/Pu-240 isotope shift of -0.355 cm -1 from the plutonium atomic line at 594.52202 nm (Blaise et al., The Atomic Spectrum of Plutonium, Argonne National Laboratory Report ANL-83-95, 1984) is clearly resolved in our plasma conditions. Atomic emission is dispersed through a 2-m spectrometer in double pass mode and collected on an electronically gated, intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera. The integrated peak areas obtained from curve-fitting closely match the Pu-239/Pu-240 isotopic ratios obtained from standard methods of thermal ionization mass spectrometry and gamma spectrometry. The observed plutonium linewidths were 0.19 cm -1 (0.0067 nm). These linewidths are within the experimental error of the ideal instrument-limited linewidth, which is calculated to be 0.15 cm -1 (0.0052 nm) based upon the known modulation transfer function for the ICCD system. This linewidth should allow LIBS to be applicable for isotopic ratio measurements for all of the light actinides.

  14. CHILI – the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization – a new tool for isotope measurements in cosmochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, Thomas; Trappitsch, Reto; Davis, Andrew M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Rost, Detlef; Savina, Michael R.; Yokochi, Reika; Liu, Nan

    2016-08-01

    We describe CHILI, the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, a new resonance ionization mass spectrometer developed for isotopic analysis at high spatial resolution and high sensitivity of small samples like contemporary interstellar dust grains returned by the Stardust spacecraft. We explain how CHILI addresses the technical challenges associated with such analyses by pushing most technical specifications towards their physical limits. As an initial demonstration, after many years of designing and developing CHILI, we have analyzed presolar silicon carbide grains for their isotopic compositions of strontium, zirconium, and barium. Subsequently, after further technical improvements, we have used CHILI to analyze, for the first time without interference, all stable isotopes of iron and nickel simultaneously in presolar silicon carbide grains. With a special timing scheme for the ionization lasers, we separated iron and nickel isotopes in the time-of-flight spectrum such that the isobaric interference between Fe-58 and Ni-58 was resolved. In-depth discussion of the astrophysical implications of the presolar grain results is deferred to dedicated later publications. Here we focus on the technical aspects of CHILI, its status quo, and further developments necessary to achieve CHILI's ultimate goals, similar to 10 nm lateral resolution and 30-40% useful yield.

  15. Engineering Studies of a Pilot Plant for Laser Isotope Separation of CARBON-13 by Multiphoton Dissociation of Chlorodifluoromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmetli, Bulent Ahmet

    Recent research in laser isotope separation by multiphoton dissociation (LISMPD) of ^{13 }C suggests that an LISMPD commercial process is more economical than the cryogenic CO distillation technology currently used to meet most of the world's ^ {13}C demand. In this dissertation, experimental studies of an engineering process for LISMPD of polyatomic molecules is examined. The experimental results have been obtained by MPD of chlorodifluoromethane (CF_2 HCl) to yield ^{13}C -enriched tetrafluoroethylene rm(C_2F _4). Emphasis is on research leading to the development of a practical chemical plant for the preparation of stable isotopes by this method. The experimental program has achieved the design, construction, and operation of a laboratory-scale ^{13}C separation apparatus and parametric dependences of enrichment factors and dissociated fractions. In this experiment, the reactant gas, industrial grade CF_2HCl, flows continuously along the axis of a stainless steel reaction cell. The beam of a commercial CO_2 TEA laser, delivering up to 3 J/pulse at a single wavelength, is focused into the cell to induce isotope-selective multiphoton dissociation. The ^{13}C-enriched reaction product, rm C_2F_4, is analyzed by mass spectroscopy for its isotopic content. Typical production rates of the setup are about 10 g/year ^{13}C at an enrichment of 15% or 1 g/year at an enrichment of 65%. The results of a detailed cost analysis, which takes into account different reaction conditions and laser types, showed that at production rates of 7,000 kg per year, the cost of ^{13}C can be as low as 4/g. This figure is about an order of magnitude less than the cost of ^13 C obtained by cryogenic distillation of CO. The design, construction, and operation of a CO _2 MOPA (Master Oscillator/ Power Amplifier) laser is proposed because a MOPA combines the advantages of favorable isotope separation reaction conditions of TEA lasers and the cheaper photons of cw discharges. Analytical

  16. Application of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Enriched Tungsten Isotopes to Nuclear Fusion Impurity Transport Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Jonah; Nowatarski, Jack; Donovan, David; Unterberg, Ezekiel; Zach, Mike

    2017-10-01

    During the DIII-D Metal Rings Campaign of 2016, one divertor tile-array was coated in natural tungsten (W) (26.5% W-182) and the other array was coated with 93.5% isotopically enriched W-182. The unique `isotopic fingerprint' of the enriched W-182 coating enabled the eroded W to act as tracer particles. Graphite collector probes (CPs) were inserted into the plasma scrape-off-layer (SOL) at the outboard midplane during operations to sample W escaping the divertor region. The use of W tracer particles and isotopic analysis of the CPs provides unique information on how various plasma operating configurations affect impurity production from the divertor and transport within the SOL. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry (LA-MS) is used in order to measure isotopic ratios of the W deposited on the CPs. Initial tests have revealed enrichment on the probes up to nearly 93% which corresponds with sourcing of impurities from the enriched W-182 tile-array. Additional empirical evidence is provided for understanding divertor high-Z sourcing and transport through trace plasma material interaction studies with low-Z walls. With the Stable Isotopic Mixing Model, relative contribution from each W source is also provided. Work supported by US DOE under DE-SC0016318 (UTK), DE-AC05-00OR22725 (ORNL) and DIII-D contract #DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  17. A comparative study on isotopic composition of precipitation in wet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion of precipitation are due to isotopic fraction- ation occurring during the advection of the water vapour, condensation of vapour into rain and evap- oration during downfall from cloud level to ground level (Clark and Fritz 1997). The variations in sta- ble isotopic composition of water bodies have been explained in terms of ...

  18. Diode laser absorption spectrometry for (CO2)-C-13/(CO2)-C-12 isotope ratio analysis : Investigation on precision and accuracy levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castrillo, A; Casa, G; Kerstel, E; Gianfrani, L

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared laser spectroscopy is used to measure the C-13/C-12 isotope abundance ratio in gas phase carbon dioxide. The spectrometer, developed expressly for field applications, is based on a 2 mu m distributed feedback diode laser in combination with sensitive wavelength modulation detection. It

  19. Spatially resolved analysis of plutonium isotopic signatures in environmental particle samples by laser ablation-MC-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konegger-Kappel, Stefanie [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Chemistry; IAEA, Vienna (Austria). Office of Safeguards Analytical Services; Prohaska, Thomas [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-01-15

    Laser ablation-multi-collector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) was optimized and investigated with respect to its performance for determining spatially resolved Pu isotopic signatures within radioactive fuel particle clusters. Fuel particles had been emitted from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) where the 1986 accident occurred and were deposited in the surrounding soil, where weathering processes caused their transformation into radioactive clusters, so-called micro-samples. The size of the investigated micro-samples, which showed surface alpha activities below 40 mBq, ranged from about 200 to 1000 @m. Direct single static point ablations allowed to identify variations of Pu isotopic signatures not only between distinct fuel particle clusters but also within individual clusters. The resolution was limited to 100 to 120 @m as a result of the applied laser ablation spot sizes and the resolving power of the nuclear track radiography methodology that was applied for particle pre-selection. The determined {sup 242}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu isotope ratios showed a variation from low to high Pu isotope ratios, ranging from 0.007(2) to 0.047(8) for {sup 242}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and from 0.183(13) to 0.577(40) for {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu. In contrast to other studies, the applied methodology allowed for the first time to display the Pu isotopic distribution in the Chernobyl fallout, which reflects the differences in the spent fuel composition over the reactor core. The measured Pu isotopic signatures are in good agreement with the expected Pu isotopic composition distribution that is typical for a RBMK-1000 reactor, indicating that the analyzed samples are originating from the ill-fated Chernobyl reactor. The average Pu isotope ratios [{sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu=0.388(86), {sup 242}Pu/{sup 239}Pu=0.028(11)] that were calculated from all investigated samples (n=48) correspond well to previously published results of Pu analyses in

  20. Laser-based measurements of 18O/16O stable isotope ratios (δ18O in wine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Manish Gupta,1 J Brian Leen,1 Elena Simone Franklin Berman,1 Aldo Ciambotti2 1Los Gatos Research, Mountain View, CA, USA; 2Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Enologia, Asti, Italy Abstract: Wine counterfeiting is an international, multi-billion dollar issue, with some estimates suggesting that up to 5% of wines sold at auctions or secondary markets are fraudulent. Isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS measurements of the 18O/16O stable isotope ratio (δ18O of water-in-wine have been used for wine authentication; however, these analyses are time-consuming and costly. In this preliminary study, off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS is used to quantify δ18O in wines. This laser-based method has been extensively used to study water isotopes for hydrological and medical applications. Recently, the development of a spectral contaminant identifier (SCI has extended the application of these OA-ICOS analyzers to contaminated water samples (eg, plant, soil, and leaf waters. Here, we utilize OA-ICOS with the SCI to characterize wine samples (9%–15% ethanol, and show that the laser-based instrument provides a δ18O measurement precision of ±0.07‰ (1σ and agrees with IRMS to within ±0.63‰ (1σ. Moreover, by training the SCI on isotopically-characterized wines, the agreement with IRMS improves to within ±0.30‰ (1σ. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated by measuring watered and mixed wines. The method presented here can be readily extended to address other food authentication applications. Keywords: wine isotopes, wine fraud, counterfeit wines, OA-ICOS

  1. Catalytic recombination of dissociation products with Pt/SnO2 for rare and common isotope long-life, closed-cycle CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth G.; Sidney, B. D.; Schryer, D. R.; Upchurch, B. T.; Miller, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports results on recombination of pulsed CO2 laser dissociation products with Pt/SnO2 catalysts, and supporting studies in a surrogate laboratory catalyst reactor. The closed-cycle, pulsed CO2 laser has been continuously operated for one million pulses with an overall power degradation of less than 5 percent by flowing the laser gas mixture through a 2-percent Pt/SnO2 catalyst bed. In the surrogate laboratory reactor, experiments have been conducted to determine isotopic exchange with the catalyst when using rare-isotope gases. The effects of catalyst pretreatment, sample weight, composition, and temperature on catalyst efficiency have also been determined.

  2. Spins, charge radii and magnetic moments of neutron-rich Mn isotopes measured with bunched beam Collinear Laser Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085887; Heylen, Hanne

    In this work, the odd-even $^{51–63}$Mn isotopes have been analyzed using collinear laser spectroscopy, from which the magnetic dipole moment and the change in change in mean square charge radius can be determined. The magnetic moment is very sensitive to the composition of the total nuclear wave function, while the charge radius gives information about the relative size and degree of deformation of the nucleus. An additional advantage of collinear laser spectroscopy is the possibility of direct measurement of the nuclear spin. The main motivation behind the study of these isotopes is to investigate the change in nuclear structure when approaching neutron number N = 40. This region is of interest due to the apparent doubly magic nature of $^{68}$Ni , which is not seen in the N = 40 isotopes of $^{26}$Fe and $^{24}$Cr. Mn, situated between these elements, offers another perspective due to its uncoupled proton. Based on the observed spectra and extracted moments, spins were assigned to $^{59,61,63}$Mn. The ex...

  3. Hydrogen isotope detection in metal matrix using double-pulse laser-induced breakdown-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, Roberta; Almaviva, Salvatore; Caneve, Luisa; Colao, Francesco; Maddaluno, Giorgio; Gasior, Pawel; Kubkowska, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The amount of hydrogen isotopes retained in plasma facing components (PFCs) and the determination of their surface layer composition are among the most critical issues for the next generation fusion device, ITER, under construction in Cadarache (France). Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is currently under evaluation as a technique suitable for quantitative, in situ, non-invasive measurements of these quantities. In order to detect traces of contaminant in metallic samples and improve its limit of detection (LOD), the Double Pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS) variant can be used instead of the standard Single Pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS), as it has been proven by several authors that DP-LIBS can considerably raise the analytical performances of the technique. In this work Mo samples coated with a 1.5-1.8 μm thick W-Al mixed layer, contaminated with co-deposited deuterium (D) were measured by SP- and DP-LIBS under vacuum (p 5 × 10- 5 mbar), with an experimental set-up simulating conditions that can be found in a real fusion device between plasma discharges. A partial Calibration Free procedure (pCF) was applied to the LIBS data in order to retrieve the relative concentration of W and Al in the mixed layer. The amount of deuterium was then inferred by using tungsten as internal standard, accounting for the intensity ratio between the Dα line and nearby W I lines. The results are in satisfactory agreement with those obtained from preliminary Ion Beam Analysis measurements performed immediately after the specimen's realization.

  4. Studies on the optogalvanic effect and isotope-selective excitation of ytterbium in a hollow cathode discharge lamp using a pulsed dye laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Jitendra; Prakash, Om; Saini, Vinod K; Dixit, Sudhir K; Nakhe, Shankar V

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents studies on the pulsed optogalvanic effect and isotope-selective excitation of Yb 555.648 nm (0 cm(-1) → 17 992.007 cm(-1)) and 581.067 nm (17 992.007 cm(-1) → 35 196.98 cm(-1)) transitions, in a Yb/Ne hollow cathode lamp. The Yb atoms were excited by narrow linewidth (500-1000 MHz) Rh110 and Rh6G dye based pulsed lasers. Optogalvanic signal inversion for ground state transition at 555.648 nm was observed beyond a hollow cathode discharge current of 8.5 mA, in contrast to normal optogalvanic signal at 581.067 nm up to maximum current of 14 mA. The isotope-selective excitation studies of Yb were carried out by recording Doppler limited optogalvanic signals as a function of dye laser wavelength. For the 581.067 nm transition, three even isotopes, (172)Yb, (174)Yb, and (176)Yb, and one odd isotope, (171)Yb, were clearly resolved. These data were compared with selective isotope excitation by 10 MHz linewidth continuous-wave dye laser. For 555.648 nm transition, isotopes were not clearly resolved, although isotope peaks of low modulation were observed.

  5. Laser spectroscopy of cadmium isotopes: probing the nuclear structure between the neutron 50 and 82 shell closures

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Stroke, H H; Krieger, A R

    We propose to study the isotopic chain of cadmium with high-resolution laser spectroscopy for the first time. Our goal is to determine nuclear spins, moments and root-mean-square charge radii of ground and isomeric states between the neutron 50 and 82 shell closures, contributing decisively to a better understanding of the nuclear structure in the vicinity of the doubly-magic $^{100}$Sn and $^{132}$Sn. On the neutron-rich side this is expected to shed light on a shell-quenching hypothesis and consequently on the duration of the r-process along the waiting-point nuclei below $^{130}$Cd. On the neutron-deficient side it may elucidate the role of the cadmium isotopes in the rp-process for rapidly accreting neutron stars.

  6. Recent Progress in Development of a Laser Based, Ultra-High Precision Isotope Monitor for Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are the primary drivers of global climate change and hence there is a crucial need to quantify their sources and sinks. A general technique to help constrain source and sink strengths in GHG exchange processes is the analysis of the relative proportions of isotopic variants of GHG's. Very high precision measurements of isotopologue ratios are necessary in order to identify sources and sinks because the characteristic changes are small. The standard method of isotopologue measurement has been mass spectrometry, but this technique typically requires significant sample preparation and relatively high instrument maintenance. Laser spectroscopy has the potential to ease these burdens and also to allow easy separation and analysis of interfering isobars such as 13C-CO2 and 17O-CO2. We present recent results demonstrating ultra-high precision measurements of carbon dioxide isotope ratios which rival the accuracy of mass spectrometric measurements. These measurements were performed using Tunable Infrared Laser Direct Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS). We have developed a method for analyzing air samples from canisters by alternately and rapidly trapping sample gas and working reference gas in the optical cell. Using this technique, we have obtained isotopic measurement precisions of ~7 per meg for both 13C-CO2 and 18O-CO2 while measuring trapped ambient air samples with volumes as small as 200 ml with a 16 minute measurement duration. The figure shows a histogram of 2 minute measurements. Our current measurement precision for 17O-CO2 is 30 per meg, but we expect to reduce this to 10 per meg by working in a better spectral region. Our ultimate goal is to create an automated, ultra-high accuracy carbon dioxide isotope monitor able to quantify 13C-, 18O-, and 17O-CO2at the 10 per meg level using small (~100 standard ml), discreet air samples. We will also discuss recent progress in the measurement of the clumped isotopes of carbon dioxide in

  7. Measurement of in situ sulfur isotopes by laser ablation multi-collector ICPMS: opening Pandora’s Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, William I.; Pribil, Michael; Koenig, Alan E.; Slack, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation multi-collector ICPMS is a modern tool for in situ measurement of S isotopes. Advantages of the technique are speed of analysis and relatively minor matrix effects combined with spatial resolution sufficient for many applications. The main disadvantage is a more destructive sampling mechanism relative to the ion microprobe technique. Recent advances in instrumentation allow precise measurement with spatial resolutions down to 25 microns. We describe specific examples from economic geology where increased spatial resolution has greatly expanded insights into the sources and evolution of fluids that cause mineralization and illuminated genetic relations between individual deposits in single mineral districts.

  8. Testing relativity again, laser, laser, laser, laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einstein, A.

    2015-01-01

    laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser,

  9. Field-based stable isotope analysis of carbon dioxide by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy for carbon capture and storage monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Nowak, Martin E; Zimmer, Martin; Szizybalski, Alexandra; Myrttinen, Anssi; Barth, Johannes A C; Jost, Hans-Jürg

    2014-12-16

    A newly developed isotope ratio laser spectrometer for CO2 analyses has been tested during a tracer experiment at the Ketzin pilot site (northern Germany) for CO2 storage. For the experiment, 500 tons of CO2 from a natural CO2 reservoir was injected in supercritical state into the reservoir. The carbon stable isotope value (δ(13)C) of injected CO2 was significantly different from background values. In order to observe the breakthrough of the isotope tracer continuously, the new instruments were connected to a stainless steel riser tube that was installed in an observation well. The laser instrument is based on tunable laser direct absorption in the mid-infrared. The instrument recorded a continuous 10 day carbon stable isotope data set with 30 min resolution directly on-site in a field-based laboratory container during a tracer experiment. To test the instruments performance and accuracy the monitoring campaign was accompanied by daily CO2 sampling for laboratory analyses with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The carbon stable isotope ratios measured by conventional IRMS technique and by the new mid-infrared laser spectrometer agree remarkably well within analytical precision. This proves the capability of the new mid-infrared direct absorption technique to measure high precision and accurate real-time stable isotope data directly in the field. The laser spectroscopy data revealed for the first time a prior to this experiment unknown, intensive dynamic with fast changing δ(13)C values. The arrival pattern of the tracer suggest that the observed fluctuations were probably caused by migration along separate and distinct preferential flow paths between injection well and observation well. The short-term variances as observed in this study might have been missed during previous works that applied laboratory-based IRMS analysis. The new technique could contribute to a better tracing of the migration of the underground CO2 plume and help to ensure the long

  10. Neutron-rich polonium isotopes studied with in-source laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dexters, Wim; Cocolios, T E

    This work studies the unknown region of neutron rich polonium isotopes. The polonium isotopes, with Z=84, lie above the magic lead nuclei (Z=82). The motivation for this research can mainly be found in these lead nuclei. When looking at the changes in the mean square charge radii beyond the N=126 shell gap, a kink is observed. This kink is also found in the radon (Z=86) and radium (Z=88) isotopes. The observed effect cannot be reproduced with our current models. The polonium isotopes yield more information on the kink and they are also able to link the known charge radii in lead isotopes to those in radon and radium. Additionally, the nuclear moments of the odd-neutron isotope $^{211}$Po are investigated. This nucleus has two protons and one neutron more than the doubly magic nucleus $^{208}$Pb. Nuclear moments of isotopes close to this doubly magic nucleus are good tests for the theoretic models. Besides pushing the models to their limits, the nuclear moments of $^{211}$Po also yield new information on the f...

  11. Accurate measurements of transition frequencies and isotope shifts of laser-trapped francium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, S; Calabrese, R; Corradi, L; Dainelli, A; Khanbekyan, A; Mariotti, E; de Mauro, C; Minguzzi, P; Moi, L; Stancari, G; Tomassetti, L; Veronesi, S

    2009-04-01

    An interferometric method is used to improve the accuracy of the 7S-7P transition frequencies of three francium isotopes by 1 order of magnitude. The deduced isotope shifts for 209-211Fr confirm the ISOLDE data. The frequency of the D2 transition of 212Fr--the accepted reference for all Fr isotope shifts--is revised, and a significant difference with the ISOLDE value is found. Our results will be a benchmark for the accuracy of the theory of Fr energy levels, a necessary step to investigate fundamental symmetries.

  12. Recent developments in production of radioactive ion beams with the selective laser ion source at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Catherall, Richard; Köster, U; Lettry, Jacques; Suberlucq, Guy; Marsh, Bruce A; Tengborn, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    The production of radioactive ionization laser ion source (RILIS) of ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility was investigated. The RILIS setup included three dye lasers and ionization schemes which employ three resonant transitions were also used. The RILIS efficiency could be reduced by nuclear effects such as hyperfine splitting and isotope shifts. The off-line resonance ionization spectroscopy determined optimal three-step ionization schemes for yttrium, scandium and antimony and antimony. The results show that best ionization schemes of Y provided gain factor of 15 with respect to surface ionization. (Edited abstract) 8 Refs.

  13. Laser-Assisted Field Evaporation and Three-Dimensional Atom-by-Atom Mapping of Diamond Isotopic Homojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Samik; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N; Moutanabbir, Oussama

    2016-02-10

    It addition to its high evaporation field, diamond is also known for its limited photoabsorption, strong covalent bonding, and wide bandgap. These characteristics have been thought for long to also complicate the field evaporation of diamond and make its control hardly achievable on the atomistic-level. Herein, we demonstrate that the unique behavior of nanoscale diamond and its interaction with pulsed laser lead to a controlled field evaporation thus enabling three-dimensional atom-by-atom mapping of diamond (12)C/(13)C homojunctions. We also show that one key element in this process is to operate the pulsed laser at high energy without letting the dc bias increase out of bounds for diamond nanotip to withstand. Herein, the role of the dc bias in evaporation of diamond is essentially to generate free charge carriers within the nanotip via impact ionization. The mobile free charges screen the internal electric field, eventually creating a hole rich surface where the pulsed laser is effectively absorbed leading to an increase in the nanotip surface temperature. The effect of this temperature on the uncertainty in the time-of-flight of an ion, the diffusion of atoms on the surface of the nanotip, is also discussed. In addition to paving the way toward a precise manipulation of isotopes in diamond-based nanoscale and quantum structures, this result also elucidates some of the basic properties of dielectric nanostructures under high electric field.

  14. Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectroscopy (LAMIS) towards the determination of multivariate LODs via PLS calibration model of 10B and 11B Boric acid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. D.; Profeta, Luisa T. M.; Akpovo, Codjo A.; Johnson, Lewis; Stowe, Ashley C.

    2017-05-01

    A calibration model was created to illustrate the detection capabilities of laser ablation molecular isotopic spectroscopy (LAMIS) discrimination in isotopic analysis. The sample set contained boric acid pellets that varied in isotopic concentrations of 10B and 11B. Each sample set was interrogated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG ablation laser operating at 532 nm. A minimum of four band heads of the β system B2∑ -> Χ2∑transitions were identified and verified with previous literature on BO molecular emission lines. Isotopic shifts were observed in the spectra for each transition and used as the predictors in the calibration model. The spectra along with their respective 10/11B isotopic ratios were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). An IUPAC novel approach for determining a multivariate Limit of Detection (LOD) interval was used to predict the detection of the desired isotopic ratios. The predicted multivariate LOD is dependent on the variation of the instrumental signal and other composites in the calibration model space.

  15. Direct determination of trace elements in powdered samples by in-cell isotope dilution femtosecond laser ablation ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Beatriz; Claverie, Fanny; Pécheyran, Christophe; Alexis, Joel; Donard, Olivier F X

    2008-09-15

    A method has been developed for the direct and simultaneous multielement determination of Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb in soil and sediment samples using femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (fs-LA-ICPMS) in combination with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The in-cell isotope dilution fs-LA-ICPMS method proposed in this work was based on the quasi-simultaneous ablation of the natural abundance sample and the isotopically enriched solid spike, which was performed using a high repetition rate laser and a fast scanning beam device in a combined manner. Both the sample preparation procedure and the total analysis time have been drastically reduced, in comparison with previous approaches, since a unique multielement isotopically enriched solid spike was employed to analyze different powdered samples. Numerous experimental parameters were carefully selected (e.g., carrier gas flow rate, inlet diameter of the ablation cell, sample translation speed, scanner speed, etc.) in order to ensure the complete mixing between the sample and the solid spike aerosols. The proposed in-cell fs-LA-ICP-IDMS method was tested for the analysis of two soil (CRM 142R, GBW-07405) and two sediment (PACS-2, IAEA-405) reference materials, and the analysis of Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb yielded good agreement of usually not more than 10% deviation from the certified values and precisions of less than 15% relative standard deviation. Furthermore, the concentrations were in agreement not only with the certified values but also with those obtained by ICP-IDMS after the microwave-assisted digestion of the solid samples, demonstrating therefore that in-cell fs-LA-ICP-IDMS opens the possibility for accurate and precise determinations of trace elements in powdered samples reducing the total sample preparation time to less than 5 min. Additionally, scanning electron microscope measurements showed that the aerosol generated by in-cell fs-LA-ICP-IDMS predominantly consisted of

  16. Measurement of the $^{20-22}$Ne $^3$P$_2$-$^3$D$_3$ transition isotope shift using a single, phase modulated laser beam

    CERN Document Server

    Ohayon, Ben; Ron, Guy

    2016-01-01

    We develop a simple technique to accurately measure frequency differences between far lying resonances in a spectroscopy signal using a single laser. This technique was used to measure the isotope shift of the cooling transition of metastable neon for the result of $1626.264(79)$ MHz. The most accurate determination of this value to date.

  17. Effects of the copper vapour laser radiation in the root canal wall dentine: in vitro experiment using scanning electron microscopy and stereoscopy; Efeitos da radiacao laser de vapor de cobre na parede de dentina de canais radiculares: estudo in vitro por meio de microscopia eletronica de varredura e microscopio estereoscopico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Maria Claudia Garcia da

    2001-07-01

    Ten human uniradicular teeth had their crown removed along the cement-enamel junction and right away a proper chemical-surgical preparation of the radicular canals was done; the roots were longitudinally sectioned in order to allow the irradiation of the surfaces of the root canals wall dentine. The hemi-roots were separated in two groups: group I (control), with four hemi-roots, not irradiated; and group II, with 16 hemi-roots, subdivided in four sub-groups submitted to the following exposition time: 0,02 s; 0,05 s; 0,1 s and 0,5 s. A copper vapour laser was used with a 510,6 nm wavelength, total average power of 11 W in green and yellow emissions; average power of 6,5 W in green emission; pulse repetition rate of 16.000 Hz and pulse duration of 30 ns. The pulse energy (green line) is 0,4 mJ and the peak power 13,5 W. The laser cavity is unstable type (R{sub 1}=3.900 mm and R{sub 2}-250 mm). The focusing have focal length lens f{sub 1}=250 mm and f{sub 2}=150 mm. The beam quality is of the M{sup 2}=5. The results obtained by scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the appearance of a cavity in the region of the laser beam incidence in the edges of this cavity, dentin was melt and resolidified presenting also cracks due to heat diffusion. Based on these results, we concluded that the size of the cavity formed in the dentin is directly proportional to the rate of exposure and, the more laser emission in the same area, more damage in the root canals wall dentin occurs. More studies need to be done with different exposition's time in order to obtain a safety protocol that does not cause injury in dental and support tissue. (author)

  18. Development of routines for simultaneous in situ chemical composition and stable Si isotope ratio analysis by femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, Daniel A., E-mail: dfrick@gfz-potsdam.de [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Schuessler, Jan A. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Blanckenburg, Friedhelm von [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Geological Science, Freie Universität Berlin, 12249 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-28

    Stable metal (e.g. Li, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo) and metalloid (B, Si, Ge) isotope ratio systems have emerged as geochemical tracers to fingerprint distinct physicochemical reactions. These systems are relevant to many Earth Science questions. The benefit of in situ microscale analysis using laser ablation (LA) over bulk sample analysis is to use the spatial context of different phases in the solid sample to disclose the processes that govern their chemical and isotopic compositions. However, there is a lack of in situ analytical routines to obtain a samples' stable isotope ratio together with its chemical composition. Here, we evaluate two novel analytical routines for the simultaneous determination of the chemical and Si stable isotope composition (δ{sup 30}Si) on the micrometre scale in geological samples. In both routines, multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) is combined with femtosecond-LA, where stable isotope ratios are corrected for mass bias using standard-sample-bracketing with matrix-independent calibration. The first method is based on laser ablation split stream (LASS), where the laser aerosol is split and introduced simultaneously into both the MC-ICP-MS and a quadrupole ICP-MS. The second method is based on optical emission spectroscopy using direct observation of the MC-ICP-MS plasma (LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES). Both methods are evaluated using international geological reference materials. Accurate and precise Si isotope ratios were obtained with an uncertainty typically better than 0.23‰, 2SD, δ{sup 30}Si. With both methods major element concentrations (e.g., Na, Al, Si, Mg, Ca) can be simultaneously determined. However, LASS-ICP-MS is superior over LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES, which is limited by its lower sensitivity. Moreover, LASS-ICP-MS offers trace element analysis down to the μg g{sup −1}-range for more than 28 elements due to lower limits of detection, and with typical uncertainties better than 15%. For in situ

  19. Isotopically selective RIMS of rare radionuclides by double-resonance excitation with cw lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushaw, B.A.; Munley, J.T.

    1990-09-01

    Double-resonance, Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (RIMS) using two single-frequency dye lasers and a CO{sub 2} laser for photoionization has been shown to be both extremely sensitive and highly selective. Measurements on the radioisotope {sup 210}Pb have demonstrated optical selectivity in excess of 10{sup 9} and detection limits of less than 1 femtogram.

  20. Mars Atmospheric Escape Recorded by H, C and O Isotope Ratios in Carbon Dioxide and Water Measured by the Sam Tunable Laser Spectrometer on the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Leshin, L. A.; Atreya, S. K.; Flesch, G. J.; Stern, J.; Christensen, L. E.; Vasavada, A. R.; Owen, T.; Niles, P. B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios in C, H, N, O and S are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes that can identify origin, transport, temperature history, radiation exposure, atmospheric escape, environmental habitability and biological activity [2]. For Mars, measurements to date have indicated enrichment in all the heavier isotopes consistent with atmospheric escape processes, but with uncertainty too high to tie the results with the more precise isotopic ratios achieved from SNC meteoritic analyses. We will present results to date of H, C and O isotope ratios in CO2 and H2O made to high precision (few per mil) using the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) that is part of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on MSL s Curiosity Rover.

  1. Shape coexistence in the lightest Tl isotopes studied by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Antalic, S; Darby, I G; Venhart, M; Flanagan, K; Veselsky, M; Blaum, K; Radulov, D P; Beck, D; Kowalska, M; Schwarz, S; Chapman, R; Diriken, J V J; Lane, J; Rosenbusch, M

    This proposal aims at atomic spectroscopy studies of the very neutron-deficient isotopes $^{178-187}$Tl, at and far beyond the region of the neutron mid-shell at N=104, in which shape coexistence phenomena were investigated so far by particle and $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy methods only. Our motivation for this proposal is as follows : \\\\\\\\ -These studies will provide direct data on magnetic dipole moment, spin, charge radii and deformations of these isotopes. The results will form a stringent test for our current understanding of the shape coexistence phenomena in the vicinity of the neutron mid-shell at N=104, where the relevant effects are expected to be the strongest (cf.shape staggering in the isotopes $^{181,183,185}$Hg). \\\\-The knowledge of the structure (configuration, spin, deformation) and whether one or two $\\beta$-decaying isomers are present in the parent isotopes $^{178,180,182}$Tl are crucial for understanding of the results of our recent studies of $\\beta$-delayed fission in the lightest thalli...

  2. Laser technologies for ultrasensitive groundwater dating using long-lived isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, Sterling [KMLabs Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-31

    In this phase I work, we propose to construct and demonstrate a 103 nm laser based on resonantly enhanced and phase matched fifth harmonic generation in hollow waveguides driven by a high power, low cost and compact ultrafast fiber laser. (Figure 4) This VUV laser source can potentially produce >100 milliwatts of VUV light at 103 nm with pulse repetition-rates of 100 kHz to 100 MHz, ideal for the above-mentioned applications. This technology is state-of-the-art and potentially compact, fieldable, low-cost, and of broad interest for a variety of science and technology applications. Laser-based VUV sources in the past have exhibited low repetition rate, low efficiency, low beam quality, and are based on expensive laser sources. Our approch is to combine ultrafast fiber laser drive technology, ultrafast pulses, and our proven waveguide technology, to create a high repetition rate, high average power VUV source for producing high yield metastable Krypton. At KMLabs we have been offering EUV light sources employing the high harmonic generation (HHG) process driven by high-power femtosecond lasers for >5 years now. Recently, we have developed much smaller scale (briefcase size), but still high average power femtosecond fiber laser sources to supply other markets, and create new ones. By combining these new laser sources with our patented waveguide frequency upconversion technology, we expect to be able to obtain >20mW average power initially, with potentially much higher powers depending on wavelength, in an affordable VUV product. For comparison, our current EUV light sources based on ti:sapphire generate an average power of ~5 µW (albeit at shorter 29 nm wavelength), and we are aware of one other supplier that has developed a VUV (112 nm) light source with ~10-20 µW power.

  3. A novel method of carbon dioxide clumped isotope analysis with tunable infra-red laser direct absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Ivan; Kluge, Tobias; Janssen, Christof

    2016-04-01

    Precise clumped isotopes analysis of carbon dioxide opens up new horizons of atmospheric and biogeochemical research. Recent advances in laser and spectroscopic techniques provides us necessary instrumentation to access extremely low sub-permill variations of multiply-substituted isotopologues. We present an advanced analysis method of carbon dioxide clumped isotopes using direct absorption spectroscopy. Our assessments predict the ultimate precision of the new method on the sub-permill level comparable to state of the art mass spectrometry. Among the most auspicious intrinsic properties of this method we highlight genuine Δ16O13C18O and Δ16O13C18O measurements without isobaric interference, measurement cycle duration of several minutes versus hours for mass spectrometric analysis, reduced sample size of ˜ 10 μmol and high flexibility, allowing us to perform in-situ measurements. The pilot version of the instrument is being developed in an international collaboration framework between Heidelberg University, Germany and Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France. It employs two continuous interband quantum cascade lasers tuned at 4.439 μm and 4.329 μm to measure doubly ( 16O13C18O, 16O13C17O) and singly ( 16O12C16O, 16O13C16O, 16O12C17O, 16O12C18O) substituted isotopologues, respectively. Two identical Herriot cells are filled with dry pure CO2 sample and reference gas at working pressure of 1 - 10 mbar. Cells provide optical path lengths of ˜ 17 m for the laser tuned at doubly substituted isotopologues lines and use a single pass for the laser tuned at the stronger lines of singly substituted isotopologues. Light outside of the gas cells is coupled into optical fiber to avoid absorption by ambient air CO2. Simulations predict sub-permill precision at working pressure of 1 mbar and room temperature stabilised at the ±10 mK level. Our prime target is to apply the proposed method for continuous in-situ analysis of CO2. We are foreseeing potential

  4. Trace isotope analysis of Ricinus communis seed core for provenance determination by laser ablation-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagas, Christina K; Scadding, Rachel L; Scadding, Cameron J; Watling, R John; Roberts, Warren; Ovenden, Simon P B

    2017-01-01

    The castor bean plant, Ricinus communis, grows wild throughout many regions of Australia. The seeds of the plant contain the schedule 1 chemical agent ricin, a type II ribosomal inhibiting protein. Currently there are limited analytical techniques that can be applied in analysis of the seeds to establish attribution. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of seeds collected from 68 plants across 38 locations around Australia. Of the 92 elemental isotopes measured, fifteen ((24)Mg, (27)Al, (44)Ca, (53)Cr, (55)Mn, (57)Fe, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (66)Zn, (75)As, (85)Rb, (88)Sr, (98)Mo, (138)Ba and (202)Hg) yielded data that were relevant to all collection sites. Data were further analysed using multivariate statistical analysis which facilitated the potential for the identification of unique provenance isotopes. Furthermore, this analysis indicated that (59)Co was present at significant levels in Victorian and Sydney specimens only. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intercomparison on measurement of water vapour permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    Three different materials are tested - hard woodfibre board - damp proof course - underlay for roofing The water vapour permeability has been measured according to EN ISO 12572 (2001).......Three different materials are tested - hard woodfibre board - damp proof course - underlay for roofing The water vapour permeability has been measured according to EN ISO 12572 (2001)....

  6. Gas and vapour detection using polypyrrole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leur, R.H.M. van de; Waal, A. van der

    1999-01-01

    The vapours of organic solvents like toluene, butanon, and ethanol do effect the electrical conductivity of electrochemically synthesised polypyrrole. This property allows the use of polypyrrole in sensors for vapour detection. The conductivity is also a function of temperature and the history of

  7. Surface polish of PLA parts in FDM using dichloromethane vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yifan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modelling has become one of the most diffused rapid prototyping techniques, which is widely used to fabricate prototypes. However, further application of this technology is severely limited by poor surface roughness. Thus it is necessary to adopt some operations to improve surface quality. Chemical finishing is typically employed to finish parts in fused deposition modelling (FDM. The purpose of this paper is to decrease the surface roughness for polylactic acid (PLA parts in FDM. The chemical reaction mechanism during the treating process is analysed. Then NaOH solution and dichloromethane vapour are used to treat FDM specimens respectively. A 3D laser microscope has been applied to assess the effects in terms of surface topography and roughness. The experimental results show that treatment using dichloromethane vapour performs much better than NaOH solution. Compared with the untreated group, surface roughness obtained through vapour treatment decreases by 88 per cent. This research has been conducted to provide a better method to treat PLA parts using chemical reagents.

  8. Charge radii of magnesium isotopes by laser spectroscopy a structural study over the $sd$ shell

    CERN Multimedia

    Schug, M; Krieger, A R

    We propose to study the evolution of nuclear sizes and shapes over the magnesium chain by measuring the root-mean-square charge radii of $^{21 - 32}$Mg, essentially covering the entire $\\textit{sd}$ shell. Our goal is to detect the structural changes, which in the neutron-deficient isotopes may originate from clustering, in a way similar to neon, and on the neutron-rich side would characterize the transition to the "island of inversion". We will combine, for the first time, the sensitive $\\beta$-detection technique with traditional fluorescence spectroscopy for isotope-shift measurements and in such a way gain access to the exotic species near the ${N}$ = 8 and ${N}$ = 20 shell closures.

  9. CO2 laser tritium isotope separation: Collisional effects in multiphoton dissociation of trifluoromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuo; Inoue, Ichiro; Nakane, Ryohei; Makide, Yoshihiro; Kato, Shuji; Tominaga, Takeshi

    1982-01-01

    Multiphoton dissociation of ppm level CTF3 in CHF3 is reported. The effect of buffer gas pressure on the specific dissociation rates and the isotopic selectivity is investigated. Pulse energy dependence of the dissociation rates is converted to the intrinsic relation between the fractional conversion per pulse and the fluence by means of the new deconvolution technique. By addition of 100 Torr argon, the critical fluence of CTF3 was decreased from 136 to 34 J/cm2, while the intrinsic selectivity was increased from 34 to 580. In the absence of buffer gas argon, the fractional conversion per pulse exhibits two different pressure dependences. Unlike in the case below 15 Torr, the system shows strong pressure dependence and loss of the isotopic selectivity above 15 Torr. Possible application to the tritium removal process is also discussed.

  10. Laser spectroscopy of francium isotopes at the borders of the region of reflection asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinčević, I.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Cocolios, T. E.; de Groote, R. P.; De Schepper, S.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Neyens, G.; Procter, T. J.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Strashnov, I.; Stroke, H. H.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic dipole moments and changes in mean-square charge radii of the neutron-rich 218m,219,229,231Fr isotopes were measured with the newly installed Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) beam line at the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE), CERN, probing the 7s2S1/2 to 8p2P3/2 atomic transition. The δA,221 values for 218m,219Fr and 229,231Fr follow the observed increasing slope of the charge radii beyond N =126. The charge radii odd-even staggering in this neutron-rich region is discussed, showing that 220Fr has a weakly inverted odd-even staggering while 228Fr has normal staggering. This suggests that both isotopes reside at the borders of a region of inverted staggering, which has been associated with reflection-asymmetric shapes. The g(219Fr )=+0.69(1) value supports a π1h9/2 shell-model configuration for the ground state. The g(229,231Fr ) values support the tentative Iπ(229,231Fr)=(1/2+) spin and point to a πs1/2-1 intruder ground-state configuration.

  11. UV-laser microdissection system - A novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records (δ13C/δ18O) from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Helle, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Intra-annual stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) studies of tree rings at various incremental resolutions have been attempting to extract valuable seasonal climatic and environmental information or assessing plant ecophysiological processes. For preparing high-resolution isotope samples normally wood segments or cores are mechanically divided in radial direction or cut in tangential direction. After mechanical dissection, wood samples are ground to a fine powder and either cellulose is extracted or bulk wood samples are analyzed. Here, we present a novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records from tree rings using an UV-laser microdissection system. Firstly, tree-ring cellulose is directly extracted from wholewood cross-sections largely leaving the wood anatomical structure intact and saving time as compared to the classical procedure. Secondly, micro-samples from cellulose cross-sections are dissected with an UV-Laser dissection microscope. Tissues of interest from cellulose cross-sections are identified and marked precisely with a screen-pen and dissected via an UV-laser beam. Dissected cellulose segments were automatically collected in capsules and are prepared for stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) analysis. The new techniques facilitate inter- and intra-annual isotope analysis on tree-ring and open various possibilities for comparisons with wood anatomy in plant eco-physiological studies. We describe the design and the handling of this novel methodology and discuss advantages and constraints given by the example of intra-annual oxygen isotope analysis on tropical trees.

  12. On-line double isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Beatriz, E-mail: fernandezbeatriz@uniovi.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Clavería, 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Clavería, 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Malherbe, Julien [Chemical Sciences Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8391, Gaithersburg, MA 20899 (United States); García-Fonseca, Sergio [ISC Science–Innovative Solutions in Chemistry, Oviedo (Spain); Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Clavería, 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain)

    2014-12-03

    Graphical abstract: Development and validation of a new on-line double IDMS methodology to achieve an accurate, precise, and time-effective strategy for direct determination of trace elements in solid samples by LA-ICP-MS. - Highlights: • Development of a double IDMS strategy for direct solid analysis by LA-ICP-MS. • The proposed method requires the sequential analysis of the sample and a standard. • The previous characterization of the spike solution is not required in double IDMS. • Quantitative bulk analysis of Sr, Rb and Pb were performed in silicate glasses and powdered samples. • Powdered samples were analyzed as pressed pellets and glasses prepared by fusion. - Abstract: We report on the determination of trace elements in solid samples by the combination of on-line double isotope dilution and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The proposed method requires the sequential analysis of the sample and a certified natural abundance standard by on-line IDMS using the same isotopically-enriched spike solution. In this way, the mass fraction of the analyte in the sample can be directly referred to the certified standard so the previous characterization of the spike solution is not required. To validate the procedure, Sr, Rb and Pb were determined in certified reference materials with different matrices, including silicate glasses (SRM 610, 612 and 614) and powdered samples (PACS-2, SRM 2710a, SRM 1944, SRM 2702 and SRM 2780). The analysis of powdered samples was carried out both by the preparation of pressed pellets and by lithium borate fusion. Experimental results for the analysis of powdered samples were in agreement with the certified values for all materials. Relative standard deviations in the range of 6–21% for pressed pellets and 3–21% for fused solids were obtained from n = 3 independent measurements. Minimal sample preparation, data treatment and consumption of the isotopically-enriched isotopes are the

  13. High-resolution continuous flow analysis setup for water isotopic measurement from ice cores using laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelsson, B. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Keller, E. D.; Gkinis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present an experimental setup for water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) continuous flow measurements. It is the first continuous flow laser spectroscopy system that is using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS; analyzer manufactured by Los Gatos Research - LGR) in combination with an evaporation unit to continuously analyze sample from an ice core. A Water Vapor Isotopic Standard Source (WVISS) calibration unit, manufactured by LGR, was modified to: (1) increase the temporal resolution by reducing the response time (2) enable measurements on several water standards, and (3) to reduce the influence from memory effects. While this setup was designed for the Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) of ice cores, it can also continuously analyze other liquid or vapor sources. The modified setup provides a shorter response time (~54 and 18 s for 2013 and 2014 setup, respectively) compared to the original WVISS unit (~62 s), which is an improvement in measurement resolution. Another improvement compared to the original WVISS is that the modified setup has a reduced memory effect. Stability tests comparing the modified WVISS and WVISS setups were performed and Allan deviations (σAllan) were calculated to determine precision at different averaging times. For the 2013 modified setup the precision after integration times of 103 s are 0.060 and 0.070‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. For the WVISS setup the corresponding σAllan values are 0.030, 0.060 and 0.043‰ for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. For the WVISS setup the precision is 0.035, 0.070 and 0.042‰ after 103 s for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. Both the modified setups and WVISS setup are influenced by instrumental drift with δ18O being more drift sensitive than δD. The σAllan values for δ18O of 0.30 and 0.18‰ for the modified (2013) and WVISS setup, respectively after averaging times of 104 s (2.78 h). The Isotopic Water Analyzer (IWA)-modified WVISS setup used during the

  14. Development of laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for boron isotopic measurement in marine biocarbonates : new improvements and application to a modern Porites coral

    OpenAIRE

    Thil, F.; D. Blamart; Assailly, C.; Lazareth, Claire E.; T. Leblanc; Butsher, John; Douville, E.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Laser Ablation coupled to Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) is a powerful tool for the high-precision measurement of the isotopic ratios of many elements in geological samples, with the isotope ratio (11B/10B) of boron being used as an indicator of the pH of oceanic waters. Most geological samples or standards are polished and ablation occurs on flat surfaces. However, the shape and the irregularities of marine biocarbonates (e.g., corals, f...

  15. Water vapor isotopes measurements at Mauna Loa, Hawaii: Comparison of laser spectroscopy and remote sensing with traditional methods, and the need for ongoing monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galewsky, J.; Noone, D.; Sharp, Z.; Worden, J.

    2009-04-01

    The isotopic composition of water vapor (2H/1H and 18O/16 ratios) provides unique information on the transport pathways that link water sources to regional sinks, and thus proves useful in understanding large scale atmospheric humidity budgets. Recent advances in measurement technology allow the monitoring of water vapor isotope composition in ways which has can revolutionize investigations of atmospheric hydrology. Traditional measurement of isotopic composition requires trapping of samples with either large volume vacuum flasks or by trapping liquid samples with cryogens for later analyses using mass spectrometry, and are laborious and seldom span more than just short dedicated observational periods. On the other hand, laser absorption spectroscopy can provide almost continuous and autonomous in situ measurements of isotope abundances with precision almost that of traditional mass spectrometry, and observations from spacecraft can make almost daily maps of the global isotope distributions. In October of 2008 three laser based spectrometers were deployed at the Mauna Loa Laboratory in Hawaii to make continuous measurement of the 2H and 18O abundance of free tropospheric water vapor. These results are compared with traditional measurements and with measurements from two satellite platforms. While providing field validation of the new methodologies, the data show variability which captures the transport processes in the region. The data are used to characterize the role of large scale mixing of dry air, the influence of the boundary layer and the importance of moist convection in controlling the low humidity of subtropical air near Hawaii. Although the record is short, it demonstrates the usefulness of using robust isotope measurements to understand the budgets of the most important greenhouse gas. This work motivates establishing a continuous record of isotopes measurement at baseline sites, like Mauna Loa, such that the changes in water cycle can be understood and

  16. Exploring the Potential of Laser Ablation Carbon Isotope Analysis for Examining Ecology during the Ontogeny of Middle Pleistocene Hominins from Sima de los Huesos (Northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nuria; Feranec, Robert S; Passey, Benjamin H; Cerling, Thure E; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation of tooth enamel was used to analyze stable carbon isotope compositions of teeth of hominins, red deer, and bears from middle Pleistocene sites in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain, to investigate the possibility that this technique could be used as an additional tool to identify periods of physiological change that are not detectable as changes in tooth morphology. Most of the specimens were found to have minimal intra-tooth variation in carbon isotopes (< 2.3‰), suggesting isotopically uniform diets through time and revealing no obvious periods of physiological change. However, one of the two sampled hominin teeth displayed a temporal carbon isotope shift (3.2‰) that was significantly greater than observed for co-occurring specimens. The δ13C value of this individual averaged about -16‰ early in life, and -13‰ later in life. This isotopic change occurred on the canine crown about 4.2 mm from the root, which corresponds to an approximate age of two to four years old in modern humans. Our dataset is perforce small owing to the precious nature of hominid teeth, but it demonstrates the potential utility of the intra-tooth isotope profile method for extracting ontogenetic histories of human ancestors.

  17. Exploring the Potential of Laser Ablation Carbon Isotope Analysis for Examining Ecology during the Ontogeny of Middle Pleistocene Hominins from Sima de los Huesos (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nuria; Feranec, Robert S.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Cerling, Thure E.; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation of tooth enamel was used to analyze stable carbon isotope compositions of teeth of hominins, red deer, and bears from middle Pleistocene sites in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain, to investigate the possibility that this technique could be used as an additional tool to identify periods of physiological change that are not detectable as changes in tooth morphology. Most of the specimens were found to have minimal intra-tooth variation in carbon isotopes (< 2.3‰), suggesting isotopically uniform diets through time and revealing no obvious periods of physiological change. However, one of the two sampled hominin teeth displayed a temporal carbon isotope shift (3.2‰) that was significantly greater than observed for co-occurring specimens. The δ13C value of this individual averaged about -16‰ early in life, and -13‰ later in life. This isotopic change occurred on the canine crown about 4.2 mm from the root, which corresponds to an approximate age of two to four years old in modern humans. Our dataset is perforce small owing to the precious nature of hominid teeth, but it demonstrates the potential utility of the intra-tooth isotope profile method for extracting ontogenetic histories of human ancestors. PMID:26673156

  18. Exploring the Potential of Laser Ablation Carbon Isotope Analysis for Examining Ecology during the Ontogeny of Middle Pleistocene Hominins from Sima de los Huesos (Northern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Garcia

    Full Text Available Laser ablation of tooth enamel was used to analyze stable carbon isotope compositions of teeth of hominins, red deer, and bears from middle Pleistocene sites in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain, to investigate the possibility that this technique could be used as an additional tool to identify periods of physiological change that are not detectable as changes in tooth morphology. Most of the specimens were found to have minimal intra-tooth variation in carbon isotopes (< 2.3‰, suggesting isotopically uniform diets through time and revealing no obvious periods of physiological change. However, one of the two sampled hominin teeth displayed a temporal carbon isotope shift (3.2‰ that was significantly greater than observed for co-occurring specimens. The δ13C value of this individual averaged about -16‰ early in life, and -13‰ later in life. This isotopic change occurred on the canine crown about 4.2 mm from the root, which corresponds to an approximate age of two to four years old in modern humans. Our dataset is perforce small owing to the precious nature of hominid teeth, but it demonstrates the potential utility of the intra-tooth isotope profile method for extracting ontogenetic histories of human ancestors.

  19. Laser spectroscopy of francium isotopes at the borders of the region of reflection asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Budinčević, I; Bissell, M L; Cocolios, T E; de Groote, R P; De Schepper, S; Fedosseev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Procter, T J; Rossel, R E; Rothe, S; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Wendt, K D A

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic dipole moments and changes in mean-square charge radii of the neutron-rich $^{218m,219,229,231}\\text{Fr}$ isotopes were measured with the newly-installed Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) beam line at ISOLDE, CERN, probing the $7s~^{2}S_{1/2}$ to $8p~^{2}P_{3/2}$ atomic transition. The $\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle^{A,221}$ values for $^{218m,219}\\text{Fr}$ and $^{229,231}\\text{Fr}$ follow the observed increasing slope of the charge radii beyond $N~=~126$. The charge radii odd-even staggering in this neutron-rich region is discussed, showing that $^{220}\\text{Fr}$ has a weakly inverted odd-even staggering while $^{228}\\text{Fr}$ has normal staggering. This suggests that both isotopes reside at the borders of a region of inverted staggering, which has been associated with reflection-asymmetric shapes. The $g(^{219}\\text{Fr}) = +0.69(1)$ value supports a $\\pi 1h_{9/2}$ shell model configuration for the ground state. The $g(^{229,231}\\text{Fr})$ values support the tentative $I^{\\pi}(^...

  20. Laser-assisted decay and optical spectroscopy studies of neutron-deficient thallium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Van Beveren, Céline; Huyse, Mark

    The neutron-deficient thallium isotopes with one proton less than the Z = 82 shell closure, are situated in an interesting region of the nuclear chart, notorious for intruder states and shape coexistence. Shape coexistence is the remarkable phenomenon in which two or more distinct types of deformation occur at low energy in the same atomic nucleus. Shape coexistence has been studied intensively, experimentally as well as theoretically in different nuclei in the light-lead region and the isomerism in the thallium isotopes was among the first indications of this phenomenon. Different shapes, whose structure has been linked to specific proton orbitals above and below the Z = 82 shell closure, are present at low energy in the neutron-deficient odd-mass thallium nuclei. In the odd-odd nuclei, the coupling of an unpaired proton and unpaired neutron gives rise to multiplets of low-lying states from which some can be isomeric. Since thallium has one proton missing in the major proton shell, and when approaching neutr...

  1. A novel paleo-bleaching proxy using boron isotopes and high-resolution laser ablation to reconstruct coral bleaching events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon, G.; Fisch, J.; Horn, I.; Kaczmarek, K.; Bijma, J.; Gruber, D. F.; Nir, O.; Popovich, Y.; Tchernov, D.

    2015-10-01

    Coral reefs occupy only ~ 0.1 percent of the ocean's habitat, but are the most biologically diverse marine ecosystem. In recent decades, coral reefs have experienced a significant global decline due to a variety of causes, one of the major causes being widespread coral bleaching events. During bleaching, the coral expels its symbiotic algae, thereby losing its main source of nutrition generally obtained through photosynthesis. While recent coral bleaching events have been extensively investigated, there is no scientific data on historical coral bleaching prior to 1979. In this study, we employ high-resolution femtosecond Laser Ablation Multiple Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) to demonstrate a distinct biologically induced decline of boron (B) isotopic composition (δ11B) as a result of coral bleaching. These findings and methodology offer a new use for a previously developed isotopic proxy to reconstruct paleo-coral bleaching events. Based on a literature review of published δ11B data and our recorded vital effect of coral bleaching on the δ11B signal, we also describe at least two possible coral bleaching events since the Last Glacial Maximum. The implementation of this bleaching proxy holds the potential of identifying occurrences of coral bleaching throughout the geological record. A deeper temporal view of coral bleaching will enable scientists to determine if it occurred in the past during times of environmental change and what outcome it may have had on coral population structure. Understanding the frequency of bleaching events is also critical for determining the relationship between natural and anthropogenic causes of these events.

  2. Demonstration of femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for uranium isotopic measurements in U-10Mo nuclear fuel foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, George Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Jhanis [Applied Spectra Inc., Fremont, CA (United States)

    2015-06-10

    The use of femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the isotopic ratio of uranium directly in U-10Mo fuel foils. The measurements were done on both the flat surface and cross sections of bare and Zr clad U-10Mo fuel foil samples. The results for the depleted uranium content measurements were less than 10% of the accepted U235/238 ratio of 0.0020. Sampling was demonstrated for line scans and elemental mapping over large areas. In addition to the U isotopic ratio measurement, the Zr thickness could be measured as well as trace elemental composition if required. A number of interesting features were observed during the feasibility measurements which could provide the basis for further investigation using this methodology. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using fs-LA-ICP-MS for measuring the U isotopic ratio in U-10Mo fuel foils.

  3. Autonomous Chemical Vapour Detection by Micro UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Rosser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to remotely detect and map chemical vapour clouds in open air environments is a topic of significant interest to both defence and civilian communities. In this study, we integrate a prototype miniature colorimetric chemical sensor developed for methyl salicylate (MeS, as a model chemical vapour, into a micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, and perform flights through a raised MeS vapour cloud. Our results show that that the system is capable of detecting MeS vapours at low ppm concentration in real-time flight and rapidly sending this information to users by on-board telemetry. Further, the results also indicate that the sensor is capable of distinguishing “clean” air from “dirty”, multiple times per flight, allowing us to look towards autonomous cloud mapping and source localization applications. Further development will focus on a broader range of integrated sensors, increased autonomy of detection and improved engineering of the system.

  4. On water vapour transfer inside frozen packs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heiss, R

    1971-01-01

    In the case of various foodstuffs, irreversible water- vapour transporations within the frozen packages can bring about a distinct quality drop caused by damage to the surface of the material as a result of drying out (freezer burn...

  5. High-resolution continuous-flow analysis setup for water isotopic measurement from ice cores using laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelsson, B. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Keller, E. D.; Gkinis, V.

    2015-07-01

    Here we present an experimental setup for water stable isotope (δ18O and δD) continuous-flow measurements and provide metrics defining the performance of the setup during a major ice core measurement campaign (Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution; RICE). We also use the metrics to compare alternate systems. Our setup is the first continuous-flow laser spectroscopy system that is using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS; analyzer manufactured by Los Gatos Research, LGR) in combination with an evaporation unit to continuously analyze water samples from an ice core. A Water Vapor Isotope Standard Source (WVISS) calibration unit, manufactured by LGR, was modified to (1) enable measurements on several water standards, (2) increase the temporal resolution by reducing the response time and (3) reduce the influence from memory effects. While this setup was designed for the continuous-flow analysis (CFA) of ice cores, it can also continuously analyze other liquid or vapor sources. The custom setups provide a shorter response time (~ 54 and 18 s for 2013 and 2014 setup, respectively) compared to the original WVISS unit (~ 62 s), which is an improvement in measurement resolution. Another improvement compared to the original WVISS is that the custom setups have a reduced memory effect. Stability tests comparing the custom and WVISS setups were performed and Allan deviations (σAllan) were calculated to determine precision at different averaging times. For the custom 2013 setup the precision after integration times of 103 s is 0.060 and 0.070 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. The corresponding σAllan values for the custom 2014 setup are 0.030, 0.060 and 0.043 ‰ for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. For the WVISS setup the precision is 0.035, 0.070 and 0.042 ‰ after 103 s for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. Both the custom setups and WVISS setup are influenced by instrumental drift with δ18O being more drift sensitive than δD. The

  6. The effect of warming on grassland evapotranspiration partitioning using laser-based isotope monitoring techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Lixin

    2013-06-01

    The proportion of transpiration (T) in total evapotranspiration (ET) is an important parameter that provides insight into the degree of biological influence on the hydrological cycles. Studies addressing the effects of climatic warming on the ecosystem total water balance are scarce, and measured warming effects on the T/ET ratio in field experiments have not been seen in the literature. In this study, we quantified T/ET ratios under ambient and warming treatments in a grassland ecosystem using a stable isotope approach. The measurements were made at a long-term grassland warming site in Oklahoma during the May-June peak growing season of 2011. Chamber-based methods were used to estimate the δ2H isotopic composition of evaporation (δE), transpiration (δT) and the aggregated evapotranspiration (δET). A modified commercial conifer leaf chamber was used for δT, a modified commercial soil chamber was used for δE and a custom built chamber was used for δET. The δE, δET and δT were quantified using both the Keeling plot approach and a mass balance method, with the Craig-Gordon model approach also used to calculate δE. Multiple methods demonstrated no significant difference between control and warming plots for both δET and δT. Though the chamber-based estimates and the Craig-Gordon results diverged by about 12‰, all methods showed that δE was more depleted in the warming plots. This decrease in δE indicates that the evaporation flux as a percentage of total water flux necessarily decreased for δET to remain constant, which was confirmed by field observations. The T/ET ratio in the control treatment was 0.65 or 0.77 and the ratio found in the warming treatment was 0.83 or 0.86, based on the chamber method and the Craig-Gordon approach. Sensitivity analysis of the Craig-Gordon model demonstrates that the warming-induced decrease in soil liquid water isotopic composition is the major factor responsible for the observed δE depletion and the temperature

  7. A rapid isotope ratio analysis protocol for nuclear solid materials using nano-second laser-ablation time-of-flight ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, S; Riciputi, L R

    2009-11-01

    The analysis of the isotopic composition of nuclear or non-nuclear solid materials is performed in a variety of fields, e.g., for quality assurance in the production of nuclear fuels, as signatures in forensics, nuclear safeguards, and non-proliferation control, in material characterization, geology, and archeology. We have investigated the capability of laser ablation (New Wave Research, 213 nm) coupled to time-of-flight (TOF) ICP-MS (GBC OptiMass 8000) as a rapid analytical protocol for multi-isotope screening of nuclear and non-nuclear solid samples. This includes natural and non-natural isotopic compositions for elements including Cu, Zr, Mo, Cd, In, Ba, Ta, W, Re, Pt, Pb, and U, in pure metals, alloys, and glasses. Without correcting for mass bias (mass fractionation), an overall precision and accuracy of about 4% (1 sigma) can be achieved by minimizing the deposited laser power and thus fractionation (mass removal based on thermal properties). The precision and accuracy in combination with literally no or minimized sample preparation enables a rapid isotope screening of solid samples that is of particular interest to support nuclear forensic and safeguard analysis.

  8. Development of laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for boron isotopic measurement in marine biocarbonates: new improvements and application to a modern Porites coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thil, François; Blamart, Dominique; Assailly, Caroline; Lazareth, Claire E; Leblanc, Thierry; Butsher, John; Douville, Eric

    2016-02-15

    Laser Ablation coupled to Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) is a powerful tool for the high-precision measurement of the isotopic ratios of many elements in geological samples, with the isotope ratio ((11) B/(10) B) of boron being used as an indicator of the pH of oceanic waters. Most geological samples or standards are polished and ablation occurs on flat surfaces. However, the shape and the irregularities of marine biocarbonates (e.g., corals, foraminifera) can make precise isotopic measurements of boron difficult. Even after polishing, the porosity properties and the presence of holes or micro-fractures affect the signal and the isotopic ratio when ablating the material, especially in raster mode. The effect of porosity and of the crater itself on the (11) B signal and the isotopic ratio acquired by LA-MC-ICPMS in both raster and spot mode was studied. Characterization of the craters was then performed with an optical profilometer to determine their shapes and depths. Surface state effects were examined by analyzing the isotopic fractionation of boron in silicate (NIST-SRM 612 and 610 standards) and in carbonate (corals). Surface irregularities led to a considerable loss of signal when the crater depth exceeded 20 µm. The stability and precision were degraded when ablation occurred in a deep cavity. The effect of laser focusing and of blank correction was also highlighted and our observations indicate that the accuracy of the boron isotopic ratio does not depend on the shape of the surface. After validation of the analytical protocol for boron isotopes, a raster application on a Porites coral, which grew for 18 months in an aquarium after field sampling, was carried out. This original LA-MC-ICPMS study revealed a well-marked boron isotope ratio temporal variability, probably related to growth rate and density changes, irrespective of the pH of the surrounding seawater. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright

  9. $\\beta$-decay study of very neutron-rich Cd isotopes with a chemically selective laser ion source

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Following our test measurements of N=82-84 Cd isotopes with a specifically developed laser ion source (CERN/ISC 97-16, ISC/I 22), we now propose detailed spectroscopic studies of the decay of $^{130}$Cd to $\\,^{132}\\!$Cd, and at least the determination of some gross properties of the new N=85-86 nuclides $^{133}\\!$Cd and $\\,^{134}\\!$Cd. The main nuclear-structure objective of this experiment is the identification of the energies of the single-hole (SH) proton states in $^{131}$In. Nearly all of the other single-nucleon shell-model basis energies around doubly magic $^{132}$Sn are known by now, except those $\\pi$SH in Z=49 $\\,^{131}$In. Theoretical agreement on these values has not been achieved so far. Of particular interest is the depth of the $\\pi$f$_{5/3}$ hole and the p$_{3/2}$ - p$_{1/2}$ spin-orbit splitting. A second important goal is the determination of the position of the lowest-energy 1$^+\\,$ level in $^{130}$In predominantly populated in the Gamow-Teller (GT) decay of N=82 $^{130}\\!$Cd. Apart from...

  10. Development of an OF-CEAS laser spectrometer for water vapor isotope measurements at low water concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsberg, Janek

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the isotopic composition of water vapor is an important tool in atmospheric research. The isotopic composition of water in Antarctic or Arctic glacial ice can be used as a paleo-thermometer in the reconstruction of climate changes in the past. The isotope ratios of water vapor

  11. A novel quantification strategy of transferrin and albumin in human serum by species-unspecific isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Liuxing, E-mail: fenglx@nim.ac.cn; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Jun; Shen, Dairui; Li, Hongmei

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Species-unspecific ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS was used to quantify Alb and Tf in human serum. • Addition methods of species-unspecific {sup 34}S spike were evaluated. • Isotope change conditions were investigated to reach satisfactory “isotope equilibration”. • Human serum CRM (ERM-DA470k/IFCC) was used to validate the new arrangements. • The developed method offers potential for accurate quantification of protein by ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. - Abstract: Species-specific (SS) isotope dilution analysis with gel electrophoresis (GE)-laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS is a promising technique for the quantification of particular metal-binding proteins in biological samples. However, unavailable isotopically enriched spike and metal losses in GE separation are main limitations for SS-isotope dilution PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. In this study, we report for the first time the absolute quantification of transferrin (Tf) and albumin (Alb) in human serum by non-denaturing (native) GE combined with species-unspecific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of both protein and isotope-enriched spike (simulated isotope equilibration), immersing the protein strips with {sup 34}S spike solution after gel electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective way of spike addition. Furthermore, effects of immersion time and {sup 34}S spike concentration were investigated to obtain optimal conditions of the post-electrophoresis isotope dilution method. The relative mass of spike and ablated sample (m{sub sp}/m{sub sam}) in IDMS equation was calculated by standard Tf and Alb proteins, which could be applied to the quantification of Tf and Alb in ERM-DA470k/IFCC for method confirmation. The results were in agreement with the certified value with good precision and small uncertainty (1.5–3%). In this method, species-specific spike protein is not necessary and the integrity of the heteroatom-protein could be maintained in sample preparation

  12. Intercomparison of atmospheric water vapour measurements at a Canadian High Arctic site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Dan; Strong, Kimberly; Schneider, Matthias; Rowe, Penny M.; Sioris, Chris; Walker, Kaley A.; Mariani, Zen; Uttal, Taneil; McElroy, C. Thomas; Vömel, Holger; Spassiani, Alessio; Drummond, James R.

    2017-08-01

    Water vapour is a critical component of the Earth system. Techniques to acquire and improve measurements of atmospheric water vapour and its isotopes are under active development. This work presents a detailed intercomparison of water vapour total column measurements taken between 2006 and 2014 at a Canadian High Arctic research site (Eureka, Nunavut). Instruments include radiosondes, sun photometers, a microwave radiometer, and emission and solar absorption Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. Close agreement is observed between all combination of datasets, with mean differences ≤ 1.0 kg m-2 and correlation coefficients ≥ 0.98. The one exception in the observed high correlation is the comparison between the microwave radiometer and a radiosonde product, which had a correlation coefficient of 0.92.A variety of biases affecting Eureka instruments are revealed and discussed. A subset of Eureka radiosonde measurements was processed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) for this study. Comparisons reveal a small dry bias in the standard radiosonde measurement water vapour total columns of approximately 4 %. A recently produced solar absorption FTIR spectrometer dataset resulting from the MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) retrieval technique is shown to offer accurate measurements of water vapour total columns (e.g. average agreement within -5.2 % of GRUAN and -6.5 % of a co-located emission FTIR spectrometer). However, comparisons show a small wet bias of approximately 6 % at the high-latitude Eureka site. In addition, a new dataset derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) measurements is shown to provide accurate water vapour measurements (e.g. average agreement was within 4 % of GRUAN), which usefully enables measurements to be taken during day and night (especially valuable during polar night).

  13. Measuring carbon and oxygen isotope signals of photosynthesis and respiration: first field results from a chamber system coupled to tunable diode laser spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, L.; Burlett, R.; Bosc, A.; Cross, A.; Devaux, M.; Grace, J.; Loustau, D.; Seibt, U.; Ogée, J.

    2007-12-01

    Studying the carbon and oxygen stable isotope signals from plants and soils can help us gain insight to mechanistic processes responsible for the net exchange of CO2 and water cycled between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Chamber field measurements of component fluxes and their isotopic composition have been reported for a few ecosystems. These observations have revealed that isotopic signals for carbon and oxygen are dynamic over relatively short time scales (hrs and days) for both branches and soils (Seibt et al., 2006a; 2006b; Wingate et al., 2007), and not fully explained by currently available models (Seibt et al., 2006b; Wingate et al., 2007). Ecosystem isotope studies have been limited by flask sampling requirements in the past. To evaluate and refine our models of isotopic fractionation by plants and soil, we need high resolution continuous isotopic measurements over the growing season for different ecosystems. In this study, we coupled chambers with tunable diode laser spectroscopy techniques in the field to continuously capture the isotopic signals from the most important component fluxes contributing to the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a Pinus pinaster forest in south-west France. We obtained profiles of the carbon and oxygen isotope content of CO2 within and above the forest canopy. In addition, we measured branch photosynthetic 13C and 18O discrimination alongside the 13C and 18O isotopic composition of the branch, stem and soil respiration during a 6-month period in 2007. In this talk, we will present the first results from this field campaign. References Seibt, U., Wingate, L., Berry, J.A. and Lloyd, J. (2006a) Non steady state effects in diurnal 18O discrimination by Picea sitchensis branches in the field. Plant, Cell and Environment Vol 29, 928-939. Seibt, U., Wingate, L., Lloyd, J. and Berry, J.A. (2006b) Diurnally variable δ18O signatures of soil CO2 fluxes indicate carbonic anhydrase activity in a forest soil. JGR

  14. Droplet spectrum at different vapour pressure deficits1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiam Felipe Silva Maciel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An efficient pesticides spraying depends a lot in psychrometric conditions, mainly if it is using fine droplets, once climatic conditions may cause droplets evaporation and consequent financial loss to the farmer. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine the droplet spectrum depending on the vapour pressure deficits. The work was carried out inside of a climate chamber to obtain the vapour pressure deficits (VPDair. The laser particle analyzer, model Spraytech, was used to determine the droplet spectrum, and the experiment was conducted in factorial scheme 5 x 20, consisted of five working pressures (100; 200; 300; 400 and 500 kPa and twenty VPDair (2.3; 3.2; 4.2; 5.6; 7.0; 7.4; 9.5; 11.7; 12.7; 15.8; 16.4; 16.9; 21.2; 22.1; 22.2; 28.1; 29.7; 36.9 39.4 e 51.6 hPa, in completely randomized design with five replications. There is influence of VPDair on droplet spectrum behavior. Increasing the VPDair reduces the percentage of sprayed volume comprised by droplets with diameter between 100 and 200 µm, between 200 and 300 µm, between 300 and 400 µm, between 400 and 500 µm and between 500 and 600 µm. Increasing VPDair increases the VMD, Dv90, SPAN and the percentage of sprayed volume comprised by droplets larger than 600 µm.

  15. Measurement of the isotopic composition of uranium micrometer-size particles by femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Amélie, E-mail: amelie.hubert@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Claverie, Fanny [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, UMR 5254, Hélioparc Pau-Pyrénées, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Novalase SA, ZI de la Briqueterie, 6 Impasse du Bois de la Grange, 33610 Canejan (France); Pécheyran, Christophe [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, UMR 5254, Hélioparc Pau-Pyrénées, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Pointurier, Fabien [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we will describe and indicate the performance of a new method based on the use of femtosecond laser ablation (fs-LA) coupled to a quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS) for analyzing the isotopic composition of micrometer-size uranium particles. The fs-LA device was equipped with a high frequency source (till 10 kHz). We applied this method to 1–2 μm diameter-uranium particles of known isotopic composition and we compared this technique with the two techniques currently used for uranium particle analysis: Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Fission Track Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (FT-TIMS). By optimizing the experimental conditions, we achieved typical accuracy and reproducibility below 4% on {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U for short transient signals of only 15 s related to 10 to 200 pg of uranium. The detection limit (at the 3 sigma level) was ∼ 350 ag for the {sup 235}U isotope, meaning that {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios in natural uranium particles of ∼ 220 nm diameter can be measured. We also showed that the local contamination resulting from the side deposition of ablation debris at ∼ 100 μm from the ablation crater represented only a small percentage of the initial uranium signal of the ablated particle. Despite the use of single collector ICP-MS, we were able to demonstrate that fs-LA-ICP-MS is a promising alternative technique for determining uranium isotopic composition in particle analysis. - Highlights: • An infrared femtosecond laser ablation device coupled to an ICP-MS is used. • The isotopic composition of micrometer-size U particles is measured. • Results are in good agreement with the ones obtained by other relevant techniques. • Detection limit is 350 attograms for the {sup 235}U isotope • {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios can be measured in 220 nm diameter natural uranium particles.

  16. Shape-coexistence and shape-evolution studies for bismuth isotopes by insource laser spectroscopy and $\\beta$-delayed fission in $^{188}$Bi

    CERN Multimedia

    The proposal aims at the two main goals: \\\\ \\\\1) the studies of shape-coexistence and shape-evolution phenomena in the long chain of bismuth isotopes (Z=83) by in-source laser spectroscopy measurements of isotopic shifts (IS) and hyperfine structures (hfs), and \\\\ 2) $\\beta$-delayed fission ($\\beta$DF) of two isomeric states in $^{188}$Bi. \\\\ \\\\Isomer-selective $\\beta$DF studies for $^{188m1, 188m2}$Bi isomers will enable us for the first time to investigate the spin-dependence of the $\\beta$DF process and to check theoretical predictions of asymmetrical fission fragment mass-distribution in this region of nuclei. The measurements will be performed with the well-proven Windmill and MR-TOF MS/Penning Trap techniques.

  17. Direct observation of an isomeric state in {sup 98}Rb and nuclear properties of exotic rubidium isotopes measured by laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procter, T.J.; Garnsworthy, A.B.; Levy, C.D.P.; Pearson, M.R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Behr, J.A.; Dilling, J. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Physics, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Billowes, J. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J.E.; Leary, A.; Shelbaya, O.; Al Tamimi, W. [McGill University, Physics Department, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cheal, B. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mane, E. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Ministry of External Relations, Rio Bianco Institute, Brasilia (Brazil); Stolz, M. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Voss, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2015-02-01

    Fast-beam collinear laser spectroscopy experiments on rubidium have been performed at the ISAC radioactive ion beam facility at TRIUMF. Most recently, the neutron-rich {sup 98}Rb isotope has been studied for the investigation of shape coexistence. Two long-lived nuclear states in {sup 98}Rb have been clearly observed for the first time: a low-spin state, assigned a spin of I = 0, and a high-spin state. The high-spin state is tentatively assigned a spin of I = 3 based on this analysis in combination with gamma decay results. The measured nuclear properties of the two states are presented, alongside unpublished values of the neutron-deficient isotopes investigated previously. The mean-square charge radii of both states in {sup 98}Rb are observed to continue along the isodeformation line present after the N = 60 onset of deformation. (orig.)

  18. Shape of gold and platinum exotic isotopes by laser spectroscopy; Formes des noyaux exotiques d`or et de platine par spectroscopie laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, F.; Obert, J.; Oms, J.; Putaux, J.C.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Pinard, J.; Cabaret, L.; Duong, H.T. [LAM Orsay (France); Hubert, G.; Krieg, M.; Sebastian, V. [Inst. fuer Physik, Mainz Univ. (Germany); Crawford, J.; Lee, J.K.P. [Foster Radiation Lab., McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Genevey, J.; Ibrahim, F. [Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires, Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France); ISOLDE Collaboration

    1997-12-31

    Resonance Ionisation Spectroscopy (RIS) was performed on desorbed {sup 184}Au{sup g,m} as well as on platinum isotopes and isomers from A = 189 to A 178. The complete hyperfine structure of both isomer and ground state was obtained for {sup 184}Au. In the platinum isotopes, 14 hyperfine structures were measured. (authors) 3 refs.

  19. Upper tropospheric water vapour variability over tropical latitudes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Upper tropospheric water vapour variability over tropical latitudes observed using radiosonde and satellite measurements. Ghouse Basha ... Keywords. Water vapour; radiosonde; satellite measurements. ... National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Department of Space, Government of India, Gadanki, PB No. 123 ...

  20. Water vapour loss measurements on human skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Petrus Gerardus Maria van der

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation.... Zie: Summary and conclusions

  1. Developments in vapour cloud explosion blast modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercx, W.P.M.; Berg, A.C. van den; Hayhurst, C.J.; Robertson, N.J.; Moran, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    TNT Equivalency methods are widely used for vapour cloud explosion blast modeling. Presently, however, other types of models are available which do not have the fundamental objections TNT Equivalency models have. TNO Multi-Energy method is increasingly accepted as a more reasonable alternative to be

  2. Virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Terpstra, P.; Koopmans, M.; Duizer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Viral contamination of surfaces is thought to be important in transmission. Chemical disinfection can be an effective means of intervention, but little is known about the virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) against enteric and respiratory viruses. Aim: To measure the

  3. Evaluation of laser ablation double-focusing SC-ICPMS for “common” lead isotopic measurements in silicate glasses and mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruszka, Aaron J.; Neymark, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    An analytical method for the in situ measurement of “common” Pb isotope ratios in silicate glasses and minerals using a 193-nm excimer laser ablation (LA) system with a double-focusing single-collector (SC)-ICPMS is presented and evaluated as a possible alternative to multiple-collector (MC)-ICPMS. This LA-SC-ICPMS technique employs fast-scanning ion deflectors to sequentially place a series of flat-topped isotope peaks into a single ion-counting detector at a fixed accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength. Reference materials (including NIST, MPI-DING, and USGS glasses) are used to identify two analytical artifacts on the Pb isotope ratios (expressed here as heavier/lighter isotopes) when corrected for mass bias relative to NIST SRM610. The first artifact is characterized by anomalously low Pb isotope ratios (~0.1%/AMU) when SRM610 is analyzed in raster mode as an unknown at small spot sizes (studies that used a different type of SC-ICPMS and obtained a factor of ~3-4 higher sensitivity for Pb. An increase in the sensitivity of our LA-SC-ICPMS would likely improve the precision of the 20XPb/206Pb and 20XPb/204Pb ratios for low-Pb materials (methods that rely upon at least one ion-counting detector). Further improvement in the precision of the 20XPb/206Pb and 20XPb/204Pb ratios for high-Pb materials (>5 ppm) by LA-SC-ICPMS is unlikely, and in this case, LA-MC-ICPMS remains the preferable analytical technique.

  4. Condensation of water vapour on moss-dominated biological soil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 2 ... Condensation; water vapour; desert ecosystem; moss; biological soil crust. Abstract. Characteristics of water vapour condensation, including the onset, duration, and amount of water vapour condensation on moss-dominated biological soil crust ...

  5. estimation of precipitable water vapour in nigeria using surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    affects the climate and weather systems through its effect on the atmospheric temperature and energy transport (Garrison, 1992; Follette et al.,. 2008). A very important measure of the atmospheric water vapour is the precipitable water vapour. (PWV). Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) is a measure of the total amount of water ...

  6. Eddy Covariance measurements of stable isotopes (δD and δ18O) in water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden-Behrens, Jelka; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Stable isotopes are a promising tool to enhance our understanding of ecosystem gas exchanges. Studying 18O and 2H in water vapour (H2Ov) can e.g. help partitioning evapotranspiration into its components. With recent developments in laser spectroscopy direct Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements for investigating fluxes of stable isotopologues became feasible. So far very few case studies have applied the EC method to measure stable isotopes in water vapor. We continuously measure fluxes of water vapor isotopologues with the EC method in a managed beech forest in Thuringia, Germany, since autumn 2015 using the following setup: An off-axis integrated cavity output water vapor isotope analyzer (WVIA, Los Gatos Research. Inc, USA) measures the water vapour concentration and its isotopic composition (δD and δ18O). The instrument, that was optimized for high flow rates (app. 4slpm) to generate high frequency (2Hz) measurements, showed sufficient precision with Allan Deviations of app. 0.12 ‰ for δD and 0.06 ‰ for δ18O for averaging periods of 100s. The instrument was calibrated hourly using a high-flow optimized version of the water vapor isotope standard source (WVISS, Los Gatos Research. Inc, USA) that provides water vapor with known isotopic composition for a large range of different concentrations. Our calibration scheme includes a near continuous concentration range calibration instead of a simple 2 or 3-point calibration to face the analyzers strong concentration dependency within a range of app. 6 000 to 16 000 ppm in winter and app. 8 000 to 23 000 ppm in summer. In the used setup, the high-flow and high-frequency optimized water vapor isotope analyzer (WVIA) showed suitable characteristics (Allan deviation and spectral energy distribution) to perform Eddy covariance measurements of stable isotopes in H2Ov. Thus, this novel instrument for EC measurements of water vapor isotopologues provides a new opportunity for studying the hydrological cycle in long

  7. Dermatological laser treatment. Dermatologisk laserbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerk, N.J.; Austad, J. (Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)); Helland, S. (Haukeland Sykehus, Bergen (Norway)); Thune, P. (Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway)); Volden, G. (University and Regional Hospital, Trondheim (Norway)); Falk, E. (University and Regional Hospital, Tromsoe (Norway))

    1991-10-01

    The article reviews the different lasers used in dermatology. Special emphasis is placed on the treatment of naevus flammeus (''portwine stain'') where lasers are the treatment of choice. Argon laser and pulsed dye laser are the main lasers used in vascular skin diseases, and the article focuses on these two types. Copper-vapour laser, neodymium-YAG laser and CO{sub 2} laser are also presented. Information is provided about the availability of laser technology in the different health regions in Norway. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Joint profiling of greenhouse gases, isotopes, thermodynamic variables, and wind from space by combined microwave and IR laser occultation: the ACCURATE concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, G.; Schweitzer, S.

    2008-12-01

    The ACCURATE (Atmospheric Climate and Chemistry in the UTLS Region And climate Trends Explorer) mission was conceived at the Wegener Center in late 2004 and subsequently proposed in 2005 by an international team of more than 20 scientific partners from more than 12 countries to an ESA selection process for next Earth Explorer Missions. While the mission was not selected for formal pre-phase A study, it received very positive evaluation and was recommended for further development and demonstration. ACCURATE employs the occultation measurement principle, known for its unique combination of high vertical resolution, accuracy and long-term stability, in a novel way. It systematically combines use of highly stable signals in the MW 17-23/178-196 GHz bands (LEO-LEO MW crosslink occultation) with laser signals in the SWIR 2-2.5 μm band (LEO-LEO IR laser crosslink occultation) for exploring and monitoring climate and chemistry in the atmosphere with focus on the UTLS region (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, 5-35 km). The MW occultation is an advanced and at the same time compact version of the LEO-LEO MW occultation concept, studied in 2002-2004 for the ACE+ mission project of ESA for frequencies including the 17-23 GHz band, complemented by U.S. study heritage for frequencies including the 178-196 GHz bands (R. Kursinski et al., Univ. of Arizona, Tucson). The core of ACCURATE is tight synergy of the IR laser crosslinks with the MW crosslinks. The observed parameters, obtained simultaneously and in a self-calibrated manner based on Doppler shift and differential log-transmission profiles, comprise the fundamental thermodynamic variables of the atmosphere (temperature, pressure/geopotential height, humidity) retrieved from the MW bands, complemented by line-of-sight wind, six greenhouse gases (GHGs) and key species of UTLS chemistry (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO) and four CO2 and H2O isotopes (HDO, H218O, 13CO2, C18OO) from the SWIR band. Furthermore, profiles of

  9. Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy of strained InP-Ga sub x In sub 1 sub - sub x As sub y P sub 1 sub - sub y quantum well lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A D

    1998-01-01

    that describes the optimisation in growth conditions to suppress thickness modulations, enabling larger numbers of planar wells and barriers to be grown. The effects of compositional clustering can be minimised by using higher growth temperatures and selecting alloy compositions outside the miscibility gap. In contrast, strain relief via the expansion and contraction of lattice planes is eliminated by using lower growth temperatures and higher group V pre-cursor gas flows. The growth conditions which best overcome these two effects in +-1% Ga sub x ln sub 1 sub - sub x As and +-1% Ga sub x In sub 1 sub - sub x As sub y P sub 1 sub - sub y strain-compensated, multiple-quantum well, laser structures are described. The strain relief behaviour of non-compensated InP-Ga sub x In sub 1 sub - sub x As sub y P sub 1 sub - sub y based, multiple-quantum well structures is presented. Dislocation generation is identified as the primary strain relief mechanism in Ga sub x In sub 1 sub - sub x As sub y P sub 1 sub - sub y ...

  10. Determination of the H-2/H-1, O-17/O-16, and O-18/O-16 isotope ratios in water by means of tunable diode laser spectroscopy at 1.39 mu m

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstel, E.R.Th.; Gagliardi, G.; Gianfrani, L.; Meijer, H.A.J.; van Trigt, R.; Ramaker, R.

    We demonstrate the feasibility of the accurate and simultaneous measurement of the H-2/H-1, O-17/O-16, and O-18/O-16 isotope ratios in water vapor by means of tunable diode laser spectroscopy. The absorptions are due to the nu(1) + nu(3) combination band, observed using a room temperature,

  11. Study and mitigation of calibration error sources in a water vapour Raman lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Leslie; Bock, Olivier; Bosser, Pierre; Thom, Christian; Pelon, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of water vapour throughout the atmosphere is important for many scientific applications (weather forecasting, climate research, calibration of GNSS altimetry measurements). Measuring water vapour remains a technical challenge because of its high variability in space and time. The major issues are achieving long-term stability (e.g., for climate trends monitoring) and high accuracy (e.g. for calibration/validation applications). LAREG and LOEMI at Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) have developed a mobile scanning water vapour Raman lidar in collaboration with LATMOS at CNRS. This system aims at providing high accuracy water vapour measurements throughout the troposphere for calibrating GNSS wet delay signals and thus improving vertical positioning. Current developments aim at improving the calibration method and long term stability of the system to allow the Raman lidar to be used as a reference instrument. The IGN-LATMOS lidar was deployed in the DEMEVAP (Development of Methodologies for Water Vapour Measurement) campaign that took place in 2011 at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. The goals of DEMEVAP were to inter-compare different water vapour sounding techniques (lidars, operational and research radiosondes, GPS,…) and to study various calibration methods for the Raman lidar. A significant decrease of the signals and of the calibration constants of the IGN-LATMOS Raman lidar has been noticed all along the campaign. This led us to study the likely sources of uncertainty and drifts in each part of the instrument: emission, reception and detection. We inventoried several error sources as well as instability sources. The impact of the temperature dependence of the Raman lines on the filter transmission or the fluorescence in the fibre, are examples of the error sources. We investigated each error source and each instability source (uncontrolled laser beam jitter, temporal fluctuations of the photomultiplier

  12. Nuclear structure of neutron-deficient Au and Pt isotopes from high-resolution laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvage, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); Cabaret, L. [Lab. Aime Cotton, Orsay (France); Crawford, J. [Foster Radiation Laboratory, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)] [and others; ISOLDE Collaboration

    1999-05-01

    Atomic spectroscopy measurements were carried out using the COMPLIS setup installed at the ISOLDE-BOOSTER facility. Hyperfine structure (HFS) spectra and isotope shift (IS) values were obtained for the neutron-deficient {sup 178-185}Pt and for {sup 184}Au{sup gm}, providing deformation parameters {beta}, magnetic moments {mu} and spectroscopic quadrupole moments (for I {>=} 1) Q{sub s}. In Pt isotopes, a deformation drop for A = 178 and an inverted odd-even staggering for the charge radius around the neutron mid-shell N=104, have been observed very clearly. Furthermore, deformation changes {delta}{beta} between isomeric and ground states for {sup 183,185}Pt and {sup 184}Au have been put forward. Thus, the influence of the proton-neutron coupling on the {delta}{beta} value in {sup 184}Au relatively to that in its isotope {sup 183}Pt has been determined. Besides, the h{sub 9/2} proton state that is decoupled from the core in {sup 183,185}Au, becomes the 3/2 [532] state strongly coupled in {sup 184}Au. The spin and parity values I{sup {pi}} = 3{sup +} have been assigned to the {sup 182}Ir ground state from internal conversion electron measurements to prepare atomic spectroscopy studies in the Ir isotopic series. (author) 37 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Nuclear moments, spins and charge radii of copper isotopes from N=28 to N=50 by collinear fast-beam laser spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We aim at establishing an unambiguous spin determination of the ground and isomeric states in the neutron rich Cu-isotopes from A=72 up to A=78 and to measure the magnetic and quadrupole moments between the N=28 and N=50 shell closures. This study will provide information on the double-magicity of $^{56}$Ni and $^{78}$Ni, both at the extremes of nuclear stability. It will provide evidence on the suggested inversion of ground state spin around A$\\approx$74, due to the monopole migration of the $\\pi f_{5/2}$ level. The collinear laser spectroscopy technique will be used, which furthermore provides information on the changes in mean square charge radii between both neutron shell closures, probing a possible onset of deformation in this region.

  14. Silicon isotope separation utilizing infrared multiphoton dissociation of Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} irradiated with two-color CO{sub 2} laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Ohba, Hironori; Hashimoto, Masashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishii, Takeshi; Ohya, Akio [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Arai, Shigeyoshi [Hill Research Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Silicon isotope separation has been done by utilizing the Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) of Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} irradiated with two-color CO{sub 2} laser lights. The two-color excitation method improved the separation efficiency keeping the high enrichment factors. For example, 99.74% of {sup 28}Si was obtained at 49.63% dissociation of Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} after the simultaneous irradiation of 200 pulses with 966.23 cm{sup -1} photons (0.084 J/cm{sup 2}) and 954.55 cm{sup -1} photons (0.658 J/cm{sup 2}), while 2000 pulses were needed to obtain 99.35% of {sup 28}Si at 35.6% dissociation in the case of only one-color irradiation at 954.55 cm{sup -1} (0.97 J/cm{sup 2}). (author)

  15. Variability of water vapour in the Arctic stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thölix, Laura; Backman, Leif; Kivi, Rigel; Karpechko, Alexey Yu.

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the stratospheric water vapour distribution and variability in the Arctic. A FinROSE chemistry transport model simulation covering the years 1990-2014 is compared to observations (satellite and frost point hygrometer soundings), and the sources of stratospheric water vapour are studied. In the simulations, the Arctic water vapour shows decadal variability with a magnitude of 0.8 ppm. Both observations and the simulations show an increase in the water vapour concentration in the Arctic stratosphere after the year 2006, but around 2012 the concentration started to decrease. Model calculations suggest that this increase in water vapour is mostly explained by transport-related processes, while the photochemically produced water vapour plays a relatively smaller role. The increase in water vapour in the presence of the low winter temperatures in the Arctic stratosphere led to more frequent occurrence of ice polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in the Arctic vortex. We perform a case study of ice PSC formation focusing on January 2010 when the polar vortex was unusually cold and allowed large-scale formation of PSCs. At the same time a large-scale persistent dehydration was observed. Ice PSCs and dehydration observed at Sodankylä with accurate water vapour soundings in January and February 2010 during the LAPBIAT (Lapland Atmosphere-Biosphere facility) atmospheric measurement campaign were well reproduced by the model. In particular, both the observed and simulated decrease in water vapour in the dehydration layer was up to 1.5 ppm.

  16. Long-term field performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for analysis of carbon isotopes of CO2 in forest air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Bowling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS is gaining in popularity for measuring the mole fraction [CO2] and stable isotopic composition (δ13C of carbon dioxide (CO2 in air in studies of biosphere-atmosphere gas exchange. Here we present a detailed examination of the performance of a commercially-available TDLAS located in a high-altitude subalpine coniferous forest (the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site, providing the first multi-year analysis of TDLAS instrument performance for measuring CO2 isotopes in the field. Air was sampled from five to nine vertical locations in and above the forest canopy every ten minutes for 2.4 years. A variety of methods were used to assess instrument performance. Measurement of two compressed air cylinders that were in place over the entire study establish the long-term field precision of 0.2 μmol mol−1 for [CO2] and 0.35‰ for δ13C, but after fixing several problems the isotope precision improved to 0.2permil (over the last several months. The TDLAS provided detail on variability of δ13C of atmospheric CO2 that was not represented in weekly flask samples, as well as information regarding the influence of large-scale (regional seasonal cycle and local forest processes on [CO2] and δ13C of CO2. There were also clear growing season and winter differences in the relative contributions of photosynthesis and respiration on the [CO2] and δ13C of forest air.

  17. Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) U-Pb & Lu-Hf Isotope Analysis of Detrital Zircons from the Old Red Sandstone, NW Svalbard: Implications for Northern Caledonian Paleogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranek, L. P.; Gee, D. G.; Fisher, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Svalbard archipelago consists of three Caledonian provinces that were assembled by thrusting and transcurrent faulting during the Silurian and Devonian in a location directly northeast of the Greenland Caledonides. Syn- to post-orogenic alluvial strata, referred to as the Old Red Sandstones, filled pull-apart basins adjacent to the transcurrent faults and comprise cover assemblages that help constrain the timing of the Caledonian orogeny. To further investigate the tectonic history and paleogeography of the Raudfjorden-Liefdefjorden-Woodfjorden area of Spitsbergen, NW Svalbard, we analyzed rock samples of the Old Red Sandstones and underlying Precambrian basement complexes for detrital zircon analysis. Laboratory studies of the Old Red Sandstones include the novel Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) technique, which allows for simultaneous U-Pb & Lu-Hf isotope analysis of zircon crystals. Lower Devonian Red Bay Group strata contain a range of early Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons with prominent age peaks c. 960, 1050, 1370, 1450, 1650, and 2700 Ma; subordinate Ordovician (c. 460-490 Ma) and Cryogenian (c. 650 Ma) detrital zircons occur in a subset of the samples. Underlying Precambrian metasedimentary rocks are composed of similar earliest Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean age populations, which argues for much of the Red Bay Group to be derived from local basement rocks during thrusting and other faulting. The U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of Paleozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons are consistent with Arctic crustal evolution, and support the hypothesis that northwestern and northeastern provinces of the Svalbard Caledonides are extruded fragments of the northeast Greenland allochthons. The new Hf isotope results further allow paleogeographic and stratigraphic comparisons with rock assemblages proximal to the North Atlantic Caledonides during the Silurian-Devonian, including the Pearya terrane of Ellesmere Island, Alexander terrane of NW

  18. Water vapour measurements during POLINAT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovarlez, J.; Ovarlez, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique

    1997-12-31

    The POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor)1 experiment has been performed within the framework of the Environment Programme of the Commission of the European Community. It was devoted to the study of the pollution from aircraft in the North Atlantic flight corridor, in order to investigate the impact of pollutants emitted by aircraft on the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. For that experiment the water vapour content was measured with a frost-point hygrometer on board of the DLR Falcon research aircraft. This instrument is described, and some selected results are given. (author) 19 refs.

  19. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  20. Laser spectroscopic studies along the Al isotopic chain and the isomer-shift of the self-conjugate $^{26}$Al nucleus

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the isomer shift in the self-conjugate $^{26}$Al ($\\textit{N = Z}$ = 13) nucleus along with the isotope shifts of $^{24-33}$Al using bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy at the COLLAPS beam line at ISOLDE. These isomer and isotope shifts allow the extraction of precise mean-square charge radii, in particular the difference in charge radius between the $\\textit{I}$ = 5$^{+}$; $\\textit{T}$ = 0 ground state and $\\textit{I}$= 0$^{+}$;$\\textit{T}$= 1 isomer in $^{26}$Al. This charge radius difference, in comparison with the odd-even staggering in the Al-chain, is an excellent probe to study proton-neutron pairing correlations, as was previously illustrated for $^{38}_{19}$K$_{19}$. Furthermore, accurate knowledge of the mean-square charge radius in $^{26m}$Al is essential to reliably calculate its isospin-symmetry-breaking correction which is important to extract the CKM matrix element V$_{ud}$ from the 0$^{+}$ $\\rightarrow$ 0$^{+}$ super-allowed $\\beta$-decay data. Finally, the charge ...

  1. Using tunable diode laser spectroscopy to measure carbon isotope discrimination and mesophyll conductance to CO₂ diffusion dynamically at different CO₂ concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazoe, Youshi; VON Caemmerer, Susanne; Estavillo, Gonzalo M; Evans, John R

    2011-04-01

    In C₃ leaves, the mesophyll conductance to CO₂ diffusion, g(m) , determines the drawdown in CO₂ concentration from intercellular airspace to the chloroplast stroma. Both g(m) and stomatal conductance limit photosynthetic rate and vary in response to the environment. We investigated the response of g(m) to changes in CO₂ in two Arabidopsis genotypes (including a mutant with open stomata, ost1), tobacco and wheat. We combined measurements of gas exchange with carbon isotope discrimination using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with a CO₂ calibration system specially designed for a range of CO₂ and O₂ concentrations. CO₂ was initially increased from 200 to 1000 ppm and then decreased stepwise to 200 ppm and increased stepwise back to 1000 ppm, or the sequence was reversed. In 2% O₂ a step increase from 200 to 1000 ppm significantly decreased g(m) by 26-40% in all three species, whereas following a step decrease from 1000 to 200 ppm, the 26-38% increase in g(m) was not statistically significant. The response of g(m) to CO₂ was less in 21% O₂. Comparing wild type against the ost1 revealed that mesophyll and stomatal conductance varied independently in response to CO₂. We discuss the effects of isotope fractionation factors on estimating g(m) . © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. "Common" lead isotopic measurements in silicate glasses and minerals by laser ablation double-focusing SC-ICPMS (2017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This dataset is related to a 2017 journal article by A. J. Pietruszka and L. A. Neymark titled "Evaluation of laser ablation double-focusing SC-ICPMS for “common”...

  3. Study of neutron deficient iridium isotopes by using laser spectroscopy; Etude des noyaux d'iridium deficients en neutrons par spectroscopie laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verney, D

    2000-12-19

    Resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed on neutron deficient iridium isotopes {sup 182-189}Ir, {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and stable isotopes {sup 191,193}Ir. Hyperfine spectra were recorded from the optical transition at 351,7 nm between the 5d{sup 7}6s{sup 2} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} ground state and the 5d{sup 7}6s6p {sup 6}F{sub 11/2} excited state. Radioactive iridium isotopes were obtained from {beta}{sup +}/EC decay of radioactive mercury nuclei deposited on a graphite substrate. The radioactive mercury nuclei were produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN through spallation reactions, by bombarding a molten lead target with the 1 GeV proton beam delivered by the PS-Booster. Magnetic dipole moments and spectroscopic quadrupole moments were extracted from the hyperfine spectra. The mean square charge radius variations, as deduced from the measured isotopic shift, show a sharp change between {sup 187}Ir and {sup 186}Ir{sup g}, accompanied by a sudden increase in deformation: from {beta}2 {approx} 0,16 to {beta}2 > 0, 2. These results were analysed in the framework of an axial rotor plus one or two quasiparticles. The wave functions of the osmium and platinum cores which are used in order to describe the iridium nuclei were calculated from the HF+BCS method with the Skyrme SIII effective interaction. The cores were constrained to take the deformation parameters extracted from the isotopic shift measurements. One shows then that this sudden deformation change corresponds also to a change in the proton state that describes the odd nuclei ground state or that participates in the coupling with the neutron in odd-odd nuclei. This state is identified with the {pi}3/2{sup +}[402] orbital for the smaller deformations nuclei and with the {pi}1/2{sup -}[541] orbital stemming from the h{sub 9/2} subshell for bigger deformations nuclei. (author)

  4. Water vapour variability and trends in the Arctic stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thölix, Laura; Kivi, Rigel; Backman, Leif; Karpechko, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    Water vapour in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS) is a radiatively and chemically important trace gas. Stratospheric water vapour also affects ozone chemistry through odd-hydrogen chemistry and formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). Both transport and chemistry contribute to the extratropical lower stratospheric water vapour distribution and trends. The main sources of stratospheric water vapour are intrusion through the tropical tropopause and production from oxidation of methane. Accurate observations of UTLS water vapour are difficult to obtain due to the strong gradient in the water vapour profile over the tropopause. However, modelling the stratospheric water vapour distribution is challenging and accurate measurements are needed for model validation. Trends in Arctic water vapour will be analysed and explained in terms of contribution from different processes (transport and chemistry), using observations and chemistry transport model (CTM) simulations. Accurate water vapour soundings from Sodankylä will be used to study water vapour within the Arctic polar vortex, including process studies on formation of PSCs and dehydration. Water vapour profiles measured during the LAPBIAT atmospheric sounding campaign in Sodankylä in January 2010 indicated formation of ice clouds and dehydration. Effects on ozone chemistry will also be studied. Global middle atmospheric simulations have been performed with the FinROSE-ctm using ERA-Interim winds and temperatures. The FinROSE-ctm is a global middle atmosphere model that produces the distribution of 30 long-lived species and tracers and 14 short-lived species. The chemistry describes around 110 gas phase reactions, 37 photodissociation processes and the main heterogeneous reactions related to aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds.

  5. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS: methodology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteini, Massimo; Dantas, Elton L.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Bühn, Bernhard, E-mail: massimo@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2010-06-15

    The Lutetium-Hafnium isotopic system represents one of the most innovative and powerful tools for geochronology and isotopic studies. Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf in situ analyses on zircon by LA-MC-ICP-MS permit to characterize isotopically the host magma from which it crystallized furnishing significant information for sediment provenance and crustal evolution studies. In this paper e describe the Lu-Hf systematic by LA-MC-ICP-MS developed in the laboratory of Geochronology of the University of Brasilia and report the results obtained by repeated analyses of {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177}Hf isotopic ratio of three zircon standards: GJ-1 = 0.282022 ± 11 (n=56), Temora 2 = 0.282693 ± 14 (n=25) and UQZ = 0.282127 ± 33 (n=11). The {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177}Hf ratio (0.282352 ± 22, n=14) of gem quality zircon used as in-house standard have been also characterized. As a geological application, we analyzed two complex zircons selected from a migmatitic rocks from the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. On the basis of U-Pb and Lu-Hf data, two main crystallization events have been identified in both studied zircons. An older event at ca. 2.05 Ga recognized in the inherited cores represents a well-characterized paleoproterozoic magmatic event that affected the whole Borborema Province. A second crystallization event at ∼ 575 Ma, recognized at the rims, represents a Neoproterozoic (Brazilian) high grade metamorphic-magmatic event. (author)

  7. Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, James A.; Hayden, Jr., Howard W.

    1995-01-01

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

  8. Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

    1995-05-30

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

  9. Modelling non-steady-state isotope enrichment of leaf water in a gas-exchange cuvette environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin; Simonin, Kevin A; Loucos, Karen E; Barbour, Margaret M

    2015-12-01

    The combined use of a gas-exchange system and laser-based isotope measurement is a tool of growing interest in plant ecophysiological studies, owing to its relevance for assessing isotopic variability in leaf water and/or transpiration under non-steady-state (NSS) conditions. However, the current Farquhar & Cernusak (F&C) NSS leaf water model, originally developed for open-field scenarios, is unsuited for use in a gas-exchange cuvette environment where isotope composition of water vapour (δv ) is intrinsically linked to that of transpiration (δE ). Here, we modified the F&C model to make it directly compatible with the δv -δE dynamic characteristic of a typical cuvette setting. The resultant new model suggests a role of 'net-flux' (rather than 'gross-flux' as suggested by the original F&C model)-based leaf water turnover rate in controlling the time constant (τ) for the approach to steady sate. The validity of the new model was subsequently confirmed in a cuvette experiment involving cotton leaves, for which we demonstrated close agreement between τ values predicted from the model and those measured from NSS variations in isotope enrichment of transpiration. Hence, we recommend that our new model be incorporated into future isotope studies involving a cuvette condition where the transpiration flux directly influences δv . There is an increasing popularity among plant ecophysiologists to use a gas-exchange system coupled to laser-based isotope measurement for investigating non-steady state (NSS) isotopic variability in leaf water (and/or transpiration); however, the current Farquhar & Cernusak (F&C) NSS leaf water model is unsuited for use in a gas-exchange cuvette environment due to its implicit assumption of isotope composition of water vapor (δv ) being constant and independent of that of transpiration (δE ). In the present study, we modified the F&C model to make it compatible with the dynamic relationship between δv and δE as is typically associated

  10. Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour curtain at 45 degrees to the ISR beam in Ring I (sodium generator is in white cylinder just left of centre). Electrons produced by ionization of the sodium vapour give an image of the beam on a fluorescent screen that is observed by a TV camera (at upper right).

  11. Measurement of copper vapour laser-induced deformation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-14

    Feb 14, 2014 ... This deformation causes a change in interference pattern within the reference interferogram from which the ... From simple error propagation considerations for independent measurement of δP and ... where the smallest measurable fringe shift (δP) is the error (d(δP)) in measuring the same, which is taken ...

  12. Resonant ionization by laser beams: application to ions sources and to study the nuclear structure of radioactive tellurium isotopes; Ionisation resonante par faisceaux laser: application aux sources d'ions et a l'etude de la structure des noyaux radioactifs de tellure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifi, R

    2007-07-15

    The radioactive ion beams that are produced through current isotope separators are well separated according to the A mass but not according to the Z parameter. The resonant ionization through laser beams applied to ion sources allows the production of radioactive ion beam in a very selective and efficient way by eliminating the isobaric contamination. The first chapter is dedicated to the resonant ionization by laser beams, we describe the principle, the experimental setting, the lasers used, the ionization schemes and the domain of application. The second chapter deals with the application of resonant ionization to laser ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams. We present experimental tests performed for getting copper ion beams. Resonant ionization through laser is also used in the spectroscopy experiments performed at the Isolde (isotope separation on-line device) installation in CERN where more than 20 elements are ionized very efficiently. The technique is based on a frequency scanning around the excitation transition of the atoms in order to probe the hyperfine structure. Laser spectroscopy allows the determination of the hyperfine structure as well as the isotopic shift of atoms. In the third chapter the method is applied to the spectroscopy of tellurium atoms. First, we define the 2 parameters on which the extraction is based: charge radius and nuclear moments, then we present several theoretical models that we have used to assess our experimental results. (A.C.)

  13. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2012-09-12

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Method of separating boron isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Reed J.; Thorne, James M.; Cluff, Coran L.; Hayes, John K.

    1984-01-01

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

  15. Isotope fractionation of cadmium in lunar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, S.; Rosman, K. J. R.; de Laeter, J. R.

    2006-03-01

    The double spike technique has been used to measure the isotope fractionation and elemental abundance of Cd in nine lunar samples, the Brownfield meteorite and the Columbia River Basalt BCR-1, by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Lunar soil samples give a tightly grouped set of positive isotope fractionation values of between + 0.42% and + 0.50% per mass unit. Positive isotope fractionation implies that the heavy isotopes are enhanced with respect to those of the Laboratory Standard. A vesicular mare basalt gave zero isotope fractionation, indicating that the Cd isotopic composition of the Moon is identical to that of the Earth. A sample of orange glass from the Taurus-Littrow region gave a negative isotope fractionation of - 0.23 ± 0.06% per mass unit, presumably as a result of redeposition of Cd from the Cd-rich vapour cloud associated with volcanism. Cadmium is by far the heaviest element to show isotope fractionation effects in lunar samples. The volatile nature of Cd is of importance in explaining these isotope fractionation results. Although a number of mechanisms have been postulated to be the cause of isotope fractionation of certain elements in lunar soils, we believe that the most likely mechanisms are ion and particle bombardment of the lunar surface.

  16. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  17. Response of water vapour D-excess to land-atmosphere interactions in a semi-arid environment

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2016-06-30

    The stable isotopic composition of water vapour provides information about moisture sources and processes difficult to obtain with traditional measurement techniques. Recently, it has been proposed that the D-excess of water vapour can provide a diagnostic tracer of continental moisture recycling. However, D-excess exhibits a diurnal cycle that has been observed across a variety of ecosystems and may be influenced by a range of processes beyond regional-scale moisture recycling, including local evaporation (ET) fluxes. There is a lack of measurements of D-excess in evaporation (ET) fluxes, which has made it difficult to assess how ET fluxes modify the Dexcess in water vapour (dv). With this in mind, we employed a chamber-based approach to directly measure D-excess in ET (dET) fluxes. We show that ET fluxes imposed a negative forcing on the ambient vapour and could not explain the higher daytime dv values. The low dET observed here was sourced from a soil water pool that had undergone an extended drying period, leading to low D-excess in the soil moisture pool. A strong correlation between daytime dv and locally measured relative humidity was consistent with an oceanic moisture source, suggesting that remote hydrological processes were the major contributor to daytime dv variability. During the early evening, ET fluxes into a shallow nocturnal inversion layer caused a lowering of dv values near the surface. In addition, transient mixing of vapour with a higher D-excess from above the nocturnal inversion modified these values, causing large variability during the night. These results indicate dET can generally be expected to show

  18. Medical cannabis use in Canada: vapourization and modes of delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Shiplo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mode of medical cannabis delivery—whether cannabis is smoked, vapourized, or consumed orally—may have important implications for its therapeutic efficacy and health risks. However, there is very little evidence on current patterns of use among Canadian medical cannabis users, particularly with respect to modes of delivery. The current study examined modes of medical cannabis delivery following regulatory changes in 2014 governing how Canadians access medical cannabis. Methods A total of 364 approved adult Canadian medical cannabis users completed an online cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015. The survey examined patterns of medical cannabis use, modes of delivery used, and reasons for use. Participants were recruited through a convenience sample from nine Health Canada licensed producers. Results Using a vapourizer was the most popular mode of delivery for medical cannabis (53 %, followed by smoking a joint (47 %. The main reason for using a vapourizer was to reduce negative health consequences associated with smoking. A majority of current vapourizer users reported using a portable vapourizer (67.2 %, followed by a stationary vapourizer (41.7 %, and an e-cigarette or vape pen (19.3 %. Current use of a vapourizer was associated with fewer respiratory symptoms (AOR = 1.28, 95 % CI 1.05–1.56, p = 0.01. Conclusions The findings suggest an increase in the popularity of vapourizers as the primary mode of delivery among approved medical users. Using vapourizers has the potential to prevent some of the adverse respiratory health consequences associated with smoking and may serve as an effective harm reduction method. Monitoring implications of such current and future changes to medical cannabis regulations may be beneficial to policymakers.

  19. Stable isotope anatomy of tropical cyclone Ita, North-Eastern Australia, April 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munksgaard, Niels C; Zwart, Costijn; Kurita, Naoyuki; Bass, Adrian; Nott, Jon; Bird, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    The isotope signatures registered in speleothems during tropical cyclones (TC) provides information about the frequency and intensity of past TCs but the precise relationship between isotopic composition and the meteorology of TCs remain uncertain. Here we present continuous δ18O and δ2H data in rainfall and water vapour, as well as in discrete rainfall samples, during the passage of TC Ita and relate the evolution in isotopic compositions to local and synoptic scale meteorological observations. High-resolution data revealed a close relationship between isotopic compositions and cyclonic features such as spiral rainbands, periods of stratiform rainfall and the arrival of subtropical and tropical air masses with changing oceanic and continental moisture sources. The isotopic compositions in discrete rainfall samples were remarkably constant along the ~450 km overland path of the cyclone when taking into account the direction and distance to the eye of the cyclone at each sampling time. Near simultaneous variations in δ18O and δ2H values in rainfall and vapour and a near-equilibrium rainfall-vapour isotope fractionation indicates strong isotopic exchange between rainfall and surface inflow of vapour during the approach of the cyclone. In contrast, after the passage of spiral rainbands close to the eye of the cyclone, different moisture sources for rainfall and vapour are reflected in diverging d-excess values. High-resolution isotope studies of modern TCs refine the interpretation of stable isotope signatures found in speleothems and other paleo archives and should aim to further investigate the influence of cyclone intensity and longevity on the isotopic composition of associated rainfall.

  20. Stable isotope anatomy of tropical cyclone Ita, North-Eastern Australia, April 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C Munksgaard

    Full Text Available The isotope signatures registered in speleothems during tropical cyclones (TC provides information about the frequency and intensity of past TCs but the precise relationship between isotopic composition and the meteorology of TCs remain uncertain. Here we present continuous δ18O and δ2H data in rainfall and water vapour, as well as in discrete rainfall samples, during the passage of TC Ita and relate the evolution in isotopic compositions to local and synoptic scale meteorological observations. High-resolution data revealed a close relationship between isotopic compositions and cyclonic features such as spiral rainbands, periods of stratiform rainfall and the arrival of subtropical and tropical air masses with changing oceanic and continental moisture sources. The isotopic compositions in discrete rainfall samples were remarkably constant along the ~450 km overland path of the cyclone when taking into account the direction and distance to the eye of the cyclone at each sampling time. Near simultaneous variations in δ18O and δ2H values in rainfall and vapour and a near-equilibrium rainfall-vapour isotope fractionation indicates strong isotopic exchange between rainfall and surface inflow of vapour during the approach of the cyclone. In contrast, after the passage of spiral rainbands close to the eye of the cyclone, different moisture sources for rainfall and vapour are reflected in diverging d-excess values. High-resolution isotope studies of modern TCs refine the interpretation of stable isotope signatures found in speleothems and other paleo archives and should aim to further investigate the influence of cyclone intensity and longevity on the isotopic composition of associated rainfall.

  1. Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, T

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, T

    2012-11-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS: methodology and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Matteini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lutetium-Hafnium isotopic system represents one of the most innovative and powerful tools for geochronology and isotopic studies. Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf in situ analyses on zircon by LA-MC-ICP-MS permit to characterize isotopically the host magma from which it crystallized furnishing significant information for sediment provenance and crustal evolution studies. In this paper e describe the Lu-Hf systematic by LA-MC-ICP-MS developed in the laboratory of Geochronology of the University of Brasilia and report the results obtained by repeated analyses of 176Hf/177Hf isotopic ratio of three zircon standards: GJ-1 = 0.282022 ± 11 (n=56, Temora 2 = 0.282693 ± 14 (n=25 and UQZ = 0.282127 ± 33 (n=11. The 176Hf/177Hf ratio (0.282352 ± 22, n=14 of gem quality zircon used as in-house standard have been also characterized. As a geological application, we analyzed two complex zircons selected from a migmatitic rocks from the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. On the basis of U-Pb and Lu-Hf data, two main crystallization events have been identified in both studied zircons. An older event at ca. 2.05 Ga recognized in the inherited cores represents a well-characterized paleoproterozoic magmatic event that affected the whole Borborema Province. A second crystallization event at ~ 575 Ma, recognized at the rims, represents a Neoproterozoic (Brazilian high grade metamorphic-magmatic event.O sistema isotópico Lutécio-Hafnio representa uma das ferramentas mais recentes e poderosas para estudos isotópicos e geocronológicos. Análises combinadas in situ de U-Pb e Lu-Hf sobre zircão pelo LA-MC-ICP-MS permitem caracterizar iso-topicamente o magma onde ele cristalizou, fornecendo valiosas informações para estudos de proveniência de sedimento e de evolução crustal. Nesse trabalho descrevemos a sistemática de Lu-Hf pelo LA-MC-ICP-MS implantada no laboratório de Geocronologia da Universidade de Brasília e reportamos os resultados obtidos de repetidas an

  4. Evidence of the direct adsorption of mercury in human hair during occupational exposure to mercury vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo Abad, Silvia; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    We have found clear evidence of direct adsorption of mercury in human hair after the occupational exposure to mercury vapour. We have performed both longitudinal analysis of human hair by laser ablation ICP-MS and speciation analysis by gas chromatography ICP-MS in single hair strands of 5 individuals which were occupationally exposed to high levels of mercury vapour and showed acute mercury poisoning symptoms. Hair samples, between 3.5 and 11cm long depending on the individual, were taken ca. three months after exposure. Single point laser ablation samples of 50μm diameter were taken at 1mm intervals starting from the root of the hairs. Sulfur-34 was used as internal standard. The ratio (202)Hg/(34)S showed a distinct pattern of mercury concentration with much lower levels of mercury near the root of the hair and high levels of mercury near the end of the hair. In all cases a big jump in the concentration of mercury in hair occurred at a given distance from the root, between 32 and 42mm depending on the individual, with a high and almost constant concentration of mercury for longer distances to the root. When we took into account the rate of hair growth in humans, 9-15mm/month, the jump in mercury concentration agreed approximately with the dates when the contamination occurred with the new growing hair showing much lower mercury concentration. In some cases the concentration of mercury at the tip of the hair was ca. 1000 times higher than that near the root. Additionally, speciation studies confirmed that mercury in all hair samples was present as inorganic mercury. The only explanation for these results was the direct adsorption of mercury vapour in hair at the time of exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. High-resolution stable isotope signature of a land-falling atmospheric river in Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yongbiao; Sodemann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Gathering observational evidence of the long-range moisture versus local source contributions remains a scientific challenge, but is critical for understanding how hydrological extremes develop. Moisture transport to the west coast of Norway is often connected to elongated meridional structures of high water vapour flux known as Atmospheric Rivers. It is still an open question how well moisture sources estimated by different numerical models for such events of long-range transport correspond with reality. In this study, we present high resolution stable isotope information collected during a land-falling Atmospheric River in Southern Norway during winter 2016, and analyse the data with the aim to differentiate between moisture source signatures and below-cloud processes affecting the stable isotope composition. The precipitation characterised by a pronounced warm front was sampled manually on a rooftop platform at a 10-20 minute interval during the 24h of the event and later measured by a laser spectrometer (Picarro L2140-i) in the lab for δ18O, δD, and d-excess. Simultaneously, the stable isotope composition of water vapor was continuously measured at high resolution. To that end, ambient air was continuously pumped from a nearby inlet at 25 m above the ground and measured by another laser spectrometer (Picarro L2130-i). Stable water isotope measurements were supplemented by detailed precipitation parameters from a laser disdrometer (OTT Parsivel2), Micro Rain Radar (MRR-2), Total Precipitation Sensor (TPS-3100), and a nearby weather station. Measurements show a signature of two depletion periods in the main stable isotope parameters that are not apparent in precipitation amount and atmospheric temperature measurements. The deuterium excess in rainfall responds differently, with first and increase and then a decrease during these depletion periods. We interpret this as a combined consequence of airmass change, cloud microphysics, and below-cloud effects

  6. In situ sulfur isotopes (δ{sup 34}S and δ{sup 33}S) analyses in sulfides and elemental sulfur using high sensitivity cones combined with the addition of nitrogen by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiali [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu, Zhaochu, E-mail: zchu@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); The Beijing SHRIMP Center, Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhang, Wen [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd., Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Ming; Zong, Keqing; Gao, Shan; Hu, Shenghong [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-03-10

    The sulfur isotope is an important geochemical tracer in diverse fields of geosciences. In this study, the effects of three different cone combinations with the addition of N{sub 2} on the performance of in situ S isotope analyses were investigated in detail. The signal intensities of S isotopes were improved by a factor of 2.3 and 3.6 using the X skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone or the Jet sample cone, respectively, compared with the standard arrangement (H skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone). This signal enhancement is important for the improvement of the precision and accuracy of in situ S isotope analysis at high spatial resolution. Different cone combinations have a significant effect on the mass bias and mass bias stability for S isotopes. Poor precisions of S isotope ratios were obtained using the Jet and X cones combination at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow when using Ar plasma only. The addition of 4–8 ml min{sup −1} nitrogen to the central gas flow in laser ablation MC-ICP-MS was found to significantly enlarge the mass bias stability zone at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow in these three different cone combinations. The polyatomic interferences of OO, SH, OOH were also significantly reduced, and the interference free plateaus of sulfur isotopes became broader and flatter in the nitrogen mode (N{sub 2} = 4 ml min{sup −1}). However, the signal intensity of S was not increased by the addition of nitrogen in this study. The laser fluence and ablation mode had significant effects on sulfur isotope fractionation during the analysis of sulfides and elemental sulfur by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS. The matrix effect among different sulfides and elemental sulfur was observed, but could be significantly reduced by line scan ablation in preference to single spot ablation under the optimized fluence. It is recommended that the d{sub 90} values of the particles in pressed powder pellets for accurate

  7. Chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arendse, CJ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available exhibit exceptional chemical and physical properties related to toughness, chemical inertness, magnetism, and electrical and thermal conductivity. A variety of preparation methods to synthesise CNTs are known, e.g. carbon-arc discharge, laser ablation...

  8. Filtering of oil vapours. Oelfrei lautet die Parole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehringer, P.

    1992-07-20

    Air filters are used for removing oil vapours and protecing the respiratory tract. There are centralized solutions such as cyclones side by side with individually mounted filters with casings. (orig.)

  9. Development of green vapour corrosion inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Suraj, V.; Siregar, J. P.; Kurniawan, T.; Bachtiar, D.; Mohamed, N. M. Z. N.

    2017-10-01

    Corrosion control using inhibitor is an effective method to protect carbon steel from corrosion. Due to environmental toxicity of chemical inorganic corrosion inhibitors (synthetic), green inhibitors are potentially to develop. In atmospheric conditions, green vapour corrosion inhibitors are the best solutions to replace the uses of inorganic corrosion inhibitors. This research used chemical acid extraction from the key lime (citrus aurantiifolia) leaves and seeds. They are used as the main ingredients to produce this effective green corrosion inhibitor. The experiments investigated effects of corrosion inhibition on corrosion rate of low carbon steel in 3% NaCl solution using both fog salt chamber and electrochemical cell. Using salt fog chamber to represent atmospheric conditions, and corrosion rates are evaluated visually and calculated using weight loss methods. Corrosion rate on electrochemical cell were calculated using linear polarization resistance (LPR) methods. All of the experiments were set in natural conditions at pH 7. Using weight loss for three days exposure time, the efficiency of the inhibitor reached 82.39%.

  10. Vapour galvanizing (Sherardizing) of copper with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortelen, Dietbert; Bracht, Hartmut [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Natrup, Frank; Graf, Wolfram [Bodycote Waermebehandlung GmbH, Sprockhoevel (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Using a vapour galvanizing technique called Sherardizing we investigated the growth kinetics and coefficients of zinc copper phases. For this purpose polished (OFHC)-copper plates and zinc powder have been sealed in quartz ampoules under inert gas atmospheres and annealed at a temperature range between 300 and 410 C. In order to study the coating thickness and the phase composition, cross sections were prepared, which have been analyzed by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We were able to demonstrate that the coating thickness is a function of the parabolic time law and that the formed coatings are composed of two layers referring to the ordered {beta}-CuZn and {gamma}-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8}-phases. To enhance the coating quality, small amounts of ZnCl{sub 2} were added to the zinc powder. It was observed that the coating thickness decreased with increasing ZnCl{sub 2}. Experiments with variable Ar-pressure demonstrated a reduced coating growth with increasing pressures. Further measurements with ZnCl{sub 2} were performed to check whether an electrochemical mechanism is involved in the coating process.

  11. Landmine Detection Technologies to TraceExplosive Vapour Detection Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Kapoor; G. K. Kannan

    2007-01-01

    Large quantity of explosive is manufactured worldwide for use in various types of ammunition,arms, and mines, and used in armed conflicts. During manufacturing and usage of the explosiveequipment, some of the explosive residues are released into the environment in the form ofcontaminated effluents, unburnt explosives fumes and vapours. Limited but uncontrolledcontinuous release of trace vapours also takes place when explosive-laden landmines are deployedin the field. One of the major technolo...

  12. Airborne differential absorption lidar for water vapour measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the spectral region around 940 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poberaj, G.

    2000-07-01

    Two all-solid-state laser systems were developed and studied in detail to optimise their performance for an airborne water vapour differential absorption lidar (DIAL). Their special features are high average output powers and excellent spectral properties in the 940-nm spectral region relevant for monitoring very low water vapour contents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. One system is an injection-seeded pulsed Ti:sapphire ring laser with a spectral bandwidth of 105 MHz and an average power of 1.1 W. The other system is an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in a ring configuration. Using KTP as nonlinear crystal, a signal output with a spectral bandwidth of 140 MHz and an average power of 1.2 W was achieved. Both systems, the Ti:sapphire ring laser and the KTP OPO, possess spectral purity values higher than 99%. The pump source for these systems is a frequency doubled diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. The KTP OPO system has been used as a transmitter in a new airborne water vapour DIAL instrument. For the first time, measurements of two-dimensional water vapour distributions with a high vertical (500 m) and horizontal (20 km) resolution across several potential vorticity streamers were performed. Very low water vapour mixing ratios (10-50 ppmv) and strong gradients were observed in the tropopause region. The sensitivity of the DIAL instrument in the centre of a stratospheric intrusion ranges from 3% in the near field to 12% in the far field (4 km). The first comparison experiments with in situ measuring instruments show a good agreement. Considerable differences are found between DIAL measurements and data obtained from the ECMWF operational analyses and a mesoscale numerical model. (orig.)

  13. Virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, E; Terpstra, P; Koopmans, M; Duizer, E

    2012-02-01

    Viral contamination of surfaces is thought to be important in transmission. Chemical disinfection can be an effective means of intervention, but little is known about the virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) against enteric and respiratory viruses. To measure the virucidal efficacy of HPV against respiratory and enteric viruses on materials representing those found in institutions and homes. Poliovirus, human norovirus genogroup II.4 (GII.4), murine norovirus 1, rotavirus, adenovirus and influenza A (H1N1) virus dried on to stainless steel, framing panel and gauze carriers were exposed to HPV 127 ppm for 1h at room temperature in an isolator. Poliovirus was also exposed to HPV at different locations in a room. The virucidal effect was measured by comparing recoverable viral titres against unexposed controls. Polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the effect of HPV on viral genome reduction. HPV disinfection resulted in complete inactivation of all viruses tested, characterized by >4 log(10) reduction in infectious particles for poliovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus and murine norovirus on stainless steel and framing panel carriers, and >2 log(10) reduction for influenza A virus on stainless steel and framing panel carriers, and for all viruses on gauze carriers. Complete inactivation of poliovirus was demonstrated at several locations in the room. Reductions in viral genomes were minimal on framing panel and gauze carriers but significant on stainless steel carriers; human norovirus GII.4 genome was most resistant to HPV treatment. HPV could be an effective virucidal against enteric and respiratory viruses contaminating in-house environments. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical Note: How accurate can stalagmite formation temperatures be determined using vapour bubble radius measurements in fluid inclusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spadin, F.; Marti, Dominik; Hidalgo-Staub, R.

    2015-01-01

    -induced vapour bubbles inside the inclusions. A reliable method for precisely measuring the radius of vapour bubbles is presented. The method is applied to stalagmite samples for which the formation temperature is known. An assessment of the bubble radius measurement accuracy and how this error influences......Stalagmites are natural archives containing detailed information on continental climate variability of the past. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures allow determination of stalagmite formation temperatures by measuring the radius of stable laser...... the uncertainty in determining the formation temperature is provided. We demonstrate that the nominal homogenisation temperature of a single inclusion can be determined with an accuracy of ±0.25 ◦C, if the volume of the inclusion is larger than 105 µm3 . With this method, we could measure in a proof...

  15. Retrieving mesospheric water vapour from observations of volume scattering radiances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vergados

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possibility for a theoretical approach in the estimation of water vapour mixing ratios in the vicinity of polar mesospheric clouds (PMC using satellite observations of Volume Scattering Radiances (VSR obtained at the wavelength of 553 nm. The PMC scattering properties perturb the underlying molecular Rayleigh scattered solar radiance of the background atmosphere. As a result, the presence of PMC leads to an enhancement in the observed VSR at the altitude of the layer; the PMC VSRs are superimposed on the exponentially decreasing with height Rayleigh VSR, of the PMC-free atmosphere. The ratio between the observed and the Rayleigh VSR of the background atmosphere is used to simulate the environment in which the cloud layer is formed. In addition, a microphysical model of ice particle formation is employed to predict the PMC VSRs. The initial water vapour profile is perturbed until the modelled VSRs match the observed, at which point the corresponding temperature and water vapour profiles can be considered as a first approximation of those describing the atmosphere at the time of the observations. The role of temperature and water vapour in the cloud formation is examined by a number of sensitivity tests suggesting that the water vapour plays a dominant role in the cloud formation in agreement with experimental results. The estimated water vapour profiles are compared with independent observations to examine the model capability in the context of this study. The results obtained are in a good agreement at the peak of the PMC layer although the radiance rapidly decreases with height below the peak. This simplified scenario indicates that the technique employed can give a first approximation estimate of the water vapour mixing ratio, giving rise to the VSR observed in the presence of PMC.

  16. Laser program annual report, 1977. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains detailed information on each of the following sections: (1) fusion target design, (2) target fabrication, (3) laser fusion experiments and analysis, (4) advanced lasers, (5) systems and applications studies, and (6) laser isotope separation program. (MOW)

  17. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Continuous and unattended measurements of the site preference of nitrous oxide emitted from an agricultural soil using quantum cascade laser spectrometry with intercomparison with isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akinori; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Akiyama, Hiroko; Nakajima, Yasuhiro

    2014-07-15

    The difference between the (15)N natural abundance of (14)N-(15)N-O and (15)N-(14)N-O (site preference; SP) is used to understand the mechanisms underlying N2O emissions from soils. We investigated the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometry for continuous and precise analysis of the SP of N2O emitted from a field soil at atmospheric mixing ratios. A QCL-based spectrometer was used to determine the SP of soil-emitted N2O accumulated in a closed chamber system without preconcentration. N2O standards (gas samples. Intercomparison measurements of QCLS and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) were performed on N2O calibration gases at different mixing ratios. The observed dependency of the QCLS result on the N2O mixing ratio was corrected. Measurement of SP of N2O emitted from the field suggested that the SP of N2O varied from 0 to 40‰ over a period of 1 month. The precisions of the SP measurements (300-2500 ppbv) were control precision of ±0.01 K. Continuous and unattended measurements of the SP of N2O emitted from soils were achieved at low N2O mixing ratios. The accuracy of the QCLS measurements for the SP of N2O was significantly improved by precisely controlling the temperature of the system and by correcting for the concentration dependency of the raw data through an intercomparison with IRMS measurements. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. High-pressure continuously tunable CO2 lasers and molecular laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... The acronym MLIS (molecular laser isotope separation) defines the laser process whereby the isotopes of uranium can be separated by mid-infrared laser/s when the molecule employed is UF6. The theoretical and spectroscopical data to configure and enable experiments and demonstrations in the ...

  20. Can painted glass felt or glass fibre cloth be used as vapour barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khattam, Amira; Andersen, Mie Them; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    with a ventilated attic where the ceiling may be air tight but has no vapour barrier; post-insulation of the attic may cause the need for a vapour barrier. Placing a vapour barrier above the ceiling can be tiresome and it is difficult to ensure tightness. A simpler way is to paint a vapour barrier directly...... on the ceiling e.g. as an ordinary paint. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the water vapour resistance of surface treatments which are commonly used in-door. The water vapour resistance was measured by the cup method. Aerated concrete was investigated with and without various surface...

  1. A lidar for water vapour measurements in daytime at Lampedusa, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Marenco

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available ENEA is planning to develop a lidar system for measurement of the vertical profi le of water vapour mixing ratio in daytime at a remote site, the Station for Climate Observations located in Lampedusa, Italy. The Raman lidar technique has been retained because of its experimental simplicity with respect to DIAL, and the UV spectral range has been chosen because Raman cross-sections and detector effi ciencies are larger. For a wavelength larger than ~ 300 nm the signal is limited in daytime by sky background, but extinction is acceptable, and the aims of the system can be reached with a strong laser source. The 355 nm wavelength of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser has been retained as this laser source permits to reach a large pulse energy while keeping the system simple to operate. Geometrical form factor calculations need to be performed to evaluate the near-range overlap between the laser beam and the fi eld-of-view of the receiver. Among several options, a dual-receiver system has been retained to account for the several orders of magnitude expected in the backscattered signal intensity: a smaller receiver, with a primary mirror of 200 mm diameter for the 0.2-1 km range, and a larger 500 mm receiver for the 1-3 km range.

  2. Laser Programs Highlights 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, H.; Cassady, C.

    1999-12-01

    This report covers the following topics: Commentary; Laser Programs; Inertial Confinement Fusion/National Ignition Facility (ICF/NIF); Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS); Laser Science and Technology (LS&T); Information Science and Technology Program (IS&T); Strategic Materials Applications Program (SMAP); Medical Technology Program (MTP) and Awards.

  3. Stabilisation of Collagen Sponges by Glutaraldehyde Vapour Crosslinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Y. Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutaraldehyde is a well-recognised reagent for crosslinking and stabilising collagens and other protein-based materials, including gelatine. In some cases, however, the use of solutions can disrupt the structure of the material, for example, by causing rapid dispersion or distortions from surface interactions. An alternative approach that has been explored in a number of individual cases is the use of glutaraldehyde vapour. In this study, the effectiveness of a range of different glutaraldehyde concentrations in the reservoir providing vapour, from 5% to 25% (w/v, has been explored at incubation times from 5 h to 48 h at room temperature. These data show the effectiveness of the glutaraldehyde vapour approach for crosslinking collagen and show that materials with defined, intermediate stability could be obtained, for example, to control resorption rates in vivo.

  4. The ignitability of petrol vapours and potential for vapour phase explosion by use of TASER® law enforcement electronic control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, C; Andrews, S P

    2014-12-01

    An experimental study was made of the potential of the TASER-X26™ law enforcement electronic control device to ignite petrol vapours if used by an officer to incapacitate a person soaked in petrol, or within a flammable atmosphere containing petrol vapour. Bench scale tests have shown that a wooden mannequin with pig skin covering the chest was a suitable representation of a human target. Full scale tests using the mannequin have shown that the arc from a TASER-X26™ is capable of igniting petrol/air vapours on a petrol-soaked person. Further tests in a 1/5 scale and a full scale compartment have shown that if a TASER is used within a compartment, a petrol vapour explosion (deflagration) may be achieved. It is evident from this research that if used in a flammable vapour rich environment, the device could prove fatal not only to the target but the TASER® operator as well. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the ability of isotope-enabled General Circulation Models to simulate the variability of Iceland water vapor isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erla Sveinbjornsdottir, Arny; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Jonsson, Thorsteinn; Ritter, Francois; Riser, Camilla; Messon-Delmotte, Valerie; Bonne, Jean Louis; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2014-05-01

    During the fall of 2010 we installed an autonomous water vapor spectroscopy laser (Los Gatos Research analyzer) in a lighthouse on the Southwest coast of Iceland (63.83°N, 21.47°W). Despite initial significant problems with volcanic ash, high wind, and attack of sea gulls, the system has been continuously operational since the end of 2011 with limited down time. The system automatically performs calibration every 2 hours, which results in high accuracy and precision allowing for analysis of the second order parameter, d-excess, in the water vapor. We find a strong linear relationship between d-excess and local relative humidity (RH) when normalized to SST. The observed slope of approximately -45 o/oo/% is similar to theoretical predictions by Merlivat and Jouzel [1979] for smooth surface, but the calculated intercept is significant lower than predicted. Despite this good linear agreement with theoretical calculations, mismatches arise between the simulated seasonal cycle of water vapour isotopic composition using LMDZiso GCM nudged to large-scale winds from atmospheric analyses, and our data. The GCM is not able to capture seasonal variations in local RH, nor seasonal variations in d-excess. Based on daily data, the performance of LMDZiso to resolve day-to-day variability is measured based on the strength of the correlation coefficient between observations and model outputs. This correlation coefficient reaches ~0.8 for surface absolute humidity, but decreases to ~0.6 for δD and ~0.45 d-excess. Moreover, the magnitude of day-to-day humidity variations is also underestimated by LMDZiso, which can explain the underestimated magnitude of isotopic depletion. Finally, the simulated and observed d-excess vs. RH has similar slopes. We conclude that the under-estimation of d-excess variability may partly arise from the poor performance of the humidity simulations.

  6. Intercomparison of TCCON and MUSICA Water Vapour Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, D.; Strong, K.; Deutscher, N. M.; Schneider, M.; Blumenstock, T.; Robinson, J.; Notholt, J.; Sherlock, V.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Barthlott, S.; García, O. E.; Smale, D.; Palm, M.; Jones, N. B.; Hase, F.; Kivi, R.; Ramos, Y. G.; Yoshimura, K.; Sepúlveda, E.; Gómez-Peláez, Á. J.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Warneke, T.; Dohe, S.; Wiegele, A.; Christner, E.; Lejeune, B.; Demoulin, P.

    2014-12-01

    We present an intercomparison between the water vapour products from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water (MUSICA), two datasets from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometers with good global representation. Where possible, comparisons to radiosondes are also included. The near-infrared TCCON measurements are optimized to provide precise monitoring of greenhouse gases for carbon cycle studies; however, TCCON's retrievals also produce water vapour products. The mid-infrared MUSICA products result from retrievals optimized to give precise and accurate information about H2O, HDO, and δD. The MUSICA water vapour products have been validated by extensive intercomparisons with H2O and δD in-situ measurements made from ground, radiosonde, and aircraft (Schneider et al. 2012, 2014), as well as by intercomparisons with satellite-based H2O and δD remote sensing measurements (Wiegele et al., 2014). This dataset provides a valuable reference point for other measurements of water vapour. This study is motivated by the limited intercomparisons performed for TCCON water vapour products and limited characterisation of their uncertainties. We compare MUSICA and TCCON products to assess the potential for TCCON measurements to contribute to studies of the water cycle, water vapour's role in climate and use as a tracer for atmospheric dynamics, and to evaluate the performance of climate models. The TCCON and MUSICA products result from measurements taken using the same FTIR instruments, enabling a comparison with constant instrumentation. The retrieval techniques differ, however, in their method and a priori information. We assess the impact of these differences and characterize the comparability of the TCCON and MUSICA datasets.

  7. Development and application of laser microprobe techniques for oxygen isotope analysis of silicates, and, fluid/rock interaction during and after granulite-facies metamorphism, highland southwestern complex, Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsenheimer, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    The extent of fluid/rock interaction within the crust is a function of crustal depth, with large hydrothermal systems common in the brittle, hydrostatically pressured upper crust, but restricted fluid flow in the lithostatically pressured lower crust. To quantify this fluid/rock interaction, a Nd-YAG/CO[sub 2] laser microprobe system was constructed to analyze oxygen isotope ratios in silicates. Developed protocols produce high precision in [sigma][sup 18]O ([+-]0.2, 1[sigma]) and accuracy comparable to conventional extraction techniques on samples of feldspar and quartz as small as 0.3mg. Analysis of sub-millimeter domains in quartz and feldspar in granite from the Isle of Skye, Scotland, reveals complex intragranular zonation. Contrasting heterogeneous and homogeneous [sigma][sup 18]O zonation patterns are revealed in samples <10m apart. These differences suggest fluid flow and isotopic exchange was highly heterogeneous. It has been proposed that granulite-facies metamorphism in the Highland Southwestern Complex (HSWC), Sri Lanka, resulted from the pervasive influx of CO[sub 2], with the marbles and calc-silicates within the HSWC a proposed fluid source. The petrologic and stable isotopic characteristic of HSWC marbles are inconsistent with extensive decarbonation. Wollastonite calc-silicates occur as deformed bands and as post-metamorphis veins with isotopic compositions that suggest vein fluids that are at least in part magmatic. Post-metamorphic magmatic activity is responsible for the formation of secondary disseminated graphite growth in the HSWC. This graphite has magmatic isotopic compositions and is associated with vein graphite and amphibolite-granulite facies transitions zones. Similar features in Kerela Khondalite Belt, South India, may suggest a common metamorphic history for the two terranes.

  8. Spontaneuos and Parametric Processes in Warm Rubidium Vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Warm rubidium vapours are known to be a versatile medium for a variety of experiments in atomic physics and quantum optics. Here we present experimental results on producing the frequency converted light for quantum applications based on spontaneous and stimulated processes in rubidium vapours. In particular, we study the efficiency of spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering in the Λ-level configuration and conditions of generating the coherent blue light assisted by multi-photon transitions in the diamond-level configuration. Our results will be helpful in search for new types of interfaces between light and atomic quantum memories.

  9. Uranium isotopic ratio measurements ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U) by laser ablation high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for environmental radioactivity monitoring - {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio analysis by LA-ICP-MS-HR for environmental radioactivity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, K.; Mokili, M.B.; Rousseau, G.; Deniau, I.; Landesman, C. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Universite de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2014-07-01

    The protection of the aquatic and terrestrial environments from a broad range of contaminants spread by nuclear activities (nuclear plants, weapon tests or mining) require continuous monitoring of long-lives radionuclides that were released into the environment. The precise determination of uranium isotope ratios in both natural and potential contaminated samples is of primary concern for the nuclear safeguards and the control of environmental contamination. As an example, analysis of environmental samples around nuclear plants are carried out to detect the traces in the environment originating from nuclear technology activities. This study deals with the direct analysis of {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios in real environmental solid samples performed with laser ablation (LA)-HR-ICP-MS. A similar technique has already been reported for the analysis of biological samples or uranium oxide particles [1,2] but to our knowledge, this was never applied on real environmental samples. The high sensitivity, rapid acquisition time and low detection limits are the main advantages of high resolution ICP-MS for accurate and precise isotope ratio measurements of uranium at trace and ultra-trace levels. In addition, the use of laser ablation allows the analysis of solid samples with minimal preparation. A a consequence, this technique is very attractive for conducting rapid direct {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio analysis on a large set of various matrix samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring such as corals, soils, sands, sediments, terrestrial and marine bio-indicators. For the present study, LA-ICP-MS-HR analyses are performed using a New Wave UP213 nano-second Nd:YAG laser coupled to a Thermo Element-XR high resolution mass spectrometer. Powdered samples are compacted with an hydraulic press (5 tons) in order to obtain disk-shaped pellet (10-13 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness). The NIST612 reference glass is used for LA-ICP-MS-HR tuning and as

  10. Estimation of vapour pressure and partial pressure of subliming ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    temperature curves are calculated at 80, 160 and 1000 mbar for salicylic acid and vanadyl bis-2,4- pentanedionate, a precursor used for chemical vapour deposition of vanadium oxides. Using a modification of the Langmuir equation, the partial pressure of these materials at different total pressures is also determined.

  11. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  12. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignardi, L.; Dorp, W.F. van; Gottardi, S.; Ivashenko, O.; Dudin, P.; Barinov, A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Stöhr, M.; Rudolf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron

  13. Making ET AAS Determination Less Dependent on Vapourization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general solution of the problem comes from the integration of running absorbance normalized with regard to vapour transportation velocity. ... those introduced together with excessive amounts of Mg and Pd. The methodology suggested reduced the error associated with change of atomization kinetics from 20 to 2 %.

  14. Morphology of carbon nanotubes prepared via chemical vapour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been utilized to study the morphology of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes prepared by chemical vapour deposition of acetylene. The effects of various synthesis parameters like temperature, catalyst concentration and catalyst support on the size distribution of ...

  15. Morphology of carbon nanotubes prepared via chemical vapour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Morphology of carbon nanotubes prepared via chemical vapour deposition technique using acetylene: A small angle neutron scattering investigation. D SEN1,∗, K DASGUPTA2, J BAHADUR1, S MAZUMDER1 and. D SATHIYAMOORTHY2. 1Solid State Physics; 2Powder Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research ...

  16. Low pressure chemical vapour deposition at quasi-high flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, J.; Middelhoek, Jan

    1984-01-01

    A new chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique is presented. It is especially advantageous for the deposition of compound materials. The technique improves the uniformity and reproducibility of the deposition. The economical use of gaseous reactants is improved by a factor varying between 5 and

  17. Analysis of radiosonde data on tropospheric water vapour in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analyses of some atmospheric water vapour parameters derived from radiosonde data at the three existing radiosonde stations in Nigeria are reported. The stations essentially represent the climates of the southern (coastal), middlebelt (savannah), and northern (sub-sahel) regions of the country. Monthly means of the ...

  18. Influence of hydrogen on chemical vapour synthesis of different ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The role of hydrogen in the catalytic chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes using sputtered nickel thin film as a catalyst is explained in this work. The growth of different carbon nanostruc- tures with the variation in the precursor gas content was studied by keeping all other process parameters constant ...

  19. Making ET AAS Determination Less Dependent on Vapourization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    bGerman Aerospace Center, PT-SW, 12489 Berlin, Germany. Received 4 December 2012, revised 5 May 2013, accepted 7 May 2013. ABSTRACT. The quantification of the analytes in ET AAS is normally attained by the measurement and integration of transient absorbance. High degree of atomization and constant vapour ...

  20. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition of germanium thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diethyl germanium bis-picolinate, [Et2Ge(O2CC5H4N)2], and trimethyl germanium quinaldate, [Me3Ge(O2CC9H6N)], have been used as precursors for deposition of thin films of germanium by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD). The thermogravimetric analysis revealed complete volatilization of ...

  1. Vapour intrusion from the vadose zone—seven algorithms compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, J.; Bosman, A.; Reijnders, L.; Bronders, J.; Touchant, K.; Swartjes, F.

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim and scope: Vapours of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from contaminated soils may move through the unsaturated zone to the subsurface. VOC in the subsurface can be transported to the indoor air by convective air movement through openings in the foundation and basement.

  2. Upper tropospheric water vapour variability over tropical latitudes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Upper tropospheric water vapour variability over tropical latitudes observed using radiosonde and satellite measurements. Ghouse Basha1, M Venkat Ratnam1,∗ and B V Krishna Murthy2. 1National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Department of Space, Government of India,. Gadanki, PB No. 123, Tirupati 517 ...

  3. Carbon dioxide and water vapour characteristics on the west coast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmo- sphere are considered as the green-house gases and responsible for the global warming, hence much attention has been given to its measurement and analysis (Jones et al. 1978; Jones and Smith 1977;. Leuning et al. 1982; Ohtaki and Matsui 1982;. Ohtaki 1985).

  4. Distillation with Vapour Compression. An Undergraduate Experimental Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Colin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need to design distillation columns that are more energy efficient. Describes a "design and build" project completed by two college students aimed at demonstrating the principles of vapour compression distillation in a more energy efficient way. General design specifications are given, along with suggestions for teaching…

  5. Detection of explosive vapour using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X.; Ahmad, S. R.

    2009-11-01

    A commercially available nano-structured gold substrate was used for activating surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Raman spectra of the vapour of explosive material, triacetonetriperoxide (TATP), at trace concentrations produced from adsorbed molecules on such surfaces have been studied. Prominent Raman lines of the explosive molecular species were recorded at a sample temperature of ˜35°C, which is near to human body temperature. For this study, the concentration of the adsorbed TATP molecules on the nano-structured surface was varied by heating the sample to different temperatures and exposing the substrate to the sample vapour for different lengths of time. The intensities of the Raman lines have been found to increase with the increase in temperature and also with the increase in the duration of exposure for a fixed temperature. However, as expected, the Raman intensities have been found to saturate at higher temperatures and longer exposures. These saturation effects of the strengths of the Raman lines in the SERS of TATP vapour have been investigated in this paper. The results indicate that the optimisation for vapour deposition on the surface could be a crucial factor for any quantitative estimate of the concentration of the molecular species adsorbed on the nano-structured substrates.

  6. Variation In Surface Water Vapour Density Over Four Nigerian Stations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface water vapour density ρ has been studied using monthly averages of temperature and relative humidity at four selected weather stations in Nigeria for the years 1987 to 1991. It is found that during the dry season months of November to March, ρ is higher at night by an average of about 9.9% than during the day ...

  7. Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Hee Youn; Lee, Min Hee

    2007-01-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essen...

  8. Response of water vapour D-excess to land–atmosphere interactions in a semi-arid environment

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2017-01-27

    The stable isotopic composition of water vapour provides information about moisture sources and processes difficult to obtain with traditional measurement techniques. Recently, it has been proposed that the D-excess of water vapour (d =δH-8× δO) can provide a diagnostic tracer of continental moisture recycling. However, D-excess exhibits a diurnal cycle that has been observed across a variety of ecosystems and may be influenced by a range of processes beyond regional-scale moisture recycling, including local evaporation (ET) fluxes. There is a lack of measurements of D-excess in evaporation (ET) fluxes, which has made it difficult to assess how ET fluxes modify the Dexcess in water vapour (d). With this in mind, we employed a chamber-based approach to directly measure D-excess in ET (d) fluxes. We show that ET fluxes imposed a negative forcing on the ambient vapour and could not explain the higher daytime d values. The low d observed here was sourced from a soil water pool that had undergone an extended drying period, leading to low D-excess in the soil moisture pool. A strong correlation between daytime d and locally measured relative humidity was consistent with an oceanic moisture source, suggesting that remote hydrological processes were the major contributor to daytime d variability. During the early evening, ET fluxes into a shallow nocturnal inversion layer caused a lowering of d values near the surface. In addition, transient mixing of vapour with a higher D-excess from above the nocturnal inversion modified these values, causing large variability during the night. These results indicate d can generally be expected to show large spatial and temporal variability and to depend on the soil moisture state. For long periods between rain events, common in semi-arid environments, ET would be expected to impose negative forcing on the surface d. Spatial and temporal variability of D-excess in ET fluxes therefore needs to be considered when using d to study

  9. Laser programs highlights, July--August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Laser research at LLNL is divided into five major programmatic areas: inertial confinement fusion (ICF), uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (U-AVLIS), special (plutonium) isotope separation (SIS), laser technology, and advanced applications. We have made important progress this past year in each of these areas. This report covers the current state of these 5 areas.

  10. Isotope separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.

  11. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  12. Studies of control materials of isotope transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Tetsuji; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Araki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Mitsutane; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Abe, Fujio; Numazawa, Takenori [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    To control wavelength of laser, the physical properties of control materials of molecular excitation and isotope should be studied. We carried out isotopic enrichment, Si thin film growth, and preparation of boron isotope crystal and to make a calculation code of nuclear transmutation simulation. A gas circulation system for developing isotope laser was produced in order to control of molecular vibration excitation. We developed a single straight system of silicon isotope enrichment and silicon thin film preparation by infrared laser. When laser irradiated Si{sub 2}F{sub 6}, unreacted Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} contained 99.72% of {sup 28}Si at about 956 cm{sup -1} wavelength. When SiF{sub 4} or Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} with enriched isotope were directly decomposed by the plasma CVD method at about from 350 to 450degC, the yield of silicon crystal was about 28%. A homogeneous crystal with 10 mm diameter was obtained as the control material of boron isotope. The computer code for simulation of nuclear transmutation was improved to calculate the displacement damage, change of composition, induced radioactivity and decay heat. (S.Y.)

  13. Atmospheric radio refractivity and water vapour density at Oshodi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... columnar water vapour density ρ can be used to estimate N over Oshodi, and Kano. For instance, line of regression of N upon ρ for Oshodi at the 0-3km atmospheric column is N = (4.93 ± 0.75) ρ + 254.15 ± 11.26. Keywords: atmospheric humidity, columnar radio refractivity. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol ...

  14. CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION OF THE Al-O-N SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Aspar, B.; Armas, B.; Combescure, C.; Thenegal, D.

    1991-01-01

    Using chemical vapour deposition, aluminium - oxygen-nitrogen coatings have been synthesized with aluminium trichloride, hydrogen, ammonia and nitrous oxide. The composition of the equilibrium phases is first determined by a thermodynamic calculation. The only AlON phase we investigate is ([MATH]) spinel aluminium oxynitride and it is considered as a stoichiometric phase with a composition of Al7O9N. The results indicate the existence fields of aluminium nitride and alumina and show the diffi...

  15. Chemical Vapour Deposition of Gas Sensitive Metal Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Vallejos; Francesco Di Maggio; Tahira Shujah; Chris Blackman

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a review of recent research efforts and developments for the fabrication of metal-oxide gas sensors using chemical vapour deposition (CVD), presenting its potential advantages as a materials synthesis technique for gas sensors along with a discussion of their sensing performance. Thin films typically have poorer gas sensing performance compared to traditional screen printed equivalents, attributed to reduced porosity, but the ability to integrate materials directly with ...

  16. A laser radar experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglitz, Martin R.; Blanchard, Christine

    1990-09-01

    An experiment demonstrating the feasibility of using a laser radar for long-range target acquisition and tracking is discussed. A CO2 laser was used to collect range Doppler images, while a medium-power argon ion laser was employed for angular tracking. Laser-radar operation is outlined with emphasis on isotopic laser radars. Laser-radar imaging is covered, and a laser-radar range equation is given. Experimental laser-radar transmitter, receiver, and telescope are described. A 35-foot long surface-to-air missile and payload were tracked in the experiment, with the laser radar acquiring the targets as they reached 480 km in altitude, 750 km from the radar site. The 4-ft-diameter aperture laser-radar telescope provided the resolution and range accuracy equivalent to that of a 120-ft microwave radar antenna.

  17. Water vapour solubility and conductivity study of the proton conductor BaCe(0.9 − x)ZrxY0.1O(3 − δ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricote, Sandrine; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Caboche, G:

    2009-01-01

    in the sample. The direct current conductivity has been measured as a function of oxygen partial pressure, at a water vapour partial pressure of 0.015 atm. The total conductivity has been resolved into a p-type and an ionic component using a fitting procedure appropriate to the assumed defect model....... An estimation of the protonic component was made by assuming a conductivity isotope effect between 1.4 and 1.8. The total conductivity, obtained using impedance spectroscopy has been measured as a function of temperature in the water and heavy water exchanged states. The activation energy has been found to be 0...

  18. Leatherback Isotopes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently working on a project identifying global marine isotopes using leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) as the indicator species. We currently...

  19. Isotope Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this training modules is to examine the process of using gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identification; apply pattern recognition to gamma spectra; identify methods of verifying energy calibration; and discuss potential causes of isotope misidentification.

  20. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio analysis by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS in scales, spines, and fin rays as a nonlethal alternative to otoliths for reconstructing fish life history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmes, Malte; Glessner, Justin J. G.; Carleton, Scott A.; Gerrity, Paul C.; Hobbs, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) in otoliths are a well-established tool to determine origins and movement patterns of fish. However, otolith extraction requires sacrificing fish, and when working with protected or endangered species, the use of nonlethal samples such as scales, spines, and fin rays is preferred. Unlike otoliths that are predominantly aragonite, these tissues are composed of biological apatite. Laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of biological apatite can induce significant interference on mass 87, causing inaccurate 87Sr/86Sr measurements. To quantify this interference, we applied LA-MC-ICP-MS to three marine samples (white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) otolith; green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) pectoral fin ray; salmon shark (Lamna ditropis) tooth), and freshwater walleye (Sander vitreus) otoliths, scales, and spines). Instrument conditions that maximize signal intensity resulted in elevated 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios in the bioapatite samples, related to a polyatomic interference (40Ca31P16O, 40Ar31P16O). Retuning instrument conditions to reduce oxide levels removed this interference, resulting in accurate 87Sr/86Sr ratios across all tissue samples. This method provides a novel, nonlethal alternative to otolith analysis to reconstruct fish life histories.

  1. Growth of 18O isotopically enriched ZnO nanorods by two novel VPT methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Ciarán; Trefflich, Lukas; Röder, Robert; Ronning, Carsten; Henry, Martin O.; McGlynn, Enda

    2017-02-01

    We have developed two novel vapour phase transport methods to grow ZnO nanorod arrays isotopically enriched with 18O. Firstly, a three-step process used to grow natural and Zn-enriched ZnO nanorods has been further modified, by replacing the atmospheric O2 with enriched 18O2, in order to grow 18O-enriched ZnO nanorods using this vapour-solid method on chemical bath deposited buffer layers. In addition, 18O-enriched ZnO nanorods were successfully grown using 18O isotopically enriched ZnO source powders in a vapour-liquid-solid growth method. Scanning electron microscopy studies confirmed the success of both growth methods in terms of nanorod morphology, although in the case of the vapour-liquid-solid samples, the nanorods' c-axes were not vertically aligned due to the use of a non-epitaxial substrate. Raman and PL studies indicated clearly that O-enrichment was successful in both cases, although the results indicate that the enrichment is at a lower level in our samples compared to previous reports with the same nominal enrichment levels. The results of our studies also allow us to comment on both levels of enrichment achieved and on novel effects of the high temperature growth environment on the nanorod growth, as well as suggesting possible mechanisms for such effects. Very narrow photoluminescence line widths, far narrower than those reported previously in the literature for isotopically enriched bulk ZnO, are seen in both the vapour-solid and vapour-liquid-solid nanorod samples demonstrating their excellent optical quality and their potential for use in detailed optical studies of defects and impurities using low temperature photoluminescence.

  2. Factors affecting release of ethanol vapour in active modified atmosphere packaging systems for horticultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawate Utto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active modified atmosphere packaging (active MAP system , which provides interactive postharvest control , using ethanol vapour controlled release, is one of the current interests in the development of active packaging for horticultural products. A number of published research work have discussed the relationship between the effectiveness of ethanol vapour and its concentration in the package headspace, including its effect on postharvest decay and physiological controls. This is of importance because a controlled release system should release and maintain ethanol vapour at effective concentrations during the desired storage period. A balance among the mass transfer processes of ethanol vapour in the package results in ethanol vapour accumulation in the package headspace. Key factors affecting these processes include ethanol loading, packaging material, packaged product and storage environment (temperature and relative h umidity. This article reviews their influences and discusses future work required to better understand their influences on ethanol vapour release and accumulations in active MAP.

  3. The Seasonal Cycle of Water Vapour on Mars from Assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Liam J.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.; Montmessin, Franck; Forget, Francois; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time an assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) water vapour column data into a Mars global climate model (MGCM). We discuss the seasonal cycle of water vapour, the processes responsible for the observed water vapour distribution, and the cross-hemispheric water transport. The assimilation scheme is shown to be robust in producing consistent reanalyses, and the global water vapour column error is reduced to around 2-4 pr micron depending on season. Wave activity is shown to play an important role in the water vapour distribution, with topographically steered flows around the Hellas and Argyre basins acting to increase transport in these regions in all seasons. At high northern latitudes, zonal wavenumber 1 and 2 stationary waves during northern summer are responsible for spreading the sublimed water vapour away from the pole. Transport by the zonal wavenumber 2 waves occurs primarily to the west of Tharsis and Arabia Terra and, combined with the effects of western boundary currents, this leads to peak water vapour column abundances here as observed by numerous spacecraft. A net transport of water to the northern hemisphere over the course of one Mars year is calculated, primarily because of the large northwards flux of water vapour which occurs during the local dust storm around L(sub S) = 240-260deg. Finally, outlying frost deposits that surround the north polar cap are shown to be important in creating the peak water vapour column abundances observed during northern summer.

  4. Water vapour loss threshold and induction of cholinergic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupker, R A; Doeglas, H M

    1990-01-01

    A patient is described with cholinergic urticaria (CU) in whom the symptoms could be provoked by gustatory stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a threshold of sweating (monitored by skin water vapour loss (SVL) measurements) at which CU can be provoked. Provocations with lemon and sal-ammoniac liquorice induced transient sweating differing both in degree and duration. Only 'doubly salted' liquorice, which caused the most intense sweat response, resulted in urticarial lesions. This findings suggest a threshold dependency for the induction of CU. SVL measurement may be a useful method for the evaluation of sweating tests in CU patients.

  5. Combustion dynamics of low vapour pressure nanofuel droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Khushboo; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio; Basu, Saptarshi

    2017-07-01

    Multiscale combustion dynamics, shape oscillations, secondary atomization, and precipitate formation have been elucidated for low vapour pressure nanofuel [n-dodecane seeded with alumina nanoparticles (NPs)] droplets. Dilute nanoparticle loading rates (0.1%-1%) have been considered. Contrary to our previous studies of ethanol-water blend (high vapour pressure fuel), pure dodecane droplets do not exhibit internal boiling after ignition. However, variation in surface tension due to temperature causes shape deformations for pure dodecane droplets. In the case of nanofuels, intense heat release from the enveloping flame leads to the formation of micron-size aggregates (of alumina NPS) which serve as nucleation sites promoting heterogeneous boiling. Three boiling regimes (A, B, and C) have been identified with varying bubble dynamics. We have deciphered key mechanisms responsible for the growth, transport, and rupture of the bubbles. Bubble rupture causes ejections of liquid droplets termed as secondary atomization. Ejection of small bubbles (mode 1) resembles the classical vapour bubble collapse mechanism near a flat free surface. However, large bubbles induce severe shape deformations as well as bulk oscillations. Rupture of large bubbles results in high speed liquid jet formation which undergoes Rayleigh-Plateau tip break-up. Both modes contribute towards direct fuel transfer from the droplet surface to flame envelope bypassing diffusion limitations. Combustion lifetime of nanofuel droplets consequently has two stages: stage I (where bubble dynamics are dominant) and stage II (formation of gelatinous mass due to continuous fuel depletion; NP agglomeration). In the present work, variation of flame dynamics and spatio-temporal heat release (HR) have been analysed using high speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging. Fluctuations in droplet shape and flame heat release are found to be well correlated. Droplet flame is bifurcated in two zones (I and II). Flame response is

  6. Chemical vapour deposited diamonds for dosimetry of radiotherapeutical beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucciolini, M.; Mazzocchi, S. [Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Pini, S.; Sciortino, S. [Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Energetica; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Guttone, G.; Raffaele, L.; Sabini, M.G. [INFN, Catania (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali del Sud

    2002-07-01

    This paper deals with the application of synthetic diamond detectors to the clinical dosimetry of photon and electron beams. It has been developed in the frame of INFN CANDIDO project and MURST Cofin. Diamonds grown with CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) technique have been studied; some of them are commercial samples while others have been locally synthesised. Experiments have been formed using both on-line and off-line approaches. For the off-line measurements, TL (thermoluminescent) and TSC (thermally stimulated current) techniques have been used.

  7. Silicon nanowire arrays as learning chemical vapour classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niskanen, A O; Colli, A; White, R; Li, H W; Spigone, E; Kivioja, J M, E-mail: antti.niskanen@nokia.com [Nokia Research Center, Broers Building, 21 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-22

    Nanowire field-effect transistors are a promising class of devices for various sensing applications. Apart from detecting individual chemical or biological analytes, it is especially interesting to use multiple selective sensors to look at their collective response in order to perform classification into predetermined categories. We show that non-functionalised silicon nanowire arrays can be used to robustly classify different chemical vapours using simple statistical machine learning methods. We were able to distinguish between acetone, ethanol and water with 100% accuracy while methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol were classified with 96% accuracy in ambient conditions.

  8. A semiconductor laser system for the production of antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Mullers, A; Kolbe, D; Diehl, T; Koglbauer, A; Sattler, M; Stappel, M; Steinborn, R; Walz, J; Gabrielse, G; Kalra, R; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R P; Richerme, P; Fitzakerley, D W; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W

    2012-01-01

    Laser-controlled charge exchange is a promising method for producing cold antihydrogen. Caesium atoms in Rydberg states collide with positrons and create positronium. These positronium atoms then interact with antiprotons, forming antihydrogen. Laser excitation of the caesium atoms is essential to increase the cross section of the charge-exchange collisions. This method was demonstrated in 2004 by the ATRAP collaboration by using an available copper vapour laser. For a second generation of charge-exchange experiments we have designed a new semiconductor laser system that features several improvements compared to the copper vapour laser. We describe this new laser system and show the results from the excitation of caesium atoms to Rydberg states within the strong magnetic fields in the ATRAP apparatus.

  9. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.G.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  10. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr-213206 and 221Fr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present the isotope shifts of the 7 s1 /2 to 7 p1 /2 transition for francium isotopes 206 -213Fr with reference to 221Fr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7 s1 /2 to 7 p3 /2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D1 and D2 transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.

  11. A miniature discriminating monitor for tritiated water vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.A.H.; Ravazzani, A.; Pacenti, P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Advanced Material, Ispra, Vatican City State, Holy See (Italy); Campi, F. [Nuclear Engineering Dept., Polytechnic of Milan (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    In detecting tritium in air (or other gas) for worker safety, it is important to discriminate between tritiated water vapour and elemental tritium, because the first is much more easily absorbed in the lungs. We haveinvented (patent pending) an innovative discriminating monitor which works better than existing designs, and is much smaller. The air (or other sample gas) passes over a large surface area of solid scintillator, which is surface-treated to make it hygroscopic. Tritiated water vapour in the air exchanges continuously, rapidly and reversibly with the water in the thin hygroscopic layer; which is of the order of 1 micron thick. The beta-emissions from tritium in the hygroscopic layer hit the solid scintillator, causing flashes of light that are detected by a photomultiplier. The new discriminating monitor for tritiated species in air offers superior performance to existing discriminating monitors, and is much smaller. It is planned to develop a portable version which could serve as a personal tritium monitor. (authors)

  12. Study of water vapour adsorption kinetics on aluminium oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanova, Alesya; Meshcheryakov, Evgeniy; Reshetnikov, Sergey; Kurzina, Irina

    2017-11-01

    Adsorbents on the basis of active aluminum oxide are still of demand on the adsorbent-driers market. Despite comprehensive research of alumina adsorbents, and currently is an urgent task to improve their various characteristics, and especially the task of increasing the sorption capacity. In the present work kinetics of the processes of water vapours' adsorption at room temperature on the surface of desiccant samples has been studied. It was obtained on the basis of bayerite and pseudoboehmite experimentally. The samples of pseudoboehmite modified with sodium and potassium ions were taken as study objects. The influence of an adsorbent's grain size on the kinetics of water vapours' adsorption was studied. The 0.125-0.25 mm and 0.5-1.0 mm fractions of this sample were used. It has been revealed that the saturation water vapor fine powder (0.125-0.25 mm) is almost twofold faster in comparison with the sample of fraction 0.5-1.0 mm due to the decrease in diffusion resistance in the pores of the samples when moving from the sample of larger fraction to the fine-dispersed sample. It has been established that the adsorption capacity of the pseudoboehmite samples, modified by alkaline ions, is higher by ˜40 %, than for the original samples on the basis of bayerite and pseudoboehmite.

  13. Thermally decarboxylated sodium bicarbonate: Interactions with water vapour, calorimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Volkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC was used to study interactions between water vapour and the surface of thermally converted sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. The decarboxylation degree of the samples was varied from 3% to 35% and the humidity range was 54–100%. The obtained enthalpy values were all exothermic and showed a positive linear correlation with decarboxylation degrees for each humidity studied. The critical humidity, 75% (RHo, was determined as the inflection point on a plot of the mean−ΔHkJ/mole Na2CO3 against RH. Humidities above the critical humidity lead to complete surface dissolution. The water uptake (m was determined after each calorimetric experiment, complementing the enthalpy data. A mechanism of water vapour interaction with decarboxylated samples, including the formation of trona and Wegscheider’s salt on the bicarbonate surface is proposed for humidities below RHo. Keywords: Isothermal titration calorimetry, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium carbonate, Trona salt, Wegscheider’s salt, Enthalpy, Relative humidity, Pyrolytic decarboxylation

  14. Stable isotope

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the study suggest that there are two main carbon pathways for plankton and nekton in the Kariega estuary, carbon derived from the eelgrass and its associated epiphytes and carbon which has its origins in the salt marsh riparian vegetation and zooplankton. Keywords: stable isotope analysis; temperate estuary; ...

  15. Evaluation of balloon and satellite water vapour measurements in the Southern tropical and subtropical UTLS during the HIBISCUS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Montoux

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Balloon water vapour in situ and remote measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS obtained during the HIBISCUS campaign around 20° S in Brazil in February–March 2004 using a tunable diode laser (μSDLA, a surface acoustic wave (SAW and a Vis-NIR solar occultation spectrometer (SAOZ on a long duration balloon, have been used for evaluating the performances of satellite borne remote water vapour instruments available at the same latitude and measurement period. In the stratosphere, HALOE displays the best precision (2.5%, followed by SAGE II (7%, MIPAS (10%, SAOZ (20–25% and SCIAMACHY (35%, all of which show approximately constant H2O mixing ratios between 20–25 km. Compared to HALOE of ±10% accuracy between 0.1–100 hPa, SAGE II and SAOZ show insignificant biases, MIPAS is wetter by 10% and SCIAMACHY dryer by 20%. The currently available GOMOS profiles of 25% precision show a positive vertical gradient in error for identified reasons. Compared to these, the water vapour of the Reprobus Chemistry Transport Model, forced at pressures higher than 95 hPa by the ECMWF analyses, is dryer by about 1 ppmv (20%.

    In the lower stratosphere between 16–20 km, most notable features are the steep degradation of MIPAS precision below 18 km, and the appearance of biases between instruments far larger than their quoted total uncertainty. HALOE and SAGE II (after spectral adjustment for reducing the bias with HALOE at northern mid-latitudes both show decreases of water vapour with a minimum at the tropopause not seen by other instruments or the model, possibly attributable to an increasing error in the HALOE altitude registration. Between 16–18 km where the water vapour concentration shows little horizontal variability, and where the μSDLA balloon measurements are not perturbed by outgassing, the average mixing ratios reported by the remote sensing instruments are substantially lower than the 4–5

  16. Synthesis of thick diamond films by direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Jin Zeng Sun; Bai Yi Zhen; Lu Xian Yi

    2002-01-01

    The method of direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition has been established. A long-time stable glow discharge at large discharge current and high gas pressure has been achieved by using a hot cathode in the temperature range from 1100 degree C to 1500 degree C and non-symmetrical configuration of the poles, in which the diameter of the cathode is larger than that of anode. High-quality thick diamond films, with a diameter of 40-50 mm and thickness of 0.5-4.2 mm, have been synthesized by this method. Transparent thick diamond films were grown over a range of growth rates between 5-10 mu m/h. Most of the thick diamond films have thermal conductivities of 10-12 W/K centre dot cm. The thick diamond films with high thermal conductivity can be used as a heat sink of semiconducting laser diode array and as a heat spreading and isolation substrate of multichip modules. The performance can be obviously improved

  17. High resolution analysis of uranium and thorium concentration as well as U-series isotope distributions in a Neanderthal tooth from Payre (Ardèche, France) using laser ablation ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer; Aubert, Maxime; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Moncel, Marie-Hélène

    2008-11-01

    We have mapped U ( 238U) and Th ( 232Th) elemental concentrations as well as U-series isotope distributions in a Neanderthal tooth from the Middle Palaeolithic site of Payre using laser ablation ICP-MS. The U-concentrations in an enamel section varied between 1 and 1500 ppb. The U-concentration maps show that U-migration through the external enamel surface is minute, the bulk of the uranium having migrated internally via the dentine into the enamel. The uranium migration and uptake is critically dependent on the mineralogical structure of the enamel. Increased U-concentrations are observed along lineaments, some of which are associated with cracks, and others may be related to intra-prismatic zones or structural weaknesses reaching from the dentine into the enamel. The uranium concentrations in the dentine vary between about 25,000 and 45,000 ppb. Our systematic mapping of U-concentration and U-series isotopes provides insight into the time domain of U-accumulation. Most of the uranium was accumulated in an early stage of burial, with some much later overprints. None of the uranium concentration and U-series profiles across the root of the tooth complied with a single stage diffusion-adsorption (D-A) model that is used for quality control in U-series dating of bones and teeth. Nevertheless, in the domains that yielded the oldest apparent U-series age estimates, U-leaching could be excluded. This means that the oldest apparent U-series ages of around 200 ka represent a minimum age for this Neanderthal specimen. This is in good agreement with independent age assessments (200-230 ka) for the archaeological layer, in which it was found. The Th elemental concentrations in the dental tissues were generally low (between about 1 and 20 ppb), and show little relationship with the nature of the tissue.

  18. Methods for estimating the vapour pressure of organic chemicals; Application to five pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.

    2011-01-01

    When studying and modelling the volatilisation of pesticides from crops, their vapour pressure is an essential property. In the critical evaluation of vapour pressures stated by various sources, problems were encountered. Therefore, an inventory was made of readily-usable methods for estimating

  19. Vapour phase corrosion inhibitors from South African renewable resources and their evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vuorinen, E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A vapour-phase corrosion inhibitor (VCI) needs to be a volatile compound or a mixture of compounds. It reaches the surfaces that need to be protected from corrosion via the vapour phase and forms a relatively stable bond at the interface...

  20. Utility of DMSP-SSM/I for integrated water vapour over the Indian seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent algorithms for Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (DMSP-SSM/I) satellite data are used for estimating integrated water vapour over the Indian seas. ... On the basis of this algorithm, distribution of integrated water vapour is determined during the monsoon depression (22nd{27th July, 1992) that formed over the Bay of ...

  1. Low pressure water vapour plasma treatment of surfaces for biomolecules decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, F; Kylian, O; Amato, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination treatments of surfaces are performed on bacterial spores, albumin and brain homogenate used as models of biological contaminations in a low-pressure, inductively coupled plasma reactor operated with water-vapour-based gas mixtures. It is shown that removal of contamination can...... vapour plasma process are discussed for practical applications in medical devices decontamination....

  2. Ethanol vapour sensing properties of screen printed WO3 thick films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents ethanol vapour sensing properties of WO3 thick films. In this work, the WO3 thick films were prepared by standard screen-printing method. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ethanol vapour sensing properties of these ...

  3. New Method of Vapour Discrimination Using the Thickness Shear Mode (TSM Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Siddiqi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Impedance analysis technique complimented with curve fitting software was used to monitor changes in film properties of Thickness Shear Mode (TSM resonator on vapour exposure. The approach demonstrates how sensor selectivity can be achieved through unique changes in film viscosity caused by organic vapour adsorption.

  4. Utility of DMSP-SSM/I for integrated water vapour over the Indian seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    Recent algorithms for Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (DMSP-SSM/I) satellite data are used for estimating integrated water vapour over the Indian seas. Integrated water vapour obtained from these algorithms is compared with that derived from radiosonde observations at Minicoy and Port. Blair islands. Algorithm-3 of ...

  5. A Novel Multi-Pass Cell System for Measurements of Methane Carbon Isotopes Using a Near-Infrared Tunable Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M.; Wang, G.; Zhu, G.; Wang, L.; Mei, J.; Liu, K.; Gao, X.; Zhang, W.

    2017-07-01

    A novel multi-pass cell laser absorption spectrometer to measure δ13C diluted with nitrogen using a 1.658 μm nearinfrared distributed-feedback laser was developed. The system temperature and pressure were measured with an accuracy of ±11 mK and ±3.2 Pa, respectively. The spectrometer is small, reliable, and compact. To minimize the temperature effect in absorbance ratio measurements, we used two appropriate absorption line pairs with nearly the same temperature dependences. The absorption spectrometer demonstrated high precision (a repetitive precision (reproducibility) of 0.9‰ (1σ) is obtained at 300 ppmv methane concentrations). This concentration ratio is adequate for most CH4 source characterization studies.

  6. Can painted glass felt or glass fibre cloth be used as vapour barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khattam, Amira; Andersen, Mie Them; Kielsgaard Hansen, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    it is essential to know how much influence a surface treatment has on the water vapour transport. Traditionally, there has been most focus on paints that affect the permeability as little as possible. However, sometimes water vapour resistance is desirable. Especially, this is relevant in existing buildings...... on the ceiling e.g. as an ordinary paint. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the water vapour resistance of surface treatments which are commonly used in-door. The water vapour resistance was measured by the cup method. Aerated concrete was investigated with and without various surface...... treatments. The surface treatments were glass felt or glass fibre cloth with different types of paints or just paint. The paint types were acrylic paint and silicate paint. The results show that the paint type has high influence on the water vapour resistance while the underlay i.e. glass felt or glass fibre...

  7. Measurements of stable isotope ratios (13CH4/12CH4; 12CH3D/12CH4) in landfill methane using a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmaschi, Peter; Harris, Geoffrey W.

    1995-12-01

    Variations in the isotopic composition (δ13C, δD) of methane produced within a landfill site near Mainz, Germany, were studied using a newly developed tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) method. Additional data on the mixing ratios of CO2, O2, N2, CH4 itself and δ13C of the CO2 in the landfill gas were also acquired. Samples taken from several branches of the landfill biogas collection system had methane isotopic compositions in the range δ13C = -62.3 to -55.3‰ VPDB (n = 23) and δD = -327 to -287‰ VSMOW (n = 23). Although the variability of the stable isotope ratios is small, several significant correlations were found between these and the other measured parameters, which provide insight into the microbiological processes occurring within the landfill. Several samples showed evidence of admixture of atmospheric air which occurs when the pumping rate in the collection branch exceeds the local methane production rate. A fraction of the atmospheric oxygen is consumed during the passage through the landfill and CO2 is produced in addition to the CO2 associated with methanogenesis. The consumption of oxygen is correlated with the δ13C and δD of CH4 and the δ13C of CO2. The correlation is consistent with partial bacterial oxidation of CH4 resulting in the progressive enrichment of the remaining CH4 (α(δ13C) = 1.008 ± 0.003 and α(δD) = 1.044 ± 0.020) and in the formation of very depleted CO2. For samples showing no evidence of oxidation, there was a negative correlation between δD and δ13C(CH4)(r = -0.86, n = 14) and between δ13C(CO2) and δ13C(CH4) (r = -0.95, n = 14), which we interpret as originating from slightly varying contributions from the two methanogenic pathways CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation.

  8. Isotope separation and advanced manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Kan, T.

    This is the fourth issue of a semiannual report for the Isotope Separation and Advanced Materials Manufacturing (ISAM) Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Primary objectives include: (1) the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (UAVLIS) process, which is being developed and prepared for deployment as an advanced uranium enrichment capability; (2) Advanced manufacturing technologies, which include industrial laser and E-beam material processing and new manufacturing technologies for uranium, plutonium, and other strategically important materials in support of DOE and other national applications. This report features progress in the ISAM Program from October 1993 through March 1994.

  9. Stratospheric water vapour as tracer for Vortex filamentation in the Arctic winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers measured three high-resolution profiles of stratospheric water vapour above Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen during winter 2002/2003. The profiles obtained on 12 December 2002 and on 17 January 2003 provide an insight into the vertical distribution of water vapour in the core of the polar vortex. The water vapour sounding on 11 February 2003 was obtained within the vortex edge region of the lower stratosphere. Here, a significant reduction of water vapour mixing ratio was observed between 16 and 19 km. The stratospheric temperatures indicate that this dehydration was not caused by the presence of polar stratospheric clouds or earlier PSC particle sedimentation. Ozone observations on this day indicate a large scale movement of the polar vortex and show laminae in the same altitude range as the water vapour profile. The link between the observed water vapour reduction and filaments in the vortex edge region is indicated in the results of the semi-lagrangian advection model MIMOSA, which show that adjacent filaments of polar and mid latitude air can be identified above the Spitsbergen region. A vertical cross-section produced by the MIMOSA model reveals that the water vapour sonde flew through polar air in the lowest part of the stratosphere below 425 K, then passed through filaments of mid latitude air with lower water vapour concentrations, before it finally entered the polar vortex above 450 K. These results indicate that on 11 February 2003 the frost point hygrometer measured different water vapour concentrations as the sonde detected air with different origins. Instead of being linked to dehydration due to PSC particle sedimentation, the local reduction in the stratospheric water vapour profile was in this case caused by dynamical processes in the polar stratosphere.

  10. Hierarchically arranged helical fibre actuators driven by solvents and vapours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peining; Xu, Yifan; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Pan, Shaowu; Deng, Jue; Chen, Daoyong; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical responsiveness in many plants is produced by helical organizations of cellulose microfibrils. However, simple mimicry of these naturally occurring helical structures does not produce artificial materials with the desired tunable actuations. Here, we show that actuating fibres that respond to solvent and vapour stimuli can be created through the hierarchical and helical assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes. Primary fibres consisting of helical assemblies of multiwalled carbon nanotubes are twisted together to form the helical actuating fibres. The nanoscale gaps between the nanotubes and micrometre-scale gaps among the primary fibres contribute to the rapid response and large actuation stroke of the actuating fibres. The compact coils allow the actuating fibre to rotate reversibly. We show that these fibres, which are lightweight, flexible and strong, are suitable for a variety of applications such as energy-harvesting generators, deformable sensing springs and smart textiles.

  11. Atmospheric pressure vapour phase decomposition: a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinosi, Amedeo; Andriollo, Nunzio; Tibaldi, Francesca; Monticelli, Damiano

    2012-11-15

    In the present work we demonstrated that the digestion of difficult matrices (high boiling petrochemical fractions and distillation bottoms) can be achieved by oxidation with nitric acid vapours at atmospheric pressure employing simple laboratory glassware. The application of this procedure as a digestion method prior to Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is presented, although the employment of other detection techniques may be foreseen. The method ensured a fast, less than half an hour, treatment time and detection limits in the range 20-100 μg/kg for As, Bi, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn, whereas higher values were obtained for Ba, Ca, K, P, Rh, Ti and V (0.3-3 mg/kg). The potentialities and limitations of this procedure were discussed: the application to a broad range of matrices may be foreseen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Chemical Vapour Deposition of Tantalum - in long narrow channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mugabi, James Atwoki

    concentrations in order to document the effects of these properties on the tantalum deposition rates. A kinetic model is developed upon the foundation of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Thermal model in order to broaden the understanding of the process and to identify the key control parameters...... mechanism of reaction, TaCl3 is found to have a lot of relevance such that it is the main precursor to the surface reaction and that the overall deposition rates follow its abundance. An experiment with a real plate heat exchanger is also done and the corresponding model implemented with satisfactory...... use as a construction material for process equipment, with the cheaper alternative being the construction of equipment from steel and then protecting it with a thin but efficacious layer of tantalum. Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) is chosen as the most effective process to apply thin corrosion...

  13. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition of Horizontally Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Cole

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor has been developed to synthesis horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes. The width of the aligning sheath was modelled based on a collisionless, quasi-neutral, Child’s law ion sheath where these estimates were empirically validated by direct Langmuir probe measurements, thereby confirming the proposed reactors ability to extend the existing sheath fields by up to 7 mm. A 7 mbar growth atmosphere combined with a 25 W plasma permitted the concurrent growth and alignment of carbon nanotubes with electric fields of the order of 0.04 V μm−1 with linear packing densities of up to ~5 × 104 cm−1. These results open up the potential for multi-directional in situ alignment of carbon nanotubes providing one viable route to the fabrication of many novel optoelectronic devices.

  14. Thermoluminescence characterisation of chemical vapour deposited diamond films

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzocchi, S; Bucciolini, M; Cuttone, G; Pini, S; Sabini, M G; Sciortino, S

    2002-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of a set of six chemical vapour deposited diamond films have been studied with regard to their use as off-line dosimeters in radiotherapy. The structural characterisation has been performed by means of Raman spectroscopy. Their TL responses have been tested with radiotherapy beams ( sup 6 sup 0 Co photons, photons and electrons from a linear accelerator (Linac), 26 MeV protons from a TANDEM accelerator) in the dose range 0.1-7 Gy. The dosimetric characterisation has yielded a very good reproducibility, a very low dependence of the TL response on the type of particle and independence of the radiation energy. The TL signal is not influenced by the dose rate and exhibits a very low thermal fading. Moreover, the sensitivity of the diamond samples compares favourably with that of standard TLD100 dosimeters.

  15. Chemical Vapour Deposition of Gas Sensitive Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Vallejos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of recent research efforts and developments for the fabrication of metal-oxide gas sensors using chemical vapour deposition (CVD, presenting its potential advantages as a materials synthesis technique for gas sensors along with a discussion of their sensing performance. Thin films typically have poorer gas sensing performance compared to traditional screen printed equivalents, attributed to reduced porosity, but the ability to integrate materials directly with the sensor platform provides important process benefits compared to competing synthetic techniques. We conclude that these advantages are likely to drive increased interest in the use of CVD for gas sensor materials over the next decade, whilst the ability to manipulate deposition conditions to alter microstructure can help mitigate the potentially reduced performance in thin films, hence the current prospects for use of CVD in this field look excellent.

  16. Evaluating the virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S M; Chander, Y; Yezli, S; Otter, J A

    2014-04-01

    Surface contamination has been implicated in the transmission of certain viruses, and surface disinfection can be an effective measure to interrupt the spread of these agents. To evaluate the in-vitro efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV), a vapour-phase disinfection method, for the inactivation of a number of structurally distinct viruses of importance in the healthcare, veterinary and public sectors. The viruses studied were: feline calicivirus (FCV, a norovirus surrogate); human adenovirus type 1; transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus of pigs (TGEV, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus [SARS-CoV] surrogate); avian influenza virus (AIV); and swine influenza virus (SwIV). The viruses were dried on stainless steel discs in 20- or 40-μL aliquots and exposed to HPV produced by a Clarus L generator (Bioquell, Horsham, PA, USA) in a 0.2-m(3) environmental chamber. Three vaporized volumes of hydrogen peroxide were tested in triplicate for each virus: 25, 27 and 33 mL. No viable viruses were identified after HPV exposure at any of the vaporized volumes tested. HPV was virucidal (>4-log reduction) against FCV, adenovirus, TGEV and AIV at the lowest vaporized volume tested (25 mL). For SwIV, due to low virus titre on the control discs, >3.8-log reduction was shown for the 25-mL vaporized volume and >4-log reduction was shown for the 27-mL and 33-mL vaporized volumes. HPV was virucidal for structurally distinct viruses dried on surfaces, suggesting that HPV can be considered for the disinfection of virus-contaminated surfaces. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lasers in materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.I.; Rockower, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    A status report on the uranium Laser Isotope Separation (LIS) Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented. Prior to this status report, process economic analysis is presented so as to understand how the unique properties of laser photons can be best utilized in the production of materials and components despite the high cost of laser energy. The characteristics of potential applications that are necessary for success are identified, and those factors that have up to now frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser induced chemical and physical process for the production of new or existing materials are pointed out.

  18. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water, long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere to 8 km (in the upper troposphere and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and the cross-dependence on humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the cross-dependence on humidity, and we recommend applying it to isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency. In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model. We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle.

  19. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; González, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; García, O. E.; Sepúlveda, E.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Dohe, S.; Blumenstock, T.; Wiegele, A.; Christner, E.; Strong, K.; Weaver, D.; Palm, M.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lejeune, B.; Demoulin, P.; Jones, N.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Smale, D.; Robinson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water), long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change). We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere) to 8 km (in the upper troposphere) and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and the cross-dependence on humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the cross-dependence on humidity, and we recommend applying it to isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency. In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model). We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle.

  20. Neutron-Rich Silver Isotopes Produced by a Chemically Selective Laser Ion-Source: Test of the R-Process " Waiting-Point " Concept

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The r-process is an important nucleosynthesis mechanism for several reasons: \\begin{enumerate} \\item It is crucial to an understanding of about half of the A>60 elemental composition of the Galaxy; \\item It is the mechanism that forms the long-lived Th-U-Pu nuclear chronometers which are used for cosmochronolgy; \\item It provides an important probe for the temperature (T$ _{9} $)-neutron density ($n_{n}$) conditions in explosive events; and last but not least \\item It may serve to provide useful clues to and constraints upon the nuclear properties of very neutron-rich heavy nuclei. \\end{enumerate} \\\\ \\\\With regard to nuclear-physics data, of particular interest are the T$ _{1/2} $ and P$_{n-} $ values of certain$\\,$ "waiting-point"$\\,$ isotopes in the regions of the A $ \\approx $ 80 and 130. r-abundance peaks. Previous studies of $^{130}_{\\phantom{1}48}$Cd$_{82}$ and $^{79}_{29}$Cu$_{50}$. $\\beta$-decay properties at ISOLDE using a hot plasma ion source were strongly complicated by isobar and molecular-ion c...

  1. Investigation of excimer laser ablation of iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, R.; Lunney, J. G.

    1998-05-01

    The excimer ablation of iron at 248 nm has been investigated by measuring the ablation depth and average ion energy as a function of laser fluence. Measurements have also been made of the laser transmission through the ablated vapour above the target. The absolute spectral intensity of the emission from the ablation plasma has been measured in both the vacuum ultraviolet and the visible. All results were compared with a simple numerical model describing the main physical processes involved in laser ablation of metal targets.

  2. Mixing of multiple metal vapours into an arc plasma in gas tungsten arc welding of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hunkwan; Trautmann, Marcus; Tanaka, Keigo; Tanaka, Manabu; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2017-11-01

    A computational model of the mixing of multiple metal vapours, formed by vaporization of the surface of an alloy workpiece, into the thermal arc plasma in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is presented. The model incorporates the combined diffusion coefficient method extended to allow treatment of three gases, and is applied to treat the transport of both chromium and iron vapour in the helium arc plasma. In contrast to previous models of GTAW, which predict that metal vapours are swept away to the edge of the arc by the plasma flow, it is found that the metal vapours penetrate strongly into the arc plasma, reaching the cathode region. The predicted results are consistent with published measurements of the intensity of atomic line radiation from the metal vapours. The concentration of chromium vapour is predicted to be higher than that of iron vapour due to its larger vaporization rate. An accumulation of chromium vapour is predicted to occur on the cathode at about 1.5 mm from the cathode tip, in agreement with published measurements. The arc temperature is predicted to be strongly reduced due to the strong radiative emission from the metal vapours. The driving forces causing the diffusion of metal vapours into the helium arc are examined, and it is found that diffusion due to the applied electric field (cataphoresis) is dominant. This is explained in terms of large ionization energies and the small mass of helium compared to those of the metal vapours.

  3. Isotope specific arbitrary material flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.; Post, John C.; Jones, Edwin

    2016-10-25

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  4. Metal-Nonmetal Transition and Homogeneous Nucleation of Mercury Vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchtmann, H.; Rademann, K.; Hensel, F.

    The paper presents ionization potentials of mercury clusters obtained by photoelectron spectroscopy which provide evidence that a size-dependent gradual transition from van der Waals-type to metallic interaction occurs in Hgx-clusters for × > 13. In order to probe the role of this nonmetal to metal transition in the homogeneous nucleation process of supersaturated mercury vapour we have determined the supersaturation necessary for homogeneous condensation of mercury vapour in the temperature range 250 to 320 K. The measurements were made using an upward thermal diffusion cloud chamber. The results demonstrate that none of the current theories for homogeneous nucleation satisfactorily predict the observed critical supersaturations. The measured values are about 3 orders of magnitude lower than the values predicted by the conventional Becker-Döring-Zeldovitch-theory.Translated AbstractMetall-Nichtmetallübergang und homogene Keimbildung bei QuecksilberdampfEs werden photoelektronenspektroskopische Messungen der Ionisationspotentiale von im Molekularstrahl synthetisierten Quecksilberclustern als Funktion der Größe beschrieben. Sie zeigen, daß ein größenabhängiger kontinuierlicher Übergang von van der Waals-Bindung zu metallischer Bindung für Cluster mit mehr als 13 Hg-Atomen auftritt. Um erste Informationen über den Einfluß dieses Übergangs von nichtmetallischem zu metallischem Verhalten auf den Keimbildungsprozeß in übersättigten Quecksilberdämpfen zu erhalten, werden zusätzlich Untersuchungen der homogenen Kondensation von übersättigten Quecksilberdämpfen im Temperaturbereich zwischen 250 bis 320 K mit einer Diffusionsnebelkammer berichtet. Die erhaltenen Ergebnisse können mit keiner der existierenden Theorien für die homogene Kondensation beschrieben werden. Die beobachteten Werte für die die homogene Kondensation auslösende kritische Übersättigung sind um drei Größenordnungen größer als die mit der klassischen Becker

  5. Influence of collisional rate coefficients on water vapour excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Faure, A.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Water is a key molecule in many astrophysical studies that deal with star or planet forming regions, evolved stars, and galaxies. Its high dipole moment makes this molecule subthermally populated under the typical conditions of most astrophysical objects. This motivated calculation of various sets of collisional rate coefficients (CRC) for H2O (with He or H2), which are needed to model its rotational excitation and line emission. Aims: The most accurate set of CRC are the quantum rates that involve H2. However, they have been published only recently, and less accurate CRC (quantum with He or quantum classical trajectory (QCT) with H2) were used in many studies before that. This work aims to underline the impact that the new available set of CRC have on interpretations of water vapour observations. Methods: We performed accurate non-local, non-LTE radiative transfer calculations using different sets of CRC to predict the line intensities from transitions that involve the lowest energy levels of H2O (E find that the intensities based on the quantum and QCT CRC are in good agreement. However, at relatively low H2 volume density (n(H2) find differences in the predicted line intensities of up to a factor of ~3 for the bulk of the lines. Most of the recent studies interpreting early Herschel Space Observatory spectra have used the QCT CRC. Our results show that, although the global conclusions from those studies will not be drastically changed, each case has to be considered individually, since depending on the physical conditions, the use of the QCT CRC may lead to a mis-estimate of the water vapour abundance of up to a factor of ~3. Additionally, the comparison of the quantum state-to-state and thermalised CRC, including the description of the population of the H2 rotational levels, show that above TK ~ 100 K, large differences are expected from those two sets for the p-H2 symmetry. Finally, we find that at low temperature (i.e. TK < 100 K) modelled line

  6. Green laser crystallization of GeSi thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rangarajan, B.; Brunets, I.; Oesterlin, Peter; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    Green laser crystallization of a-Ge0.85Si0.15 films deposited using Low Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition is studied. Large grains of 8x2 μm2 size were formed using a location-controlled approach. Characterization is done using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, X-Ray

  7. Coulomb explosion of methyl iodide clusters using giga watt laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    (9⋅54 eV). This higher ionization potential of water decreases the multiphoton ionization probability of the water molecules/clusters as compared to that of methyl iodide molecules/clusters under identical laser excitation conditions. Further, the water has much lower vapour pressure as compared to that of methyl iodide.

  8. Kinetics of laser-assisted carbon nanotube growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, Y. van de; Bellouard, Y.; Mandamparambil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth is an attractive mask-less process for growing locally aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in selected places on temperature sensitive substrates. The nature of the localized process results in fast carbon nanotube growth with high experimental

  9. Sensing response of copper phthalocyanine salt dispersed glass with organic vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridhi, R.; Sachdeva, Sheenam; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (INDIA) Fax: +91-172-2783336; Tel.:+91-172-2544362 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Copper Phthalocyanine and other Metal Phthalocyanines are very flexible and tuned easily to modify their structural, spectroscopic, optical and electrical properties by either functionalizing them with various substituent groups or by replacing or adding a ligand to the central metal atom in the phthalocyanine ring and accordingly can be made sensitive and selective to various organic species or gaseous vapours. In the present work, we have dispersed Copper Phthalocyanine Salt (CuPcS) in sol-gel glass form using chemical route sol-gel method and studied its sensing mechanism with organic vapours like methanol and benzene and found that current increases onto their exposure with vapours. A variation in the activation energies was also observed with exposure of vapours.

  10. Pervaporation and vapour permeation of methanol and MTBE through a microporous methylated silica membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, F.T.

    2006-01-01

    The combination of conventional unit operations with pervaporation or vapour permeation membrane separation processes offers opportunities for process intensification in terms of augmenting capacity and decreasing energy consumption of conventional unit operations. The MTBE production process is an

  11. Signal transduction pathway(s) in guard cells after prolonged exposure to low vapour pressure deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Niaei Fard, S.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Abscisic acid, Arabidopsis thaliana, calcium, CYP707As, desiccation, environmental factors, guard cells’ signalling pathway, hydrogen peroxide, natural variation, nitric oxide, photosystem II efficiency, RD29A, relative water content, secondary messengers, stomata, vapour pressure

  12. Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiemle, Christoph; Wirth, Martin; Fix, Andreas; Rahm, Stephan; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Di Girolamo, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Vertical profiles of the latent heat flux in a convective boundary layer (CBL) are obtained for the first time over complex terrain with airborne water vapour differential absorption lidar and Doppler wind lidar...

  13. Quantifying the water vapour feedback associated with post-Pinatubo global cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, P.M. de [NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom); Collins, M. [Centre for Global Atmospheric Modelling, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    There is an ongoing important debate about the role of water vapour in climate change. Predictions of future climate change depend strongly on the magnitude of the water vapour feedback and until now models have almost exclusively been relied upon to quantify this feedback. In this work we employ observations of water vapour changes, together with detailed radiative calculations to estimate the water vapour feedback for the case of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. We then compare our observed estimate with that calculated from a relatively large ensemble of simulations from a complex coupled climate model. We calculate an observed water vapour feedback parameter of -1.6 Wm{sup -2} K{sup -1}, with uncertainty placing the feedback parameter between -0.9 to -2.5 Wm{sup -2} K{sup -1}. The uncertain is principally from natural climate variations that contaminate the volcanic cooling. The observed estimates are consistent with that found in the climate model, with the ensemble average model feedback parameter being -2.0 Wm{sup -2} K{sup -1}, with a 5-95% range of -0.4 to -3.6 Wm{sup -2} K{sup -1} (as in the case of the observations, the spread is due to an inability to separate the forced response from natural variability). However, in both the upper troposphere and Southern Hemisphere the observed model water vapour response differs markedly from the observations. The observed range represents a 40%-400% increase in the magnitude of surface temperature change when compared to a fixed water vapour response and is in good agreement with values found in other studies. Variability, both in the observed value and in the climate model's feedback parameter, between different ensemble members, suggests that the long-term water vapour feedback associated with global climate change could still be a factor of 2 or 3 different than the mean observed value found here and the model water vapour feedback could be quite different from this value; although a small water vapour feedback

  14. Vapour and air bubble collapse analysis in viscous compressible water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Bazanini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the collapse of bubbles (or cavities are shown, using the finite difference method, taking into account the compressibility of the liquid, expected to occur in the final stages of the collapse process. Results are compared with experimental and theoretical data for incompressible liquids, to see the influence of the compressibility of the water in the bubble collapse. Pressure fields values are calculated in an area of 800 x 800 mm, for the case of one bubble under the hypothesis of spherical symmetry. Results are shown as radius versus time curves for the collapse (to compare collapse times, and pressure curves in the plane, for pressure fields. Such calculations are new because of their general point of view, since the existing works do not take into account the existence of vapour in the bubble, neither show the pressure fields seen here. It is also expected to see the influence of the compressibility of the water in the collapse time, and in the pressure field, when comparing pressure values.

  15. Adsorption Of Water And Benzene Vapour In Mesoporous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Taba

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous materials have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the potential applications promised by the materials. This article discusses adsorption of water and benzene vapour in mesoporous materials (mesoporous silica: MCM-41, MCM-48 and their modification. MCM-41 and MCM-48 were synthesized hydrothermally at 100 oC using cethyltrimethylammonium chloride or dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide for MCM-41 (C16 or MCM-41 (C12 respectively and a mixture of cethyltrimethylammonium bromide and Triton X-100 for MCM-48 as templates. Their modifications were conducted by silylation of MCM-41 (C16 and MCM-48 with trimethylchloro silane (MCM16-TMCS and MCM48-TMCS and t-butyldimethylchloro silane (MCM16-TBDMCS and MCM48-TBDMCS. Results showed that MCM-41 and MCM-48 materials had hydrophobic features which were shown in the small amount of water adsorption at low P/P0. The hydrophobicity of samples used in this study decrease in the sequence: MCM-41 (C16 > MCM-48 > MCM-41 (C12. The hydrophobicity increased when MCM-41 and MCM-48 were silylated with TMCS or TBDMCS. All unsilylated MCM materials show higher affinity to benzene at low P/P0 than the silylated samples. The results of water and benzene adsorption showed that silylated samples are promising candidates as selective adsorbents for organic compounds.

  16. Chemical vapour deposition of diamond coatings onto molybdenum dental tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, M.; Ahmed, W.; Sein, H.; Jones, A. N.; Rego, C. A.

    2003-10-01

    The growth of polycrystalline diamond films onto molybdenum rods and dental burrs by using a new hot filament chemical vapour deposition (CVD) system has been investigated. Negative dc bias voltage relative to the filament was applied to the molybdenum substrate prior to deposition. This led to much improved film adhesion and increased nucleation density. There was a factor of four improvement in the adhesive force from 20 to 80 N when a bias voltage of -300 V was employed to the substrate. The CVD coated molybdenum dental burr was found to give much improved performance and lifetime compared to the conventional sintered diamond burr. The CVD diamond burr showed no signs of deterioration even after 1000 operations whereas the conventional sintered diamond burrs were ineffective after between 30 and 60 operations. This represents a 30-fold improvement when CVD is applied. CVD diamond growth onto dental burrs has the potential for replacing exciting technology by achieving better performance and lifetime in a cost-effective manner.

  17. Water vapour and ozone profiles in the midlatitude upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vaughan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an investigation of upper tropospheric humidity profiles measured with a standard radiosonde, the Vaisala RS80-A, and a commercial frost-point hygrometer, the Snow White. Modifications to the Snow White, to enable the mirror reflectivity and Peltier cooling current to be monitored during flight, were found to be necessary to determine when the instrument was functioning correctly; a further modification to prevent hydrometeors entering the inlet was also implemented. From 23 combined flights of an ozonesonde, radiosonde and Snow White between September 2001 and July 2002, clear agreement was found between the two humidity sensors, with a mean difference of <2% in relative humidity from 2 to 10km, and 2.2% between 10 and 13km. This agreement required a correction to the radiosonde humidity, as described by Miloshevich et al. (2001. Using this result, the dataset of 324 ozonesonde/RS80-A profiles measured from Aberystwyth between 1991 and 2002 was examined to derive statistics for the distribution of water vapour and ozone. Supersaturation with respect to ice was frequently seen at the higher levels - 24% of the time in winter between 8 and 10km. The fairly uniform distribution of relative humidity persisted to 120% in winter, but decreased rapidly above 100% in summer.

  18. Poly(methyl methacrylate) films for organic vapour sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Capan, R; Hassan, A K; Tanrisever, T

    2003-01-01

    Optical constants and fabrication parameters are investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies on spun films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) derivatives in contact with two different dielectric media. A value of 1.503 for the refractive index of PMMA films produced from a solution having concentration of 1 mg ml sup - sup 1 at the speed of 3000 rpm is in close agreement with the data obtained from ellipsometric measurements. The film thickness shows a power-law dependence on the spin speed but the thickness increases almost linearly with the concentration of the spreading solution. These results are in good agreement with the hydrodynamic theory for a low-viscosity and highly volatile liquid. On the basis of SPR measurements under dynamic conditions, room temperature response of PMMA films to benzene vapours is found to be fast, highly sensitive and reversible. The sensitivity of detection of toluene, ethyl benzene and m-xylene is much smaller than that of benzene.

  19. The atmospheric chemical vapour deposition of coatings on glass

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, K D

    1996-01-01

    The deposition of thin films of indium oxide, tin doped indium oxide (ITO) and titanium nitride for solar control applications have been investigated by Atmospheric Chemical Vapour Deposition (APCVD). Experimental details of the deposition system and the techniques used to characterise the films are presented. Results from investigations into the deposition parameters, the film microstructure and film material properties are discussed. A range of precursors were investigated for the deposition of indium oxide. The effect of pro-mixing the vaporised precursor with an oxidant source and the deposition temperature has been studied. Polycrystalline In sub 2 O sub 3 films with a resistivity of 1.1 - 3x10 sup - sup 3 OMEGA cm were obtained with ln(thd) sub 3 , oxygen and nitrogen. The growth of ITO films from ln(thd) sub 3 , oxygen and a range of tin dopants is also presented. The effect of the dopant precursor, the doping concentration, deposition temperature and the effect of additives on film growth and microstr...

  20. Protection of historical lead against acetic acid vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecenová Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical lead artefacts (small figurines, appliques, bull (metal seal can be stored in depository and archives in inconvenient storage conditions. The wooden show-case or paper packagings release volatile organic compound to the air during their degradation. These acids, mainly acetic acid are very corrosive for lead. The thin layer of corrosion products which slows atmospheric corrosion is formed on lead surface in atmospheric condition. In presence of acetic acid vapour the voluminous corrosion products are formed and fall off the surface. These corrosion products do not have any protection ability. The lead could be protected against acid environment by layer of “metal soup” which is formed on surface after immersion in solution of salt of carboxylic acid for 24 hours. The solutions of acids (with vary long of carbon chain and their salts are examined. Longer carbon chain provides better efficiency convers layer. The disadvantages are low solubility of carboxylic acids in water and bad abrasion resistance of formed layer.

  1. Giant spin Hall effect in graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Jayakumar; Koon, Gavin Kok Wai; Avsar, Ahmet; Ho, Yuda; Lee, Jong Hak; Jaiswal, Manu; Baeck, Seung Jae; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Ferreira, Aires; Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Neto, Antonio H Castro; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in large-area graphene synthesis via chemical vapour deposition on metals like copper were instrumental in the demonstration of graphene-based novel, wafer-scale electronic circuits and proof-of-concept applications such as flexible touch panels. Here, we show that graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition on copper is equally promising for spintronics applications. In contrast to natural graphene, our experiments demonstrate that chemically synthesized graphene has a strong spin-...

  2. The characteristics of a vapour bubble moving in a non-uniform flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangen, Ni; Jianbo, Huang

    1986-08-01

    The present paper describes the dynamic process of a vapour bubble moving in a non-uniform flow field. The coupling between the bubble moving as a whole and the deformation of the bubble surface is considered. The effect of the pressure gradient on the bubble movement is analysed. For a given flow field the numerical calculation is carried out until the vapour bubble is split by a micro-jet.

  3. Technical Note: How accurate can stalagmite formation temperatures be determined using vapour bubble radius measurements in fluid inclusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Spadin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stalagmites are natural archives containing detailed information on continental climate variability of the past. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures allow determination of stalagmite formation temperatures by measuring the radius of stable laser-induced vapour bubbles inside the inclusions. A reliable method for precisely measuring the radius of vapour bubbles is presented. The method is applied to stalagmite samples for which the formation temperature is known. An assessment of the bubble radius measurement accuracy and how this error influences the uncertainty in determining the formation temperature is provided. We demonstrate that the nominal homogenisation temperature of a single inclusion can be determined with an accuracy of ±0.25 °C, if the volume of the inclusion is larger than 105 μm3. With this method, we could measure in a proof-of-principle investigation that the formation temperature of 10–20 yr old inclusions in a stalagmite taken from the Milandre cave is 9.87 ± 0.80 °C, while the mean annual surface temperature, that in the case of the Milandre cave correlates well with the cave temperature, was 9.6 ± 0.15 °C, calculated from actual measurements at that time, showing a very good agreement. Formation temperatures of inclusions formed during the last 450 yr are found in a temperature range between 8.4 and 9.6 °C, which corresponds to the calculated average surface temperature. Paleotemperatures can thus be determined within ±1.0 °C.

  4. First retrieval of global water vapour column amounts from SCIAMACHY measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noël

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Global water vapour column amounts have been derived for the first time from measurements of the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY on the European environmental satellite ENVISAT. For this purpose, two different existing retrieval algorithms have been adapted, namely the Air Mass Corrected Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (AMC-DOAS which was originally designed for GOME and the Weighting Function Modified Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (WFM-DOAS which was mainly designed for the retrieval of CH4, CO2 and CO from SCIAMACHY near-infrared spectra. Here, both methods have been applied to SCIAMACHY's nadir measurements in the near-visible spectral region around 700 nm. Taking into account a systematic offset of 10%, the results of these two methods agree within a scatter of about ±0.5 g/cm2 with corresponding SSM/I and ECMWF water vapour data. This deviation includes contributions from the temporal and spatial variability of water vapour. In fact, the mean deviation between the SCIAMACHY and the correlative data sets is much smaller: the SCIAMACHY total water vapour columns are typically about 0.15 g/cm2 lower than the SSM/I values and less than 0.1 g/cm2 lower than corresponding ECMWF data. The SCIAMACHY water vapour results agree well with correlative data not only over ocean but also over land, thus showing the capability of SCIAMACHY to derive water vapour concentrations on the global scale.

  5. Performance investigation of vapour recompressed batch distillation for separating ternary wide boiling constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohith R Nair

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The vapour recompression scheme (VRC has been very effective in continuous distillation for energy intensification. The applicability of this scheme for the separation of multicomponent wide boiling constituents in batch distillation is a major challenge, because of the unsteady nature of the batch. In this study, the vapour recompression scheme has been implemented for the separation of multicomponent wide boiling constituents in the batch distillation. For the optimal usage of energy from compressed vapours manipulation of top tray vapour or external energy is done. A comparative study of the vapour recompressed batch distillation having a variable speed single compressor (SVRBD and double stage compressor (DVRBD with conventional batch distillation in terms of energy savings and total annualized cost is done. The VRC schemes achieve an energy savings of 50% and 10.03% total annualized cost (TAC for SVRBD and DVRBD achieve 52% energy savings and 12.21% TAC with a payback period of 10 years. Keywords: Batch distillation, Vapour recompression, Wide boiling constituents, Energy saving, Total annualized cost

  6. Immunological disorders in men exposed to metallic mercury vapour. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moszczyński, P

    1999-02-01

    The awareness of the effects of metallic mercury vapour on the human immune system has increased only in the last decade. The regulatory guidelines relating to testing for immunotoxicity of metals are not standardized so far. A full understanding of the relevance of the tests to man is still incomplete. Immunotoxicity investigation of metals in rodents, with subsequent extrapolation to man, forms the basis of human risk assessment. Human contact with mercury vapour is mainly in chloralkali plants and in factories producing controlling and measuring devices. When the immune system acts as a target of xenobiotic insults, the result can be a decreased resistance to infection, cancers, or immune disregulation that can induce the development of allergy, or autoimmunity (Fig. 1). This article reviews literature data and our studies concerning the immunotoxicity of metallic mercury vapour. A number of data shows that mercury exerts a suppressing effect but another data suggest stimulating effects on the human immune system. The results of immunological monitoring of individuals exposed to mercury vapour were either positive or negative as well as borderline and uncertain as to the influence of mercury vapour on human immune system. The positive data had no influence on the resistance of workers to infections and neoplasms. Skin and mucosa hypersensitivity to metallic mercury is rare. No positive report that mercury vapour could be carcinogenic in man has appeared up to now.

  7. Comparison of tanker drivers' occupational exposures before and after the installation of a vapour recovery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, L; Hakkola, M; Kangas, J

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare tanker drivers' occupational exposure level before and after the installation of vapour recovery facilities at 14 service stations. Road tanker drivers are exposed when handling volatile petrol liquid in bulk in the distribution chain. The drivers' exposure was studied during the unloading operation as the bulk petrol flowed into underground storage tanks, displacing vapours in the tank space and causing emission to the environment and the drivers' work area. The exposures were measured again when the dual point Stage I vapour recovery systems were installed for recycling vapours. Short-term measurements were carried out in the drivers' breathing zones by drawing polluted air through a charcoal tube during unloading. The samples were analysed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for C3-C11 aliphatic hydrocarbons, tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (MTAE), benzene, toluene and xylene. The road tanker loads delivered consisted of oxygenated and reformulated petrol (E95 and E98 brands), which contained on average 13% oxygenates. Before the installation of the vapour recovery system, the geometric mean (GM) concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons was 65 mg m-3 (range 6-645 mg m-3) in the drivers' breathing zones. After the installation at the same service stations, the corresponding exposure level was 8.3 mg m-3 (range tankers without and with vapour recovery were statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  8. The water vapour flux above Switzerland and its role in the August 2005 extreme precipitation and flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Dri Koffi, Ernest; Maetzler, Christian [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; Graham, Edward [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; University of the Highlands and Islands, Stornoway, Scotland (United Kingdom). Lews Castle College

    2013-10-15

    The water budget approach is applied to an atmospheric box above Switzerland (hereafter referred to as the 'Swiss box') to quantify the atmospheric water vapour flux using ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalyses. The results confirm that the water vapour flux through the Swiss box is highly temporally variable, ranging from 1 to 5 x 10{sup 7} kg/s during settled anticyclonic weather, but increasing in size by a factor of ten or more during high speed currents of water vapour. Overall, Switzerland and the Swiss box 'import' more water vapour than it 'exports', but the amount gained remains only a small fraction (1% to 5%) of the total available water vapour passing by. High inward water vapour fluxes are not necessarily linked to high precipitation episodes. The water vapour flux during the August 2005 floods, which caused severe damage in central Switzerland, is examined and an assessment is made of the computed water vapour fluxes compared to high spatio-temporal rain gauge and radar observations. About 25% of the incoming water vapour flux was stored in Switzerland. The computed water vapour fluxes from ECMWF data compare well with the mean rain gauge observations and the combined rain-gauge radar precipitation products. (orig.)

  9. The water vapour flux above Switzerland and its role in the August 2005 extreme precipitation and flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest N'dri Koffi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The water budget approach is applied to an atmospheric box above Switzerland (hereafter referred to as the “Swiss box” to quantify the atmospheric water vapour flux using ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalyses. The results confirm that the water vapour flux through the Swiss box is highly temporally variable, ranging from 1 to 5 · 107 kg/s during settled anticyclonic weather, but increasing in size by a factor of ten or more during high speed currents of water vapour. Overall, Switzerland and the Swiss box “import” more water vapour than it “exports”, but the amount gained remains only a small fraction (1% to 5% of the total available water vapour passing by. High inward water vapour fluxes are not necessarily linked to high precipitation episodes. The water vapour flux during the August 2005 floods, which caused severe damage in central Switzerland, is examined and an assessment is made of the computed water vapour fluxes compared to high spatio-temporal rain gauge and radar observations. About 25% of the incoming water vapour flux was stored in Switzerland. The computed water vapour fluxes from ECMWF data compare well with the mean rain gauge observations and the combined rain-gauge radar precipitation products.

  10. Nuclear charge radius measurements of radioactive beryllium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear charge radii of the beryllium isotopes $^{7,9,10}$Be and the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be using laser spectroscopy of trapped ions. Ions produced at ISOLDE and ionized with the laser ion source will be cooled and bunched in the radio-frequency buncher of the ISOLTRAP experiment and then transferred into a specially designed Paul trap. Here, they will be cooled to temperatures in the mK range employing sympathetic and direct laser cooling. Precision laser spectroscopy of the isotope shift on the cooled ensemble in combination with accurate atomic structure calculations will provide nuclear charge radii with a precision of better than 3%. This will be the first model-independent determination of a one-neutron halo nuclear charge radius.

  11. The millennium water vapour drop in chemistry–climate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brinkop

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the abrupt and severe water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in the year 2000 (the "millennium water vapour drop" and other similarly strong stratospheric water vapour reductions by means of various simulations with the state-of-the-art Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry Model. The model simulations differ with respect to the prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs and whether nudging is applied or not. The CCM EMAC is able to most closely reproduce the signature and pattern of the water vapour drop in agreement with those derived from satellite observations if the model is nudged. Model results confirm that this extraordinary water vapour decline is particularly obvious in the tropical lower stratosphere and is related to a large decrease in cold point temperature. The drop signal propagates under dilution to the higher stratosphere and to the poles via the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC. We found that the driving forces for this significant decline in water vapour mixing ratios are tropical sea surface temperature (SST changes due to a coincidence with a preceding strong El Niño–Southern Oscillation event (1997/1998 followed by a strong La Niña event (1999/2000 and supported by the change of the westerly to the easterly phase of the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO in 2000. Correct (observed SSTs are important for triggering the strong decline in water vapour. There are indications that, at least partly, SSTs contribute to the long period of low water vapour values from 2001 to 2006. For this period, the specific dynamical state of the atmosphere (overall atmospheric large-scale wind and temperature distribution is important as well, as it causes the observed persistent low cold point temperatures. These are induced by a period of increased upwelling, which, however, has no corresponding pronounced signature in SSTs anomalies in the tropics

  12. Laser Materials and Laser Spectroscopy - A Satellite Meeting of IQEC '88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijiang; Zhang, Zhiming

    1989-03-01

    Highly Excited Vibrational State * Investigation of the Stark Effect in Xenon Autoionizing Rydberg Series with the Use of Coherent Tunable XUV Radiation * Laser Spectroscopy of Autoionising 5 dnf J = 4.5 Rydberg Series of Ba I * Resonance Photoionization Spectroscopy of Atoms: Autoionization and Highly Excited States of Kr and U * Stark Spectra of Strontium and Calcium Atoms * Observation of Bidirectional Stimulated Radiation at 330 nm, 364 nm and 718 nm with 660 nm Laser Pumping in Sodium Vapour * Study of Molecular Rydberg States and their Discriminations in Na2 * The Measurement of the High Excited Spectra of Samarium by using Stepwise Laser Excitation Method * Product Analysis in the Reaction of the Two-photon Excited Xe(5p56p) States with Freons * Photoionization Spectra of Ca and Sr Atoms above the Classical Field-ionization Threshold * Effect of Medium Background on the Hydrogen Spectrum * Photoemission and Photoelectron Spectra from Autoionizing Atoms in Strong Laser Field * Natural Radiative Lifetime Measurements of High-lying States of Samarium * Two-step Laser Excitation of nf Rydberg States in Neutral Al and Observation of Stark Effect * Measurements of Excited Spectra of the Refractory Metal Elements using Discharge Synchronized with the Laser Pulse * Multiphoton Ionization of Atomic Lead at 1.06μ * Kinetic Processes in the Electron-beam pumped KrF Laser * Laser-induced Fluorescence of Zn2 Excimer * Calculation of Transition Intensity in Heteronuclear Dimer NaK: Comparison with Experiment * Laser-induced Fluorescence of CCl2 Carbene * Study of Multiphoton Ionization Spectrum of Benzene and Two-photon Absorption Cross Section * Dicke Narrowing of N2O Linewidth Perturbed by N2 at 10 μm Band * Polyatomic Molecular Ions Studied by Laser Photodissociation Spectroscopy * Transverse-optically Pumped Ultraviolet S2 Laser * Multiphoton Ionization of Propanal by High Power Laser * UV MPI Mass Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Photodissociation of SO2 * Multiphoton

  13. WAVE-E: The WAter Vapour European-Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-LLuva, David; Deiml, Michael; Pavesi, Sara

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes in the Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) have been increasingly recognized to severely impact surface climate and high-impact weather phenomena. Weakened stratospheric circumpolar jets have been linked to worldwide extreme temperature and high-precipitation events, while anomalously strong stratospheric jets can lead to an increase in surface winds and tropical cyclone intensity. Moreover, stratospheric water vapor has been identified as an important forcing for global decadal surface climate change. In the past years, operational weather forecast and climate models have adapted a high vertical resolution in the UTLS region in order to capture the dynamical processes occurring in this highly stratified region. However, there is an evident lack of available measurements in the UTLS region to consistently support these models and further improve process understanding. Consequently, both the IPCC fifth assessment report and the ESA-GEWEX report 'Earth Observation and Water Cycle Science Priorities' have identified an urgent need for long-term observations and improved process understanding in the UTLS region. To close this gap, the authors propose the 'WAter Vapour European - Explorer' (WAVE-E) space mission, whose primary goal is to monitor water vapor in the UTLS at 1 km vertical, 25 km horizontal and sub-daily temporal resolution. WAVE-E consists of three quasi-identical small ( 500 kg) satellites (WAVE-E 1-3) in a constellation of Sun-Synchronous Low Earth Orbits, each carrying a limb sounding and cross-track scanning mid-infrared passive spectrometer (824 cm-1 to 829 cm-1). The core of the instruments builds a monolithic, field-widened type of Michelson interferometer without any moving parts, rendering it rigid and fault tolerant. Synergistic use of WAVE-E and MetOp-NG operational satellites is identified, such that a data fusion algorithm could provide water vapour profiles from the

  14. Function and application of isotope controlled materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Araki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Mitsutane; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Numazawa, Takenori; Noda, Tetsuji [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    As large amounts of silicone isotopes were separated in previous research, we tried to develop function of isotope controlled materials. Molecular vibration excitation control to control laser wavelength, physical properties of isotope control materials and nuclear transformation function were studied. A gas circulation system for isotope laser development was manufactured. When a part of {sup 16}O in CO{sub 2} were changed by {sup 18}O, the stretching mode of CO{sub 2} became unsymmetrical mode. P17 and P19 of laser oscillation were observed. They are odd lines that have never been observed. SiF{sub 4} and Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} were decomposed by plasma CVD method. About 28% Si crystal was obtained by controlling the reaction temperature at about 350 to 450degC. Homogeneous P single crystal(100) with 10 mm diameter was obtained. Thermal conductivity of B single crystal with {sup 10}B showed 1.5 times as much as that of natural components. Calculation of displacement damages, change of components, induced radioactivity and decay heat were improved by arrangement of simulation code. (S.Y.)

  15. Stable Isotope Spectroscopy for Diagnostic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnick, D. E.

    2000-06-01

    Isotopic tracers have been used in medical research for more than fifty years. Radioactive isotopes have been most used because of the high detection efficiencies possible. With increased awareness of the effects of low level radiation and radioactive waste management problems, the need for safe non radioactive tracers has become apparent. Rare stable isotopes of biologically active elements can be used for metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies provided that both sufficient detection sensitivity can be achieved and reliable cost effective instruments can be developed. High resolution optical spectroscopic methods which can determine isotopic ratios with high precision and accuracy are viable for research and clinical use. The study of 13C/12C ratios in CO2 for breath test diagnostics will be described in detail. Using the laser optogalvonic effect with isotopic lasers a specific medical diagnostic for h-pylori infection, has recently received FDA approval. Opportunities exist to study D/H ratios in water and 18O/16O ratios in CO2 and water for basic metabolism diagnostics and 15N/14N ratios in urine for liver function and related studies.

  16. Welding using CO/sub 2/ lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, E.; Behler, K.; Petschke, U.; Scholowski, W.; Rosen, H.G.; Hamann, C.

    1986-03-01

    In laser welding a workpiece is locally heated up to the evaporation temperature. As soon as metallic vapour is formed, a laser induced plasma can be ignited. This plasma causes a conversion of the incident laser energy into thermal energy. As a consequence of this plasma property, the laser radiation is almost completely coupled into the workpiece. Theoretical models of laser radiation absorption are reviewed which enable computing threshold values of the laser beam parameters with respect to the local evaporation of the workpiece material and the ignition and development of the laser induced plasma. The radiation absorption is also dependent on plasma characteristics which can be influenced by shielding gases. The shielding effects are included in the plasma model and are discussed in detail. The influence of laser modes, laser beam caustic as well as polarization of the laser radiation with reference to focusing, welding geometry and the absorption are presented. Typical welding defects as hardening in the area of a welding join and porosity as well as laser applications in welding of various materials, some special requirements concerning laser welding and its economical aspects are described.

  17. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaela Putzhammer; Christian Doppler; Thomas Jakschitz; Katharina Heinz; Juliane Förste; Katarina Danzl; Barbara Messner; David Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothe...

  18. Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, B

    2013-01-01

    The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

  19. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  20. The Droplets Condensate Centering in the Vapour Channel of Short Low Temperature Heat Pipes at High Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryakov, A. V.; Shakshin, S. L.; Alekseev, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of the process of condensate microdroplets centering contained in the moving moist vapour in the vapour channel of short heat pipes (HPs) for large thermal loads are presented. A vapour channel formed by capillary-porous insert in the form of the inner Laval-liked nozzle along the entire length of the HP. In the upper cover forming a condensation surface in the HP, on the diametrical line are installed capacitive sensors, forming three capacitors located at different distances from the longitudinal axis of the vapour channel. With increasing heat load and the boil beginning in the evaporator a large amount of moist vapour in the vapour channel of HP occur the pressure pulsation with frequency of 400-500 Hz and amplitude up to 1·104Pa. These pulsations affect the moving of the inertial droplets subsystem of the vapour and due to the heterogeneity of the velocity profile around the particle flow in the vapour channel at the diameter of microdroplets occurs transverse force, called the Saffman force and shear microdroplets to the center of vapour channel. Using installed in the top cover capacitors we can record the radial displacement of the condensable microdroplets.

  1. Laser approaches for deposition of carbon nitride films - chemical vapour deposition and ablation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popov, C.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Ivanov, B.; Tomov, R. I.; Kulisch, W.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (1999), s. 577-581 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/93/0464 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.924, year: 1999

  2. Laser beam-plasma plume interaction during laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jacek; Moscicki, Tomasz; Szymanski, Zygmunt

    2003-10-01

    Laser welding process is unstable because the keyhole wall performs oscillations which results in the oscillations of plasma plume over the keyhole mouth. The characteristic frequencies are equal to 0.5-4 kHz. Since plasma plume absorbs and refracts laser radiation, plasma oscillations modulate the laser beam before it reaches the workpiece. In this work temporary electron densities and temperatures are determined in the peaks of plasma bursts during welding with a continuous wave CO2 laser. It has been found that during strong bursts the plasma plume over the keyhole consists of metal vapour only, being not diluted by the shielding gas. As expected the values of electron density are about two times higher in peaks than their time-averaged values. Since the plasma absorption coefficient scales as ~N2e/T3/2 (for CO2 laser radiation) the results show that the power of the laser beam reaching the metal surface is modulated by the plasma plume oscillations. The attenuation factor equals 4-6% of the laser power but it is expected that it is doubled by the refraction effect. The results, together with the analysis of the colour pictures from streak camera, allow also interpretation of the dynamics of the plasma plume.

  3. Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Maciej Lukasz; Knysak, Jakub; Gawron, Michal; Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Kurek, Jolanta; Prokopowicz, Adam; Jablonska-Czapla, Magdalena; Rosik-Dulewska, Czeslawa; Havel, Christopher; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal

    2014-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, are devices designed to imitate regular cigarettes and deliver nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco. They are purported to deliver nicotine without other toxicants and to be a safer alternative to regular cigarettes. However, little toxicity testing has been performed to evaluate the chemical nature of vapour generated from e-cigarettes. The aim of this study was to screen e-cigarette vapours for content of four groups of potentially toxic and carcinogenic compounds: carbonyls, volatile organic compounds, nitrosamines and heavy metals. Vapours were generated from 12 brands of e-cigarettes and the reference product, the medicinal nicotine inhaler, in controlled conditions using a modified smoking machine. The selected toxic compounds were extracted from vapours into a solid or liquid phase and analysed with chromatographic and spectroscopy methods. We found that the e-cigarette vapours contained some toxic substances. The levels of the toxicants were 9-450 times lower than in cigarette smoke and were, in many cases, comparable with trace amounts found in the reference product. Our findings are consistent with the idea that substituting tobacco cigarettes with e-cigarettes may substantially reduce exposure to selected tobacco-specific toxicants. E-cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy among smokers unwilling to quit, warrants further study. (To view this abstract in Polish and German, please see the supplementary files online.).

  4. Isotope shift measurements on the D1 line in francium isotopes at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, R.; Tandecki, M.; Gwinner, G.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    Francium is the heaviest alkali and has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived among them, with half-lives from seconds to a few minutes, are now available in the new Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF, Canada, for future weak interaction studies. We present isotope shift measurements on the 7S1 / 2 --> 7P1 / 2 (D 1) transition on three isotopes, 206, 207 and 213 in a magneto-optical trap. The shifts are measured using a c.w. Ti:sapphire laser locked to a stabilized cavity at the mid-point between two hyperfine transitions of the reference isotope 209Fr. Scanning tunable microwave sidebands locate transitions in the other isotopes. In combination with the D 2 isotope shifts, analysis can provide a separation of the field shift, due to a changing nuclear charge radius, and specific mass shift, due to changing electron correlations, in these isotopes. Work supported by NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and DOE from USA, CONYACT from Mexico.

  5. Effect of Liquid/Vapour Maldistribution on the Performance of Plate Heat Exchanger Evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    Plate heat exchangers are often applied as evaporators in industrial refrigeration and heat pump systems. In the design and modelling of such heat exchangers the flow and liquid/vapour distribution is often assumed to be ideal. However, maldistribution may occur and will cause each channel...... to behave differently due to the variation of the mass flux and vapour quality. To evaluate the effect of maldistribution on the performance of plate heat exchangers, a numerical model is developed in which the mass, momentum and energy balances are applied individually to each channel, including suitable...... correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop. The flow distribution on both the refrigerant and secondary side is determined based on equal pressure drop while the liquid/vapour distribution is imposed to the model. Results show that maldistribution may cause up to a 25 % reduction of the overall heat...

  6. Prediction of clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of the clothed body walking in wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoming; Fan, Jintu

    2006-11-01

    Clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance are the two most important parameters in thermal environmental engineering, functional clothing design and end use of clothing ensembles. In this study, clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of various types of clothing ensembles were measured using the walking-able sweating manikin, Walter, under various environmental conditions and walking speeds. Based on an extensive experimental investigation and an improved understanding of the effects of body activities and environmental conditions, a simple but effective direct regression model has been established, for predicting the clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance under wind and walking motion, from those when the manikin was standing in still air. The model has been validated by using experimental data reported in the previous literature. It has shown that the new models have advantages and provide very accurate prediction.

  7. Kinetic model of water vapour adsorption by gluten-free starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocieczek, Aneta; Kostek, Robert; Ruszkowska, Millena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the kinetics of water vapour adsorption on the surface of starch molecules derived from wheat. The aim of the study was to determine an equation that would allow estimation of water content in tested material in any timepoint of the adsorption process aimed at settling a balance with the environment. An adsorption isotherm of water vapour on starch granules was drawn. The parameters of the Guggenheim, Anderson, and De Boer equation were determined by characterizing the tested product and adsorption process. The equation of kinetics of water vapour adsorption on the surface of starch was determined based on the Guggenheim, Anderson, and De Boer model describing the state of equilibrium and on the model of a first-order linear inert element describing the changes in water content over time.

  8. Measurement of water vapour transport through a porous non-hygroscopic material in a temperature gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thor; Padfield, Tim; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    This was an experiment to identify the driving potential for water vapour diffusion through porous materials in a temperature gradient. The specimen of mineral fibre insulation was placed between a space with controlled temperature and relative humidity and a space with a controlled, higher...... temperature, and a measured but not controlled relative humidity (RH). This assembly was allowed to reach equilibrium with no vapour movement between the spaces, as tested by a constant RH on each side and by zero flux of water vapour measured in the cold side chamber. The RH and temperature values were...... be tested experimentally in this way, but it is reasonable to assume that concentration is the driving potential. The close equality of the concentrations makes it unnecessary to invoke temperature difference as a third possible potential for driving diffusion....

  9. Distribution of tritium in water vapour and precipitation around Wolsung nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jung-Seok; Lee, Sang-Kuk; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Jung-Min; Cho, Heung-Joon; Cho, Yong-Woo; Yun, Ju-Yong

    2011-07-01

    The distribution of tritium in water vapour and precipitation with discharge of tritiated water vapour and meteorological factors was studied around the Wolsung nuclear power plant (NPP) site during the period 2004-2008. The tritium concentrations in atmospheric water vapour and precipitation had a temporal variation with relatively high values in the early summer. Spatial distribution of tritium concentrations was affected by various factors such as distance from the NPP site, wind direction, tritium discharge into the atmosphere and atmospheric dispersion factor. The annual mean concentrations of atmospheric HTO and precipitation were correlated with the amount of gaseous tritium released from the Wolsung NPP. The tritium concentrations in precipitation decrease exponentially with an increase of the distance from the Wolsung NPP site.

  10. METHOD OF ISOTOPE CONCENTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1957-04-01

    An isotope concentration process is described which consists of exchanging, at two or more different temperature stages, two isotopes of an element between substances that are physically separate from each other and each of which is capable of containing either of the isotopes, and withdrawing from a point between at least two of the temperatare stages one of the substances containing an increased concentration of the desired isotope.

  11. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzhammer, Raphaela; Doppler, Christian; Jakschitz, Thomas; Heinz, Katharina; Förste, Juliane; Danzl, Katarina; Messner, Barbara; Bernhard, David

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to the mixture of compounds present in the vapour of 4 different single-use e-cigarettes, 6 different liquid vapours produced by the same refillable e-cigarette, and one e-cigarette with an exchangeable liquid cartridge. After incubation of cells with various concentrations and for various periods of time we analysed cell death induction, proliferation rates, the occurrence of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and we also measured e-cigarette heating coil temperatures. Overall, conventional cigarette smoke extract showed the most severe impact on endothelial cells. However, some e-cigarette vapour extracts showed high cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and alterations in cell morphology, which were comparable to conventional high-nicotine cigarettes. The vapours generated from different liquids using the same e-cigarette show substantial differences, pointing to the liquids as an important source for toxicity. E-cigarette vapour-mediated induction of oxidative stress was significant in one out of the 11 analysed vapours. There is a high variability in the acute cytotoxicity of e-cigarette vapours depending on the liquid and on the e-cigarettes used. Some products showed toxic effects close to a conventional high-nicotine cigarette. Liquid nicotine, menthol content, and the formation of acute intracellular reactive oxygen species do not seem to be the central elements in e-cigarette vapour toxicity.

  12. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Putzhammer

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to the mixture of compounds present in the vapour of 4 different single-use e-cigarettes, 6 different liquid vapours produced by the same refillable e-cigarette, and one e-cigarette with an exchangeable liquid cartridge. After incubation of cells with various concentrations and for various periods of time we analysed cell death induction, proliferation rates, the occurrence of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and we also measured e-cigarette heating coil temperatures. Overall, conventional cigarette smoke extract showed the most severe impact on endothelial cells. However, some e-cigarette vapour extracts showed high cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and alterations in cell morphology, which were comparable to conventional high-nicotine cigarettes. The vapours generated from different liquids using the same e-cigarette show substantial differences, pointing to the liquids as an important source for toxicity. E-cigarette vapour-mediated induction of oxidative stress was significant in one out of the 11 analysed vapours. There is a high variability in the acute cytotoxicity of e-cigarette vapours depending on the liquid and on the e-cigarettes used. Some products showed toxic effects close to a conventional high-nicotine cigarette. Liquid nicotine, menthol content, and the formation of acute intracellular reactive oxygen species do not seem to be the central elements in e-cigarette vapour toxicity.

  13. Lumière dans des vapeurs atomiques opaques : piégeage radiatif, laser aléatoire et vols de Lévy

    OpenAIRE

    Baudouin, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    The matter-light interaction in opaque media gives rise to collective effects which may be explained by the coupling between atomic equations and light transfer equation. The trapping of light in an opaque multi-levels atomic system will be studied experimentally in a cold vapour and theoritically. Then, this vapour will be in situation with gain and amplification of light occurs. We will show that a laser threshold exists with this kind of system. Experimentally, the mixing of Raman gain and...

  14. Upper tropospheric water vapour variability at high latitudes – Part 1: Influence of the annular modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Sioris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and monthly zonal medians of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS are calculated for both Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE instruments for the northern and southern high-latitude regions (60–90° N and 60–90° S. Chosen for the purpose of observing high-latitude processes, the ACE orbit provides sampling of both regions in 8 of 12 months of the year, with coverage in all seasons. The ACE water vapour sensors, namely MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation and the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS are currently the only satellite instruments that can probe from the lower stratosphere down to the mid-troposphere to study the vertical profile of the response of UTLS water vapour to the annular modes. The Arctic oscillation (AO, also known as the northern annular mode (NAM, explains 64 % (r = −0.80 of the monthly variability in water vapour at northern high latitudes observed by ACE-MAESTRO between 5 and 7 km using only winter months (January to March, 2004–2013. Using a seasonal time step and all seasons, 45 % of the variability is explained by the AO at 6.5 ± 0.5 km, similar to the 46 % value obtained for southern high latitudes at 7.5 ± 0.5 km explained by the Antarctic oscillation or southern annular mode (SAM. A large negative AO event in March 2013 produced the largest relative water vapour anomaly at 5.5 km (+70 % over the ACE record. A similarly large event in the 2010 boreal winter, which was the largest negative AO event in the record (1950–2015, led to > 50 % increases in water vapour observed by MAESTRO and ACE-FTS at 7.5 km.

  15. WATER VAPOUR PERMEABILITY PROPERTIES OF CELLULAR WOOD MATERIAL AND CONDENSATION RISK OF COMPOSITE PANEL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis IEJAVS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invention of light weight cellular wood material (CWM with a trade mark of Dendrolight is one of innovations in wood industry of the last decade. The aim of the research was to define the water vapour permeability properties of CWM and to analyse the condensation risk of various wall envelopes where solid wood cellular material is used. To determine the water vapour permeability of CWM, test samples were produced in the factory using routine production technology and tested according to the standard EN 12086:2014. Water vapour permeability factor (μ and other properties of six different configurations of CWM samples were determined. Using the experimental data the indicative influence of geometrical parameters such as lamella thickness, number of lamellas and material direction were investigated and evaluated. To study the condensation risk within the wall envelope containing CWM calculation method given in LVS EN ISO 13788:2012 was used. To ease the calculation process previously developed JavaScript calculation software that had only capability to calculate thermal transmittance was extended so that condensation risk in multi-layer composite walls can be analysed. Water vapour permeability factor in CWM is highly direction dependant. If parallel and perpendicular direction of CWM is compared the value of water vapour permeability factor can differentiate more than two times. Another significant factor for condensation risk analysis is overall thickness of CWM since it directly influences the equivalent air layer thickness. The influence of other factors such as lamella thickness, or groove depth is minor when water vapour permeability properties are compared. From the analysis of CWM performance in building envelope it can be concluded that uninsulated CWM panels used during winter months will pose the risk of condensation damage to structure, but the risk can be reduced or prevented if insulation layer is applied to the CWM panel wall

  16. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M.E.; Krol, M.C.; Hofmann, M.E.G.

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of

  17. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233; Popa, M. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375806407; Krol, M. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410; Hofmann, M. E. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374642907

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a

  18. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M. E.; Krol, M. C.; Hofmann, M. E. G.

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a molecule, which is the conventional reference. When multiple indistinguishable atoms of the same element are present in a molecule, this reference is calculated from the bulk (≈average) isotopic composition of the involved atoms. We show here that this referencing convention leads to apparent negative clumped isotope anomalies (anti-clumping) when the indistinguishable atoms originate from isotopically different populations. Such statistical clumped isotope anomalies must occur in any system where two or more indistinguishable atoms of the same element, but with different isotopic composition, combine in a molecule. The size of the anti-clumping signal is closely related to the difference of the initial isotope ratios of the indistinguishable atoms that have combined. Therefore, a measured statistical clumped isotope anomaly, relative to an expected (e.g. thermodynamical) clumped isotope composition, may allow assessment of the heterogeneity of the isotopic pools of atoms that are the substrate for formation of molecules. PMID:27535168

  19. High frequency, realtime measurements of stable isotopes in liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, M.; Herbstritt, B.; Gralher, B.

    2012-04-01

    We developed a method to measure in-situ the isotopic composition of liquid water with minimal supervision and, most important, with a temporal resolution of less than a minute. For this purpose a off-the-shelf microporous hydrophobic membrane contactor for under 200€ was combined with an isotope laser spectrometer (Picarro). The contactor, originally designed for degassing liquids, was used with nitrogen as carrier gas in order to transform a small fraction of liquid water to water vapor. The generated water vapor was then analyzed continuously by the isotope laser spectrometer. To prove the membrane's applicability we determined the specific isotope fractionation factor for the phase change through the contactor's membrane for a common temperature range and with different waters of known isotopic compositions. This fractionation factor is then used to derive the liquid water isotope ratio from the measured water vapor isotope ratios and the measured temperature at the phase change. The system was compared for breakthrough curves of isotopically enriched water and the isotope values corresponded very well with those of liquid water samples taken simultaneously and analyzed with a conventional method (CRDS). The introduced method supersedes taking liquid samples and employs only relative cheap and readily available components. This makes it a relatively inexpensive, fast, user-friendly and easily reproducible method. It can be applied in both the field and laboratory wherever a water vapor isotope analyzer can be run and whenever real-time isotope data of liquid water are required at high temporal resolution with the same accuracy as collecting individual water samples.

  20. Determine Canopy Turbulent Transport and Evapotranspiration Partition With the Help of a new Soil Water Isotope Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, M.; Haverd, V.; Griffith, D. W.; Keitel, C.; Tadros, C.; Twining, J.

    2010-12-01

    We determine the profile of turbulent transport and evapotranspiration ET partition in a Eucalypt forest for a two-week period. We therefore optimise agreement between modelled and measured vertical profiles of temperature T, water vapour H2O, carbon dioxide CO2, and deuterium content of water vapour HDO. Modelled T and concentration profiles are derived from Lagrangian dispersion theory together with a Soil Vegetation Atmospheric Transfer (SVAT) model, which was enhanced by a new scheme for coupled transport of heat, water and stable isotopes in soil and litter, Soil-Litter-Iso. We first present the new water isotope model Soil-Litter-iso, which is suitable for SVAT modelling but also as part of a land surface scheme. The model permits using thick soil layers and large times steps, resulting in significantly improved computational efficiency compared with existing isotopically-enabled soil models of similar complexity. Deuterium contents δD of soil evaporation and vertically-resolved transpiration as prior estimates for the optimisation are then derived using the SVAT model with Soil-Litter-Iso for the isotopic soil evaporates and an advection-diffusion model for leaf water and transpiration isotopes. Predictions of δD in soil evaporate were validated using soil chamber measurements, while the transpirates were validated using isotopic analyses of leaf and xylem water, combined with leaf-level gas exchange measurements. Hence, modelled T and concentration profiles are generated using Lagrangian dispersion theory combined with source/sink distributions of sensible heat, CO2, H2O and HDO coming from the SVAT model. Optimisation of turbulent transport and ET partition was then performed twice: once using only T, CO2 and H2O profiles and a second time including δD of water vapour as well. The modelled concentration profiles resulting from inclusion of δD demonstrate our ability to make consistent estimates of both the source distributions and δD of the water

  1. Pulsed laser ablation of solids basics, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stafe, Mihai; Puscas, Niculae N

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces ‘the state of the art' of pulsed laser ablation and its applications. It is based on recent theoretical and experimental studies. The book reaches from the basics to advanced topics of pulsed laser ablation. Theoretical and experimental fundamental phenomena involved in pulsed laser ablation are discussed with respect to material properties, laser wavelength, fluence and intensity regime of the light absorbed linearly or non-linearly in the target material. The energy absorbed by the electrons leads to atom/molecule excitation, ionization and/or direct chemical bond breaking and is also transferred to the lattice leading to material heating and phase transitions. Experimental  non-invasive optical methods for analyzing these phenomena in real time are described. Theoretical models for pulsed laser ablation and phase transitions induced by laser beams and laser-vapour/plasma interaction during the plume expansion above the target are also presented. Calculations of the ablation speed and...

  2. Onsager heat of transport at the n-octane liquid vapour interface: Effects of altering the size of the vapour-gap and of adding helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Leon F.

    2008-06-01

    Values of the Onsager heat of transport Q∗ measured at the n-octane liquid-vapour interface are consistent with the results of molecular dynamics calculations by Simon et al. [J.-M. Simon, S. Kjelstrup, D. Bedeaux, B. Hafskjold, J. Phys. Chem. B 108 (2004) 7186.] The measured value of Q∗ is independent of gas pressure but is affected by variations in the size of the vapour gap over which the temperature gradient is applied. Measurements with added helium indicate that Q∗ is negative for helium at the surface of n-octane, even though the enthalpy of solution is positive. The helium results can be understood on the basis of an existing model.

  3. Applicability of chemical vapour polishing of additive manufactured parts to meet production-quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method is the most rapidly growing Additive Manufacturing (AM) method[1]. FDM employs a 2.5D deposition scheme which induce a step-ladder shaped surface definition [2], with seams of the individual layers clearly visible[3]. This paper investigate to which...... extend chemical vapour polishing can be applied to eliminate the layered surfaces from FDM, so that a polished surface quality is obtained. It is quantified to what extend parts can be vapour polished and how geometrical and mechanical properties alter. The fundamental question is whether the surfaces...... of FDM manufactured parts can be taken from their current quality into the precision engineering domain....

  4. The Gibbs-Thomson formula at small island sizes - corrections for high vapour densities

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamachari, Badrinarayan; McLean, James; Cooper, Barbara; Sethna, James

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we report simulation studies of equilibrium features, namely circular islands on model surfaces, using Monte-Carlo methods. In particular, we are interested in studying the relationship between the density of vapour around a curved island and its curvature-the Gibbs-Thomson formula. Numerical simulations of a lattice gas model, performed for various sizes of islands, don't fit very well to the Gibbs-Thomson formula. We show how corrections to this form arise at high vapour densi...

  5. Thermal diffusion of water vapour in porous materials: fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The reliable evaluation of moisture transfer in porous materials is essential in many engineering applications, among which building science. One key aspect is a correct description of moisture flow phenomena and their transport potentials. While different issues can be debated in that respect...... its negligible magnitude. It can in conclusion be stated that thermal diffusion is of no importance for building science applications, leaving vapour pressure as the sole significant transport potential for the diffusion of water vapour in porous materials. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Spatio-Temporal Estimation of Integrated Water Vapour Over the Malaysian Peninsula during Monsoon Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihin, S.; Musa, T. A.; Radzi, Z. Mohd

    2017-10-01

    This paper provides the precise information on spatial-temporal distribution of water vapour that was retrieved from Zenith Path Delay (ZPD) which was estimated by Global Positioning System (GPS) processing over the Malaysian Peninsular. A time series analysis of these ZPD and Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) values was done to capture the characteristic on their seasonal variation during monsoon seasons. This study was found that the pattern and distribution of atmospheric water vapour over Malaysian Peninsular in whole four years periods were influenced by two inter-monsoon and two monsoon seasons which are First Inter-monsoon, Second Inter-monsoon, Southwest monsoon and Northeast monsoon.

  7. Temperature-dependent transport mechanisms through PE-CVD coatings: comparison of oxygen and water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchheim, D.; Wilski, S.; Jaritz, M.; Mitschker, F.; Gebhard, M.; Brochhagen, M.; Böke, M.; Benedikt, Jan; Awakowicz, P.; Devi, A.; Hopmann, Ch; Dahlmann, R.

    2017-10-01

    When it comes to thin coatings such as plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition or plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition coatings on substrates of polymeric material, existing models often describe transport through these thin coatings as mainly driven by transport through defects of different sizes. However, temperature-dependent measurements of permeation could not confirm this hypothesis and instead gaseous transport through these thin coatings was found to more likely to occur through the molecular structure. This paper correlates existing transport models with data from oxygen transmission experiments and puts recent investigations for water vapour transmission mechanisms into context for a better understanding of gaseous transport through thin coatings.

  8. Thermal conductivity of isotopically modified graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Wu, Qingzhi; Mishra, Columbia; Kang, Junyong; Zhang, Hengji; Cho, Kyeongjae; Cai, Weiwei; Balandin, Alexander A; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2012-01-10

    In addition to its exotic electronic properties graphene exhibits unusually high intrinsic thermal conductivity. The physics of phonons--the main heat carriers in graphene--has been shown to be substantially different in two-dimensional (2D) crystals, such as graphene, from in three-dimensional (3D) graphite. Here, we report our experimental study of the isotope effects on the thermal properties of graphene. Isotopically modified graphene containing various percentages of 13C were synthesized by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The regions of different isotopic compositions were parts of the same graphene sheet to ensure uniformity in material parameters. The thermal conductivity, K, of isotopically pure 12C (0.01% 13C) graphene determined by the optothermal Raman technique, was higher than 4,000 W mK(-1) at the measured temperature T(m)~320 K, and more than a factor of two higher than the value of K in graphene sheets composed of a 50:50 mixture of 12C and 13C. The experimental data agree well with our molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, corrected for the long-wavelength phonon contributions by means of the Klemens model. The experimental results are expected to stimulate further studies aimed at a better understanding of thermal phenomena in 2D crystals.

  9. A trio of laser ablation in concert with two ICP-MSs: Simultaneous, pulse-by-pulse determination of U-Pb discordant ages and a single spot Hf isotope ratio analysis in complex zircons from petrographic thin sections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darren L. Tollstrup; Lie-Wen Xie; Josh B. Wimpenny; Emily Chin; Cin-Ty Lee; Qing-Zhu Yin

    2012-01-01

      We have developed a technique for the simultaneous in situ determination of U-Pb ages and Hf isotope ratios from a single spot in complex, discordant zircons by combining both a single-collector...

  10. Measurements of the levels of organic solvent vapours by personal air samplers and the levels of urinary metabolites of workers. Part 2. Toluene vapour in a shipbuilding yard (author's transl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, S

    1977-05-01

    Personal air samplers were applied to shipyard's painters putting on gas masks during the spraying work, and the levels of toluene vapour surrounding the workers were measured. On the other hand, levels of urinary hippuric acid (metabolites of toluene) of the workers were measured, and the levels of toluene vapour inhaled were calculated from the levels of urinary hippuric acid. Then the actual removing-efficiencies of toluene vapours by the use of gas masks were estimated from these two levels (i.e., toluene vapours exposed and inhaled). The values of removing-efficiencies were found to be 65.9-98.1%. The concentrations of hippuric and methylhippuric acids in the urine of workers exposed to toluene and xylene for 3 hours, collected just after the exposure, are valuable indices of these organic solvent vapours inhaled. A minute amount of urinary methylhippuric acid can be determined by means of gas chromatography.

  11. Measurements of isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in Ti II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, Z; Rosner, S D; Holt, R A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Li, R [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6 T 2A3 (Canada); Scholl, T J, E-mail: rholt@uwo.c [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5C1 (Canada)

    2010-06-01

    We have applied fast-ion-beam laser-fluorescence spectroscopy to measure the isotope shifts of 38 transitions in the wavelength range 429-457 nm and the hyperfine structures (hfs) of 22 levels in Ti II. The isotope shift and hfs measurements are the first for these transitions and levels. These atomic data are essential for astrophysical studies of chemical abundances, allowing correction for saturation and the effects of blended lines.

  12. Isotopes in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Justin SJ

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to review the current, state-of-the-art application of isotopic methods to the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Isotopic studies are arguably the ultimate technique in in situ methods for heterogeneous catalysis. In this review volume, chapters have been contributed by experts in the field and the coverage includes both the application of specific isotopes - Deuterium, Tritium, Carbon-14, Sulfur-35 and Oxygen-18 - as well as isotopic techniques - determination of surface mobility, steady state transient isotope kinetic analysis, and positron emission profiling.

  13. Daresbury on-line isotope separator (DOLIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, I.S.; Eastham, D.A.; Groves, J.; Tolfree, D.W.L.; Walker, P.M.; Green, V.R.; Rikovska, J.; Stone, N.J.; Hamilton, W.D.

    1987-05-01

    The isotope separator DOLIS, which is on-line to the Daresbury Laboratory's 20-MV tandem accelerator, is used to measure nuclear moments and decay schemes. Separated beams may be collected on a tape and transported to a counting station, implanted directly into a host lattice at on-line temperatures down to less than 10 mK, or allowed to interact with a collinear laser beam. The present status of DOLIS and its ancillary equipment is described.

  14. Chromium isotope variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary

    Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes are a useful tracer of changes in redox conditions because changes in its oxidation state are accompanied by an isotopic fractionation. For this reason the Cr isotope system is being developed as a potential tool for paleo-redox reconstruction. Dissolved Cr in seawater...... is incorporated into carbonates. Hence, ancient carbonates can potentially record the Cr isotopic composition (δ53Cr ‰) of seawater in the geological past. Reliable application and interpretation of this proxy requires a detailed knowledge about processes that fractionate Cr on the Earth’s surface......, and the quantification the Cr isotope composition of major Cr fluxes into and out of ocean. This thesis adds to the current knowledge of the Cr isotope system and is divided into two studies. The focus of the first study was to determine what processes control the Cr isotopic compositionof river water and to quantify...

  15. The effects of substituent position on kinetics of benzene vapour adsorption onto 3-phenylphenoxy substituted metal-free and metallo-phthalocyanines thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamin Ali, Haytham Elzien; Can, Nursel; Altun, Selçuk; Odabaş, Zafer

    2016-11-14

    The preparation of metal-free, Zn(ii), In(iii), and Cu(ii)-phthalocyanines containing tetrakis-(3-phenylphenoxy) groups was achieved by employing 3-(3-phenylphenoxy)phthalonitrile (1) and 4-(3-phenylphenoxy)phthalonitrile (2) as starting materials. The phthalonitriles and phthalocyanines were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet-visible, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopic techniques. The effect of the substituent group on the kinetics of benzene vapour adsorption onto these novel compounds was examined using three kinetics models: the pseudo first-order model, the Elovich equation, and a simple adsorption-desorption model. Results show that the benzene adsorption kinetics strongly depend on the position of the substituent groups.

  16. On-line separation of short-lived beryllium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Catherall, R; Fedosseev, V; Georg, U; Huber, G; Jading, Y; Jonsson, O; Koizumi, M; Kratz, K L; Kugler, E; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Ravn, H L; Sebastian, V; Tamburella, C; Wöhr, A

    1998-01-01

    With the development of a new laser ionization scheme, it became possible to ionize beryllium efficiently in the hot cavity of the ISOLDE laser ion source. The high target and ion source temperatures enable the release of short-lived beryllium isotopes. Thus all particle-stable beryllium isotopes could be extracted from a standard uranium carbide/graphite target. For the first time the short-lived isotopes /sup 12/Be and /sup 14/Be could be identified at an ISOL facility, /sup 14/Be being among the most short-lived isotopes separated so far at ISOLDE. The release time from the UC/graphite target was studied with several beryllium isotopes. Profiting from the element selectivity of laser ionization, the strong and isotopically pure beam of /sup 12/Be allowed to determine the half- life to T/sub 1/2 /=21.34(23) ms and the probability of beta-delayed neutron emission to P/sub n/=0.48/sub -0.10//sup +0.12/(23 refs).

  17. A review on the recent development of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning with low temperature storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional air conditioners or vapour compression systems are main contributors to energy consumption in modern buildings. There are common environmental issues emanating from vapour compression system such as greenhouse gas emission and heat wastage. These problems can be reduced by adaptation of solar energy components to vapour compression system. However, intermittence input of daily solar radiation was the main issue of solar energy system. This paper presents the recent studies on hybrid air conditioning system. In addition, the basic vapour compression system and components involved in the solar air conditioning system are discussed. Introduction of low temperature storage can be an interactive solution and improved economically which portray different modes of operating strategies. Yet, very few studies have examined on optimal operating strategies of the hybrid system. Finally, the findings of this review will help suggest optimization of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning system for future work while considering both economic and environmental factors.

  18. Leidenfrost vapour layer moderation of the drag crisis and trajectories of superhydrophobic and hydrophilic spheres falling in water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic effects of a Leidenfrost vapour layer sustained on the surface of heated steel spheres during free fall in water. We find that a stable vapour layer sustained on the textured superhydrophobic surface of spheres falling through 95 °C water can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by up to 75% and stabilize the sphere trajectory for the Reynolds number between 104 and 106, spanning the drag crisis in the absence of the vapour layer. For hydrophilic spheres under the same conditions, the transition to drag reduction and trajectory stability occurs abruptly at a temperature different from the static Leidenfrost point. The observed drag reduction effects are attributed to the disruption of the viscous boundary layer by the vapour layer whose thickness depends on the water temperature. Both the drag reduction and the trajectory stabilization effects are expected to have significant implications for development of sustainable vapour layer based technologies. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  19. Leidenfrost vapour layer moderation of the drag crisis and trajectories of superhydrophobic and hydrophilic spheres falling in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-08-21

    We investigate the dynamic effects of a Leidenfrost vapour layer sustained on the surface of heated steel spheres during free fall in water. We find that a stable vapour layer sustained on the textured superhydrophobic surface of spheres falling through 95 °C water can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by up to 75% and stabilize the sphere trajectory for the Reynolds number between 10(4) and 10(6), spanning the drag crisis in the absence of the vapour layer. For hydrophilic spheres under the same conditions, the transition to drag reduction and trajectory stability occurs abruptly at a temperature different from the static Leidenfrost point. The observed drag reduction effects are attributed to the disruption of the viscous boundary layer by the vapour layer whose thickness depends on the water temperature. Both the drag reduction and the trajectory stabilization effects are expected to have significant implications for development of sustainable vapour layer based technologies.

  20. The Use of VMD Data/Model to Test Different Thermodynamic Models for Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Azquierdo-Gil, M.A.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2004-01-01

    Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) has been studied as a separation process to remove volatile organic compounds from aqueous streams. A vapour pressure difference across a microporous hydrophobic membrane is the driving force for the mass transport through the membrane pores (this transport takes...... place in vapour phase). The vapour pressure difference is obtained in VMD processes by applying a vacuum on one side of the membrane. The membrane acts as a mere support for the liquid-vapour equilibrium. The evaporation of the liquid stream takes place on the feed side of the membrane......, and the condensation on the permeate side of the membrane. The paper focus on aroma stripping using VMD; factors influencing flux and separation performance using selected model aroma compounds have been studied. Mainly the following parameters have been examined-aroma compounds: activity coefficient/vapour pressure...

  1. Development of O-18 stable isotope separation technology using membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Taek Soo; Choi, Hwa Rim; Park, Sung Hee; Lee, Ki Tae; Chang, Dae Shik

    2006-06-15

    The ultimate goal of this investigation is to develop the separation technology for O-18 oxygen stable isotope used in a cyclotron as a target for production of radioisotope F-18. F-18 is a base material for synthesis of [F-18]FDG radio-pharmaceutical, which is one of the most important tumor diagnostic agent used in PET (Positron Emission Tomography). More specifically, this investigation is focused on three categories as follow, 1) development of the membrane distillation isotope separation process to re-enrich O-18 stable isotope whose isotopic concentration is reduced after used in a cyclotron, 2) development of organic impurity purification technology to remove acetone, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile contained in a used cyclotron O-18 enriched target water, and 3) development of a laser absorption spectroscopic system for analyzing oxygen isotopic concentration in water.

  2. Current developments with TRIUMF’s titanium-sapphire laser based resonance ionization laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassen, J., E-mail: LASSEN@triumf.ca; Li, R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Raeder, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Zhao, X.; Dekker, T. [TRIUMF (Canada); Heggen, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Kunz, P.; Levy, C. D. P.; Mostanmand, M.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Ames, F. [TRIUMF (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    Developments at TRIUMF’s isotope separator and accelerator (ISAC) resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) in the past years have concentrated on increased reliability for on-line beam delivery of radioactive isotopes to experiments, as well as increasing the number of elements available through resonance ionization and searching for ionization schemes with improved efficiency. The current status of these developments is given with a list of two step laser ionization schemes implemented recently.

  3. Current developments with TRIUMF's titanium-sapphire laser based resonance ionization laser ion source. An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, J.; Li, R.; Raeder, S.; Zhao, X.; Dekker, T.; Heggen, H.; Kunz, P.; P. Levy, C. D.; Mostanmand, M.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Ames, F.

    2017-11-01

    Developments at TRIUMF's isotope separator and accelerator (ISAC) resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) in the past years have concentrated on increased reliability for on-line beam delivery of radioactive isotopes to experiments, as well as increasing the number of elements available through resonance ionization and searching for ionization schemes with improved efficiency. The current status of these developments is given with a list of two step laser ionization schemes implemented recently.

  4. Nondestructive identification of isotopes using nuclear resonance fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Hajima, Ryoichi; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Toyokawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Nondestructive identification of heavy isotopes concealed in a thick iron box has been demonstrated by using nuclear resonance fluorescence. A quasi-monochromatic photon beam produced by the collision of laser quanta with high energy electrons was used for resonant excitation of nuclear levels in (206)Pb and (208)Pb. By measuring the resonant γ rays emitted from (206)Pb and (208)Pb, each of these isotopes were clearly identified. The ratio of the effective thickness, i.e., concentration distribution, of these isotopes was deduced from the relative intensities of the measured nuclear resonance fluorescence strengths.

  5. Laser controlled atom source for optical clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Ole; He, Wei; Świerad, Dariusz; Smith, Lyndsie; Hughes, Joshua; Bongs, Kai; Singh, Yeshpal

    2016-11-01

    Precision timekeeping has been a driving force in innovation, from defining agricultural seasons to atomic clocks enabling satellite navigation, broadband communication and high-speed trading. We are on the verge of a revolution in atomic timekeeping, where optical clocks promise an over thousand-fold improvement in stability and accuracy. However, complex setups and sensitivity to thermal radiation pose limitations to progress. Here we report on an atom source for a strontium optical lattice clock which circumvents these limitations. We demonstrate fast (sub 100 ms), cold and controlled emission of strontium atomic vapours from bulk strontium oxide irradiated by a simple low power diode laser. Our results demonstrate that millions of strontium atoms from the vapour can be captured in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Our method enables over an order of magnitude reduction in scale of the apparatus. Future applications range from satellite clocks testing general relativity to portable clocks for inertial navigation systems and relativistic geodesy.

  6. Pulsed metastable atom source for low vapour-pressure metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Urena, A.; Verdasco Costales, E. (Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Quimica); Saez Rabanos, V. (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales)

    1990-03-01

    The basic design and most relevant experimental conditions of a pulsed metastable atomic-beam oven are described. The stainless steel oven is suitable for vaporising metals and salts up to around 1400 K producing intense beams of metastable alkaline-earth atoms when pulsed or continuous wave low voltage discharges are used. Several applications using atomic calcium in its {sup 3}P and {sup 1}D electronic state are reported. The beam characterisation and discharge efficiency have been measured by time-of-flight or laser-induced fluorescence techniques. In addition, a method of changing the metastable n{sup 3}P/n{sup 1}D ratio, by raising the oven temperature, is described which looks very promising for the study of electronic selectivity in reactive collision processes. Finally several spectroscopic applications for atomic and molecular beam determinations are reported. (author).

  7. Technical note: Water vapour concentration and flux measurements with PTR-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ammann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The most direct approach for measuring the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is the eddy covariance technique. It has been applied several times in the last few years using fast response proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. We present an independent validation of this technique by applying it to measure the water vapour flux in comparison to a common reference system comprising an infra-red gas analyser (IRGA. Water vapour was detected in the PTR-MS at mass 37 (atomic mass units corresponding to the cluster ion H3O+·H2O. During a five-week field campaign at a grassland site, we obtained a non-linear but stable calibration function between the mass 37 signal and the reference water vapour concentration. With a correction of the high-frequency damping loss based on empirical ogive analysis, the eddy covariance water vapour flux obtained with the PTR-MS showed a very good agreement with the flux of the reference system. The application of the empirical ogive method for high-frequency correction led to significantly better results than using a correction based on theoretical spectral transfer functions. This finding is attributed to adsorption effects on the tube walls that are presently not included in the theoretical correction approach. The proposed high-frequency correction method can also be used for other trace gases with different adsorption characteristics.

  8. Expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition of ZnO:Al layers for CIGS solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, K.; Williams, B.L.; Mittal, A.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Kniknie, B.J.; Bakker, N.J.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Creatore, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) grown by expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition (ETP-CVD) has demonstrated excellent electrical and optical properties, which make it an attractive candidate as a transparent conductive oxide for photovoltaic applications. However, when depositing

  9. Compressibility and specific heats of heavier condensed rare gases near the liquid-vapour critical point

    CERN Document Server

    March, N H

    2003-01-01

    Sarkisov (J. Chem. Phys. 119, 373, 2003) has recently discussed the structural behaviour of a simple fluid near the liquid-vapour critical point. His work, already compared with computer simulation studies, is here brought into direct contact for the heavier condensed rare gases Ar, Kr and Xe with (a) experiment and (b) earlier theoretical investigations. Directions for future studies then emerge.

  10. Reaction of soda-lime-silica glass melt with water vapour at melting temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vernerová, Miroslava; Kloužek, Jaroslav; Němec, Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 416, MAY 15 (2015), s. 21-30 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010844 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt * sulfate * water vapour * bubble nucleation * melt foaming * glass melting Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2015

  11. Behaviour of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities from a disturbed raised peat bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities were carried out for a disturbed raised peat bog in the north of the Netherlands during an 18 month continuous experiment. Tussock grass (sp. Molinea caerulae) mainly dominated the vegetation of the bog area. The maximum leaf area index

  12. Characterisation of vapour phase grown CdTe and (Cd,Zn)Te for detector applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fiederle, M; Rogalla, M; Meinhardt, J; Ludwig, J; Runge, K; Benz, W

    1999-01-01

    The growth of CdTe from the vapour phase offers several improvements in crystal quality and homogeneity. CdTe and (Cd, Zn)Te were grown by the modified Markov technique. The transport properties and the detector performance are given and compared to melt grown material. (author)

  13. Properties of alumina films by atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; van Corbach, H.D.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Thin alumina films were deposited at low temperatures (290–420°C) on stainless steel, type AISI 304. The deposition process was carried out in nitrogen by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition using aluminum tri-sec-butoxide. The film properties including the protection of the underlying

  14. On the representativity of water vapour measurements at Boulder for global stratospheric trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossow, S.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term changes of water vapour in the lower stratosphere inevitably affect the surface climate. Thus understanding such changes is of primary importance. The longest continuous data set is based on balloon-borne frost point hygrometer observations at Boulder. Overall this data set shows an increase in water vapour since the 1980s accompanied by large variability on short time scales (Hurst et al., 2011). Recently a merged satellite data set, covering the time period between 1988 and 2010, has been analysed showing a decrease of water vapour in the lower stratosphere (Hegglin et al., 2014). This discrepancy is difficult to reconcile. There might be problems with one data set or even with both. Also the local behaviour at Boulder might not be representative for the zonal mean behaviour, which is represented by the satellite observations. So far this has been assumed and the Boulder changes have even been considered to be globally representative. Here I present investigations of this aspect using both model simulations and observations. References: Hegglin et al. (2014), "Vertical structure of stratospheric water vapour trends derived from merged satellite data", Nature Geoscience, 7, 768 - 776, doi:10.1038/ngeo2236. Hurst et al. (2011), "Stratospheric water vapor trends over Boulder, Colorado: Analysis of the 30 year Boulder record", Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, D02,306, doi:10.1029/2010JD015065.

  15. Analysis of atmospheric concentrations of quinones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vapour and particulate phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Alam, Mohammed S.; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J.; Stark, Christopher; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are often measured in studies of atmospheric chemistry or health effects of air pollution, due to their known human carcinogenicity. In recent years, PAH quinone derivatives have also become a focus of interest, primarily because they can contribute to oxidative stress. This work reports concentrations of 17 PAH and 15 quinones measured in air samples collected at a trafficked roadside. Data are presented for four compounds not previously reported in ambient air: 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone, methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2,3-dimethylanthraquinone, and a large vapour phase component is measured, not analysed in most earlier studies. Analyses are reported also for SRM 1649a and 1649b, including many compounds (8 for SRM 1649a and 12 for SRM 1649b) for which concentrations have not previously been reported. This work assesses the vapour/particle phase distribution of PAHs and quinones in relation to their molecular weight, vapour pressure, polarity and Henry's Law constant, finding that both molecular weight and vapour pressure (which are correlated) are good predictors of the partitioning.

  16. A computer-controlled system for generation of chemical vapours in in vitro dermal uptake studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauma, Matias; Johanson, Gunnar

    2007-02-01

    Recent work in our laboratory suggests that dermal absorption and desorption of volatile chemicals may be assessed in vitro by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), i.e. by passing chemical vapour over a piece of skin while recording the weight increase at constant temperature and humidity. This paper describes a high-precision automated vapour-generating system for use with the TGA equipment. The system consists of computer-controlled magnetic valves and mass flow meters that split and redirect a flow of pure, dry air through different stainless-steel gas wash bottles thermostated to 25.00+/-0.05 degrees C. Each wash bottle is filled with a neat volatile chemical and designed so that the air leaving reaches 100% saturation within seconds, as shown with cyclohexanone. The air leaving the wash bottles are combined and directed via stainless-steel liners to the skin piece in the TGA chamber. The liners are heated to 30 degrees C to prevent condensation of water or chemical. Special computer software was developed to allow automatic runs with different wash bottles (chemicals) and air flows over several days. A number of measurements were made to characterize the stability and reproducibility of the vapour-generating system. We have developed a computer-controlled vapour-generating system for use in measurements of dermal absorption of chemicals by thermal gravimetry. The system has high stability and reproducibility and produces little noise.

  17. Accuracy and conservatism of vapour intrusion algorithms for contaminated land management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, J.; Reijnders, L.; Bonders, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a view on the suitability of screening-level vapour intrusion (VI) algorithms for contaminated land management. It focuses on the accuracy and level of conservatism for a number of screening-level algorithms used for VI into buildings. The paper discusses the published evidence

  18. Vapour phase alkylation of ethylbenzene with t-butyl alcohol over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    catalysts pose problems such as difficulty in handling, safety, corrosion, waste disposal and difficulties in product separation. Even heterogeneous catalysts like kieselghur- supported phosphoric acid, used for the production of cumene, are also felt to be undesirable owing to release of acid vapours. The first solid acid ...

  19. The beauty of frost: nano-sulfur assembly via low pressure vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Lu; Scudiero, Louis; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2015-11-14

    A low pressure vapour deposition (LPVD) technique is proposed as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective and versatile strategy for fabrication of sulfur nanomaterials. By controlling the characteristics of the deposit substrate for the LPVD, various sulfur-based nanomaterials have been obtained through a substrate-induced self-assembly process.

  20. The time variation in infrared water-vapour bands in Mira variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsuura, M; Yamamura, [No Value; Cami, J; Onaka, T; Murakami, H; Yamamura, I.

    The time variation in the water-vapour bands in oxygen-rich Mira variables has been investigated using multi-epoch ISO/SWS spectra of four Mira variables in the 2.5-4.0 mum region. All four stars show H2O bands in absorption around minimum in the visual light curve. At maximum, H2O emission features

  1. GPS sensing of precipitable water vapour during the March 2010 Melbourne storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, S.; Wang, C.; Zhang, K.; Kuleshov, Y.

    2013-11-01

    The March 2010 Melbourne storm is used as a case study to examine the potential of using Global Positioning System (GPS) observations for studying the precipitable water vapour (PWV) field. The Victorian statewide GPS infrastructure network, i.e. GPSnet, was used in this study. GPSnet is currently the only statewide and densest GPS infrastructure network in Australia, which provides an excellent opportunity to examine the distribution of water vapour as the severe weather system passed over the state. Data from 15 GPSnet stations were processed over a one-week period, i.e. a few days prior to and after the storm passage, during which the course of the storm extended from the west to the southeast corner of the state. In addition, data from two radiosonde sites of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Upper Air Network were used to compare and validate the GPS derived PWV measurements. The findings demonstrate that there is strong spatial and temporal correlation between variations of the ground-based GPS-PWV estimates and the passage of the storm over the state. This is encouraging as the ground-based GPS water vapour sensing technique can be considered as a supplemental meteorological sensor in studying severe weather events. The advantage of using ground-based GPS-PWV technique is that it is capable of providing continuous observation of the storm passage with high temporal resolution. The spatial resolution of the distribution of water vapour is dependent on the geographical location and density of the GPS stations.

  2. Axial mercury vapour pressure distributions in DC operated low pressure mercury argon discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, John; de Groot, Simon; van Dijk, Jan; van der Mullen, Joost

    2000-10-01

    In a steady state DC operated (cylindrical) low pressure mercury argon discharge, an electric field exists in axial direction which results in a non-uniform axial mercury vapour pressure distribution; this phenomenon is termed cataphoresis. In a discharge tube covered with a fluorescent powder this gives in a non-uniform axial light distribution. Towards lighting applications this is a potential disadvantage, which is not present in AC operated fluorescent lamps. The dependence of the axial mercury vapour pressure distribution under DC operation on discharge tube and discharge parameters has been investigated. A model has been developed to predict the axial mercury vapour pressure distribution, in which the balance equations for particle and momentum conservation are solved in combination with a plasma physical model, and experiments have been performed to validate the model. In the present contribution the model and experimental results will be discussed and it will be demonstrated that the applied theoretical approach provides a better description of the axial mercury vapour pressure distribution compared to previous models known from literature.

  3. First detection of tidal behaviour in polar mesospheric water vapour by ground based microwave spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hallgren

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesospheric water vapour has been observed above ALOMAR in northern Norway (69° N 16° E by our group since 1995 using a 22 GHz ground based microwave spectrometer. A new instrument with higher sensitivity, providing a much better time resolution especially in the upper mesosphere, was installed in May 2008. The time resolution is high enough to provide observations of daily variations in the water vapour mixing ratio. We present the first ground based detections of tidal behaviour in the polar middle atmospheric water vapour distribution.

    Diurnal and semidiurnal variations of water vapour have been observed and due to the long chemical lifetime of water they are assumed to be caused by changing wind patterns which transport water-rich or poor air into the observed region. The detected tidal behaviour does not follow any single other dynamical field but is instead assumed to be a result of the different wind components.

    Both the diurnal and semidiurnal amplitude and phase components are resolved. The former shows a stable seasonal behaviour consistent with earlier observations of wind fields and model calculations, whereas the latter appears more complex and no regular behaviour has so far been observed.

  4. The effect of air permeability of chemical protective clothing material on clothing vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Vuister, R.; Wammes, L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with Chemical Warfare Protective Clothing (CW) is the additional heat load created by the garments. For CW-overgarments, research in the direction of reducing material thickness and thus heat and vapour resistance have not resulted in major improvements. The

  5. Water vapour rises from the cooling towers for the ATLAS detector at Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    Electronics on the ATLAS detector produce heat when the experiment is running. An elaborate cooling system keeps the detector from overheating. On the surface, the warm water vapour that rises from the detector 100metres underground is clearly visible from the ATLAS cooling towers on the CERN Meyrin site in Switzerland.

  6. Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an Indian teak mixed deciduous forest for winter and summer months using eddy covariance technique ... Eddy covariance; Indian deciduous forests; CO2 flux; heat flux. ... National Remote Sensing Centre (ISRO), Balanagar, Hyderabad 500 037, India.

  7. Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    temperate grassland ecosystem; Bound.-Layer Meteorol. 52 135–149. Mahrt L and Dean V 2002 Relationship of area-averaged carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes to atmospheric variables; Agric. For. Meteor. 112 195–202. Ohtaki E 1984 Application of an infrared carbon dioxide and humidity instrument to studies of ...

  8. An Investigation of Tertiary Students' Understanding of Evaporation, Condensation and Vapour Pressure. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Hemant; Kleinsmidt, Jacques; Case, Jennifer; Musonge, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Based on a purposive sample of 15 second-year chemical engineering students, this study investigates students' conceptions of evaporation, condensation and vapour pressure. During individual interviews the students were questioned on three tasks that had been designed around these topics. Qualitative analysis of student responses showed a range of…

  9. An Investigation of Tertiary Students' Understanding of Evaporation, Condensation and Vapour Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Hemant; Kleinsmidt, Jacques; Case, Jennifer; Musonge, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Based on a purposive sample of 15 second-year chemical engineering students, this study investigates students' conceptions of evaporation, condensation and vapour pressure. During individual interviews the students were questioned on three tasks that had been designed around these topics. Qualitative analysis of student responses showed a range of…

  10. Laser program annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, L.W.; Krupke, W.F.; Strack, J.R. (eds.)

    1981-06-01

    Volume 3 is comprised of three sections, beginning with Section 8 on Advanced Lasers. Both theoretical and experimental research and development activities on advanced laser systems are presented here. Section 9 contains the results of studies in areas of energy and military applications, including those relating to electrical energy production by inertial confinement fusion systems. Finally, Section 10 presents results from selected activities in the Advanced Isotope Separation Program.

  11. Leakage of volatile anaesthetics from agent-specific keyed vapourizer filling devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.M.; Strunin, L.; Craig, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    Agent-specific keyed vapourizer filling devices were designed to ensure that an anaesthetic vapourizer is filled with the correct agent. Since there appear to be no reports of possible loss of volatile agent or operating room pollution resulting from either the design or patterns of use of these devices, measurements were made with three anaesthetic agents and two methods of use. First, two bottles each of methoxyflurane, enflurane and halothane were fitted with a suitable filling device and the weight of agent lost from each bottle over six weeks was measured. Bottle number 1 of each agent remained without agitation between weighings; bottle number 2 was tipped to mimic filling of a vapourizer. Weight loss over the six week period was 2.76 and 3.15 per cent of the halothane, 2.22 and 2.43 per cent of the enflurane, and 0.58 and 0.96 per cent of the methoxyflurane, for bottles number 1 and number 2, respectively. Second, pollution was measured with an infra-red analyser for halothane, using bottles number 1 and number 2, as described above, and a third bottle on which the filling device was replaced by the screw-on cap after each filling of the vapourizer. Vapour loss was undetectable for bottle number 1, between 25 and 30 ppm for bottle number 2, and between 350 and 400 ppm for bottle number 3. Thus, although the design of the filling devices results in loss of the anaesthetic agent, this loss represents potential pollution only when the device is replaced by the screw-on cap between use. Therefore, when using filling devices, these should be left on the bottle of volatile agent between fillings to decrease operating room pollution.

  12. Yield and enrichment studies of C-13 isotope by multi-photon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: gmanoj@cat.ernet.in. MS received 11 March 2003; revised 17 May 2003. Abstract. Multi-photon dissociation of Freon-22 (CF2HCl) at low temperatures has been carried out to separate the C-13 isotope using a TEA CO2 laser. Yield and enrichment of C-13 isotope in the product C2F4 are studied at 9P(22) laser line ...

  13. Yield and enrichment studies of C-13 isotope by multi-photon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multi-photon dissociation of Freon-22 (CF2HCl) at low temperatures has been carried out to separate the C-13 isotope using a TEA CO2 laser. Yield and enrichment of C-13 isotope in the product C2F4 are studied at 9(22) laser line as a function of temperature (-50°C to 30°C). It is observed that at a given fluence when ...

  14. Numerical Simulation of Pulsation Flow in the Vapour Channel of Short Low Temperature Heat Pipes at High Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryakov, A. V.; Konkin, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of pulsations in the Laval-liked vapour channel of short low-temperature range heat pipes (HPs) are presented. The numerical results confirmed the experimentally obtained increase of the frequency of pulsations in the vapour channel of short HPs with increasing overheat of the porous evaporator relative to the boiling point of the working fluid. The occurrence of pressure pulsations inside the vapour channel in a short HPs is a complex phenomenon associated with the boiling beginning in the capillary-porous evaporator at high heat loads, and appearance the excess amount of vapour above it, leading to the increase in pressure P to a value at which the boiling point TB of the working fluid becomes higher than the evaporator temperature Tev. Vapour clot spreads through the vapour channel and condense, and then a rarefaction wave return from condenser in the evaporator, the boiling in which is resumed and the next cycle of the pulsations is repeated. Numerical simulation was performed using finite element method implemented in the commercial program ANSYS Multiphisics 14.5 in the two-dimensional setting of axis symmetric moist vapour flow with third kind boundary conditions.

  15. Determine Forest Turbulent Transport and Evapotranspiration Partition With the Help of a new Soil Water Isotope Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, M.; Haverd, V.; Griffith, D. W.; Keitel, C.; Tadros, C.; Twinning, J.

    2012-04-01

    We determine simultaneously the vertical profile of forest canopy turbulent transport and evapotranspiration ET partition in a Eucalypt forest in South-Eastern Australia for a two-week period in November 2006. We use non-linear parameter estimation to optimise agreement between modelled and measured vertical profiles of temperature, water vapour, carbon dioxide, and deuterium content of water vapour. Modelled temperature and concentration profiles are derived from Lagrangian dispersion theory together with a Soil Vegetation Atmospheric Transfer (SVAT) model, which was enhanced by a new isotopically enabled hydrologic scheme for coupled transport of heat, water and stable isotopes (HDO and H218O) in soil and litter. We first present the new water isotope model, Soil-Litter-iso1, which is suitable for use as part of a SVAT scheme but also as part of an isotopically enabled land surface model. We show that it is sufficiently efficient for use at regional scale, yet includes the complexity of coupled heat and water transport enabling decomposition of the total moisture flux into liquid and vapour components. The model permits the isotopic calculations to be performed with thick soil layers and large times steps, resulting in significantly improved computational efficiency compared with existing isotopically-enabled soil models of similar complexity. Deuterium contents of soil evaporation and vertically-resolved transpiration as a priori estimates for the optimisation are then derived using the SVAT model with Soil-Litter-Iso for the isotopic composition of soil evaporates and an advection-diffusion model for leaf water and transpiration isotopes2. Predictions of deuterium in soil evaporate were validated using soil chamber measurements, while the transpirate predictions were validated using isotopic analyses of leaf and xylem water, combined with leaf-level gas exchange measurements. Hence, modelled temperature and concentration profiles are generated using Lagrangian

  16. Study on the excimer laser annealed amorphous hydrogenated silicon carbon films deposited by PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosone, G. [CNR-INFM CRS-Coherentia, Complesso Universitario MSA, Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario MSA, Napoli (Italy); Basa, D.K. [Utkal University, Bhubaneswar (India); Coscia, U. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario MSA, Napoli (Italy); CNISM Unita' di Napoli, Complesso Universitario MSA, Napoli (Italy); Tresso, E.; Celasco, E. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali ed Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Chiodoni, A. [Materials and Microsystems Laboratory, chi-LAB, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Pinto, N.; Murri, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Camerino (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon films of different carbon content were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition at low substrate temperature (200 C) and were subjected to excimer laser annealing. X-ray diffraction spectra and field emission scanning electron microscopy images demonstrate that carbon content plays an important role in facilitating the crystallization process induced by the excimer laser treatment (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Laser program. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsler, M.J.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1979-03-01

    This volume documents progress in advanced quantum electronics - primarily the quest for advanced rep-rateable short-wavelength lasers with high efficiency. Application studies in electrical energy production and fissile fuel production are also described. Selected highlights of the advanced isotope separation program are also presented. (MOW)

  18. Volume Measurements of Laser-generated Pits for in Situ Geochronology Using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    KArLE (Potassium-­-Argon Laser Experiment) has been developed for in situ planetary geochronology using the K - Ar (potassium-­-argon) isotope system, where material ablated by LIBS (Laser-­-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) is used to calculate isotope abundances. We are determining the accuracy and precision of volume measurements of these pits using stereo and laser microscope data to better understand the ablation process for isotope abundance calculations. If a characteristic volume can be determined with sufficient accuracy and precision for specific rock types, KArLE will prove to be a useful instrument for future planetary rover missions.

  19. The water vapour flux above Switzerland and its role in the August 2005 extreme precipitation and flooding

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest N'Dri Koffi; Edward Graham; Andchristian Mätzler

    2013-01-01

    The water budget approach is applied to an atmospheric box above Switzerland (hereafter referred to as the “Swiss box”) to quantify the atmospheric water vapour flux using ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalyses. The results confirm that the water vapour flux through the Swiss box is highly temporally variable, ranging from 1 to 5 · 107 kg/s during settled anticyclonic weather, but increasing in size by a factor of ten or more during high speed currents of water vapour. Overall, Switzerland and the ...

  20. Discovery of the Indium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, S

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight indium isotopes (A = 98-135) have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  1. Evaluation of niobium dimethylamino-ethoxide for chemical vapour deposition of niobium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabirian, Ali [Laboratory for Photonic Materials and Characterization, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 17, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kuzminykh, Yury, E-mail: yury.kuzminykh@empa.ch [Laboratory for Photonic Materials and Characterization, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 17, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Wagner, Estelle; Benvenuti, Giacomo [3D-Oxides, 70 Rue G. Eiffel Technoparc, 01630 St Genis Pouilly (France); ABCD Technology, 12 route de Champ-Colin, 1260 Nyon (Switzerland); Rushworth, Simon [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); Hoffmann, Patrik, E-mail: patrik.hoffmann@empa.ch [Laboratory for Photonic Materials and Characterization, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 17, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2014-11-28

    Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes depend on the availability of suitable precursors. Precursors that deliver a stable vapour pressure are favourable in classical CVD processes, as they ensure process reproducibility. In high vacuum CVD (HV-CVD) process vapour pressure stability of the precursor is of particular importance, since no carrier gas assisted transport can be used. The dimeric Nb{sub 2}(OEt){sub 10} does not fulfil this requirement since it partially dissociates upon heating. Dimethylamino functionalization of an ethoxy ligand of Nb(OEt){sub 5} acts as an octahedral field completing entity and leads to Nb(OEt){sub 4}(dmae). We show that Nb(OEt){sub 4}(dmae) evaporates as monomeric molecule and ensures a stable vapour pressure and, consequently, stable flow. A set of HV-CVD experiments were conducted using this precursor by projecting a graded molecular beam of the precursor onto the substrate at deposition temperatures from 320 °C to 650 °C. Film growth rates ranging from 8 nm·h{sup −1} to values larger than 400 nm·h{sup −1} can be obtained in this system illustrating the high level of control available over the film growth process. Classical CVD limiting conditions along with the recently reported adsorption–reaction limited conditions are observed and the chemical composition, and microstructural and optical properties of the films are related to the corresponding growth regime. Nb(OEt){sub 4}(dmae) provides a large process window of deposition temperatures and precursor fluxes over which carbon-free and polycrystalline niobium oxide films with growth rates proportional to precursor flux are obtained. This feature makes Nb(OEt){sub 4}(dmae) an attractive precursor for combinatorial CVD of niobium containing complex oxide films that are finding an increasing interest in photonics and photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. The adsorption–reaction limited conditions provide extremely small growth rates comparable to an

  2. Changes in the mean square charge radii and electromagnetic moments of neutron-deficient Bi isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzakh, A. E., E-mail: barzakh@mail.ru; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron deficient bismuth isotopes at the 306.77 nm atomic transition were carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI). New data on isotope shifts and hyperfine structure for {sup 189–198,} {sup 211}Bi isotopes and isomers were obtained. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and the magnetic moment values were deduced. Marked deviation from the nearly spherical behavior for ground states of bismuth isotopes at N < 109 is demonstrated, in contrast to the lead and thallium isotopic chains. The big isomer shift between I = 1/2 (intruder) and I = 9/2 (normal) states for odd Bi isotopes (A = 193, 195, 197) was found.

  3. Rare-isotope and kinetic studies of Pt/SnO2 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Schryer, David R.; Hess, Robert V.; Miller, Irvin M.; Kielin, Erik J.

    1990-01-01

    Closed-cycle pulsed CO2 laser operation requires the use of an efficient CO-O2 recombination catalyst for these dissociation products which otherwise would degrade the laser operation. The catalyst must not only operate at low temperatures but also must operate efficiently for long periods. In the case of the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) laser, an operational lifetime of 3 years is required. Additionally, in order to minimize atmospheric absorption and enhance aerosol scatter of laser radiation, the LAWS system will operate at 9.1 micrometers with an oxygen-18 isotope CO2 lasing medium. Consequently, the catalyst must not only operate at low temperatures but must also preserve the isotopic integrity of the rare-isotope composition in the recombination mode. Several years ago an investigation of commercially available and newly synthesized recombination catalysts for use in closed-cycle pulsed common and rare-isotope CO2 lasers was implemented at the NASA Langley Research Center. Since that time, mechanistic efforts utilizing both common and rare oxygen isotopes have been implemented and continue. Rare-isotope studies utilizing commercially available platinum-tin oxide catalyst have demonstrated that the catalyst contributes oxygen-16 to the product carbon dioxide thus rendering it unusable for rare-isotope applications. A technique has been developed for modification of the surface of the common-isotope catalyst to render it usable. Results of kinetic and isotope label studies using plug flow, recycle plug flow, and closed internal recycle plug flow reactor configuration modes are discussed.

  4. SHELL ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valley. Although fossil specimens of this subspecies have been used in palaeoclimatic reconstruction, there have been no previous reports of living examples. Here We describe the local habitat, climate and some aspects of ecology and isotopic variation within the snail shell. If isotope data can be obtained for fossil shells, ...

  5. ICT: isotope correction toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Neubauer, Stefan; Mairinger, Teresa; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Isotope tracer experiments are an invaluable technique to analyze and study the metabolism of biological systems. However, isotope labeling experiments are often affected by naturally abundant isotopes especially in cases where mass spectrometric methods make use of derivatization. The correction of these additive interferences--in particular for complex isotopic systems--is numerically challenging and still an emerging field of research. When positional information is generated via collision-induced dissociation, even more complex calculations for isotopic interference correction are necessary. So far, no freely available tools can handle tandem mass spectrometry data. We present isotope correction toolbox, a program that corrects tandem mass isotopomer data from tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Isotope correction toolbox is written in the multi-platform programming language Perl and, therefore, can be used on all commonly available computer platforms. Source code and documentation can be freely obtained under the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License from: https://github.com/jungreuc/isotope_correction_toolbox/ {christian.jungreuthmayer@boku.ac.at,juergen.zanghellini@boku.ac.at} Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Clumped isotope effects during OH and Cl oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehill, Andrew R.; Joelsson, Lars Magnus T.; Schmidt, Johan Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    was produced from the reaction of O(1D) (from O3 photolysis) with H2O, and Cl was from photolysis of Cl2. Samples were taken from the reaction cell and analyzed for methane (12CH4, 12CH3D, 13CH4, 13CH3D) isotopologue ratios using tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy. Measured kinetic isotope...

  7. Laser resonance ionization for ultra-trace analysis on long-lived ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benefiting from the continuous laser developments, resonance ionization can be applied for a variety of experiments on radioactive isotopes, e.g. as a laser ion source for producing pure beams of short-lived isotopes at on-line facilities. In this paper the application of a compact set-up for resonance ionization mass ...

  8. The Study for the Optimal Operation of D{sub 2}O Vapour Recovery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I.S.; Park, J.B. [Korea Electric Power Research Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Digital control technology using micro-processor is widely used in Factory Automation area since 1980`s. However, the D{sub 2}O Vapour Recovery System in Wolsung 1 N.P.P is controlled by mechanical timer without considering the moisture condition in the Reactor Building and bed temperature, because it was designed using analog technology of 1960`s. This leads to the inefficient system operation and low D{sub 2}O recovery rate in addition to the high internal dose rate of operator. The goal of this phase II study is to develope a optimal automatic controller of D{sub 2}O vapour recovery system using PLC. We developed a control algorithm for Dual Tower Drier, a PLC control program, a operation change program and the monitoring system with a real-time simulator for system verification. (author). 15 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Coal tar creosote abuse by vapour inhalation presenting with renal impairment and neurotoxicity: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemstra Thomas F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 56 year old aromatherapist presented with advanced renal failure following chronic coal tar creosote vapour inhalation, and a chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis was identified on renal biopsy. Following dialysis dependence occult inhalation continued, resulting in seizures, ataxia, cognitive impairment and marked generalised cerebral atrophy. We describe for the first time a case of creosote abuse by chronic vapour inhalation, resulting in significant morbidity. Use of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-containing wood preservative coal tar creosote is restricted by many countries due to concerns over environmental contamination and carcinogenicity. This case demonstrates additional toxicities not previously reported with coal tar creosote, and emphasizes the health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure.

  10. Performance of a stationary diesel engine using vapourized ethanol as supplementary fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajav, E.A. [Ibadan Univ., Agricultural Engineering Dept., Ibadan (Nigeria); Singh, Bachchan [G.B. Pant Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Coll. of Technology, Pantnagar (India); Bhattacharya, T.K. [G.B. Pant Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Farm Machinery and Power Engineering Dept., Pantnagar (India)

    1998-12-31

    The modification and testing of a compression ignition engine using diesel and vapourized ethanol as fuel has been carried out. Tests on the engine fuelled with diesel only were made, and the performance evaluated to form a basis for comparison for those of ethanol-diesel dual fuelling. Modifications were made in the introduction of the ethanol and air. A carburettor was used to vaporize aqueous ethanol into the engine. The effect of preheating the intake ethanol-air mixture was also investigated. Performance was evaluated in terms of engine horsepower, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, the exhaust gas temperature, lubricating oil temperature and exhaust emissions. The vapourized ethanol partially reduced diesel fuel consumption but also increased total fuel delivery. Vaporization increased power output, thermal efficiency and exhaust emission but lowered exhaust temperature and lubricating oil temperatures. (Author)

  11. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, E.; Tuller, M.; Møldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Soil texture, in particular the clay fraction, governs numerous environmental, agricultural and engineering soil processes. Traditional measurement methods for clay content are laborious and impractical for large-scale soil surveys. Consequently, clay prediction models that are based on water...... for estimating clay content from hygroscopic water at different relative humidity (RH) levels while considering hysteresis and organic matter content. Continuous adsorption/desorption vapour sorption isotherm loops were measured for 150 differently textured soils with a state-of-the-art vapour sorption analyser...... within a RH range from 3 to 93%. The clay contents, which ranged between 1 and 56%, were measured with a combination of sieving and sedimentation methods. Two regression models were developed for both adsorption and desorption at 10 RH levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%). While the first...

  12. Study of the Quantum Efficiency of CsI Photocathodes Exposed to Oxygen and Water Vapour

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mauro, A; Piuz, François; Schyns, E M; Van Beelen, J B; Williams, T D

    2000-01-01

    The operation of CsI photocathodes in gaseous detectors requires special attention to the purity of the applied gas mixtures.We have studied the influence of oxygen and water vapour contaminations on the performance of CsI photocathodes for theALICE HMPID RICH prototype. Measurements were done through comparison of Cherenkov rings obtained from beamtests. Increased levels of oxygen and water vapour did not show any effect on the performance. The results of this studyfound a direct application in the way of storing CsI photocathodes over long periods nad in particular in the shipment of theHMPID prototype from CERN to the STAR experiment at BNL. (Abstract only available,full text to follow)

  13. Acoustic emission noise from sodium vapour bubble collapsing: detection, interpretation, modelling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentico, G.; Pacilio, V.; Papalia, B.; Taglienti, S.; Tosi, V.

    1982-01-01

    Sodium vapour bubble collapsing is detected by means of piezoelectric accelorometers coupled to the test section via short waveguides. The output analog signal is processed by transforming it into a time series of pulses through the setting of an amplitude threshold and the shaping of a standard pulse (denominated 'event') every time the signal crosses that border. The number of events is counted in adjacent and equal time duration samples and the waiting time distribution between contiguous events is measured. Up to the moment, six kinetic properties have been found for the mentioned time series. They help in setting a stochastic model in which the subministration of energy into a liquid sodium medium induces the formation of vapour bubbles and their consequent collapsing delivers acoustic pulses. Finally, a simulation procedure is carried out: a Polya's urn model is adopted for simulating event sequences with a priori established requisites.

  14. Influence of heat consumers distribution and flashing vapours effect on steam consumption of evaporation plant of sugar factory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. A. Gromkovskii

    2016-01-01

    The article considered the influence of the heat consumers distribution and the flashing vapours effect juice for multipleevaporator sugar factory on the consumption the main production flow of heat transfer agent – water vapor...

  15. Remote sensing of water vapour profiles in the framework of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that the near infrared solar absorption spectra recorded in the framework of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON can be used to derive the vertical distribution of tropospheric water vapour. The resolution of the TCCON spectra of 0.02 cm−1 is sufficient for retrieving lower and middle/upper tropospheric water vapour concentrations with a vertical resolution of about 3 and 8 km, respectively. We document the good quality of the remotely-sensed profiles by comparisons with coincident in-situ Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements. Due to the high measurement frequency, the TCCON water vapour profile data offer novel opportunities for estimating the water vapour variability at different timescales and altitudes.

  16. The critical assessment of vapour pressure estimation methods for use in modelling the formation of atmospheric organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Barley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A selection of models for estimating vapour pressures have been tested against experimental data for a set of compounds selected for their particular relevance to the formation of atmospheric aerosol by gas-liquid partitioning. The experimental vapour pressure data (all <100 Pa of 45 multifunctional compounds provide a stringent test of the estimation techniques, with a recent complex group contribution method providing the best overall results. The effect of errors in vapour pressures upon the formation of organic aerosol by gas-liquid partitioning in an atmospherically relevant example is also investigated. The mass of organic aerosol formed under typical atmospheric conditions was found to be very sensitive to the variation in vapour pressure values typically present when comparing estimation methods.

  17. Optimal estimation of water vapour profiles using a combination of Raman lidar and microwave radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Andreas; Pospichal, Bernhard

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a two-step algorithm to obtain water vapour profiles from a combination of Raman lidar and microwave radiometer is presented. Both instruments were applied during an intensive 2-month measurement campaign (HOPE) close to Jülich, western Germany, during spring 2013. To retrieve reliable water vapour information from inside or above the cloud a two-step algorithm is applied. The first step is a Kalman filter that extends the profiles, truncated at cloud base, to the full height range (up to 10 km) by combining previous information and current measurement. Then the complete water vapour profile serves as input to the one-dimensional variational (1D-VAR) method, also known as optimal estimation. A forward model simulates the brightness temperatures which would be observed by the microwave radiometer for the given atmospheric state. The profile is iteratively modified according to its error bars until the modelled and the actually measured brightness temperatures sufficiently agree. The functionality of the retrieval is presented in detail by means of case studies under different conditions. A statistical analysis shows that the availability of Raman lidar data (night) improves the accuracy of the profiles even under cloudy conditions. During the day, the absence of lidar data results in larger differences in comparison to reference radiosondes. The data availability of the full-height water vapour lidar profiles of 17 % during the 2-month campaign is significantly enhanced to 60 % by applying the retrieval. The bias with respect to radiosonde and the retrieved a posteriori uncertainty of the retrieved profiles clearly show that the application of the Kalman filter considerably improves the accuracy and quality of the retrieved mixing ratio profiles.

  18. Can painted glass felt or glass fibre cloth be used as vapour barrier?

    OpenAIRE

    El-Khattam, Amira; Andersen, Mie Them; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Møller, Eva B.

    2014-01-01

    In most Nordic homes the interior surfaces of walls and ceilings have some kind of surface treatment for aesthetical reasons. The treatments can for example be glass felt or glass fibre cloth which are painted afterwards.To evaluate the hygrothermal performance of walls and ceilings it is essential to know how much influence a surface treatment has on the water vapour transport. Traditionally, there has been most focus on paints that affect the permeability as little as possible. However, som...

  19. Computer simulation study of the nematic-vapour interface in the Gay-Berne model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Luis F.; Romero-Enrique, José Manuel

    2017-06-01

    We present computer simulations of the vapour-nematic interface of the Gay-Berne model. We considered situations which correspond to either prolate or oblate molecules. We determine the anchoring of the nematic phase and correlate it with the intermolecular potential parameters. On the other hand, we evaluate the surface tension associated to this interface. We find a corresponding states law for the surface tension dependence on the temperature, valid for both prolate and oblate molecules.

  20. Graphene growth from reduced graphene oxide by chemical vapour deposition: seeded growth accompanied by restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Jin Chang; Moon Seop Hyun; Sung Myung; Min-A Kang; Jung Ho Yoo; Kyoung G. Lee; Bong Gill Choi; Youngji Cho; Gaehang Lee; Tae Jung Park

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in graphene growth via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is critical for precise control of the characteristics of graphene. Despite much effort, the actual processes behind graphene synthesis still remain to be elucidated in a large number of aspects. Herein, we report the evolution of graphene properties during in-plane growth of graphene from reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on copper (Cu) via methane CVD. While graphene is laterally grown from R...

  1. Development of vapour liquid equilibrium calculation methods for chemical engineering design

    OpenAIRE

    Pokki, Juha-Pekka

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of computational methods for vapour liquid equilibrium (VLE) and volumetric properties. The VLE in this thesis can be divided into the low- and medium-pressure VLE with an experimental part and into the high-pressure VLE with a modelling and simulation part. The volumetric properties in this thesis deal with the extension of the model for compressed liquid densities. At low-pressure VLE, the emphasis was on the optimisation of model parameters. Two a...

  2. A microwave satellite water vapour column retrieval for polar winter conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perro, Christopher; Lesins, Glen; Duck, Thomas J.; Cadeddu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A new microwave satellite water vapour retrieval for the polar winter atmosphere is presented. The retrieval builds on the work of Miao et al. (2001) and Melsheimer and Heygster (2008), employing auxiliary information for atmospheric conditions and numerical optimization. It was tested using simulated and actual measurements from the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) satellite instruments. Ground truth was provided by the G-band vapour radiometer (GVR) at Barrow, Alaska. For water vapour columns less than 6 kg m-2, comparisons between the retrieval and GVR result in a root mean square (RMS) deviation of 0.39 kg m-2 and a systematic bias of 0.08 kg m-2. These results are compared with RMS deviations and biases at Barrow for the retrieval of Melsheimer and Heygster (2008), the AIRS and MIRS satellite data products, and the ERA-Interim, NCEP, JRA-55, and ASR reanalyses. When applied to MHS measurements, the new retrieval produces a smaller RMS deviation and bias than for the earlier retrieval and satellite data products. The RMS deviations for the new retrieval were comparable to those for the ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and ASR reanalyses; however, the MHS retrievals have much finer horizontal resolution (15 km at nadir) and reveal more structure. The new retrieval can be used to obtain pan-Arctic maps of water vapour columns of unprecedented quality. It may also be applied to measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature 2 (SSM/T2), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B (AMSU-B), Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS), Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), and Chinese MicroWave Humidity Sounder (MWHS) instruments.

  3. Stomatal acclimation to vapour pressure deficit doubles transpiration of small tree seedlings with warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchin, Renée M.; Broadhead, Alice A.; Bostic, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Future climate change is expected to increase temperature (T) and atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in many regions, but the effect of persistent warming on plant stomatal behaviour is highly uncertain. We investigated the effect of experimental warming of 1.9-5.1 °C and increased VPD of ...... with increasing VPD and may necessitate revision of current models based on this assumption....

  4. The influence of heat pre-treatment on the sorption of water vapour on bentonite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrejš, P.; Zikánová, Arlette; Hradil, David; Štulík, K.; Pacáková, V.; Kočiřík, Milan; Eić, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2005), s. 57-63 ISSN 0929-5607 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/02/1464; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : adsorption * bentonite * montmorillonite * water vapour Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.323, year: 2005

  5. Consolidation and conversion of carbon powders into TiC by reactive chemical vapour infiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Ledain, Olivier; JACQUES, Sylvain; Maillé, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Ceramic samples were prepared using a hybrid process in which the ceramic powder route was combined with Reactive Chemical Vapour Infiltration, a new gas phase route. In this technique, a carbide growth occurs from the conversion of a carbon-bearing powder and slows down with increase in carbide thickness due to solid-state diffusion limitation. This self-limitation is expected to allow a self-regulation of the growth between the interior and the surface of the sample ...

  6. Mass And Heat Transfer In Deep Penetration Laser Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantello, Maichi; Cruciani, Diego; Ciboldi, Moreno; Onorato, Michele

    1987-09-01

    The phenomena related to deep penetration welding by means of concentrated energy beams are, in a first approximation, similar, even if the beam sources (electron and laser beams) and the irradiated materials (metals, quartz) differ. Clearly however, if the temperature distribution and the material flow dynamics are to be calculated, it can be seen that these similarities are merely qualitative, and consist of the presence of a vapour tube (key-hole) in the processed material. The mathematical models hitherto developed correspond exactly to experiments at a certain distance from the interaction point. Although several authors have investigated the physical condition of the key-hole, both theoretically and experimentally, additional data are needed in order to obtain satisfactory data of the temperatures and flows of the vapour and liquid metal, at least as far as the most common laser welding application is concerned. In the RTM laser centre, the data obtained by the various investigation methods are being correlated systematically. The devices most widely used are a fast framing camera, a fast slide to intercept the laser beam and a vacuum chamber for welding in a controlled atmosphere. The two CO2 laser sources used can vary their power from 1 kW to 15 kW. Data regarding stainless steel are dealt with in the greatest detail since this is the principal application of laser welding.

  7. Oil mist and vapour concentrations from drilling fluids: inter- and intra-laboratory comparison of chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Karen S; Searl, Alison; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Woldbæk, Torill; Halgard, Kristin; Thorud, Syvert; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Krüger, Kirsti; Maccalman, Laura; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2012-01-01

    There are no recognized analytical methods for measuring oil mist and vapours arising from drilling fluids used in offshore petroleum drilling industry. To inform the future development of improved methods of analysis for oil mist and vapours this study assessed the inter- and intra-laboratory variability in oil mist and vapour analysis. In addition, sample losses during transportation and storage were assessed. Replicate samples for oil mist and vapour were collected using the 37-mm Millipore closed cassette and charcoal tube assembly. Sampling was conducted in a simulated shale shaker room, similar to that found offshore for processing drilling fluids. Samples were analysed at two different laboratories, one in Norway and one in the UK. Oil mist samples were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while oil vapour samples were analysed by gas chromatography (GC). The comparison of replicate samples showed substantial within- and between-laboratory variability in reported oil mist concentrations. The variability in oil vapour results was considerably reduced compared to oil mist, provided that a common method of calibration and quantification was adopted. The study also showed that losses can occur during transportation and storage of samples. There is a need to develop a harmonized method for the quantification of oil mist on filter and oil vapour on charcoal supported by a suitable proficiency testing scheme for laboratories involved in the analysis of occupational hygiene samples for the petroleum industry. The uncertainties in oil mist and vapour measurement have substantial implications in relation to compliance with occupational exposure limits and also in the reliability of any exposure-response information reported in epidemiological studies.

  8. Simplified heat transfer modeling for Vapour Phase Soldering based on filmwise condensation for different horizontal Printed Circuit Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géczy, Attila; Illés, Balázs; Péter, Zsolt; Illyefalvi-Vitéz, Zsolt

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a method for investigating heat transfer during a specific reflow soldering method, Vapour Phase Soldering (VPS), where a horizontal Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is heated in vapour medium. The paper presents refined descriptions of filmwise condensation which were investigated and adjusted for the VPS process. The results show a proper and fast approximation of measurements. The dependence of the PCB characteristic length is also investigated.

  9. Drunk bugs: Chronic vapour alcohol exposure induces marked changes in the gut microbiome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Veronica L; Jury, Nicholas J; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Draper, Lorraine A; Crispie, Fiona; Cotter, Paul D; Dinan, Timothy G; Holmes, Andrew; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-14

    The gut microbiota includes a community of bacteria that play an integral part in host health and biological processes. Pronounced and repeated findings have linked gut microbiome to stress, anxiety, and depression. Currently, however, there remains only a limited set of studies focusing on microbiota change in substance abuse, including alcohol use disorder. To date, no studies have investigated the impact of vapour alcohol administration on the gut microbiome. For research on gut microbiota and addiction to proceed, an understanding of how route of drug administration affects gut microbiota must first be established. Animal models of alcohol abuse have proven valuable for elucidating the biological processes involved in addiction and alcohol-related diseases. This is the first study to investigate the effect of vapour route of ethanol administration on gut microbiota in mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 4 weeks of chronic intermittent vapourized ethanol (CIE, N=10) or air (Control, N=9). Faecal samples were collected at the end of exposure followed by 16S sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Robust separation between CIE and Control was seen in the microbiome, as assessed by alpha (pdiversity, with a notable decrease in alpha diversity in CIE. These results demonstrate that CIE exposure markedly alters the gut microbiota in mice. Significant increases in genus Alistipes (pgut-brain axis and align with previous research showing similar microbiota alterations in inflammatory states during alcoholic hepatitis and psychological stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of sulphate-rich vapour during the Chicxulub impact and implications for ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sohsuke; Kadono, Toshihiko; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Hamura, Taiga; Sakaiya, Tatsuhiro; Shigemori, Keisuke; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Sano, Takayoshi; Watari, Takeshi; Otani, Kazuto; Matsui, Takafumi; Sugita, Seiji

    2014-04-01

    The mass extinction event at the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary 65.5 Myr ago has been widely attributed to the Chicxulub impact, but the mechanisms of extinction remain debated. In the oceans, near-surface planktonic foraminifera suffered severe declines, in contrast to the relatively high survival rates of bottom-dwelling benthic foraminifera. The vapour produced by an impact into Chicxulub's target rocks, which include sulphate-rich anhydrite, could have led to global acid rain, which can explain the pattern of oceanic extinctions. However, it has been suggested that most of the sulphur in the target rocks would have been released as sulphur dioxide and would have stayed in the stratosphere for a long time. Here we show, from impact experiments into anhydrite at velocities exceeding 10 km s-1, that sulphur trioxide dominates over sulphur dioxide in the resulting vapour cloud. Our experiments suggest that the Chicxulub impact released a huge quantity of sulphur trioxide into the atmosphere, where it would have rapidly combined with water vapour to form sulphuric acid aerosol particles. We also find, using a theoretical model of aerosol coagulation following the Chicxulub impact, that larger silicate particles ejected during the impact efficiently scavenge sulphuric acid aerosol particles and deliver the sulphuric acid to the surface within a few days. The rapid surface deposition of sulphuric acid would cause severe ocean acidification and account for preferential extinction of planktonic over benthic foraminifera.

  11. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55°C – 110°C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  12. Oscillatory vapour shielding of liquid metal walls in nuclear fusion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eden, G G; Kvon, V; van de Sanden, M C M; Morgan, T W

    2017-08-04

    Providing an efficacious plasma facing surface between the extreme plasma heat exhaust and the structural materials of nuclear fusion devices is a major challenge on the road to electricity production by fusion power plants. The performance of solid plasma facing surfaces may become critically reduced over time due to progressing damage accumulation. Liquid metals, however, are now gaining interest in solving the challenge of extreme heat flux hitting the reactor walls. A key advantage of liquid metals is the use of vapour shielding to reduce the plasma exhaust. Here we demonstrate that this phenomenon is oscillatory by nature. The dynamics of a Sn vapour cloud are investigated by exposing liquid Sn targets to H and He plasmas at heat fluxes greater than 5 MW m -2 . The observations indicate the presence of a dynamic equilibrium between the plasma and liquid target ruled by recombinatory processes in the plasma, leading to an approximately stable surface temperature.Vapour shielding is one of the interesting mechanisms for reducing the heat load to plasma facing components in fusion reactors. Here the authors report on the observation of a dynamic equilibrium between the plasma and the divertor liquid Sn surface leading to an overall stable surface temperature.

  13. Use of hydrogen peroxide vapour & plasma irradiation in combination for quick decontamination of closed chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shahani, Hamish C; Yadav, Pragya D; Barde, Pradip V

    2016-08-01

    Various conventional methods such as gaseous, vapour and misting systems, fogging, manual spray and wipe techniques employing a number of chemical agents are used for decontamination of enclosed spaces. Among all these methods, use of aerosolized formaldehyde is the most preferred method due to cost-effectiveness and practical aspects. However, being extremely corrosive in nature generating very irritating fumes and difficulty in maintaining a high level of gas concentration, many laboratories prefer the vaporization of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as an alternative. We present here the results of using H 2 O 2 vapour in combination with plasma irradiation for quick decontamination of closed chambers. The present study describes a decontamination method, using plasma irradiation in combination with H 2 O 2 (5%). Effect of plasma irradiation and H 2 O 2 on the viability of bacterial spores (Bacillus subtilis), Chikungunya and Kyasanur Forest Disease viruses was assessed. Data suggest that with the combination of H 2 O 2 vapour and plasma irradiation, within short time (three minutes), decontamination of surfaces and space volume could be achieved. Although it showed damage of spores present on the strips, it did not show any penetration power. The results were encouraging, and this method was found to be efficient for achieving surface sterilization in a short time. This application may be useful in laboratories and industries particularly, those working on clean facility concept following good laboratory and manufacturing practices.

  14. Use of hydrogen peroxide vapour & plasma irradiation in combination for quick decontamination of closed chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra T Mourya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Various conventional methods such as gaseous, vapour and misting systems, fogging, manual spray and wipe techniques employing a number of chemical agents are used for decontamination of enclosed spaces. Among all these methods, use of aerosolized formaldehyde is the most preferred method due to cost-effectiveness and practical aspects. However, being extremely corrosive in nature generating very irritating fumes and difficulty in maintaining a high level of gas concentration, many laboratories prefer the vaporization of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 as an alternative. We present here the results of using H 2 O 2 vapour in combination with plasma irradiation for quick decontamination of closed chambers. Methods: The present study describes a decontamination method, using plasma irradiation in combination with H 2 O 2 (5%. Effect of plasma irradiation and H 2 O 2 on the viability of bacterial spores (Bacillus subtilis, Chikungunya and Kyasanur Forest Disease viruses was assessed. Results: Data suggest that with the combination of H 2 O 2 vapour and plasma irradiation, within short time (three minutes, decontamination of surfaces and space volume could be achieved. Although it showed damage of spores present on the strips, it did not show any penetration power. Interpretation & conclusions: The results were encouraging, and this method was found to be efficient for achieving surface sterilization in a short time. This application may be useful in laboratories and industries particularly, those working on clean facility concept following good laboratory and manufacturing practices.

  15. Tar reduction in pyrolysis vapours from biomass over a hot char bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, P; Ryu, C; Sharifi, V; Swithenbank, J

    2009-12-01

    The behaviour of pyrolysis vapours over char was investigated in order to maximise tar conversion for the development of a new fixed bed gasifier. Wood samples were decomposed at a typical pyrolysis temperature (500 degrees C) and the pyrolysis vapours were then passed directly through a tar cracking zone in a tubular reactor. The product yields and properties of the condensable phases and non-condensable gases were studied for different bed lengths of char (0-450 mm), temperatures (500-800 degrees C), particle sizes (10 and 15 mm) and nitrogen purge rates (1.84-14.70 mm/s). The carbon in the condensable phases showed about 66% reduction by a 300 mm long char section at 800 degrees C, compared to that for pyrolysis at 500 degrees C. The amount of heavy condensable phase decreased with increasing temperature from about 18.4 wt% of the biomass input at 500 degrees C to 8.0 wt% at 800 degrees C, forming CO, H(2) and other light molecules. The main mode of tar conversion was found to be in the vapour phase when compared to the results without the presence of char. The composition of the heavy condensable phase was simplified into much fewer secondary and tertiary tar components at 800 degrees C. Additional measures were required to maximise the heterogeneous effect of char for tar reduction.

  16. Explicit modelling of SOA formation from α-pinene photooxidation: sensitivity to vapour pressure estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Valorso

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA to the estimated vapour pressures of the condensable oxidation products is explored. A highly detailed reaction scheme was generated for α-pinene photooxidation using the Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A. Vapour pressures (Pvap were estimated with three commonly used structure activity relationships. The values of Pvap were compared for the set of secondary species generated by GECKO-A to describe α-pinene oxidation. Discrepancies in the predicted vapour pressures were found to increase with the number of functional groups borne by the species. For semi-volatile organic compounds (i.e. organic species of interest for SOA formation, differences in the predicted Pvap range between a factor of 5 to 200 on average. The simulated SOA concentrations were compared to SOA observations in the Caltech chamber during three experiments performed under a range of NOx conditions. While the model captures the qualitative features of SOA formation for the chamber experiments, SOA concentrations are systematically overestimated. For the conditions simulated, the modelled SOA speciation appears to be rather insensitive to the Pvap estimation method.

  17. Suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma in three workers with long-term exposure to sulphuric acid vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C K; Lo, W C; Huang, P H; Wu, M T; Christiani, D C; Lin, C T

    1999-06-01

    Sulphuric acid vapour has been suspected of being an industrial carcinogen. In this study, a cluster is presented of three patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who worked in the same building of a telecommunications conveyance station in southern Taiwan with long term exposure to sulphuric acid vapour concentrations as high as 0.18 mg/m3. All three workers were diagnosed with NPC within a 5 month period between September 1992, and March 1993. Compared with 19 other healthy workers from the same building, these three workers with NPC had worked significantly longer in this building than had the others (mean (SD) (years): 12.7 (0.6) v 7.4 (4.4); p = 0.01). With an in situ nucleic acid hybridisation and immunostaining method for colocalised Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and secretory component (SC) protein among biopsy specimens of these three patients with NPCs, it was found that some tumour cells did not contain EBV and SC protein staining signals. These results indicate that EBV infection is not the only risk factor for NPC and long term exposure to relatively low concentrations of sulphuric acid vapour may be associated with the development of NPC.

  18. Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy of GaN and lateral overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibart, Pierre

    2004-05-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is an extremely promising wide band gap semiconductor material for optoelectronics and high temperature, high power electronics. Actually, GaN is probably the most important semiconductor since silicon. However, achievement of its full potential has still been limited by a dramatic lack of suitable GaN bulk single crystals. GaN has a high melting temperature and a very high decomposition pressure; therefore it cannot be grown using conventional methods used for GaAs or Si like Czochraslski or Bridgman growths. Since there is no GaN bulk single crystal commercially available, all technological development of GaN-based devices relies on heteroepitaxy. Most of the current device structures are grown on sapphire or 6H-SiC. However, since their lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients are not well-matched to GaN, the epitaxial growth generates huge densities of defects, with threading dislocations (TDs) being the most prevalent (109-1011 cm-2). As a comparison, homoepitaxially grown GaAs exhibits ~102-104 dislocation cm-2, and homoepitaxial Si almost 0. Actually this large density of TDs in GaN drastically limits the performance and operating lifetime of nitride-based devices. Therefore, there is currently a tremendous technological effort to reduce these defects. Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is currently the most widely used technology. Actually, all optoelectronic commercial device structures are fabricated using MOVPE. In MOVPE, the most appropriate precursor for nitrogen is ammonia (NH3), whereas either trimethyl or triethylgallium may be used as a gallium source. MOVPE of GaN requires a high partial pressure of NH3, high growth temperatures (~1000-1100°C) and a growth chamber specially designed to avoid premature reactions between the ammonia and gallium alkyls. Since sapphire (or 6H-SiC) and GaN are highly mismatched, direct growth of GaN is impossible. Therefore, the growth of GaN on any substrate first requires

  19. Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy of GaN and lateral overgrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibart, Pierre [Lumilog S.A., 2720, Chemin Saint Bernard, Les Moulins I, F-06220 Vallauris (France)

    2004-05-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is an extremely promising wide band gap semiconductor material for optoelectronics and high temperature, high power electronics. Actually, GaN is probably the most important semiconductor since silicon. However, achievement of its full potential has still been limited by a dramatic lack of suitable GaN bulk single crystals. GaN has a high melting temperature and a very high decomposition pressure; therefore it cannot be grown using conventional methods used for GaAs or Si like Czochraslski or Bridgman growths. Since there is no GaN bulk single crystal commercially available, all technological development of GaN-based devices relies on heteroepitaxy. Most of the current device structures are grown on sapphire or 6H-SiC. However, since their lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients are not well-matched to GaN, the epitaxial growth generates huge densities of defects, with threading dislocations (TDs) being the most prevalent (10{sup 9}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}). As a comparison, homoepitaxially grown GaAs exhibits {approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} dislocation cm{sup -2}, and homoepitaxial Si almost 0. Actually this large density of TDs in GaN drastically limits the performance and operating lifetime of nitride-based devices. Therefore, there is currently a tremendous technological effort to reduce these defects. Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is currently the most widely used technology. Actually, all optoelectronic commercial device structures are fabricated using MOVPE. In MOVPE, the most appropriate precursor for nitrogen is ammonia (NH{sub 3}), whereas either trimethyl or triethylgallium may be used as a gallium source. MOVPE of GaN requires a high partial pressure of NH{sub 3}, high growth temperatures ({approx}1000-1100 deg. C) and a growth chamber specially designed to avoid premature reactions between the ammonia and gallium alkyls. Since sapphire (or 6H-SiC) and GaN are highly mismatched, direct growth of GaN is

  20. Development of Ultra-sensitive Laser Spectroscopic Analysis Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Song, K. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Laser spectroscopic analysis technology has three distinct merits in detecting various nuclides found in nuclear fields. High selectivity originated from small bandwidth of tunable lasers makes it possible to distinguish various kinds of isotopes and isomers. High intensity of focused laser beam makes it possible to analyze ultratrace amount. Remote delivery of laser beam improves safety of workers who are exposed in dangerous environment. Also it can be applied to remote sensing of environment pollution.